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    FAQ by SDeChantal

    Version: 1.06 | Updated: 06/26/99 | Printable Version | Search This Guide

    Date: Sat, 26 Jun 1999 23:15:46 -0400
    
                             The REAL "PONG" F.A.Q.
                                 Version 1.06
                                   June 1999
                          Creator & Maintainer: Sly D.C.
    
    ------------------------------------------------------------------------
    
    O.K.,Here's the legal stuff:
    Copyright (c) 1997-1999, Sylvain De Chantal
    
    All rights reserved. This document may be copied, in whole or in part,
    by any means provided the copyright and contributors sections remain
    intact and no fee is charged for the information. Contributors
    retain the copyright to their individual contributions.
    
    The data contained here in is provided for informational purposes
    only. No warranty is made with regards to the accuracy of some
    informations.
    
    You can find this FAQ on this newsgroup:
    
            - REC.GAMES.VIDEO.CLASSIC
    
    Or you can find it at:
    
            - Game FAQs "http://www.gamefaqs.com/"
            - Digital Press "http://www.digitpress.com/"
            - my Home Page "http://www.chez.com/slydc/index.html"
            - or my other home page: "http:/www.emuclassics.com/slydc/"
    
    ------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Additional contributions IS welcome! (really badly needed!!)
    Please mail additional information, opinions, and comments to :
    mailto --> "sylvaindc@videotron.ca"
    
    I hope that anybody will like it, It took me at least a year just
    trying to find information of anykind about pongs...and in between,
    my damn harddisk crashed and i lost precious data forever...
    
    Many THANKS to all the persons who sent me comments, corrections
    or informations! Please go see chap#6 for the credits roaster.
    ------------------------------------------------------------------------
    
    
                  Welcome to the REAL FAQ about "PONGS"
    
                          TABLE OF CONTENTS
                         -------------------
    
                  1.0) PONG: The controversy of videogame history
                  2.0) Pong systems specs
                  3.0) PONGS LIST (far from complete!)
                  3.5) More Details of Pongs Units
                  4.0) Computer Space: first arcade game
                  4.5) The ODYSSEY: first home system
                  5.0) Pong in the Arcades
                  6.0) Credits (in alphabet order)
                  7.0) Links to other Pong Sites
    
    ------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Dear Readers, this FAQ is now dedicated to William A. Higinbotham
    since the 10th November of 1997 for the honor of his memory.
    
      " WILLIAM A. HIGINBOTHAM : The PATRIARCH of PONG & VIDEO GAMES "
    
                      May the Gods be with you!
    
    And for more information about William A. Higinbotham, PLEASE visit this
    site: "http://www.fas.org/cp/pong_fas.htm"
    ------------------------------------------------------------------------
    
    
    1.0) PONG: The controversy of videogame history
    -----------------------------------------------
    
                             History Lesson 101:
    
    Many people out there thinks that the ATARI PONG was the first system
    and that NOLAN BUSHNELL is THE FATHER of video games.........WRONG !!
    
    Instead of doing the usual recap of history, i'm going to tell about
    the history of each person responsible of what we call "Video Games".
    
    Let start by -->"THE CREATOR"<-- of the "First Video Game" ever !!!
    
    It's all began in 1958, a person by the name of "Willy Higinbotham",
    who was a physicist, made a WORKING model and not even with a single
    transistor, but with vacuum tubes! (of course, transistors did existed at
    that time, the transistor was created by William Shockley, John Bardeen,
    and Walter Brattain of Bell Labs in 1947).
    
    His "Tennis" game-type was exposed at the Brookhaven National Laboratory
    for almost TWO years, and his game was more sophisticated than the ATARI
    PONG itself !! (yes-that's true! don't believe me? Ask EGM magazine or
    the Brookhaven National Laboratory!)
    
    Now, please remember that "Willy Higinbotham" is THE FATHER that created
    the first video game, i hope that many of you will correct any history
    about video games. Almost anybody don't know about his work and he didn't
    get any credit for inventing the TRULY first video game, but in my book,
    he is THE creator !
    
    Here's the story that Danny Monaghan sent me and i thought that it was
    special that i had to share it with all of you readers:
    I just came across your Pong FAQ and was delighted to see your tribute
    to Mr. HIGINBOTHAM, the REAL inventor of Video Games! Believe it or not,
    I live on the same street where Mr. H lived (North Howell's Pt. Rd.,
    Bellport, New York) and I'm only 8 houses away! I've got to tell you,
    when I was a little kid growing up he was the coolest guy on the block!
    He used to let all the kids in the neighborhood play baseball in his
    huge back yard... and even when we hit a ball off the side of his house,
    or broke a window, he didn't care!
    
    It wasn't until 10 years ago when I was a senior at Bellport High School
    that I found out Mr. H invented Pong at Brookhaven National Laboratory
    (just a few miles away), and I couldn't believe it!  I had grown up on
    the first video game systems of the 70's, and by the time I was in High
    School was writing my own games for the Apple and Commodore 64. So it
    was a real shock when I found out that, all along, I had been living
    next to the almighty creator himself!  Unfortunately he passed away in
    '95 and I never got a chance to thank him, but his son Willy Jr. moved
    into his house, so I'm thinking about stopping by someday.  I don't know
    if you know this, but he also worked on the first Atom bomb... a stark
    contrast to his harmless Pong! I just wish more historians would note his
    awesome achievement! [Thanks for the letter Danny ! If anybody has any
    insight stories related to the 4 creators of Pongs, please do !]
    
    
    Now the SECOND most important person, his name is "Steve Russell".
    
    MIT student in 1961, creates "Spacewar"(the second video game), is the
    first interactive computer game on a Digital PDP-1 computer.
    
    The game is to control two tiny spaceships, one called the "WEDGE" and
    the other called the "NEEDLE" ,they battles around a tiny dot in the
    middle of the screen that represent the Sun. The game featured an
    accurate portrait of physics in outer space. Another student even
    corrected the star fields in the background to the scale !!
    
    But Russell made a mistake, he never filed for a copyright. He thought
    that it cost too much to try to market his game, he was right about this.
    Only few computers could run his game in this time, and at a cost of
    $120,000 for a PDP-1, it was too much to put in arcades.
    His game almost faded away forever if it wasn't for the employees of
    Digital Equipment who used it to test their computers while installing
    them for customers. Customers received the game as a gift. (Notice how
    FATE is unpredicable ? First Willy's game was unheard of, and Steve's
    game almost dissapeared to nothingness if not "Nolan Bussnell" who
    later [in 1962] becomes addicted to the game...we almost didn't get
    video games, if it wasn't for Nolan who craved "Spacewar" so much,
    and for his ideas and his visions; you, me and many people wouldn't had
    the pleasure to discover a new invention called "Video Games", and
    you wouldn't be reading this FAQ as a matter of fact !!)
    
    
    The THIRD most important person's name is "Ralph Baer".
    
    Working for a military contractor called Sanders Associates, in New
    Hampshire in 1966, he had an idea for a new use for televisions. He
    decided to create a console that would enable people to play electronic
    games on their television sets.
    
    Baer's first game was about putting out fires. The game involved a red
    box representing a house that was on fire. Players controlled the game
    with a lever that represented a water pump. If they pumped the lever fast
    enough, the box turned blue, meaning the fire was extinguished.
    
    In 1967, Baer added a fun-loving engineer named Bill Rusch to his team.
    Rusch, came up with a better concept. In his game, players used "paddles"
    to catch and toss a dot across the screen. Rusch eventually modified the
    paddles so that they rejected the ball. Instead of playing catch, Rusch's
    game now played tennis.
    
    Eventually, in 1971, Baer sold his game machine to Magnavox.
    Magnavox accepted Baer's technology but ignored his vision. Baer wanted
    to create a simple device that could retail for under $20; Magnavox
    programmed 12 games into the system, dressed it up with playing cards
    and plastic overlays that players could put on their television screens,
    and charged $100. They called the system the Odyssey.
    
    The first prototypes of the Odyssey were finished in early 1972. In May,
    Magnavox started demonstrating them around the country at private showings.
    Toward the end of the month, the Odyssey was shown at a trade show in
    Burlingame, Calif., just outside of San Francisco. One of the people who
    attented at the show was a young engineer named Nolan Bushnell, he saw
    the Odyssey and the games that it could played, and ONE of those game
    cought Bushnell's eyes...
    
    
    Now for the FORTH and not the least, "Nolan Bushnell".
    
    Student at the University of Utah in 1962, became addicted to "Spacewar"
    Russell's game. He liked the game so much that in 1970, two years after
    his graduation, took his daughter's bedroom and converted it into a
    workshop in which he could create an arcade version of the game.
    
    His firts idea was to use a computer, prices of computers had dropped
    sharply by this time but they still cost far too much to use in arcades.
    But Instead of using a computer, he built a device that could only play
    "Spacewar" with cruder graphics which he recalled it "Computer Space".
    
    Later in 1971, he sold the idea to Bill Nutting, owner of Nutting
    Associates. Nutting hired Bushnell to oversee the creation of Computer
    Space while working on other engineering projects. They began to ship
    the game by the end of 1971, but Computer Space was a failure. They
    sold about 500 to 1,500 machines.
    
    Bushnell left Nutting Associates, formed a partnership with a friend
    named Ted Dabney and opened a new company called Syzygy but saw that the
    name already belonged to another company, so he chose - Atari.
    
    Atari's first product was a game called PONG, an electronic tennis match
    in which players batted a square ball back and forth with rectangular
    paddles. Created by engineer Al Alcorn(and NOT by Nolan Bushnell but
    helped with the game since he saw the "Tennis" game the Odyssey only a
    few weeks ago at the trade show in Burlingame.)
    
    It was a simple game with minimal instructions: "Avoid missing ball
    for high score." Bushnell and Alcorn placed a prototype of their game in
    Andy Capp's Tavern, a Sunnyvale, California bar.
    
    Two weeks after installing the game, Alcorn got a late-night phone call
    from the manager of the bar. The game had broken down, and he wondered if
    he could fix it. When Alcorn went to check the machine, he found a most
    unusual problem. There were so many quarters jammed into the coin drop
    that the game had stopped working. Within a few months, Ramtek, Nutting,
    and several other companies released imitations of Pong. Magnavox sued
    Atari for infringing on Baer's patents and ended up paying Magnavox
    $700,000 !!!(This is it,the FIRST VIDEOGAME COURT BATTLE !!)
    
    In 1973, Eight to ten thousand units are made, Pong is an unprecedented
    success. Ted Dabney panics about competition and sells half is share to
    Bushnell. Bushnell forms Kee Games (named after Joe Keenan) to provide
    "competition" for Atari.
    
    In 1974, Atari began work on Home Pong, proposed by Harold Lee, a consumer
    version of the popular arcade game that could be played on a television
    set. Lee, Alcorn, and an engineer named Bob Brown develop the product.
    Because of the Odyssey's poor sales record, no retailers are interested
    in carrying the Atari Pong console, a tiny black and white box with two
    mounted paddle controller dials.
    
    In 1975, After being turned down by toys, electronics and department stores,
    an Atari executive reached Tom Quinn, from Sears, Roebuck. After several
    meetings with Bushnell, he ordered 150,000 Home Pong consoles for Christmas,
    and the console is badged with the Sears Tele-Games logo.
    
    By January 1976, Home Pong had become the new champion. Attracted by
    Atari's success, several companies release home video game consoles.
    Because of a rush on circuits, only Coleco receives its full order in time.
    Based on technology largely similar to the Pong machine, Coleco's Telstar
    Pong machine debuts. And a new menace for pongs systems is born: the
    Fairchild Channel F, the first programmable home game console, and not
    long after the RCA Studio 2 made it's appearence.
    
    By 1977, Atari released a game system that change videogames forever:
    the Atari 2600vcs. Bally released the Astrocade in 1978. By the end
    of '78, pongs became boring to play and companies ended producing and
    marketing them since people wasn't bying them anymore. The fate of Pong
    has been sealed and "died" without remorse.....fate can be cruel.
    
    
    ***** Here's what Glenn Saunders wrote: *****
    
    When looking at history it's a subjective thing as to who was more or less
    important in the history of videogames.  But if it were not for the true
    visionary entreprendeurs, the inventors would probably not even be
    footnotes in history, because their ideas would never leave the garage or
    the PDP-1 computer-room.
    
    Revising history regarding Pong is fine, but also realize that Nolan
    Bushnell really wound up building a better mousetrap and he had a much
    better idea of how to start a videogame company than Magnavox.
    
    I think it is unfair to take away his throne of being the father of
    videogames simply because he didn't invent Space War or Pong.  And
    lawsuits are common in Silicon Valley.  Other companies have settled with
    Atari over THEIR intellectual copyrights, including Activision.  Whatever
    lack of innovation Nolan had at the start by making a raster version of
    Space War and a clone of Pong was definitely made up for by the time the
    2600 was sweeping the floor with Magnavox's Odyssey^2 and the arcades
    were filled almost exclusively with Atari/Kee Games product.
    
    The house that Nolan built had a solid foundation of talented engineers
    and programmers who, to me, were far more influential in popularizing
    arcade and home videogaming than anything Ralph Baer or Magnavox did.
    
    ##Do you think i was to harsh on Mr.Bushnell or that i was right ??
    
    I can more or less agree with Glenn input but everybody has his or her
    own way at looking at things, life, history, and so on...
    
    I agree that was a wee-bit hard on Mr.Bushnell case, that i didn't
    acknowledge more on Nolan Bushnell since he brought us the Atari 2600
    and all the Classics !! But since it's a F.A.Q. and History about "Pongs"
    (and not the whole video game industry history), i only wrote what i
    needed for this F.A.Q. (sorry! but that's that!)
    
    
    ------------------------------------------------------------------------
    
    
    2.0) Pong system specs
    ----------------------
    Well, to tell you the truth, there isn't really much specification about
    "PONG" systems, the Odyssey 1 has no microchip, it was made with transis-
    tors. A microchip called the "AY-3-8500", made by General Instrument in
    1975?, was THE chip that Coleco installed in their "PONG" system and that
    many manufactuers did based their systems on this chip, more than 75 other
    companys had issued similar video game units.
    
    Thanks to Ramon Martinez, here's is the schematic of the AY-3-8500,
    this info is greatly appreciated!!
    
    
                          ---------------------
                      NC -|*(pin #1)       #28|- NC
                Vss (GND)-|                   |- shotgun input (pointer)
            Sound Output -|                   |- trigger input
                     Vcc -|                   |- reset game input
       ball angle switch -|                   |- playfield and scores output
             ball output -|                   |- practice
       ball speed switch -|     AY-3-8500     |- squash
     manual serve button -|                   |- hockey
     right player output -|                   |- tennis
      left player output -|                   |- shotgun game II
      right paddle input -|                   |- shotgun game I
       left paddle input -|                   |- CLOCK input
             paddle size -|                   |- SYNC output
                      NC -|#14             #15|- NC
                          ---------------------
    
    
    
    Mainly, "PONG" systems has :
    ----------------------------
    - power ON/OFF
    - 2 "paddles"(turning knobs, levers, sliders...)- up to 4
    - RESET button
    - SELECT GAME button or switch
    - BEGINNER/INTERMEDIATE/PRO skill switch
    - BAT SIZE (small/large) switch (may or not)
    - BALL SPEED (slow/fast) switch (may or not)
    - SLICE (min/max) switch (may or not)
    - SERVE button or switch(manual/auto)(may or not)
    - Color or Black&White
    - 2 player generally (but can be 1 to 4 players)
    - PISTOL or GUN (may or not)
    
    and usually has those type of games:
    ------------------------------------
    - TENNIS
    - HOCKEY
    - SQUASH (or SMASH,GRIDBALL,HANDBALL)
    - JAI ALAI
    - PRACTICE
    - TARGET
    - SKEET (or SHOOT)
    
    and some has those type of games:
    ---------------------------------
    - BASKETBALL
    - BREAKOUT (or BREAKAWAY)
    - JOKARI
    - PINBALL
    - ROAD RACE
    - SOCCER
    - SPACE INVADER
    - STUNT CYCLE
    - TANK
    
    
    ------------------------------------------------------------------------
    
    
    3.0) PONG LIST
    --------------
    This list is very, very far from complete !
    Any informations, inputs, contributions, descriptions or anything
    related to PONG systems will be GREATLY appreciated !!!!!
    They may be errors in this list, but trying to list pong systems
    that are outdated between more than 20 years ago isn't easy !!!
    
    # of NORTH AM Systems: 136
    # of EUROPEAN Systems: 082          Total for Now: 259
    # of JAPANESE Systems: 039
    # of Hand-Helds: 001
    
    
    HAND-HELD: (info taken from Clint Dyer Hand-Held F.A.Q.)
    -----------------------------------------------------------------------
    BLIP! from Tomy. Released in 1977, model:7018, works on 2 "AA"
    batteries, display is in LED format, 2 players simultaneous and
    has a motorized timer plus each player has a score point counter.
    
    
    NORTH AM Systems (U.S. & CANADA)    Company                  YEAR
    ------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Action TV Game, model 200           Lloyds ?
    Adversary 370                       National Semiconductor   1976
    APF TV FUN Model 401                APF Electronics
    APF TV FUN Model 401A               APF Electronics          1976
    APF TV FUN Model 402                APF Electronics
    APF TV FUN Model 405                APF Electronics
    APF TV FUN Model 406                APF Electronics
    APF TV FUN Model 442                APF Electronics
    APF TV FUN Model 444                APF Electronics
    APF TV FUN Model 500                APF Electronics
    APF TV FUN Sportsarama              APF Electronics
    Apollo 2001                         Entreprex                1978
    Bag-A-Tel                           Calfax
    Brown Box (PROTOTYPE !!)            Sanders & Associates     1967
    Colorgame                           Intercon Marketing Corp.
    Compu-Vision                        Bentley                  1983?
    Concert Hall IV, model 880          ?????
    Conic model TVG 101-4               Conic
    Conic model TVG 102-4               Conic
    DIGITEK 2001                        Digitek Electronics      1976
    Face-Off Hockey/Soccer              Executive Games
    Fantasia 101                        Fantasia
    First Dimension TeleSports          First Dimention Corp.    1976
    First Dimention Video System        First Dimention Corp.
    Four-Way Video Game, model 1004     Concept 2000
    Gamatic 7600                        Ridgewood
    Gameroom Tele-Pong                  Entex
    Glorytone                           Granada Electronics
    Gorilla Game model TG-101           Santron
    Gorilla Game model TG-102           Santron
    Gunslinger                          Sears
    Gunslinger II                       Sears
    Hanimex 777                         Hanimex
    Heatkit model GD-1999               Heath Co.
    Hockey-Pong                         Atari
    INDY 500                            ?????
    J.C.Penney                          ?????
    Name of the Game, model a-100       Allied Leisure Industries
    Nose T' Nose, model 1006            Concept 2000
    Odyssey ???, model 4305             Magnavox
    Odyssey [FIRST home video game]     Magnavox                 1972
    Odyssey 100                         Magnavox                 1975
    Odyssey 200                         Magnavox                 1975
    Odyssey 300, model 7500             Magnavox                 1976
    Odyssey 400, model 7516             Magnavox                 1976
    Odyssey 500, model 7520             Magnavox                 1976
    Odyssey 2000, model 7510            Magnavox                 1977
    Odyssey 3000, model 7511            Magnavox                 1977
    Odyssey 4000, model 7530            Magnavox                 1977
    OLYMPIAN 2600                       Unisonic
    Paddle IV                           Roberts
    Pinball Breakaway, model 99713      Sears(made by Atari)
    Pong video game, Model C-100        Atari                    1975
    PONG video game                     Atari                    1977
    Quadtronics model Q376              Quadtronics
    Quadtronics model Q476              Quadtronics
    Rally IV                            Dyn Electronics
    Rally IV                            Roberts
    Ricochet, model mt1a                Microelectric Systems    1976
    Ricochet Challenger, model mt3a     Microelectric Systems
    Ricochet Champion, model mt2a       Microelectric Systems
    Sands 2200 game                     ?????                    1977
    SC 4000                             K-Mart
    SC 8000                             Radolin
    Stunt Cycle                         Atari
    SuperColor Volley X                 Roberts
    Super Pong, Model C-140             Atari
    Super Pong 8000                     Visulex                  1976
    Super Pong Pro-Am, model C-200      Atari
    Super Pong Ten, Model C-180         Atari
    Super Pong Pro-Am Ten, Model C-202  Atari                    1977
    Superscore                          Videomaster
    TANK                                Atari                    1977
    Tele-Action Mini                    DMS                      1983
    Tele-Games 80007                    Sears(made by Atari)
    Tele-Games IV                       Sears(made by Atari)
    Tele-Games Jokari                   Sears(made by APF)
    Tele-Games Pinball Breakaway        Sears(made by Atari)     1977
    Tele-Games Pong                     Sears(made by Atari)     1976
    Tele-Games Pong Sports IV           Sears(made by Atari)     1977
    Tele-Games Speedway IV              Sears(made by Atari)
    Tele-Games Super Pong               Sears(made by Atari)     1976
    Tele-Games Super Pong IV            Sears(made by Atari)
    Tele-Games Tennis-Hockey            Sears(made by APF)
    Tele-Games Hockey-Tennis II         Sears                    1977
    Tele-Match 4, model 7700            Magnavox
    Tele-Match, model 3300r             Tele-Match
    Tele-Match, model 4400              Tele-Match
    Tele-Match, model 6600              Tele-Match
    Tele-Match, model 7700              Tele-Match
    Tele-Pong, model 3047               Entex
    Tele-Sports Mini                    DMS
    Tele-Sports Mini TV GAME-513        Radofin
    Telecourt TV game                   Hometronics              1977
    Telstar, model 6040                 Coleco                   1976
    Telstar, model 6040(deluxe cabinet) Coleco
    Telstar Alpha, model 6030           Coleco                   1977
    Telstar Arcade (3 game in 1)        Coleco                   1975
    Telstar Classic                     Coleco
    Telstar Colormatic                  Coleco
    Telstar Colortron                   Coleco                   1978
    Telstar Combat                      Coleco
    Telstar Galaxy                      Coleco
    Telstar Gemini                      Coleco
    Telstar Marksman                    Coleco                   1978
    Telstar Ranger, Model 6046          Coleco                   1977
    Telstar Ranger Colormatic           Coleco
    Telstar Regent                      Coleco
    Tournament model 101                Unisonic
    Tournament 2000                     Lafayette
    Tournament-1000 TV game             Unisonic
    Tournament-2000 TV game             Unisonic                 1976
    TV PLUS 4 Four-Way Video Game       Concept 2000
    TV Pong  Model EP-500               Nobility
    TV Sports 77                        Olympus Electronics
    TV Sports 802                       Lloyd's
    TV Sports 812                       Lloyd's
    TV Sports 813 Color                 Lloyd's
    TV Sports 825                       Monteverdi (made by Lloyd's)
    TV Scoreboard #60-3055              Radio Shack
    TV Scoreboard #60-3056              Radio Shack
    TV Scoreboard #60-3057              Radio Shack
    TV Scoreboard #60-3061              Radio Shack
    Ultra Pong, Model C-402             Atari
    Ultra Pong Double, Model C-402D     Atari
    Video Action IV "Indy 500"          Universal Research Labs
    Video Sport                         Granada
    Video Sport                         Federal Transistor Co.
    Video Sport, model TCR-104          TCR
    Video Sports, model vsv-1           Venture Electronics
    Video Pinball, Model C-300          Atari                    1977
    Video Pinball, Model C-380          Atari
    Video Volley                        TD Manufacturing
    Video-Pro                           Unitrex
    Winsor TV game                      ?????
    Wonder Wizard Sharp Shooter(7702)   General Home Products    1976
    
    
    EUROPEAN Systems                    Company                  YEAR
    ------------------------------------------------------------------------
    6000 Colour TV Game                 Grandstand
    Adman Model 3000 T.V. Game          Grandstand               1977
    Blackpoint                          ?????
    BSS 01 (BildSchirmSpiel)            ????? [please see chap.3.5]
    Carinco                             ?????
    Color Video Game R10/9012           ?????
    Colour TV Game 4 Plus 2(#m:01-4850) Binatone                 1978
    Compu-Vision                        Bentley
    Colour Game                         Interstate
    Colourscore VM-11 couleur           Videomaster              1977
    CVG A10 9012                        ?????
    Electronic TV Game 888G             Hanimex                  1977
    ES 2203                             Philips
    ES 2204                             Philips
    FL-10                               ?????
    Gamatic 7704                        Otron ?
    Gamatic 7706                        Gamatic
    Hanimex 7771                        Hanimex
    Hit-10 10 jeux                      ?????                    1977
    Home TV Game VM 577                 Videomaster              1974
    Home's TV Set PP-600                Audiosonic               1977
    Interstate 1160                     Interstate Electronics
    JV2701                              Continental Edison
    Kahrlich Telegame                   ?????
    Markint 6, model 96                 ?????                    1977
    Mk4 Game System                     Binatone
    Mk6 Game System                     Binatone
    Mk8 Game System                     Binatone
    Model 1000                          Tandy
    Model 1000 Sportsvision             Adman
    Novex TV-9010-C                     ?????
    OC4                                 Societe Occitane
    OC5000                              Societe Occitane
    OC7000                              Societe Occitane
    OC9000                              Societe Occitane
    Occitel                             Societe Occitane
    Odyssey 2001                        Philips                  1977
    PP-2000                             Orelec                   1976
    SD-017f                             ITMC
    Sensor-10                           Monarch                  1977
    Sportron 4 jeux                     ?????                    1977
    Sportron 6 jeux                     ?????                    1977
    Super Tele-Sports                   Intel
    Superlectron                        ?????
    Superscore                          SEB
    Superscore Home TV game VM-8        Videomaster              1976
    Tele-Match                          Palladium
    Tele-Score, modèles 750             SEB
    Tele-Score, modèles 751             SEB
    Tele-Score, modèles 752             SEB
    Tele-Spiel                          Philips                  1975
    Telespiel-Philetta 915              Philips
    TEMCO 8000                          ?????
    Tournament Ten Pong System          Prinztronic
    TRQ                                 Talleres Radioelectricos
    TV Color-Multi-Spiel                Universum
    TV Master MK IV model 01-4974       Binatone                 1977
    TV Spiel 1004                       Universum
    TV Spiel 4010                       Universum
    TV Spiel 4014                       Universum
    TV Spiel 4106                       Universum
    TV Sport XY                         ?????
    TV-Sports                           Radofin                  1977
    TV Sports                           Soundic
    TVG-203                             Bingo                    1978
    TVG-8610                            Hanimex
    Ultrasound PONG                     ?????                    1977
    VC-2400                             Interton
    VC-3000                             Interton
    Video 2400                          Interton
    Video 2501                          Interton
    Video 2800                          Interton
    Video 3000                          Interton
    Video 3001                          Interton
    Video 4000-EX                       ?????
    Video Sports 4 jeux                 Asaflex                  1977
    Video Stellar 5 Jeux                ?????
    Videojeu N20                        Philips
    Videojeu N30                        Philips
    - No name -                         Univox                   1977
    ?? pong ??                          ReEL
    
    
    JAPANESE Systems                    Company                  YEAR
    ------------------------------------------------------------------------
    AER-8700                            AER                      1977
    Block-Kuzusi (Block-Out)            ???                      1979
    CT-7600C                            ???                      1977
    Racing 112                          Nintendo                 1978
    System 10                           Epoch                    1977
    System 10M2                         Epoch                    1977
    Tele-Pong                           Entex                    ????
    TV Baseball                         Epoch                    1978
    TV Block MB                         Epoch                    1979
    TVcolor model 7600                  ???                      1977
    TV-FAN model 1301                   ???                      1977
    TV-FAN model 1401                   ???                      1977
    TV-FAN model 1501                   ???                      1977
    TV-FAN model 1601                   ???                      1977
    TV-FAN model 1602                   ???                      1977
    TV-FAN model 1701                   ???                      1977
    TV-FAN model 1801                   ???                      1977
    TV-FAN model 1901                   ???                      1977
    TV-FAN model 1902                   ???                      1977
    TVGAME                              ???                      1977
    TV-Game 6                           Nintendo                 1977
    TV-Game 15                          Nintendo                 1977
    TV-JACK 1000                        ???                      1977
    TV-JACK 1200                        ???                      1977
    TV-JACK 1500                        ???                      1977
    TV-JACK 2500                        ???                      1977
    TV-JACK 3000                        ???                      1977
    TV-JACK 5000                        ???                      1978
    TV-JACK 8000                        ???                      1978
    TVmate BARON                        ???                      1977
    TVmate CHAMPION                     ???                      1977
    TVmate DUKE                         ???                      1977
    TVmate KING                         ???                      1977
    TVmate QUEEN (tvg8000)              ???                      1977
    TVmate SUPER CAR                    ???                      1977
    TV Vader                            Epoch                    1980
    TY-TG40                             ???                      1977
    Video Attack                        ???                      1977
    Video Attack 7 (tg-7800)            ???                      1977
    
    
    ------------------------------------------------------------------------
    
    3.5) More Details of Pongs Units
    --------------------------------
    
    * APF TV Fun Model 401: - 4 games:Practice, Squash, Hockey, Tennis.
                            - 6 "C" cell batteries or AC adaptor
    
    * APF TV FUN Model 402: - Light Gun(pistol)
                            - Color pong system
                            - 5 games:Handball, Tennis, Hockey, Target, Skeet.
    
    * APF TV FUN Model 405: - 4 versions of PONG
                            - 1 or 2 player
    
    * BBS 01: The only Video Game system sold in East Greman until the fall
              of the Berlin Wall in 1989. BildSchirmSpiel means TV Game in
              German. It was sold in 1979 for 550 Mark. The BSS 01 was
              basically a 4 game black and white Pong version with a GI AY-3
              Chip in it. There are rumors that a BSS 02 was planned (maybe
              a Pong with a rifle ??) but such a thing was never released.
              Thanks for Martin Buchholz for this info!!
    
    * Compu-Vision: - Color pong system
                    - 4 games:Tennis, Soccer, Squash, Practice.
                    - 4AA batteries or 6V power supply.
    
    * ES 2204: - 5 Carts: - 2211 Badminton
                          - 2212 Pelota
                          - 2213 Skeet Shooting
                          - 2214 Racing
                          - 2215 Ghostchaser
    
    * First Dimention Video System: - 3 games:Tennis, Hockey, Robot(?).
                                    - 1, 2 or 4 players.
    
    * Gamatic 7704: - Same as the 7600, but color
    
    * Gamatic 7706: - 6 games:football (soccer), tennis, squash, pelota
                      (classic pong), practice & skeet.
                    - Released in Italy.
    
    * Hockey Pong(c-121): - 1 or 2 players
                          - 4 games
    
    * Name of the Game (??): - 2-4 players
                             - input for a light gun
                             - 4 games:Tennis, Hockey,Hhandball
                               and Target
                             - tv/game switch built-in
    
    * Novex TV-9010-C: - Games: Tennis, Soccer, Squash, Practice.
                       - Color
    
    * ODYSSEY 200: - Tennis, Hockey, Smash.
                   - 6 c batteries.
    
    * ODYSSEY 300: - 3 games:Tennis, Hockey, and Smash
                   - 6 "C" batteries
    
    * Odyssey 500: - 4 games:Smash, Hockey, Tennis, Soccer.
                   - in Color
                   - Internal speaker.
                   - 9VDC (no battery compartment).
    
    * Odyssey 2000: - 4 games:tennis, hockey, smash, practice.
                    - 1 or 2 player
    
    * Odyssey 2001: - Games: Tennis, Practice, Soccer (Only two bats,
                      instead there are six squares moving up and down
                      on the "field".
                    - Color (Different color scheme for each game)
    
    * Odyssey 3000: - 4 Games
                    - Runs on 6 "C" Batteries
    
    * ODYSSEY 4000: - Color pong system
                    - 8 games:Soccer, Tennis, Hockey, Gridball, Smash,
                      Smash Practice, Basketball and Basketball Practice.
                    - 1 or 2 players
                    - in Color
                    - AC adaptor included
    
    * OLYMPIAN 2600: - Color pong system, with different colors for each game.
                     - 10 games:Tennis, Hockey, Squash, Practice, Soccer,
                       Baskets, Hoops, Grid/ball, Shoot, and Shooting.
    
    * Paddle IV: - 4 games:tennis, hockey, smash, practice.
                 - Detachable Remotee Control.
                 - Color or Black & White.
    
    * Pong Sports IV: - 2 or 4 players
                      - 16 Games (pong, hockey, street tennis, street hockey)
                      - Color or Black & White.
    
    * Pong video game(c-100): - Color or Black & White
                              - 4 size "D" batteries
    
    * Rally IV(Roberts): - 4 games:Tennis, Hockey, Squash, Practice.
    
    * SC Four Thousand: - 4 games:Practice, Squash, Hockey, Tennis.
                        - built-in sound
                        - 6 "C" cell batteries or AC adaptor
                        - Detachable Remote Controls
    
    * SC Eight Thousand: - 8 games:Target 1, Target 2, Tennis singles,
                           Tennis doubles, Squash singles, Squash doubles,
                           Hockey 2, Hockey 4.
                         - 4 Remote Controls
                         - Electronic Pistol
                         - 6 "D" cell batteries or AC adaptor
    
    * Super Pong(c-140): - 4 games:Catch,Handball, Super Pong, Pong
                         - Color or Black & White
    
    * Super Pong IV: - 1 To 4 players
                     - 5 games:Pong, Super Pong, Catch, Basketball & Handball.
                     - Color or Black & White
    
    * SuperColor Volley X: - 4 games
                           - Light Gun
                           - 4 controllers
                           - in Color
                           - built-in sound
    
    * Tele-Action Mini TV Game: - 4 games
    
    * Tele-Match, model 3300r: - 5 games:Tennis, Hole in Wall, Catch,
                                 Handball, Pitch.
                               - Six different ball speeds
                               - two Atari-like paddles
                               - 4 AA Batteries
    
    * Tele-Match by Palladium (German): - Games: Tennis, Soccer, Squash,
                                          Practice & 2 gun games.
                                        - Black/white
                                        - Built-in speaker
                                        - Slide controls
                                        - Gun
                                        - Buttons that make the ball go
                                          faster
    
    * Tele-Match 4 Model 7700: - Games: Tennis, Hockey, Handball & Squash.
                               - two selectable rebound angles
                               - two selectable ball speeds
                               - two selectable bat sizes
                               - auto or manual serve
                               - controllers detach from main console with 4'
                                 of cords
                               - black/white
                               - 5 C batteries or AC Adaptor
    
    * Tele-Games Pong Sports IV: - 4 controllers
                                 - 2 to 4 Players
                                 - 16 games:Pong, Hockey, Street Tennis,
                                   Street Hockey, and Super, Maxi and Team
                                   versions of all four games.
                                 - 32 Variations
                                 - Runs on 4 "C" Batteries
                                 - Sound comes from Unit
                                 - in Color
    
    * Telegames Hockey-Tennis: - 4 games:Practice, Tennis, Hockey, Handball
                               - Cylindrical Paddles Detachable
                               - 2 players
                               - 6 C batteries or 9VDC
    
    * Telegames Jokari: - 4 games:Tennis, Hockey, Jokari, Practice
                        - 2 players
                        - 6 C batteries or 9VDC
    
    * Telegames Pinball Breakaway: - in Color
                                   - 7 games:Pinball I, Pinpaddle I,
                                     Pinball II, Pinpaddle II, Basketball
                                     Breakaway & Breakout.
                                   - One player only
                                   - Internal speaker
                                   - 6 C batteries or 9VDC
    
    * Tele-Action Mini(TV GAME-513): - 4 games:Tennis, Practice, Hockey,
                                       Squash.
                                     - Two players
                                     - 6 AA batteries or 9VDC
    
    * Telstar Alpha: - 4 games
                     - built-in sound
    
    * Telestar Arcade: - 3 Triangle carts:# 1-Road Race/Tennis/Quick Draw
                                          # 2-Hockey/Tennis/Handball/Target
                                          # 3-Bonus Pinball/Shooting Gallery/...
    * Telstar Colortron: - 4 Games
                         - Runs on 2 9Volt batteries or AC Adapter
                         - Sound comes from Unit
    
    * Telstar Marksman: - in Color
                        - 6 games with 2 moving target games.
                        - 3 in 1 gun included - pistol, target pistol & rifle.
                        - Two 9v batteries or AC adapter
    
    * Telstar Ranger: - 6 games:Tennis, Hockey, Handball, Jai Alai, Skeet
                        Target.
                      - Internal speaker
                      - 2 players.
                      - Light gun
                      - Detachable controllers
                      - 6 C batteries or 9VDC
    
    * Tournament 2000: - 6 games:Tennis/Table Tennis, Hockey/Soccer, Squash,
                         Practive, Targets, Skeet.
                       - Light Gun (whole rifle you put together)
                       - 6 "C" cell batteries or AC adaptor
    
    * TV PLUS 4-Way:  TV+4 features automatic on-screen scoring and
                      sound plus all of these...
                      On/off power switch.
                      Reset button starts games.
                      Hand-held remote units are detachable from
                      console and feature slide controls for positive
                      bat action.
                      Ball speed selector for medium or high speed action.
                      Angle selector gives variable ball spin action.
                      Manual/auto serve selector.
                      Bat size selector changes size of racquet.
                      TV channel selector.
                      Game selector for table tennis, soccer/hockey,
                      or squash plus single-play practice handball.
                      It runs on 6 C cell batteries
    
    * TV Pong: - Batteries or AC
               - 4 games:Tennis, Practice, Hockey, Squash.
    
    * TV Sports 825: - DC 9V 500MW
    
    * TV Scoreboard #60-3061: - 6 games:Target, Skeet, Tennis, Hockey,
                                Squash, Practice.
                              - Two players
                              - Detachable left player controller
                              - Comes with Light gun
                              - Internal speaker.
                              - 6 AA batteries or 9VDC
    
    * Ultra Pong(c-402): - 16 games:8 Pong & 8 Hockey
                          - 1 to 4 players
                          - 4 "C" batteries or 6v power supply.
    
    * Video Sport(Granada): - 4 games: Hockey, Tennis, Squash and Practice
                            - 4 "C" batteries or 6v power supply.
                            - 1 or 2 players
                            - a plug for a remote controller (???)
    
    * Video Sports(TRC): Four action games: Hockey, Tennis, Squash and Solo
                         Variable ball speed Amatuer and Pro
                         Three realistic sound effects for added excitement
                         Digital on-screen scoring 0-15
                         AC/DC operable using battery or optional AC Adapter
                         (9-volt Battery or 9-volt Atari type power supply)
                         Automatic serve
                         Segmented paddles for automatic ball spin
                         Two Remote Controls
    
    * Wonder Wizard Sharp Shooter: - Light Gun
                                   - 5 games:Pistol, Tennis, Hockey, Handball
                                     and Jai-Lai.
    
    * ?? ReEl pong: - 4 games:football (soccer), tennis, squash & pelota.
                    - imported by ReEl (Italian distributor).
    
    * ?? Univox pong: - 4 games:Hockey, Tennis, Squash et Practice.
    
    
    
    ------------------------------------------------------------------------
    
    4.0) Computer Space: first arcade game [Text by Roger Earl]
    -----------------------------------------------------------
    
    Considering that Computer Space was the world's first publically available
    video game, it may seem a bit strange that most people have never heard of
    it. Perhaps Computer Space is the ultimate example of how a video game needs
    to be playable in order to be remembered. Pong captured the fame regardless
    of the advantages that Computer Space had.
    
    First publically available video game, almost a full year before Pong.
    Futuristic looking fiberglass-molded cabinet.
    Computer Chip design (Pong was solid-state).
    Appeared in a popular Sci-Fi movie.
    An original design created by Nolan Bushnell
    (The Pong design was "borrowed").
    
    Nolan Bushnell's pre-Atari company Syzygy (the name means: The Sun, Moon
    and Earth in total eclipse) designed Computer Space and was manufactured by
    Nutting Associates. To the best of my knowledge, Nutting never produced
    another video game. Although loosely based on Steve Russell's Spacewar game
    (1962), which Bushnell played on a PDP-1 computer at MIT, the game was
    changed significantly enough to make the relation between the two
    disputable.
    The game and cabinet were designed as an example of what future entertain-
    ment would be like.
    
    1.Insert quarter and press start; your rocket ship will appear.
    2.There is no gravity in space; rocket speed can only be changed by engine
      thrust.
    3.Evade the saucers' missiles and use yours to score hits.
    4.Outscore the saucers for extended play in hyperspace.
    
    You controlled a rocketship around a starfield on the black & white
    screen with a shoot or be shot style of gameplay against "computer-guided"
    flying saucers. Actually, the flying saucers only tended to move up, down,
    or diagonally (a Z pattern). Like many games of the era, hitting the targets
    largely depending on mastering the phenomena known as "after-touch", meaning
    the bullets could be guided after you have shot them. The game was timed,
    with bonus (hyperspace level) time according to your performance. A switch
    setting inside the machine could allow two games on a single quarter. Two
    "games", not lives, because your score was completely reset at the end of a
    timed game. The controls consisted of four buttons: thrust, fire, rotate
    left and right.
    
    What is missing in my description is the fact that the game was incredibly
    slow. Computer ciruit technology just wasn't ready for the graphical
    intensity of video games, that is perhaps the main reason why Nolan Bushnell
    went with a solid-state design on his next project. The other problem was
    the feeling of inevitable failure that came along with the time limit,
    cushioned only slightly by the promise of bonus time. Combining the
    frustration of turning ever so slowly on an inclosing invader.
    
    With the clock ticking, giving you the kind of dread that a video game
    should never impose. After the game is over, you have an urge to push your
    nose high in the air and try to feel superior to a game that has only beaten
    you because of its lack of technological prowess.
    
    So Computer Space didn't take off as a runaway hit, that was reserved for
    Pong the next year. At the most it was considered a novelty.
    Even so, it wasn't a complete disaster or at least the manufacturers had a
    bit of faith in it eventually catching on.  I say this because after the
    initial run of machines, they released a two player version with alternative
    controls (strange joystick-dial combos). Both versions were available in
    three colors: candy-apple blue, candy-apple red, & candy-apple green. The
    candy-apple part meaning that they were painted in that metallic sparkling
    stuff that was so popular in the 1970's. The cabinets looked so much like
    a prop in a Buck Rogers film that one was featured in the Charlton Heston
    Sci-Fi cheeser Soylent Green, although they had painted it white to match
    the decor of the film.
    
    Computer Space has the same charm that the Ed Wood films do. It is a game
    so bad as to be a bit amusing. Collectors travel great distances to
    obtain one and with good reason. If I were to rate Computer Space as a
    piece of pop-art to place in your office or home, I would without a doubt
    give it a glorious 10 out of 10. As a piece of nostalgia it doesn't rate
    high for me because I don't remember it from it's original era. As a game,
    I doubt if it would score even a 1. So I'm doing something a bit strange
    with the score on this game, I'm compromising for which I can without a
    doubt say is the best coin-op cabinet ever made...
    
    by Roger Earl from Electric Playground game reviews
    
    ------------------------------------------------------------------------
    
    4.5) The ODYSSEY: first home system
    -----------------------------------
    
    The Odyssey (AKA Odyssey I) Came Out In 1972 and was invented by Ralph Baer.
    It played a game almost identical to pong as well as a number of additional
    games that required overlays and playing pieces. The Odyssey had two
    removable controllers that allowed the user to control their paddle in BOTH
    the x and y axis. In addition, the Odyssey came with 6 Cartridges that
    (along with a number of screen overlays, game boards and cards) allowed the
    user to play a number of different games. As an option, Odyssey owners could
    buy the "Shooting Gallery" which included four more games and an electronic
    gun. The gun was simply light sensitive and a score can be racked up quite
    easily by pointing it at your local light bulb.
    
    The Odyssey 1 was released mainly in the U.S.A. but was also released in
    Europe (France, Germany, England, Australia, Belgian, Greece, Israel, Italy,
    Switzerland, URSS and Venezuela) in very few quantity, making them a very
    well
    sought collector's item ! Also the cards were printed in three languages:
    english, spanish and deutch. These Odyssey 1 were modified in SECAM format
    for
    playing them in many foreign countries.
    
    
    Name of games:                          Cart #:
    ------------------------------------------------
    Table Tennis                             01
    Ski/Simon Says                           02
    Tennis/Football/Hockey/Analogic          03
    Football/Cat And Mouse/Haunted House     04
    Submarine                                05
    Roulette/States                          06
    
    Add-On Games:
    ------------------------------------------------
    Volleyball                               07
    Handball                                 08
    ???                                      11
    Interplanetary Voyage                    12
    Basketball                       03, 06, 08?
    Brain Wave                               03
    Win                                      04
    Baseball                                 03
    Wipeout                                  05
    Invasion                         04, 05, 06
    Fun Zoo                                  02
    Percepts                                 02
    
    Shooting Gallery Electronic Rifle Games:
    ------------------------------------------------
    Shootout, Dogfight & Prehistoric Safari  09
    Shooting Gallery                         10
    
    
    Complete Parts List:
    ---------------------
    * Odyssey console (of course !)
    * Two plug-in controllers
    * Six Magnavox C-cells (when you buy it at the time)
    * Six Plug-In Game Cartridges (no# 1 through 6),
    * Original switchbox with two hooks and box,
    * 12 foot game cord,
    * 36 or 24 pages instruction manual
    * Eleven 18" TV overlays
    * Eleven 23" TV overlays
    * Game Field/Roulette Board
    * Stadium Scoreboard
    * Two football tokens
    * Two yardage markers
    * 20 pass cards
    * 20 run cards
    * 10 kick off cards
    * 10 punt cards
    * 6 play cards
    * 30 clue cards
    * 13 secret message cards
    * 48 plastic chips(sealed)
    * Two Dice
    * Play money
    * 50 state cards
    * Affairs of State (answer folder)
    * States study map
    * 28 Simon Says cards
    * Cat and Mouse stickers(25) sheet.
    
    More Add-On Games:
    ------------------
    
    Basketball (#7123)
    ------------------
    Accessoiries         Quantity   Reference
    Overlays                2
    Home Visitors Cards     ?
    Instructions            1
    Box                     1       982329-7
    Works with Cartridge (#3, #6, #8?)
    
    Interplanetary Voyage (#7175,1973)
    ----------------------------------
    Accessoires          Quantity   Reference
    Overlays                2
    Game board              1       643208-1
    Mission Cards           40
    Knowledge Cards         72
    Spaceship tokens        4
    Message chips           ?
    Instructions            1       EL 2910-1
    Box                     1       982329-14
    Works with Cartridge # 10
    
    Brain Wave (#7176, 1973)
    ------------------------
    Accessoiries         Quantity   Reference
    Overlays                2
    Game board              1       643210-1
    Tought Tiles            2 sets of 48
    Dice                    2
    Memory Banks            2 (1 blue, 1 green) 643209-1
    Power Markers           2 (1 blue, 1 green)
    Instructions            1       EL2911-1
    Box                     1       982329-15
    Works with Cartridge #3
    
    Win (#7302, 1973)
    -----------------
    Accessoiries          Quantity   Reference
    Overlays                 2
    Word Cards               18
    Image Cards              9
    Number Cards             18
    Slates                   4       643211-1
    Markers                  4
    Instructions             1       EL2913-1
    Box                      1       982329-13
    Works with Cartridge #4
    
    Baseball (#ITL 700, 1972)
    -------------------------
    Accessoires           Quantity   Reference
    Overlays                 2
    Game board               1       642948-1
    Score board              1
    Line Up cards            26 (13 red, 13 bleu)
    Power cards              10
    Big Freak cards          10
    Runner tokens            12 (4 red, 4 bleu, 4 white)
    Dice                     2
    Instructions             1       EL 2788-1
    Works with Cartridge #3
    
    Handball (#ITL 701, 1972)
    -------------------------
    Accessoiries          Quantity   Reference
    Overlays                 2
    Instructions             1       EL 2789-1
    Works with Cartridge #8
    
    Volleyball (#ITL 702, 1972)
    ---------------------------
    Accessoiries          Quantity   Reference
    Overlays                 2
    Instructions             1       EL 2790-1
    Box                      1       982329-1
    Works with Cartridge #7
    
    Wipe Out (#ITL 800, 1972)
    -------------------------
    Accessoiries          Quantity   Reference
    Overlays                 2
    Instructions             1       EL 2791-1
    Game board               1       643004-1
    Pit Stop cards           25
    Car tokens               4 (Red, Yellow, Green, Blue)
    Box                      1       982329-4
    Works with Cartridge #5
    
    Invasion (#ITL 801, 1972)
    -------------------------
    Accessoiries          Quantity   Reference
    Overlays                 2
    Treasure Loot cards      40
    Army tokens              300
    Ship Tokens              4
    Dice                     2
    Game board               1       643005-1
    Instructions             1       EL 2792-1
    Works with Cartridges #4, #5, #6
    
    Fun Zoo (#ITL 900, 1972)
    ------------------------
    Accessoiries          Quantity   Reference
    Overlays                 2
    Fun Zoo cards            28
    Instructions             1       EL 2793-1
    Works with Cartridge #2
    
    Percepts (# ???)
    ----------------
    Accessoiries          Quantity   Reference
    Overlays                 2
    Green Percepts cards     15
    Purple Percepts cards    15
    Instructions             1
    Works with Cartridge #2  -
    
    
    It's interesting to note that future game cards were planned and there was
    an accessory port. If you look at its innards-- There are NO Integrated
    Circuits at all !! About 85,000 Odyssey's were sold in 1972 and about
    20,000 rifles (apparently people believed you had to own a Magnavox
    television for it to work which scared away some buyers). After that time,
    the Odyssey sales fell due to the outbreak of competition.
    
    Want more information about the "Odyssey 1" ??? Then please go check out
    the F.A.Q. at Inhereth Mirth Odyssey Museum. The creator of the Odyssey 1
    F.A.Q. is "Shaun Gegan" (aka loomis) and his F.A.Q. has a lot more infor-
    mation about this unit. Check it out at this web site:
    
    "http://home.neo.lrun.com/skg/index.html"
    
    ------------------------------------------------------------------------
    
    5.0) Pong in the Arcades
    ------------------------
    
    This Pong list was taken from the KLOV list which is made by Mike Hughey,
    Jeff Hansen & Jonathan Deitch.
    
    * Computer Space - made by Nutting Associates in 1971 - B/W screen -
      2 Players
    * Dr.Pong - made by Atari in 197? - B/W screen - ? Players
    * Elimination - made by Kee Games in 1973 - B/W screen - 4 Players
    * Pin Pong - made by Atari in 197? - B/W screen - ? Players
    * Pong (what started Atari and the Video Game industries) -
      made by Atari in 1972 - B/W screen - 2 Players
    * Pong Doubles - made by Atari in 1973 - B/W screen - 2 Players
    * Puppy Pong - made by Syzygy in 1973 - B/W screen - 2 players
    * Quadra Pong - made by Atari in 1973 - B/W screen - 4 Players
      (plain copy of Elimination)
    * Super Pong - made by Atari in 1973 - B/W screen - ? Players
    
    ------------------------------------------------------------------------
    
    
    6.0) Credits
    ------------
    
    Many thanks to these guys !!! If it wasn't for them or for their info,
    this FAQ wouln't exist !!
    
    * E. Beljan
    * Dennis Brown
    * Martin Buchholz
    * Randy Buss
    * Greg Chance
    * Steve Cooper
    * Anthony Cortest
    * Dean Dierschow
    * Phillippe Dubois
    * Clint Dyer
    * Roger Earl
    * Eric Hamel
    * Kevan Heydon
    * Tom Howe
    * Robert A. Jung
    * Steven Kent
    * Corey Koltz
    * Jeremy Larsen
    * Harold A. Layer
    * John Marks
    * Ramon Martinez
    * Dan Mazurowski
    * Doug Manegre (DougM)
    * Rene Meyer
    * Danny Monaghan
    * David Orlikowski
    * Manu Pärssinen
    * Fabrizio Pedrazzini
    * Ray Porter
    * Rico Quetzalcoatl
    * Christopher Rodgers
    * Glenn Saunders
    * Joe Scoleri(the Maverick)
    * Lee K. Seitz
    * Pieter Verhallen
    * David Nybo Veile
    * Alan Watkins
    * Neville Wilkinson
    * David Winter (big thanks!)
    * Sam Z...?
         -----
    * Jason "Kaotic Page" (???)
         -----
    * EGM Magazine
    * the Japanese Classic Videogame Station Odyssey
    * the defunct Arton's Pong Page
    * and some few people that i lost their name and some
      info due to my harddisk crash.....(the first one)
    
    
    ------------------------------------------------------------------------
    
    
    7.0) Links to other Pong Sites
    ------------------------------
    
    * Bienvenue sur le site officiel de l'histoire du jeu PONG:
      "http://superpong.8m.com/" (USA MIRROR SITE)  or
      "http://services.worldnet.net/winter/pong/"  (France)
      Site created and maintained by DAVID WINTER
    
    * Inhereth Mirth Odyssey Museum (All Odyssey)
      "http://home.neo.lrun.com/skg/index.html"
    
    * Pong (simply...) "http://www.evandelay.com/pong/"
    
    * Pong Mania! Home Page "http://www.novalink.ca/~jeremy/pongmania/"
    
    * More to come in the next version of the F.A.Q.
    
    
    ------------------------------------------------------------------------
    
    
    Thanks and see you in the next version !!!
    ---------------------------------------------------------
    Copyright(c)1997-1999, Sylvain De Chantal, "sylvaindc@videotron.ca"
    or come visit my homepage at "http://www.chez.com/slydc/index.html"
    or mu other web site at "http://www.emuclassics.com/slydc/"