I've got a butterfly, an owl, and some other symbol and I'm assuming they need to be lined up in a certain order much like the puzzle at the very beginning of the tunnel with the symbols on the wall. However I don't recall seeing any clues on the way in to the sanctum that would tell me how everything lines up.
You get a journal in Bleak Falls, off the guy who runs from you after you cut him down, that hints to the answer. Read it. It says "the answer is on the claw" or something to that effect. You'd do well to read any documents or journals you find on NPCs you kill, they may lead to quests or answers to riddles.