I'll be honest, if you're looking for leveled loot, stay out of dungeons until you are looking for leveled loot. The way Skyrim works is when you enter a dungeon all enemies are scaled to your current level. So if you know there's a hard dungeon, go there early and pop your head in the door then leave and return later.
Likewise, their loot stays the same as when it is first generated, so don't expect to blast through a dungeon and get the good stuff if you use this method.
My advice is the companion's questline, especially when you start fighting Silver Hand, because I've picked up some great weapons(elven daggers/bows/armor) and they also have some steel plate and decent warhammers laying around.
Now this game is kind of odd in that loot isn't really the best way to arm yourself. Try smithing something. Just grind on leather bracers and whatnot and work your way up either the heavy or light side of the smithing tree. Remember to use grindstones and workbenches as well.
Contray to popular belief alot of dungeons actually have Set minimum levels. There a few dungeons that can utterly destroy you if you are of low level ( ie less than level 12). All Falmer instances are level 15 minimum for instance as well as a few Draugr dungeons which have alot of Wrights and Scourges with the odd Deathlord (Typically those that house a Dragon priest).
In an Unmodded Skyrim its almost guranteed that you will face a Deathlord at lvl 5+ in the area behind the Imperial encampment in the Rift (Riften's Hold) a dragon can will also be there as well if you have them enabled.
M_V_DUDE posted... Dang, I've already done a bit of exploring when I was at the lower levels... Guess I'll try smithing. Thanks pal.
Do Mehrunes Dagon's daedric quest and get his dagger. Then remember that the four dremora (two outside, two inside) respawn every few days, four daedra hearts no matter what. Perfect for Daedric gear when smithing. The orcish stronghold Southeast of Windhelm also has a LOT of ebony ore veins.