From what I understand Starbound has some interesting mechanics that should be explained a bit more, especially for first time players.
1) The E key is used to interact with objects in the world like opening and closing doors, interacting with fire to cook food, or to open storage containers. (I know the initial quest states this but it should be re-iterated.)
2) The Q key is used to drop items from your inventory.
3) Left clicking will place objects in the foreground and Right clicking will place objects in the background. Same rules apply when dismantling things. Left click to break foreground objects and right click for background dismantling.
4) In order to split a stack of items in half simply right click on the stack.
5) Holding down shift while placing or mining will ‘fine tune’ your placement/digging so that instead of a four square (or more) block it will be a single block width.
6) Keep an eye on your hunger meter and your warmth meter neglecting them will kill you! The Hunger meter will occasionally crop up from the bottom of the screen with some informative text like “You are getting puckish.”
7) The warmth meter is a little more ambiguous. A blue meter represented with a sun on the left hand side indicates how hot or cold your body is. When arrows are pointing to the right (away from the sun) you are getting warm. Arrows pointing to the left means you are getting cold. Stand by sources of heat to stay warm i.e. a fireplace, torches, warmth from the sun. Some planets need extra protection to stay warm on.
8) Plant fiber is harvested from vines hanging in caves. (there are probably other places too)
9) To get meat from enemies you need to kill an enemy with a bow, however only the last hit needs to be from a bow so feel free to weaken the enemy with other weapons first. Also meat is not 100% guaranteed as leather can also be gotten this way.
10) If you find a large body of water and need to remove it simply break the back wall and the water will empty through that hole.