I don't think so, I'm pretty sure components in a laptop are designed for that MOBO specifically and will not work in anything else. If you really wanted, you could buy a monitor, keyboard and mouse and just use a HDMI cable to create a pseudo desktop.
You definitely could. Just not an off the shelf case, you'd have to build it from scratch or heavily modify a commercial case. At the end of the day it probably wouldn't be worth it over just removing the screen from the laptop and using it like that.
Every time I try to go where I really wanna be it's already where I am, 'cuz I'm already there XBL, PSN, Steam, Origin, BSN, GFAQs, MC: PhilOnDez
Putting laptop hardware in a desktop case isn't going to be a budget solution. You're still going to be limited to laptop hardware, which costs as much or more than desktop hardware, and you're going to have to do major case customization. Building a desktop from scratch is seriously a cheaper way to go.
Some laptops are fairly easy to upgrade certain components. Memory, HDD, maybe even CPU, can usually be upgraded within the limits of the motherboard. GPU is much harder and risks heating problems, nevermind compatability.
I'd suggest making do with what you have and saving up to build a desktop to your preference and budget. Once you get the ball rolling, upgrades to that are drastically cheaper and easier.