Kunitori Zunou Battle ~ Nobunaga no Yabou
Rules & Strategy Guide
======================
Alan Kwan 10 Sep 2009
======================
version 1.22
------------

This document is a detailed guide explaining the rules of the game (which are
not very well documented either in the instruction booklet or the in-game
tutorials) plus offering some hints on general strategy.

Because this is supposed to be a strategy game, this document does not contain
a stage-by-stage walkthrough of the scenario mode.  While many players find
this game difficult, the real difficulty lies in the unusual game rules, which
render orthodox wargame tactics ineffective.  Thus, I suggest that the player
studies this guide, and practice with the war mode; with better playing skill
and familiarity with the game, one will be able to see the path to victory.
(One's strategy depends somewhat on the random generals he pulls, so I won't
dictate the strategy here.)

This doucment's copyright is owned by me.  Unauthorized use, except for
strictly non-commercial, personal use, is prohibited.

Please e-mail corrections and additions to:
mailto:tarot@netvigator.com

Version History
---------------

21 July 2008    v1.0
23 July         v1.1    added section 8.1
24 July         v1.2    corrected section 8.1
 2 Aug		v1.21   updated section 11.0
10 Sep  2009    v1.22   updated section 8.1 plus other small changes

Table of Contents
-----------------

* 1.0  Review

* 2.0  Game Modes
** 2.1  War Mode

* 3.0  Building Your Army
** 3.1  Army Composition Tips

* 4.0  Game Flow
** 4.1  Victory Conditions
** 4.2  The Reckoning
*** 4.2.1  Alliance

* 5.0  Combat Sequence
** 5.1  Attacking a Castle
** 5.2  Attacking in Waves

* 6.0  Terrain
** 6.1  Castles: the Central Terrain in the game
*** 6.1.1  Tips against a Strongly Defended Castle

* 7.0  The Reserve
** 7.1  Strategy Tips on Using the Reserve

* 8.0  Skills
** 8.1  Algorithm for Skill Roll

* 9.0  Class

* 10.0  Levels and Experience

* 11.0  Acquiring Generals

* 12.0  Tips for Scenario Mode


* 1.0  Review: Nobunaga under German Influence
----------------------------------------------

Although this game has "Nobunaga no Yabou" (Nobunaga's Ambition) in its title,
the game play is very unlike previous games in that series.  It is not a grand,
complex, long strategy game at all.  Rather, the style is rather close to a
German designer board game, with moderately simple (and innovative) rules and a
short playing time of around 30 minutes per stage.  Another way of looking at
it is as a turn-based version of /Sangokushi Taisen/.

The influence from Sangokushi Taisen is very visible.  At the start of a stage,
you select the units (generals) you'll be using in the battle, and the
selection is constrained by a point system.  You then move your units around on
a map, from point to point along roads, to capture territory.  Defeated units
must sit out for a couple of turns, and then will come back into play.  Each
unit is of one of three troop types (infantry, cavalry, and gunners), and has a
force rating.  Plus, most generals have a special skill, and some generals
even have a powerful global-effect "trump card".

The economic system is very simple, and there is no micro-management.  Each turn
all you do is move each unit (you may have up to 8) one space, and occasionally
play a trump card.  Movement is done by simply dragging the unit, so controls
are very simple and intuitive.  After hitting the "Go" icon, all movement and
combat will be resolved automatically.  Thus, game turns zip through very fast.

In order to make an interesting game with this level of simplicity, the game
has adpoted some unusual mechanisms, the most remarkable being the combat
system.  In many war simulation games, each friendly unit in battle attacks and
does damage against some enemy unit.  However, in this game, only /one/
friendly unit attacks and damages /every/ enemy unit in the battle.  In
other words, the attacking power of your side is not proportional to the number
of friendly units, but instead is proportional to the number of enemy units!
The number or force of friendly units will not increase the damage one does to
the enemy, unless the attackers have a larger total force than the defenders, in
which case the defenders are immediately routed and get no chance to strike
back.  This unusual combat system means that, while a larger force does have
its advantages, it is possible for a smaller army to beat a larger one; this
releases the game from the slow economic build-up typical in Koei-style war
simulations, and replaces that with fast-paced tactical maneuver topped with
some guesswork (you need to predict how your enemies are moving, since all
commands are entered before any unit moves).  The combat system is rather
unrealistic for a simulation, but is rather /fun/ for a game.  This is a game
about strategic positioning and tactical out-maneuvering, not about economic
build-up like the vast majority of simulation wargames (whether turn-based or
real-time); for this reason the game is seldom a foregone conclusion, and
dramatic comebacks are often possible.

The combat system is not the only place where the game boldly tries to do
something in the right way.  Just like in Sakura Taisen, you can collect
generals.  But instead of relying on luck to get the rare ones and avoid
duplicates, this game just gives you points with which to purchase them.  You
can choose which rareity level to buy, but rare ones cost a lot more.  And, oh
great, you'll never get a duplicate!  When one gets to think about it, there is
no good reason why an electronic card game ever has to give you duplicate
cards; I can't understand why other games have not been doing this before.
Another issue with electronic card games is that, either the cards themselves
do not level up and always stay the same, or they do and that ruins the game
balance and hurts its variety (by encouraging the player to always stick to the
same cards all the time, and making it hard to try new cards since they are
initially weak).  This game does have a level up system (or rather, three) for
the generals, and it manages to be satisfying without ruining the game balance.
First, by spending money (or more importantly, up to the limit enabled by the
number of production facilities you control), you can increase the force of your
generals until the end of the stage.  This is more part of the economic system
than the level-up system of the generals, though.  Second, when your generals
fight, they advance in "class" which will greatly boost their attack power;
however, this doesn't increase their defense, so they're still vulnerable, and
as this doesn't last beyond the current stage, it is fair and gives no
advantage to level grinding.  Third, your generals gain experience and level-up
after a stage.  The first one or two levels can be acquired quickly, and are
probably the most important; while high levels do give some advantage, the
advantage is subtle and is not decisive like those in Pokemon or such.  Also,
another unusual system to control the luck factor in the game is that, while
skills work on percentages, you know whether they will work or not beforehand,
when entering the commands for your units.  The new player is also helped by
the starter generals: each nation starts with a good array of generals which
are rather decent (unlike some games which give you rubbish starters).  All
these together try to pit the players against each other in a battle of wits
(as the game title says), a contest of skill and double-guessing with the luck
factor being very much under control, instead of merely a demonstration to see
which player has wasted the most time to get the most rare cards or to grind
the highest levels.

It appears that the makers of the game know its strength; they even portray the
units as round-based chess pieces, instead of soldiers standing on two or four
(for cavalry) legs, in order to convey the image that the selling point of the
game is its board game style game play, and not as a typical Koei heavy
simulation game.  However, the marketing department seems to differ in opinion,
so this game is given a name which is too long (and, despite being in fact
literally descriptive, looks like a quiz game title unfortunately) and has
"Nobonaga no Yabou" in it, even though the game clearly targets a different
kind of players from the fans of the series.  This is perhaps the reason why
this excellent and highly playable game is receiving mixed reviews, gets
underrated, and perhaps isn't selling well, as some fans of the Nobunaga series
look down on it as a low-quality spin-off produced cheaply to cheat gamers of
their money, while players who would have liked this game are scared away by
the Nobunaga label.

* 2.0  Game Modes
-----------------

At the top menu, the four choices are play game, player info, generals data,
and settings.

In the "play game" sub-menu there are a single player mode, a wireless vs. mode
(which supports both multi-cart and single-cart download play), and a WIFI vs.
mode.  A fourth mode allows you to buy new generals with fame points.

The single player mode has two modes under it: scenario mode and war mode.
Scenario mode allows you to play the story of four of the daimyo, but initially
only one (Nobunaga) is available.  The early Nobunaga scenarios serve as the
tutorial.  War mode allows you to play alone against the AI players with the
standard war setup (i.e. the vs. play rules).  It becomes available after
clearing a certain scenario in Nobunaga's story.

** 2.1  War Mode
----------------

In war mode, you first select a map, and then select which rules set to use.
The "light" rules set plays for only 15 turns, and victory is primarily decided
by the number of castles one controls.  The "normal" rules (30 turns) and the
"full length" rules (50 turns) are both decided by income.  You can also choose
to use historical or random starting locations.  With random starting
locations, each player daimyo as well as each non-player nation will start in a
random castle (and hence, which castles will be empty is also random).  In vs.
play, there is also a time limit for each turn.

There are two sets of maps: local-area maps, and grand-scale maps.  You unlock
more maps by clearing certain stages in scenario mode.

War mode (and vs. play) is in fact the main mode of the game.  The fame
point efficiency is in general much better than scenario mode.  You want to
clear the scenario mode to unlock maps and earn specific generals, but the
scenario mode is not designed to be repeatedly playable.  Of course you are
free to replay a stage to revise the history lesson or to investigate different
strategies for that stage, but playing scenario mode to farm fame points is
generally more work (for the results) than war mode.

* 3.0  Building Your Army
-------------------------

At the start of a stage, you put together your army.  The total cost of the
generals you may include is limited by the stage.  You may freely include units
of your choice within the cost limit.  You may have a maximum of 7 units
besides your daimyo.

The daimyo has high force, and a special trump card and skill (often unique
ones).  He is also represented on the map by a special chess piece.  Other than
these, however, the daimyo functions just like any other unit; there are no
special penalties for getting your daimyo defeated, for example.

In some stages in scenario mode, you play with a fixed army, so you do not
build your army.

** 3.1  Army Composition Tips
-----------------------------

If you are playing scenario mode and you know what you are going up against,
you can optimize your army accordingly.  For example, some enemies have only
two types in their armies, exposing a serious weakness for you to exploit.

When fighting against human opponents or against random AI players, there are
several things to consider when building your army.  First, you may want to
include certain trump cards or certain skills.  Trump cards are very powerful,
but they can be used only once, so it is important to use them at the right
timing.  Some skills are very useful, and there are also the "stealth" skills
(Lockpick and Flood Attack) which enable you to cheaply steal undefended
castles.

There is also the choice of using few big units or more smaller units.  Big
units tend to have better skills and trump cards, while with more units, you'll
either have more skills or a larger total force (since each unit with no skill
has one more force than its cost).  In battle, a swarm of small units can each
strike individually for more damage, but they themselves will take more damage
when struck at.  Strategically, having more units allows you to cover a wider
front, and a surplus unit can be sent off to capture undefended territory.
During the reckoning, having more units gives you the option to buy more force
points cheaply, and also allows you to build up a larger total force
eventually.  On the other hand, small units are defeated easily, and a unit
needs sustained survival in order to build up its class, which is perhaps the
strongest power-up element in this game.

Then there is the choice of unit types.  In order to cover any weaknesses, it
is best to have a good balance of the three types; a mixed group of units tend
to be the strongest defenders since they always strike back for double damage
when attacked.  However, since only units of the same type may move and attack
together, being evenly split makes it difficult for you to put together enough
force to rout the defenders and to capture castles.

Considering the various issues above, a build I would recommend is to focus on
a rout force made up of a concentration of units of the same type, supported by
smaller forces in other types.  Since the main force aims to rout the enemy, it
should consist of a few big units (usually including the daimyo, since most of
them have a great attack skill) so as to minimize the loss of effectiveness
when being struck at.  The primary support type is the type which is weak
against the main force, since that is the type which is in turn stronger
against the type which the main force is weak against.  (For example, if your
main force is gunners, the primary support type is cavalry, since they are
strong against infantry, the type which would give your gunners trouble.)  The
purpose of support units is to strike to weaken/defeat enemy units, so their
strength is in their numbers, and it is preferable to use low force units for
their higher initiative.  Such two-type army composition gives you the best
chance of capturing a castle while acting first (with a lower total force)
before the castle defenders.  Your army should then be rounded out with a mix
of units as appropriate for the map and cost limit; a medium-force unit in the
third type is probably a good idea for defense.  Of course, the above is just
my playing style, and you should feel free to try out other builds.

* 4.0  Game Flow
----------------

The game is played in turns; each turn represents a month of simulated time.
Each turn consists of a command phase and a move phase.  At the beginning of
each turn, you first receive income, and units occupying healing locations
heal.

In the command phase, you give commands to your units, but they do not act yet
until the move phase.  A unit may move one space each turn; just drag it to
the destination.  Units of the same type (infantry, cavalry, or gunners) on the
same space can be moved together by dragging the unit on the map, or can be
moved individually by dragging the unit from the unit list at the bottom.  The
latter is very important when you want each unit to make a seperate attack, in
order to do more strike damage.  (It makes no difference if they are not
attacking.)  A unit at a castle can be sent to the reserve, and ready units in
reserve can be deployed onto any (friendly or allied) castle.

After all players have finished entering commands, the move phase begins in
which all commands are executed.  First, all trump cards take effect.  Then,
the acting order is determined for all spaces.  The spaces act in *ascending
order of the total force* in the space, counting all allies and castle defense.
(Note that the order is determined according to the force total at the moment
right after trump cards take effect, but before any units act.)  Ties are
broken randomly.  Among units on the same space, units (or groups of units
moving together) act in ascending force order.  Units are deployed at a castle
when it is the castle's turn to act.

In this game, it is usually advantageous to be the attacker.  So when opposing
units are adjacent, it is usually important to go first.  It is sometimes
possible, with the right army of a smaller total force than a castle's
defenses, to conquer the castle before the castle can act (i.e. before any
units in the castle can counter-attack, ane before any further reinforcements
can be deployed).  On the other hand, when opposing units are one space apart,
it is usually advantages to go second, so that when both sides attempt to enter
the same space, the side acting second will attack the units which enter first.
(An obvious exception is when both sides compete to be the first to enter a
castle.)

Because you do not know how your opponents will move when you enter your
commands, guesswork is often called for.  For example, consider the case where
you have a larger force but of the weaker type two spaces away from the enemy.
If you predict that the enemy will advance, you can order your units to attack
and rout them; but if you guess wrong and the enemy stays put, you will be
struck at when the enemy moves first next turn.

** 4.1  Victory Conditions
--------------------------

In war mode, the victory condition is either castles or income.  The game ends
when someone has met the sudden death victory conditions at the end of a turn,
or when the full number of game turns have been played.  At that point, the
player who has the most castles or income (whichever being the victory
condition in effect) wins.  Note that sudden death victory conditions are
checked only at the end of a turn.  (For example, if you capture some territory
which puts your income above the threshold, but then lose some territory in the
same turn, you do not win the game yet.)  If the victory condition is castles,
ties are broken by income.

Income means the total income of the territory you control, not your current
gold holdings.  You can improve your income by spending gold to strengthen your
castles.  But you cannot strengthen a castle if that would raise your income to
meet the victory condition.  In scenario mode, if income is one of the victory
conditions and you have already met it, then you cannot strengthen any castles
at all.

In scenario mode, each stage has its own set of victory conditions, and all
must be met (and *maintained*) in order to clear the scenario.  Just like in
war mode, victory conditions are checked only at the end of a turn.  If the
number of game turns expire, you lose.  

Each nation must have at least one castle.  A nation which loses its last
castle is defeated immediately.  Note that this is checked anytime, not just at
the end of a turn.  If you are defeated this way in the one-player modes
(scenario mode and war mode), you get a "game over" and receive no experience
or fame for the stage.  In vs. play, a human player who is defeated becomes a
subordinate of its conqueror instead.

** 4.2  The Reckoning
---------------------

Once every six turns, a reckoning takes place instead of the normal turn.  (In
other words, there are five normal turns between two reckonings.)  At the
beginning of a reckoning month, you collect income but there is no
(castle/port) healing.  (You will heal normally at the beginning of the next
turn after the reckoning.) Then each player may carry out three kinds of
operations: increase units' force, strengthen castles, and propose an alliance.

You can increase your units' maximum force capacity by paying money.  The first
force point increase you buy for each unit costs 20 gold; the second point for
a unit costs 40 gold, the third one 60, and so on.  You are also limited to a
number of improvments per reckoning for each unit type according to the number
of towns (for infantry), gunsmiths (for gunners), and horse farms (for cavalry)
respectively you currently control.  The latter is usually the real limit, as
you will usually have enough gold to pay for all your unit improvements,
unless you insist on piling up all your improvements on the same unit instead
of spreading out evenly.  (Piling up, though, would indeed give you a stronger
army in general.)  Your improvement allowances are lost if not used; they
cannot be saved for use in a future reckoning.  Each unit is limited to a
maximum number of force point improvements, depending on its level.

You also spend money to strengthen your castles.  The cost is 10 times the
improved strength of the castle.  (For example, strengthening a castle from 3
to 4 costs 40 gold.)  Max castle defense is 9.  Stronger castles are very
useful, because most units can only capture a castle weaker than itself, so you
don't even have to station any defending units if the opponent doesn't attack
with enough force.  However, you must be very careful about certain skills (and
also trump cards) which make exceptions, most notably Lockpick and Flood
Attack.  If you lose a castle after strengthening it, your effort makes it that
much harder for you yourself to recapture it!

You can also propose an alliance to another player.  If the target player is
also proposing an alliance to you, then the alliance is automatically
successful.  If the target player is proposing an alliance to a third
player, your proposed alliance fails automatically.  Otherwise, the target
player may freely choose whether to accept the alliance or not.

The reckoning counts as a turn against the number of turns remaining in the
game.  But it does not count as a turn for sitting out in the reserve.

On the turn just before a reckoning, you should pay special attention to
capturing and defending production facilities, since they count towards your
improvement allowance only if you control them during the reckoning.

*** 4.2.1  Alliance
-------------------

Allies will not attack each other, but can pass through allied units and
territories.  Also, units can enter the reserve from an allied castle, and
most importantly can be deployed from one.  Units can heal normally on an
allied castle or port.  Your allies are indicated by a circular border of your
own color around allied territory.

Allies can defend a space together, and can conveniently jointly attack a
space, but they move seperately and hence cannot combine their force into one
big attack (for routing the enemy).  Also, allied players do not share their
gold nor their force improvement capacity.

In war mode, an alliance lasts until the next reckoning.  If not renewed, the
alliance will end and all units now on hostile territory will be sent to the
reserve (and be ready for deployment after sitting out one turn).  This will
also happen if an ally is defeated by losing all his castles.  In scenario
mode, story events may change alliances.

* 5.0  Combat Sequence
----------------------

When units try to enter a space occupied by enmey units or castle, combat
occurs.  Combat is resolved by the following step-by-step procedure:

1. Rout: If the total attacking force is greater than the total defending force
(a castle adds its defense value to the defenders' force), all defending units
are immediately defeated, and the attackers conquer the contested space with no
losses.  If the attacking force is smaller or equal, proceed to step 2.

2. Strike: If the defenders are not routed, each side makes one strike, and
then the attackers retreat.  Although the game shows the attackers striking
first, striking is effectively simultaneous: any defending units reduced to 0
force still gets a chance to strike before being defeated.

3. Strike damage: Each side strikes with /only/ their single most effective
unit, against /every/ enemy unit in the battle.  The number of units or their
force has *no effect* on strike damage.  Strike damage is modified only by
class, troop types, and certain skills.  After both sides strike, units reduced
to 0 force are defeated.

Class: The base damage a unit inflicts when striking is equal to its class.  
(A unit builds up its class by fighting repeatedly without being defeated.)

Troop types: Cavalry is strong against infantry, infantry is strong against
gunners, and gunners are strong against cavalry.  The stronger type inflicts
double damage.  The weaker type inflicts zero damage.
(Note: Having units of the stronger type does not protect you from *routing* at
all.)

Castle: If the defenders of a castle are all of the weaker type, the "inherent
castle defense" strikes in their stead for 1 damage.

Example:  You attack a stack of three force 4 infantry units with a force 6
infantry.  Since the defenders have the larger force (12 to 6), they are not
routed and we proceed to striking.  One of the defenders is class 2, and all
other units are class 1.  You strike and do 1 damage to each defending unit
(hence 3 damage total).  The class 2 defender strikes and does 2 damage to your
unit.  We can see that, having more units confers no advantage in striking; in
fact, it is disadvantageous since every unit will be struck at.

4. Retreat: The attackers always retreat after strikes are exchanged, even if
the defenders are wiped out by the strike.  The attackers can conquer the
space only if they rout the defenders by attacking with a larger force.

Important exception: Certain daimyo's skills (such as Nobunaga's "Triple Shot")
allows one's army to "attack twice".  After the defenders are weakened by the
first strike, it is possible for the daimyo's army to rout the defenders if
they have the greater force at that point.  If the defenders are routed, they
do not strike back.

To skip battle animations, you can click on the touch screen.  You can also 
hold down L or R button during the move phase to skip battle animations.
However, for novice players it is recommended that they watch the animations
carefully, so as to learn how the combat system and the skills work.

** 5.1  Attacking a Castle
--------------------------

You can always walk into a neutral (uncontrolled) castle.  But against an
enemy-controlled castle (even an empty castle not defended by any units), you
can capture it only with a force greater than the castle defense.  Striking
does no damage to the castle itself.

If you attack a castle with no defending units, you simply compare your force
against the castle's defense.  If your force is greater, you capture the
castle.  If not, the "inherent castle defense" strikes at you for 1 damage, and
then you retreat.

If you attack a castle defended by units, combat is resolve according to the
procedure explained above.

** 5.2  Attacking in Waves
--------------------------

When attacking for the purpose of striking (you don't have enough force to rout
the defenders), it is not effective to attack with many units at once, since
you'll get only one strike at the defenders, while all your units will be
struck at once.  Instead, you should move each unit seperately to attack. This
way, each unit will get its own strike.  This tactic is taught in chapter 7 of
Nobunaga's scenario.

* 6.0  Terrain
--------------

The various terrain types have different effects:

Road - no special effect; 1 income

Sea Route - no special effect; 0 income

Castle - can deploy units; its income also serves as its defense value;
occupants heal 1 force per turn; can be strengthed by spending gold

Town - enables +1 more infantry force increase during reckoning; increases
infantry units' skills by 5%; often higher income
(Note: the skill bonus for towns, horse farms and gunsmiths apply globally to
all friendly units of the corresponding type on the map.  So you still want to
keep these locations even after you have maxed out your force.)

Horse Farm - enables +1 more cavalry force increase during reckoning; increases
cavalry units' skills by 5%

Gunsmith - enables +1 more gunner force increase during reckoning; increases
gunner units' skills by 5%

Gold Mine - very high income 
(If the victory condition is income, gold mines are very important.)

Westerners - very high income 

Port - units heal 1 force per turn

Temple - protects occupants from damage caused by typhoons and trump cards;
usually higher income

** 6.1  Castles: the Central Terrain in the game
------------------------------------------------

The most important terrain type in this game is the castles.  Your units can
heal in them.  They have a defense value which allows you to protect both your
units and the castle itself.  You can also enter reserve and, most importantly,
deploy your units at a castle.  A castle gives you control in the nearby area:
any defeated units can be redeployed at the castle, and you can quickly ship
reinforcements to the castle if you need.  It is very difficult to hold spaces
if the enemy controls the nearby castles; you will be driven away sooner or
later.

Castles are also crucial for the victory conditions (except for a very few
scenarios), regardless of whether they are an explicit victory condition or
not.  If the victory condition is gold income, castles have high income, and
they help you hold nearby spaces.  Also, a nation is defeated when it loses all
its castles.  By conquering a nation's last castle, you immediately gain
control of all its other spaces.  Your real standing is largely defined by the
castles you hold; in contrast, Gold mines are important only if you can keep
them (i.e. you own the nearby castle), or if you are actually winning
immediately (or preventing someone else from winning) with them.

Thus, most of your efforts should be directed towards taking and holding
castles.  March towards a castle only if you have enough force to conquer it;
if you don't, put your troops to use elsewhere.  Learn to defend a castle using
just enough troops: if they hold the castle long enough to reduce the enemy's
force (of each type) to equal to or below the castles's defense value, the
enemy cannot conquer the castle (unless they have certain special skills) and
will have to withdraw.  You don't need enough troops to actually defeat the
attackers (unless you really have troops to spare).

For example, the enemy is attacking your castle (force 4) with one infantry
(force 6) and one cavalry (force 4).  You deploy a force 4 gunner there to
defend.  All units are class 1, and no unit has any relevant skills.  Now,
even though the enemy has force 10 against yor force 8, and even though they
have an infantry (and a bigger one) against your gunner, they cannot capture
the castle as long as you don't attack.  Because the two enemy units are of
different types, they cannot combine into one attack to rout you.  The cavalry
cannot do any damage against your gunner, and cannot capture the castle by
itself, so you can just ignore it completely.  Say the infantry attacks you
once and strikes for two damage.  Next turn, you heal back 1 so you're at 3
force.  The infantry strikes again, reducing you to 1 force.  But at this
point, the infantry has already been hit by the inherent castle defense twice,
so it is at 4 force - not enough to capture the castle any more.  You can even
send your gunner to reserve next turn, so that it does not die needlessly.

Consider a similar case, but the enemy is attacking with a force 6 cavalry and
a force 4 infantry.  In this case, you must counter-attack even though this
will cause your gunner to be defeated.  With just one strike, you reduce the
cavalry to force 4, so it becomes unable to capture your castle.  But if you
don't attack, the enemy infantry can keep weakening you, until the enemy
cavalry routs you on the second turn.

*** 6.1.1  Tips against a Strongly Defended Castle
--------------------------------------------------

Sometimes an enemy (especially the AI) will sit all his troops inside a castle,
especially if that is his last one.  There are several things you can do
against this situation:

- Storm the castle:
With the right army, sometimes supported with the right skills or trump card,
you can assault the castle and capture it.  However, attacking a castle
unsuccessfully, without actually capturing it, will cost you valuable time and
units, and should be avoided.

- Flanking:
If you can attack the castle from two or more different spaces, you can use
lots of units while still keeping the initiative (move first before the
defenders every turn).  Be careful that you put enough force in each space so
that they don't get routed.

- Leave it alone:
In many situations, ignoring that castle and switching to other targets would
allow you to win the game easier.

- Train your troops:
You may want to leave it alone for now and come back later with higher class
units.  High class units help greatly when attacking a castle.

- Divide and conquer:
Sometimes if you leave it alone, the defenders will move around, and you can
then defeat them piecemeal, or capture the castle when the defenders are away.
Against the AI, this may or may not work, but against a human player, since he
will always lose the game if he just sits in his castle permanently, he is in a
sense forced to come out.


* 7.0  The Reserve
------------------

Units at a (friendly or allied) castle can voluntarily enter the reserve.  The
unit sits out for the next turn, and then on the turn after that can be
deployed at *any* friendly or allied castle.  A unit is always deployed with
its full force.  (A unit boosted by the "Miracle Light" trump card will not
lose its overpowered state when it enters the reserve.)

In other words, it takes three moves total for a unit to enter and exit the
reserve.  Thus, if you want to move to a castle three spaces away, you'll
arrive on the same turn whether you move on the map or through the reserve.  If
the destination castle is four or more spaces away, using the reserve will get
you there faster.

If a unit is defeated (by being routed, by its force reduced to 0, or by
certain skills), it is sent to the reserve, but will sit out for two turns and
can be deployed three turns later.

** 7.1  Strategy Tips on Using the Reserve
------------------------------------------

The reserve is very important for healing and also for redeployment.  When
using reserve to move instead of moving on the map, you can choose the location
of deployment at the last minute.  This is useful more often than it sounds!
In the majority of cases where you are moving to a castle three spaces away or
waiting to heal three force points, using the reserve will turn out to be the
wiser choice.

In many Japanese-style war simulation games such as Advanced War, movement is
slow so you want to deploy (produce) your units as soon as possible.  However,
the reserve deployment in this game totally breaks this custom, so the player
needs to change his mode of thinking.  In many situations, it is better to hold
a unit in reserve even though it is ready for deployment: you may want to see
how your opponents move, or you may want to deploy at a castle you'll soon
capture, or you may want to protect the deployed unit from damage by
dispatching surrounding enemy units first (especialy high-class enemy units of
the superior type).  Having a unit in reserve ready for deployment any moment
is often a useful asset - just like having a piece in reserve in Shogi.  The
rule of thumb is that, if you can't state a good purpose the unit will serve
for you by deploying it, it is probably better to hold the unit in reserve.  A
unit deployed at a castle will defend that castle, but a unit in reserve can be
deployed any moment to defend /any/ castle which is threatened.

* 8.0  Skills
-------------

The majority of generals have a skill.  Most skills are either attack skills or
defense skills.  Attack skills and defense skills take effect in battle, when
attacking or defending respectively.  There is also the "Monk" skill which
works outside combat: the skill allows a unit to heal while in a Temple.

Most skills work with a certain percentage.  Unlike most games in which the
"random dice roll" is made at the moment the skill takes effect, in this game
the dice roll is made at the beginning of the turn.  When you enter the
commands for your units, you can see which of your own units have succeeded
their skill rolls: such units have the corresponding skill icon displayed with
them.  For those units, their skills will certainly take effect on that turn,
and for a defense skill, it will certainly take effect /every/ time the unit is
attacked on that turn.  When you have many units in a space, only one unit may
have its skill activated.  Skills which always work (Lockpick and Monk) are not
displayed here.  Note that you cannot see whether /enemy/ units have succeeded
their skill rolls until the move phase begins.

You can increase the success percentage by increasing the general's level (5%
for every 2 levels above level 1) or class (10% for every class above 1), or by
controlling more production facilities (5% for each corresponding facility).

** 8.1  Algorithm for Skill Roll
--------------------------------

When multiple units with percentage skills occupy a space, at most only one of
those units can have its skill activated for the turn.  This is determined by 
the following algorithm:

1. Choose the unit with the highest skill success percentage in the space.
(Ties are broken randomly.)
2. The chosen unit makes its skill roll.
3. If it succeeds, that skill becomes activated.  Done.
4. If it fails, go back to step 1 and pick the unit with the next highest
skill success percentage, until a unit succeeds or all units have failed.

* 9.0  Class
------------

A unit's class determines its base strike damage: class 1 units do 1 damage,
class 2 units do 2 damage, and class 3 units do 3 damage.  Higher class also
significantly increases the unit's skill percentage, by 10% for class 2 and 20%
for class 3.

A unit gradually advances in class as it fights.  A unit's class is reset when
it is defeated.  Class may also be increased or decreased with certain trump
cards.

In war mode, all units begin as class 1.  In scenario mode, some units may
begin at a higher class.  Certain events may also change some units' class.

Class is very important, as a unit does double damage at class 2.  Especially
when attacking a castle, your units' class is often a decisive factor, since if
you don't wear down the defenders fast enough, they'll keep healing and then
defeated units will revive.  Thus it is important to send high-class units to
reserve instead of losing them needlessly.  Daimyo with double-attack skills
(e.g. Nobunaga), especially, become a lot stronger at a higher class.

* 10.0  Levels and Experience
-----------------------------

When you clear a stage in scenario mode (win only), or when you finish war mode
(whether win or lose, but not game over), each unit you used in the stage gains
2 experience.  When a unit accumulates experience, it gains levels, which raise
the maximum capacity its force can be increased during the reckoning, and also
increase its skill success percentage.

      level   EXP required      max # of force ups   skill bonus
	1	  0			2		 0%
	2	  4			3		 0%	
	3	 10			3		 5%
	4	 30			4		 5%
	5	 60			4		10%
	6	100			5		10%

It is very useful to raise a unit to level 2, so that it can get the third
force up.  For units which have a percentage skill, level 3 can also be
attained relatively quickly for the +5% skill bonus.  (For units without a
skill or with a non-percentage skill, they gain nothing for the 3rd level.)
Further levels take longer, and also more force capacity is less important,
since they get to be used even later in the game, and they also cost more money
to buy.  Thus I recommend that you just play and enjoy the game, without
getting too obsessed with levelling units above level 2 or 3.  (Units which you
use a lot will level up naturally.)  Even the advantage of the skill bonus
isn't that big; the effect of class up is much bigger.

* 11.0  Acquiring Generals
--------------------------

Each daimyo has his private house of starter generals.  These starter generals
cannot be used by other daimyo.  Some of these are quite good, better than the
average common general.

When you clear a stage in scenario mode (win only), or when you finish war mode
(whether win or lose, but not game over), you will receive fame points.  With
these, you can buy new generals.  Common generals cost 2 fame, uncommon ones
cost 15 fame, and rare generals cost a hefty 50 fame each.  There is
significant quality difference between rarity levels: rarer generals tend to
carry better skills and trump cards, or they may have higher force.
Nevertheless, common generals are useful for filling your army with good raw
force units, since all generals which have neither skill nor trump card always
have a force one higher than their cost.  I recommend that you start your
collection by buying several common generals, since some daimyo have a lack of
low-cost generals in their starters.  Once you have a few of them in each type,
you can start saving up for uncommons and rares.

Fame point income chart:

(1P) War mode (regardless of map)
Quick rules = 4-3-?-?
Normal rules = 5-4-?-?
Full length rules = 7-5-?-?

Scenario mode
final stage for each daimyo's story = 10 fame
other stages = difficulty level

It costs 2009 fame to buy all the generals.  That is a lot, but you don't
really need them all anyway; you can put together a very competitive army with
just a few rares and several uncommons.  I recommend that you just play and
enjoy the game, buying generals as you collect fame points doing so; getting
too obsessed with collecting generals, or even using cheats, would defeat the
purpose of playing.  On some maps, some nations have a clear starting advantage
with the historical setup, and you can exploit that for farming fame points, if
you don't get bored with that quickly; I myself prefer to play with random
setup on various maps, because that's more fun to play.

You can also earn some generals by progressing in scenario mode.  These can be
used by any daimyo, unlike starter generals.

* 12.0  Tips for Scenario Mode
------------------------------

If you find your progress in scenario mode blocked somewhere, here are some
tips:

- Focus on the victory conditions:
It is usually not worth the time and effort conquering a nation which is
unrelated to the victory conditions.  It is also often not worthwhile to defend
your territory, if that is unrelated to the victory conditions.  (You need just
one castle to survive; no need to keep more.)

- Conquering a nation:
If the victory conditions require that you conquer a certain nation, you should
focus on that, starting with your army composition.  (Don't build an evenly
spread 3-type army, which is great for defense but ineffective for attack.)  In
this case, you will have to defend your castles from the target nation.  Note
that since the nation cannot conquer its allies' castles, there is no need to
defend your castles from its allies; also, sometimes you should avoid
conquering its allies' castles, unless they are directly in your way to the
target nation.  But sometimes it is better to defeat its weak allies so that
they cannot help with defense.

- Don't cry over spilt milk:
Always play your best move according to the current position, rather than
stubbornly trying to recover something which went wrong.  The AI players cannot
feel your emotions and are not deterred by your tit-for-tat style play, so
there is no need to play that style.  For example, if you paid gold to
strengthen a castle but then someone took it from you cheaply, try to resist
the urge to take the castle back, unless that is objectively your best move
from the current position.

- Keep playing:
Because the setup for scenario mode is fixed, you should study the enemy
carefully to see how to beat them.  If you get beaten once, you should be
able to use your knowledge to prevail in the second or third attempt.  If you
feel too much frustration with repeated defeat, switch to playing war mode for
a while: not only do you get fame points and experience, you also improve your
general playing skill which makes the greatest difference.


END OF DOCUMENT