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               -----------Pokemon Game Mechanics----------
             -----------------by Rain_Dance-----------------
           ----------Email me at darkchykka@yahoo.com---------
         -------------Make checks payable to "cash"-------------
       -----------------------------------------------------------

Before we get started:

Pokemon is a complete waste of your time.  There, I said it.  None of the
information contained in this guide will ever do you or anyone else any
good whatsoever.  The game of Pokemon provides more useless junk to stuff
your brain with than anything I've ever seen before or hope to see in the
future.  I can't endorse playing it, talking to anyone who plays it or
having anything Pokemon-related in, on, or near the house.

But if you're going to play the game anyway...

You almost have to read this guide in a fixed-width font like Courier New.
There are several charts contained in this guide which would be distorted
otherwise.

This guide covers game mechanics for only the 'advance', or third,
generation of pokemon games.  This includes the games Ruby, Sapphire,
FireRed, LeafGreen, and Emerald.  This does NOT include such games as Red,
Blue, Yellow, Gold, Silver, or Crystal.  In past generations, the mechanical
structure of the game was different in several key areas from the current
generation.  These mechanics may change again in the future.  So don't use
this for anything except Advance play.

This guide is mainly written for in-game play, but will contain tips
relevant to competitive battle simulators like Netbattle.  If you want to
know more about netbattle, go to www.smogon.com and you should be able to
find out what it is and download a copy.  Of course, Competitor will
probably be the new thing by the time this update gets through :(

I will NOT treat glitches in this guide.  One, I don't know enough about
them, and Two, I hate them all for killing my Yellow version.  Look
elsewhere for info on the Pomeg Glitch, Pokemon Duplication, and other crap
that idiots use to screw their games.

=================
Table of Contents
=================

Table of Contents
Version
1. Intro
2. How the game calculates your stats
   -2a. A touch of Base Stats
   -2b. A helping of IVs
   -2c. A few EVs
   -2d. A dash of Nature
   -2e. The formula the game uses to calculate a pokemon's stats
   -2f. Various inquiries
3. How the game calculates damage
   -3a. The formula the game uses to calculate the damage from an attack
   -3b. The offense vs. the defense
   -3c. Solving for X
   -3d. Confusion Damage
   -3e. Other Stuff
4. Applications
   -4a. EV Spreading
5. Finding your IVs in-game
   -5a. Finding your EVs
   -5b. A method involving Rare Candies
   -5c. Why this way works
   -5d. My method involving vitamins
   -5e. Other Stuff
6. Hidden Power
   -6a. Hidden Power's type
   -6b. Hidden Power's power
   -6c. HP 70 listings
7. Other Stuff
   -7a. Weird evolutions
   -7b. Pokemon-specific Hold Items
   -7c. Common rates
   -7d. Deoxys
   -7e. Level Up growth rates
   -7f. 2v2 stuff
   -7g. Weather
   -7h. Move Priority
   -7i. End-of-turn effects
   -7j. Specific Move Mechanics
   -7k. Pokeblocks
8. The End
   -8a. Credits
   -8b. Contact Info
   -8c. Copyright Info

=======
Version
=======

v 1.211, 6/1/08: Exactly two corrections. I really hate pokemon...

v 1.21, 6/30/07: Nothing much, mainly 'stylistic editing'.  That is, I tried
to make the tone a bit less pedantic and added humorous paragraphs at the
ends of the boring chapters 4 and 5, and at the very end of the guide.  No,
they're not suicide notes, don't worry.  I also found what I'm pretty sure
was an error in the Sunkern example.  I suggested that a stat of 9, when
nature upped, would become 10.  I'm pretty sure though that it would remain
nine, no matter what your IVs.  Sorry for any inconvenience / loss of limb /
mental illness / religious crisis caused by this error.  I also fixed an
error in the level-up growth rates section.  And finally, I forgot to say in
the last update: Added a section on Stockpile/Spit Up/Swallow.

v 1.2, 6/30/07: Final version.  With D/P coming out everyone's flocking to
those games and I'm not going to get into all that so I'll finalize this
guide where it is.  However, I really hate an error so don't take the
'final' label too seriously, and please feel free to email me with questions
or comments.

Anyway...

Edited the guide some more.  Added a small section on dodge moves like Fly
and Dig.  Changed the ASCII at the top.  Corrected a small rounding issue
on the damage formula.  It's so small though that you'll never figure out
what it is unless I tell you, so: the final damage after multiplying by
R/255, should be rounded UP, not down.  Went through a prodigious amount of
testing and made lots of corrections in section 7i.  Added a note on
Selfdestruct and Explosion.  Edited the Version info.  Corrected the effect
of Soul Dew.

v 1.16, 10/28/06: Added a paragraph in the stat modifiers section concerning
accuracy and made a few more clarifications.

v 1.15, 9/27/06: Clarified a technicality I had glossed over.  Also did
some other minor editing and added more data.

v 1.11, 8/16/06: Made the Sunkern example slightly clearer and touched up
the Hidden Power section.

v 1.1, 8/2/06: For my one month anniversary, I have added a section on Move
Priority and end-of-turn effects at the suggestion of particle_theorist.
Also corrected a small technical error, and shaved down the section on
damage modifiers that are unexplained by the game.

v 1.04, 7/25/06: Fixed two hugely stupid errors in the EV Spreading section
*hides face*.  Also added stuff to the contact section, and did some more
random error/grammar fixing.  I'm almost done with these rapid-fire updates.

v 1.03, 7/14/06: Redid the Doom Desire section and fixed some minor errors.

v 1.02, 7/12/06: Experimented a little and added to the Weather section, and
added the rates for paralysis, confusion, and attraction.  Added some stuff
about Mud Sport and Water Sport, and updated the credits.

v 1.01, 7/10/06: Submitting the guide to Gamefaqs today.  *crosses fingers*

v 1.0, 7/2/06: Finally, after months of compiling I've got this put
together.

                            /~~~~~~~~~~~~~~\
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~   1. Intro   ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
                            \~~~~~~~~~~~~~~/

So now you're thinking 'What are these game mechanics that this stupid guide
is supposed to be about and how can they help me?'  Well, I'll show you how.

Watch this (fake) battle and see if you can find anything unusual.

===

Mechanics sent out Slowbro (Lv.100 Slowbro)!
ClUeLeSs sent out Salamence (Lv.100 Salamence)!
...
Begin Turn #1
ClUeLeSs withdrew Salamence!
ClUeLeSs sent out Heracross (Lv.100 Heracross)!
---------------------------------
Slowbro used Calm Mind!
Slowbro's Special Attack rose!
Slowbro's Special Defense rose!
---------------------------------
End of turn #1
Mechanics's Slowbro: 100% HP
ClUeLeSs's Heracross: 100% HP
---------------------------------
ClUeLeSs: lol you better switch
Mechanics: Whatever you say
---------------------------------
Begin Turn #2
Heracross used Megahorn!
(99% damage)
It's super effective!
---------------------------------
Slowbro used Psychic!
(100% damage)
It's super effective!
Heracross fainted!

===

OK that was a lame example on several levels but the point is that if you
know how the mechanics of the game work, you can engineer your pokemon's
stats so that *hopefully* you can get favorable (and seemingly improbable)
results from your pokemon in battle.  Like Slowbro beating Heracross.

This guide will assume several things, mainly that you know what pokemon is
and that you know a lot about the game, like how to battle and what most of
the moves and abilities do.  It will also be significantly easier to read if
you have a basic grasp of algebra.

Now for an algebra review!

1. Computer algebraic signs
 + means plus (addition)
 - means minus (subtraction)
 * means times (multiplication)
 / means divided by (division)
 () parentheses
 Letters are either variables or constants.
 X(Y) means X times Y (so 2(4) equals 8).
 AX also means A times X (so 3X means 3 times X).
 ~ means rounded to.  4.5 * 9.2 = ~41.  (In this guide, ~ will usually
mean rounded DOWN to.)
 ~ can also mean 'approximately equal to'.  7.9999 ~ 8
 > means greater than (6 > 4 > -12)
 < means less than (-2 < 8 < 15)
 => means greater than or equal to (4 + 5 => X => 0, so X can be any
number from 9 to 0 inclusive)
 <= means less than or equal to

2. Order of operations

It's called PEMDAS.  PEMDAS is an acronym for

- parentheses
- exponents
- multiplication and division
- addition and subtraction

which is the order in which one should perform algebraic operations in a
math problem.  It's sold to little kids as

- Please
- excuse
- my dear
- Aunt Sally

so they can remember it.  Apparently it worked.

 A. Whatever is inside parentheses comes first.  Then exponents.  Note that
a radical sign acts as parentheses, also whatever is on top of or below a
division sign is treated as within parentheses.
 B. Multiplications and divisions are next.  These are next because they
only occur within terms.  For example, 3 * 4 + 2 * 8 = 28, not 144, not 60,
not 112.
 C. Additions and subtractions are last.  These are last because they
separate terms (unless within parentheses or the like).  Do whatever
operation comes first in the formula first.  For example, 3 + 8 - 7 + 6
equals 10, because 3 plus 8 equals 11, 11 minus 7 equals 4, and 4 plus 6
equals 10.  Technically it doesn't matter in what order you add or subtract
anything, as long as you realize that subtraction is just adding a negative
number.  For example, 10 - 7 - 3 could be written as 10 + (-7) + (-3).  If
you saw this form, you would instantly recognize that you could add -7 and
-3 together to get -10.  Little kids don't realize this and make the foolish
mistake of saying that 10 - 7 - 3 is 10 - 4 because 7 - 3 is 4.  But that's
just silly.

3. The Distributive property
 This says that A(B + C) = AB + AC, and the converse is true as well.  [so
2(6 + 3) = 2(6) + 2(3) = 12 + 6 = 18, which is the same as 2(6 + 3) = 2(9)
= 18]

That's about the extent of what you need to know.  Really really basic
right?

               /~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~\
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~   2. How the game calculates your stats   ~~~~~~~~~~~~~
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
               \~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~/

This section tells you exactly how the game of Pokemon calculates your
stats.  That's right, no more wondering why your buddy's pokemon has
higher stats than yours!  YOU can be the pokemon master!  Huzzay!

First of all, I'll only say this once: Trading pokemon will not affect their
stats.  At all.  Period.  EVER.  Neither will it matter at what level you
evolve your pokemon.  Nor at what level you catch your pokemon.  Nor whether
you caught your pokemon wild or hatched it.  None of these qualities will
ever affect your stats in the least.  They're all myths.

Your shiny Zubat is no stronger than a regular Zubat either.  Shiny pokemon
have no better stats than others.  My grandpa has a shiny Aerodactyl.  It
sucks compared to the regular one he uses for battle.

Now here are the things that really matter.

~

The formulas that the game uses to calculate your pokemon's stats are as
follows:

For HP:
((( 2 * BS ) + IV + ( EV / 4 )) * L / 100 ) + 10 + L

For Stats:
(((( 2 * BS ) + IV + ( EV / 4 )) * L / 100 ) + 5 ) * N

The variables may have different names depending on who you ask, but
the formula is always the same.

Now I realize that this will be gibberish to anybody who doesn't know
what a BS or an IV is, so now I must go through with the explanations of
what the different parts are.

=========================
2a. A Touch of Base Stats
=========================

The first and most important of the stat formula variables are the
pokemon's Base Stats, which I'll now explain to you.  Base Stats are the
'BS' in the stat formulas.  Please, no immature jokes.

For HP:
((( 2 *      BS      ) + IV + ( EV / 4 )) * L / 100 ) + 10 + L

For Stats:
(((( 2 *      BS      ) + IV + ( EV / 4 )) * L / 100 ) + 5 ) * N

Okay.  We are humans, you and I.  As such, we have various qualities
unique to our species.  For example, we have the most fully developed
brain of all animals.  We also are among only a few animals to walk on
two feet.  These basic characteristics of Homo Sapiens, common to all
humans, are like a Pokemon's Base Stats.  Each species of pokemon has a set
of concrete base stats that you can't do anything about: they come with the
species!  You can never, no matter how much you stretch, be twenty feet
tall, can you?  Pokemon are like this.  Blaziken, for example, has these
Base Stats:

HP      -  80
Attack  - 120
Defense -  70
Sp. Atk - 110
Sp. Def -  70
Speed   -  80

Every Blaziken has these base stats, regardless of its level or gender.
Yes, that includes your Blaziken.

As you can see, Blaziken will probably dish out a lot of damage no
matter what attack he uses, with high stats in both Attacks.  He's also
not *too* slow, but the average defenses mean he probably won't take more
than one strong hit, if that.  Why not take a moment to look at your
Blaziken now, if you have one?

Anyway, every Pokemon has a set of base stats like this one.  There are
base stat guides all over the place: find one and study it.  Seriously,
any experienced player has pretty much memorized the base stats of some
of the most common pokemon, or at least gotten a feel for their general
stat structure.  If you want an accurate Base Stats guide, I would check
the Smogon.com pokedex before anything at either Gamefaqs or Serebii.net.
The netbattle program will obviously have perfect listings too.

(Throughout this guide, if I say something like 'Base Attack', 'Base HP',
etc., it should be understood that I am referring to the pokemon's Base
Stat in that area.  If however I say 'Base Power' then I am referring to
the power of a move such as the 120 Base Power of Hydro Pump.)

So what does a base stat mean?  Well, if you understand the stat formula
(it's not hard), you can see that one base stat point equals two stat
points at level 100.  So Blaziken, with a base stat of 120 in Attack,
gets 240 stat points in Attack from base stats when he is at Level 100.
Of course, this is not necessarily his final stat in Attack, it's just
the main bulk of it.  Base stats are the single most important factor the
game uses to determine your pokemon's stats.

====================
2b. A Helping of IVs
====================

(Note: IVs are also known as DVs.  I believe the syntax is that if you
have "31 IVs" in a stat, then you have "a DV of 31" in that stat.  IV means
Individual Value, and DV means Diversification Value, or something.
They're the same thing though.)

For HP:
((( 2 * BS ) +      IV      + ( EV / 4 )) * L / 100 ) + 10 + L

For Stats:
(((( 2 * BS ) +      IV      + ( EV / 4 )) * L / 100 ) + 5 ) * N

IVs are arguably the most important determinant of pokemon stats within
species.  You already know that every pokemon has six stats: HP, Attack,
Defense, Special Attack, Special Defense, and Speed.  What you didn't
know is that for every pokemon you have, the game stores six numbers
(one for each stat), called IVs.  These IVs can be any integer from 0 to
31.  So, for example, I might have one Swampert with IVs of

HP: 31
Attack: 2
Defense: 17
Special Attack: 14
Special Defense: 28
Speed: 30

and another Swampert, at the same level, from the same game file, with
IVs of

HP: 4
Attack: 29
Defense: 21
Special Attack: 31
Special Defense: 16
Speed: 10.

These IVs are randomly set when you catch the pokemon, or, in the case
of pokemon eggs, when you obtain the egg that it will hatch from (as
opposed to when it hatches), and they never ever change as long as you or
your pokemon may live.  Now, if you look at the stat formula, you can
see that one IV point equals one additional stat point at level 100.
So, for example, if all other things are equal, the first Swampert will
have 27 more stat points in HP than the second one, at level 100.  Remember
this now.

So how do you know what your IVs are?  That's a hard one.  The game, or,
more specifically, the game programmers from Nintendo, didn't want it to
be obvious how the IV system worked.  So they did what they could to keep
it from being known.  Therefore, they didn't tell us in English what our
pokemon's IVs are.  But they DID tell us in mathish.  I'll explain at length
in chapter five how to decode this and figure out what your pokemon's IVs
are, so don't worry about it right now.

Anyway, you obviously want good IVs.  The theoretical 'perfect' pokemon
with 31 IVs in each stat is very rare, and would require a lot of work
to get.  However, 31 stat points in each stat is quite a lot, so putting
in the time and effort to get good IVs should prove worthwhile.  You
probably won't ever get a perfect pokemon, but most of the time it's simple
enough to get one with decent IVs.

But how to go about getting good IVs for your pokemon?  Well, the standard
method is hatching pokemon.  You see, when you receive a pokemon egg,
(and I heard this, so I'm not 100% certain, but it's certainly believable)
each of the pokemon's stat IVs is assigned its permanent value.  If the
egg has parents, then any given stat IV on that egg has a 25% chance to
inherit the mother's IV in that stat and a 25% chance to inherit the
father's IV in that stat (and thus a 50% chance to inherit nothing and have
the stat IV chosen randomly).  So the better the IVs of the parent pokemon,
the better the IVs the of the egg pokemon, at least on average.

So the most probable course of action you might take would be to find the
best female pokemon you had of the species you wanted to hatch and pair her
with the best male in her egg group, and send them packing to the day-care
center.  They would go in the back and make eggs, and you would collect
those eggs and hatch them (preferably five at a time, by emptying out your
party into the PC).  As the eggs hatched, you would check their IVs
(detailed later) and determine (1) if they have good enough IVs for you to
use them as one of your professional battlers, or (2) if they are better
than the pokemon you already have in the day-care.  In which case you would
have them switch places.  I realize the obvious incest involved, but somehow
I just don't think the game cares.  If you're a purist though, then do
whatever you want, I don't care.

And I feel I have to mention this, even though I've tried very hard to keep
abilities out of this guide: having a pokemon with the ability Flame Body or
Magma Armor in your party, in Emerald ONLY, will cut the steps needed to
hatch your eggs in half.

Eventually you'll hit the jackpot, and you can use the runoff (the other
pokemon that you hatched that didn't quite make the cut) for breeding with
different species.  Once you get a lot of runoff pokemon in diverse egg
groups, getting better IVs in new species becomes easier and easier.
Eventually you have a box full of good, quality pokemon, then two boxes,
then three, and then you get bored with Pokemon and you go to the store and
buy a tropical fish.  But that's life.

=============
2c. A Few EVs
=============

(Note: EVs are also known as EPs.  EV means Effort Value, and EP means
Effort Point.  They're still the same thing.)

For HP:
((( 2 * BS ) + IV + (      EV      / 4 )) * L / 100 ) + 10 + L

For Stats:
(((( 2 * BS ) + IV + (      EV      / 4 )) * L / 100 ) + 5 ) * N

Okay.  If Peyton Manning married Mia Hamm (after divorcing their current
spouses of course), chances are their child would be fairly athletic, don't
you think?  However, being a human and coming from an athletic family is not
enough to ensure skill in sports.  The child has to PRACTICE TO GET BETTER.
EVs try to simulate this.  When you defeat any enemy pokemon, any pokemon
that GAINS EXPERIENCE from that enemy gets a certain type and amount of EVs.
The type and amount varies with the pokemon defeated.  For example, beating
a Slaking earns each pokemon that got experience 3 EVs in HP, while offing
a Zubat gets you 1 EV in speed.  Each pokemon that participated in battle
against a pokemon, even if it didn't attack, gets the FULL amount of EVs
from that pokemon (as opposed to splitting them up).  There are plenty of
guides for which pokemon give which EVs, so find one and read it over.

The fundamental definition of an EV, as defined by the stat formula, is
that four EVs equal one stat point at level 100.  Remember that now.
So you can customize the stats of your pokemon, to a certain extent, by
only battling pokemon that give EVs that you want that pokemon to have.
It would be completely redundant to gain any Attack EVs on Wobbuffet,
no?  It would be even worse to give HP EVs to Shedinja.  On the other
hand, something like Heracross probably likes Attack EVs, and Blissey
certainly wants Defense EVs (A Basestat of 10 is not lovely at all).

NOTE THAT: A Pokemon will only gain EVs from battles IF IT GAINS EXPERIENCE.
This means, no Colosseum, no Trainer Tower, no link battles.  Only battles
in which you gain EXP. 

There are a few more rules about EVs.  One, no pokemon can have more
than 510 total EVs.  Two, no pokemon can have more than 255 EVs in a
single stat.  Two things can be inferred from this: (a) Since 4 EVs
equal one stat point at level 100, and 510 max EVs/4 equals 127.5, you
can customize your pokemon's stats by strategically placing up to 127
stat points, and (b) since 255/4 equals 63.75, you can only put a maximum
of 63 of those stat points in any stat, for up to two different stats.  Of
note is that it is useless to give a pokemon 255 EVs in a single stat.
63.75 is rounded down to 63, and you've wasted 3 EVs.  There is no need to
use more than 252 EVs in one stat, since 252/4 equals 63 exactly, and
you're not wasting any EVs.  In fact, giving 252 EVs to two different stats
leaves 6 remaining EVs, which is enough to get one extra stat point in a
different stat (like a single extra point in speed to foil others of your
species).  Three, if your pokemon is holding the item 'Macho Brace', or has
Pokerus, it will gain double the normal EVs from battle.  If it has Pokerus
AND holds the Macho Brace, it will gain four times the normal EVs!
(Pokerus is a randomly occuring 'virus' that affects your party pokemon.
It is very rare, and in my 5ish years of playing I have gotten it twice,
first in Pokemon Gold, and recently in LeafGreen.  It does nothing to your
pokemon except double the EVs they get from battle.  The nurse at the
pokemon center will tell you if you get it.)  Four, pokemon with the
Exp.Share gain the same amount of EVs as they would had they participated
in the battle holding nothing.  So if your front pokemon has the Macho
Brace, and you think you can get double EVs on another pokemon by giving it
the Exp. Share, guess again.  Finally, one vitamin (Protein, Iron, etc.)
gives you 10 EVs in the stat that it 'raises'.

But the use of vitamins comes with a restriction.  You can't use
vitamins in a stat that already has 100 or more EVs.

This restriction, along with the fact that one pokemon can't have more
than 510 EVs, has given pretense to several false 'limits', including
'you can't use more than ten vitamins in a single stat' and 'you can't
use more than 51 vitamins in total on a single pokemon'.  While these
limits may have been for all intents and purposes true at one point, in
Emerald they have been disproved once and for all.

Why?  Because Emerald has changed the effects of six berries (Numbers
#21 through #26).  They now have the effect, that, when a pokemon eats one
of them, they remove 10 EVs from one of that pokemon's stats (they also
raise the happiness of the pokemon).

What's the use, you ask?  Well, if you EV train a pokemon, then decide
you screwed up, you can use these berries to reverse it and try again.
Pomeg lowers HP, Kelpsy lowers Attack, Qualot lowers Defense, Hondew
lowers Sp.Atk, Grepa lowers Sp.Def, and Tamato lowers Speed.

Anyway, the point is that the game doesn't keep track of 'vitamins used'
but rather of 'EVs acquired'.  So when a pokemon can't be given any more
vitamins, it's not because of the vitamins themselves, it's because of the
EVs the pokemon has.  So, with the use of EV reducing berries, one could
conceivably use more than 10 vitamins in a single stat, or more than 51
vitamins in total, on a single pokemon.  The game just doesn't care.

There are a couple more tricky circumstances which may be confusing.
For example: If an enemy uses Selfdestruct/Explosion/Destiny Bond, and
kills your pokemon even as it dies, your fainted pokemon doesn't get any
EVs from that battle because it didn't get any experience.  Or, if your
pokemon faints to an enemy's attack, and you send in someone else, and
Revive the fainted pokemon, and kill the enemy without sending the
revived pokemon back in, it still gets EVs because it still gets
experience.

One more thing (for Ruby/Sapphire/Emerald only): There is a girl in
Slateport City standing in the marketplace, next to the Energy Guru.  If
your front pokemon in your party has all 510 EVs, she will give it a
ribbon (the Effort Ribbon) because it 'went for it stupendously'.  If it
doesn't have all 510 EVs, she will tell you to 'go for it a little
harder'.

(She has no counterpart in FR/LG.)

Finally, Rare Candies give no EVs.  This is why sometimes a pokemon raised
with Rare Candies can seem to be weaker than a pokemon raised from battling.

The placement of a pokemon's 510 EVs across its six stats is called its
EV spread.  Experienced players have devised several EV spreads for
certain overused pokemon (like Salamence and Tyranitar) that have become
popular enough that they are considered 'standard'.  EV spreads are
important, and entire strategies can be based around them, but if you
aren't using a pokemon with whom there is no other good EV spread than
the standard, then you can be as creative as you like.  Just remember
that the goal of EV spreading is the final stat, not the spread itself,
and if your IVs are less than perfect, you'll have to adjust your
calculations to compensate.

====================
2d. A Dash of Nature
====================

(Natures are commonly called Personalities.  Nature is the more correct
term though.)

Natures are those little 'Brave', 'Modest', 'Jolly' at the bottom of
your pokemon's description, in that little box called 'Trainer Memo'.
If you ever wondered if they mattered, well, they do.

A nature raises one stat to 110% and lowers another stat to 90%.  Simple
as that.  No nature affects HP though.  Aside from HP, there is one
and only one nature for any given Raise/Lower combo, and five neutral
natures that do nothing.  For example, Adamant raises Attack and lowers
Sp.Atk.  Here's a list of natures.  It may seem intimidating at first, but
you'll eventually memorize it, everyone does.

------------------------------------------------------
Nature | What it does
------------------------------------------------------
Lonely | +Attack  -Defense
Brave  | +Attack            -Speed
Adamant| +Attack                    -Sp.Atk
Naughty| +Attack                             -Sp.Def
------------------------------------------------------
Bold   | -Attack  +Defense
Relaxed|          +Defense  -Speed
Impish |          +Defense          -Sp.Atk
Lax    |          +Defense                   -Sp.Def
------------------------------------------------------
Timid  | -Attack            +Speed
Hasty  |          -Defense  +Speed
Jolly  |                    +Speed  -Sp.Atk
Naive  |                    +Speed           -Sp.Def
------------------------------------------------------
Modest | -Attack                    +Sp.Atk
Mild   |          -Defense          +Sp.Atk
Quiet  |                    -Speed  +Sp.Atk
Rash   |                            +Sp.Atk  -Sp.Def
------------------------------------------------------
Calm   | -Attack                             +Sp.Def
Gentle |          -Defense                   +Sp.Def
Sassy  |                    -Speed           +Sp.Def
Careful|                            -Sp.Atk  +Sp.Def
------------------------------------------------------
Quirky |
Hardy  |          These don't do anything!
Serious|       They're called neutral natures.
Bashful|    Only a few pokemon can use these well.
Docile |
------------------------------------------------------

So hey, that's it.  Just remember that a +Nature equals 110% and a -Nature
equals 90%, and you'll be fine.

Now back to the breeding thing I was talking about in the IV section.
If you have a pokemon with good IVs, the main reason that you might not
want to use it for battling would be if it has a bad nature (Timid
Machamp, for example).  So you also have to consider the nature of a
given pokemon when you are hatching eggs.  It is one of the worst
feelings in the world when you get a pokemon with absolutely great IVs
but a nature that renders it useless.

However, in Emerald, you CAN engineer to an extent the nature of your
pokemon during breeding.  You can give the female breeding pokemon an
Everstone.  This will make her eggs have a 50% chance of having her
nature.  So if you get a female Milotic with a Modest nature, it might
not be a bad idea to put her into breeding regardless of her IVs, at
least until you get a better female with said Modest nature.

UPDATE: I have just read a breeding thread from Smogon.com and tested
the theory, and it works.  So naturally I've added it to this guide.  Here
it is.

If you leave two pokemon in the day-care, normally you will wait until
you see the old man step outside of the fence, and then pick up your
egg.  However, some lucky lover of mice of the electric variety has
found out that the Nature of the baby, as well as its Gender and
Ability, are set when the old man steps out of the fence.  The IVs of
the pokemon are not set until you receive the egg.  This means that if
you see the old man standing outside the fence, you can save, and then
acquire the egg.  Hatch it, and if it has your preferred nature/ability/
gender then reset and get the egg again, and you will have the same
characteristics, but different IVs.  I successfully used this in Emerald
to get a good female Koffing with a Relaxed nature.  I really like this
thought as you only have to get your correct nature/ability/gender combo
once and then you don't have to worry about them anymore.  There are only a
few drawbacks to this that I can see:

(1) If you find the pokemon with the correct nature/ability early, while you
still have crap pokemon in the daycare, then it won't be easy to get better
IVs than you are already getting.
(2) You can only hatch one egg at a time with this method, whereas normally
you are hatching five.
(3) You won't get many good runoff pokemon to use for breeding with other
species from this.

Anyway, if you want to read the thread I got this from, here's the site.
The author is Pokefab.

http://www.smogon.com/community/showthread.php?t=10136

(If this link doesn't work, please tell me)

============================================================
2e. The formula the game uses to calculate a pokemon's stats
============================================================

Alright, I think I've explained everything relevant.  Now here's the
formula again.

For Stats:
(((( 2 * BS ) + IV + ( EV / 4 )) * L / 100 ) + 5 ) * N

For HP:
((( 2 * BS ) + IV + ( EV / 4 )) * L / 100 ) + 10 + L

Where
BS = Basestat
IV = IV
EV = EV
L  = Level
N  = Nature (This equals 1.1 if a plus nature, 0.9 if a minus nature)

Now you actually understand it, no?  But for our younger/stupider/drunker
viewers, an explanation.

The formula is not hard.  All you're doing when you do this formula is
basic arithmetic.  First, you multiply the Basestat of the pokemon for the
stat you're checking, by 2.  Simple, right?  Now you divide the pokemon's
current EVs in that stat (I say 'current' because EVs can change) by 4, and
don't forget to round down.  Next, you add the 2*BS and the EV/4 and the IV
values all together, creating a sum.  You must now multiply that sum by your
Level, and divide the product by 100.  This will never be higher than your
original sum, and in fact, at Level 100, the quotient IS your original sum.
Now all that remains is to add the appropriate constant for your stat (5
for stats, or [10+L] for HP), and apply the nature effect (if applicable).
Now, if you're SO drunk that you STILL don't get it, put the bottle down and
try this example with me.

Let's find a Blaziken's Attack stat.  In this example, let's make
Blaziken have 27 IVs and 227 EVs in Attack, and be level 86, and have a
Lonely nature (that's +Atk and -Def).

Let's put the formula up on the big board now, to remind our viewers.

(((( 2 * BS ) + IV + ( EV / 4 )) * L / 100 ) + 5 ) * N

First there's the base stats.  For finding Blaziken's Attack, we have to
know what his base stat in Attack is.  (It's 120) The first thing we do
is multiply the base stat by two, because of the ( 2 * BS ) part of the
formula.  120 times 2 is 240, so now the formula becomes

((( 240 + IV + ( EV / 4 )) * L / 100 ) + 5 ) * N.

Now add the IVs.  Fictitious Blazikens always have exactly 27 IVs in Attack.
240 plus 27 equals 267.  Our formula is now

((( 240 + 27 + ( EV / 4 )) * L / 100 ) + 5 ) * N =
((( 267 + ( EV / 4 )) * L / 100 ) + 5 ) * N.

Now, the EVs.  Our Blaziken has 227 EVs in Attack.  227/4 equals 56.75,
which rounds to 56, so the formula becomes

((( 267 + ( 227 / 4 )) * L / 100 ) + 5 ) * N =
((( 267 + 56 ) * L / 100 ) + 5 ) * N =
((( 323 ) * L / 100 ) + 5 ) * N

Now we have to multiply 323 by Blaziken's level, and then divide that
by 100.  Since we're at level 86, 

((( 323 ) * 86 / 100 ) + 5 ) * N =
((277.78) + 5 ) * N.

Adding 277.78 and 5,

282.78 * N.

Rounding this down, we get

282 * N.

So now we're down to just one operation, the nature.  If the nature of
your pokemon raises the stat you're working with, N = 1.1.  If it lowers
the stat, N = 0.9.  If it doesn't affect the stat, N = 1.

Fictitious Blazikens always have Lonely natures (+Atk, -Def), so

282 * 1.1 =
282 + 28.2 = 310.2 which is rounded down to 310.

So our final total stat is 310.

Remember, when doing this formula, you have to immediately round down
the total from ( EV / 4 ) and the total after * L / 100, and the final
total after applying the nature effect.

So the steps you will go through in working this formula are:

1. Find the the stat variable total (That's my name for the 'sum' consisting
of twice the base stat, plus the IVs in that stat, plus one quarter of the
EVs in that stat)
2. Multiply that by Level/100
3. Add five (For HP, add [10 + Level] instead)
4. Multiply by the nature effect (1.1 if upped or 1 if neutral or .9 if
dropped).

Here's another example.  We (or rather, You) will find the stats of a level
61 Tyranitar.

In this example, Tyranitar's IVs will be perfect (that's 31 in
everything) and he will have 252 EVs in Attack, 252 EVs in Speed, and 6
EVs in HP.  His Nature will be Adamant.  Tyranitar's natural base stats
are [100 HP/134 Atk/110 Def/95 Sp.Atk/100 Sp.Def/61 Spd].  That's all we
need to know.

Now find his Level 61 Stats.  I'll work HP and Attack.

For HP:
2 * 100 = 200                                Two times the Base Stat:
200 + 31 = 231                               Plus the IVs:
231 + ( 6 / 4 ) = ( 231 + 1 ) = 232          Plus EV/4:
232 * 61 / 100 = ~141                        SVT * Level / 100 equals:
141 + 10 + 61 = 212                          Plus ten, plus Level.

So this Tyranitar will have 212 HP at level 61.

For Attack:
2 * 134 = 268                                Two times the Base Stat:
268 + 31 = 299                               Plus the IVs:
299 + ( 252 / 4 ) = ( 299 + 63 ) = 362       Plus EV/4:
362 * 61 / 100 = ~220                        SVT * Level / 100 equals:
220 + 5 = 225                                Plus five:
225 * 1.1 = ( 225 + 22.5 ) = ~247            The nature raises this stat.

And it has 247 Attack at said level 61.

------------------------------------------------------------------------
Here's the answers.

Level 61
--------
HP:  212
Atk: 247+
Def: 158
SA:  125-
SD:  145
Spd: 136

(the plus and minus symbolize the nature effects)

The point of all this is to get you drunks and potheads to understand the
formula.  If you think you get it, then okay, let's move on.

By now, you should understand how the formula works.  If you actually
did the Tyranitar problems above, you should be thoroughly familiar with
it.  Now from a competitive battling standpoint (ie netbattle), you will
almost never deal with a pokemon of any level other than 100, with any
IVs other than 30 or 31 in each stat.  This leads to a few shortcuts.

First, if you're finding a level 100 pokemon's stat when it has no EVs
and maximum IVs.  This is equal to 2BS + 36.  Figure out why.  If you
want a stat when it has max EVs and max IVs, the formula is 2BS + 99.
These are of course not counting natures.  For an HP stat with no EVs
and Max IVs, use 2BS + 31 + 110.  For HP with max EVs and IVs, use 2BS +
204.

If natures should affect the stats here, then apply the appropriate
nature effect to the result of these formulas.  Obviously HP is not
affected by natures though.

=====================
2f. Various inquiries
=====================

These are just some things that you might want to do with your pokemon's
stats.

Special sweepers- Smart players give special sweepers like Alakazam 0
IVs in Attack.  This is because since these pokes don't use any physical
Attacks, they don't need it.  This would normally be a useless tactic
except for the fact that confusion damage works off the confused one's
Attack power and Defense.  So lowering your Attack would also lower the
damage you take from confusion :)  Of course, in the Game Boy pokemon
games you can't 'set' your IVs per se, but if you're ever on netbattle,
you should do this.  Or if you're ever breeding Jolteons, and you have a
choice between two, one with higher Attack IVs than the other, you know
which one to take.

Speed Boosters- Usually, if you have a pokemon that can use a speed-boosting
move like Dragon Dance or Agility to boost its speed in an effort to sweep
the opponent's team, you want to be able to outspeed the fastest common
pokemon in the metagame you are playing, after one speed boost.  So, for
example, the fastest commonly used pokemon in the Full Advance metagame are
Jolteon and Aerodactyl, who have a top speed of 394.  So if you have a
Salamence with Dragon Dance, you may want to get it to at least 264 speed to
beat these two.  Of course, you could always go a bit higher to try and beat
other Dragon Dancers to it, or a bit lower to add to your defenses (on the
off-chance that you won't need to deal with Jolteon or Aerodactyl).
Gyarados, another good Dragon Dancer, could use 264 speed, but, although if
it outspeeds Jolteon it will KO it with an Earthquake, Gyarados still cannot
defeat Aerodactyl even if it is faster.  This is why many trainers opt to
trade down to 249 speed for their Gyaradi.  Tyranitar is another story.
It's rather slow when compared to the other Dragon Dancers, maxing out at
221 speed (unless you have a +Spd nature [don't]), which only gets up to 331
after a single Dragon Dance, which isn't that fast.  This is why many
trainers only give Tyranitar 200 to 202 speed, to beat almost any Salamence
after 1 Dragon Dance, and to beat EVERYTHING (short of Electrode) after 2
Dragon Dances.  Metagross usually has about the same speed as Tyranitar,
but since it uses Agility instead of Dragon Dance, it only needs one free
turn to max out and beat everything.  The many 'Salac sweepers', that is,
pokemon that use a Salac berry to max out their speed so they can sweep
either with Reversal or Swords Dance/Calm Mind, need 264 speed (just like
Salamence) so they can beat Jolteon and Aerodactyl after their Salac berry
activates.

Of course, I'm talking about something I really know nothing about.  Please
don't listen to me.

Berries- Berries that activate 'in a pinch' (Salac, Liechi, etc.) are
activated when HP <=25%.  There are a few ways of exploiting this.  For
example, suppose you have a Charizard with 296 HP.  You switch in on an
enemy Dugtrio using Earthquake.  You aren't affected by the attack, and
you know the Dugtrio has a Choice Band, so it can't change moves.  You
use Substitute while the opponent switches in Starmie.  Your current HP
is now 222, exactly 3/4 of your maximum.  Starmie, being faster than you,
uses Surf and breaks your Substitute, but you use Belly Drum to lose
exactly 1/2 of your maximum HP (148), so you are now at 74 HP, exactly 1/4
of your maximum.  It would seem that you are in a bad position, being
slower than the enemy and having only 1/4 of your life left, but!  You
were holding a Salac berry!  Since you are now at exactly 1/4 of your life,
it activates, allowing you to outspeed the Starmie and sweep through the
opponent's team, being faster than them and having a Belly Drum to your
credit.  This is one tactic that has gained some popularity in competitive
battling.  Anyway, to use tactics that require a berry to activate after
using Substitute and Belly Drum, or three consecutive Substitutes, your
maximum HP has to be exactly a multiple of 4.

Note:  In some versions of the game, and I'm not exactly sure how this
works, but it apparently used to be that these berries were activated
when your HP reached 50%.  I want to say that this has something to do
with that 'berry program' that you may have heard about that gets
'updated' if you get the Colosseum bonus disc or trade with XD.  I'm not
sure though.  Anyway, don't email me saying 'In my game the berries
activate at 50% oh my gosh do I have a virus?'.  No, you just have an old
game.  If you want to tell me something I don't know about this then please
do so I can have better information for this guide.

Leftovers- Leftovers restore 1/16, rounded down, of your max HP, each turn.
This is why sometimes players put just enough EVs into HP to make the poke's
final HP a multiple of 16 (or a multiple of 16, plus one), to maximize the
Leftovers return without wasting EVs.

Seismic Tosses- At Level 100, Seismic Toss always does 100 damage.  This
is used as Blissey's main attacking move, as well as some Dusclops.
Thus it follows that a few ways of exploiting this 100 damage have been
devised.  Here are some:

1. 101 HP Subs: If a pokemon has at least 100 Base HP, it can create 101
HP Substitutes.  Figure out why.  Now a Substitute takes 1/4 of your max
HP and puts it into a Substitute, which takes the enemies' attacks.  If
your Substitute has 101 HP, then it will TAKE TWO SEISMIC TOSSES TO
BREAK (because at Level 100, Seismic Toss does 100 damage).  Which means
you can really smash in Blisseys and stuff. These are mainly used by
Tyranitar and Jirachi and sometimes Rhydon or Celebi or Vaporeon in
regular battling, but a LOT of ubers (Kyogre, Lugia, etc.) use them.
The well-known TyraniBoah moveset for Tyranitar uses a 101 HP Substitute
in conjuntion with Focus Punch to REALLY kill off Blisseys.

Again, though, I'm talking about something I don't know anything about.

2. Leftovers: Leftovers give you back 1/16 of your max HP at the end of
each turn.  So?  So, you can set this so that you will live with exactly 1
HP (and then you get the Leftovers) after taking X consecutive uninterrupted
Seismic Tosses, assuming you begin the sequence with full HP.  Here's a
short list:

To live    You need this
through:   much maximum HP:
---------------------------------------------------------
3 tosses = 267 HP   (17 HP per turn from Leftovers/2 turns)
4 tosses = 338 HP   (21 HP per turn/3 turns)
5 tosses = 401 HP   (25 HP per turn/4 turns)
6 tosses = 456 HP   (29 HP per turn/5 turns)

For 267 HP, Metal Sound Magneton MIGHT use this... Possibly Alakazam as
well.

A lot of pokemon can use 338 HP.  Anything with an HP base stat of close to
100 that doesn't need significant amounts of speed EVs could try this.

Pokemon with at least 100 base HP, that don't use Substitute, might want 401
HP.  The big one that comes to mind is Suicune.  More often, though, these
pokemon will use Substitute and have 404 HP.

456 HP is not so much a practical HP to reach as a list filler.  But if you
have something like Hariyama or Wigglytuff that has REALLY high HP, like a
Base Stat of 126 to 158, then you could use this to help against Blissey.

3. *01 HP:  Just give yourself EVs to put your final HP equal to a
multiple of 100, plus one.  This would be used if you didn't use
Leftovers, to survive one more Seismic Toss.  401 HP is notable because
it takes exactly 4 Seismic Tosses without Leftovers and exactly 5
Seismic Tosses with Leftovers.

I would be plagiarizing if I let anyone think I came up with any of this
strategical stuff though.  Thank Smogon for the most part.

                  /~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~\
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~   3. How the game calculates damage   ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
                  \~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~/

=====================================================================
3a. The formula the game uses to calculate the damage from an attack
=====================================================================

Oh yes, I have the formula for calculating damage.  But I'm not going to
give it to you because you'll break it.  What?  Oh, you PROMISE you won't
break it?  Well I'm not really sure, you almost broke the stat formula and
this one is much more complex.  Oh, you're SURE you won't break it?  Cause
it was really expensive for the programmers to create.  Oh, come on now,
don't cry...  Alright, you can have it for FIVE MINUTES.  Don't- No, stop
running with that- *sigh*- you broke it.

(((((( 2L / 5 ) + 2 ) * A * P ) / D ) / 50 ) + 2 ) * M * STAB * R / 255

where
L = the Level of the attacking pokemon
A = the effective applicable Attack power of the attacking pokemon
P = the effective Power of the move used
D = the effective applicable Defense of the pokemon hit by the attack
M = Multipliers, which means type advantages and nothing else
STAB = Same Type Attack Bonus.  If you use a move with a pokemon which
is the same type as that pokemon, the damage goes up by 1.5x.  So STAB
is equal to 1.5 when it applies and 1 when it does not apply.
R = a random number from 217 to 255 inclusive

Now when doing these formulas, you should round down this total:

( 2L / 5 ) + 2

and the totals that come after you divide by

D

and

50,

but, as I have found out, you should round UP the final total that comes
after multiplying by

* M * STAB * R / 255.

Also, (and I didn't put this in the formula because it would make it too
confusing) if your total after dividing by 50 is more than 997, you take
997 instead of what you have.  Your total will NEVER be more than 997
though unless you have something like a thrice Swords Danced Thick Club
Marowak using Earthquake on a Screech'd Alakazam or a Linoone Baton
Passing a Belly Drum + Salac to a Medicham with 2% HP who uses a Choice
Band Reversal on a Luvdisc.

Now that's all fine and dandy, you say, but I haven't said anything
about things like Choice Band or Rain Dance that raise the damage from
your moves.  Things like this almost always fall under 'raising the stat
directly' or 'raising the power directly'.  For example, for a Charcoal
on a pokemon using a Fire Blast, the effect in the formula is that
instead of the normal power of 120 that Fire Blast usually has, the
Charcoal adds 10% to make the 'effective' power 132.  Here's a short
list of things that raise your damage and where they go in the formula:

~

Charcoal/Mystic Water/Miracle Seed/etc - Add 10% to the power of the
(type X)-move in question

Sunny Day - Add 50% to the power of the Fire-move in question or
cut 50% from the power of the Water-move in question

Rain Dance - Add 50% to the power of the Water-move in question or
cut 50% from the power of the Fire-move in question

Choice Band - Add 50% to the ATTACK stat of the holder (NOT Special Attack)

Reflect - Cut 50% from the ATTACK stat of the offending pokemon

Light Screen - Cut 50% from the SP. ATK stat of the offending pokemon

Helping Hand - Add 50% to the power of the move your partner is using;
assuming it's an offensive move, it doesn't matter what attack type it is.

Mud Sport - Cut 50% from the power of any Electric-move used by anyone on
the field (assuming the user of Mud Sport is still on the field).

Water Sport - Cut 50% from the power of the Fire-move used by anyone on the
field (assuming the user of Water Sport is still on the field).

Charge - Doubles the power of your Electric-move, assuming you used Charge
last turn.

~

When you raise/lower these powers/stats, round your product DOWN.  Choice
Band on a pokemon with 405 Attack raises its Attack to 607.5, which is
rounded down to 607.

===============================
3b. The offense vs. the defense
===============================

Now this is a fundamental concept for higher-level play, so listen up.

THE GRAPH OF THE HP DAMAGE OF AN ATTACK WITH RELATION TO THE TARGET'S
DEFENSE IS A HYPERBOLA

   +
   | ,
 H |
 P |
   | *
 D |
 A |  ,
 M |   ,
 A |    *
 G |      *
 E |         *
   |             *
   |                  *    .
   0------------------------+
     Defense of the target

THE GRAPH OF THE HP DAMAGE OF AN ATTACK WITH RELATION TO THE ATTACKER'S
ATTACK POWER IS A LINE

   +
 H |
 P |
   |
 D |
 A |
 M |
 A |                          *
 G |                      *
 E |                  *
   |              *
   |          *
   |      *
   |  *
   0----------------------------+
     Attack of the offender

That is, a point in attack is a point in attack, no matter how high the
attack stat is.  However, a point in a low defense is worth more than a
point in a high HP, and vice versa.

What I mean is that one stat point in attack is worth the same HP damage
whether placed in a high or low stat, but one PERCENTAGE point in
defense is worth the same whether placed in a high or low stat.  So 35
stat points added to an Attack stat of 70 adds the same HP damage to the
attack as adding 35 stat points to an Attack stat of 245, when attacking the
same pokemon with the same move.  But 35 stat points added to a DEFENSE stat
(by which I mean HP or either Defense) of 245 is only worth 10 stat points
added to a defense stat of 70.

So what does this matter?  Well I'll tell you.  If you're Skarmory and
you want to defend against physical attacks, and your HP is 200 and your
Defense is 300, then putting all your EVs into HP would do more good
than in Defense, simply because the Defense is already higher.  If you're
Blissey and you want to defend against physical Attacks, and your HP is
600 and your Defense is 40, then you'll want to put them all in Defense.
If you're Swampert and you want to defend against BOTH types of attacks,
you'd want to put everything into HP UNTIL THE POINT THAT THE HP IS
HIGHER THAN THE SUM OF THE DEFENSES.  After that, one point in each
defense is better than two points in HP.

So the main thing to take out of this is that whichever defensive stat
is higher, HP or Defense, raise the lower one first.  But for the Swampert
case, look here.

Swampert
(physical side)  (special side)
341 HP           341 HP
216 Defense      216 Sp. Def

So there is your defensive stats with the benefit of exactly zero EVs.  Now,
let's assume you have 240 EVs to blow and you want to stick them in his
defenses.  You can either:

(A) split the EVs between the two defenses
(B) stick all the EVs in HP

If you take (A), the result is:

341 HP           341 HP
246 Defense      246 Sp. Def

That's 30 extra points in each defense.  If, on the other hand, you go
with (B), you get:

401 HP           401 HP
216 Defense      216 Sp. Def

That's 60 extra points in HP.  So which would you rather have, 60 points
in HP or 30 points in Defense?  Until your HP is twice as high as your
defense, 2 points in HP is worth more than 1 in defense.  So there's
something to think about.

Remember though, this is only if you want to cover both defenses equally.
If you only care about defending against physical attacks, then putting
all 240 EVs into your lower physical defense would certainly do more than
putting them in HP.

Another thing to remember is that the addition of EVs can change which stat
is higher, and thus, which stat to put EVs in.  If your HP is 300 and your
Defense if 280, then, after putting 84 EVs in Defense, your Defense is now
higher than your HP, and you should be putting EVs into HP!

=================
3d. Solving for X
=================

Now let's work out one of these damage formulas step-by-step.  Hmm...
what's an interesting hit?  How about Medicham Reversal against Weezing?

What we need to know before we start is:
Medicham's Attack stat
Weezing's Defense stat
Weezing's HP

Always calculate hits in percentages of the defender's HP!

Also we need the level of Medicham, the power of Reversal, and whether
or not Medicham has any offensive modifiers or Weezing has any defensive
modifiers, but usually these are assumed to be Lv.100, Power 200, and
none respectively.

Now let's re-post the formula to accomodate our loyal and adoring viewers:

(((((( 2L / 5 ) + 2 ) * A * P ) / D ) / 50 ) + 2 ) * M * STAB * R / 255

Alright, assuming an Adamant Medicham, with maximum EVs/IVs in Attack,
his attack stat after Pure Power (which doubles effective attack during
battle) is 480.  So the first part of the formula, the offensive part,

((((( 2L / 5 ) + 2 ) * A * P ), is equal to

42 (this is [2L/5 + 2] at level 100) * 480 * 200 (the power of Reversal)

which equals 4032000.  I don't have to tell you that's incredibly high.

((( 4032000 / D ) / 50 ) + 2 ) * M * STAB * R / 255

Anyway, now we're set to divide by the defense of Weezing.  Good thing
Weezing isn't the average pokemon.  Assuming Weezing has 334 HP and 345
defense (the stats I like on Weezing), after you divide by the defense
you're left with 11686.956.  This rounds down to 11686.

((( 4032000 / 345 ) / 50 ) + 2 ) * M * STAB * R / 255 =
(( 11686 / 50 ) + 2 ) * M * STAB * R / 255 =

Now we divide by 50.  This equals 233.72, which is rounded down to 233.

(( 11686 / 50 ) + 2 ) * M * STAB * R / 255 =
( 233 + 2 ) * M * STAB * R / 255 =

Now we add 2 to get 235.

( 233 + 2 ) * M * STAB * R / 255 =
235 * M * STAB * R / 255.

So 235 is our 'base' damage.  Now we just need to find the effect of the
multipliers.

First of all, Weezing resists fighting.  That brings the damage down
to 117.5 (by cutting it in half; that's what a resistance does).  This is
rounded down to 117.

Now we apply STAB, if it is applicable.  It is, since Medicham is a Fighting
type, and Reversal is a Fighting move, so we multiply 117 by 1.5 to get
175.5, which rounds down to 175.

Finally we apply R.  Remember R?  It's a random number from 217 to 255,
which is immediately divided by 255.  Now what R number we apply depends
on what point of view we are calculating from: If we want OUR Weezing to
survive the Reversal no matter what R number, we would usually assume
max damage.  If WE have the Medicham, and want to consistently kill the
enemy, we should probably assume minimum damage.  But from a completely
neutral standpoint, we are going to assume average damage.  175 times
236/255 (average R) equals 161.960.  This rounds UP, oddly enough, to 162,
and we have our final average damage.

162 HP out of Weezing's 334 brings him down to 172 HP.  In percentages,
Weezing takes 48.5% damage 'on average'.

Now we would apply Leftovers if they were applicable.  (Leftovers
restores to the holder 1/16 of their maximum HP) This Weezing has
334 HP, and since 1/16 of 334 equals 20.875, Weezing gets 20 HP back
in Leftovers recovery.  This means that this Weezing will easily take
two average damage Medicham Reversals, and even two max damage Reversals
will leave him with 4 HP after one round of Leftovers (assuming he has 334
HP and 345 Defense).

A quick note: Some websites have *slightly* different damage formulas,
the main differences being where to round down and where to put things
like STAB and Choice Band.  I have included the information that I
believe to be correct, but depending on round downs and placement of
boosters, a normal calculation may be off by as many as ten points.  It
probably won't make much of a difference, but you might get screwed
someday, and I don't want anyone cussing me out because they lost a big
battle over faulty information in my guide.  I think this is right though.

====================
3e. Confusion Damage
====================

It really sucks when you hit yourself in confusion, no?  Well, if you ever
cared how that damage is calculated, here's how.

It's exactly the same as a standard damage calculation, but you use your
own level, physical defense, and physical attack.  The power of the
'move' you hit yourself with is 40.  The type of the 'move' is ???.

That's all.  So if you have like a Regice or Alakazam or something, you
know, that doesn't use any physical attacks, it's always a good idea to
get their Attack as low as possible to minimize confusion damage.

===============
3f. Other Stuff
===============

A list of stat modifiers is in order now.  This is for MOVES that boost
or lower your stats ONLY.  Other stuff, like Choice Band or Swift Swim,
have their own effects independent from the pokemon's stat boosts.  That
is, Swift Swim doubles your speed in rain.  If you have one Agility
already, then since +2 speed from Agility = 2x speed, and Swift Swim =
2x speed, then after both you'll have 4x speed, whereas two Agilitys
will only get you 3x speed.

      [Stats]    Multiplier       | [Acc. & Evade]    Multiplier
------------------------------------------------------------------
        +6       8/2, or 4        |       +6          9/3, or 3
        +5       7/2, or 3.5      |       +5          8/3, or 2.66
        +4       6/2, or 3        |       +4          7/3, or 2.33
        +3       5/2, or 2.5      |       +3          6/3, or 2
        +2       4/2, or 2        |       +2          5/3, or 1.66
        +1       3/2, or 1.5      |       +1          4/3, or 1.33
         0       2/2, or 1        |        0          3/3, or 1
        -1       2/3, or .66      |       -1          3/4, or .75
        -2       2/4, or .5       |       -2          3/5, or .6
        -3       2/5, or .4       |       -3          3/6, or .5
        -4       2/6, or .33      |       -4          3/7, or .428571
        -5       2/7, or .285714  |       -5          3/8, or .375
        -6       2/8, or .25      |       -6          3/9, or .33

If a move says "X stat rose!" or "Y stat fell!" then it changes it by
one stage.  If the words "Sharply" or "Harshly" are used, then it has
been changed by two stages.  Belly Drum MAXES OUT ATTACK, so you will go
automatically to the +6 rung no matter where you are on the ladder.

Now remember, these boosts change your STAT.  They do not go under the
'multipliers' section of the formula.  If your stat is changed to a decimal
number by these or any kind of modifiers, round down your product to the
next lower integer.

Also, Burn and Paralysis do not use this ladder.  Burn cuts the burned
one's Attack in half (as opposed to lowering it by one stage per turn), and
Paralysis quarters the paralyzed one's Speed.

Just to be clear, YES, things like Choice Band or Guts or Sand Veil will
continue to have their effects even if you are already at the +6 stage on
these boosts.

Speaking of which, about accuracy.  I'm not 100% sure how this works, but
I believe the way to calculate your accuracy on a certain move is to
multiply the natural accuracy of the move you are using (so, for Hydro Pump,
80%) by your accuracy, and then divide that by the opponent's evasiveness.
So, let's say you have a Sandslash who has used Sand-Attack twice on an
opposing Kingdra AND you're in a Sandstorm and your ability is Sand Veil and
you want to know what the chance is that you're going to get laid out by
Kingdra's next Hydro Pump before you have a chance to use Substitute.  Well,
that would be

.8 (Hydro Pump's accuracy) * .6 (Kingdra's -2 Accuracy because of the Sand
Attacks) / 2 (Sandslash's Evasiveness after Sand Veil) = .24 or 24%.

Sweet Scent, as far as I know, does help even if the target hasn't used any
evasion modifiers.  So I'm pretty sure you could Sweet Scent in a 2v2 and
start hammering away with Blizzards.  I'm also pretty sure you could
eventually reach 100% effective accuracy on your inaccurate moves with
enough Sweet Scents.  Nobody uses Evasion anyway though.

~~~~~

On a Completely Different note, take a look at my in-game Swampert:

Swampert
-Earthquake
-Ice Beam
-Substitute
-Focus Punch

Alright.  You all know that Earthquake is a Power 100 Ground move, and
that Focus Punch is a Power 150 Fighting move.  You also know that
Swampert gets STAB on Earthquake.  STAB is equal to 1.5x, so it follows
that Earthquake for all practical purposes is power 150, equal to Focus
Punch.  Right...?

Wrong.  Let's have one more look at that damage formula.

((((((2L/5)+2)*A*P*B)/D)/50)     +2     )*M*STAB*(R/255)

STAB APPLIES TO THE +2 AS WELL.  This means that for Earthquake, it's
not +2, it's +3.  And Focus Punch still has +2.  This means that a
STABed Earthquake will always do exactly 1 more damage than an unSTABed
Focus Punch.  Just for your greedy information grubbing brain.

By the way, don't actually use that moveset.  It sucks.  Use Mixpert.

~

                          /~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~\
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~   4. Applications   ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
                          \~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~/

================
4a. EV spreading
================

Well now I'm gonna get medieval on you.  Kick it to the old school beat
of your favorite crazi tunes as I show you how to spread EVs with a
purpose (as in finding the minimum EVs needed to survive X attack from Y
enemy pokemon, while not having to rely on a damage calculator for
assistance).  But boy, those damage calculators sure are handy, though,
aren't they?

EV spreading is deciding how to distribute your 510 EVs across your six
stats, keeping in mind that four EVs equal one stat point at level 100,
for your pokemon's maximum battle effectiveness.

First I'll show you how to spread to survive a specific hit.

The first thing you should know (and I think I've said this) is that
whichever is higher, HP or Def/Sp.Def, raising the lower one by x amount
is always worth more living power in that stat than raising the higher
one.  For example, maxing out Hariyama's Sp.Def will go a lot further
than maxing his HP as far as defending against special attacks are
concerned.  But Dusclops wants more HP than Defense for defending
against physical attacks.  This is the first rule of defensive
spreading.

Technically you want your HP to be 2 points higher than your given
defense, if you can get it; 300 HP and 300 Defense, for example, does
not offer *quite* as much protection as 301 HP and 299 Defense.  This is
because of the +2 that comes after dividing by the target's defense in
the damage formula.  I could prove it, but it would just take up a lot
more of your time.  On a related note, having your HP 1 point higher than
your defense has exactly the same effect as having your HP 3 points
higher (300 HP and 299 Defense versus 301 HP and 298 Defense), but the
extra points in HP also go toward the other defense, so having 3 points
more HP is better.

If you want to defend against both types of attacks (and this is
assuming you have the same Defense as Sp.Def) and you have X EVs left to
spread across your defenses, putting all X EVs into HP will do more for
your total staying power than putting X/2 EVs into each defense, UNTIL
the point at which your HP is higher than 2 times a given defense.  That
is, putting 2 stat points in HP is worth more than putting 1 stat point
in each Defense, as far as defending against physical OR special attacks
goes.

The second rule of defensive spreading is to plan to defend against
specific moves from specific (and hopefully common) pokemon who have
specific (or 'standard') EV spreads.  Just throwing EVs in where you think
they'll help rarely does any good.  You should always try to make the most
of your EVs by treating them like the vital components of your strategy
that they should be.

For example, Snorlax might plan to survive a couple of Focus Punches
from Gengar, as this is a pokemon which can be easily KO'd by Snorlax's
Shadow Ball.  If, on the other hand, you choose to use Earthquake
instead of Shadow Ball on your Snorlax, it would do no good to plan to
survive Gengar, because you still couldn't hit him back.

Another point to remember is to choose according to your team.  For example,
you wouldn't worry about whether your Dusclops could take a Slaking assault
if you already had Weezing and Skarmory in the wings, would you?

Let's work an example.  How about finding what EVs Zapdos needs to be able
to live through a Rock Slide coming from a Metagross wearing a Choice Band?
We'll assume that this Metagross has 252 EVs and 31 IVs in Attack and has
an Adamant nature (+Attack, -Sp.Atk).  (This is the absolute highest Attack
any Metagross can ever have.  I like to call this kind of stat 'supermax',
but whatever.  The point of using the highest attack stat possible for the
enemy is so you can ensure that in NO case [barring any Critical Hits] will
you ever be ohko'd by this attack.)

Now I have found a method for finding the most efficient EV spread to take
a hit.  It's kind of complicated, so listen up.

First I take the damage formula.

((((42 * A * P) / D ) / 50 ) + 2) * M = (HP - 1)

I set it up so that the maximum damage of the attack is one less than
my ideal HP.  That is, if I want to live through only one hit.  If I want
to live through two, or three, or X hits, then I should set the maximum
damage of the attack equal to

(HP - 1) / X.

Next I find the offensive product, (42*A*P), and leave myself with this:

(((Offensive product / D) / 50 ) + 2 ) * M = (HP - 1) / X

Now, at this point, I usually divide by 50 and just skip dividing by D
for now.  Doing it this way probably won't end up being EXACTLY correct, but
worst-case scenario, you're off by a couple of points, which is probably
going to happen anyway.  Plus the convenience factor and the fact that
getting rid of that 50 simplifies the problem considerably.

I'm going to call (42*A*P)/50 the "Offensive quotient" for the rest of this
example.

((Offensive quotient / D) + 2) * M = (HP - 1) / X

Now I find what the M, the multipliers, are (including STAB), and I
apply it.  That is, I multiply the Offensive quotient (and the constant 2)
by M.  Then, if I have divided the (HP - 1) on the right-hand side by
anything (X), I multiply both sides by that number.

((Offensive quotient * M * X / D) + 2MX) = (HP - 1)

Now at this point, 2MX is usually equal to 2, 3, 4, or 6.  I now subtract
both sides by 2MX to get

Offensive product * M * X / D = (HP - (1 + 2MX))

So now, on the right side, I usually have [HP - 3], [HP - 4], [HP - 5],
or [HP - 7].  On the left side, I have a really big number in [Offensive
product * M * X], divided by D, my ideal Defense, which I don't know what
is.  Now I multiply both sides by D to get

Offensive Product * M * X = (HP - (1 + 2MX)) * D

Now I know, from the rules of defensive spreading, that I want

(HP - (1 + 2MX))

to be as close to D as possible, even equal to it.  So I take the SQUARE
ROOT of (Offensive product * M * X), and round up, and make that equal to
both (D) and (HP - (1 + 2M)). So I now know D, my ideal Defense, and all I
have to do is find my ideal HP, which is (1 + 2M) higher than D.  If you
find that either of these ideal values, HP or Defense, is actually lower
than your pokemon's minimum in that stat, then just go back to the last
formula and assign your pokemon's minimum value to the correct stat and
divide both sides by it to find the other stat.  I use this method all the
time, and it has always put me at least within a few points of my ideal
stats.  Just remember that this method will NOT always find your exact ideal
stats, but it will be close.

To check your result, which I DO recommend doing, you should just run a
standard damage calculation and set your HP and Defense equal to whatever
you got as a result from the above method, and ensure that you can

(A) Live through the hits you set out to live through, and
(B) Make sure you're not taking the hit TOO well (living with more than
2-3 HP after taking a move that you didn't need to live through with more
than 1 HP), which is a sign that you have invested a bit too many EVs.

This will ensure that you and the formula are functioning properly and
aren't wasting EVs or using too few.  I always always check my result,
unless I forget.

Now back to our example.  We want our (level 100) Zapdos to always be able
to live through a Metagross's Rock Slide, even when he is wearing a Choice
Band.  So first of all, we need to know the base stats of the pokemon in
question.  Metagross has a base stat of 135 in Attack, and Zapdos has base
stats of 90 in HP and 85 in Defense.  We want to survive a Rock Slide from
ANY Metagross, so we're going to assume the one we're facing is Adamant and
has 252 EVs and 31 IVs in Attack.  This means his Attack will be 405 before
Choice Band, which is 607 after.

The first thing to do is to set up the damage formula for our particular
situation.  We only need to live through one Rock Slide, so

((((42 * A * P) / D) / 50) + 2) * M = (HP - 1) =
((((42 * 607 * 75) / D) / 50) + 2) * M = (HP - 1)

The first thing to do is to multiply all those numbers together.  They equal
1912050.

((((1912050) / D) / 50) + 2) * M = (HP - 1)

Now we divide 1912050 by 50.  This equals 38241.

((38241 / D) + 2) * M = (HP - 1)

Now comes the time to find the M, the Multipliers.  Rock Slide is super
effective against Zapdos, so M equals 2.  We'll apply that now:

((38241 / D) + 2) * 2 = (HP - 1)
(76482 / D) + 4 = (HP - 1)
76482 / D = (HP - 5)

Now we multiply both sides by D...

76482 = (HP - 5) * D

...and now we know, from the rules of defensive spreading, that we want
(HP - 5) and D to be equal.  So we find the square root of 76482, which
is 276.55, and round up to 277.

277 = (HP - 5) = D
HP = 282
Defense = 277

However, Zapdos has 90 base HP.  This means that Zapdos has a minimum of 321
HP when it has 31 IVs.  So, we reset the formula,

76482 = (HP - 5) * D
76482 = (321 - 5) * D
76482 = 316 * D
76482 / 316 = D
238.2 = D

and find that if we have at least 239 Defense, we can survive this hit.

Since Zapdos has a base stat of 85 in defense, it has a minimum of 206
Defense.  From 239 to 206 is 33 stat points, or 132 EVs.  So if this method
is correct, then we know the EVs we need to survive this hit.  However, I
really never trust this method to be 100% accurate.  Therefore I always
check my results by running a standard damage calculation to check if my
results are correct.  Checking the results of this calculation, I find that
with 239 Defense, the maximum damage from a Metagross Rock Slide is 324.

Oops.  Trial and error from this point finds that the actual Defense needed
to take less than 321 damage from this hit is 242, three more stat points
and twelve more EVs than indicated by the method.

So any Zapdos with 31 IVs in both HP and Defense can survive a Rock Slide
from any Metagross, regardless of its IVs, EVs, Nature, or even if it has a
Choice Band or not, as long as Zapdos has at least 142 EVs placed in its
physical defense.  Now, there are other ways to reach this selected goal of
defense, but the main thing to remember is that whatever combination of HP
and defense EVs you use, they must make your final stats such that you can
live through the Rock Slide.  For example, Zapdos might not use any Defense
EVs at all.  It could simply max out its HP to get the same result, as well
as adding HP for the special side of its defenses.  So you can either use
less EVs to get your desired result on the physical side, or use more EVs to
get the same result on the physical side, and a bonus on the special side,
not to mention having more Leftovers recovery.  The trade is in the amount
of EVs you have to use.

Another thing that is VERY IMPORTANT to remember is that in most cases
ingame and in some cases online, your HP and Defense IVs may not be perfect.
This is especially true with Zapdos, who almost always uses either Hidden
Power Ice or Hidden Power Grass, and some IV combinations of those force you
to use an IV of 30 instead of 31 for HP or Defense.  So you have to take
into account your defensive IVs with the pokemon you are spreading for,
because if you don't, your EV spread may be rendered useless.

~

To spread offensively, you pretty much do the same thing as spreading
defensively, just the other way. You pick a pokemon you want to get
past, assign a convenient value to their HP and appropriate defense, and
see how much attack you are going to need to get past them.  The only
difference is that you'll need to use the minimum R value when spreading
offensively, since you want to KO the enemy no matter what your random R
value turns out to be.

~

I apologize for the dullness of these last two chapters.  If it's any
consolation, I found them duller to write than you did to read.  But why
complain?  Such is the lot of the trite prosodist in this life - to be
irrevocably condemned, compelled forever to read and re-read his own
stifling excrement.  The pallid quality of his work will keep him up nights,
ironic justice for the many victims he has lured unwillingly into somnolence
with his pen.  His friends and family will be driven to disown him, and the
only remarkable quality of his life will be the remarkable speed with which
he descends into madness.  His will be a violent end, and hell fire will
consume him at last.  But pity him nonetheless - though his plight is a just
retribution, who among us shall not come to their judgement with trembling
knees?

                   /~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~\
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~   5. Finding your IVs In-Game   ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
                   \~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~/

Note: For ANY method of finding your IVs, you have to know your pokemon's
base stats.   You can find those in any Base Stats Guide, but again I
recommend Smogon.com for accuracy.

Alright, you've read my ranting about how to breed pokemon to get good
IVs, and you want to know how to test your pokemon's IVs so you can get
started.  Well, this section will show you how.

====================
5a. Finding your EVs
====================

To find your IVs in-game, you're first going to have to find your EVs.
There are a couple of ways to do this, and if you can be innovative and
have a little patience you shouldn't have much trouble with this.

Obviously, if the pokemon has never been in a battle, it doesn't have
any EVs.  So if you just hatched the pokemon from an egg, for example,
you can skip this part.

But if you are going to check the IVs of a pokemon which you have used,
you have to know its EVs.  One way of doing this is to reduce its EVs to
zero by using those Emerald stat reducing berries I told you about.

If you don't have Emerald though, then obviously this won't work.  Now
if you have EVs which you don't know what are, and you can't cancel them
out, then chances are, you're not going to care what its IVs are.  But
if you do, there is one other way that I can think of.  Save, and give
the pokemon vitamins in its stats until you can give no more.  Restart,
and give the pokemon one more EV in each stat (through a pokemon battle),
then repeat with the vitamins.  Keep doing this, each time giving the
pokemon one more EV than you did last time, and administering vitamins,
until the number of vitamins it will take in any given stat is one less
than when you started.  Since you can't give a pokemon a vitamin if it
already has 100 or more EVs, then when the number of vitamins you can give
goes down by one, you know you now have an EV value of Something * 10.  It
will be apparent what Something is depending on how many vitamins the
pokemon will take.

Of course, this won't work if you already have 100 or more EVs in one or
more stats.

These are just a couple of ways off the top of my head on how to find
your EVs.  I'm sure there are others, so just be innovative. If you have
a pokemon with whom you can't find its EVs period, then I would simply
not use that pokemon.

Now we can talk about actually finding your IVs.

===================================
5b. A method involving Rare Candies
===================================

Here is the most common way to find your IVs:

1. get lots of Rare Candies

2. save

3. level up your pokemon with the Rare Candies, preferably to a round
number such as 15 or 20, or 40 or 50 if you can manage it.  You COULD
battle to level up, but it's not recommended unless absolutely necessary,
because the inclusion of EVs will significantly complicate things for you.

4. find what the pokemon would have in all of its stats if it had 0 IVs
using this formula:
( ( ( 2 * BS ) + ( EV / 4 ) ) * L / 100 ) + 5
where BS equals the Basestat of the pokemon in that stat, EV equals EVs,
and L equals the level of the pokemon.  These are your '0 IV' stats.

5. HP uses a different formula:
( ( ( 2 * BS ) + ( EV / 4 ) ) * L / 100 ) + 10 + L

6. Determine what your pokemon's actual nature-modified stats would be
had they not been nature-modified.  Modest with 51 in Attack and 92 in
Sp.Atk, if they had not been changed, would be 57 in Attack and 84 in
Sp.Atk.  Pretend these are your actual stats.

7. Subtract the 0 IV stats from your actual stats:
Actual stat - 0 IV stat

8. take these differences and for each difference,
diff * 100 / L
This number is your minimum IV value in the stat you calculated for.

9. Repeat for the other five stats (if you care about them; you probably
don't need to bother with finding Rhydon's Special Attack IVs)

10. Once you have found your IVs in all six stats, shut off the game
without saving to conserve your Rare Candies for another pokemon.

The margin of error in this method is +#, where # is equal to (100/L),
minus one.  For example, at Level 50, 100/L = 100/50 = 2, minus 1 = 1 so
the margin of error is +1, meaning that you could have up to 1 more IV
than you calculated.  At level 12, 100/L = 100/12 = 8.33333, minus 1 =
7.33333, so the MOE is +7.33333, so you could have up to 7.333 more IVs
than calculated.  This is why you need the Rare Candies; The higher the
pokemon's level, the less the margin of error.

======================
5c. Why this way works
======================

Okay.  Here's the stat formula, if you have no EVs:

( ( ( 2BS + IV ) * L / 100 ) + 5 ) * P

This formula must represent your actual stat, since every stat is
represented by the stat formula.  Now, if you have no IVs, the formula
becomes

( ( 2BS * L / 100 ) + 5 ) * P.

So, the first formula represents your stat with IVs, and the second
formula is your stat with no IVs.  Now, watch this.

( ( ( 2BS + IV ) * L / 100 ) + 5 ) * P =
( ( 2BS * L / 100 ) + ( IV * L / 100 ) + 5 ) * P

because of the distributive property.  So the formula with IVs becomes

( ( 2BS * L / 100 ) + ( IV * L / 100 ) + 5 ) * P

and without IVs is

( ( 2BS * L / 100 ) + 5 ) * P.

So, the first thing you were to do was to level up your pokemon to
minimize the margin of error.  Then you were to find out what your
nature modified stats would have been had they not been nature modified.
This serves the purpose of eliminating the P from the formulas.

( ( 2BS * L / 100 ) + ( IV * L / 100) + 5 )
( ( 2BS * L / 100 ) + 5 )

THEN you should have subtracted the result you got after calculating the
bottom formula (your stat had it not had any IVs) from your actual stat
(represented by the top formula).

  ( ( 2BS * L / 100 ) + ( IV * L / 100 ) + 5 )
- ( ( 2BS * L / 100 )                    + 5 )
==============================================
                        ( IV * L / 100 )

This difference from subtraction equals the number of stat points that you
have that are purely IVs.  All you need to do now is find how many IVs are
in X stat points at your current level.

IV * L / 100 = IV stat points (which will be abbreviated as SP), so
IV * L / 100 = SP (the 'difference' from earlier)
IV * L = 100 * SP.
IV = 100 * SP / L,

Now, just replace SP with whatever it equals, and there's your IVs.

What if you have EVs, you ask?  Well, assuming you know your EVs, have
ANOTHER look at the stat formula.

( ( ( 2BS + IV + ( EV / 4 ) ) * L/100 ) + 5 ) * P

The term involving the EVs gets the L/100 distibuted to it too, so

( ( 2BS * L / 100 ) + ( IV * L / 100 ) + ( EV * L / 400 ) + 5 ) * P.

So basically doing the same process, the first thing to do is still to
eliminate the P by altering the nature modified stats to what they would
have been had they not been modified.

( 2BS * L / 100 ) + ( IV * L / 100 ) + ( EV * L / 400 ) + 5.

Now, subtract your zero IV zero EV stat from your actual stat:

 ( ( 2BS*L/100 + IV*L/100 + EV*L/400 ) + 5 )
-( ( 2BS*L/100 )                       + 5 )
--------------------------------------------
                 IV*L/100 + EV*L/400

so instead of getting just the stat points caused by IVs, you get the
stat points caused by EVs as well as IVs.  If you know your EVs, it's no
problem, just set EV in the formula equal to the number of EVs in that
stat, and set the whole thing equal to your actual stat, and figure out
your IVs.  If you DON'T know your EVs, well, you're screwed.  But you
can only have up to 31 IVs and 252 EVs, and if you're smart you can use
that to get an idea of your IVs (for example, if you have 83 combined stat
points from EVs and IVs at level 100, you know you have at least 20 IVs.
Since you can only have a maximum 63 stat points from EVs in any one stat,
then at least 20 of your 83 stat points must be from IVs.)

MY POKEMON'S 0 IV 0 EV STAT IS A DECIMAL NUMBER.

Don't worry, this is common.  Just go through the processes like normal,
except keeping the decimal.  DON'T ROUND AWAY THE DECIMAL!!!  Suppose
for example your 0 IV stat (at level 5) is 10.5, and your actual stat is
11. Since your actual stat could be anything from 11 to 11.9999999, the
difference between your actual stat and your 0 IV stat could be anything
from 0.5 to 1.49999999.  Now at level five, 0.5 stat points corresponds
to 10 IVs, and 1.5 stat points equals 30 IVs. This means that you could
have any IV value from 10 to 29. If you had rounded away the decimal, and
taken 10 to be your 0 IV stat, you would have calculated 20 to 31 IVs for
yourself, which... is just plain wrong.

==================================
5d. My method involving vitamins
==================================

Note: This method is specifically for finding the IVs of newly-hatched
level 5 pokemon, in case you can't get your hands on 35 to 95 rare
candies.  If you're looking to catch already leveled-up pokemon, such as
Mewtwo or Kyogre, then this method is not really necessary, unless you
need to be REALLY REALLY accurate, like if you absolutely MUST have a
certain Hidden Power.  But I wrote this section for Level 5 pokemon with
no EVs, and if you have a pokemon of a different level, you'll have to
completely disregard most of it.

You see, when the game calculates your stats, it takes into account
Basestats, IVs, and EVs, then multiplies by L/100.  Then it rounds down.
So if there is only a slight change in any of the stat variables (or
even a large change if the level is low enough), then sometimes the visible
stat won't change even though you've changed the variables.  For example,
you know that 4 EVs at level 100 makes one stat point.  But 3 EVs alone are
worthless.  So you could just as easily have 0, 1, 2, or 3 lone EVs and
never know the difference because your visible stat stays the same.
However, if you get that fourth EV, even if you don't actually watch the
battle in which it was gained, you know it's there because you gained a
stat point.  In the same way, at level five, 20 IVs (or 80 EVs) makes
one stat point.  So you could just as easily have anywhere from 0-19 IVs
and never know which because your visible stat stays the same.  Now, we
can't change IVs, so we can't just keep adding them until we gain a stat
point... so we're going to use EVs.  More specifically, we're going to use
vitamins.

When you have 0 IVs and 0 EVs (and no nature effect), your stat is
always the same at the same level.  The significance of this tool is
that it is the absolute lowest stat that the pokemon can reach without
having a negative nature effect.  Now, this '0 IV' stat will not always be
an integer.  20 IVs or 80 EVs is one stat point, but it is EXACTLY one
stat point.  If your 0 IV stat is 9.2, for example, and you have 20 IVs,
then the game will call your stat 10.2 (and you will see the stat as
10).  You only have to have 16 IVs (64 EVs) to raise a 0 IV stat of 9.2
to an actual stat of 10.

If your 0 IV stat is 9.2, and you have exactly 3 IVs, then the game will
calculate your stat at 9.35 before rounding down.  Now you'll still only
see your actual stat as 9.  For all you know, you have 15 IVs and your
stat is 9.95 before rounding.  You can't tell the difference between
different IV values that round down to the same stat point, because the
game still displays the same thing as your stat.

Now obviously you can't add to your IVs, but if we add to our EVs, then
we can actually tell something.  See, one vitamin is worth 10 EVs, which
is worth exactly 2.5 IVs, 20 of which make one stat point.  So if the
game calculates your stat as 9.35 before it rounds down (your 0 IV stat
being 9.2), and you give the pokemon 1 vitamin for that stat, the game
recalculates and puts the stat at 9.475.  Another vitamin brings you to
9.6, then another puts you at 9.725, then at 9.85. Through all of this
your visible stat remains at 9.  Another vitamin brings your stat up to
9.975.  Now, one more vitamin puts you at 10.1.  When the game
recalculates this time, your visible stat will be raised to 10.  Now at
this point the facts become apparent.  Before, you didn't know whether
the game had calculated your stat at 9.20 or 9.99 or anywhere in
between.  All you knew was that it was rounded down to your visible stat
of 9.  But now, you know several things.  For one, you used 6 vitamins,
or a total of 0.75 stat points, to get to a visible stat of 10.  Knowing
this, you can deduce that your original stat-before-rounding could not
have been less than 9.25, since if it was, the 0.75 of a stat point (the
six vitamins you gave) would not have sufficed to raise the visible stat
to 10.  However, you also know that your original stat could not have
been more than 9.375, since if it were, then your stat would have raised
after the fifth vitamin, and you wouldn't have needed to give the sixth
vitamin.

Since you could only have had an original stat of between 9.25 and
9.375, it's time to lay out some charts.

9.2   <- Your 0 IV stat (the absolute lowest possible)
9.25  <- The bottom limit of your actual stats as determined by the vitamins
9.25     Your actual stat assuming it has 1 IV
9.3      Your actual stat assuming it has 2 IVs
9.35     Your actual stat assuming it has 3 IVs
9.375 <- The top limit of your actual stats as determined by the vitamins
9.4      Your actual stat assuming it has 4 IVs

From this chart it is clear that in this case, we can know that we
either have an IV value of 1, 2, or 3 in the stat that we're measuring.

So that's my method.  The goal is to find a limited range of possible IV
values by using vitamins to slowly raise the calculated stat until the
visible stat goes up.  But there are some other things you may need to
know to use this.

Let's assume you have a 0 IV stat of 9.2.  Now, it obviously takes 16
IVs worth of IVs and EVs to reach a visible stat of 10.  But what if you
are ALREADY at a visible stat of 10?  Well, that's simple.  It means you
have at least 16 IVs.  So write down '16' off to the side, or remember
it, and move on.  Now you have no need for the 0 IV stat, since its only
use was as a tool for accurate calculation, since your calculated stat
could not be lower than the 0 IV stat.  So our new absolute minimum, or
'16 IV' stat, as it were, is 10.  Since the game is TELLING us that we
have a stat of 10, we obviously can't be lower than that, can we?

So now we know that it takes 20 IVs worth of IVs and EVs to get from the
visible stat of 10 to the visible stat of 11.  We also now that since we
already have 16 IVs, because we're at a stat of 10, that there are only
another 15 IVs to be had.  So we'll give the vitamins, each worth 2.5
IVs, and hope that the stat rolls over to 11 soon, because the sooner it
goes, the more IVs it means we have.  Since you can't have more than 15
real IVs on this stat point, you know you're going to have to use at least
2 vitamins (= 5 IVs) to get your stat to roll over to 11.

Now this is an all-purpose chart designed to help.  It's not always
applicable, but it usually has at least some use.  It assumes that your
0 IV stat is an integer, which is true in about 50% of cases.  (It actually
assumes your 0 IV stat is 10, but if your actual 0 IV stat is an integer,
you can just pretend it says [your 0 IV stat] instead of 10)


11.55    <- Your 31 IV stat (Again, assuming a 0 IV stat of 10)
11.5             30 IV
Having the above IVs will raise the visible stat to 12 after 4 vitamins
11.45            29 IV
11.40            28 IV
Having the above IVs will raise the visible stat to 12 after 5 vitamins
11.35            27 IV
11.30            26 IV
11.25            25 IV
Having the above IVs will raise the visible stat to 12 after 6 vitamins
11.20            24 IV
11.15            23 IV
Having the above IVs will raise the visible stat to 12 after 7 vitamins
11.10            22 IV
11.05            21 IV
11.00    <- Your 20 IV stat
Having the above IVs will raise the visible stat to 12 after 8 vitamins
10.95            19 IV
10.90            18 IV
Having the above IVs will raise the visible stat to 11 after 1 vitamin
10.85            17 IV
10.80            16 IV
10.75            15 IV
Having the above IVs will raise the visible stat to 11 after 2 vitamins
10.70            14 IV
10.65            13 IV
Having the above IVs will raise the visible stat to 11 after 3 vitamins
10.60            12 IV
10.55            11 IV
10.50    <- Your 10 IV stat
Having the above IVs will raise the visible stat to 11 after 4 vitamins
10.45             9 IV
10.40             8 IV
Having the above IVs will raise the visible stat to 11 after 5 vitamins
10.35             7 IV
10.30             6 IV
10.25             5 IV
Having the above IVs will raise the visible stat to 11 after 6 vitamins
10.20             4 IV
10.15             3 IV
Having the above IVs will raise the visible stat to 11 after 7 vitamins
10.10             2 IV
10.05             1 IV
10.00     <- Your 0 IV stat
Having the above IVs means you suck


Now, you will almost never run into a pokemon with a 0 IV stat of
exactly 10.  But the chart does illustrate a point.

And there's the scheme of things for you.  So a basic rundown would be:

(and I shouldn't have to mention that before you start, you should find
what your nature modified stats would be had they not been changed)

1. Find all 0 IV values for the stats you want to check the IVs of.

2. Find any pre-existing IVs that you know you have because your visible
stat is an integer above your 0 IV stat (you know you have at least 16
IVs when your visible stat is 10 and your 0 IV stat is 9.2).  If there
are no pre-existing IVs (your visible stat is 9 and your 0 IV stat is
9.2), then move on.

3. Find the maximum number of IVs it could take to raise your visible
stat by one.  If you have any pre-existing IVs, then this is 20, but if
your 0 IV stat is a decimal and your visible stat has the same integral
value, then it will be less than twenty (this minimum is 16 when your
visible stat is 9 and your 0 IV stat is 9.2).  Basically, if your 0 IV
stat has a decimal at the end, take that decimal, multiply it by two, and
subtract the result from 20 to get the number of IVs your stat needs to
roll over.  So 9.2 has a decimal of 2, multiply that by two to get four,
and subtract that from 20 to get 16.

4. Give the pokemon vitamins in the stat you're measuring until your
visible stat raises.  Remember how many vitamins it took.

5. Use the data from step 4 to figure out your final total IVs.

Now I'll work one example for you.  Let's say we have a Sunkern at level
5 with the following stats:

HP: 19
Attack: 8
Defense: 9
Sp.Atk: 9 (nature upped)
Sp.Def: 7 (nature dropped)
Speed: 9

(Sunkern has a basestat of exactly 30 in each stat, which is why I chose
it.)

First off, we cancel out the nature effects.  So we pretend that our
Sp.Atk is 9 and our Sp.Def is 8.  (Stats are always rounded down to integers
before nature effects are applied.  A Sp.Atk of 8.5 or 8.8 would be rounded
down to 8 before adding the .8 nature bonus, which would only put the
upped stat at 8.8 which would again be displayed as a stat of 8.  Thus why
a stat which is upped, and shows 9 as the visible stat, must also have a
pre-nature stat of 9.)

For step 1, well, that's easy.  The 0 IV stats of Sunkern are 18 in HP and
8 in every other stat.

For step 2, we can easily deduce the pre-existing IVs:

HP: 20
Attack: 0
Defense: 20
Sp.Atk: 20
Sp.Def: 0
Speed: 20

For step 3, since every 0 IV stat in this problem is an integer (8 or 18),
we need 20 IVs worth of IVs and EVs to raise each of our current visible
stats to their next integral stat values.

Step 4 is the vitamin infusion stage.  Let's just pretend that it took this
many vitamins to raise each of our visible stats to their next integer:

HP: 6      (20 pre-existing IVs)
Attack: 3  (0 pre-existing IVs)
Defense: 4 (20 pre-existing IVs)
Sp.Atk: 8  (20 pre-existing IVs)
Sp.Def: 8  (0 pre-existing IVs)
Speed: 5   (20 pre-existing IVs)

Step 5 is more counting than anything.  Since it took 6 vitamins, or .75
of a stat point to raise the visible HP stat, then you know that your
actual stat before giving any vitamins was at least 18.25.  You also know
that your actual stat could not have been 18.375 or higher, because if it
were, your stat would have only taken 5 vitamins to roll over.  So, since
1 IV is worth .05 of a stat point, you know you have from 5 to 7 IVs on
this stat point.  Add that to your pre-existing IVs, and your final IV
range for your HP is 25-27 IVs.

Leaving the rest as pactice for the reader, we get these IV
values:

HP: 25-27
Attack: 13-14
Defense: 30-31
Sp.Atk: 20-22
Sp.Def: 0-2
Speed: 28-29

Now I'd like to talk a bit about natures, since they can get tricky.

Say we have a pokemon with a stat of 356, and then it is nature upped.
What is the final stat?  The correct way to find this is to add ten
percent.  So upping 356 adds 35.6, not 35, not 36.  So the final total
for this stat is 391.6.  HOWEVER, this stat is then rounded down.  So
you have a finished stat of 391.

For minused natures, same deal.  356, minused, is 356 - 35.6 = 320.4.
This is then rounded down for a final stat of 320.

So on a stat of 356, an upped nature gains you 35, but a minused nature
loses you 36.

Get it?  Good.

So what if you know your finished stat, and what the nature does, but
you don't know what it was before it was nature altered (as happens 100%
of the time in-game)?

Well, let's say we have a finished Attack stat of 405 on a Salamence,
and we know it's Adamant, but what was it before it was upped?

The correct method in these cases is NOT to just subtract 10%.  What you
have to do is find X such that

X * 1.1 = FinalStat.

This means that

X = FinalStat/1.1.

So to return to our example.  405/1.1 = 4050/11 = 368.181818, which is
the MINIMUM needed to get to 405 after a nature boost.  That means that
368 won't get you to 405 after a nature boost.  Which means that you
don't have 368.  So you know you have 369.

Once again, same deal for minused natures.  If you have a final Attack
stat of 121 on a Gengar, and you know your nature minuses Attack, but
you don't know what it was before it was minused, the correct procedure
is to divide the stat by 0.9.  121/0.9 = 1210/9 = 134.44444, so
134.44444 is the least you can have to stay at 121 or above after a
nature minus. This means that you have a pre-nature stat of 135.

So here's something tricky which may occasionally thwart you.

Let's say you have a minus nature which makes the minused stat nine,
then reversing the effect of the nature can either leave you with 10 OR
11 (10 - 1.0 = 9, 11 - 1.1 = 9.9 which is rounded down).  Supposing you
have 0-19 IVs, then your stat would be 10 had it not been minused, so
after 8 vitamins it would go up to 11 which is still minused to 9.  This
is really the only situation where this would happen.  If you're clever
though you can get around this (like you could just use 8 vitamins on the
stat, and if it doesn't roll over you know it's 10 and not 11) but more
likely it will screw you up.  But you will only rarely find yourself caring
what your IVs are in minused natures.

Another thing, about nature upped stats with this method.  Except in the
case of a stat of 10 or 11 being minused to 9, natures do not affect
when the stat rolls over.  Because the nature altered stat is a function
of the unchanged stat, when the stat changes, the the nature changed
stat changes as well.  For example

20 (the stat were it not upped) * 1.1 = 22 (the visible stat)
When and only when the EVs become enough so that 20 rolls over to 21,
21 * 1.1 = 23
so they change at the same time.

~

Now, didn't I say that this method would be extremely accurate?  As in
Hidden Power calculatable?  I think I did.  Anyway, all you have to do is
just go get individual EVs by battling wild pokes.  A vitamin is worth 2.5
IVs, which is why there's still a margin of error, but 4 EVs is equal to
just 1 IV.  So all you need to do is find your range of IVs using vitamins,
then start over and give the pokemon one less vitamin than it takes to get
the stat to roll over.  At this point it cannot take less than 10 EVs to
make the stat change.  Now there's a bit of a sticky.  Looking back up
at the big "all purpose" chart I showed you *looks up* sometimes with
vitamins you'll have a range of three possible IV values, while sometimes
you'll only have two possible.  For example, having the stat roll over after
two vitamins can mean you have 15, 16 or 17 IVs, while if it takes three
vitamins, the IV is either 13 or 14.  Now then,

-If the IV range is of three different values then the stat may roll
over after gaining 2, 6 or 10 additional EVs

2 means that you have the highest IV value of the three
6 means that you have the middle IV value of the three
10 means that you have the lowest IV value of the three

-If the IV range is of two different values then the stat may roll over
after 4 or 8 EVs

4 means that you have the higher of the two values
8 means that you have the lower of the two values

If you don't see why, then, just look at this.

IVs  EVs needed to
     raise the stat
     from that IV
     value (assuming
     you have an
     integral 0 IV
     value) 
---  --------------
19    needs 4 EVs
18    needs 8 EVs

17    needs 12 EVs (which is 2 EVs plus one vitamin)
16    needs 16 EVs (which is 6 EVs plus one vitamin)
15    needs 20 EVs (which is 10 EVs plus one vitamin)

14    needs 24 EVs (which is 4 EVs plus two vitamins)
13    needs 28 EVs (which is 8 EVs plus two vitamins)

12    needs 32 EVs (which is 2 EVs plus three vitamins)
11    needs 36 EVs (which is 6 EVs plus three vitamins)
10    needs 40 EVs (which is 10 EVs plus three vitamins)

9     needs 44 EVs (which is 4 EVs plus four vitamins)
8     needs 48 EVs (which is 8 EVs plus four vitamins)

7     needs 52 EVs (which is 2 EVs plus five vitamins)
6     needs 56 EVs (which is 6 EVs plus five vitamins)
5     needs 60 EVs (which is 10 EVs plus five vitamins)

4     needs 64 EVs (which is 4 EVs plus six vitamins)
3     needs 68 EVs (which is 8 EVs plus six vitamins)

2     needs 72 EVs (which is 2 EVs plus seven vitamins)
1     needs 76 EVs (which is 6 EVs plus seven vitamins)
0     needs 80 EVs (which is 10 EVs plus seven vitamins)
---  --------------

What was hard to put into words, a pattern shows beautifully.

Please note that:

1. If you level up while gaining individual EVs (by battling wild pokes)
then it kinda screws you up so take care about that.  (hint: try
switching all six of your pokemon in to minimize the experience the
pokemon you're testing gets)
2. When fighting wild (or any) pokemon, the EVs are not immediately put
into the stat.  They are put into a storehouse where they are kept until
you level up, at which point they are released as part of the level-up
gain.  To release the EVs without leveling up, and force the game to
recalculate your stats, you have to put the pokemon in the PC.  This is
what you should do whenever you reach an EV increment which could make
your stat roll over.  (You don't have to do this with vitamins, I hope
that was clear.)  Put simply, stick them in the box whenever you've
gotten enough EVs that there's a chance that your stat could raise.

Anyway if done properly this can let you know EXACTLY your IVs.  Which
is admittedly only useful if you're a real freak, or if you need a
specific Hidden Power.

===============
5e. Other Stuff
===============

When hatching eggs, I find that very often, three values are all that
are necessary to determine at least whether an egg is worth IV testing
more in-depth.  These are: 10 IVs = 0.5 stat points at level 5, 20 IVs =
1 stat point, and 30 IVs = 1.5 stat points.  95% of all pokemon have
level 5 0 IV stat values of (integer) or (integer.5), so everyone
attempting to hatch eggs, no matter what test method they use, should
know these conversions.

It should be possible to use Netbattle's Team Builder to help with these
IV calculations; I wouldn't know exactly how to use this, or what benefits
it might bring, except maybe to help people who aren't good at remembering
numbers, but I'm sure it could be useful somehow.  Thanks to Darkestlight
for bringing this up.

~

Another lurid chapter gone by, thank heavens.  Technical school textbooks
have been written with more wit.  I had rather read socialist propaganda
all day than chance wading through that sewage again.  Or amateur poetry.
Or scripts from rejected Fox sitcoms.  Or Anne Frank's diary... pee-eww.
Or Science textbooks for Christian schools.  Or even *cough* *gag* Jane
Eyre.  All of these I would read, and several Babysitter's Club books, if I
thought the effort would release me from all future obligations to that
violent chapter of this horrific guide.  But - alas! - I have created the
monster, and, like Victor Frankenstein, am bound to it indissolubly, and
'twould be as a great travesty to disown it now, and perhaps as dangerous,
as when Victor attempted the same.  But who knows?  Perhaps MY creation will
be "borne away by the waves, and lost to darkness and distance", BEFORE it
kills me.

                         /~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~\
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~   6. Hidden Power   ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
                         \~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~/

=======================
6a. Hidden Power's type
=======================

Type Formula
(T1 + T2 + T3 + T4 + T5 + T6)*15/63 = Type value

If your IV    It's         Which is
in this       worth this   worth this
stat is odd   T-Value      much
  HP          T1           1
  Atk         T2           2
  Def         T3           4
  Spd         T4           8
 Sp.Atk       T5           16
 Sp.Def       T6           32

(Yes, this is the correct order; The Speed IV is in 4th position, not
6th)

If any of these IVs are even, then their T-value is worth 0.  Run your
IVs through the above formula, then compare the result with this chart to
find what type your Hidden Power is.  Round EVERYTHING DOWN - 6.9 rounds
down to 6, 7.2 rounds down to seven, etc.

0 = Fighting
1 = Flying
2 = Poison
3 = Ground
4 = Rock
5 = Bug
6 = Ghost
7 = Steel
8 = Fire
9 = Water
10 = Grass
11 = Electric
12 = Psychic
13 = Ice
14 = Dragon
15 = Dark

So basically, all you do is add up all the values of the T-values, the sum
of which we can call the T-Total, and then multiply that by 15/63 and round
down to get an integer, and then compare your integer with the above chart
to find your Hidden Power's type.  Pretty simple.

Note that the maximum possible T-total is 63, since 1 + 2 + 4 + 8 + 16 + 32
is 63.  Now, since 63 * 15 / 63 equals 15, but any T-total less than 63
times 15 / 63 cannot reach 15 (because the answer is rounded down), then
it is technically harder to get a final integer of 15 than any other.  It
probably won't matter though because getting an integer of 15 means you have
a Dark-type Hidden Power, which sucks as an attacking type anyway.

So let's say you have IVs of 16, 12, 30, 11, 17, 9 and you want to know
what type Hidden Power this is.  Well, the first thing is to see which
ones are even and which are odd.  The HP, Atk, and Def IVs are even, and
thus worth zero.  The Spd, Sp.Atk, and Sp.Def IVs are odd.  Their T-values
are respectively, 8, 16, and 32.  So, the T-total is 56.  Now, multiplying;

56*15/63 = 13.33333

which rounds to 13.  On the chart, 13 is Ice, so we have an Ice type
Hidden Power.  Lovely.

That's not really that hard.  But doing it in reverse is slightly
harder, especially to explain :*

Say you would rather have a grass type Hidden Power, and you are willing to
breed pokemon as long as it takes to get one.  What even-odd IV combos will
give us HP Grass?  Well, you need the result of the formula to be from 10
to 10.999999 (because Grass is 10 on the chart, and you round the result
down).  So this is a bit complicated:

To determine all the even-odd combos that will give us a Grass type
Hidden Power, we first need to determine what the possible range of the
T-totals are (to simplify matters).  The range of the T-totals that will
give a formula result that corresponds to Hidden Power Grass is equal to

10  <=  (T1 + T2 + T3 + T4 + T5 + T6)*15/63  <  11.

Since 10 is the lower limit of the result of the formula, 11 is the upper
limit (even though 10.99999 is technically the limit, it converges at 11
and thus we can just run the calculations as though 11 were the limit,
keeping in mind that the Ts cannot actually be such that the result of the
formula is 11, because then it would be HP Electric).

So we know that we need the T-total to be such that the result of the
formula is greater than or equal to 10, but less than 11.  Therefore, we
find the range of the possible T-totals that will give a HP Grass.

(T1 + T2 + T3 + T4 + T5 + T6)*15/63 = 10
(T1 + T2 + T3 + T4 + T5 + T6)*15 = 63*10 = 630
(T1 + T2 + T3 + T4 + T5 + T6) = 630/15 = 42
(T1 + T2 + T3 + T4 + T5 + T6) = 42

This means that the lowest possible sum of the T-values is 42, if we want a
Hidden Power Grass.  Next, we find the highest limit.

(T1 + T2 + T3 + T4 + T5 + T6)*15/63 = 11
(T1 + T2 + T3 + T4 + T5 + T6)*15 = 11*63 = 696
(T1 + T2 + T3 + T4 + T5 + T6) = 696/15 = 46.2
(T1 + T2 + T3 + T4 + T5 + T6) = 46.2

So the range of the sum of the Ts, the T-total, is 42 - 46.2, for HP Grass.

We set out originally to find all of the even-odd combos for our IVs that
would give a Hidden Power Grass.  So, we need to find all of the even-odd
IV combos that will result in the T-total being between 42 and 46.2.  Note
that since the T-total is always an integer, we have 5 possible totals: 42,
43, 44, 45, and 46.  Now we just need to find what these mean in binary.  If
you don't know what binary is, go ask someone who does.  Anyway, all you
need to do is find the binary expressions of these numbers (42 through 46).
They happen to be

101010 = 42
101011 = 43
101100 = 44
101101 = 45
101110 = 46.

Now apply these binary numbers to your six IVs.  The 32's digit, the first
number on the left, represents your Special Defense IV.  The 1's digit, the
first number on the right, represents your HP IV.  Now, if the binary digit
representing a given IV is 1, that IV must be odd, and thus activated.  If
the binary digit representing a given IV is 0, that IV must be even, and
thus not activated.

So five possibilities present themself:

Stat    A     B     C     D     E
------------------------------------   Even=0
HP      Even  Odd   Even  Odd   Even - Odd=1  for this row
Atk     Odd   Even  Even  Odd   Odd  - Odd=2  for this row
Def     Odd   Odd   Odd   Even  Even - Odd=4  for this row
Spd     Odd   Odd   Odd   Odd   Odd  - Odd=8  for this row
Sp.Atk  Even  Even  Even  Even  Even - Odd=16 for this row
Sp.Def  Odd   Odd   Odd   Odd   Odd  - Odd=32 for this row
------------------------------------
Totals  46    45    44    43    42

So finally we have all the even-odd combos.  All Hidden Power Grasses
have one of these even-odd IV combos.  Of course it takes less time to
actually do this than it does to read about it.

On a side note, it may be useless to find your Hidden Power type from your
IVs in-game, since you can always just go fight several wild pokemon of
different types to find it (or a single Kecleon), but this formula has
another use.  You can actually find your IVs from your Hidden Power type.
See, if you have narrowed down your possible IVs to a range of 2 ('level 50'
accuracy), for example a range of 26-27, then if by using this formula in
reverse you determine that that IV value must be either even or odd because
of the type of your Hidden Power, then you know your IV exactly.  So if you
have worked out that you either have an IV value of 26 or 27 in Special
Defense, and you know because of your Hidden Power type that your Special
Defense IV must be odd, then you know your IV in Special Defense must be 27.
This can help to find the exact power of your Hidden Power as well.

========================
6b. Hidden Power's power
========================

And now, the more important part of this section, the power section.

(P1 + P2 + P3 + P4 + P5 + P6) * 40/63 + 30

The Ps act exactly like the Ts, except in activation.  To activate a
P, its corresponding stat IV must have a remainder of two or three,
after being divided by four.  So, for example, an IV of six activates its P
because 6/4 = 1, remainder two.  So basically, these IV values activate
their Ps

2 3   6 7   10 11   14 15   18 19   22 23   26 27   30 31

and the rest don't.  You want as many Ps activated here as possible
because the number that comes out of the formula is the power of your
Hidden Power (there's no chart like with the types).  Looking at the
formula,

(P1 + P2 + P3 + P4 + P5 + P6) * 40/63 + 30

we see at the end that we're guaranteed at least 30 final power.  Here's
a chart to see approximately how much extra power each P value gives in
addition to your guaranteed 30 final power when they are activated.

P1 (HP) - .635
P2 (Atk) - 1.27
P3 (Def) - 2.54
P4 (Spd) - 5.08
P5 (SA) - 10.16
P6 (SD) - 20.32

So to get a good power, it's essential that your Sp.Def P is activated.
Getting that one means a guaranteed 50 power.  Getting Sp.Atk as well puts
you at a guaranteed 60.  On a scale of 30 to 70, 60 isn't bad.  However,
if you don't get the Sp.Def P, the highest power you can get is 49.  On
a side note, I have an in-game Zapdos with Hidden Power Water of power
58.  It's probably the third best type I could've gotten, behind Grass
and Ice, but Water is nice too as it gets boosted by rain.  But that's
nothing compared my grandpa's Hitmontop with a power 68 HP Rock :(

Back on topic, and looking again at the IVs that activate the power Ps,

2 3   6 7   10 11   14 15   18 19   22 23   26 27   30 31

we see at the end 30 and 31.  ONE OF THESE IS ODD, AND ONE OF THESE IS
EVEN.  This means that with these two values only, you can create ANY
even-odd type combo and keep max power.  Which means that on Netbattle,
you can get any Hidden Power you want by sacrificing no more than one
stat point in each stat.  How cool :)  This is why Hidden Power is abused
so much.

Which brings me to the next part, HP 70s.  A chart which you can find at
a number of places, and now I'll propagate the species by putting it in
here.  These are just the different 30-31 IV combos you can use to get any
given Hidden Power in Netbattle.  Note that not all of the possible 30-31
IV combos are listed here; the ones that have less IVs than others are
left out.  For example, if one IV combo is 30/30/31/31/31/31 and another IV
combo is 30/30/30/31/31/31, for the same Hidden Power type, the second one
would be left out.

==================
6c. HP 70 listings
==================

Hehe copy and paste straight out of blueshirt's moveset guide :)
Remember, DV is another name for IV.

~-~-~-~-~-~-~-~-~-~-~-~-~-~-~-~-~Excerpt-~-~-~-~-~-~-~-~-~-~-~-~-~-~-~-~

- Any DV of 31 can be replaced by any other number which is equivalent
to 3 mod 4, or 3/7/11/15/19/23/27.
- Any DV of 30 can be replaced by any other number which is equivalent
to 2 mod 4, or 2/6/10/14/18/22/26.
- DVs are listed in the following order: HP, Att, Def, Speed, SA, SD.
- The most commonly used DV is marked with a ***.  By most commonly
used, one generally takes into account the most likely archetype of such
a poke (namely, a poke using HP Bug probably wants more Att DVs and is
willing to sacrifice SA DVs to get so).
- Any "dominated" DV combinations have been excised.

HP Fighting 70
______________
31,31,30,30,30,30 ***
30,30,31,30,30,30

HP Flying 70
____________
31,31,31,30,30,30 ***
30,30,30,31,30,30 <--use this for Jolly Aerodactyl, to counter Timid Jolt.

HP Poison 70
______________
31,31,30,31,30,30 ***
30,30,31,31,30,30

lol HP Poison

HP Ground 70
____________
31,31,31,31,30,30 ***
30,30,30,30,31,30

HP Rock 70
__________
31,31,30,30,31,30 ***
30,30,31,30,31,30

HP Bug 70
_________
31,31,31,30,31,30 ***
31,30,30,31,31,30

Go Pinsir.

HP Ghost 70
___________
31,31,30,31,31,30 ***
31,30,31,31,31,30

HP Steel 70
___________
31,31,31,31,31,30 ***
31,30,30,30,30,31

HP Fire 70
__________
31,30,31,30,30,31 ***
31,31,30,30,30,31 

The only things which use HP Fire are Grumpig and Sunnybeam anyway.

HP Water 70
___________
31,31,31,30,30,31 ***
31,30,30,31,30,31 <-- note the 31 speed for Timid Jolt

HP Grass 70
______________
30,31,31,31,30,31
31,31,30,31,30,31 ***
31,30,31,31,30,31

HP Electric 70
______________
31,31,31,31,30,31 ***
31,30,30,30,31,31
30,31,30,30,31,31

HP Psychic 70
______________
31,30,31,30,31,31 ***
31,31,30,30,31,31
30,31,31,30,31,31

Go Unown.

HP Ice 70
_________
31,31,31,30,31,31 ***
31,30,30,31,31,31 <-- again, 31 in Speed for Timidjolt.
30,31,30,31,31,31

HP Dragon 70
____________
31,31,30,31,31,31
31,30,31,31,31,31 ***
30,31,31,31,31,31

HP Dark 70
__________
31,31,31,31,31,31 ***

Hehehehe.  If I had a nickel for every time someone accidentally used HP
Dark because they forgot to change their DVs, I might have a dollar or two.

~-~-~-~-~-~-~-~-~-~-~-~-~-~-~End of Excerpt-~-~-~-~-~-~-~-~-~-~-~-~-~-~-

One more note: If you're using a special sweeper with a Hidden Power,
and you want to lower its Attack to reduce confusion damage, you should
use an Attack IV of 2 or 3 instead of zero because 2 and 3 activate
their power Ps whereas zero does not.

Oh, yeah, one MORE thing.  Even though Hidden Power can be any type (except
Normal), the moves Counter and Mirror Coat always treat it like a
Normal-type move.  So Counter will always work on Hidden Power and Mirror
Coat will always fail.

                           /~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~\
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~   7. Other Stuff   ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
                           \~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~/

Little stuff that falls under mechanics has been thrown in here.

====================
7a. Weird evolutions
====================

Pokemon that evolve by some way other than level up.

Stones-
These pokemon evolve when you use an 'elemental' stone on them.

  These Pokemon evolve when you use a Fire Stone on them:
    Growlithe > Arcanine
    Eevee > Flareon
    Vulpix > Ninetales

  These Pokemon evolve when you use a Water Stone on them:
    Poliwhirl > Poliwrath
    Shellder > Cloyster
    Staryu > Starmie
    Eevee > Vaporeon
    Lombre > Ludicolo

  These Pokemon evolve when you use a Leaf Stone on them:
    Gloom > Vileplume
    Weepinbell > Victreebel
    Exeggcute > Exeggutor
    Nuzleaf > Shiftry

  These Pokemon evolve when you use a Thunderstone on them:
    Eevee > Jolteon
    Pikachu > Raichu

  These Pokemon evolve when you use a Moon Stone on them:
    Nidorino > Nidoking
    Nidorina > Nidoqueen
    Clefairy > Clefable
    Jigglypuff > Wigglytuff
    Skitty > Delcatty

  These Pokemon evolve when you use a Sun Stone on them:
    Sunkern > Sunflora
    Gloom > Bellossom

Trades-
These Pokemon evolve when traded.

  These Pokemon evolve when traded:
    Haunter > Gengar
    Machoke > Machamp
    Kadabra > Alakazam
    Graveler > Golem

  These Pokemon evolve when traded while holding a Metal Coat:
    Scyther > Scizor
    Onix > Steelix

  These Pokemon evolve when traded while holding a King's Rock:
    Poliwhirl > Politoed
    Slowpoke > Slowking

  Other items:
    Seadra > Kingdra when traded with a Dragon Scale.
    Porygon > Porygon2 when traded with an Upgrade.
    Clamperl > Huntail when traded with a Deepseatooth.
    Clamperl > Gorebyss when traded with a Deepseascale.

Happiness-
These Pokemon evolve when their Happiness is maxed out and you gain a level.
Note that if a Pokemon is traded its happiness resets to neutral.

    Smoochum > Jynx
    Igglybuff > Jigglypuff
    Magby > Magmar
    Elekid > Electabuzz
    Togepi > Togetic
    Chansey > Blissey
    Golbat > Crobat
    Azurill > Marill
    Cleffa > Clefairy
    Pichu > Pikachu

Odd-
These are Pokemon that evolve under unusual conditions.

    Eevee > Umbreon: In Ru/Sa only, max out Eevee's happiness and gain a
level IN THE AM.  I don't know anything about how the the other games do
it.  Sorry.  If you know tell me.

    Eevee > Espeon: Same deal, except evolve IN THE PM.  This is not a
typo, yes I am aware of what I'm saying, Espeon in the PM and Umbreon in
the AM.  Argue and die.

    Tyrogue > Hitmon*: Tyrogue evolves at level 20 into Hitmonlee if his
Attack stat is higher than his Defense stat, Hitmonchan if his Defense
stat is higher than his Attack stat, and Hitmontop if they're both the
same.

    Wurmple > *coon: It's random.  Actually, I was flipping through a
player's guide at Wal-Mart and it said that it was somehow tied in with
the game clock, but it was such a complex tie that it might as well be
random.  So, whatever, nobody cares about Beautifly or Dustox anyway.

    Shedinja: Evolve Nincada when you have a free space in your party.
Nincada will evolve into Ninjask as normal, but Shedinja will appear in
the free space with the same moves that Ninjask has.  So yes, you get
two for one, which combined with Sheddy's Pokedex entry IMO proves that
Shedinja does not really evolve from Nincada but is instead a distinctly
different species (but who really cares).

    Feebas > Milotic: Max out Feebas' contest stat 'Beauty' with Dry
tasting Pokeblocks and then raise it a level.  To accomplish this, it
helps to have a +Sp.Atk nature.  Don't even try it with a -Sp.Atk
nature.  If you want to know more, there is a pretty good Feebas/Milotic
guide on Gamefaqs, so... just look there.

===============================
7b. Pokemon-specific Hold Items
===============================

Light Ball- Doubles Pichu and Pikachu's Sp.Atk (no Raichu).  If you give
a Female Pikachu a Light Ball and breed it with a male Pikachu or a
Ditto then the baby Pichu will have a move called Volt Tackle (Power
120-Accuracy 100-1/3 recoil).  I'm not entirely sure if this works in
versions other than Emerald.

Stick- Raises Farfetch'd's critical hit ratio.

Thick Club- Doubles Cubone and Marowak's effective Attack during battle.
Ouch.

Metal Powder- Multiplies Ditto's Defense and Special Defense by 1.5x.

Deepseatooth- Doubles Clamperl's Sp.Atk.  Deepseascale doubles
Clamperl's Sp.Def, but no one uses that.

Lucky Punch- Raises Chansey's critical hit ratio (no Blissey).  Better
than the Stick at least :*

Soul Dew- Raises Latias and Latios' effective Sp.Atk and Sp.Def by 1.5x
during battle.

================
7c. Common Rates
================

Okay, these are just various rates for things.

  Paralysis has a 25% chance of immobilizing the target.
  Attraction has a 50% chance of immobilizing the target.
  Confusion has a 50% chance of immobilizing the target.
  Quick Claw has a 24% chance of activating.
  Leech Seed takes 1/8 of the target's HP each turn.
  Leftovers restores 1/16 of the holder's HP each turn.
  Shell Bell restores to the holder 1/8 of the damage done when they attack.
  Sandstorm/Hail takes 1/16 of the pokemon's HP each turn.
  Normal Poison takes 1/8 of the target's HP each turn.
  Toxic takes 1/16, 2/16, 3/16, 4/16, 5/16, 6/16, etc. HP each turn.
  Fire Spin/Whirlpool/Wrap etc. take 1/16 of the target's HP each turn.
  Round these fractions down:  1/4 of 259 is 64 for these purposes.

Set Damage Moves-

  Sonicboom does 20 damage.
  Dragon Rage does 40 damage.
  Night Shade and Seismic Toss do the user's level in damage.
  Psywave does randomly from .5 to 1.5 times the user's level in damage.

HP Moves-
(Thanks to a_v's guide on IGN for these)

  Water Spout and Eruption work on this formula:

    Remaining HP * 150 / Max HP = Power

  But the power can't be lower than 1.  In simpler terms, multiply your
current percentage of HP by 150 to get your power.  So if you're at 50%
HP then the power of Water Spout is 75.  That's right!  It is a direct
proportion!  HP% : Power   =   2 : 3

  Reversal and Flail work on this formula:

    Remaining HP * 48 / Max HP = a number

  and then you take that number and look at this chart to find the power
of your move:

-----------------------
Number       Base Power
-----------------------
0 - 1.9999      200
2 - 4.9999      150
5 - 9.9999      100
10- 16.999       80
17- 32.999       40
   33+           20
-----------------------

  Analysis on this formula yields these results:

---------------------------------------------------
If you have _LESS_
than this much HP:     You have this base power:
---------------------------------------------------
4.16667% (1/24 of max)           200
10.4167% (5/48 of max)           150
20.8333% (5/24 of max)           100
35.4167% (17/48 of max)           80
68.75%   (33/48 of max)           40
100%                              20
---------------------------------------------------

  So if that helps at all.

Critical Hit rate-
(Thanks to a_v's guide on IGN for these as well)

  First, find the result of this formula.  PEI means Pokemon Exclusive
Item (like Stick), SL means Scope Lens, HCHR means High Critical Hit
Ratio, and FE/L means Focus Energy/Lansat (you can't have both).

1 + (PEI * 2) + (SL * 1) + (HCHR * 3) + (FE/L * 1)

  Each of these variables equal 1 if activated and 0 if not activated.
For example, having a Stick on a Farfetch'd activates PEI, making the
result of the formula 3.  If that Farfetch'd then used Slash, a move
with a high-critical hit ratio, the result of the formula is 6.

  Anyway, once you know the result of the formula, look at this chart to
find your CH rate.

--------------------------
If you have  Then you have
this number  this CH rate
--------------------------
     1           6.25%
     2           12.5%
     3            25%
     4           33.2%
5 or higher       50%
--------------------------

Return/Frustration-

  The max power is 102.  The formula is

    Happiness Points / 2.5

  or for Frustration,

    (255 - Happiness Points) / 2.5

  where you can't have more than 255 happiness points.  The problem is
that you never know exactly how many happiness points you have.
However, if you trade the pokemon, its happiness resets to neutral.  I would
assume this 'neutral' to be 127 happiness points, or a Return of power 50.
It is possible to have 0 happiness points btw.

Rollout/Ice Ball-

  Rollout's respective powers are 30, 60, 120, 240, and 480.  Using
Defense Curl immediately before starting a Rollout doubles those powers.
Ice Ball is the same but as far as I know there is no move that can be used
to double its powers.

Magnitude-

  Magnitude has these powers:

-----------------
Magnitude!  Power
-----------------
    4        10
    5        30
    6        50
    7        70
    8        90
    9       110
   10       150
-----------------

Fun fact: In a real earthquake, the formula for the magnitude of the quake
is

Magnitude = ((log E) - 11.4)/1.5

where E is the energy released.  So if a REAL magnitude 4 earthquake had
a 'power', or for this formula, an energy, of 10, then the other magnitude
Earthquakes would be:

-----------------
Magnitude!  Power
-----------------
    4        10
    5       12.2
    6       14.9
    7       18.1
    8       22.1
    9       27.0
   10       32.9
17.64265863  150
-----------------

See, now I can call this an educational program

|-------Serene Grace doubles the rates for everything following:-------|

Hey, that reminds me.  Serene Grace is an ability that doubles the chances
of any added effects FOR THE POKEMON WITH SERENE GRACE ONLY.  IT DOES NOT
TRANSFER TO YOUR PARTNER IN A DOUBLE BATTLE.

  The critical hit ratio we've already discussed, but Serene Grace does
double the chances of a critical hit.  I think.

  Flamethrower/Thunderbolt/Ice Beam/Fire Punch/Thunderpunch/Ice Punch
have 10% chances of their added effects.
Fire Blast/Blizzard have 10% chances of their added effects.
Thunder has a 30% chance of Paralysis.

  Sludge Bomb has a 30% chance of poisoning the target.

  Effect Spore/Poison Point/Cute Charm/Static/Flame Body have 30%
chances of activation.  (Well technically Serene Grace doesn't double the
chances of abilities' effects but I had to put these somewhere)

  Headbutt/Rock Slide/Rolling Kick/Bite/Needle Arm/Stomp/Astonish have 30%
chances of flinching the target (assuming you're faster of course).
  Extrasensory/Bone Club/Hyper Fang have 10% chances of flinching.

  Rock Smash has a 50% chance of dropping the target's Defense.
  Psychic has a 10% chance of dropping the target's Sp.Def.
  Shadow Ball has a 20% chance of dropping the target's Sp.Def.

==========
7d. Deoxys
==========

Deoxys is a pokemon that shifts forms depending on which version of the
game it is in.  Its name, if you weren't already aware, is derived from
the word that DNA is short for (deoxyribonucleic acid).

In Ruby/Sapphire/Colosseum/XD, it is known as Deoxys and its Base stats are
<50 HP/150 Atk/50 Def/150 Spd/150 SA/50 SD>

In FireRed it is known as Deoxys-FR(or Attack Deoxys) and its Base stats are
<50 HP/180 Atk/20 Def/150 Spd/180 SA/20 SD>

In LeafGreen it is known as Deoxys-LG(or Defense Deoxys) and its Base stats
are <50 HP/70 Atk/160 Def/90 Spd/70 SA/160 SD>

In Emerald it is known as Deoxys-E(or Speed Deoxys) and its Base stats are
<50 HP/95 Atk/90 Def/180 Spd/95 SA/90 SD>

But that's basically it to Deoxys.

=========================
7e. Level Up growth rates
=========================

The most useless thing in the game to know is this.  Level up rates.
Anyway there are four level up groups for which the rates are known and
two groups for which the rates are not known.

=Quickly=
.8(L^3)

=Medium=
L^3

=Medium-Slow=
1.2(L^3) - 15(L^2) + 100L - 140

=Slow=
1.25(L^3)

where L is the level, and the result of the formula is the TOTAL experience
needed to reach that level.  ^3 means cubed, and ^2 means squared.

I ran some numbers when I first saw these formulas and found that for most
pokemon, the halfway point between level 2 and level 100 (that is, the point
at which half the total experience needed to reach level 100 has been
acquired) is about level 79-80.  With the experience needed to get from
level 99 to level 100, you could take a level 2 pokemon and raise it to
level 21 iirc.

There are also Fluxuating and Erratic groups for which the formulas are
not known.  However, we do know that to get to level 100 they take
600,000 exp. (Erratic) and 1,640,000 exp. (Fluxuating).

=============
7f. 2v2 Stuff
=============

In 2v2 battling, a lot of stuff is different.  There are three principles
you need to know:

1- Any move that only hits both enemies has its power halved
2- Any move that hits everyone on the field keeps its normal power
3- Light Screen and Reflect reduce the foe's attacking stat by 2/3 instead
of by 1/2

That's it.  If you want to know more just check out shiny zangoose's 2v2
guide.

===========
7g. Weather
===========

There are four weather effects in the pokemon series, and they have lots
of effects.

Sunny Day-
1. Raises the power of Fire moves by 1.5x
2. Cuts the power of Water moves by 1/2.
3. Makes Solarbeam a one-turn move.
4. Cuts the Accuracy of Thunder to 50%.
5. Doubles the current effective Speed of pokemon with the Chlorophyll
ability.
6. Makes pokemon with the Forecast ability Fire-type.
7. Makes Weather Ball a power 100 Fire-type move.
8. Makes Moonlight and Morning Sun restore 3/4 of the user's max HP when
used.
Sunny Day does NOT cut the power of Thunder, I don't care what you've heard.
It will also not stop you from being frozen, or thaw you out.  That was GSC.

Rain Dance-
1. Raises the power of Water moves by 1.5x
2. Cuts the power of Fire moves by 1/2.
3. Cuts the power of Solarbeam to 60.
4. Makes Thunder have perfect accuracy.  (Perfect, not 100%)
5. Doubles the current effective Speed of pokemon with the Swift Swim
ability.
6. Restores 1/16 HP to pokemon with the Rain Dish ability.
7. Makes pokemon with the Forecast ability Water-type.
8. Makes Weather Ball a power 100 Water-type move.
9. Makes Moonlight and Morning Sun restore 1/4 of the user's max HP when
used.
It does NOT make Solarbeam a 3 or 4-turn move!!!

Sandstorm-
1. Hurts all pokemon with 1/16 HP unless they are Rock/Ground/Steel
types or have the ability Sand Veil.
2. Cuts the power of Solarbeam to 60.
3. Makes Weather Ball a power 100 Rock-type move.
4. Doubles the current effective evasion of pokemon with the Sand Veil
ability.
5. Makes Moonlight and Morning Sun restore 1/4 of the user's max HP when
used.
Sandstorm does not affect pokemon with the Forecast ability.

Hail-
1. Hurts all pokemon with 1/16 HP if they are not Ice types.
2. Cuts the power of Solarbeam to 60.
3. Makes Weather Ball a power 100 Ice-type move.
4. Makes Moonlight and Morning Sun restore 1/4 of the user's max HP when
used.
5. Makes pokemon with the Forecast ability Ice-type.
Hail does NOT raise the accuracy of Blizzard, or power up Ice moves.  (How
could netbattle not catch that one)

There's also Shadow Sky, which is a Shadow weather move only found in
Pokemon XD: Gale of Darkness for the Nintendo Gamecube.  But this is a
guide for Pokemon Emerald and I'm not messing with Shadow moves here.

I've also heard it said that Mist is a weather move.  It's not.

=================
7h. Move Priority
=================

This section deals with the 'priority' of moves.  You see, a faster pokemon
will normally move before a slower pokemon.  However, if the slower pokemon
uses a move with boosted priority, like Quick Attack, OR if the faster
pokemon uses a move with negative priority, like Revenge, the slower pokemon
will move first, because move priority overrides speed advantages.

For example, if my Trapinch uses Quick Attack, and your Ninjask with 2 Speed
Boosts, and a Quick Claw activation, uses Aerial Ace, my Trapinch will still
move first because my move had a higher priority than yours.

If we are both using Trapinches, and we both use Quick Attack, the faster
one will move first.  If one of us happens to get a Quick Claw activation
on this turn, that one will move first.  

If we both use moves with the same priority, and it turns out that we are
both the same speed, and no Quick Claw activates, it will be a 50/50 coin
flip who moves first.

Anyway, here is a basic list borrowed from a Smogon thread.  I haven't
tested it thoroughly yet, but it looks fine.

--------------------------------------------------------------
+6 | Helping Hand
+5 | Snatch and Magic Coat 
+4 | Follow Me
+3 | A user of Focus Punch will begin to start focusing...
+2 | Protect, Detect, and Endure
+1 | Quick Attack, Mach Punch, Extremespeed, and Fake Out
== | Every single move not mentioned here including Sleep Talk
-1 | Vital Throw
-2 | Focus Punch OH NOOOO!!!!!
-3 | Revenge
-4 | Counter and Mirror Coat
-5 | Roar and Whirlwind
--------------------------------------------------------------

Anyway, to sum up what I've already said.  A higher priority move will
ALWAYS go before a lower priority, no exceptions.  Speed only applies when
two or more pokemon are using moves that are in the same speed bracket.

But something interesting is that apparently you can use Sleep Talk to
effectively bump up the priority of -speed moves.  For example, a Crobat
could switch into an enemy Spore or Sleep Powder, and use Sleep Talk.
If the Crobat had only two moves, Sleep Talk and Whirlwind, and it used
Sleep Talk, the move would have no choice but to select Whirlwind.  Since
Sleep Talk is a normal priority move, the 'randomly' selected Whirlwind is
bumped up to normal priority, and Crobat's lighting speed takes over.
Crobat is fast enough to Whirlwind out foe after foe while they can do
nothing about it because they aren't fast enough.  Now imagine pairing this
with Spikes.  (hehehehehe) More of a novelty, but it gets the point across
about Sleep Talk.

Sleep Talk, however, will not work to bump up Focus Punch.  In-game, if
Sleep Talk randomly chooses Focus Punch, the move will 'fail'.  On netbattle
though, Sleep Talk will simply never pick Focus Punch randomly (so a set of
Sleep Talk + Roar + Focus Punch would still always pick Roar, at least on
Netbattle).

=======================
7i. End-of-turn effects
=======================

This is a list of the order in which end-of-turn effects like Burn, Leech
Seed, and Doom Desire will occur.  I borrowed the basic frame for this list
from Smogon, but tested it and corrected it, adding a bunch of moves and
changing things around (especially tier 4).

~

Tier 1
--------------------------
A - Reflect wears off
B - Light Screen wears off
C - Safeguard fades

Tier 2
------------------
A - Wish activates

Tier 3
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
A - Hail, Sandstorm, Rain, and Sunlight remind you that they are active
(or maybe they will fade now), and Hail and Sandstorm will do their damage.

Tier 4
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
A - Shed Skin heals the user
B - Ingrain recovers HP
C - Rain Dish recovers HP
D - Leftovers recovery/Berry activation
E - Leech Seed damage
F - Burn, Poison, Nightmare
G - Curse
H - Wrap and other 'vortex' moves

('Pinch Berries' like Ganlon and Salac go into effect if the user's HP
is <= 25% at that point; if the holder's HP is not <= 25% at that point,
but goes under later, because of something like Leech Seed, the berry will
not activate that turn.  Other berries with different activation
requirements, like Wiki or Sitrus, follow the same rule.)

Tier 5
--------------------------------------------
A - Yawn will put the opponent to sleep now!

Tier 6
-----------------------------
A - Doom Desire, Future Sight

~

Now the idea is that something a tier above something else will always go
before it, but within the tiers, speed comes into play.  That is, Wish will
always activate before a Sandstorm tears into you, because Wish is a tier
above Sandstorm.  However, if a fast pokemon is burned, it will incur Burn
damage before a slower pokemon gets its Leftovers recovery.  So the 'speed'
compared for these end-of-turn effects is usually that of the afflicted
pokemon or the holder of the item.  Normally, if an affliction is the result
of a move (such as Wrap or Leech Seed), only the speed of the afflicted
pokemon matters, not the user of the move.  If one pokemon has two or more
effects coming to him, they will happen in the order listed.

===========================
7j. Specific move mechanics
===========================

Just various mechanics for moves that might be confusing, or little
known effects of moves.

- A. Substitute mechanics

1. Substitute takes 1/4 of your maximum HP.  If your maximum HP is not
divisible by 4, it takes 1/4 of the number that is divisible by 4, that
is immediately lower than your max HP.  Thus if you have a max of 299
HP, substitute will take 74 HP.
2. The HP taken is placed in a 'substitute' which will take attacks for
you.  If you are attacked, the substitute takes the attack instead of
you.  Thus you cannot take damage while you have a substitute up.
3. The substitute has your type and defensive stats.  Thus a move that
is 'super-effective' on you is super-effective on your substitute as
well.
4. When the damage done to the substitute meets or exceeds its HP, it
will 'break' and you can no longer use it.
5. If a move hits multiple times, and the substitute breaks in the
middle of the attack, the attack may continue hitting, and thus you will
directly take damage.  This is the only way you can directly do damage
to a pokemon with a substitute.
6. Substitute also blocks several things.
 - Status effects (poison, Toxic, burn, sleep, etc.)
 - Leech Seed
 - Mean Look
 - Confuse Ray
 - Moves and abilities that drop your stats (Intimidate, Screech, etc.)
 - Knock Off/Thief/Covet/Trick's effect of making your pokemon lose its
item
 - Rapid Spin's extra effects
7. Substitute does not block a few important things though.
 - Skill Swap/Role Play/Trace
 - Encore
 - Attract
 - Roar/Whirlwind
 - Haze
8. HP restoring moves/items and pre-existing status effects will affect
the pokemon directly and not its substitute.
9. If you Baton Pass a substitute, it will keep the original creator's
HP, but will get the recipient's type and defensive stats.

- B. Rapid Spin mechanics

Rapid Spin blows away Spikes.  It also cancels out any vortex moves used
on the Spinner, namely, Wrap, Whirlpool, Fire Spin, Bind, etc.  It also
blows away Leech Seed.  However, none of these effects work against a
Ghost type, or against a pokemon with a substitute up.

- C. Snatch mechanics

Snatch always goes first.  What it does is steal any move that only
affects the pokemon that used it (namely, stat moves).  These include
Calm Mind, Light Screen, Substitute, Swords Dance, Recover and Rest.  It
will not Snatch Protect or Endure though.  It only affects the first
pokemon to use a stat move that turn (so if Ninjask uses Substitute the
same turn Slowbro uses Calm Mind, you'll steal the substitute).  Snatch
can and will steal something from your partner in a 2v2 match.  Finally,
Snatch cannot steal Speed Boost, or other such things (eg a Meteor Mash
attack boost).

- D. Transform mechanics

When a pokemon transforms, it retains its own IV and EV values.
However, it changes its Base Stats and ability to those of the pokemon
it transforms into.  But it doesn't change its HP, that stays the same.
So yes, you can transform into Shedinja and keep your higher-than-one
HP.  I have done it.  This applies to all pokemon that can use Transform
(namely, Mew/Smeargle/Ditto/anyone who can use Metronome).

- E. Baton Pass mechanics

Baton Pass passes all stats and invisible status.  This includes:

Stat boosts and drops (including Accuracy)
Substitute
Mean Look (both being Mean Looked, and using Mean Look yourself)
Leech Seed
Confusion
Torment
Ingrain

This does NOT include status like Paralysis, or Attraction.  And, I'm pretty
sure you can't pass a Leech Seed to a Grass type (who comes up with these
questions?) or Confusion to a pokemon with Own Tempo.

Also, Wish used to be on this list, but I removed it because technically
Wish doesn't need to be Baton Passed.  You can just switch into a Wish.

- F. Torment mechanics

Torment keeps the opponent from using the same move twice in a row.  It
stays until the Tormented pokemon switches.  It will NOT cancel an
opponent's move if they had used it last turn (eg Gengar can't switch in
on a Snorlax Return, use Substitute to block the first Shadow Ball, then
Torment to stop the Shadow Ball that's almost certainly coming).

- G. Taunt mechanics

Taunt keeps the opponent from using any non-attacking moves for 2 turns.
That is, the turn you use it and the turn after.  This is how Tyranitar
sets up Dragon Dances against a Mean Looked Skarmory.  Taunt WILL stop
non-attacking moves that were used on the same turn, assuming the
Taunter is faster (and against a Roarer, the Taunter is always faster).

- H. Imrison mechanics

Imprison keeps all pokemon in the opponent's party from using a move
that the Imprisoner knows, until the Imprisoner switches or dies.  How
annoying.  Like those AIs in Colosseum/XD that pair an Imprison+Ice Beam
Dusclops with five Dragon types.  Ugggh.  For a real moveset with Dusclops,
I understand that Imprison+Protect+HP Ghost+Earthquake is fairly awesome in
2v2.  Imprisoning one Hidden Power type keeps all enemies from using ANY
Hidden Power type btw.

- I. Beat Up mechanics

Don't laugh, Houndoom uses this to beat up Blisseys (pun).  The damage from
Beat Up is calculated this way:

It's a standard damage calculation, and the power of the move is 10, but
the attacker's attack power (the A) is equal to that pokemon's BASE
PHYSICAL ATTACK and the defense of the target (the D) is that pokemon's
BASE PHYSICAL DEFENSE.  So, for example, Houndoom (Base 90 Attack) uses
Beat Up on Blissey (Base 10 Defense).  So his attack does

((( 42 * 90 * 10 ) / 10 ) / 50 ) + 2 * 1.5 (STAB) = ~116 damage

and the same goes for each other living pokemon in the attacker's party,
with their own base Attack for the A.  So if you have Slaking (base 160									
Atk) and Metagross (base 135 Atk) and Salamence (base 135 Atk) and
Breloom (base 130 Atk) and Aerodactyl (base 105 Atk) as the other
pokemon in your party, you will really do a load of damage against
someone like Blissey or, well... Blissey is really the only one.  You
might slip one past Alakazam or Jynx, but don't count on it (and if you're
using Houndoom, you'd be better off Crunching those anyway).

Some other notes about Beat Up: STAB applies, but type advantages do
not.  Also, if you use Beat Up on your own partner in a 2v2 battle, they
will indeed hit themselves.  The randomization factor (the R/255) is skipped
entirely for Beat Up too.

- J. Doom Desire and Future Sight Mechanics

Doom Desire is power 120 with 85% accuracy.  Future Sight is power 80 with
90% accuracy.

Doom Desire is a Steel type move and Future Sight is a Psychic type move.
However, their type has no effect in battle.  They are super-effective
against nothing and ineffective against nothing.  So Future Sight will hit
Fighting types and Dark types with exactly the same amount of damage.
STAB does not apply for these moves either.  However, the applicable
attacking stat still applies (Doom Desire runs off ATTACK and Future Sight
runs off SP. ATK).

They hit at the end of the turn, after any Leftovers have been applied.
This means that several things don't work against these moves, including
Destiny Bond, Grudge, Counter/Mirror Coat, Protect, and Endure.

When calculating damage for these moves, the [R/255], the 'randomization'
part of the formula, is skipped entirely.

They both hit Shedinja, despite not being "super-effective" against him.

They do not activate the holder's Shell Bell.

They cannot be stacked.  That is, you can't have two of these out against
the same pokemon at the same time.  Even in a 2v2 battle, you can't use
two of these moves against the same pokemon.  You can use one of these
moves against each of your opponent's pokemon, but you can't have two out
against the same pokemon (even if you use it with two different pokemon).
Using two different moves against the same pokemon makes no difference
(using Future Sight and Doom Desire against the same pokemon will still
fail).

- K. Odor Sleuth and Foresight Mechanics

If you use these moves on a Ghost type, then until they switch, you can use
Normal or Fighting type moves on them and they will actually hit!  They
will hit with neutral effectiveness, but don't forget that Poison resists
Fighting, so Gengar will still resist Fighting moves.

- L. OHKO Moves Mechanics

Thanks to comradedover for reminding me of these.  Basically, your accuracy
with these moves goes up as the difference between your level and the level
of your target goes up.  If you are a lower level than your target, you
won't be able to hit with these moves at all (because your accuracy will
be 0%).  I'll try and get a real formula in here in the future, but for now,
this will have to do.

- M. 'Dodging' Moves Mechanics

I just wanted a list of moves that hit you while you're using a 'dodge'
move.

Fly/Bounce - Sky Uppercut, Thunder, Twister, Gust
Dig - Magnitude, Earthquake, Fissure
Dive - Surf

Also, I am pretty sure that if you get hit with any of these moves while
you are hiding, you take double damage (double the power of the move for
you damage calculators).

And yes, I know it sucks that they borked Swift and company in the
transition from GSC to RS so they no longer hit 'hiding' foes, but these
moves don't get used much anyway so there.

- N. Selfdestruct and Explosion

Right, so, Selfdestruct has a base power of 200 and Explosion has a base
power of 250.  However, what you might not have known is that when the
game calculates the damage from these moves, it CUTS THE TARGET'S DEFENSE
IN HALF for that one calculation.  So, the real base powers of these moves
are effectively closer to 400 and 500.  Cool huh?

- O. Stockpile/Spit Up/Swallow

Stockpile can be used up to three times to power Spit Up and Swallow.  Wow.
Here's what I received from an email about them.

One Stockpile = 100 power for Spit Up = 25% HP recovered for Swallow
Two Stockpiles = 200 power for Spit Up = 50% HP recovered for Swallow
Three Stockpiles = 300 power for Spit Up = 100% HP recovered for Swallow.

They also can't cause a Critical Hit, and if you miss, your Stockpiles
will remain piled.  Only if you hit with Spit Up, or switch, or
successfully recover HP, do your piles become unpiled.

...stockpile?  stockpile what, saliva?  I'd rather it stockpiled nuclear
warheads...

-----

If you can think of any other moves that should go in here, give me a yell.

==============
7k. Pokeblocks
==============

A pokemon's nature determines what flavor of Pokeblock it will like.

+Attack natures like Spicy (which raises Coolness).
+Defense natures like Sour (which raises Toughness).
+Sp.Atk natures like Dry (which raises Beauty).
+Sp.Def natures like Bitter (which raises Smartness).
+Speed natures like Sweet (which raises Cuteness).
Neutral natures will eat anything with indifference.
Minus natures dislike the same pokeblocks that plus natures like.

As this is not a contest guide I will not go into any more depth than this,
but suffice it to say that if a pokemon likes a pokeblock flavor then it
can eat more of that flavor of pokeblock than other flavors, and gains more
in its contest stats from those pokeblocks.

                             /~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~\
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~   8. The End   ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
                             \~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~/

Here's the end.  Surely you are bored by now so scoot off and play some
pokemon.  I apologize for the poor presentation of the data and ideas
presented in this FAQ.  I'm doing my best!

Anyway, here's my "to do" list.  This is just all the stuff I can think of
that I don't have in here, that I know I don't have in here because I don't
know how it works.  If you know something about something on this list... it
would be great for you to tell me what you know.  (I see my writing gets
very lame after midnight)

-Present mechanics
-Specifics on Metronome (what it can and can't choose, specifically)
-A real formula for OHKO moves' accuracy
-Low Kick powers
-The rates of the individual hit counts on multi-hit moves like Fury Swipes.
I heard the rates somewhere but forgot them; it was something like
2 hits - 33.75%
3 hits - 33.75%
4 hits - 16.25%
5 hits - 16.25%
-The ingame effects of the gym badges on your pokemon.  This is sooooooo
stupid but I guess someone might care.  I know I've wished once or twice
that I knew what they did.
-Fury Cutter's successive powers
-Wild Pokemon hold items
-The many less important rates/formulas which I know must exist, like how
many turns Encore lasts, I don't really care about getting, but it's always
nice to feel like you have a really complete guide.

===========
8a. Credits
===========

Thanks to the following:

God - without whom this guide would not have been possible

My Grandpa - for being cool like that

Serebii.net because that's where I was weaned on Game Mechanics.  The
place to go for in-game players.

Netbattle for being cool, and inadvertently telling me about the effects
of Reflect/Light Screen in a double battle.

Egervari (as much as it pains me) for info on the Macho Brace, Pokerus,
and level-up growth rates.  Maybe some other stuff I've forgotten as well -
reading his guide was the very first time I ever heard of game mechanics.
I'm not endorsing reading it though, don't get me wrong.

Fog on Netbattle for telling me about the rates of Fire Blast/Blizzard.

Marek14 for informing me of a small error.  I called a hyperbola a parabola.
Nowadays I study calculus.  I'd have to shoot myself if I made the same
error today.

particle_theorist for reminding me about priority moves.

comradedover for reminding me about OHKO moves.

Eeveesrule for getting me to talk about Accuracy.

DigitalCrash27 for reminding me of Stockpile/Spit Up/Swallow (and a few
other moves as well).

(I'm not sure what name I should credit her by) for telling me
about Pichu evolving into Pikachu through happiness.

LoZDestroyer (from Gamefaqs) for telling me about Hail turning Forecast
Pokemon into Ice types.

The people from Smogon for being very useful indeed and having lots of data
for me (WAY too much to list, but some of the key things included most of
the data used in the entries in the 'specific move mechanics' section, the
breeding method that allows you to set your nature/gender/ability, Quick
Claw/Metal Powder mechanics, and Rollout's Powers).

blueshirt32's Moveset guide because that's where I got the HP 70
listings.

Special thanks to albino_vulpix's Formulae guide on IGN.  I've never
been to IGN, but when I Googled 'How do Water Spout and Eruption work?'
and hit [I Feel Lucky], sure enough, it popped up with the answer.  It
also had the formulae for Flail/Reversal, Critical Hit rates, and
Confusion damage, so I immediately incorporated those into my guide.
Thanks.

Gamefaqs for being the first site to host this guide, and being generally
cool.

================
8b. Contact Info
================

If you find something I missed, or something that I didn't put in the
guide, or think I did a poor job of explaining something, or found a
typo, or if you just have a suggestion, or ESPECIALLY if you think I'm wrong
somewhere, you can email me at darkchykka@yahoo.com.  Note that I don't
have home internet access, so it may take a few days or more (highlight
"or more") for me to get back to you.  If you help out with this guide in
any way I will put you in the credits, if you include your screenname
(unless of course you request anonymity).

Please don't email asking for battling advice though because, frankly, I
suck.  Can't play to save my life, and I'm tired of trying.  Ask someone
else.

By the way, please check Gamefaqs.com for the latest version of this guide
before contacting me.  If you don't, and you email me about a problem I've
already fixed, I won't be mad, but I will be DISAPPOINTED.

==================
8c. Copyright Info
==================

This guide is Copyright 2006 Rain_Dance.  Please don't steal it and claim it
as your own or anything retarded like that.  Don't make any money off of it
whatever you do.  However, I have no problem if you want to post it on your
website.  The public has a right to quality information and as such, I want
to give anyone who wants it the authority to post this guide anywhere on the
internet.  I say this with confidence because if you try to make any money
off of this guide, you are a fool because anyone who wants to see it can
just go to one of the other umpteen videogaming sites on the internet and
find it for free.

If you want to take anything from this guide and incorporate it into one
of your own, I don't care.  Please credit me though because I spent waaaaaay
too much time on this forsaken project to have it stolen.

Now here's my part.  I don't own Pokemon or any of the Pokemon related
game mechanics or items or moves or any of the pokemon.  I had nothing
to do with the making of the game and I wrote this guide 50% from memory
and 50% from research (and the memory came from research too!).  All
trademarks and copyrights contained within this document are owned by their
respective trademark and copyright holders.  Which according to the opening
credits of the game is Nintendo/Creatures/Game Freak/Pokemon.

~~~

As the Russian poet Gogol wrote famously in Dead Souls, "Everything
resembles the truth!  Everything can happen to a man!"  And, like Conrad's
ivory-trader Kurtz, power-madness has unquestionably 'happened' to the
author of this FAQ.  "The horror!", I whisper, and die.  "The horror!"  My
transgressions are of the same nature as Kurtz's - I do not seek to become
the object of worship of uneducated savages - but my 'horror', is that I
have unmercifully robbed perhaps thousands of people - most of them
children - robbed them, I say, of the very essence of their souls!  And for
what?  For passing fame?  To be known and to know myself as the creator and
originator of something which has given somebody some measure of temporary
illusory pleasure?  The horror!  My body is wasting under the mental anguish
of the responsibility!  The horror!  I fall to my knees, too ashamed even
to beg forgiveness!  I fall to my knees, and pray only for death's release
from consciousness!
   I fall on my face - the prayer is answered!