__ __ __ ___ ___ ____ ___ __ / \ / \ / \ | _ \ | _ \ | __| | \ | | / /\ \/ /\ \ / /\ \ | | \ \ | | \ \ | |__ | \ | | | | | | | | | |__| | | | | | | | | | | | | |\ \ | | | | | | | | | __ | | | | | | | | | | __| | | \ \ | | | | | | | | | | | | | |_/ / | |_/ / | |__ | | \ \| | |_| |__| |_| |_| |_| |____/ |____/ |____| |__| \____| _ ____ ___ / / / __ \ / | /_/ / / \ \ / /| | \ \__/ | / / | | \___ | / /__| |_ __ / / /_____ _| \ \_/ / | | \___/ |_| ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Table of Contents ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ [INTRO] Introduction [MODES] Modes of Play [CONTR] Controls [TEAMS] Team Stats [OFFPB] Offensive Playbook [DEFPB] Defensive Playbook [NOTES] FAQs and General Tips [REALL] Comparing with Reality [VERSN] Version History [COPYR] Copyright [CONTC] Contact Information ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Introduction [INTRO] ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ We're not far away from hearing sounds of "HUT! HUT!" in the air, so VinnyVideo's doing yet another guide for a Madden game. I've now written a guide for every Super NES Madden game except two. A good walkthrough writer always knows when to capitalize on positive publicity; this game was mentioned in the Wall Street Journal last month (believe it or not). While Madden '94 doesn't have today's graphics or updated rosters, it has a deep playbook for its time and good music. The graphics are brighter and more cartoony than most Madden games. As in John Madden Football '93, the players are pretty slow, so big plays are rare, especially on the outside run. There are no actual players, although all 28 NFL teams (as of 1993) are included, as well as several classic teams and all-star teams. The game has no substitutions except for the option of inserting the backup quarterback. It may take a few minutes to learn all the spins and other moves, but it's not like the play control in the ultra-complicated newer games. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Modes of Play [MODES] ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ---Regular Game--- Here you can play an exhibition game using the teams of your choice. You can select the field type, weather, and quarter length, too. ---Entire Season--- This starts a new season. Imagine that! You can select as many or as few games as you wish to play. ---Sudden Death--- Sudden Death is essentially an overtime period that matches up the teams of your choice. The first team to score will win the game. ---1993 Playoffs--- The first of the three playoff modes, this lets you recreate the 1993 playoffs. ---Champion Playoffs--- This playoff series matches up teams that have appeared in previous Super Bowls. ---Franchise Playoffs--- Franchise Playoffs is a playoff series involving all-star teams consisting of a franchise's best players ever. As with other playoffs, only 12 teams will participate. ---Restore Password--- Enter a sometimes-lengthy password to resume a season or playoffs in progress. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Controls [CONTR] ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ---General--- Control pad any direction - Move player START - Pause game ---Kickoff--- Start the power bar - B Stop the power bar - B (when it's near the top) Aim kick left/right - Control pad left/right Call an audible - A Line up for an onside kick (after calling an audible) - A Return to standard kicking formation (after calling an audible) - B Control the kick receiver - Control pad any direction ---Before the snap--- (Offense) Set a man in motion - Control pad left or right Fake snap signal (HUT!) - X Snap the ball - B (Defense) Select player to control - B or X Line surge - L or R ---Audibles (either offense or defense)--- Call an audible - A Select an audible play (after calling an audible) - Y, B, or A Cancel audible - X ---After the snap--- (Offense) Rushing Burst of speed/break tackle - B Dive/QB slide - Y Hurdle - X Spin - A (Defense) Control player closest to the ball - B Dive - Y Jump and raise hands - X Power Tackle - A ---Passing--- Move the quarterback - Control Pad any direction Bring up passing letters - B Pass to receiver Y, B, or A - Y, B, or A Note: The longer you hold down the pass button, the harder the throw will be. Don't forget that your quarterback can run, too. ---Receiving--- Control receiver closest to the ball - B Jump and raise hands - X Dive - Y Spin - A ---Punting/Kicking--- Fake snap signal (HUT!) - X Start power bar/snap the ball - B Aim the kick - Control pad left/right Kick the ball - B ---Play Calling--- Move play selection highlight - Control pad up/down Flip play (Only for offense, and not available for the Special Teams formations) - X Return to formation select screen from play screen - L or R ---Menus--- Move highlight up/down - Control Pad up/down Cycle through choices - Control Pad left/right Select highlighted option - START ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Team Stats [TEAMS] ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ These team ratings are generally accurate, although I don't agree with everything. You'll have a hard time convincing me that Mark Rypien (even in 1991) was a better quarterback than Johnny Unitas. Remember that there are shades of variation within each rating; for example, some "Good" ratings are better than others, just as a B+ is a better grade than a B-. Wide receiver ratings are usually lower than other areas. I use the following scale for calculating the team's overall rating, but keep in mind that I weigh running backs just as heavily as the punter: Excellent 4 points Good 3 points Average 2 points Poor 1 points Overall QB RB WR OL DL LB DB K P All Madden 33 E E E G E E G E G Atlanta Falcons 16 A P A A P P P E A Buffalo Bills 28 G E A E E G G G A Chicago Bears 16 G A P A P A A P A Cincinnati Bengals 14 P G P A P P P A A Cleveland Browns 17 A P P A G G P A A Dallas Cowboys 32 E E G E E E E A G Denver Broncos 16 G P P P P A A A G Detroit Lions 20 A G P A A A A G G Green Bay Packers 20 G P A A G A A G A Houston Oilers 30 E E A G G E E A E Indianapolis Colts 18 A A A A P A A A G Kansas City Chiefs 21 G P P A A E G E A Los Angeles Raiders 21 G A P A G G A G A Los Angeles Rams 18 G G P G P A P A A Miami Dolphins 25 G A A A E G G E A Minnesota Vikings 22 P G P A A G E G G New England Patriots 11 P P P P P A A P P New Orleans Saints 26 A P A A G E E E E New York Giants 17 A A P A A A A A A New York Jets 17 P G P A P A A A G Philadelphia Eagles 26 E G A A E E G A A Phoenix Cardinals 18 A A A A G A P P G Pittsburgh Steelers 22 P E A G A A G G A San Diego Chargers 26 A A A G E E G E A San Francisco 49ers 24 E G A E G A A A A Seattle Seahawks 15 P A P P P A G P G Tampa Bay Buccaneers 18 A G P A G A P A A Washington Redskins 21 A G P G A A E A A All Time All Madden 36 E E E E E E E E E All Time Bears 26 A E A A G E G E A All Time Browns 18 A E G A P P P A A All Time Cowboys 28 E E G G E G G A A All Time Packers 20 G A A G A A G A P All Time Colts 24 G G A A G A E P E All Time Chiefs 27 G G A G A E G G E All Time Raiders 30 G E G G G G E G E All Time Dolphins 26 E G G E P A G A E All Time Giants 24 A A G A P E G G E All Time Steelers 22 G G A G A A G A A All Time 49ers 26 E G E G G A E A G All Time Redskins 27 G G A E A A G E E 1966 Chiefs 26 G G A E A A E A E 1966 Packers 23 G A P G A E E P G 1967 Raiders 30 G A G G E E E G E 1968 Jets 29 G A G E A E E G E 1968 Colts 23 A G A G A E E P A 1969 Vikings 23 A G P A G E E A A 1969 Chiefs 28 A G P E A E E E E 1970 Colts 19 A P A A P G G P E 1971 Cowboys 27 E G A E G E G P G 1972 Dolphins 23 P G P E A E E A A 1972 Redskins 22 A E P E P E G P A 1973 Vikings 23 G E P G A A E A A 1975 Steelers 26 E G P G A G E E A 1975 Cowboys 26 E A A G G E E A A 1976 Raiders 22 G A G E A A A P G 1976 Vikings 23 G E A A A G G A A 1977 Cowboys 26 E E P E G G G A A 1977 Broncos 18 A A P P G G A A A 1978 Steelers 21 G A P G P E G A A 1979 Rams 21 P G P G A G E A A 1980 Raiders 21 A G A A A A A A E 1980 Eagles 23 G G A G A G G A A 1981 49ers 24 G A A E P G E A G 1981 Bengals 21 E P G G A A P P E 1982 Redskins 24 E A A A G G G E P 1983 Raiders 24 G E A P A A A E E 1984 Dolphins 24 E A G E A P A A E 1984 49ers 24 E G A E A A A A G 1985 Bears 28 G E P A G E E E G 1985 Patriots 27 A G P G A E E E E 1986 Giants 20 A G A P A A P G E 1987 Redskins 20 P A A E G P G A A 1987 Broncos 18 E A A A P A P A A 1988 Bengals 22 G E A E A A G P P 1989 49ers 22 E G G P A G A A A 1990 Bills 24 G E A E G A A A A 1990 Giants 23 A G P G A G G A E 1991 Redskins 25 G G G E A G A E P ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Offensive Playbook [OFFPB] ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ A few notes: I always assume that the play is NOT flipped, but the mirror feature (press X on the play selection screen) is good to use from time to time, particularly on certain plays or against a human opponent. When I use terms like "Y receiver" and "A receiver," I'm referring to the buttons that correspond to the receivers on the non-flipped version of the play. "Y receiver" can have a different meaning in real-life playbooks. Also, since you're playing an old football video game, I'm assuming you have some grasp of football theory, rules, and terminology; you know what a tight end or shotgun formation is. That said, I'm still going to explain certain terms for the less football-savvy. Remember that results may vary based on offense, defense, down, hashmarks, and other factors. I've tried to test each play against a variety of defenses and with the plays both regular and mirrored, but there's still a chance I may have misjudged a few plays. Also, no play will work 100% of the time. The five-receiver formation wasn't around in the NFL in 1994, so don't go looking for any five-receiver sets or 7-DB "quarter" defenses here - or zone blitzes, for that matter. For those of you who are counting, there are 85 plays on offense and 64 plays in the defensive playbook. While many of these plays (or plays that are very similar) appear in the playbooks of today's Madden games, I don't recommend trying to use this guide with any games other than the Super NES version of Madden '94. Far/Near (18 plays) =============================================================================== This formation is best for running, although it contains several passing plays. The only difference between the "Far" and "Near" formations is whether or not your halfback is on the same side of the formation as the tight end. ---HB Toss Sweep--- This play demonstrates the difficulty of running outside in Madden '94, even if you have an All-Pro offensive line and a lightning-fast running back. You can't often gain more than a yard or two on this play, and if the linebackers stop you in the backfield, you're looking at a loss of three. Outside rushes like this sweep right don't tend to work well in Madden '94 because the players are so slow, but this play is especially bad. ---HB Counter--- In a counter play, the running back steps in one direction to fake out the defense, and then he runs in the opposite direction. You can often get five yards with this, especially if you have a good left tackle. It's usually most effective if you charge straight up the hashmark. ---HB Inside--- A fairly safe and effective halfback dive play. While the play is designed to be run up the middle, you can also run off tackle for what can be a big gain. This play doesn't often lose yardage. ---Weak Flood--- All of your targets are on the strong side of the line on this play. The fullback (A) works almost like a screen pass. The halfback (B) will be running in real traffic, so your best target is the split end (Y) on the post. ---FB Option Dive--- Running fullbacks were a little more popular in 1994 than they are nowadays. This is a plain old fullback dive - a safe way to earn 2-5 yards. ---TE Corner--- On this play, all of your options are on the strong side of the field. The halfback (Y) runs a deep curl, while the tight end (A) and flanker (B) cross. If the defense is blitzing the linebackers, this play works very well, especially when throwing to the halfback. Against a 3-4 short zone, however, you won't have much luck. ---Roll Out--- If your quarterback is a good scrambler, this is a good play to use. If the LOLB sits back in coverage, you might want to run. Otherwise, look for the tight end (Y) or flanker (B) on the post, or play it safe and dump it off to the halfback (A). ---PA Far--- The best option, especially against a standard 3-4, is usually the split end (Y) on the short in pattern. The other options include a hooking tight end (A) and a flanker (B) on a corner route. ---FB Circle--- The split end (Y) fakes a slant and runs a corner route, while the flanker (B) runs an out. The fullback (A), who will be available in the flat, is a great option against a deep zone or ROLB blitz. ---PA Near--- If your flanker (B) is fast, he might just get open downfield for a touchdown! If he's covered, try the tight end (A) on the in pattern or the split end (Y) on the post. ---Strg. Flood--- All receiving options are on the strong side of the line, and every one of them is moving toward the sidelines. This play can work against a deep zone, but it's not great for first down. ---HB Lead--- A good, effective running play. The fullback normally runs off tackle, with the halfback as the lead blocker. If the strong-side linebacker isn't blitzing, try running to the sideline as if this were a sweep; you'll probably gain 50 yards. Otherwise, run the play as you normally would. In Madden '93, this play went by the name of FB Lead Right. ---HB Toss--- This play isn't quite as great as it is in Madden '96, but it's still very effective. While this play is not guaranteed to gain yardage, it can often produce a gain of ten, and is thus one of the best outside rushes in the playbook. ---FB Screen--- Your primary option for this screen pass is, of course, the fullback (A). A fast fullback can get a first down, especially against a blitz, but against a short zone, you'll have little luck. You can also try the flanker (B), who fakes an in route, or the split end (Y) on the hook. ---Hooks--- The split end (Y), tight end (A), and flanker (B) all run short hook patterns. This play will flop if your opponents are using a short zone, but if the opponents are in a deep zone, you'll be able to throw to the man of your choice. ---WR Screen--- This is supposed to be a screen pass to the wide receiver, but none of the linemen pull-block, and all of the receivers are on deep posts or streaks. A misnomer, but not a bad play. ---HB Sweep--- On this play, the halfback takes the pitch and must run almost to the sideline before turning. There's obviously a risk here, but a fast back can easily gain 5-10 yards. ---Stop Clock--- In this play, the quarterback spikes the ball to stop the clock. It's best used in two-minute drill situations when stopping the clock is worth losing a down. In this game, though, it's usually quickest just to run a play. This play appears in every formation. Single Back (9) =============================================================================== I don't like this form of the Single Back formation and rarely use it. The problem is that your only running back lines up very close to the quarterback, so the back can't get much momentum on running plays, and there's no fullback to tie up defenders. And while this formation is OK for passing, I usually prefer more wide outs and/or a shotgun snap on obvious passing situations. ---HB Toss--- This sweep right can lose yardage, but if your back is quick enough, you can turn the corner and make a big play. Watch out for blitzing left cornerbacks and LOLBs. ---HB Sweep--- This is basically a flipped version of HB Toss. ---Rollout Pass--- On this play, the quarterback rolls out of the pocket. The split end (Y) on the deep post is your primary option, as the tight end (B) and flanker (A) often run into too much traffic to be particularly useful. ---HB Counter--- As with other counter plays, the back fakes a step in the opposite direction before running in the intended direction. It's hard to lose yardage with this inside run, but a lot of the time you'll just gain two or three yards. However, you can run off tackle and sometimes gain decent yardage. ---Quick Screen--- This play is designed as a quick screen pass to the flanker (A). You can earn a lot of yardage if the opponents play deep and you have a fast receiver. The split end's (Y) route is too short to be of much use, although you might consider going deep to the tight end (B). This play works poorly against most 3-4 sets. ---Circle Pass--- The back (Y), who runs a circle pattern, is your primary target. The tight end (B) and flanker (A), who cross, are effective if they ever get open. ---HB Dive--- See what I mean about the lack of momentum? This is a low-risk, low-reward play that usually gains about two yards. There's not much to say about this meat- and-potatoes play. ---PA Streak--- Where's Reggie Wayne when you need him? This is a very effective Peyton Manning-style play - fake a handoff, then throw deep to one of three streaking receivers. This is a great way to hurl a bomb when your opponent isn't expecting one. ---Stop Clock--- Use this play to stop the clock in a two-minute drill. Pro Form (18) =============================================================================== The Pro Form formation, also known as Split Backs or other names, is very similar to Far/Near. It's good for both running and passing, and it's probably the formation I use most frequently. As the most popular formation of its time, the Pro Form has the largest play selection of any set in the game (except Far/ Near, which is really two formations in one). ---Roll Out--- As with other rollouts, you want the quarterback to leave the pocket before you take control of him. You should have plenty of time for someone to get open, since both backs are blocking. The split end (Y) on the post often gets "jammed," but if he's open, throw to him! Your tight end (A) and flanker (B) are safe options that can get pretty good results if they're not in major congestion. ---Cross Pass--- The Y receiver runs a quick slant pattern that frequently results in a deflected pass. The tight end (A) runs an out pattern that usually crosses with the flanker (B). This works poorly against the blitz. ---FB Trap--- Not the best running play in the book, even among fullback runs. If you run the play the way it's drawn, you probably won't gain more than a couple of yards, so you might prefer to run off right guard or even right tackle. ---Quick Posts--- All three receiving options run short post patterns in this passing play. The split end (Y) is the most consistent target, but all work well. This play is one of my favorites, so I suggest using it as one of your three audibles. ---Off Tackle--- The halfback runs between the right tackle and tight end. What more can you say? This is a good general-purpose run that should gain about five yards without much risk. A good choice as your run audible. ---Hook Outs--- You can go deep with the wide outs (Y or B), or weave through traffic with the tight end (A) on the post. This is a pretty good way to earn approximately 15 yards. ---FB Counter--- This is a rare play that really gives your fullback a chance to shine. If your fullback runs well, this will be very effective. A skilled player can often gain 10 yards, and more against a Nickel. Watch how the blocking develops, then run through the appropriate hole. Unless the defense has eight men in the box, you're unlikely to lose yardage. ---All Streak--- Here's a good passing play. You'll have a choice of three streaking receivers to choose from - and one should be open. ---HB Sweep--- The success of this play rests on the blocking abilities of your right guard, right tackle, and fullback. Dash near the sideline, and if your men make their blocks, you'll be gone! If they don't block well or if the LOLB blitzes, you can easily lose three yards. You can also use this play as a run up the middle if you want to reduce risk (and also minimize reward). ---Inside Run--- Basically a fullback dive, this play will succeed with good blocking and an effective rushing-oriented fullback. Often you'll get the best result if you wait for the center and guards to block some defenders before you push forward. ---Play Action--- This is another good play to use when you want to go deep on first down. The split end (Y) and tight end (A) are on deep posts, and the flanker (B) fakes a slant and runs downfield. This play isn't likely to succeed against a deep zone. ---Circle Pass--- This play resembles other plays with "circle" in their names, although on this one, you must get rid of the ball quickly. If he's open and you're quick, the streaking Y receiver will produce a big gain. The flanker (B) on the out is also a good option, while the halfback (A) is in too much traffic to be useful. ---HB Toss--- This isn't the best play in the book. The DRE frequently overpowers the LT, stopping you for a loss. While it's possible to gain 4-8 yards, there are other running plays that produce as much or more gain with less risk. ---FB Dive--- Another fullback dive, but this one is unique. The fullback takes a pitch as he's moving forward, so there's practically no chance of a loss. Unfortunately, you're unlikely to gain more than about one yard. Good for short yardage situations. ---End Around--- In an end around, the quarterback hands off to a wide receiver who's coming around the bend. Not surprisingly, this play is very risky but can net a big gain. When you take the snap, watch how the blocking sets up and decide whether you should run off left tackle or right tackle. If your opponents' defensive line is better than your O-line, the answer is probably right tackle. This end around works great against deep zones but fails miserably against aggressive rush. End arounds are also beneficial for keeping human players on their toes. ---All In--- This play's name is pretty self-explanatory; every receiving option runs toward the middle of the field. Your receivers (Y and B) are your best options, although the halfback (A) may be open against a deep zone. ---FB Center Trap--- This is another fullback run, which will be pretty effective if your fullback runs well. Be patient and let the blockers block. Interestingly, while Madden '94 and '95 have nearly identical offensive playbooks, FB Center Trap is replaced by Hook 'n' Ladder in Madden '95. ---Stop Clock--- As with the Stop Clock play found in other formations, the quarterback spikes the ball to stop the clock. It's best used in two-minute drill situations when stopping the clock is worth the cost of losing a down. I Form (9) =============================================================================== The I-Form has the fullback lined up between the quarterback and halfback, forming an "I" shape. ---Quick Slant--- On Quick Slant, your main target is the slanting split end (B). The tight end (A) on the post can also be effective, while the halfback (Y) in the flat will face too much pressure, especially if the ROLB is blitzing. This play works poorly against 3-4 short zones. ---WR Outs--- Both backs stay in to block, so you have a lot of time to throw to the man of your choice. The receivers (Y and B) run deep outs, and the tight end (A) streaks. This play is exciting, fun, and quite effective. ---HB Counter--- This is a pretty good running play. If you can dodge the LOLB, you'll gain good yardage with this. ---FB Dive--- This play is exactly what it says it is - a fullback dive. 1-5 yards is a frequent outcome, and you won't lose any yardage. This penetrates stacked lines and gains respectable yardage against standard 3-4 sets. ---HB Sprint Draw--- The linemen take a step backward here, which may fool the defense into thinking this is actually a pass. It's a reliable way to earn 3-9 yards, and possibly more against a passive defense. ---Curls--- All three receiving options run short curls. You'll be best off releasing the ball right before the receivers turn. This is a great antidote to deep zones, but it's good any time. The tight end faces too much traffic against standard 4-3 schemes, though. ---HB Sweep--- This sweep left is a good choice if you have a talented, athletic running back. A well-timed hurdle or dive will earn you an easy ten yards. The only danger comes from blitzing right linebackers, who can stop you for a loss. ---TE Out + Up--- The split end (Y) runs a nice in route that usually avoids most of the interior congestion. The tight end (A) on the out and up route can get wide open. It's a good idea to take manual control of him while the ball's in the air. The flanker (B) on the post will usually draw double coverage, making him a risky bet. ---Stop Clock--- I really shouldn't have to tell you this again, but the Stop Clock play spikes the ball so the clock will stop. Shotgun (9) =============================================================================== The shotgun formation is good for passing because of its "shotgun" snap - the quarterback gets the ball several yards behind the line of scrimmage instead of from right under center. It isn't great for running, though. The Madden '94 version of the shotgun formation has three receivers, one tight end, and one running back. This is one receiver more than Single Back and one less than Run & Shoot. A good pass-blocking line helps. ---Hail Mary--- All your receivers head deep. This is best used in desperate situations where a quick touchdown is needed, although you could try it when you really want to shock the opponents. You'll usually want to take control of the receiver while the ball is in the air. ---Short Posts--- If you're in a two-minute drill, it's hard to beat a hard, quick pass to the split end (Y) on the out. Both the second tight end (B) and flanker (A) run short post patterns. ---HB Toss--- Outside running isn't easy in the Shotgun formation, but good blocking will reward you with a big gain. This is a high-risk play that can gain 15 yards or lose three. Call an audible in the unlikely event your opponent has eight men in the box. While it's best to run this as a sweep, you can also try plowing straight through the line - a much safer option. ---HB Draw Trap--- This can earn a surprising amount of yardage if the defense is expecting a pass. Either hit the hole between the pulling right guard and the center, or run a sweep left. ---QB Waggle--- You've got to love plays with cute names like this. Normally you roll out to the right and throw to one of the receivers (probably the slot receiver) on post patterns, but you might prefer to take off running if you have an agile quarterback. ---Deep Outs--- Your main targets here are your exterior receivers (Y and A), who can make some pretty big plays. If they're well-covered, you'll probably be able to dump the ball off to the halfback (B). This play is best if you need quick yardage, especially in a two-minute drill. ---Hooks--- All three receiving options run hooks in this play. Your best option is the tight end (A) or the deeper flanker (B). The halfback (Y), who squirts through the line, will be open if nobody picks him up. ---HB Shovel Pass--- This play is designed to be a shovel pass to your running back (Y). This is very effective when the defense is in a Nickel. Against a 4-3, the shovel pass can sometimes be stopped for a loss. If you feel lucky or your opponent is still in a 4-3 (or you see an open receiver), you can throw deep to the crossing tight end (A) and flanker (B). ---Stop Clock--- Our old friend Stop Clock also makes an appearance in the Shotgun formation, where it's probably most likely to be used. Run-Shoot (9) =============================================================================== The Run-Shoot formation is named after the Run 'n' Shoot offensive system, as this was the formation that system usually employed. It's similar to Single Back, except that it has four wide receivers and one running back instead of two receivers, two tight ends, and a back. Effective use of the Run & Shoot formation demands a deep crop of effective wide receivers, as well as an offensive line that pass blocks well. Flipping these plays won't usually affect much. Because the field is "spread out," you may find it easier for the quarterback to scramble, especially up the middle. Don't forget to use the slot receivers, who often remain uncovered or covered by a linebacker or safety (especially against a standard 4-3). ---In And Out--- Your streaking left-hand slot receiver (Y) is your best bet if he's open. Otherwise, look for the B receiver on the in route or the A receiver on the out. Alternatively, try sneaking up the middle with your quarterback and sliding - a fun and nervy way to grab 3-5 yards. ---PA Pass--- A play action pass seems a little weird in this formation, but this play is reasonably good nonetheless. If the Y or B receivers aren't open deep, try dumping the ball off to the A receiver. ---HB Counter--- Counter Left is a good general running play for Run & Shoot fans that can usually gain four yards. The linemen initially take a step backward, so this is almost like a draw play. ---Posts Corner--- The Y and B receivers cross on posts, and the halfback (A) serves as a safety net in the left flat. ---HB Toss--- A good running play, although riskier than some. Normally you'll run off- tackle, although I prefer to use this play as a sweep if the blocking holds up. Be warned, however: If the defense rushes aggressively, you may lose yardage in the way that makes 320-pound men make ridiculous dances. ---Hooks--- The B and A receivers will hook after about ten yards, providing safe, sane options. If you want to go for the bomb, the Y receiver will run straight downfield. ---Deep Posts--- A pretty ordinary passing play. The Y receiver on the out and up is an interception risk if you don't throw the ball hard enough, whereas the B and A receivers are generally safer. ---WR Screen--- In a wide receiver screen pass, the line pulls to the right to block for the A receiver, the intended recipient of the pass. It doesn't work quite right, though. If you just want to be different, you can throw to the halfback (Y) in the flat or the B receiver on the post. ---Stop Clock--- This rarely-used play stops the clock in a high-pressure situation. Goal Line (9) =============================================================================== This formation is full of plays that are useful only in short-yardage situations, especially near the goal line. There are two backs, two tight ends, and a receiver. Reversing Goal Line plays will have little effect. ---HB Lead Left--- This is a halfback dive. HB Lead Left is a good play to use for third-and- short. ---FB Pull--- A good choice if you only need a yard or two. It's not particularly glamorous, though. As with HB Lead Left, you may prefer to run around the line for the score. ---HB Lead Right--- Just like HB Lead Left, although slightly more effective. ---Flood Left--- There aren't many passing plays in the Goal Line formation, but this is one of them. Everyone heads left. The Y receiver on the out is your most effective option, as he's the least likely to be in considerable traffic. You could also roll out to the right and run for the score. ---FB Cut Left--- Another fullback dive, but this is a little riskier than FB Pull. ---HB Cut Right--- The goal of this counter play is to avoid the congestion in the middle by running off right tackle. Although nothing is guaranteed inside the five, this play works very effectively, especially when you need two or three yards. ---QB Sneak--- The Quarterback Sneak is a low-risk play, but don't expect to gain much more than a yard or two. But it's very good at getting that one yard! ---Play Action--- The quarterback fakes a handoff on this play. Try throwing hard to the B or A receiver, but if they're covered, go for the riskier halfback (Y) in the flat. ---Stop Clock--- It's unlikely that you'll use this clock-stopping play from the Goal Line formation. Punt (2) =============================================================================== ---Fake Punt--- As you know, fake punts are risky. This is the pass form of the fake punt. Look for your Y, B, and A receivers and throw to whoever's open. Your B man is safest, while Y and A are best for longer gains. This play can be quite effective against human players, if just for the shock value alone. ---Punt--- When it's fourth down and too far to kick, you will usually want to punt. And this is the play to select when you wish to do so. Field Goal (2) =============================================================================== ---Fake FG--- Fake field goals are very risky, so use them carefully. This is a standard passing fake field goal. Your best bet is the B option. Ignore the kicking meter. As with fake punts, fake field goals work best against human opponents. ---Field Goal--- This play lets you kick a field goal. What a surprise! This is also the play to select when you want to kick an extra point after a touchdown. Don't try to kick a field goal unless you're inside the opposition 30 or so, though. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Defensive Playbook [DEFPB] ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ I'm not going to be as verbose on the defensive plays. Instead, I'm just going to give a few details about each play; you can tell a lot just from the names and diagrams. 4-3 (18) =============================================================================== The 4-3 defense is the defensive set used by most teams in most situations. ---Monster Blitz--- The middle linebacker blitzes, crushing the inside running game and putting enormous pressure on the quarterback. A pass up the middle could be dangerous, though. ---Jam Middle--- Both outside linebackers blitz, while the linemen rush toward the middle of the line. This play is good at stopping the inside run but is weaker against sweeps and passes to the flats. ---Cheat Left--- All of your linemen rush toward the left side of the defensive line. The idea is to block the left tackle and allow the blitzing RLB to come around to sack the quarterback or stop left outside rushes. It'll take some time for this to happen, though, especially if you don't have a fast linebacker. I recommend that you control the RLB if you want a sack. The receivers and tight end will be matched up in single coverage. ---Cheat Right--- The same as Cheat Left, only to the right. Consider taking control of the LLB. Even if you don't get the quarterback, you might be able to tip his pass. ---Man/Zone 2--- The linebackers play to stop the run, while both safeties play deep to back up the cornerbacks. A good first-down call. ---Wide Zone 2--- This is a fairly standard zone defense. ---Mad Tiger Blitz--- All three linebackers are blitzing. The offensive line won't be able to hold back the seven-man rush for long. However, the receivers will be in single coverage, since only four men are in coverage. ---Short Zone 2--- Needless to say, this is a short zone defense. It's designed to contain the short pass without being too weak against the rushing game and deep threats. ---Man/Zone 1--- Eight men are in the box, so it won't be easy to run against this defense. The long ball could be a problem, though, since only one safety is covering the pass. ---Medium Zone--- This is a medium zone defense, which contains the pass effectively but may have difficulty against the ground game, especially runs off guard. ---Wide Zone 3--- Four men are playing deep to protect against the long ball, but watch out for runs and passes up the middle. ---Triple Zone--- Triple Zone will usually put the opposition flanker in triple coverage, but the split end will have just one man to beat. The linebackers are playing man-to- man to stop the run. ---Jet Blitz--- The LLB is blitzing, and the DLE and DLT are on a stunt. One safety is playing to stop the run, while the other is in "center field" providing backup to the cornerbacks. ---Tuf Bronco--- Basically a mirrored former of Jet Blitz, except the safety is playing more on the flanker's side of the field. ---Short Zone 1--- This short zone is very similar to Short Zone 2. ---Man Left--- A man-to-man defense, with more protection on the left side of the field than the right. ---Man Right--- The mirrored form of Man Left. Surprise! ---Wide Zone 1--- Seven men are in coverage, so passing won't be easy. The quarterback won't be under much pressure, though. 3-4 (15) =============================================================================== The 3-4 is similar to the 4-3 in many aspects, but there are differences. The 3-4 has three linemen and four linebackers, whereas the 4-3 uses four linemen and three linebackers. The primary advantage of a 3-4 is it allows teams to put more pressure on the quarterback in unpredictable ways. The disadvantage is it requires specialized personnel, such as a massive nose tackle. A real team may have some difficulty regularly switching between a 3-4 and a 4-3, but you can do it as much as you want in a video game. In real life, a little less than half the NFL defenses used the 3-4 in 1993: Buffalo, Cincinnati, Denver, Detroit, Green Bay, Kansas City, New England, New Orleans, New York Giants, and Pittsburgh. ---Jet Blitz--- This is the equivalent of the 4-3 Jet Blitz. In this man-to-man system, the LLB blitzes, and one safety stops the run and one plays deep. ---Jam Middle--- This is one of the most run-oriented 3-4 defenses. Three linebackers are rushing, and both safeties play close to the line. ---Man/Zone 1--- No one blitzes here. With all the linebackers in coverage, it's going to be tough to find someone open, especially in the short zones. ---Wide Zone 1--- This play is designed to clog up the short zones. Good against two-tight end sets and passes to the flats. ---Safety Blitz--- Yikes! All four linebackers are blitzing, in addition to the safety. Wavers of the Terrible Towel will like this. Of course, only three players are protecting against the pass. ---Short Zone--- This is basically an ordinary short zone, although the safeties play fairly deep. This will be effective against stopping passes to the flats. ---Man/Zone 2--- Another good versatile 3-4 scheme. The defensive linemen rush toward the left side of the offensive line, and the safeties cover the sidelines. ---Medium Zone--- Medium Zone will shut down a pass of 15-20 yards, but a run may cause trouble. ---Wide Zone 2--- This is a lot like Wide Zone 1. You'll cover the pass, but you aren't likely to touch the quarterback. ---Triple Zone--- Not too different from the 4-3 version of Triple Zone; both safeties focus on shutting down passes to the flanker. The DLE and NT are on a stunt. ---Man Left--- Man Left is like it is in the 4-3; it's man coverage with more men on the left side of the field. ---Man Right--- Basically the reverse of Man Left. Helps contain the tight end and flanker. ---Tight Man--- This is tight man coverage with three linebackers blitzing. ---Wide Zone 3--- Just like Wide Zones 2 and 1. ---Monster Blitz--- Eight men are in the box, and three linebackers are blitzing. Not a good play to run against. Nickel (10) =============================================================================== The Nickel defense is best used in passing situations, as there are five defensive backs instead of four. ---Red Dog--- Woof! Both linebackers are blitzing, so this is a good way to put pressure on the quarterback without forsaking the deep zones. ---Tight Man--- One linebacker is blitzing, and the defensive backs are in man coverage. The defensive line is rushing towards the center, so the inside run won't be able to do much, but an off left tackle could be dangerous. ---Double FL--- This double-teams the flanker. A good way to shut down a particularly dangerous receiver. ---Double SE--- Identical to Double FL, except this puts the split end (or sometimes the flanker) in double coverage. ---Bump & Run--- In Bump & Run, the linebackers play outside to stop outside runs. The defensive backs play man coverage. ---Prevent--- Everyone goes deep, so use this only when your opponents are in a two-minute drill and are trying to gain yards quickly. It's best against a "Hail Mary" or similar play. ---Man Tiger--- Both linebackers blitz. Your center defensive back is also blitzing, but he's too far away from the line of scrimmage to do anything unless you're controlling him. ---Safety Cheat--- The defensive tackles are on a stunt, while the center safety comes charging forward. He won't reach the QB unless you take control of him manually, though. This safety charge could leave a hole in the deep zone in the center of the field. ---Circle Zone--- This is a zone defense that's shaped in a circle. The weak point is the middle of that circle, although even passes there aren't going to cause too much damage. ---Full Zone--- Every zone is covered here, including the flats. However, this play could be very vulnerable to an inside run, particularly a draw play. ---Red Dog--- This is the same as the earlier Red Dog. ---Tight Man--- Same as the other Tight Man. Dime (9) =============================================================================== The Dime formation is even more pass-oriented, with six defensive backs and just one linebacker. Since it's weak against most running plays, especially the inside run, the Dime should generally be reserved for prevent situations. The Dime playbook is identical to the one used in Madden '95. ---CB Blitz--- One of the cornerbacks blitzes the quarterback here, while the rest of the secondary is able to fill the hole. ---Center Blitz--- The lone linebacker blitzes, while the secondary plays man coverage. ---Double Blitz--- The second cornerback and linebacker blitz, with the other five defensive backs providing the other assignments. ---Short Zone--- The cornerbacks and linebacker protect against the short pass, while your safeties drop back to provide a last line of defense. ---Prevent 1--- The classic prevent defense. All of your defensive backs head deep to prevent the big play. Because of its passive nature, you definitely don't want to use it except when necessary. ---Prevent 2--- This deep zone stops the outside pass but may be vulnerable against passes in the flat. Good in a two-minute drill. ---Safety Cheat--- One of your safeties will be blitzing, but unless you take manual control of him, you won't come near the quarterback. ---Double FL--- This play usually double-teams the flanker. ---Double SE--- This play double-teams the receiver lined up on the left side of the offense, usually the split end. Goal Line (9) =============================================================================== The Goal Line formation counters the offensive version of the Goal Line. This should only be used near the goal line or possibly in certain obvious short- yardage situations. ---Left--- This is a general-purpose goal line defense that rushes toward the left side of the line. ---Center--- This is more geared toward stopping the inside run. ---Right--- Very similar to Left. ---Man Left 1--- In this man coverage system, the safety provides extra coverage on the left side of the field. ---Safety Blitz--- One of the defensive backs will blitz. ---Man Right 1--- Similar to Man Left 1, except the safety covers the right side of the field, and two pairs of linemen are on stunts. ---Man Left 2--- This is more aimed at stopping the pass and the outside left run. ---Zone/Man--- This is a man-to-man defense that's good against the pass down the middle. ---Man Right 2--- Basically a mirrored Man Left 2. Special Teams (3) =============================================================================== These plays are designed to defend against punts and field goals. ---Punt Rush--- Here your team goes all out trying to block the punt, but you won't be able to get a return. ---Punt Return--- Here your personnel will be blocking for your return man in an attempt to get a good return. ---Field Goal Block--- Use this if you know your opponent will be kicking a field goal. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ FAQs and General Tips [NOTES] ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Q: What plays are the best audibles? A: Here are the audible selections I most frequently use. Offense [Y] A run (Pro Form Off Tackle, Pro Form FB Counter) [B] A short pass or screen pass (Pro Form Quick Posts, Run & Shoot Hooks) [A] A long pass (Single Back PA Streak, Shotgun Deep Outs) Defense [Y] A balanced defense (4-3 Cheat Left, 3-4 Man/Zone 2) [B] A play that covers the pass (Nickel Full Zone, Dime Center Blitz) [A] A blitz (4-3 Mad Tiger Blitz, 3-4 Safety Blitz) Make sure to change your offensive audibles if you're using a hurry-up offense, or your defensive audibles if your opponents are in a hurry-up. Against a human player, you should change your audibles periodically to keep opponents on their toes. In case you didn't know, you can change audibles from the "Set Audibles" option on the pause screen. The most important thing is to select plays that work well for you as audibles. Q: How do I use a hurry-up offense? A: Hold the A button right before the play selection screen would ordinarily appear. You'll bypass the play selection screen and run the play you last run, unless you call an audible. A no-huddle offense is useful if you need to get points fast, but it can also be useful for confusing or rushing your opponents, especially a human player. Q: How do I kick an onside kick? A: As in real life, onside kicks are very difficult to execute properly. First press A to call a kickoff audible, and then press A to change your team's alignment. Press B to start the power bar, and hold right on the control pad to angle the kickoff toward the side where all your players are. You want to stop the power bar when it's on the way down. It takes a lot of practice to do this right, and even still your odds aren't great. Q: What's Bluff Mode, and how can I activate it? A: Bluff Mode, which allows you to hide the play you call, is only useful against a human opponent. From the Pre-Game Show/pause screen, simply select "Play Call Mode" and then "Bluff Mode." In Bluff Mode, you still select plays using the B button, but you can also make fake selections (before or after the actual selection) using the Y button. When you're all finished, press A. Q: Where's the Kneel Down play? A: There isn't one. If you need to run out the clock without risking a fumble, try something like FB Pull from the Goal Line formation. Another option is to select a passing play and dive backwards right after you take the snap. Q: Is there fatigue in this game? A: No. No matter how fast a player runs, no player ever gets fatigued. Players could first tire in Madden '97. Q: What's the best way to put pressure on the opposing quarterback? A: Select the middle linebacker. Charge past the center and squash the quarterback! Even better, start running toward the line of scrimmage before the snap to get a running start. There's another way, too... Q: Where is the line of scrimmage? A: According to this game's nearsighted referee, it's at the feet of the offensive linemen, not the ball. With a little practice, you can line up a safety or other fast player in the "neutral zone" and squash the quarterback, deflect the pass, or stop the runner for a loss. This works especially well from the Punt Rush play when you know the defense will punt. Q: My passes keep getting deflected by the stupid defensive linemen! How can I stop that from happening? A: You can either drop back farther or leave the pocket. In some plays you can try releasing the ball more quickly (or sometimes later). Q: Why is the computer controlling my quarterback? A: If you don't press any buttons after the snap, the computer takes over. The same goes on defense. You can usually generate better results than the computer, though. Q: How do I call a timeout? A: Select "Call Timeout" from the pause screen if you have one or more timeouts remaining. As you probably know, timeouts stop the game clock, so they're useful in a two-minute drill or when you're about to get a delay of game penalty. Q: What penalties appear in this game? A: Basically, you can get a delay of game penalty if you take too long to call your play on offense, and on defense you can get called for offsides by moving past the line of scrimmage before the snap. Pass interference occurs randomly. A few other penalties are rare, like illegal procedure (kicking the ball out of bounds on a kickoff). Q: What should I choose when I win the toss? A: It doesn't matter, although it's more fun to receive first. If you're deciding the goal to defend, you might want to have a tailwind on the kickoff. But it doesn't matter at all. Q: Are you really a Jaguars fan? A: Yes. There aren't many of those. Q: What other tips do you have? * This is common sense, but if you have a good running back and a weak passing game (like the Vikings), run the ball a lot. Likewise, if you pass well but can't run (like the Packers), you'll want to keep the ball in the air. * Hard throws take just a little longer to get off than touch passes. * Run straight if you want to keep going fast; zig-zags slow you down. * Blitzes don't just increase the chances of a sack; they also make it easier to deflect passes. * Your split end (on the left) is usually the Y receiver, while the flanker (on the right) is generally assigned the B button. The A button is typically a tight end or halfback. However, you should refer to the play diagrams for the information specific to each play; this isn't the case on all plays, especially if you press X to reverse the diagram. * If you're playing on an emulator, assign the Y, B, and A buttons to the X, C, and V keys, respectively, to ease play-calling. Q: What other notes do you have for the game? A: Just a few miscellaneous tidbits: * You might enjoy slamming into opposing players after the whistle blows. You won't even get called for unnecessary roughness for doing so. * You can set the weather even for teams that play indoors. * I don't mention a Zelda character, enemy, location, or item in this guide as I normally do. Q: How many guides have you written? A: Currently, 36! Visit www.gamefaqs.com/features/recognition/74793.html to see the complete, current list. I'm not always including the list in my guides any more because of the length. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Comparing with Reality [REALL] ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ This is a pretty familiar section if you've read my Formula One walkthroughs. This is just a brief summary of the 1993 NFL season. More in-depth information can be found at NFL.com, Wikipedia.org, and assorted other Internet and print sources. Don Shula became the winningest coach in NFL history at 325. Super Bowl XXVIII matched up the previous year's participants - with a similar result, as the Dallas Cowboys beat the Buffalo Bills 30-13. Cowboys coach Jimmy Johnson got the boot anyway and was replaced by Barry Switzer. Off the field, the new Collective Bargaining Agreement, approved on June 29, paved the way to today's system of free agency and the salary cap. The two expansion teams, set to begin play for the 1995 season, were awarded to Charlotte and Jacksonville. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Version History [VERSN] ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Date | Version | Size | --------|---------|------|----------------------------------------------------- 8- 2-08 | 0.1 | 59KB | Began guide. 8- 3-08 | 0.2 | 55KB | Worked on Team Ratings and removed '95-only plays. 8- 4-08 | 0.35 | 56KB | Did the season review and team stats. 8- 5-08 | 0.8 | 58KB | Reviewed about 90% of the playbook. 8- 6-08 | 1.0 | 59KB | Finished things up. 9-29-09 | 1.1 | 59KB | Finished updating a bunch of stuff. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Copyright [COPYR] ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ (c) 2008-2010 Vinny Hamilton. All rights reserved. All trademarks mentioned in this guide are copyrights of their respective holders. You can print this guide out for your personal use. You can download this guide to your computer for personal use. You can post this guide on your Web site as long as you give proper credit to me AND you don't change a single letter, number, or symbol (not even a tilde). Remember that the latest version will always be available at GameFAQs.com, but don't count on there being many (if any) updates. You can translate this guide into a foreign language and post the translation on your Web site if you ask for permission first. You can't post this guide on your Web site and say you wrote the guide yourself. You can't post this guide on Web sites that contain (or have links to sites that contain) sexually explicit images of nude humans (that is, pornography), racism, gambling, or flattery of totalitarian regimes. You can't post this guide on your Web site if you're going to change anything in this guide that took me so many hours to write. If you don't comply with these guidelines, your hard drive will be reformatted (permanently erased) inexplicably and you will suffer from constipation for the remainder of your life. Heed this warning. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Contact Information [CONTC] ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ If you have any questions or comments about this guide, send an e-mail to VHamilton002@gmail.com. Remember that not all e-mails will be read. Please follow these rules: Do include "Madden '94" in the subject line. Do send polite suggestions about ways to make this walkthrough better. Do ask any questions you have about Madden '94 gameplay. I will answer them eventually if you follow all of these guidelines. Do tell me about any errors or omissions you find in this guide. Do make a reasonable effort to use decent spelling, grammar, usage, punctuation, and capitalization so I can understand what you're saying. Do use patience. I check my messages rather sporadically. Do not send spam, pornography, chain letters, "flaming," or anything that contains profanity or vulgarity. Again, violation of this rule will result in permanent constipation, so be careful! And lastly, a public service message: Fight for and affirm the rights of all humans, regardless of race, age, or creed! And... Always stop for railroad crossings. Don't try to beat the train. I don't know if anyone reads my public service messages, though. For M.S.