Sega Genesis/Sega CD Import FAQ, v0.93 Copyright (C) 2001 Trevor Wilson (email@example.com) aka jiji (firstname.lastname@example.org) [insert elite ascii art here] Latest version always available at www.oldskewl.com/sevenforce/genesisimportfaq.txt Contents -------- I. Legal stuff II. History III. Why? IV. What's missing? V. Genesis A. Can I play Megadrive games on my Genesis? 1. Genesis 1/Genesis 2 2. Nomad/Genesis 3 3. Will PAL games play on an NTSC Genesis? 4. Does the 32X have any sort of lockout? Will Jpn/PAL/US games work with any 32X hardware? B. What's this I hear about territory lockout? 1. What games have territory lockout? 2. How can I get past the territory lockout? C. Are there convertor cartridges available? 1. Game Genie a. What are some Game Genie codes one can use to play import games? 2. Honey Bee 3. Mega Key/Super Key 4. Pro Action Replay a. What are some PAR codes one can use to play import games? 5. Datel Universal Adaptor D. Can I modify my Genesis to play import games? 1. Can I add a territory switch and/or 50Hz/60Hz switch to my Genesis/Mega Drive 1? 2. Can I add a 50Hz/60Hz switch to my Genesis/Mega Drive 2? VI Sega CD A. Is it possible to play foreign CDs on my Sega CD/Mega CD? VII. Third-party Genesis/Sega CD consoles A. JVC X'Eye/Wondermega B. Pioneer LaserActive VIII. Appendix A. Who made these Game Genie codes? And how? IX. Thanks I. Legal stuff This document may be reprinted in its entirety without the author's permission. However, if material is taken from the document, credit must be given to myself (and I'd like it if you emailed me first, too). II. History 03/11/2001: v0.93 - Added Game Genie/PAR codes for Bare Knuckle III. - Reduced the number of codes for Thunder Force IV, so they'll actually work on a real Game Genie. 02/25/2001: v0.92 - Added information on the JVC X'Eye and Pioneer LaserActive. Thanks to The Scribe. 02/23/2001: v0.91 - Fixed the title of Yuu Yuu Hakusho Makyou Toitsusen. - Added information on playing imports on the 32X - Added information on switching a Genesis 2 for 50Hz/60Hz and for territory (thanks Mike G!) 02/23/2001: v0.9 - First release, preliminary version. III. Why? While deciding whether to try to import the European or Japanese version of Alien Soldier a few months ago, I became rather confused as to whether I could play it on my US Genesis with just a regular passthrough cartridge and about what kind lockout it might have. I searched around for information on this subject, but details were sketchy and answers on Usenet were vague. I decided to try to collect all known information on the subject into a single source so that others wouldn't be confused the same way I was. IV. What's missing? - This document is probably riddled with inaccuracies, so if you see any, let me know and I'll clean them up. - The only set of Game Genie codes I've been able to test on an actual Genesis with an actual Game Genie and an actual game cartridge is the one for Monster World IV. The rest were tested on DGen with the good ROM dumps of the games. I can't see any reason why the rest of them wouldn't work on a real Genesis, but if you try them out, let me know what results you get. - The list of games with software territory lockouts is by no means complete. Information on any additional games would be much appreciated. - I know for a fact that there are more convertor cartridges out there than what I have listed, I just didn't have enough information on them to list them. V. Genesis Can I play Japanese Megadrive games on my Genesis? ================================================== Yes, with a few provisions. Take note: Some Japanese and European games have a software lockout in place that affects every US version of the console (yes, including the Genesis 3), described in full below. Genesis 1/Genesis 2/CDX ----------------------- The cartridge slot on the Genesis 1, 2, and CDX is different from that of the Japanese Megadrive. Japanese cartridges are rounded on the ends, so you won't be able to get a Japanese cartridge to fit into the slotted and narrower cart slot on a Genesis 1/2/CDX. This can be taken care of by either using a passthrough cartridge (see below) or removing the tabs in your system's cartridge slot (not really recommended, but hey, it's your choice). Nomad/Genesis 3 --------------- The cartridge slot on the Genesis 3 is wide and spacious, and leaves plenty of room for the extra plastic on the sides of Japanese cartridges. Japanese carts will fit without any trouble. On the Nomad, there is enough room for Japanese carts, but it's a tight fit and it may prove a bit difficult getting games in and out smoothly, with the ridges on the Japanese carts. Will PAL games play on an NTSC Genesis? --------------------------------------- Yes, unless they have the 50/60hz lockout or territory lockout (see below) in place. Many PAL versions of games are no different from their US counterparts, which is why they play at a slower speed and with black bars at the top and bottom of the screen on European consoles. These games will play without trouble on US consoles. Other games (of which the European version of Alien Soldier is one) have been adapted to the PAL format, and thus will run too fast on US consoles (about 70hz). Does the 32X have any sort of lockout? Will Jpn/PAL/US games work with any 32X hardware? ----------------------------------------------------------------------- From the rec.games.video.* FAQ: ---- SEGA 32X: No new incompatibility, but the incompatibility of the underlying Genesis/Mega Drive (and CD player, if you're playing 32X CD games) still applies; get a language switch and/or a Pro-CDX, just like for regular Mega Drive and Mega CD games. ---- What's this I hear about a territory lockout? ============================================= For most of the Genesis's life, cartridges were produced without any sort of territory protection. Some games even had multiple languages for different territories, Neo Geo-style. However, later in the Genesis's life, Sega and several third-party developers decided to start implementing a software territory lockout to keep people from playing games outside of the territory they were intended for. The software routine is different in each game and always resides in a different part of the program code. Basically what the routine does is to check the hardware address in RAM that specifies what kind of Genesis the game is running on (Japanese, US, European, etc), and if that doesn't match the intended territory, the game locks up with an error message. How can I get past it? ---------------------- There are several different means available. By far the most readily available (and least expensive) is to use a Game Genie with the proper codes for that game to bypass the protection directly. Another is to obtain a Mega Key, Super Key, Pro Action Replay, or Datel Universal Convertor to bypass the protection (more on these below). A more drastic step would be to install a territory switch in your system so that you can simply switch your system to the necessary territory. What games have it? ------------------- From the rec.games.video FAQ, plus some additions: --- Do not run in English mode: Japanese versions of After Burner II, Akumajou Dracula Vampire Killer, Alien Soldier, Bare Knuckle 3, Chameleon Kid, Contra: The Hard Corps, Doraemon, Gunstar Heroes, Monster World 4, Pulseman, Ragnacenti, Rolling Thunder II, Super Monaco GP 2, Super SF2, Thunder Force IV, Virtua Racing, Yuu Yuu Hakusho Makyou Toitsusen. Do not run in Japanese mode: US versions of Aladdin, Bio-Hazard Battle, Castlevania Bloodlines, Cyborg Justice, Dragon's Fury, Eternal Champions, FIFA Soccer '97 Gold Edition, Flashback, Gauntlet IV, Gunstar Heroes, Landstalker, Lightening Force, Mazin Saga, Outrun 2019, Phantasy Star IV, Ren and Stimpy, Rocket Knight Adventures, SF2CE, Shadowrun, Shining Force, Shinobi 3, Streets of Rage II, Streets of Rage III, Subterrania, Sunset Riders, Thunderstrike (CD), World of Illusion, X-Men. Do not run in 50 hertz mode: US versions of Flashback, Sonic Spinball, Streets of Rage II, World of Illusion, World Series Baseball (And probably most of the ones that don't run in Japanese mode, too.) Does not run in 60 hertz mode: European version of Xenon2. --- Are there convertor cartridges available? ========================================= Yes, there are several passthrough cartridges available that will allow you to play import games on you Genesis. Game Genie ---------- This is by far the easiest and cheapest of the convertor cartridges to come by. Originally intended as a cheat device for games, it intercepts requests to certain locations in the ROM data of the cartridge and replaces the actual data with bytes entered by the user. It accepts hex addresses encoded into eight-character alphanumeric codes. By itself and without entering any codes it acts as a great adaptor for the differently- shaped Japanese Megadrive cartridges. By entering certain codes, the territory lockout in certain games can be bypassed, allowing you to play these games on your US Genesis. NOTE: The Genesis 3 will not work at all with the Game Genie. What are some Game Genie codes I can use to play import games? ---- Alien Soldier (EUR/JPN PAL, A version) RECA-A6XJ RECA-A6XL RECT-A60J Alien Soldier (JPN NTSC, B version) REBT-A6XN REBT-A6XR RECA-A60R Bare Knuckle III AABT-AA5L DJBT-AADN RYDA-A608 AJDA-AAHA Contra: The Hard Corps (JPN) CTBT-AA6J A2BT-AA72 BBRA-AA3Y Golden Axe III BT7T-CA9E AA7T-CA9R Monster World IV HT2T-BAEG 2A2T-AAEJ RE2T-A6YL Pulseman LAXT-AA5L Rockman Megaworld (Mega Man: The Wily Wars JPN) V2AT-BMEJ EAAT-BL1T REBT-A6XL Thunder Force IV AABT-AA4J AACA-ACBC 16CA-ACBY 9ACA-A60W EACA-ANGY Yuu Yuu Hakusho Makyou Toitsusen (yes, the Treasure one) 9T9T-BCF8 EE9T-AAGA BE9T-B98C RE9T-A60E BVBT-AA3A Honey Bee --------- Not much is known about this particular device, but it's assumed that it is merely a passthrough cartridge meant only to overcome the physical difference in cart shape. Mega Key/Super Key ------------------ Both of these devices are passthrough cartridges that have several DIP switches that allow the user to select the country and/or video format that the game detects upon bootup. The Mega Key only has switches for country selection, while the Super Key has the addition of a PAL/NTSC switch for games that have a lockout based on the video format. Setting the country switch to Japan, for example, would make a Japanese game with territory lockout think it's being run on a Japanese system and therefore function normally. Datel Action Replay ------------------- From Galen Tatsuo Komatsu: "Action Replay: this is basically a Game Genie type device allowing up to (I think) 4 codes to be entered." Datel Pro Action Replay (PAR) ----------------------------- This is a device similar to the Game Genie, with the addition of being able to modify data in RAM, as well as intercepting requests to the cartridge ROM. Without entering any codes, it works as an excellent passthrough device for games, but like the Game Genie, with certain codes the territory lockout in certain games can be bypassed. From Galen Tatsuo Komatsu: "In addition to the above, it also includes the "trainer" to generate your own codes." What are some PAR codes I can use to play import games? ---- Alien Soldier (EUR/JPN PAL, A version) 00036C:4E71 00036E:4E71 0004CE:4E71 Alien Soldier (JPN NTSC, B version) 000468:4E71 00046A:4E71 0005C8:4E71 Bare Knuckle III 00036A:6000 00036C:001A 0006DE:4E75 0006E0:0002 Contra: The Hard Corps (JPN) 000388:6014 0003B8:6006 005C34:6008 Golden Axe III 013BE4:600C 013BEE:6000 Monster World IV 003186:103C 003188:00C0 00318A:4E71 Pulseman 00276A:6050 Rockman Megaworld (Mega Man: The Wily Wars JPN) 000188:958E 0001F0:5520 00036A:4E71 Thunder Force IV 000348:6000 000422:0100 000434:01BF 0004D2:4EF8 0004D4:0620 Yuu Yuu Hakusho Makyou Toitsusen (yes, the Treasure one) 003FBE:11FC 003FC0:0021 003FC2:FF09 003FC4:4E71 004320:600C Datel Pro Action Replay 2 ------------------------- From Galen Tatsuo Komatsu: "Pro Action Replay 2: taking further steps, this allows up to 100 codes to be entered, has a built in library of codes for most games available at the time, and some other functions, the most notable of which bypasses territorial lockouts. The PAR2 has incompatability problems with the Sega CDX. It appears to start up fine, but the controller doesn't respond." Datel Universal Adaptor ----------------------- [information forthcoming] Can I modify my Genesis to play import games? ============================================= Yes, but the procedure varies for the different Genesis/Mega Drive models. Can I add a territory switch and/or 50Hz/60Hz switch to my Genesis/Mega Drive 1? ----------------------------------------------------------------------- Yes. From the Sega Programming FAQ: --- How to make a language switch (Genesis/MD). On a Genesis/MD, there are jumpers labelled JP1, JP2, JP4, and JP3. The Genesis has a capacitor on JP1 and a trace on JP2; the Mega Drive has a capacitor on JP2 and a trace on JP1. The bottom ends of JP1 and JP2 are connected together. So if you cut the trace and the top end of the capacitor, and install a DPDT switch between them which reconnects them either unchanged or swapped left to right, you have a language switch. You'll need some wire, a soldering iron, solder, and a DPDT switch. Some machines have an open circuit instead of the capacitor. Also, I've been told that even if there is a capacitor, you can throw it out and leave an open circuit. Either way, the switch is a lot simpler, requiring a SPDT switch and less wire and solder. Several people have told me that you could just cut both JP1 and JP2 and put a SPST switch on JP1. This is even simpler, but I'm not sure it really works, as opposed to putting your machine in an intermediate state that only sort-of works. The redesigned Genesis 2 machines don't appear to have either the capacitor or circuit. Nobody yet knows how to make the language switch for one, though there are language switch cartridges you can buy to act as one. IF YOUR MACHINE HAS NO CAPACITOR (or if you want to cross your fingers and throw away your capacitor) and is not a Genesis 2: Cut JP2. The trace might be covered with paint and hard to see. (If you started with a Mega Drive, JP2 is open and you have to cut JP1 instead.) If you aren't sure which end I mean by "bottom", just check the back of the board to see which end is connected together. Original state of machine: After cutting: JP2 top JP1 top JP2 top JP1 top | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | \ / \ / \_______/ \_______/ bottom of both bottom of both Add a SPDT switch which can be in one of two positions: ._ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ . . . . _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ . . . . JP2 top JP1 top . . | | . . | | _________ | o o | | \ | | \ | \___o___/ | | . \ / . \_______/ - - - - - - - - - - - - bottom of both ._ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ . . . . _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ . . . . JP2 top JP1 top . . | | . . | | _________ | o o | | / | | / | \___o___/ | | . \ / . \_______/ - - - - - - - - - - - - bottom of both ------------------------------------------------------------- IF YOUR MACHINE DOES HAVE THE CAPACITOR: Cut both sides. (Note: if you started with a Japanese Mega Drive the capacitor will be on the side labelled X instead) Original state of machine: After cutting: JP2 top JP1 top JP2 top JP1 top | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | X | ### X | ### | ### | ### | ### | ### \ / \ / \_______/ \_______/ bottom of both add switch which can be in one of two positions: JP2 top JP1 top (Connect 2 to 2 | | and 1 to 1) | | 2 1 2 1 1 2 ______________ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ | o o o o | | ` | \ \ | X | ###` ` | \ \ | | ### ` ` \____o__o____/ | ### ` ` ' ' \ / ` `- - - - -' ' \_______/ ` _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ' bottom of both JP2 top JP1 top (Connect 2 to 2 | | and 1 to 1) | | 2 1 2 1 1 2 ______________ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ | o o o o | | ` | / / | X | ###` ` | / / | | ### ` ` \____o__o____/ | ### ` ` ' ' \ / ` `- - - - -' ' \_______/ ` _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ' bottom of both 50/60 hertz switch. You can build a 50/60 hertz switch on a Genesis/Mega Drive like a language switch, but using jumpers JP3 and JP4. The standard setting is 50 in PAL areas such as Europe, and 60 in NTSC areas like the US and Japan. In the 60 hertz mode, the game is faster and the screen taller; however, not all TVs and monitors in Europe can display this mode. Some American/Japanese games are protected to keep Europeans from playing them; this protection checks the 50/60 hertz setting. You can usually get around it by installing the switch and switching when starting the game, then switching back afterwards. Many European games are simple ports of American or Japanese games and are not redesigned for 50 hertz, so work faster and with "better" screen proportions if played at 60 hertz. Genesis/Mega Drive dual version (language switch) list: *Battle Mania 2: The game plays in both positions. However with both controlers removed, a system info screen appears which informs about system version, langauge mode. Bonanza Brothers: Game plays in Japanese. (Maybe. There seems to be more than one version floating around.) Columns: Game plays in Japanese. *Cyberball: Japanese version has a modem option. Dragon's Fury: Works only with language set to English. The original, Devil's Crush MD, works either way. Dynamite Duke: Harder on the Mega Drive. Elemental Master: Harder on the Mega Drive. Fatal Labyrinth: Game plays in Japanese. Fire Shark: Different title screen with Kanji. Flicky: Characters have Japanese names and instructions are in Japanese. Forgotten Worlds: Game plays in Japanese. Gaiares: only mentions the Japanese licensee on the title screen, and has Japanese text; you can also select Japanese text from the option screen. Ghostbusters: Game plays in Japanese. Ghouls and Ghosts: Different title screen with Kanji. To see it on a Genesis, select the last music and sound (26 and 56) from the options screen, then press lower left; A, B, or C; and Start all at the same time. (I never tried this, but Gamepro magazine claimed it works.) The game shows some other Japanese text, and when you die during a boss you start out earlier. Insector X: Title screen refers to company as Hot-B, not Sage's Creation. The MD version shoots more slowly. The ending text is still English. *Marvel Land: The Japanese version says "for Mega Drive" or "for Genesis" but the language stays Japanese. (What does an English version do?) Monaco GP: Game plays in Japanese (also an option on the option screen). Mystic Defender: This game is actually the anime-based Kujaku-Ou (Peacock King) 2 game. In Japanese mode, the opening text is replaced by a graphics screen (never seen in the US version) with Japanese. The levels have names, the main character wears a white robe, the lightning magic effect is different, and the character is named Kujaku in the ending (which is still English). Outrun: The attract mode lacks sound, the startup screen says "push" (not "press") start button, and "(C) Sega 1986, 1991" is printed in reverse order. The default options are KM/H and a different button selection (but can still be changed on the option screen). Quackshot: Game plays in Japanese. Raiden Trad: The "licensed to Sega" line is absent on both title screens, and the second title screen includes only the Japanese part instead of the non-Japanese part of the first one. Revenge of Shinobi: Title changes to Super Shinobi; credits show at the end. Rolling Thunder II: The Japanese version only works on a Japanese setting. The US version works either way (and isn't bilingual). Sonic the Hedgehog II: Tails is renamed to "Miles". Streets of Rage: Title screen changes to Bare Knuckle, and all text is in Japanese, including the introduction. The clock resets when you encounter the bosses. Streets of Rage II: Turns to Bare Knuckle II, and renames Skate to Sammy --_if_ you change the setting sometime after turning the machine on (to skip the lockout). Thunder Force II: Title screen has "MD" on it, and company name is "Tecnosoft". Thunder Force III: company's name is spelled "Tecnosoft". *Thunder Storm FX (CD): Turns to Cobra Command in US mode. Truxton: Japanese title is Tatsujin. Twin Hawk: Different title screen with Kanji. *Wrestle War: The wrestler is blond on a Genesis and black-haired on a MD. * Information from testing a Japanese game --- Can I add a territory switch and/or 50Hz/60Hz switch to my Genesis/Mega Drive 2? ----------------------------------------------------------------------- Yes, although the territory switch will be a bit more difficult than with the Genesis 1. A document (with pictures that can't be duplicated here) on modifying your Genesis 2 to add a 50Hz/60Hz switch is available at Sega Xtreme: http://www.litespeedcomputers.com/sx/misc/md2mod.html A document (with yet more pretty pictures) on adding a territory switch to a Genesis 2 is available on Mike Gordon's site: http://www.mikeg2.freeserve.co.uk/masterful/md2lang.html VI. Sega CD From the Sega CD FAQ by Barry Cantin: --- Q: Is it possible to play foreign CDs on my Sega CD/Mega CD? A: Yes, but... If you insert a foreign CD into your Sega CD (remember, there are three nationalities of Sega CDs here: European, Japanese, and U.S.), you will not be able to load it. The reason for this is that a "nationality" lockout code is on each Sega CD and Mega CD unit. This assures (without outside help) that a particular CD will only be playable on its particular system. There is a way around this lock-out code. There are cartridges available that plug directly into the Genesis slot that allow foreign CDs to be used by any system. [The Lockout Chip] The Sega CD unit had a specially designed BIOS chip/security program that prevented the unit from reading CD games intended for other markets (US, Japanese, European), such as Japanese or European CDs on a U.S. machine, and vice-versa. This Lockout chip or BIOS information instructed the CD unit to read the CD and look for a certain file/security identifier that indicated that the CD was authorized for use on the system. To work around this, the folks at Datel designed the Pro CD-X and Pro CD-X Plus. Pro CD-X (and Pro CD-X Plus) This is a special cartridge that plugs into the Genesis in the cart slot and overrides the security commands of the Sega CD. This allows you to play any Sega CD or Mega CD title on any Sega CD or Mega CD system of a different origin. However, it wasn't 100% effective - not all games were compatible with this unit, making its appeal very limited. During Sega's redesign of the Genesis and CD system, they improved the Bios to prevent this cartridge from working. CD+Plus This cartridge looks like a regular Genesis cartridge and has better success with compatibility than its predecessors. When the Sega CD is powered up with this cart in place, it's possible to run the Sega CD via the options screen (select "CD-ROM"). The reset button does NOT open the Sega CD tray (first model), you have to do that via the options screen as well. CD+PLUS does not work with the 32X installed. Japanese CDs known to work successfully with CD+PLUS: AlShark Burai F-1 Circus CD Final Fight CD Heavenly Symphony Lunar Prince of Persia Sega Classics Arcade Collection (4-in-1) Silky Lip Silpheed Sol Feace Super League CD Tenkafubu Thunder Storm Known NOT to work with CD+PLUS: Black Hole Assault Heavy Nova Known NOT to work with Pro CD-X: Ranma 1/2 Secondary security lockout Bypass - This is the option to using one of the above carts. It is possible to build your own switch onto the back of the Sega CD. It requires rewiring two transistors, indicating US or Japan (no idea how European Sega CDs would work with this). No details are available in this FAQ. --- VII. Third-party Genesis/Sega CD consoles JVC X'Eye/Wondermega ==================== From The Scribe: "- Both of JVC's consoles have rectangular cartridge ports with NO tabs. No adaptor is needed to fit Jap/Euro MegaDrive carts - they work as described in the FAQ. For example, I tried four different well- known Jap carts (the only ones I had) - Nadia no Fushugi no Umi, Madoh Monogatari, Jantei Monogatari, and Phantasy Star MD - and all four ran on my X'Eye with nary a hitch. I also ran the PAL version of Barkley: Shut Up and Jam with no problem. - There is a country protection cart port hack for the JVC X'Eye by Flavio that I posted here a while back. Dunno if it works, though. I don't have any hardware hack for the Sega CD side of the system. - Both of JVC's consoles have their own unique BIOS which does not work with any of the Sega CD converter carts, or so I'm told. They won't work with the Datel Action Replay Pro CD-X, that's for sure - it says that the system's BIOS version isn't supported." Pioneer LaserActive =================== From The Scribe: "- Pioneer's MegaDrive module is J/NTSC. Its cart port is square, like the WonderMega - NO tabs. When installed, the system functions exactly as a combination Japanese MegaDrive/Mega CD would under similar circumstances. I have actually had hands-on experience with a unit configured like this and was throwing older U.S. Genesis carts in and out of the cart port without any apparent problem." VIII. Appendix Who made these Game Genie codes? And how? ========================================== I did. I can't take credit for originally hacking the territory protection out of the games; that goes to the dumpers/hackers/scenesters originally responsible for dumping and hacking these games way back when (Jarre and TSD are among them). What I did was to compare the correct ROM dumps of the games with the protection in place with the dumps of the hacked versions, find where the program code was changed to bypass the protection, and convert the hex addresses of these modifications into Game Genie codes. In the process I gained some understanding of how the protection was implemented by the programmers of these games, knowledge I plan to use to find codes for games that have not yet been hacked to my knowledge, such as Super Street Fighter II JPN, Gunstar Heroes JPN, Mega Man: The Wily Wars EUR, Vampire Killer, and so on. IX. Thanks Major mad props go out to: Ken Arromdee (email@example.com), for the rec.games.video.* FAQ. Barry Cantin (firstname.lastname@example.org), for his excellent Sega Genesis and Sega CD FAQs. Stéphane Dallongeville (email@example.com), for Gens, http://gens.emuforce.com Dave (firstname.lastname@example.org), for DGen, http://www.dtmnt.com/ Jarre, TSD, and all the other hackers whose ASM mods bypassed territory protection on many Megadrive games. Galen Tatsuo Komatsu (email@example.com), for corrections and additions on the Datel cartridges Merlyn LeRoy (firstname.lastname@example.org), for figuring out the Genesis Game Genie code format. Motorola, for the entire 68000 series of processors and their excellent MC68000 manual. The Scribe, for information on the X'Eye and LaserActive Sega, for making such an awesome console. Bart Trzynadlowski (email@example.com), for GROM.