============================================================================
Sorceress FAQ for
    Diablo II: Lord of Destruction v1.10/1.11

Author:   Patrick Martin
Contact:  cimartin isp com (Put @ and . into the blanks.)
Date:     8/24/2006
Version:  4.01
============================================================================

+---------------+
|  Legal Stuff  |
+---------------+
NOTE:  This has changed since previous versions of this guide!

Diablo II is copyright of Blizzard Entertainment.

This document is totally unofficial and copyright by the author, though some
information, such as what is shown in tables, came from various sources,
such as Arreat Summit, Diabloii.net, or TheAmazonBasin.

+ This document may be reproduced for your personal, private use only.

- This document may NOT be placed on any web site or otherwise distributed
  publicly without advance written permission from the author.

+---------------------+
|  Table of Contents  |
+---------------------+
  1. History
  2. Introduction
     2.1. Overview
     2.2. 1.10 vs. 1.11
  3. Terminology
     3.1. Abbrevations
     3.2. Definitions
     3.3. Known Bugs
  4. Stats
     4.1. Attributes
     4.2. Blocking
  5. Skills
     5.1. Fire Skills
     5.2. Lightning Skills
     5.3. Cold Skills
  6. High Level Damage Tables
     6.1. Fire Skills
     6.2. Lightning Skills
     6.3. Cold Skills
     6.4. Auras and Oskills
  7. Builds
     7.1. Blaster Sorceresses
     7.2. Enchantresses
  8. Equipment
     8.1. Important Item Properties
     8.2. Breakpoints
     8.3. Cheap Stuff
          8.3.1. Helm
          8.3.2. Armor
          8.3.3. Weapon
          8.3.4. Shield
          8.3.5. Gloves
          8.3.6. Belt
          8.3.7. Boots
          8.3.8. Amulet
          8.3.9. Rings
          8.3.10. Charms
     8.4. Ideal Items
          8.4.1. Helm
          8.4.2. Armor
          8.4.3. Weapon
          8.4.4. Shield
          8.4.5. Gloves
          8.4.6. Belt
          8.4.7. Boots
          8.4.8. Amulet
          8.4.9. Rings
          8.4.10. Charms
     8.5. Tal Rasha's Wrappings
  9. Mercenaries
     9.1. Merc Behavior
     9.2. Act I Rogue
     9.3. Act II Town Guard
     9.4. Act III Iron Wolf
     9.5. Act V Barbarian
  10. Tips
      10.1. Basics
      10.2. Common Newbie Mistakes
      10.3. Survival Tips
      10.4. The "Bullfighter" Tactic
      10.5. Killer Monsters
  11. Sample Progression for Meteorb Sorceress
      11.1. Normal
      11.2. Nightmare
      11.3. Hell
  12. Boss Strategies
      12.1. Act I
      12.2. Act II
      12.3. Act III
      12.4. Act IV
      12.5. Act V
      12.6. World Event
      12.7. Pandemonium
            12.7.1. Resources Required to Win
            12.7.2. Basic Pandemonium Boss Strategy
            12.7.3. Pandemonium Levels
  13. Dueling
      13.1. Tips
      13.2. Commonly Accepted Rules
      13.3. Which Skills
      13.4. Basic Tactics
      13.5. Opponents
            13.5.1. Amazon
            13.5.2. Assassin
            13.5.3. Barbarian
            13.5.4. Druid
            13.5.5. Necromancer
            13.5.6. Paladin
            13.5.7. Sorceress
  14. Miscellaneous
      14.1. Immunity Breaking
      14.2. Weapon IAS Breakpoints
      14.3. Sorceress Quotes
  15. Credits


============================================================================
  1. History
============================================================================

4.01 (8/24/2006)
- Made some minor additions and corrections here and there.

4.00 (4/12/2006)
- Guide gets a makeover.
- Fixed various grammar mistakes.
- Updated for 1.11.

Release dates for my older faqs of 1.10:
3.03 (6/23/2004)
3.02 (6/15/2004)
3.01 (6/9/2004)
3.00 (5/19/2004)
2.20 (1/21/2004)
2.11 (10/1/2003)
2.1 (9/2/2003)
2.0 (7/27/2003)

Release dates for my older faqs of 1.09:
1.2 (9/19/2002)
1.1 (7/11/2002)
1.0 (5/15/2002)


============================================================================
  2. Introduction
============================================================================

The main purpose of this faq is to serve as a reference.  It is also
designed help players unfamiliar with the sorceress develop one.

In Dungeons & Dragons and other role-playing games, there are several styles
of spellcasters you can build in those games:
* Blaster -- Shoots magical artillery to damage foes directly.
* Fighter -- Uses magic to transform mage into a fighting machine.
* Illusionist -- Creates illusions to manipulate foes.
* Save-or-die -- Uses all-or-nothing spells to defeat foes instantly.
* Summoner -- Creates minions to do the mage's bidding.
* Support -- Uses magic to buff or heal others only.  A.K.A. Cleric.

The sorceress in Diablo 2 is usually built to the role of the blaster, your
archtypical spellslinger who launches fireballs, lightning bolts, or other
magical artillery at the opposition.  This comes to no surprise since nearly
every attack skill the sorceress can learn involves launching a projectile
at the enemy.  The sorceress has one skill, and thus one way, to pursue an
alternative style, the fighter.  With Enchant, the sorceress can become an
effective melee combatant.  However, building an effective fighter is
difficult to do, or at least harder than building a blaster, especially if
the player does not have the proper equipment available.  As a result, over
99% of the sorceresses seen on BattleNet are blasters.  This faq will focus
primarily on the blaster, though some information useful to the fighter will
be included where appropriate.

Like in other role-playing games, magi tend to be weak physically
(i.e., low hit points and bad armor class) and drop like flies if caught by
enemy forces.  The stereotype of the brainy 98-pound weakling applies here.
Of course, the fighter will use magic to transform his weakling self to
some powerhouse.  The sorceress in Diablo 2 tends to have low life, and she
works best by blasting foes from afar.  However, with powerful equipment,
it is possible to grant the sorceress the extra life and defenses she needs
to become a tank.  Of course, the players wants equipment to power up the
sorceress's attacks too.

===============
 2.1. Overview
===============
Below are some questions a newcomer to the sorceress may ask.  After all,
it is only fair to know if the sorceress can pull her own weight in Hell,
especially when partied with other players.

What are the sorceress's strengths?
-----------------------------------
The sorceress is capable of delivering highly destructive attacks to enemies
from a distance without the need of powerful weapons.  She can also learn
Teleport at an early stage of the game, allowing her to bypass obstacles
and move quickly from point to point.  These two abilities, high damage and
teleport, allow the sorceress to be great as mobile artillery and efficient
with item finding strategies.

What are the sorceress's weaknesses?
------------------------------------
Monsters immune to at least one type of damage are common in late Nightmare
and all of Hell.  Although the sorceress has access to three types of
elemental damage, she only has enough skill points to learn, develop, and
use one or two trees effectively.  Since the sorceress needs to spend most
of her skill points into attack skills and masteries, she has little left
for defensive or utility skills.

The sorceress has relatively poor defensive capabilities.  Compared to most
other classes, she gains less life per level and vitality added, is tied for
the worst block rate with shields, and lacks reliable monster obstruction
skills.  Monster obstruction includes at least one of the following:
creation of minions that can distract and block enemies, immobilization or
slowdown of the enemy, or enemy behavior modification.  The closest the
sorceress has to any of the above are cold attacks that can slow or freeze
enemies.  However, some monsters are immune to cold, and not every
sorceress develops viable cold attacks.  The best defense the sorceress has
is either avoiding contact with enemies with Teleport or destroying enemies
with overwhelming offense.

Can the sorceress solo Hell?
----------------------------
Yes.  Assuming mediocre equipment, a sorceress will find /players 1 Hell a
tough, though beatable, challenge.  In 1.10 and 1.11, the player must choose
between the pure power of a single element or the elemental coverage of two.

Single tree sorceresses will frequently encounter monsters immune to their
chosen element in Hell, making it seemingly impossible to win, but it is
not.  With the combination of smart tactics, some resourcefulness, and the
help of a well-armed merc, even a single tree sorceress can conquer Hell.
Single tree sorceress tend to think like the specialists that they are:
it is better to clear some areas quickly rather than kill slowly everywhere.

Two tree sorceresses encounter much fewer situations that shut down both of
their chosen elements.  To their mind, sacrificing some damage from the
maximum a single tree can achieve is worth the versatility offered by two
types of elemental damage.

Can the sorceress solo Uber Tristram?
-------------------------------------
Yes, but the sorceress cannot kill all the bosses with the typical blaster
skills.  In fact, the easiest way for the sorceress to defeat the bosses is
to outfit a melee merc with the items necessary to damage and kill the
bosses while the sorceress hangs back to provide artillery support.  In any
event, the sorceress is not the best class for the job.  More will be
explained later in the "Boss Strategies" section.

Is the sorceress effective for PvP?
-----------------------------------
Depends on the conditions of the duel, the sorceress can range from terrible
to good.  For low level dueling, the sorceress is a terrible choice.  Her
skill damage is low and easily resisted.  The sorceress lacks the combat
skills, speed, and stats most other classes have to compete against those
built for low level dueling.  For higher-level player killing, the sorceress
is a cheap, easy-to-use, yet effective choice for killing unprepared
players, who tend to lack absorb and stacked resists.  In a high-level,
good mannered or tournament style dueling game where absorb and resistance
stacking are restricted, the sorceress is a powerful combatant who
definitely has a fighting chance.  Against bad mannered players in an
unrestricted, no-holds-barred game, the sorceress is a poor choice simply
due to the fact that certain equipment combinations can negate nearly all
elemental damage.  In any event, she is not a top-tier duelist.  The most
powerful PvP characters use either physical or magic damage, or open wounds
due to the fact there is no way to completely negate all the damage.

====================
 2.2. 1.10 vs. 1.11
====================
As far as gameplay is concerned, 1.11 is a minor update from 1.10.
Monsters, skills, and nearly everything else remain unchanged.
The features that make 1.11 stand out from 1.10 are the following:

Pandemonium
-----------
Introduced in 1.11 is a special quest found only in Hell.  The quest
features super versions of all the act bosses and Izual.  The reward for
completing the quest is an extremely powerful large charm called the
Hellfire Torch.  Unfortunately for single or open players, Pandemonium
is available only in BattleNet closed realms.

Runewords
---------
All the ladder runewords missing from 1.10's version of runes.txt are
defined in 1.11.  The four 1.10 season 1 ladder runewords (i.e., Duress,
Prudence, Splendor, and Wind) are available everywhere, including single
player, in 1.11.  1.10 season 2 ladder runewords are flagged as server-only,
which means they remain BattleNet realm exclusive only.  It is possible to
enable the runewords for single player.  However, game modification
techniques are beyond the scope of this guide.  In addition to all of 1.10's
ladder runewords, 1.11 introduces seven new armor runewords, one designed
for each class.  None of them are gamebreakingly useful (for a sorceress at
least) and most of them require a medium rune.

Mercenaries
-----------
Mercs are always hireable at a level equal to a range from one to five below
the player's current level.  This is very convenient since the player can
replace a merc at anytime and not spend hours leveling the new merc.

No Marrowwalk Bug
-----------------
Gone in 1.11, even though the sorceress could not exploit the bug
effectively.  It weakens the bone necromancer, a deadly PvP opponent.


============================================================================
  3. Terminology
============================================================================

Below is a small glossary of terms used throughout this FAQ.

===================
 3.1. Abbrevations
===================
AR   = Attack Rating
CLVL = Character level
D2C  = Diablo 2 Classic
D2X  = Diablo 2 Expansion: Lord of Destruction
DR   = Damage Reduction
SLVL = Skill level
FCR  = Faster Cast Rate
FHR  = Faster Hit Recovery
FPS  = Frames per second  (Game runs at 25 frames per second.)
IAS  = Increased Attack Speed
ITD  = Ignore Target's Defense
LCS  = Lying Character Screen
MF   = Magic Find -or- Better Chance of Getting Magic Items
PMH  = Prevent Monster Heal
PvM  = Player vs. Monster
PvP  = Player vs. Player, in context of mutually consented dueling.
PK   = Player Killer -or- Player Killing
SORC = Sorceress

Runewords/Unique Items
----------------------
BK   = Bul-Kathos' Wedding Band (unique ring)
BotD = Breath of the Dying
CoA  = Crown of Ages
CoH  = Chains of Honor
CtA  = Call to Arms
HotO = Heart of the Oak
SoJ  = The Stone of Jordon

==================
 3.2. Definitions
==================
-- BLOOD MANA --
This is a nasty curse that Baal and succubi in Act V can cast on the
sorceress (or any other character) when she has more mana than life.
The curse will cause the sorceress to lose life instead of mana when
casting skills.  If the sorceress receives the Blood Mana curse, a thin,
reddish curve swirling above her head becomes visible.

-- BUG --
For Diablo II, a bug is an error in the game that causes unintended,
sometimes bizarre, effects on gameplay.  The beneficial bugs are often
exploited and abused by ruthless powergamers, while harmful bugs can crash
the game or cause grief for your character.

-- BUILD --
This describes a distinct character defined by its stats (how much
str/dex/vit/enr), skills (fire, lightning, and/or cold), and items used.

-- COOKIE-CUTTER --
This describes a character build that is very common, usually because it is
one of the most powerful.  On Battlenet chat, it is possible to see several
identical characters standing side-by-side, hence the term cookie-cutter.
Such builds define the standard.

-- DC --
Short for Diabloclone, or Uber Diablo.

-- DIABLOCLONE --
Shortly before the release of 1.10, Blizzard released teasers regarding the
World Event, which involved the selling of Stones of Jordan and rumors of a
super boss monster whose name at the time was unknown.  This monster's stats
can be found in monstats.txt, and his handle was "diabloclone".  Shortly
after the release of 1.10, Blizzard added this monster to Arreat Summit and
named it Uber Diablo.  However, people still refer to it by its code name.

-- FARMING --
This describes the exploitation of specific areas and/or bosses for their
potential item yields by killing all the monsters and bosses in those areas
repeatedly game after game.  For example, killing the Countess for runes.

-- FAST CAST --
Short for faster cast, it is an item property found on some items that lets
the sorceress cast all skills at a faster pace.

-- GLASS CANNON --
This describes a ranged character capable of dealing extreme damage from a
distance, but is highly vulnerable to damage.  The phrase "Can dish it out,
but can't take it." describes the glass cannon perfectly.  Glass cannon also
describes a bow-wielding amazon (bowazon) that places all stat points into
dexterity for maximum damage.

-- LYING CHARACTER SCREEN --
This is a mocking term for the character screen, which is notorious for
reporting incorrect information, especially damage.

-- MEAT SHIELD --
A character that is designed to attract monsters, keep them still, and
absorb their attacks.  Such a character has a combination of high life,
resistances, and/or life leech to survive such attacks.  While the monsters
are busy attacking the meat shield, the sorceress can easily aim and cast
spells at them from relative safety.

-- METEORB --
A sorceress that specializes in Fire Ball, Meteor, and Frozen Orb.
Meteorb is the most effective two-tree sorceress in 1.10/1.11.

-- MULE --
A character created specifically to hold items in his stash and/or inventory
until they can be transferred then put to use by another character.

-- NAMELOCK --
The player can lock on a target by clicking on it and holding down the mouse
button.  A lock on a target lets the player's character aim directly at the
target at all times for as long as the mouse button is held, regardless
where the cursor is, until the target (or the character) dies or moves too
far away.

-- NERF --
The weakening of a skill or some other game feature after an update.  Nerfs
appear in two forms:  direct and indirect.  A direct nerf weakens a skill by
lowering its damage or removing features that made the skill powerful; for
example, removing pierce from Guided Arrow.  An indirect nerf weakens the
skill by powering up everything else in the game; for example, raising
monsters' hit points and resistances while Fire Wall remained unchanged.

-- OSKILL --
One of 1.10's new features is that some items can grant a skill usable by
any class, and that skill can be used at will, as long as the user can pay
the mana cost.  For example, the Widowmaker Ward Bow allows any character,
even a sorceress, to shoot Guided Arrows.  These skills often come with huge
bonuses.  However, if the class can use the granted skill naturally, the
bonus is capped at +3.  For example, a Call to Arms weapon that gives +6
to Battle Orders, a barbarian skill, will give the sorceress a level 6
(or higher if she has '+ to All Skills' items) Battle Orders.  On the other
hand, if the sorceress equips two items from Trang-Oul's Avatar, which gives
+18 Fire Ball to other classes, the sorceress will only boost her Fire Ball
by +3, even if she has not learned the skill.

-- PANDEMONIUM --
The main addition from the 1.11 patch, available only on the realms.
Pandemonium is a special quest available only in Hell.  To access it,
the player must first collect three special keys:  Hate, Terror, and
Destruction.  Once all three keys are collected, the player must go to
Harrogath, place the keys in the Horadric Cube, and press Transmute to open
a portal.  The portal connects to one of three realms.  Each of these realms
is ruled by more powerful versions of Andariel, Duriel, or Izual.  Defeating
one of these bosses yields a relic from one of the prime evils.  Once all
three relics are collected, the player can cube them in Harrogath to open
a portal to Uber Tristram (see below).

-- PARKING --
This describes the strategy of luring monsters to a place (usually a remote
area away from traffic), then leaving them behind.  Lurking monsters away
is the easy part.  Leaving monsters without them following the player back
is the hard part.  The sorceress can easily park monsters by teleporting
through obstacles so that monsters have no chance of following.

-- PROC --
This describes skills cast from items that have a chance to activate when
the specified condition is met.  For example, 33% chance to cast level 1
Decrepify on striking.

-- PREBUFFING --
This is the process of switching normal battle equipment for items that
increase the level of a single buffing skill to the highest possible,
casting the skill on as many allies as possible, then switching back to
normal equipment.  This is used most often for Enchant and Energy Shield.

-- SHAKO --
The elite version of a cap.  However, when many people write "shako", they
don't mean any old shako; instead they refer to the unique shako named the
Harlequin Crest.  (Why people call it Shako instead of Harly or Harle,
I don't know.)  In any event, the Harlequin Crest is a very powerful helm
for the sorceress in Diablo 2: LoD.  Since 1.10, more helms comparable to
the "shako" are available, and some of them may be better for specialized
builds.  Nonetheless, the Harlequin Crest remains to be a great all-around
helm.

-- +SKILLS --
An increase of all (or in this case, sorceress) learned skills by a variable
amount of levels.  This increase is given by all equipped items with the
attribute '+x TO SORCERESS SKILL LEVELS' or '+x TO ALL SKILLS'.

-- SPAM (or SPAMMING) --
The continuous, rapid-fire use of an untimered skill.

-- SYNERGY --
The basic idea is when a player adds points to a skill, it bestows bonuses
to other skills as well.  For example, placing a point in Fire Bolt not only
improves Fire Bolt, but also gives a damage bonus to Fire Ball and Meteor.

-- TANK --
As a noun, it is another term for MEAT SHIELD; often used interchangably.
As a verb, tanking is to stand up against enemies and get their attention,
then take a beating from them.

-- TEATHER EFFECT --
This is a behavior minions bound to a boss monster exhibit.  While the
leader is within screen distance, the minion will act normally.  Once the
distance between minion and leader exceeds a certain point, the minion
will (usually) turn back and return to the leader before resuming normal
behavior.  It is as if the minion was bound by an invisible leech held by
the leader, hence the teather effect.  The player can easily observe this
behavior on a merc.  The player runs away, and if the merc was busy fighting
some monster, he will run after the player.  The teather is not infallible.
Occasionally, the teather will break and the minion will continue to pursue
its target instead of turning back to its leader.

-- TIMERED --
A skill that once cast, cannot be cast again for a short time.  In addition,
other timered skills cannot be used during the cool-down period.

-- TWINK --
This is a player who builds optimized characters via precise stat and skill
placement and ideal equipment, with the latter transferred from mules and
available right from the start.  For those familiar with pen-and-paper
role-playing games such as Dungeons & Dragons, a twink is akin to a
powergamer (if using legal items only) or munchkin (if using hacked,
overpowered items that cannot spawn naturally).

-- ÜBER TRISTRAM --
Sometimes called Chaos Tristram, this is the site of the final battle in the
Pandemonium quest.  This hell-hole contains powered-up versions of all three
prime evils, Uber Mephisto, Pandemonium Diablo, and Uber Baal.  If all three
bosses are defeated, a unique large charm, The Hellfire Torch will drop.

-- UNTWINKED (a.k.a. PURIST) --
A character that plays through the game without the aid of powerful items
handed down to him from other characters.  Such characters (often) do not
have ready access to all the ideal equipment and must find them.

-- VILENESS --
This describes the item property "PREVENT MONSTER HEAL" found on various
items, usually on melee and throwing weapons.  When damaged, most monsters
will regenerate life slowly.  Striking the monster with a weapon with this
effect will halt regeneration for as long as the fight lasts.  Exception:
Pandemonium bosses are immune.

-- VULPINE --
This describes the item property "% DAMAGE TAKEN GOES TO MANA" found on
various items.  When a character takes damage from physical attacks, mana
equal to the percentage of the damage taken is added to the character's mana
pool.

=================
 3.3. Known Bugs
=================
Unless stated otherwise, these bugs apply to 1.10 and 1.11.

-- ANYA BUG --
When a character dies, all the resistance bonus gained from Malah's
resistance scrolls, a quest reward, is lost until the character leaves the
current game.  The lost resistance is recovered as soon as the character
reenters the current game or joins a new game.

-- ELEMENTAL MASTERY BUG --
The skills Fire Mastery and Lightning Mastery, as well as items that
multiply elemental damage, such as Nightwing's Veil for cold, do NOT work
on missile weapons (i.e., bows or throwing weapons), even though the lying
character screen says otherwise.  For example, The Stone of Jordan adds 1-12
lightning damage to attacks.  Level 20 Lightning Mastery would multiply this
damage, by +278%, to 3-45.  However, only melee attacks get the full damage
of 3-45; missile attacks simply get 1-12.

-- ETHEREAL ARMOR UPGRADE BUG --
When ethereal armor spawns, its base defense increases by 50%.  In 1.10,
when ethereal armor is upgraded, the ethereal defense bonus is lost.
In 1.11, that bug is fixed.  However, there is a new bug where if the cube
is used to add sockets to ethereal armor, the ethereal defense bonus is
applied a second time to the armor, resulting in armor with its base defense
increased by 125%.

-- INFERNO BUG --
The sorceress skill Inferno, as well as all other similar skills, namely
Arctic Blast and Wake of Inferno, deal half the listed damage.  Half damage
weakens these already underpowered skills into uselessness, at least when
used by a player or merc.  Monsters seem to cause plenty of damage to a
player (without adequate protection) with their versions of these attacks
just fine.

-- MARROWWALK BUG --
In 1.10, skills granted by items via charges bestowed synergy bonuses
as long as the skill granted did not have any skill points spent there.
Marrowwalk had charges for level 33 Bone Prison.  Necromancers equipped with
Marrowwalk would gain 33 levels of synergy bonuses to teeth, bone armor,
bone spear, and bone spirit as long as the necromancer did not learn
Bone Prison.  This not only saved the necro skill points, but also made him
stronger than a necro who spent 20 points in Bone Prison.  1.11 has removed
this bug, lowering the maximum damage a bone necromancer can do.

-- STRENGTH BUG:  Invisible Items --
Noticable only in multiplayer, this bug occurs when a character uses charms
to meet the stat requirements of an item.  Such items are invisible to other
players.  For example, it is possible to see an unarmed amazon launch arrows
while punching.  She is actually armed with a bow and the player controlling
the amazon can see every item just fine, but all other players cannot.  This
bug is unsightly, but otherwise does not impair performance.

-- STRENGTH BUG:  Self-Supporting Items --
Introduced in 1.10, this bug occurs when a character uses an item's stat
bonuses to qualify for that same item's requirements.  This is done by
swapping out the character's normal equipment with other stat boosting
equipment until the requirements of the item to be equipped are met.
Once the requirements are met and the item equipped, the stat boosters are
swapped back out for normal equipment.  As a result, the item is supporting
itself with its stat bonus.
----------------------------------------------------------------------
  For example, character with 140 STR, wants to use Stormshield,
  which adds +30 STR, but cannot due to lack of STR.  The character
  swaps Arachnid Mesh for Thundergods Vigor, a belt that adds
  +20 STR.  He can now equip Stormshield and does so.  He then swaps
  out Thundergods Vigor for Arachnid Mesh.  Character can still use
  Stormshield because it is supporting itself with its +30 STR.
----------------------------------------------------------------------
Exploiting this bug (it is a bug because this was impossible in 1.09 or
before) is dangerous because of potential item loss.  If a character
exploiting this bug dies, then tries to recover his corpse, he CANNOT equip
the item because the character does not have the stats to equip it, and if
the inventory is full (and it will be with all the charms in the inventory),
the item will remain on the corpse.  If the character dies again, items will
be on multiple corpses.  If the player is forced to leave the game at this
point, some items will be lost.  Also, when the character leaves the game
then returns to a new game, the item will be disabled because of the lack of
stats to equip it, and the whole item swapping ritual must be done again to
get the item to support itself.  Bottom line, don't skimp the STR or DEX
just to get a little more life -- just play it safe or you will be sorry
one day.


============================================================================
  4. Stats
============================================================================

A level one sorceress begins with the following stats:

  STR:  10
  DEX:  25
  VIT:  10
  ENR:  35

  STAMINA:  74
  LIFE:     40
  MANA:     35

For each level attained, the sorceress gains the following:
  +1 to stamina
  +1 to life
  +2 to mana
  +5 stat points

The sorceress can earn up to 505 points to distribute among her stats.

   490 from level ups
    15 from Lam Esen Tome quest
  ------------------------------
   505 total extra stat points

The sorceress can also earn up to 60 more life from the Golden Bird quest.

Due to experience penalties at higher character levels, reaching level 99
is highly unlikely.  You can expect the sorceress to reach somewhere between
level 80 and 90.  Progressing beyond 90 will be tedious, and only the very
dedicated and powerful can reach levels beyond 95.  Therefore, plan builds
with about 400-450 extra points, not the full 505 points a level 99
character has.

=================
 4.1. Attributes
=================
Each character has four attributes:  Strength (STR), Dexterity (DEX),
Vitality (VIT), and Energy (ENR or NRG)

STRENGTH
--------
Affects:
  Item Requirements, Melee Damage, and Ranged Damage with throwing weapons.

Usefulness to Blasters:
  If the Spirit runeword is available, the sorceress needs 156 STR to equip
  a monarch, the lightest shield available with four sockets.  Spirit is so
  powerful as a caster shield that nothing else, not even Lidless Wall,
  comes even close.  156 STR also allows the sorceress to equip a
  Stormshield, the best damage reduction item in the game, or 4 perfect gem
  shield for resistance stacking in some dueling matchups.  If Spirit is
  unavailable and you do not desire Stormshield, then aim for a Strength
  score anywhere from 77 to 110.  This is because the sorceress needs a
  moderate amount to equip some of the stronger armor in the game.  Below
  are the strength cutoffs for some popular items:

      STR | Item Base          Special Item
    ------+----------------------------------------------------
       75 | Tower Shield       Sigon's Guard
       77 | Dusk Shroud        Ormus' Robes
       77 | Heater             (up) Viscerataunt
       84 | --                 Tal Rasha's Guardianship
       84 | Wyrmhide           (up) Skin of the Vipermagi
       88 | Battle Belt        (up) Goldwrap, Snowclash
       91 | Scarabshell Boots  Sandstorm Trek
       95 | Battle Boots       War Travelers
       96 | --                 Nightwing's Veil
       97 | Russet Armor       Skullder's Ire
      103 | Archon Plate       -- (various runewords)
      106 | Mithril Coil       Verdungo's Hearty Cord
      106 | Troll Nest         Headhunter's Glory
      110 | War Belt           Thundergods Vigor
      156 | Monarch            Spirit, Stormshield
      174 | Corona             Crown of Ages

Usefulness to Fighters:
  Melee fighters who want a shield to block will need 156 STR for
  Stormshield, the heaviest item used.  All of the best elite one-handed
  weapons have requirements lower than this.  Melee fighters who want to
  wield heavy two-handed weapons will need somewhat higher strength, up
  to 184, to equip elite axes and polearms, and possibly other armor such as
  the Crown of Ages.  Ranged fighters, those who take the path of archery,
  have the same strength requirements as a blaster sorceress.  This is
  because strength requirements for all the ideal bows, which is 80 or less,
  is less than the requirements needed for most of the best armor for the
  sorceress.

DEXTERITY
---------
Affects:
  Item Requirements, Melee Damage with knives and throwing weapons,
  Ranged Damage, Attack Rating, Defense Rating, and Chance to Block.

Usefulness to Everyone:
  If you want your sorceress to use a shield to block attacks, she needs
  high dexterity to maintain 75% blocking.  75% blocking with Stormshield
  requires 237 DEX at level 99.  Needless to say, this is more than enough
  needed to equip any weapon in the game.

  Blasters who forsake blocking in favor of high life only need 75 at most
  for Wizardspike, a powerful defensive caster item that is relatively easy
  to obtain (at least on Battlenet), making it ideal for those who are
  starting out and lack easy access to great items.  Below are the dexterity
  cutoffs for some useful caster items:

      DEX | Item Base          Special Item
    ------+----------------------------------------------------
       35 | Flail              Heart of the Oak
       37 | Elder Staff        Ondal's Wisdom
       42 | Tulwar             Blade of Alibaba
       75 | Bone Knife         Wizardspike

  Fighters who cannot block because they wield two-handed weapons
  (e.g., bows or polearms) or offensive shields with poor blocking
  (e.g., Dream) need up to 146 DEX depending on the weapon of choice.

      DEX | Item Base          Special Item
    ------+----------------------------------------------------
    >> ONE-HANDED MELEE <<
       59 | Berserker Axe
       77 | Scourge
      109 | Cryptic Sword
      136 | Phase Blade
    >> ONE-HANDED THROWING <<
      122 | Winged Axe         Lacerator
      142 | Winged Knife       Warshrike
    >> TWO-HANDED MELEE <<
       55 | Glorious Axe
       59 | Champion Axe
       65 | Silver Edged Axe
       99 | Great Poleaxe
      103 | Cryptic Axe
      140 | Giant Thresher
    >> BOWS <<
       49 | Cedar Bow          Kuko Shakaku
       80 | Ballista           Buriza-Do Kyanon
       95 | Chu-Ko-Nu          Demon Machine
      119 | Blade Bow
      132 | Diamond Bow        (up) Whichwild String
      146 | Ward Bow           Widowmaker

VITALITY
--------
Affects:
  Life, Stamina, and Chance for Double Heal with Life Potions.
  Each point to vitality adds 2 points to life and 1 point to stamina.

Usefulness to Vitality Sorceress:
  This is a very important stat for the sorceress since it affects how much
  life she has.  All spare points should be placed in vitality.  The more
  life the sorceress has, the harder it is for her to die.  In Hell, strive
  for at least 1000 life.  While you can get a big chunk of that from items
  and charms, vitality must be increased.  Therefore, increase vitality to
  at least 200, preferably more, for Hell games.

Usefulness to Energy Shield Sorceress:
  For an Energy Shield sorceress, most damage taken will be subtracted from
  mana instead of life.  Therefore, stat points that normally go to Vitality
  go to Energy instead.

ENERGY
------
Affects:
  Mana and Chance for Double Heal with Mana Potions.  Each point to energy
  adds 2 points to mana.

Usefulness to Vitality Sorceress:
  Believe it or not, thanks to mana boosting items and the availability of
  mana potions sold at vendors, the sorceress can get by with base energy.
  Base energy blaster builds will experience mana shortage problems during
  early and mid-game, but that will go away or become less of a problem once
  high levels are reached.  During those earlier levels, the sorceress will
  need to buy and drink mana potions often.  For all the power builds that
  do not use Energy Shield, a mana pool of around 800 should be plenty for
  comfortable use of skills, though 400 to 500 will do if you need to
  sacrifice mana for more important stats such as life.  The lower the mana
  pool, the more often potions are drunk.  In any case, max mana should be
  kept below max life so succubi and Baal cannot cast the dreaded Blood Mana
  curse to cripple the sorceress.

Usefulness to Energy Shield Sorceress:
  Mana is life for the energy shield sorceress, and all spare points go
  here.  In Hell, strive for at least 2000 mana.  Unfortunately, Blood Mana
  will be unavoidable in Act 5.

===============
 4.2. Blocking
===============
One major aspect of the build that must be decided on from the very
beginning is whether or not you are willing to spend the Dexterity needed
to allow the sorceress to block competently with a shield.  How often the
sorceress successfully blocks attacks depends on her block rate.  Block rate
is calculated by a combination of dexterity, character level, and the
shield's block rate.  As the sorceress gains levels, dexterity must be
raised to maintain the block rate.  Thus, high levels require high dexterity
or block rate will be low.  Of course, spending points in dexterity will
mean fewer points available for the other stats.

When an incoming attack is blocked, that attack is negated, but the
sorceress will freeze for a moment due to blocking animation.  This forced
stop might give other attackers the chance to hit the sorceress.  However,
one nice feature introduced in 1.10 is that if the sorceress blocks
successive attacks immediately after blocking the first, she will not be
locked in blocking animation.  That will not stop hit recovery if an attack
gets past blocking and hits the sorceress hard enough.  Thus, while blocking
can be very useful, it can be dangerous if the blocking percentage is not
high enough.  With low-to-medium block rate, say 20-60%, if the sorceress
gets caught by a group of enemies, she will often stop to block one attack,
but because of inconsistent block rate, she will often take a hit.  If that
hit puts her into hit recovery, she cannot move.  However, if she blocks
another attack while in hit recovery, she will be forced into block
animation, but then if she gets hit again... well, you get the idea.
It is easy to get pinned like this by a concentrated attack from several
opponents.  With no or very low block rate, the sorceress will almost never
block; and with a very high block rate, there is a good chance the sorceress
will block every attack while trying to Teleport away.  Blocking is one of
those all-or-nothing things.  If you want to block, aim for the maximum of
75% with your shield of choice.

High dexterity and high block rate
----------------------------------
PROS:
+ Most attacks based on physical damage are negated.
+ Shields can block some attacks that ignore defense totally.  For example,
   Guided Arrow, Tornado, succubi blood stars.
+ The sorceress meets the Dexterity requirements of most, if not all,
   weapons.
+ The sorceress has a decent chance of hitting a monster at least once
   with a weapon of vileness in case its regeneration must be suppressed.
   Uber Diablo is the most obvious example.
CONS:
- When the sorceress blocks an attack, she enters block animation and
   freezes for a moment.
- 2 points per level must be spent in Dexterity to maintain block rate.
- All stat points spent in Dexterity means less stat points toward other
   stats.  This usually means Vitality gets less, and the sorceress has
   less life as a result.
- The sorceress needs to find a shield with a high block rate.

Formulas
--------
What the following terms mean...
Total block     = Block percentage you seek, usually 75%.
Chance to Block = Block percentage listed on the shield.

Below is the formula to calculate your chance to block an attack.

    Total Block = (Chance to Block * (DEX - 15)) / (clvl * 2)

Sometimes, you know how much blocking you want and you want to know how much
dexterity the sorceress needs to block with your shield of choice.  Solving
for DEX, we get the following formula:

    DEX = (Total Block * clvl * 2 / Chance to Block) + 15

Below are cutoffs for maximum blocking (75%) with the best shields.

                                 |        Character Level
    Shield (Chance to Block)     |  75   80   85   90   95   99
  -------------------------------+------------------------------
                                 |   DEX Needed for 75% block
   Whinstan's Guard (87%)        | 145  153  162  171  179  186
   Up'd Viscerataunt (72%)       | 172  182  193  203  213  222
   Stormshield (67%)             | 183  195  206  217  228  237
   Up'd Moser's Circle (65%)     | 189  200  212  223  235  244
   Sanctuary Hyperion (64%)      | 191  203  215  226  238  248
   Sanctuary Monarch (62%)       | 197  209  221  233  245  255
   Sanctuary Troll Nest (60%)    | 203  215  228  240  253  262

   NOTE:  Sanctuary has an inherit +20 DEX.

"Should my sorceress block?"
----------------------------
Still have trouble deciding whether blocking is right for you?

Your sorceress should block if any of the following apply:

1) Your game involves a connection to a server (e.g., BattleNet), and you
   lag (or have a ping above 100) while playing.
Some players say the sorceress should never get hit by enemies.  This
is easier said than done, and if you lag, avoiding contact can become
difficult.  During a lag spike, your character can freeze for several
seconds, allowing monsters to hammer your helpless character during
that time.

2) You want your sorceress to tank for herself.
This is handy if you need to keep monsters standing still for attacks like
Meteor or Fire Wall to hit.

3) You want your sorceress to duel.
Opponents will find ways to hit your character.  Blocking will stop many of
these attacks.

4) Your sorceress is a melee Enchantress (assuming no werebear).
Defense and high life alone isn't going to save a melee sorceress from a
concentrated attack from multiple attackers.  She needs blocking to reduce
the hits taken.

Your sorceress should AVOID blocking if any of the following apply:

1) Your sorceress cannot find a good blocking shield.
If playing with your first character, it may take a while before your
character finds a shield that can block and resist elemental damage
effectively.  If your character's equipment is shabby enough that you must
choose between blocking or resistance, choose resistance.

2) Your sorceress wants or needs a shield with a low block rate.
Many pro sorceress players prefer the extra life from high vitality and/or
the caster power from Spirit or Lidless Wall.  In fact, sorceresses who want
7 fps cast rate must use Spirit or Lidless Wall to break the +200% faster
cast barrier.  In addition to skill and fast cast junkies, one other build
is bound to a shield with a poor block rate, the Dream sorceress.  A Dream
sorceress needs to equip a Dream shield, which has low block rate.

3) Your sorceress build cannot equip a shield.
Sorceresses equipped with two-handed weapons (e.g., bows, polearms) simply
cannot equip a shield.

4) Your sorceress is a Werebear Enchantress (i.e., uses the Werebear oskill
   from Beast).
The Werebear's blocking speed is excruciatingly slow to the point of
paralysis.  Such slow blocking hurts the werebear sorceress more than it
helps.


============================================================================
  5. Skills
============================================================================

The sorceress can earn up to 110 points to distribute among skills.

    98 from level ups
     3 from Den of Evil quest
     3 from Radament quest
     6 from Izual quest
  ----------------------------
   110 total skill points

As with stat points, don't expect to reach level 99 and the full 110 skill
points.  Count on gaining from 90 to 100 points.

Screen distance is assumed to be in 640x480 resolution.  (Explanation:
This was the resolution I used during the days I played Diablo II, as the
game ran painfully slow whenever I tried 800x600.  However, I suspect more
people use 800x600.)

Duration and other time fields are listed in seconds.  Range is listed in
yards.

It should be noted that the shape of circular areas is not a perfect circle.
Instead, it is oval or diamond shaped depending on the skill used.  This
phenomenon is evident when skills like Inferno or Nova are cast.

IMPORTANT NOTE:  The damage shown in the tables assume *NO* synergies taken
into account.  Since some skills require prerequisites that are synergies,
the damage of those skills will be higher than shown here.

==================
 5.1. Fire Skills
==================

            Fire    Warmth
            Bolt       |
              |        |
  Inferno     |        |
     |        |        |
     |        |        |
   Blaze   Fireball    |
     |        |   \    |
     |        |    \   |
  Firewall    |     Enchant
         \    |        |
          \   |        |
           Meteor      |
                       |
                       |
            Fire     Hydra
           Mastery

-----------
 FIRE BOLT
-----------
Required level:  1
"Creates a magical flaming missile."
---------------------------------------
 Mana Cost:  2.5
-------------------+-------------------
 slvl  Fire Damage | slvl  Fire Damage 
-------------------+-------------------
   1       3-  6   |  11      19- 25
   2       4-  7   |  12      21- 28
   3       6-  9   |  13      23- 31
   4       7- 10   |  14      25- 34
   5       9- 12   |  15      27- 37
   6      10- 13   |  16      29- 40
   7      12- 15   |  17      33- 45
   8      13- 16   |  18      37- 50
   9      15- 19   |  19      41- 55
  10      17- 22   |  20      45- 60
-------------------+-------------------
Receives Bonuses From:
Fire Ball:  +16% Fire Damage per Level
Meteor:     +16% Fire Damage per Level
---------------------------------------
Useful for killing monsters in early Act I, and the short staff all
sorceresses begin with has this skill.  Thanks to synergies, Fire Bolt can
become powerful enough to kill in Hell.  However, Fire Ball is usually more
powerful, so investing heavily into Fire Bolt is still not a good idea, at
least not before maxing out other fire attacks.  However, Fire Bolt's damage
rises faster than Fire Ball's, and the gap will shrink as the skill levels
rise.  By slvl 47 and beyond, synergized Fire Bolt will surpass synergized
Fire Ball in raw damage.

--------
 WARMTH
--------
Required level:  1
"Passive -- increases the rate at which you recover mana."
------------------+------------------
 slvl  Percentage | slvl  Percentage 
------------------+------------------
   1       30%    |  11      150%
   2       42%    |  12      162%
   3       54%    |  13      174%
   4       66%    |  14      186%
   5       78%    |  15      198%
   6       90%    |  16      210%
   7      102%    |  17      222%
   8      114%    |  18      234%
   9      126%    |  19      246%
  10      138%    |  20      258%
------------------+------------------
Although Warmth is useful, most blaster sorceresses can only afford to add
one point to Warmth because they need all of their skill points to develop
their primary attacks and damage boosters.  Enchantresses should max Warmth
because it increases Enchant's damage.  Regardless what skills the sorceress
learns, Warmth is always worth at least one point.

---------
 INFERNO
---------
Required level:  6
"Creates a continuous jet of flame to scorch your enemies."
-----------------------------------------------------------------
 Minimum Mana to Cast:  6
--------------------------------+--------------------------------
         Average                |         Average
 slvl  Fire Damage  Range  Mana | slvl  Fire Damage  Range  Mana
--------------------------------+--------------------------------
   1      12- 25      3.3    7  |  11     108-122      8.0    8
   2      21- 34      3.3    7  |  12     118-132      8.6    9
   3      31- 43      4.0    7  |  13     128-143      9.3    9
   4      40- 53      4.6    7  |  14     139-153      9.3    9
   5      50- 62      5.3    7  |  15     149-164     10.0    9
   6      59- 71      5.3    8  |  16     159-175     10.6    9
   7      68- 81      6.0    8  |  17     170-186     11.3   10
   8      78- 90      6.6    8  |  18     181-197     11.3   10
   9      88-101      7.3    8  |  19     192-208     12.0   10
  10      98-111      7.3    8  |  20     203-220     12.6   10
--------------------------------+--------------------------------
Receives Bonuses From:
Warmth:  +13% Fire Damage per Level
-----------------------------------------------------------------
(WARNING:  Bug causes Inferno to inflict half the listed damage!)

Inferno shoots a stream of fire that can penetrate and roast multiple
targets.  At low levels, the range of Inferno is extremely short.  More
points into Inferno will increase the range and damage, and the flames can
go beyond full screen at very high levels.  While firing, the sorceress
stands still and CANNOT walk or run.  If a target is clicked, the sorceress
will rotate on her own to aim directly the target and fire continuously
until the target dies, the attack button is released, the sorceress is
forced into hit recovery, she runs out of mana.  For the best control, click
the ground near the target so you can rotate freely and continue firing even
after the sorceress kills your target.  Due to the lack of mobility, getting
interrupted can be a problem.  Try to make it hard as possible for monsters
to reach the sorceress.  Hide behind mercs or other players and let them
tank if possible.  Also, use any gaps in terrain available to separate the
sorceress from the bad guys.

Inferno is Weak with a captial 'W'.  The listed damage per second of a
fully synergized Inferno is less than two or three Fire Balls with only one
synergy maxed.  Unfortunately, it gets worse.  Thanks to a bug, Inferno
inflicts only half the listed damage.  With only half damage, Inferno is
weaker than two maxed Fire Balls with no synergies.  The verdict:  Inferno
is a grossly underpowered skill for masochistic players who wish to play a
handicapped build.  For more practical players, the only reason to add a
point to Inferno is if it is needed as a prerequisite for Meteor or
Fire Wall.

-------
 BLAZE
-------
Required level:  12
"Creates a wall of fire in your wake to scorch your enemies."
---------------------------------------------
                   Average      Fire
 slvl  Duration  Fire Damage  Duration  Mana
---------------------------------------------
   1      4.6       18-  37      4.6     11
   2      5.6       28-  46      6.8     11
   3      6.6       37-  56      8.4     12
   4      7.6       46-  65      9.9     12
   5      8.6       56-  75     11.0     13
   6      9.6       65-  84     11.8     13
   7     10.6       75-  93     12.6     14
   8     11.6       84- 103     13.1     14
   9     12.6       98- 117     13.8     15
  10     13.6      112- 131     14.2     15
  11     14.6      126- 145     14.7     16
  12     15.6      140- 159     15.1     16
  13     16.6      154- 173     15.4     17
  14     17.6      168- 187     15.8     17
  15     18.6      182- 201     16.0     18
  16     19.6      196- 215     16.4     18
  17     20.6      215- 234     16.5     19
  18     21.6      234- 253     16.7     19
  19     22.6      253- 271     16.9     20
  20     23.6      271- 290     17.1     20
---------------------------------------------
Duration = how long the sorceress will lay down fire.
Fire Duration = how long the flames will burn.

In early Normal, Blaze is useful for burning up monsters eager to chase
the sorceress, especially the act bosses Andariel and Duriel.  After the
sorceress casts Blaze, let the monsters chase her.  They will run into the
flames and take damage.  Multiple flame trails can stack to create a patch
of fire more damaging by running (or walking) over an area multiple times.
However, Blaze's damage is low so it will take time for Blaze to kill.
If you want powerful attacks, look elsewhere.  Only Fire Wall or Meteor
sorceresses need to add a point here.

-----------
 FIRE BALL
-----------
Required level:  12
"Creates an explosive sphere of fiery death to engulf your enemies."
---------------------------------------------------
 Radius:  2 yards.
 (NOTE:  1 yard is a display error from skilldesc.txt)
-------------------------+-------------------------
 slvl  Fire Damage  Mana | slvl  Fire Damage  Mana 
-------------------------+-------------------------
   1       6- 14     5.0 |  11      86-104    10.0
   2      12- 21     5.5 |  12      97-116    10.5
   3      19- 29     6.0 |  13     109-129    11.0
   4      25- 36     6.5 |  14     120-141    11.5
   5      32- 44     7.0 |  15     132-154    12.0
   6      38- 51     7.5 |  16     143-166    12.5
   7      45- 59     8.0 |  17     157-181    13.0
   8      51- 66     8.5 |  18     171-196    13.5
   9      63- 79     9.0 |  19     185-211    14.0
  10      74- 91     9.5 |  20     199-226    14.5
-------------------------+-------------------------
Receives Bonuses From:
Fire Bolt:  +14% Fire Damage per Level
Meteor:     +14% Fire Damage per Level
---------------------------------------------------
Fire Ball launches a flaming missile much like Fire Bolt except it looks
bigger and it explodes on contact.  The explosion can hit multiple monsters
that are packed into a tight group.  Fire Ball is the staple fire attack for
the fire sorceress.  Once fully developed, Fire Ball can inflict more fire
damage per second than any other fire attack except Fire Bolt at extremely
high levels.  Fire Ball is used to blast foes in a standard encounter, where
enemies are weak enough to be destroyed by a few fireballs sooner than the
time it takes for a single Meteor to land.  Even in big fights, such as
bosses, Fire Ball is handy to cast between the delays of Meteor.  Naturally,
the fire sorceress will max this skill.

-----------
 FIRE WALL
-----------
Required level:  12
"Creates a wall of flame that blocks or burns your enemies."
-------------------------------------------------------------------
 Casting Delay:  1.4 sec.
 Duration:  3.6 sec.
---------------------------------+---------------------------------
         Average     Wall        |         Average     Wall
 slvl  Fire Damage  Radius  Mana | slvl  Fire Damage  Radius  Mana 
---------------------------------+---------------------------------
   1      70-  93     4.6    22  |  11     562- 585    18.0    32
   2     112- 135     6.0    23  |  12     628- 651    19.3    33
   3     154- 178     7.3    24  |  13     693- 717    20.6    34
   4     196- 220     8.6    25  |  14     759- 782    22.0    35
   5     239- 262    10.0    26  |  15     825- 848    23.3    36
   6     281- 304    11.3    27  |  16     890- 914    24.6    37
   7     323- 346    12.6    28  |  17     989-1012    26.0    38
   8     365- 389    14.0    29  |  18    1087-1110    27.3    39
   9     431- 454    15.3    30  |  19    1185-1209    28.6    40
  10     496- 520    16.6    31  |  20    1284-1307    30.0    41
---------------------------------+---------------------------------
Point, click, and a wall of fire perpendicular to the sorceress instantly
flares up.  The wall of fire is thin, but those caught in the flames are in
for a world of hurt.  The key to making Fire Wall effective is to pin the
enemies in the flames as long as possible.  For stationary enemies like
traps and many ranged attackers, this is not a problem.  For moving targets,
a way to impair their mobility is necessary.  One obvious way to do this is
to freeze targets with Ice Blast or Glacial Spike.  Another way to keep
enemies still is to offer them a meat shield so they will stop to attack it.
For the sorceress, a melee merc is an excellent meat shield.  As the
monsters attack, raise a firewall under their feet, and monsters will take
damage where they stand.

Fire Wall is a powerful attack with minimum skill point investment.  Just
max Fire Wall and medium to high Fire Mastery is enough to kill many Hell
monsters, making it a good secondary attack.  A sturdy tank is mandatory to
keep monsters still though.  However, a Meteor of similar point investment
is superior to Firewall in nearly every way, namely that Meteor does
comparable damage but is much easier to hit with and drains less mana.
The two advantages Fire Wall has over Meteor is instant damage and fewer
prerequisites needed.

---------
 ENCHANT
---------
Required level:  18
"Enchants equipped weapon of targeted character or minion.  Adds fire
 damage to melee weapons.  Adds one-third damage to ranged weapons."
-------------------------------------------------
 slvl  Duration  Fire Damage  Attack Bonus  Mana
-------------------------------------------------
   1      144        8- 10         20%       25
   2      168        9- 12         29%       26
   3      192       11- 15         38%       27
   4      216       12- 17         47%       28
   5      240       14- 20         56%       29
   6      264       15- 22         65%       30
   7      288       17- 25         74%       31
   8      312       18- 27         83%       32
   9      336       22- 32         92%       33
  10      360       25- 36        101%       34
  11      384       29- 41        110%       35
  12      408       32- 45        119%       36
  13      432       36- 50        128%       37
  14      456       39- 54        137%       38
  15      480       43- 59        146%       39
  16      504       46- 63        155%       40
  17      528       52- 70        164%       41
  18      552       57- 76        173%       42
  19      576       63- 83        182%       43
  20      600       68- 89        191%       44
-------------------------------------------------
Receives Bonuses From:
Warmth:  +9% Fire Damage per Level
-------------------------------------------------
First and foremost, the in-game description of Enchant is a relic from
previous versions that is obsolete in the post-1.10 game environment.

Enchant is the one skill that defines the fighter sorceress build, as it can
provide tremendous fire damage and accuracy boosts to the sorceress and her
allies if fully developed.  Blaster sorceresses will have no or very little
use for this skill as Enchant requires the sorceress to strike foes with
weapons.  As a one point wonder for a blaster fire sorceress, Enchant is
useful only as a slight damage powerup to her merc.  To use Enchant
effectively, the sorceress must be built like a fighter, not a blaster mage.
Only fighters have a reason to add more than a point to Enchant.

If the sorceress has any fire mastery whatsoever, one thing the player will
quickly notice is the damage increase shown on the lying character screen is
greater than the damage shown by the skill itself.  This is because the fire
damage granted by Enchant is added directly to the character's attacks, and
when that character hits in melee, all fire damage is multiplied by any fire
mastery that character has.  Because of the elemental mastery bug, missile
attacks (such as arrows) do not get the extra mastery bonus as shown by the
LCS.

One fun but important fact about exploding arrows:  they add fire damage
from every source to not only the arrow, but also the explosion.  Sources
include fire damage from equipment, charms, Holy Fire, and Enchant.  An
enemy always takes damage from the explosion (unless it is immune to fire),
and if the arrow successfully hits, the enemy takes all the fire damage
again plus the arrow damage as well.  In effect, the enemy takes double fire
damage from one shot.  If the arrow pierces, the enemy can take even more
fire damage from explosions that result from impacting more enemies and/or
the wall behind it.  Against massives hordes like those in the Cow Level,
a single exploding and piercing shot can create a series of explosions that
cause massive fire damage to all enemies hit.  For the Enchantress who wants
to use missile weapons, the ideal weapon would be a fast bow or crossbow
with exploding arrows and pierce.  Currently, the only weapons with both
properties are the unique weapons Kuko Shakaku and Demon Machine.

--------
 METEOR
--------
Required level:  24
"Summons a meteor from the heavens to crush and incinerate your enemies."
------------------------------------------------
 Casting Delay:  1.2 sec.
 Radius:  4 yards.
------------------------------------------------
                      Average      Fire
 slvl  Fire Damage  Fire Damage  Duration  Mana
------------------------------------------------
   1      80- 100      35- 58       1.2    17.0
   2     103- 125      44- 67       1.8    17.5
   3     126- 150      53- 77       2.4    18.0
   4     149- 175      63- 86       3.0    18.5
   5     172- 200      72- 96       3.6    19.0
   6     195- 220      82-105       4.2    19.5
   7     218- 244      91-114       4.8    20.0
   8     241- 268     100-124       5.4    20.5
   9     280- 308     112-135       6.0    21.0
  10     319- 348     124-147       6.6    21.5
  11     358- 398     135-159       7.2    22.0
  12     397- 439     147-171       7.8    22.5
  13     436- 480     159-182       8.4    23.0
  14     475- 521     171-194       9.0    23.5
  15     514- 562     182-206       9.6    24.0
  16     553- 603     194-217      10.2    24.5
  17     632- 684     208-232      10.8    25.0
  18     711- 765     222-246      11.4    25.5
  19     790- 846     236-260      12.0    26.0
  20     869- 927     250-274      12.6    26.5
------------------------------------------------
Receives Bonuses From:
Fire Bolt:  +5% Fire Damage per Level
Fire Ball:  +5% Fire Damage per Level
Inferno:    +3% Average Fire Damage per Level per Second
------------------------------------------------
When cast, a red pulsating circle appears at the targeted point.  About 2.4
seconds later, a meteor will slam on the ground, explode, and leave behind a
large patch of fire.  The initial blast is highly damaging and has a sizable
blast radius.  When the initial blast damage adds up with the potential
damage from the flames, Meteor can be the single most damaging fire skill
and one of the best crowd killing spells in the sorceress's arsenal.  The
damage from the flames is nothing to ignore as flames from a high level
Meteor can burn for a long time and inflict more damage over time than the
blast itself.  Targets that don't move like many ranged attackers are
perfect fodder for Meteor.  For other mobile targets, the player can predict
where they will go and aim Meteors there, or make them stop by using meat
shields or freezing then aim.  If Meteor is at a high level, the player can
even drop Meteors to create patches of fire, then lure the enemies over the
fire.  The flames can stack so it is possible to drop several Meteors on a
single point to create an extremely damaging patch of fire.

As with Fire Wall, Meteor is very damaging even with minimal skill
investment.  Max Meteor and medium to high level Fire Mastery will kill at
a reasonable speed in Hell.  Unlike Fire Wall, Meteor can be powered up by
synergies, which turns Meteor from a moderately damaging spell into a
superpowered killer.  As for which synergies to max, it is enough to max
only Fire Bolt and Fire Ball since most of the damage will come from the
impact.

--------------
 FIRE MASTERY
--------------
Required level:  30
"Passive -- increases all damage caused by your fire spells."
------------------+------------------
 slvl  Percentage | slvl  Percentage 
------------------+------------------
   1       +30%   |  11      +100%
   2       +37%   |  12      +107%
   3       +44%   |  13      +114%
   4       +51%   |  14      +121%
   5       +58%   |  15      +128%
   6       +65%   |  16      +135%
   7       +72%   |  17      +142%
   8       +79%   |  18      +149%
   9       +86%   |  19      +156%
  10       +93%   |  20      +163%
------------------+------------------
If the sorceress uses any fire attack, put a skill point into this as soon
as she reaches level 30.  Eventually, Fire Mastery should be maxed.  Some
fire skills have synergy bonuses higher than mastery, so developing them
first before mastery might seem like a good idea.  However, the bonuses from
synergies and masteries are multiplicative, not additive.  In other words,
a skill's damage is multiplied by the synergy bonus.  Then the resulting
damage is multiplied by the mastery bonus.

    Base Damage = skill damage * (synergy bonus + 100%)
    Total Damage = Base Damage * (mastery bonus + 100%)

Also, Fire Mastery boosts fire damage added to melee attacks.

-------
 HYDRA
-------
Required level:  30
"Summons a multi-headed beast of flame to reduce your enemies to ashes."
---------------------------------------------------
 Casting Delay:  2 sec.
 Duration:  10 sec.
-------------------------+-------------------------
 slvl  Fire Damage  Mana | slvl  Fire Damage  Mana 
-------------------------+-------------------------
   1      12- 17     20  |  11      63- 78     25
   2      16- 22     20  |  12      69- 85     25
   3      21- 28     21  |  13      76- 93     26
   4      25- 33     21  |  14      82-100     26
   5      30- 39     22  |  15      89-108     27
   6      34- 44     22  |  16      95-115     27
   7      39- 50     23  |  17     104-125     28
   8      43- 55     23  |  18     112-134     28
   9      50- 63     24  |  19     121-144     29
  10      56- 70     24  |  20     129-153     29
-------------------------+-------------------------
Receives Bonuses From:
Fire Bolt:  +3% Fire Damage per Level
Fire Ball:  +3% Fire Damage per Level
---------------------------------------------------
When cast, three flaming dragon heads pop out of the ground.  The dragon
heads wait for about a second before they attack.  During the rest of the
duration, each of the flaming heads will launch powerful fire bolts at
enemies within a screen away from them.  Together they can shoot on average,
sometimes more or less, twenty fire bolts before the heads vanish.
What makes Hydra useful is they extend the sorceress's attack range while
possibly keeping her out of the harm's way.  In other words, they can be
used as scouts.  Just cast them ahead of her and if an enemy is nearby,
the Hydra will fire at its direction.

For example, to attack an enemy two screens away, place a hydra at the edge
of the screen; or to attack an enemy around a corner, place a hydra at the
corner.  In both cases, the hydra will find the enemy and attack, and often
the enemy is unable to retaliate because the sorceress is too far away
and/or hiding behind a wall.

       Ex. corner                       Ex. two screens
     +------------+                +------------------------+
     |         X  |    Legend      |                        |
     |       |    |   ---------    |                  X     |
     |       |    |   O = you      |            *           |
     |    ---+    |   X = enemy    |    O                   |
     |  O      *  |   * = Hydra    |                        |
     +------------+                +------------------------+

As an offensive spell, Hydra is not very strong.  Both Hydra and
Fire Mastery at maximum level is the minimum needed for Hydra to be useful
as a primary attack.  The damage is not as high as Fire Ball, Fire Wall,
or Meteor.  If fast killing speed is what you want, Hydra is not for you.
On the other hand, if you need a safe, long-distance killer, Hydra will get
the job done.

Interesting fact:  Hydra is the only minion in the game that inherits its
caster's fire mastery (from the skill and items that emulate it, such as
Rainbow Facets), unlike the assassin's fire and lightning sentry traps or
necromancer's skeleton magi and fire golem.

=======================
 5.2. Lightning Skills
=======================

           Charged
            Bolt
              |
   Static     |     Telekinesis
   Field      |          |
     |        |          |
   Nova   Lightning      |
     |        |          |
     |        |          |
     |      Chain    Teleport
     |    Lightning      |
     |   /         \     |
  Thunder          Energy Shield
   storm

          Lightning
           Mastery

--------------
 CHARGED BOLT
--------------
Required level:  1
"Creates multiple, randomly directed bolts of electrical energy."
--------------------------------+--------------------------------
 slvl  Bolts  Lit. Damage  Mana | slvl  Bolts  Lit. Damage  Mana 
--------------------------------+--------------------------------
   1      3       2- 4      3.0 |  11     13       7- 9      8.0
   2      4       2- 4      3.5 |  12     14       7- 9      8.5
   3      5       3- 5      4.0 |  13     15       8-10      9.0
   4      6       3- 5      4.5 |  14     16       8-10      9.5
   5      7       4- 6      5.0 |  15     17       9-11     10.0
   6      8       4- 6      5.5 |  16     18       9-11     10.5
   7      9       5- 7      6.0 |  17     19      10-12     11.0
   8     10       5- 7      6.5 |  18     20      11-13     11.5
   9     11       6- 8      7.0 |  19     21      12-14     12.0
  10     12       6- 8      7.5 |  20     22      13-15     12.5
--------------------------------+--------------------------------
Receives Bonuses From:
Lightning:  +6% Lightning Damage per Level
-----------------------------------------------------------------
Casting Charged Bolt discharges a spray of shots similar to other multishot
attacks.  The flight path of a charged bolt is a steady zigzag, not random
drunken flight as the description might lead you to believe.  Each point
added to Charged Bolt adds more damage and one more bolt per cast, up to
24 bolts per cast.  Individually, a charged bolt inflicts minor damage,
but unlike other characters' multishot skills, multiple charged bolts can
hit a single target.  Thus, the sorceress can fire off bolts at a target
at point-blank range, and have the majority of them hit for high damage.

For the lightning sorceress, Charged Bolt will be the staple attack until
Lightning becomes powerful enough to kill monsters quickly.  For the pure
lightning sorceress, this may happen as early as level 60.  Other builds may
need to wait longer due to skill points getting diverted to other skills.
Charged Bolt can easily carry the sorceress through Normal and Nightmare.
In Hell, the effectiveness of Charged Bolt depends on how many bolts can hit
the target per cast.  At point-blank range, many bolts will hit, which will
cause high damage and perhaps a quick kill.  However, standing that close to
monsters is potentially dangerous to the sorceress.  From further away, much
fewer bolts will hit and the killing speed will slow down greatly.

Since Charged Bolts are small in size, they can squeeze through tight spaces
that Lightning or Chain Lightning cannot.  Combined with the Charged Bolts'
flight path, they can wear down and eventually kill targets that try to hide
behind corners or thin pillars.  Killing may be a little slow, but if the
target refuses to engage the sorceress or tries to return fire but its shots
get blocked, you will have an easy victory.

Sooner or later, your high level sorceress with fully developed attacks may
return to Normal or Nightmare difficulty in order to find low level, yet
useful items (e.g., gems for rune upgrades) or to rush friends through the
game.  Out of all the lightning skills, Charged Bolt has the best coverage
for the least mana used, making it the most efficient sweeper.  Just spray
some bolts to blanket the area in front of the sorceress and wimpy monsters
such as Fallen will die the instant the concentrated wave of bolts makes
contact.  Nova and Chain Lightning have higher mana costs, and Lightning
does not have any lateral coverage.

--------------
 STATIC FIELD
--------------
Required level:  6
"Creates an electrical field that reduces life of all nearby enemies."
-----------------------------------------------------------
 Weakens enemies by 25%.
 Mana Cost:  9
--------------+--------------+--------------+--------------
 slvl  Radius | slvl  Radius | slvl  Radius | slvl  Radius
--------------+--------------+--------------+--------------
   1     3.3  |   6     6.6  |  11    10.0  |  16    13.3
   2     4.0  |   7     7.3  |  12    10.6  |  17    14.0
   3     4.6  |   8     8.0  |  13    11.3  |  18    14.6
   4     5.3  |   9     8.6  |  14    12.0  |  19    15.3
   5     6.0  |  10     9.3  |  15    12.6  |  20    16.0
--------------+--------------+--------------+--------------
When hit by static, monsters instantly lose 25% of their current life.
For low life monsters such as Fallen, this is insignificant.  For high
life monsters such as Diablo or other bosses, this is highly damaging.
In multiplayer games where monster life scales up, 25% life can mean a huge
amount of life; and in parties with a sorceress, other members may even
request static to help weaken tough monsters.  As a monster takes damage,
its current life drops, and static will inflict less damage with each
successive cast.  Below is a small chart that lists how much life a monster
will have after hit by successive castings of Static Field.

   Casts |     0     1     2     3     4     5     6     7     8
  -------+--------------------------------------------------------
   Life% |  100.0  75.0  56.3  42.2  31.6  23.7  17.8  13.3  10.0

The idea here is to weaken the enemy with static first, then finish off the
enemy with a powerful, decisive attack.  Because of damage is a percentage
regardless of the amount of life, static field is one the most useful skills
a sorceress has, and every sorceress should have at least one point invested
in this skill.

Damage taken from Static Field is modified by resistances.  Lightning
resistant targets take less than 25% of their current life, and monsters
immune to lightning take no damage at all.  On the other hand, items that
lower enemy lightning resistance will cause the target to take more damage.
For PvP, this damage is further reduced by the PvP damage penalty (17%),
so Static Field is useless for killing other players.

Unfortunately, Static Field has a limited effect in Nightmare and Hell.
Static Field automatically misses monsters whose life is below a certain
point.  In Nightmare, the cutoff is 33% life; in Hell, it is 50%.  If a
monster heals and regains enough life to exceed the health cap, it is
vulnerable to static again until its life falls below the health cap once
more.

-------------
 TELEKINESIS
-------------
Required level:  6
"Uses the power of your mind to pick up items, use objects, and knock back
 enemies."
-----------------------------------------------------------
 Chance of knockback/stun:  35%
 Range:  16.6 yards.
 Mana Cost:  7
--------------+--------------+--------------+--------------
        Lit.  |        Lit.  |        Lit.  |        Lit.
 slvl  Damage | slvl  Damage | slvl  Damage | slvl  Damage
--------------+--------------+--------------+--------------
   1    1- 2  |   6    6- 7  |  11   11-12  |  16   16-17
   2    2- 3  |   7    7- 8  |  12   12-13  |  17   17-18
   3    3- 4  |   8    8- 9  |  13   13-14  |  18   18-19
   4    4- 5  |   9    9-10  |  14   14-15  |  19   19-20
   5    5- 6  |  10   10-11  |  15   15-16  |  20   20-21
--------------+--------------+--------------+--------------
With Telekinesis, the player clicks on an object and the sorceress tries to
use it from a distance, even through walls.  Thus, she can pick up items or
search stashes remotely.  Telekinesis is limited in item retrieval, for it
can only pick up the most common items -- namely gold, keys, potions,
scrolls, and ammunition.  Telekinesis can be used to attack, but do not
expect much from it.  The damage is too low, so it is useless for killing
things.  It does have a chance to knockback and/or stun the monster.  While
Telekinesis cannot reliably stunlock a monster, the occasional knockback is
enough to pin the monster down for the merc to kill it.

What Telekinesis can do:
* Pick up gold, keys, potions, scrolls (not tomes), and ammunition.
* Search barrels, bookshelves, coffins, dead bodies, racks, stashes, urns,
   and the like.
* Open chests.  Locked chests still need keys.
* Open and close doors.
* Activate and use shrines and waypoints.
* Access your private stash in town.
* Access town portals while in town.
* Attack monsters.  (Damage is too low, but knockback is useful.)
* Use or destroy quest objects.  For objects that require a weapon to smash
   them (e.g., Khalim's Will for Compelling Orb), the sorceress must have
   that weapon equipped.

What Telekinesis cannot do:
* Pick up weapons, armor, jewelry, gems, runes, charms, tomes, or quest
   items.  In other words, all the really good stuff.
* Recover corpses.
* Talk to NPCs from a distance.

Telekinesis has one other use:  it increases Energy Shield absorption
efficiency.  The more base points the sorceress has in Telekinesis, the less
mana is consumed when Energy Shield takes a hit.  See Energy Shield below
for more details.

Because Telekinesis is the prerequisite for Teleport, every sorceress will
have at least one point in Telekinesis.  Sorceresses who rely on Energy
Shield for protection need the full twenty points in Telekinesis.

------
 NOVA
------
Required level:  12
"Creates a powerful ring of lightning to shock nearby enemies."
-------------------------+-------------------------
 slvl  Lit. Damage  Mana | slvl  Lit. Damage  Mana 
-------------------------+-------------------------
   1       1- 20     15  |  11      64-103     25
   2       7- 28     16  |  12      71-112     26
   3      13- 36     17  |  13      78-121     27
   4      19- 44     18  |  14      85-130     28
   5      25- 52     19  |  15      92-139     29
   6      31- 60     20  |  16      99-148     30
   7      37- 68     21  |  17     107-158     31
   8      43- 76     22  |  18     115-168     32
   9      50- 85     23  |  19     123-178     33
  10      57- 94     24  |  20     131-188     34
-------------------------+-------------------------
Nova will hit all targets within about 7 yards of the sorceress, making it
useful to attack a crowd of nearby monsters... in theory. Nova suffers some
problems that turns it into a shadow of its former self during the
cow-killing days of 1.09.

First and foremost is low damage.  Damage has improved slightly since 1.09,
but compared to powered up monsters and 10K-20K average damage attacks the
1.10/1.11 power builds have, Nova is weak.  Unlike other lightning attacks,
Nova has no synergies to boost its damage.  Since all the other lightning
attacks have synergies, they can surpass and outdamage Nova.  Nova is
damaging enough to be viable, but with better choices available, Nova is
not good enough for the powergamer seeking maximum damage.

Second is Nova's mana usage -- it drains FAST.  Continuous use of Nova will
quickly drain even a pool of mana over a thousand in seconds.  The sorceress
will need a very large pool of mana, at least 1500, preferably 2000 or more,
with help from items, if Nova is to be used as a primary attack spell.  This
hamstrings equipment options, which hurts, especially if the sorceress does
not have all the necessary items.  Adding stat points to energy and skill
points to Warmth, which is normally a big no-no with nearly every other
sorceress, might be necessary so that mana does not empty so soon.  Other
lightning skills when synergized can outperform Nova for less mana.

Third is range.  Most other useful sorceress skills let her tag monsters all
the way across the screen.  This is impossible with Nova.  The sorceress
must wade in and spam Nova until the monsters drop.  Needless to say, this
can be hazardous to your health.  During 1.09, when most monsters in the
lucrative areas of the game were relatively weak and usually melee only,
especially Hell Bovines, a high powered Nova would usually clear the area
before the monsters could reach the sorceress, so short range was not a
concern in 1.09.  It is not so easy anymore since 1.10, thanks to stronger
and tougher monsters, and more ranged attackers.

Is there any good reason to learn Nova, let alone max it?  There is but one
reason:  it is one of the synergies to Lightning and Chain Lightning.  For
those who want to maximize the damage for those two skills, Nova needs to be
maxed too.

-----------
 LIGHTNING
-----------
Required level:  12
"Creates a powerful lightning bolt to lay waste to your enemies."
-------------------------+-------------------------
 slvl  Lit. Damage  Mana | slvl  Lit. Damage  Mana 
-------------------------+-------------------------
   1       1-  40    8.0 |  11       1- 132   13.0
   2       1-  48    8.5 |  12       1- 144   13.5
   3       1-  56    9.0 |  13       1- 156   14.0
   4       1-  64    9.5 |  14       1- 168   14.5
   5       1-  72   10.0 |  15       1- 180   15.0
   6       1-  80   10.5 |  16       1- 192   15.5
   7       1-  88   11.0 |  17       1- 212   16.0
   8       1-  96   11.5 |  18       1- 232   16.5
   9       1- 108   12.0 |  19       1- 252   17.0
  10       1- 120   12.5 |  20       1- 272   17.5
-------------------------+-------------------------
Receives Bonuses From:
Charged Bolt:     +8% Lightning Damage per Level
Nova:             +8% Lightning Damage per Level
Chain Lightning:  +8% Lightning Damage per Level
---------------------------------------------------
Lightning is one of the most important skills for the lightning sorceress.
The lightning bolt travels fast, pierces through all targets in its path,
and has good range.  However, the most important part of this skill is the
damage synergies involved.  Lightning provides and receives synergies from
multiple lightning skills.  As a receiver, Lightning gets the highest damage
boosts.  With heavy investment in its synergies, Lightning is the most
damaging skill in the lightning tree.  If you want to develop Charged Bolt
and/or Chain Lightning, Lightning must be developed too just to boost those
skills' damage higher.  This works to the player's advantage, as the
sorceress will eventually build two or three powerful lightning attacks that
each have uses.  In Lightning's case, it is the high damage, single-shot
attack that is best used against columns of enemies, bosses, or hostile
players.

Tip:  When fighting several enemies, try to position the sorceress in a way
to get as many monsters in a straight line in front of her as possible.
That way, lightning will hit them all.

One of Lightning's (and Chain Lightning's) unusual traits is its casting
rate is slower than other skills by a few frames.  The sorceress will launch
lightning as quickly as any other spell effect.  However, unlike other
spells where the sorceress recovers immediately after casting, the sorceress
is stuck in place looking pretty for a few frames after casting (Chain)
Lightning.

Compared to other lightning attacks the sorceress has, one advantage
Lightning has over the rest is it drains mana the slowest over time.
Although Charged Bolt costs the least, that skill can be cast faster than
Lightning, and repeated casting of Charged Bolt drains mana faster than
repeated casting of Lightning.  If the sorceress focuses on Lightning as
the main attack, base Energy is definitely feasible (if Energy Shield is
not used).

-----------------
 CHAIN LIGHTNING
-----------------
Required level:  18
"Creates a bolt of lightning that arcs through several targets."
---------------------------------------------------------------
 Jump Radius:  13.3 yards.
-------------------------------+-------------------------------
 slvl  Hits  Lit. Damage  Mana | slvl  Hits  Lit. Damage  Mana 
-------------------------------+-------------------------------
   1     5       1- 40      9  |  11     7       1-156     19
   2     5       1- 51     10  |  12     7       1-169     20
   3     5       1- 62     11  |  13     7       1-182     21
   4     5       1- 73     12  |  14     7       1-195     22
   5     6       1- 84     13  |  15     8       1-208     23
   6     6       1- 95     14  |  16     8       1-221     24
   7     6       1-106     15  |  17     8       1-236     25
   8     6       1-117     16  |  18     8       1-251     26
   9     6       1-130     17  |  19     8       1-266     27
  10     7       1-143     18  |  20     9       1-281     28
-------------------------------+-------------------------------
Receives Bonuses From:
Charged Bolt:  +4% Lightning Damage per Level
Nova:          +4% Lightning Damage per Level
Lightning:     +4% Lightning Damage per Level
---------------------------------------------------------------
This functions the same as Lightning with one important exception.  Instead
of piercing targets, the bolt arcs from target to target, and the arcing
radius is huge -- up to 13.3 yards.  Chain Lightning can even arc back to
hit a target more than once, inflicting the listed damage per hit.  As such,
Chain Lightning is more effective against several targets than against one.

Compared to Lightning, Chain Lightning causes less damage and costs more
mana, making it worse than Lightning against single targets.  However, what
makes Chain Lightning useful is the crowd killing possibilities.  It does
not matter if the targets are bunched in front of you, scattered all around
the screen, or hiding behind a corner (or off the screen) except for a scout
standing in the open between the sorceress and the rest of the enemy.  If
Chain Lightning can connect the dots (targets), it can hit as many targets
as allowed.  If the targets have low enough life, Chain Lightning can sweep
the crowd faster than Lightning.

Tip:  When faced by a group of monsters in which a few monsters are immune
to lightning and the rest are not, use Chain Lightning first to blast the
non-immunes.  Chain Lightning will arc to and from a lightning immune
monster, possibly multiple times, to zap non-immune targets.  If there is a
single lightning immune, Chain Lightning can be spammed at the immune until
the lightning stops arcing.

----------
 TELEPORT
----------
Required level:  18
"Instantly moves to a destination within your line of sight."
------------+------------+------------
 slvl  Mana | slvl  Mana | slvl  Mana
------------+------------+------------
   1    24  |  11    14  |  21     4
   2    23  |  12    13  |  22     3
   3    22  |  13    12  |  23     2
   4    21  |  14    11  |  24+    1
   5    20  |  15    10  |
   6    19  |  16     9  |
   7    18  |  17     8  |
   8    17  |  18     7  |
   9    16  |  19     6  |
  10    15  |  20     5  |
------------+------------+------------
This gives the sorceress supreme mobility by letting her pass through
obstacles or cover great distances faster than running.  Definitely a
must-learn skill!  The ability to teleport is so powerful that players of
other classes go to great lengths to obtain Enigma, an armor runeword that
provides unlimited Teleport (oskill).

Extra levels to Teleport only decrease the mana cost by one.  Mana cost is
of little or no concern to a PvM sorceress, so one hard point is all that
is needed.  PvP sorceresses need the option to teleport indefinitely, which
means mana cost must be low enough that mana regenerates faster than
continuous Teleporting can drain it.  Teleport at skill levels of 20+ should
have low enough mana cost to allow that.  The standard high end equipment
sorceresses desire provides about +15 to skills, give or take a few levels,
bringing the sorceress more than halfway there.  Sparking charms can raise
Teleport level even higher.  That said, if Teleport continues to drain mana
faster than it regenerates even if the sorceress has all of her ideal items,
then adding five to ten skill points to Teleport will be necessary.

Reminder:  Every sorceress needs at least one point in Teleport!
It's that important.

---------------
 THUNDER STORM
---------------
Required level:  24
"Summons a deadly thunderstorm that strikes your enemies with bolts of
 lightning."
-----------------------------------------------------------------
 Mana Cost:  19
 Radius:  11.3 yards.
 Bolt Delay:  5 - ((440 * slvl) / (100 * (slvl + 6)))
--------------------------------+--------------------------------
                   Lit.    Bolt |                   Lit.    Bolt
 slvl  Duration   Damage  Delay | slvl  Duration   Damage  Delay
--------------------------------+--------------------------------
   1       32      1-100    4.4 |  11      112    101-200    2.1
   2       40     11-110    3.9 |  12      120    111-210    2.0
   3       48     21-120    3.5 |  13      128    121-220    2.0
   4       56     31-130    3.2 |  14      136    131-230    1.9
   5       64     41-140    3.0 |  15      144    141-240    1.8
   6       72     51-150    2.8 |  16      152    151-250    1.8
   7       80     61-160    2.6 |  17      160    162-261    1.7
   8       88     71-170    2.5 |  18      168    173-272    1.7
   9       96     81-180    2.3 |  19      176    184-283    1.6
  10      104     91-190    2.2 |  20      184    195-294    1.6
--------------------------------+--------------------------------
After casting this, the sorceress will have an electrical aura for as long
as the displayed duration.  Thunderstorm's attack range is 11.3 yards,
roughly the distance from the sorceress to the edge of the screen.  Once
targets are detected, a bolt of lightning will strike one random target
within range.  After a short delay, another bolt will strike a random
target, and so on until no more targets are in range.  The lightning bolts
always hit.  As points are added to Thunderstorm, the duration and damage
increases, and the storm attacks more frequently.

Since Thunder Storm acts on its own, it is not very useful as a main attack
spell because it slowly picks off random targets one at a time.  The damage,
though unchanged from 1.09, is not high enough to severely hurt many of
1.10's beefed up Hell monsters.

Maxing Thunder Storm since 1.10 is (usually) not worth it anymore.  The
sorceress needs the skill points to max synergies.  Any sorceress that does
not specialize in lightning should not even bother to learn Thunder Storm
because too many skill points will be wasted on prerequisites for so little
damage.  On the other hand, any sorceress with maxed Lightning Mastery
should add one point to Thunder Storm.  With +20 levels from items and
charms, she can get Thunder Storm damage up to about 2000 with just one
point, which is about half the damage of a fully maxed Thunder Storm, and a
great return for a single skill point.

---------------
 ENERGY SHIELD
---------------
Required level:  24
"Creates a magical shield that consumes mana instead of health when you take
 damage."
-------------------------------------------------
 2 mana drained per damage point.
 Mana Cost:  5
------------------------+------------------------
 slvl  Duration  Absorb | slvl  Duration  Absorb
------------------------+------------------------
   1      144      20%  |  11      624      61%
   2      192      25%  |  12      672      63%
   3      240      30%  |  13      720      65%
   4      288      35%  |  14      768      67%
   5      336      40%  |  15      816      69%
   6      384      45%  |  16      864      71%
   7      432      50%  |  17      912      72%
   8      480      55%  |  18      960      73%
   9      528      57%  |  19     1008      74%
  10      576      59%  |  20     1056      75%
------------------------+------------------------
Receives Bonuses From:
Telekinesis
-------------------------------------------------
Tip:  At slvl 40, the absorb percentage will peak at 95%.  Extra levels
beyond 40 only increase duration.

While active, energy shield absorbs a fraction of the damage the sorceress
takes from a successful attack.  The mana drained per damage point absorbed
depends on the sorceress's base level of Telekinesis.  Cost begins at 2.
Each point in Telekinesis reduces the cost by 6.25% or 1/16th.  Bonus skill
levels from items do NOT apply -- only actual points invested in Telekinesis
count.  Below is a small chart displaying the mana per damage cost at
varying levels of Telekinesis.
   -------------------------------
    cost = 2 - (base TK slvl / 16)
   ----------------+--------------
      TK           |  TK
     slvl   Cost   | slvl   Cost
   ----------------+--------------
       1    1.9375 |   8    1.5
       2    1.875  |  12    1.25
       3    1.8125 |  16    1.0
       4    1.75   |  20    0.75
   ----------------+--------------
Energy shield can absorb physical, magical, and elemental damage.
Unfortunately, poison and open wounds bypass energy shield and hit life
directly.  Also, Energy Shield does not stop life loss from skill use while
the sorceress is under the Blood Mana curse.

A significant change in 1.10 from previous versions is that Energy Shield
absorbs damage BEFORE resistance and elemental absorb is applied.  In other
words, resistance has no effect on the mana absorbed; it only affects the
damage that was not absorbed by energy shield.  Below is a sequence of what
happens during damage intake.

    1. PvP damage penalty, if any.
    2. Mana Burn (from mana draining monsters), if any.
    3. Energy Shield absorption, subtract from mana.
    4. Leftover damage modified by dr/mdr, resistance, and absorb.
    5. Subtract damage from life.
    6. If alive, add mana from vulpine items.

Now lets take an example on how damage and absorption work.  The sorceress
takes a hit from a lightning bolt that does 100 damage, and she has 75%
lightning resistance, level 4 Telekinesis, and an energy shield that absorbs
40% damage.  40 damage is absorbed by the energy shield.  With a lvl 4 TK,
the absorbed 40 damage is multiplied by 1.75, and the sorceress loses 70
mana from the hit.  With 75% resistance, the remaining 60 damage is reduced
to 15, and the sorceress loses 15 life.  Life: -15, Mana: -70.  Had the
sorceress taken the same lightning bolt without Energy Shield active, the
sorceress would have lost 25 life.

Another example:  The sorceress takes 500 damage from some heavy hitting
melee monster in Hell.  She has level 20 Telekinesis, no damage reduction
and cursed by Amplify Damage for -100% physical resistance, and energy
shield that absorbs 80% damage.  400 damage is absorbed by energy shield.
With max TK, the absorbed 400 damage is multiplied by 0.75, and the
sorceress loses 300 mana.  With -100% resistance, the remaining 100 damage
is increased to 200, and the sorceress loses 200 life.  Life: -200,
Mana: -300.  Had the sorceress taken the same hit without Energy Shield
active, the sorceress would have lost 1000 life -- ouch!

If you want the sorceress to use Energy Shield, she will need max
Telekinesis and high mana to support it.  If you avoid Energy Shield,
the sorceress still needs high life, to avoid dying in one hit, and mana,
to fuel attack skills.  Below is a list of pros and cons for using
Energy Shield.

PROS:
+ The sorceress can have more effective life.
+ Mana regenerates faster than life.
+ Mana is easier to boost than life.
+ Flat dr/mdr can negate or significantly reduce the remaining
   damage not absorbed by energy shield.
CONS:
- Poison and open wounds bypass Energy Shield.
- Mana Burn monsters can drain mana down to nothing easily, and mana burn is
   applied before energy shield/damage intake.
- The player must max Telekinesis to make Energy Shield mana efficient.
   This leaves the player with less skill points available for other skills.
- The sorceress needs a large mana pool to support Energy Shield and her
   attacks.  Adding more mana can cause the sorceress to have max mana
   higher than max life, which will cause succubi and Baal to cast
   Blood Mana against her (instead of the easily ignored Defense Curse).
- Sorceresses not interested in using Lightning/Chain Lightning need to
   waste skill points in useless prerequisite skills.  The player can get
   around this by carrying a weapon with a bonus to Energy Shield to grant
   the skill to the sorceress.

Below are three development options for the sorceress who wants to use
Energy Shield at least some of the time.

* slvl 1 Telekinesis (for Teleport), high VIT, low ENR:
Energy Shield would be activated and used only in dangerous areas as
insurance against a one-hit kill, especially if playing in a Hardcore game.
For a beginning sorceress who lacks access to damage reduction equipment,
Energy Shield is great against high physical damage output monsters such as
claw vipers, reanimated hordes (e.g., Pindleskin) and Duriel.  While Energy
Shield is up, any hit will drain most if not all of her mana thanks to low
Telekinesis, low mana, and previous skill use.  When that happens, the
sorceress will need to retreat and drink a mana potion to restore the mana
lost.

* High Telekinesis, high VIT, and low ENR:
For builds that rarely use mana, usually an Enchantress, mana is treated as
bonus life.  Once all the primary skills are maxed, extra skill points are
placed in Telekinesis to reduce the mana lost when Energy Shield takes a
hit.  If all mana is drained, no big deal; saving life is more important.

* Max Telekinesis, low VIT, high ENR:
The standard for the blaster sorceress who constantly relies on Energy
Shield for protection.  The sorceress attempts to build a huge mana pool at
the expense of life.  As long as mana is available, the damage to life will
be small.  If mana runs out and/or the Energy Shield collapses, the
sorceress had better retreat or die.  In Act 5, the Blood Mana curse will
be a problem.

Players who want a sorceress with an Energy Shield would love to add twenty
points to max Energy Shield.  However, since most sorceress builds need all
of their skill points to max Telekinesis, an elemental mastery, and an
attack and its synergies; one point is often all that can be spared for
Energy Shield and its prerequisites.  Items will be used to boost the skill
level of Energy Shield.  Players who avoid Energy Shield like the plague
will place no points in Energy Shield, obviously.

-------------------
 LIGHTNING MASTERY
-------------------
Required level:  30
"Passive -- increases all damage caused by your lightning spells."
------------------+------------------
 slvl  Percentage | slvl  Percentage 
------------------+------------------
   1       +50%   |  11      +170%
   2       +62%   |  12      +182%
   3       +74%   |  13      +194%
   4       +86%   |  14      +206%
   5       +98%   |  15      +218%
   6      +110%   |  16      +230%
   7      +122%   |  17      +242%
   8      +134%   |  18      +254%
   9      +146%   |  19      +266%
  10      +158%   |  20      +278%
------------------+------------------
The bonuses in Lightning Mastery are even greater than Fire Mastery.  Any
sorceress with lightning attacks (aside from Static Field and Telekinesis)
should have a point in Lightning Mastery as soon as she reaches level 30,
then have it maxed by level 49.  Lightning Mastery has no effect on Static
Field, so if Static Field is the only lightning attack the sorceress uses,
Lightning Mastery will not help her.

Lightning Mastery will also boost lightning damage from weapon-based melee
attacks.  The fighter sorceress can boost her damage by just adding one
point here.  With skill boosters, she can deal more than double the
lightning damage given by items.

Special note:  The lightning damage given by the Holy Shock aura (from the
Dream runeword) is multipled by Lightning Mastery in a manner similar to the
fire damage from Enchant multiplied by Fire Mastery.

==================
 5.3. Cold Skills
==================
NOTES:
* In general, chilled monsters are slowed by 50% in Normal, 40% in
  Nightmare, and either 25% for most undead or 33% for other creatures in
  Hell.  Keep in mind there are exceptions to the rule, and some monsters
  are immune to chilling or freezing.  Players and mercs are always slowed
  by 50% unless immunized by an item with Cannot Be Frozen.

* All chill and freeze durations are reduced to half in Nightmare, and to
  one-fourth in Hell.

* Holy Freeze, available from runewords or an Act II merc, uses a different
  method of slow that stacks with chill.  Slow from Holy Freeze AND chill
  often results in very slow monsters.

* You can only have one cold armor active at one time.  If you cast one
  armor then another, the armor casted most recently will override any
  previous castings.  For example, you cast Chilling Armor first then
  Shiver Armor, Shiver will be the active armor.

             Ice    Frozen
             Bolt   Armor
              |       |
   Frost     Ice      |
   Nova     Blast\    |
     |        |   \   |
     |        |    \Shiver
     |        |     Armor
     |        |       |
     |     Glacial    |
     |     /Spike     |
     |    /           |
  Blizzard         Chilling
     |              Armor
     |
  Frozen    Cold
    Orb    Mastery

----------
 ICE BOLT
----------
Required level:  1
"Creates a magical bolt of ice that damages and slows your enemies."
-----------------------------------------------
 Mana Cost:  3
-----------------------+-----------------------
         Cold    Cold  |         Cold    Cold
 slvl   Damage  Length | slvl   Damage  Length
-----------------------+-----------------------
   1     3-  5    6.0  |  11    16- 23   20.0
   2     4-  6    7.4  |  12    18- 25   21.4
   3     5-  8    8.8  |  13    20- 28   22.8
   4     6-  9   10.2  |  14    22- 30   24.2
   5     7- 11   11.6  |  15    24- 33   25.6
   6     8- 12   13.0  |  16    26- 35   27.0
   7     9- 14   14.4  |  17    29- 39   28.4
   8    10- 15   15.8  |  18    32- 42   29.8
   9    12- 18   17.2  |  19    35- 46   31.2
  10    14- 20   18.6  |  20    38- 49   32.6
-----------------------+-----------------------
Receives Bonuses From:
Frost Nova:     +15% Cold Damage per Level
Ice Blast:      +15% Cold Damage per Level
Glacial Spike:  +15% Cold Damage per Level
Blizzard:       +15% Cold Damage per Level
Frozen Orb:     +15% Cold Damage per Level
-----------------------------------------------
Aside from killing monsters in early Act I Normal, Ice Bolt is useful only
as a prerequisite and/or passive damage booster to other cold skills.  Even
with numerous synergy bonuses, the other cold skills are better at damaging
and/or slowing down monsters.

--------------
 FROZEN ARMOR
--------------
Required level:  1
"Increases your defense rating and freezes enemies that hit you."
-------------------------------------------------------------------
 Mana Cost:  7
---------------------------------+---------------------------------
                          Freeze |                          Freeze
 slvl  Duration  Defense  Length | slvl  Duration  Defense  Length
---------------------------------+---------------------------------
   1      120       30%     1.2  |  11      240       80%     2.4
   2      132       35%     1.3  |  12      252       85%     2.5
   3      144       40%     1.4  |  13      264       90%     2.6
   4      156       45%     1.5  |  14      276       95%     2.7
   5      168       50%     1.6  |  15      288      100%     2.8
   6      180       55%     1.8  |  16      300      105%     3.0
   7      192       60%     1.9  |  17      312      110%     3.1
   8      204       65%     2.0  |  18      324      115%     3.2
   9      216       70%     2.1  |  19      336      120%     3.3
  10      228       75%     2.2  |  20      348      125%     3.4
---------------------------------+---------------------------------
Receives Bonuses From:
Shiver Armor:    +10 Seconds per Level
Shiver Armor:    +5% Freeze Length per Level
Chilling Armor:  +10 Seconds per Level
Chilling Armor:  +5% Freeze Length per Level
-------------------------------------------------------------------
While Frozen Armor with one point plus skill items can reduce the chance of
monsters hitting the sorceress by about 10%, the main use of Frozen Armor
is to disable melee attackers that manage to hit the sorceress by freezing
them.  While frozen, the sorceress has more time to escape.  Even with
reduced freeze times in higher difficulty levels, Frozen Armor can still
stop enemies long enough to reduce the chance of a stunlock and let the
sorceress escape.  Frozen Armor needs only one point to be useful.  For
those who want more defense from a cold armor, Shiver Armor is the superior
skill to use.  Nonetheless, unless the sorceress is built for dueling only,
one point should be placed here; it can be a lifesaver.

Another feature of Frozen Armor, or any other cold armor for that matter,
has is it sheds bright light while active.  It does not add to the
sorceress's light radius.  Rather, it brightens the area near her.  This is
nice in a dark dungeon since the player can see the area (and enemies) more
easily.

------------
 FROST NOVA
------------
Required level:  6
"Creates an expending ring of ice that damages and slows all nearby
 enemies."
-----------------------------+-----------------------------
         Cold    Cold        |         Cold    Cold
 slvl   Damage  Length  Mana | slvl   Damage  Length  Mana
-----------------------------+-----------------------------
   1     2-  4     8      9  |  11    25- 32    18     19
   2     4-  6     9     10  |  12    28- 35    19     20
   3     6-  9    10     11  |  13    31- 39    20     21
   4     8- 11    11     12  |  14    34- 42    21     22
   5    10- 14    12     13  |  15    37- 46    22     23
   6    12- 16    13     14  |  16    40- 49    23     24
   7    14- 19    14     15  |  17    44- 54    24     25
   8    16- 21    15     16  |  18    48- 58    25     26
   9    19- 25    16     17  |  19    52- 63    26     27
  10    22- 28    17     18  |  20    56- 67    27     28
-----------------------------+-----------------------------
Receives Bonuses From:
Blizzard:    +10% Cold Damage per Level
Frozen Orb:  +10% Cold Damage per Level
-----------------------------------------------------------
Frost Nova is much like the electrical Nova except it does cold damage, and
much less of it.  For killing things, Frost Nova is no good.  Its synergies,
Blizzard and Frozen Orb, are much stronger.  Frost Nova has but one use:
to chill a crowd of monsters in early Act I/II Normal.  Put one point here
if necessary then move on.

-----------
 ICE BLAST
-----------
Required level:  6
"Creates a magical sphere of ice that damages and freezes your enemy."
---------------------------------+---------------------------------
                    Freeze       |                    Freeze
 slvl  Cold Damage  Length  Mana | slvl  Cold Damage  Length  Mana
---------------------------------+---------------------------------
   1       8-  12     3.0    6.0 |  11      99- 108     5.0   11.0
   2      15-  19     3.2    6.5 |  12     113- 122     5.2   11.5
   3      22-  27     3.4    7.0 |  13     127- 137     5.4   12.0
   4      29-  34     3.6    7.5 |  14     141- 151     5.6   12.5
   5      36-  42     3.8    8.0 |  15     155- 166     5.8   13.0
   6      43-  49     4.0    8.5 |  16     169- 180     6.0   13.5
   7      50-  57     4.2    9.0 |  17     190- 202     6.2   14.0
   8      57-  64     4.4    9.5 |  18     211- 223     6.4   14.5
   9      71-  79     4.6   10.0 |  19     232- 245     6.6   15.0
  10      85-  93     4.8   10.5 |  20     253- 266     6.8   15.5
---------------------------------+---------------------------------
Receives Bonuses From:
Ice Bolt:       +8% Cold Damage per Level
Glacial Spike:  +10% Freeze Length per Level
Blizzard:       +8% Cold Damage per Level
Frozen Orb:     +8% Cold Damage per Level
-------------------------------------------------------------------
At the very least, Ice Blast can be used to freeze an enemy where it stands.
While frozen, the enemy is helpless and if killed, will shatter.  Shattered
enemies leave no corpse.  Thus, it is useful for wiping out monsters
accompanied by a shaman because the shaman cannot revive shattered monsters.

The damage is small at low levels, but increases greatly as the level
increases.  Ice Blast also receives fairly high synergy bonuses from other
useful cold attacks.  With heavy investment into Ice Blast and synergies,
Ice Blast can become one of the most damaging cold skills, and it has no
timer.  Ice Blast also gives a synergy bonus to Blizzard, which makes Ice
Blast and Blizzard a very effective combo.  In any case, a strong Ice Blast
is good to squeeze out extra damage and/or freeze support between the delays
of timered spells.

--------------
 SHIVER ARMOR
--------------
Required level:  12
"Increases your defense rating freezes and damages enemies that hit you."
------------------------------------------
 Mana Cost:  11
------------------------------------------
                            Cold    Cold
 slvl  Duration  Defense   Damage  Length
------------------------------------------
   1      120       45%     6-  8     4
   2      132       51%     8- 10     4
   3      144       57%    10- 13     4
   4      156       63%    12- 15     4
   5      168       69%    14- 18     4
   6      180       75%    16- 20     4
   7      192       81%    18- 23     4
   8      204       87%    20- 25     4
   9      216       93%    23- 29     5
  10      228       99%    26- 32     6
  11      240      105%    29- 36     7
  12      252      111%    32- 39     8
  13      264      117%    35- 43     9
  14      276      123%    38- 46    10
  15      288      129%    41- 50    11
  16      300      135%    44- 53    12
  17      312      141%    48- 58    14
  18      324      147%    52- 62    16
  19      336      153%    56- 67    18
  20      348      159%    60- 71    20
------------------------------------------
Receives Bonuses From:
Frozen Armor:    +10 Seconds per Level
Frozen Armor:    +9% Cold Damage per Level
Chilling Armor:  +10 Seconds per Level
Chilling Armor:  +9% Cold Damage per Level
------------------------------------------
Although it only chills instead of freezing, Shiver Armor offers two
advantages over Frozen Armor.  One, Shiver Armor adds a greater defense
bonus.  Two, attackers within melee range that try to hit the sorceress are
automatically chilled, even if they miss.  They also take damage from the
armor when chilled, but the damage is negligable later on when monsters
have thousands of hit points.  Out of the three cold armors, Shiver Armor
provides the best defensive bonus, and it is the most useful all around.
The only disadvantage Shiver Armor has compared to the other cold armors is
that lightning enchanted monsters will discharge their sparks when damaged
by Shiver Armor.

For most, the main use of this armor is the same as Frozen Armor, to slow
down monsters that attack the sorceress up close, giving the sorceress some
time to escape.  In this case, only one point is needed for the chilling
effect.  Only those who want high defense will even think about adding more
than one point to Shiver Armor.

---------------
 GLACIAL SPIKE
---------------
Required level:  18
"Creates a magical ice comet that freezes or kills nearby enemies."
-----------------------------------------------------------
 Radius:  2.6 yards.
-----------------------------+-----------------------------
         Cold   Freeze       |         Cold   Freeze
 slvl   Damage  Length  Mana | slvl   Damage  Length  Mana
-----------------------------+-----------------------------
   1    16- 24    2.0   10.0 |  11   104-117    3.2   15.0
   2    23- 31    2.1   10.5 |  12   117-130    3.3   15.5
   3    30- 39    2.2   11.0 |  13   130-144    3.4   16.0
   4    37- 46    2.3   11.5 |  14   143-157    3.5   16.5
   5    44- 54    2.4   12.0 |  15   156-171    3.6   17.0
   6    51- 61    2.6   12.5 |  16   169-184    3.8   17.5
   7    58- 69    2.7   13.0 |  17   183-199    3.9   18.0
   8    65- 76    2.8   13.5 |  18   197-213    4.0   18.5
   9    78- 90    3.9   14.0 |  19   211-228    4.1   19.0
  10    91-103    3.0   14.5 |  20   225-242    4.2   19.5
-----------------------------+-----------------------------
Receives Bonuses From:
Ice Bolt:    +5% Cold Damage per Level
Ice Blast:   +5% Cold Damage per Level
Blizzard:    +3% Freeze Length per Level
Frozen Orb:  +5% Cold Damage per Level
-----------------------------------------------------------
Glacial Spike is to Ice Blast like Fire Ball is to Fire Bolt -- a bigger
iceball that explodes on contact to damage and freeze all in the explosion.
Compared to Ice Blast, Glacial Spike does not freeze as long and inflicts
less damage, about half to one-third as Ice Blast.  However, the splash
radius is rather large, and it is easy to catch some targets in one shot, so
the overall damage is comparable in a typical fight.  Glacial Spike is yet
another synergy to Blizzard, so Blizzard sorceresses will probably max this.

----------
 BLIZZARD
----------
Required level:  24
"Summons massive shards of ice to destroy your enemies."
---------------------------------------------------
 Cast Delay:  1.8 sec.
 6.2 shards per second.
 Cold Length:  4 sec.
 Radius:  4.6 yards.
 Duration:  4 sec.
-------------------------+-------------------------
 slvl  Cold Damage  Mana | slvl  Cold Damage  Mana
-------------------------+-------------------------
   1      45-  75    23  |  11     240- 280    33
   2      60-  91    24  |  12     270- 311    34
   3      75- 107    25  |  13     300- 342    35
   4      90- 123    26  |  14     330- 373    36
   5     105- 139    27  |  15     360- 404    37
   6     120- 155    28  |  16     390- 435    38
   7     135- 171    29  |  17     435- 481    39
   8     150- 187    30  |  18     480- 527    40
   9     180- 218    31  |  19     525- 573    41
  10     210- 249    32  |  20     570- 619    42
-------------------------+-------------------------
Receives Bonuses From:
Ice Bolt:       +5% Cold Damage per Level
Ice Blast:      +5% Cold Damage per Level
Glacial Spike:  +5% Cold Damage per Level
---------------------------------------------------
When cast, Blizzard creates a patch of falling ice.  Enemies that stand or
move under the ice may take hits, and the ice hurts.  Its killing power
ranges from good to excellent, depending on mastery and synergy investment.
With every synergy maxed, Blizzard is the most powerful cold attack the
sorceress has.  Blizzard has a long casting delay, but since maxing
synergies will provide a powerful Ice Blast and/or Glacial Spike, the
sorceress can use them to blast enemies between cast delays.

Careful aiming of Blizzard is the key to its effective use.  Against a
stationary target, simply cast Blizzard on top of it.  If Blizzard fails to
hit, aim another Blizzard at a different spot next to the target.  Once you
find a spot that lets Blizzard hit, keep aiming at that spot.  Against a
moving target, cast Blizzard just ahead of its path.  If the target tries
to cross the Blizzard, it usually takes multiple hits.

----------------
 CHILLING ARMOR
----------------
Required level:  24
"Increases defense and discharges an ice bolt in retaliation against ranged
 attackers."
---------------------------------------------------------------------
 Mana Cost:  17
----------------------------------+----------------------------------
                            Cold  |                            Cold
 slvl  Duration  Defense   Damage | slvl  Duration  Defense   Damage
----------------------------------+----------------------------------
   1      144       45%     4-  6 |  11      204       95%    17- 24
   2      150       50%     5-  7 |  12      210      100%    19- 26
   3      156       55%     6-  9 |  13      216      105%    21- 29
   4      162       60%     7- 10 |  14      222      110%    23- 31
   5      168       65%     8- 12 |  15      228      115%    25- 34
   6      174       70%     9- 13 |  16      234      120%    27- 36
   7      180       75%    10- 15 |  17      240      125%    30- 40
   8      186       80%    11- 16 |  18      246      130%    33- 43
   9      192       85%    13- 19 |  19      252      135%    36- 47
  10      198       90%    15- 21 |  20      258      140%    39- 50
----------------------------------+----------------------------------
Receives Bonuses From:
Frozen Armor:  +10 Seconds per Level
Frozen Armor:  +7% Cold Damage per Level
Shiver Armor:  +10 Seconds per Level
Shiver Armor:  +7% Cold Damage per Level
---------------------------------------------------------------------
The ice bolts inflict low damage so the description is not as useful as
it sounds.  They do chill so this armor can be used to slow down ranged
attackers, provided the ice bolts are not intercepted by other monsters
between the sorceress and ranged attacker.  The other benefit of this armor,
increased defense, is not as good as Shiver Armor, and it does not last as
long at higher skill levels.  There is no good reason why any sane player
would add a single point to this joke of a skill.

------------
 FROZEN ORB
------------
Required level:  30
"Creates a magical globe that sprays a torrent of ice bolts to lay waste to
 your enemies."
-----------------------------------------------------------
 Cast Delay:  1.0 sec.
-----------------------------+-----------------------------
         Cold    Cold        |         Cold    Cold
 slvl   Damage  Length  Mana | slvl   Damage  Length  Mana
-----------------------------+-----------------------------
   1    40- 45     8     25  |  11   146-156    18     30
   2    50- 55     9     25  |  12   158-168    19     30
   3    60- 66    10     26  |  13   170-181    20     31
   4    70- 76    11     26  |  14   182-193    21     31
   5    80- 87    12     27  |  15   194-206    22     32
   6    90- 97    13     27  |  16   206-218    23     32
   7   100-108    14     28  |  17   220-233    24     33
   8   110-118    15     28  |  18   234-247    25     33
   9   122-131    16     29  |  19   248-262    26     34
  10   134-143    17     29  |  20   262-276    27     34
-----------------------------+-----------------------------
Receives Bonuses From:
Ice Bolt:  +2% Cold Damage per Level
-----------------------------------------------------------
When cast, an orb is shot out.  As the orb flies, it sprays ice bolts in
different directions.  After impact with a wall or a second of flight,
whichever comes first, the orb explodes into sixteen ice bolts that spiral
outward.  All the ice bolts spawned can easily fill the screen, and they all
chill for a long time and inflict heavy damage.  The orb will pass through
any target.  Although the orb itself inflicts no damage, the target will
take severe damage from all the ice bolts spawned by the orb.  To inflict
maximum damage to a single target, aim the orb so that it explodes inside
the target.

Frozen Orb is nowhere near as powerful as a fully synergized Blizzard,
so this is not the best skill for an all out offensive cold sorceress.
However, Frozen Orb provides good damage for a 26 point investment, making
it a great backup attack for an energy shield or multi-tree sorceress.
Frozen Orb is one of those all-or-nothing skills.  That is if you want it,
max it; otherwise, ignore the skill.

--------------
 COLD MASTERY
--------------
Required level:  30
"Passive -- increases all damage caused by your cold attacks by piercing
 enemies resistances to cold."
------------------+------------------
 slvl  Percentage | slvl  Percentage 
------------------+------------------
   1       20%    |  11       70%
   2       25%    |  12       75%
   3       30%    |  13       80%
   4       35%    |  14       85%
   5       40%    |  15       90%
   6       45%    |  16       95%
   7       50%    |  17      100%
   8       55%    |  18      105%
   9       60%    |  19      110%
  10       65%    |  20      115%
------------------+------------------
Unlike the Fire and Lightning Masteries, Cold Mastery does not increase cold
skill damage by directly multiplying damage.  Instead, it subtracts enemies'
resistance to cold by the amount listed at the current level of Cold
Mastery.  In effect, Cold Mastery does raise the damage of cold attacks, but
change is hidden; the player does not see any change of damage on the lying
character screen, but cold attacks will cause more damage.  In addition,
monsters stay chilled or frozen even longer.  This applies even to the cold
armor skills, hence Frozen Armor can freeze longer with just one point in
Cold Mastery.

For those who use cold attacks regularly, the piercing offered by Cold
Mastery is devastating to highly resistant monsters.  They can take more
much damage than normal if their resistances are pierced.  For example, a
monster with 75% resistance takes triple damage if resistance is cut to 25%.
Unfortunately, Cold Mastery (and items that provide similar elemental
piercing) will have NO effect on immune monsters, unless immunity is
removed first by Lower Resist and/or Conviction.

Cold Mastery can reduce cold resistance down to a minimum of -100%.  This
translates to a maximum of double the listed cold damage and cold or freeze
lengths.

Level 17 reduces cold resistance by 100, enough to send non-resistant
monsters down to -100%, and most other monsters to severe negative
territory.  Non-resistant monsters make up about 38% of all monsters
vulnerable to cold in Hell.

Level 27 reduces cold resistance by 150, enough to reduce the cold
resistances of Hell Diablo, Baal, and about 85% of all monsters vulnerable
to cold down to -100%.

Level 32 reduces cold resistance by 175, enough to reduce the cold
resistance of Hell Mephisto, a lucrative magic-find target, to -100%.
Very few monsters vulnerable to cold have more than 75 cold resistance.

Level 36 reduces cold resistance by 195, the most the sorceress will ever
need to kill any monster not immune to cold.  Every monster vulnerable to
cold, including Hell Duriel and Uber Diablo, will have -100%.

Cold Mastery over level 36 is useful only for PvP against resistance
stacking players.

For PvP, players can stack extra cold resistance beyond the maximum (at
least 75) to offset any drain from cold mastery and/or items.  For example,
if a sorceress with level 30 Cold Mastery (-165% cold resistance) attacks a
player with 300 cold resistance, that player will still have maximum cold
resistance.  (i.e., 300 - 165 = 135. 135 is lowered to maximum resistance.)

Still wondering how many points in Cold Mastery?  PvP cold sorceresses need
max Cold Mastery.  PvM cold sorceresses do not need Cold Mastery higher than
level 32, and can get a lot of bonus skill levels from items.  Therefore,
she needs anywhere from one to ten points in Cold Mastery.  Other
sorceresses who use Frozen Armor, but have no cold attacks should have one
point in Cold Mastery to help extend the chill time from the armor.
Enchantresses who have items that add cold damage to weapon attacks, such
as Raven Frost, should have one point in Cold Mastery to increase the damage
slightly.


============================================================================
  6. High Level Damage Tables
============================================================================

The previous section contains skill tables from levels 1 to 20 without any
bonuses from synergy and/or mastery.  Of course, that is of no help to the
powergamer who seeks extreme damage with level 45+ skills with bonuses from
mastery and every synergy.  Below are tables with data ranging from levels
from 20 to 50, in intervals of 5, and with bonuses factored in.  The numbers
should give you a rough idea how powerful the sorceress's attacks will be at
expected levels of power.

The damage shown is the average, with fractions dropped (e.g., 25.5 becomes
25).  In most cases, the difference between minimum and maximum damage may
be a few hundred points, which becomes insignificant once the average damage
numbers reach five digits.  The exceptions are Lightning and Chain
Lightning, which have minimum damage equal to 100% + Lightning Mastery, and
maximum damage almost twice the average damage.

Duration and other time fields are listed in seconds.
Damage is calculated by the following:

    total damage = skill damage * synergy bonus * mastery bonus

NOTE:  Items that provide extra damage to fire or lightning skills is
considered a mastery bonus and is added to the bonus from Fire Mastery or
Lightning Mastery.

What the following terms mean...
Base    = Damage without mastery bonuses.
Max FM  = Damage with maxed Fire Mastery.
Mx FM^2 = Damage with maxed Fire Mastery squared (for Enchant).
Max LM  = Damage with maxed Lightning Mastery.

==================
 6.1. Fire Skills
==================

-------------+
  FIRE BOLT  |
-------------+--------------------------------------------------
Receives Bonuses From:
Fire Ball:  +16% Fire Damage per Level
Meteor:     +16% Fire Damage per Level
----------------------------------------------------------------
Mana Cost:  2.5
-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+--------
 slvl  |   20  |   25  |   30  |   35  |   40  |   45  |   50
-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+--------
       |(NO synergy points)    |       |       |       |
 Base  |    52 |    90 |   173 |   311 |   448 |   586 |   723
Max FM |   139 |   269 |   579 |  1146 |  1808 |  2568 |  3424
       |-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+--------
       |(20 synergy points -- +320% damage)    |       |
 Base  |   222 |   380 |   730 |  1308 |  1885 |  2463 |  3040
Max FM |   585 |  1132 |  2433 |  4814 |  7599 | 10789 | 14382
       |-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+--------
       |(40 synergy points -- +640% damage)    |       |
 Base  |   391 |   669 |  1287 |  2305 |  3322 |  4340 |  5357
Max FM |  1031 |  1995 |  4287 |  8482 | 13389 | 19008 | 25340
-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+--------

-----------+
  INFERNO  |
-----------+----------------------------------------------------
Receives Bonuses From:
Warmth:  +13% Fire Damage per Level
----------------------------------------------------------------
Minimum Mana to Cast:  6
-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+--------
 slvl  |   20  |   25  |   30  |   35  |   40  |   45  |   50
-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+--------
 Mana  |   10  |   11  |   12  |   13  |   14  |   15  |   16
 Range |  12.6 |  15.3 |  17.3 |  20.0 |  22.6 |  25.3 |  27.3
       |-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+--------
       |(NO synergy points)    |       |       |       |
 Base  |   211 |   271 |   338 |   409 |   480 |   552 |   623
Max FM |   556 |   810 |  1127 |  1508 |  1939 |  2420 |  2950
       |-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+--------
       |(20 synergy points -- +260% damage)    |       |
 Base  |   762 |   978 |  1219 |  1475 |  1732 |  1988 |  2245
Max FM |  2004 |  2918 |  4059 |  5430 |  6981 |  8711 | 10622
-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+--------

---------+
  BLAZE  |
-------+-+-----+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+--------
 slvl  |   20  |   25  |   30  |   35  |   40  |   45  |   50
-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+--------
 Mana  |   20  |   23  |   25  |   28  |   30  |   33  |   35
 Dura. |  23.6 |  28.6 |  33.6 |  38.6 |  43.6 |  48.6 |  53.6
 Burn  |  17.1 |  17.8 |  18.3 |  18.7 |  19.0 |  19.4 |  19.6
       |-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+--------
 Base  |   280 |   402 |   571 |   782 |   993 |  1204 |  1415
Max FM |   739 |  1201 |  1903 |  2880 |  4004 |  5276 |  6695
-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+--------

-------------+
  FIRE BALL  |
-------------+--------------------------------------------------
Receives Bonuses From:
Fire Bolt:  +14% Fire Damage per Level
Meteor:     +14% Fire Damage per Level
----------------------------------------------------------------
Radius:  2 yards.
-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+--------
 slvl  |   20  |   25  |   30  |   35  |   40  |   45  |   50
-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+--------
 Mana  |  14.5 |  17.0 |  19.5 |  22.0 |  24.5 |  27.0 |  29.5
       |-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+--------
       |(NO synergy points)    |       |       |       |
 Base  |   212 |   293 |   382 |   480 |   577 |   675 |   772
Max FM |   559 |   872 |  1274 |  1767 |  2329 |  2958 |  3656
       |-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+--------
       |(20 synergy points -- +280% damage)    |       |
 Base  |   809 |  1113 |  1455 |  1825 |  2196 |  2566 |  2937
Max FM |  2128 |  3317 |  4846 |  6718 |  8851 | 11242 | 13893
       |-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+--------
       |(40 synergy points -- +560% damage)    |       |
 Base  |  1405 |  1933 |  2527 |  3170 |  3814 |  4457 |  5101
Max FM |  3696 |  5762 |  8417 | 11670 | 15373 | 19526 | 24131
-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+--------

-------------+
  FIRE WALL  |
-------------+--------------------------------------------------
Casting Delay:  1.4 sec.
Duration:  3.6 sec.
-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+--------
 slvl  |   20  |   25  |   30  |   35  |   40  |   45  |   50
-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+--------
 Mana  |   41  |   46  |   51  |   56  |   61  |   66  |   71
Radius |  30.0 |  36.6 |  43.3 |  50.0 |  56.6 |  63.3 |  70.0
       |-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+--------
 Base  |  1295 |  1788 |  2280 |  2772 |  3264 |  3756 |  4248
Max FM |  3408 |  5328 |  7593 | 10203 | 13157 | 16455 | 20098
-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+--------

-----------+
  ENCHANT  |
-----------+----------------------------------------------------
Receives Bonuses From:
Warmth:  +9% Fire Damage per Level
-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+--------
 slvl  |   20  |   25  |   30  |   35  |   40  |   45  |   50
-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+--------
 Mana  |   44  |   49  |   54  |   59  |   64  |   69  |   74
 Dura. |   600 |   720 |   840 |   960 |  1080 |  1200 |  1320
 +AR%  | +191% | +236% | +281% | +326% | +371% | +416% | +461%
       |-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+--------
       |(NO synergy points)    |       |       |       |
 Base  |    78 |   115 |   158 |   209 |   258 |   309 |   358
Max FM |   207 |   342 |   529 |   768 |  1043 |  1353 |  1697
Mx FM^2|   545 |  1019 |  1761 |  2828 |  4205 |  5926 |  8029
       |-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+--------
       |(20 synergy points -- +180% damage)    |       |
 Base  |   220 |   321 |   444 |   584 |   724 |   864 |  1004
Max FM |   581 |   959 |  1482 |  2153 |  2922 |  3789 |  4754
Mx FM^2|  1529 |  2859 |  4935 |  7923 | 11775 | 16595 | 22486
-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+--------

----------+
  METEOR  |
----------+-----------------------------------------------------
Receives Bonuses From:
Fire Bolt:  +5% Fire Damage per Level
Fire Ball:  +5% Fire Damage per Level
Inferno:    +3% Average Fire Damage per Level per Second
----------------------------------------------------------------
Casting Delay:  1.2 sec.
Radius:  4 yards.
-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+--------
 slvl  |   20  |   25  |   30  |   35  |   40  |   45  |   50
-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+--------
 Mana  |  26.5 |  29.0 |  31.5 |  34.0 |  36.5 |  39.0 |  41.5
 Burn  |  12.6 |  15.6 |  18.6 |  21.6 |  24.6 |  27.6 |  30.6
       |-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+--------
       |  IMPACT DAMAGE
       |-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+--------
       |(NO synergy points)    |       |       |       |
 Base  |   898 |  1304 |  1718 |  2138 |  2558 |  2978 |  3398
Max FM |  2361 |  3885 |  5720 |  7867 | 10308 | 13043 | 16072
       |-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+--------
       |(20 synergy points -- +100% damage)    |       |
 Base  |  1796 |  2608 |  3436 |  4276 |  5116 |  5956 |  6796
Max FM |  4723 |  7771 | 11441 | 15734 | 20616 | 26086 | 32143
       |-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+--------
       |(40 synergy points -- +200% damage)    |       |
 Base  |  2694 |  3912 |  5154 |  6414 |  7674 |  8934 | 10194
Max FM |  7085 | 11657 | 17161 | 23602 | 30925 | 39129 | 48216
       |-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+--------
       |  BURN DAMAGE PER SECOND
       |-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+--------
       |(NO synergy points)    |       |       |       |
 Base  |   262 |   332 |   402 |   473 |   543 |   613 |   684
Max FM |   690 |   991 |  1342 |  1742 |  2191 |  2689 |  3236
       |-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+--------
       |(20 synergy points -- +60% damage)     |       |
 Base  |   416 |   531 |   644 |   756 |   869 |   981 |  1094
Max FM |  1103 |  1585 |  2145 |  2785 |  3503 |  4301 |  5176
-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+--------

---------------+
  FIRE MASTERY |
-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+--------
 slvl  |   20  |   25  |   30  |   35  |   40  |   45  |   50
-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+--------
 Bonus | +163% | +198% | +233% | +268% | +303% | +338% | +373%
-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+--------

---------+
  HYDRA  |
---------+------------------------------------------------------
Receives Bonuses From:
Fire Bolt:  +3% Fire Damage per Level
Fire Ball:  +3% Fire Damage per Level
----------------------------------------------------------------
Casting Delay:  2 sec.
Duration:  10 sec.
-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+--------
 slvl  |   20  |   25  |   30  |   35  |   40  |   45  |   50
-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+--------
 Mana  |  29.5 |  32.0 |  34.5 |  37.0 |  39.5 |  42.0 |  44.5
       |-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+--------
       |(NO synergy points)    |       |       |       |
 Base  |   141 |   192 |   251 |   316 |   381 |   446 |   511
Max FM |   371 |   573 |   837 |  1164 |  1537 |  1955 |  2419
       |-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+--------
       |(20 synergy points -- +60% damage)     |       |
 Base  |   226 |   307 |   402 |   506 |   610 |   714 |   818
Max FM |   594 |   917 |  1339 |  1863 |  2459 |  3128 |  3870
       |-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+--------
       |(40 synergy points -- +120% damage)    |       |
 Base  |   310 |   423 |   552 |   696 |   838 |   982 |  1124
Max FM |   818 |  1261 |  1842 |  2562 |  3382 |  4302 |  5322
-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+--------

Notes:
* Fire Bolt passes Fire Ball in damage beginning at slvl 47.
* Reminder:  Inferno's true damage is halved thanks to a bug.
* Reminder:  Mastery squared for Enchant applies to melee only.
* Meteor has the highest average damage of all sorceress skills.
* Inferno and Blaze are underpowered for endgame.
* Fire Bolt, Fire Ball, and Meteor are the strongest fire skills.

=======================
 6.2. Lightning Skills
=======================

----------------+
  CHARGED BOLT  |
----------------+-----------------------------------------------
Receives Bonuses From:
Lightning:  +6% Lightning Damage per Level
-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+--------
 slvl  |   20  |   25  |   30  |   35  |   40  |   45  |   50
-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+--------
 Mana  |  12.5 |  15.0 |  17.5 |  20.0 |  22.5 |  25.0 |  27.5
#Bolts |   22  |   24  |   24  |   24  |   24  |   24  |   24
       |-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+--------
       |(NO synergy points)    |       |       |       |
 Base  |  14.0 |  21.0 |  29.0 |  39.0 |  49.0 |  59.0 |  69.0
Max LM |  54.5 |  91.5 | 146.0 | 219.5 | 305.5 | 403.0 | 512.5
       |-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+--------
       |(20 synergy points -- +120% damage)    |       |
 Base  |  31.5 |  46.0 |  64.5 |  86.5 | 108.5 | 130.5 | 152.5
Max LM | 120.0 | 201.5 | 323.0 | 484.5 | 672.5 | 887.0 |1128.0
-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+--------

-------+
  NOVA |
-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+--------
 slvl  |   20  |   25  |   30  |   35  |   40  |   45  |   50
-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+--------
 Mana  |   34  |   39  |   44  |   49  |   54  |   59  |   64
       |-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+--------
 Base  |   159 |   207 |   259 |   314 |   369 |   424 |   479
Max LM |   602 |   908 |  1292 |  1754 |  2283 |  2877 |  3538
-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+--------

-------------+
  LIGHTNING  |
-------------+--------------------------------------------------
Receives Bonuses From:
Charged Bolt:     +8% Lightning Damage per Level
Nova:             +8% Lightning Damage per Level
Chain Lightning:  +8% Lightning Damage per Level
-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+--------
 slvl  |   20  |   25  |   30  |   35  |   40  |   45  |   50
-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+--------
 Mana  |  17.5 |  20.0 |  22.5 |  25.0 |  27.5 |  30.0 |  32.5
       |-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+--------
       |(NO synergy points)    |       |       |       |
 Base  |   136 |   198 |   276 |   366 |   456 |   546 |   636
Max LM |   515 |   869 |  1376 |  2044 |  2821 |  3704 |  4697
       |-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+--------
       |(20 synergy points -- +160% damage)    |       |
 Base  |   354 |   515 |   718 |   952 |  1186 |  1420 |  1654
Max LM |  1338 |  2256 |  3575 |  5312 |  7330 |  9627 | 12207
       |-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+--------
       |(40 synergy points -- +320% damage)    |       |
 Base  |   571 |   832 |  1159 |  1537 |  1915 |  2293 |  2671
Max LM |  2160 |  3644 |  5774 |  8580 | 11838 | 15550 | 19716
       |-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+--------
       |(60 synergy points -- +480% damage)    |       |
 Base  |   789 |  1148 |  1601 |  2123 |  2645 |  3167 |  3689
Max LM |  2983 |  5031 |  7973 | 11847 | 16347 | 21473 | 27226
-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+--------

-------------------+
  CHAIN LIGHTNING  |
-------------------+--------------------------------------------
Receives Bonuses From:
Charged Bolt:  +4% Lightning Damage per Level
Nova:          +4% Lightning Damage per Level
Lightning:     +4% Lightning Damage per Level
----------------------------------------------------------------
Jump Radius:  13.3 yards.
-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+--------
 slvl  |   20  |   25  |   30  |   35  |   40  |   45  |   50
-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+--------
 Mana  |   28  |   33  |   38  |   43  |   48  |   53  |   58
 Hits  |   10  |   11  |   12  |   13  |   14  |   15  |   16
       |-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+--------
       |(NO synergy points)    |       |       |       |
 Base  |   141 |   178 |   216 |   253 |   291 |   328 |   366
Max LM |   532 |   781 |  1075 |  1414 |  1798 |  2226 |  2700
       |-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+--------
       |(20 synergy points -- +80% damage)     |       |
 Base  |   253 |   320 |   388 |   455 |   523 |   590 |   658
Max LM |   957 |  1405 |  1933 |  2543 |  3234 |  4005 |  4858
       |-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+--------
       |(40 synergy points -- +160% damage)    |       |
 Base  |   365 |   463 |   560 |   658 |   755 |   853 |   950
Max LM |  1382 |  2029 |  2792 |  3673 |  4670 |  5784 |  7016
       |-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+--------
       |(60 synergy points -- +240% damage)    |       |
 Base  |   478 |   605 |   733 |   860 |   988 |  1115 |  1243
Max LM |  1807 |  2652 |  3650 |  4802 |  6106 |  7564 |  9174
-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+--------

-----------------+
  THUNDER STORM  |
-----------------+----------------------------------------------
Mana Cost:  19
Radius:  11.3 yards.
Bolt Delay:  5 - ((440 * slvl) / (100 * (slvl + 6)))
-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+--------
 slvl  |   20  |   25  |   30  |   35  |   40  |   45  |   50
-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+--------
 Dura. |   184 |   224 |   264 |   304 |   344 |   384 |   424
 Delay |   1.6 |   1.4 |   1.3 |   1.2 |   1.2 |   1.1 |   1.0
       |-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+--------
 Base  |   244 |   299 |   354 |   409 |   464 |   519 |   579
Max LM |   924 |  1311 |  1764 |  2284 |  2870 |  3521 |  4239
-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+--------

-----------------------+
  LIGHTNING MASTERY    |
-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+--------
 slvl  |   20  |   25  |   30  |   35  |   40  |   45  |   50
-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+--------
 Bonus | +278% | +338% | +398% | +458% | +518% | +578% | +638%
-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+--------

Notes:
* Against a single target, Charged Bolt can outdamage Lightning if all the
   bolts hit.  (Extremely difficult to do.)
* Lightning has the highest maximum damage of all sorceress skills.
* Maxed Thunderstorm/Lightning Mastery is not much stronger than slvl 1
   Thunderstorm/max Lighting Mastery once you pack 20 or more extra skill
   levels from equipment and charms.
* Nova is underpowered for endgame.
* Charged Bolt and Lightning are the strongest lightning skills.

==================
 6.3. Cold Skills
==================

------------+
  ICE BOLT  |
------------+---------------------------------------------------
Receives Bonuses From:
Frost Nova:     +15% Cold Damage per Level
Ice Blast:      +15% Cold Damage per Level
Glacial Spike:  +15% Cold Damage per Level
Blizzard:       +15% Cold Damage per Level
Frozen Orb:     +15% Cold Damage per Level
----------------------------------------------------------------
Mana Cost:  3
-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+--------
 slvl  |   20  |   25  |   30  |   35  |   40  |   45  |   50
-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+--------
 Cold  |  32.6 |  39.6 |  46.6 |  53.6 |  60.6 |  67.6 |  74.6
       |-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+--------
       |(NO synergy points)    |       |       |       |
 Base  |    43 |    63 |    86 |   112 |   138 |   165 |   191
       |-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+--------
       |(20 synergy points -- +300% damage)    |       |
 Base  |   175 |   252 |   345 |   450 |   555 |   660 |   765
       |-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+--------
       |(40 synergy points -- +600% damage)    |       |
 Base  |   306 |   441 |   603 |   787 |   971 |  1155 |  1338
       |-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+--------
       |(60 synergy points -- +900% damage)    |       |
 Base  |   437 |   630 |   862 |  1125 |  1387 |  1650 |  1912
       |-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+--------
       |(80 synergy points -- +1200% damage)   |       |
 Base  |   568 |   819 |  1121 |  1462 |  1803 |  2145 |  2486
       |-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+--------
       |(100 synergy points -- +1500% damage)  |       |
 Base  |   700 |  1008 |  1380 |  1800 |  2220 |  2640 |  3060
-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+--------

--------------+
  FROST NOVA  |
--------------+-------------------------------------------------
Receives Bonuses From:
Blizzard:    +10% Cold Damage per Level
Frozen Orb:  +10% Cold Damage per Level
-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+--------
 slvl  |   20  |   25  |   30  |   35  |   40  |   45  |   50
-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+--------
 Mana  |   28  |   33  |   38  |   43  |   48  |   53  |   58
 Cold  |   27  |   32  |   37  |   42  |   47  |   52  |   57
       |-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+--------
       |(NO synergy points)    |       |       |       |
 Base  |    61 |    86 |   114 |   145 |   176 |   208 |   239
       |-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+--------
       |(20 synergy points -- +200% damage)    |       |
 Base  |   185 |   258 |   342 |   436 |   530 |   624 |   717
       |-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+--------
       |(40 synergy points -- +400% damage)    |       |
 Base  |   308 |   430 |   571 |   727 |   883 |  1040 |  1196
-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+--------

-------------+
  ICE BLAST  |
-------------+--------------------------------------------------
Receives Bonuses From:
Ice Bolt:       +8% Cold Damage per Level
Glacial Spike:  +10% Freeze Length per Level
Blizzard:       +8% Cold Damage per Level
Frozen Orb:     +8% Cold Damage per Level
-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+--------
 slvl  |   20  |   25  |   30  |   35  |   40  |   45  |   50
-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+--------
 Mana  |  15.5 |  18.0 |  20.5 |  23.0 |  25.5 |  28.0 |  30.5
Freeze |   6.8 |   7.8 |   8.8 |   9.8 |  10.8 |  11.8 |  12.8
       |-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+--------
       |(NO synergy points)    |       |       |       |
 Base  |   259 |   387 |   542 |   718 |   894 |  1071 |  1247
       |-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+--------
       |(20 synergy points -- +160% damage)    |       |
 Base  |   674 |  1006 |  1409 |  1867 |  2325 |  2784 |  3242
       |-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+--------
       |(40 synergy points -- +320% damage)    |       |
 Base  |  1090 |  1625 |  2277 |  3017 |  3757 |  4497 |  5238
       |-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+--------
       |(60 synergy points -- +480% damage)    |       |
 Base  |  1506 |  2244 |  3144 |  4167 |  5189 |  6211 |  7233
-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+--------

-----------------+
  GLACIAL SPIKE  |
-----------------+----------------------------------------------
Receives Bonuses From:
Ice Bolt:    +5% Cold Damage per Level
Ice Blast:   +5% Cold Damage per Level
Blizzard:    +3% Freeze Length per Level
Frozen Orb:  +5% Cold Damage per Level
----------------------------------------------------------------
Radius:  2.6 yards.
----------------------------------------------------------------
 slvl  |   20  |   25  |   30  |   35  |   40  |   45  |   50
-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+--------
 Mana  |  19.5 |  22.0 |  24.5 |  27.0 |  29.5 |  32.0 |  34.5
Freeze |   4.2 |   4.8 |   5.4 |   6.0 |   6.6 |   7.2 |   7.8
       |-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+--------
       |(NO synergy points)    |       |       |       |
 Base  |   233 |   308 |   386 |   467 |   548 |   630 |   711
       |-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+--------
       |(20 synergy points -- +100% damage)    |       |
 Base  |   467 |   616 |   772 |   935 |  1097 |  1260 |  1422
       |-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+--------
       |(40 synergy points -- +200% damage)    |       |
 Base  |   701 |   924 |  1158 |  1402 |  1646 |  1890 |  2133
       |-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+--------
       |(60 synergy points -- +300% damage)    |       |
 Base  |   935 |  1232 |  1545 |  1870 |  2195 |  2520 |  2845
-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+--------

------------+
  BLIZZARD  |
------------+---------------------------------------------------
Receives Bonuses From:
Ice Bolt:       +5% Cold Damage per Level
Ice Blast:      +5% Cold Damage per Level
Glacial Spike:  +5% Cold Damage per Level
----------------------------------------------------------------
Cast Delay:  1.8 sec.
6.2 shards per second.
Cold Length:  4 sec.
Radius:  4.6 yards.
Duration:  4 sec.
-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+--------
 slvl  |   20  |   25  |   30  |   35  |   40  |   45  |   50
-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+--------
 Mana  |   42  |   47  |   52  |   57  |   62  |   67  |   72
       |-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+--------
       |(NO synergy points)    |       |       |       |
 Base  |   594 |   852 |  1149 |  1477 |  1804 |  2132 |  2459
       |-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+--------
       |(20 synergy points -- +100% damage)    |       |
 Base  |  1189 |  1704 |  2299 |  2954 |  3609 |  4264 |  4919
       |-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+--------
       |(40 synergy points -- +200% damage)    |       |
 Base  |  1783 |  2556 |  3448 |  4431 |  5413 |  6396 |  7378
       |-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+--------
       |(60 synergy points -- +300% damage)    |       |
 Base  |  2378 |  3408 |  4598 |  5908 |  7218 |  8528 |  9838
-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+--------

--------------+
  FROZEN ORB  |
--------------+-------------------------------------------------
Receives Bonuses From:
Ice Bolt:  +2% Cold Damage per Level
-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+--------
 slvl  |   20  |   25  |   30  |   35  |   40  |   45  |   50
-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+--------
 Mana  |  34.5 |  37.0 |  39.5 |  42.0 |  44.5 |  47.0 |  49.5
 Cold  |   27  |   32  |   37  |   42  |   47  |   52  |   57
       |-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+--------
       |(NO synergy points)    |       |       |       |
 Base  |   269 |   341 |   416 |   493 |   569 |   645 |   721
       |-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+--------
       |(20 synergy points -- +40% damage)     |       |
 Base  |   376 |   478 |   583 |   689 |   796 |   903 |  1010
-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+--------

---------------+
  COLD MASTERY |
-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+--------
 slvl  |   20  |   25  |   30  |   35  |   40  |   45  |   50
-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+--------
Resist | -115% | -140% | -165% | -190% | -215% | -240% | -265%
-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+--------

Notes:
* It is impossible to max all the synergies for Ice Bolt.
* Targets can take multiple hits from a single Blizzard.
* A perfect orb hit (i.e., all 16 bolts from the explosion hit one target)
   exceeds the damage of one hit from Blizzard.
* Damage listed for cold skills can be up to double thanks to Cold Mastery.
* Ice Bolt and Frost Nova are underpowered for endgame.
* Blizzard is the strongest cold skill.

========================
 6.4. Auras and Oskills
========================

---------------+
  HOLY SHOCK   |
-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+--------
LM slvl|   20  |   25  |   30  |   35  |   40  |   45  |   50
-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+--------
       | LEVEL 15
       | Radius:  13.3 yards
       | Lightning Damage:  1-648 to your Attack
       | Lightning Damage:  1-108 (aura pulse)
       |-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+--------
Missile|  1226 |  1421 |  1615 |  1810 |  2005 |  2199 |  2394
Melee  |  4636 |  6225 |  8047 | 10103 | 12393 | 14916 | 17673
Aura   |   225 |   238 |   270 |   303 |   336 |   369 |   402
-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+--------
       | LEVEL 30
       | Radius:  23.3 yards
       | Lightning Damage:  1-1668 to your Attack
       | Lightning Damage:  1-278 (aura pulse)
       |-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+--------
Missile|  3154 |  3654 |  4155 |  4656 |  5157 |  5657 |  6158
Melee  | 11923 | 16009 | 20695 | 25983 | 31871 | 38360 | 45450
Aura   |   526 |   610 |   694 |   778 |   862 |   945 |  1029
-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+--------

Notes:
* The runeword Dream grants level 15 Holy Shock aura.
* The aura levels from two Dream items can combine to grant level 30
   Holy Shock.
* The damage shown in the Holy Shock table small cells is the average
   damage.  Since the minimum damage is close to 1, the maximum damage
   is almost double the average.


============================================================================
  7. Builds
============================================================================

The player needs to plan, from the beginning, what the sorceress's goal in
life is and have her learn the skills needed toward that goal.  Below are
some build descriptions that are powerful and effective since 1.10.
Underpowered builds such as the Inferno sorceress are neither listed nor
discussed.

==========================
 7.1. Blaster Sorceresses
==========================

-----------
 PURE FIRE
-----------
Out of the three pure single-tree damage builds, the fire tree requires the
least skill points to complete.  with the potential of 20K damage fireballs
and 7 fps cast rate, the fire sorceress is perhaps the most effective PvP
dueling sorceress.
----------------------+----------------------
   Fire Skills        |   Lightning Skills
----------------------+----------------------
 Fire Bolt ....... 20 | Static Field ....  1
 Warmth ..........  1 | Telekinesis .....  1
 Inferno .........  1 | Teleport ........  1
 Blaze ...........  1 |
 Fire Ball ....... 20 |
 Fire Wall .......  1 |
 Meteor .......... 20 |
 Fire Mastery .... 20 |
----------------------+----------------------
   TOTAL:  87
---------------------------------------------
The fire sorceress develops Fire Bolt, Fire Ball, and Meteor as they become
available.  Once the sorceress reaches level 30, one point is placed in Fire
Mastery.  From there, the following skills are maxed from first to last:
Meteor, Fire Ball, Fire Bolt, and Fire Mastery.  Meteor has the best bang
for the mana used, and placing points there greatly powers up
Fire Bolt/Ball.  Fire Ball is a spammable attack that packs an explosive
punch that can damage multiple targets in one shot, making it the next best
choice to max after Meteor.  Maxing Fire Bolt after Fire Ball will yield
both a powerful Fire Bolt and an even stronger Fire Ball.  Once all three
attacks are maxed, Fire Mastery can finally be maxed.

----------------
 PURE LIGHTNING
----------------
Pure lightning can be powerful, but only with every synergy maxed (possible
by level 94) and skill levels boosted to a minimum in the upper 30's, the
latter of which requires powerful equipment.  For a lower level, untwinked
sorceress, pure lightning is weaker than pure fire or pure blizzard.  The
damage is less and the cast rate is slower.  Even the killing speed of the
26 point wonder Frozen Orb is comparable to Lightning with two synergies
and lightning mastery maxed when the skill levels are in the sub-30 range.

You may wonder what can the lightning sorceress with top gear and skills do
that another sorceress can't do better?  Unlike fire or especially cold,
many monsters immune to lightning have resistance at 100, and very few have
resistance over 115.  Conviction (from Infinity) will remove immunity from
most monsters.  Even low level Lower Resist from various charged items sold
by vendors can remove immunity from many monsters in the later acts.  When
immunity breaking is combined with resistance drain equipment such as
Griffon's Eye, monsters formerly immune to lightning begin to drop like
flies.  With all the ideal equipment, the lightning sorceress is the closest
one can get to an all-powerful PvM character that can kill nearly anything
like the Hammerdin.
----------------------+----------------------
   Fire Skills        |   Lightning Skills
----------------------+----------------------
 Warmth ..........  1 | Charged Bolt .... 20
                      | Static Field ....  1
                      | Telekinesis .....  1
                      | Nova ............ 20
                      | Lightning ....... 20
                      | Chain Lightning . 20
                      | Teleport ........  1
                      | Thunder Storm ...  1
                      | Lightning Mastery 20
----------------------+----------------------
   TOTAL:  105
---------------------------------------------
Charged Bolt is the first skill to max.  It is great as an early and
mid game skill, and it is still effective in Hell as a close-range attack.
Once Charged Bolt is maxed, points go to Lightning until Lightning Mastery
becomes available at (character) level 30.  Lightning Mastery increases
damage more than any other lightning synergy, making it your top priority to
max as soon as possible.  Once Lightning Mastery is done, Lightning is next
skill to max.  Lightning is the long range, high power attack to use when
spamming Charged Bolt at close range is unsafe.  Once Lightning is finished,
Chain Lightning is the fourth skill to max.  Chain Lightning is your crowd
sweeper.  However, before you start placing points in Chain Lightning, place
one point into Thunder Storm.  Thunder Storm provides extra damage, and with
max Lightning Mastery combined with high skill boosts from items and charms,
it is effective enough with even one point.  Once Chain Lightning is
finished, Nova is the final skill to max.  With all the other lightning
attacks, Nova is useful only as a passive damage booster to Lightning and
Chain Lightning.

---------------
 PURE BLIZZARD
---------------
With freezing attacks, Blizzard's stopping power, and Cold Mastery's
resistance drain; the pure blizzard sorceress is the most powerful PvM
sorceress build, and one of the deadliest PvP sorceress builds.  Any monster
vulnerable to cold will die quickly, even act bosses.  The best part about
the Blizzard sorceress, as far as the beginner is concerned, is they are
powerful with even mediocre items.  Numerous cold immune monsters in Hell
are the only weakness.
----------------------+----------------------+----------------------
   Fire Skills        |   Lightning Skills   |   Cold Skills
----------------------+----------------------+----------------------
 Warmth ..........  1 | Static Field ....  1 | Ice Bolt ........ 20
                      | Telekinesis .....  1 | Frost Nova ......  1
                      | Teleport ........  1 | Ice Blast ....... 20
                      |                      | Glacial Spike ... 20
                      |                      | Blizzard ........ 20
                      |                      | Cold Mastery .... 20
----------------------+----------------------+----------------------
   TOTAL:  105
--------------------------------------------------------------------
The blizzard sorceress develops Ice Blast and Glacial Spike as they become
available.  Ice Bolt is ignored until later in the game.  The fun begins at
level 24, when the sorceress can learn Blizzard.  At level 30, one point is
placed in Cold Mastery.  Blizzard should be maxed as soon as possible.
After that, raise Cold Mastery, either through skill points or items, to
level 17, which reduces enemy cold resistance by -100%.  Ice Blast and
Glacial Spike are the next two skills to be maxed.  Pick either one to max
first, then max the other.  Ice Blast and Glacial Spike have their
advantages; Ice Blast is more damaging and costs less mana while Glacial
Spike travels faster and can hit multiple targets.  Once both are maxed,
all that is left is Ice Bolt and Cold Mastery.  If you want the sorceress
to duel other players, max Cold Mastery.  Otherwise, raise Cold Mastery to
the desired level, if necessary.  With Cold Mastery out of the way, Ice Bolt
is the final skill to max.

--------------------
 ENERGY SHIELD/FIRE
--------------------
This is merely a pure fire sorceress with energy shield.  In fact, if the
sorceress forgoes Static Field and uses an item to access Energy Shield,
she can get full power attacks AND energy shield by level 94.
----------------------+----------------------
   Fire Skills        |   Lightning Skills
----------------------+----------------------
 Fire Bolt ....... 20 | Charged Bolt ....  1
 Warmth ..........  1 | Static Field ....  1
 Inferno .........  1 | Telekinesis ..... 20
 Blaze ...........  1 | Lightning .......  1
 Fire Ball ....... 20 | Chain Lightning .  1
 Fire Wall .......  1 | Teleport ........  1
 Meteor .......... 20 | Energy Shield ...  1
 Fire Mastery ....  1 |
----------------------+----------------------
   TOTAL:  91
---------------------------------------------
Development is the same as the pure fire sorceress except early in the game,
extra skill points that would have been spent in Fire Bolt and Fire Ball go
into Telekinesis instead.  Because of this, the chosen fire skills are maxed
at a later level.  Fire Mastery, the final skill to develop, is usually left
at a level below max due to the difficulty of leveling any character beyond
90.

--------------------
 ENERGY SHIELD/COLD
--------------------
Frozen Orb is the cheapest sorceress power skill in the game, requiring
less skill points to complete than other top-tier damage skills (such as
Fire Ball or Blizzard).  The sorceress has plenty of leftover points to
develop a powerful energy shield to protect her from damage.
----------------------+----------------------+----------------------
   Fire Skills        |   Lightning Skills   |   Cold Skills
----------------------+----------------------+----------------------
 Warmth ..........  1 | Charged Bolt ....  1 | Ice Bolt ........ 20
                      | Static Field ....  1 | Frost Nova ......  1
                      | Telekinesis ..... 20 | Ice Blast .......  1
                      | Lightning .......  1 | Glacial Spike ...  1
                      | Chain Lightning .  1 | Blizzard ........  1
                      | Teleport ........  1 | Frozen Orb ...... 20
                      | Energy Shield ...  1 | Cold Mastery .... 20
----------------------+----------------------+----------------------
   TOTAL:  91
--------------------------------------------------------------------
Early on, skill points will go into Telekinesis (for Energy Shield) and
prerequisites.  In the meantime, before level 24, enemies are defeated by a
three step process:  freezing by Ice Blast or Glacial Spike, weakening by
Static Field, then dying by combined weapon attack from the sorceress and
her merc.  At level 24, Blizzard will provide enough stopping power until
Frozen Orb, the primary skill, becomes available at level 30.

Once the sorceress reaches level 30 and learns Frozen Orb and Cold Mastery,
she will begin to wipe out monsters with ease until Hell.  The sorceress
will continue to add points to Frozen Orb until maxed at level 49.  From
there, Cold Mastery should be raised until enemy cold resistance is at
-100%.  Next, Ice Bolt should be raised to the max to powerup Frozen Orb.
Once Ice Bolt is done, resume adding points to Cold Mastery until max level
is reached.

After all the necessary skills are finished, the sorceress has some leeway
where extra points go.  She will not have enough to develop a viable attack
of another element.  However, she can add points to Warmth to speed up mana
regeneration, Teleport to reduce mana cost, and/or Energy Shield to increase
the damage absorption percentage.

---------
 METEORB
---------
Between the high firepower of the Fire Ball and Meteor combo, and Frozen
Orb's effectiveness with minimal skill point cost, the Meteorb sorceress is
the most effective two tree build in the game, and the easiest sorceress to
use for PvM.
----------------------+----------------------+----------------------
   Fire Skills        |   Lightning Skills   |   Cold Skills
----------------------+----------------------+----------------------
 Fire Bolt .......  1 | Static Field ....  1 | Ice Bolt ........  1
 Warmth ..........  1 | Telekinesis .....  1 | Frost Nova ......  1
 Inferno .........  1 | Teleport ........  1 | Ice Blast .......  1
 Blaze ...........  1 |                      | Glacial Spike ...  1
 Fire Ball ....... 20 |                      | Blizzard ........  1
 Fire Wall .......  1 |                      | Frozen Orb ...... 20
 Meteor .......... 20 |                      | Cold Mastery ....  1
 Fire Mastery .... 20 |                      |
----------------------+----------------------+----------------------
   TOTAL:  94
--------------------------------------------------------------------
Note:  A variant of the Meteorb sorceress is the Fire Ball/Orb sorceress,
which trades Meteor damage for more Fire Ball damage by maxing Fire Bolt
instead of Fire Mastery.  Fire Ball is easier to use than Meteor, but
consumes mana at a faster rate.

Before level 12, the Meteorb sorceress kills monsters with weapons.  Once
Fire Ball becomes available, she begins to rely on skills to destroy
enemies.  Fire Ball and Meteor are developed as the become available until
level 30 when Frozen Orb and Masteries can be learned.  At level 30, Frozen
Orb becomes the attack of choice and the first skill to max as soon as
possible.  After Frozen Orb is done, the following fire skills are maxed
in order:  Meteor, Fire Ball, and Fire Mastery.  Once all four skills are
maxed, any remaining skill points go either into Fire Bolt or Cold Mastery
depending on which element the player wants to powerup.

-----------
 HYDRA/ORB
-----------
The killing speed is slower than Meteorb, due to lower Fire Ball damage and
Hydra's lack of splash.  However, Hydra's ability to extend the sorceress's
attacking range further or around corners allows her to play a safer game.
----------------------+----------------------+----------------------
   Fire Skills        |   Lightning Skills   |   Cold Skills
----------------------+----------------------+----------------------
 Fire Bolt .......  1 | Static Field ....  1 | Ice Bolt ........  1
 Warmth ..........  1 | Telekinesis .....  1 | Frost Nova ......  1
 Fire Ball ....... 20 | Teleport ........  1 | Ice Blast .......  1
 Enchant .........  1 |                      | Glacial Spike ...  1
 Fire Mastery .... 20 |                      | Blizzard ........  1
 Hydra ........... 20 |                      | Frozen Orb ...... 20
                      |                      | Cold Mastery ....  1
----------------------+----------------------+----------------------
   TOTAL:  92
--------------------------------------------------------------------
(Caveat:  Comments are based on 1.09 sorceress building experiences.)
Until the sorceress reaches level 30, the Hydra/Orb build is one of the most
difficult and frustrating sorceress builds to develop because nearly all
skill points must be saved until the sorceress is allowed to spend them in
the level 30 skills.  During the early levels, the sorceress will freeze
enemies with Ice Blast or Glacial Spike then finish them off with a Static
Field, weapon, and merc smackdown combination.  Once the sorceress reaches
30, she places points in all the level 30 skills.  From there, using all the
skill points that were saved, the sorceress develops Frozen Orb, Hydra, and
Fire Mastery concurrently until all the skill points run out.  When that
happens, maxing Frozen Orb becomes top priority since it can take out nearly
everything in Normal and Nightmare with ease single-handedly.  When Orb is
finished, Hydra is the next skill to be maxed, followed by Fire Mastery.
Once those three skills are finished, Fire Ball is the fourth and final
skill to max.  Any extra skill points go to Fire Bolt to powerup both
Fire Ball and Hydra.

--------
 CB/ORB
--------
A viable option, though more difficult to build and use than the Meteorb
sorceress.  Effectiveness of both Charged Bolt and Frozen Orb are sensitive
to range.  Charged Bolt is most effective at close range while Frozen Orb is
best at medium range where the orb can explode inside a target.
----------------------+----------------------+----------------------
   Fire Skills        |   Lightning Skills   |   Cold Skills
----------------------+----------------------+----------------------
 Warmth ..........  1 | Charged Bolt .... 20 | Ice Bolt ........  1
                      | Static Field ....  1 | Frost Nova ......  1
                      | Telekinesis .....  1 | Ice Blast .......  1
                      | Lightning ....... 20 | Glacial Spike ...  1
                      | Teleport ........  1 | Blizzard ........  1
                      | Lightning Mastery 20 | Frozen Orb ...... 20
                      |                      | Cold Mastery ....  1
----------------------+----------------------+----------------------
   TOTAL:  90
--------------------------------------------------------------------
The sorceress develops Charged Bolt from the get go much like a Lightning
sorceress.  At level 30, a choice needs to be made:  develop Frozen Orb now
or Lightning Mastery and Lightning instead.  If power and ease of use is a
concern, max Frozen Orb as soon as possible then develop Lightning Mastery
and Lightning.  If Charged Bolt is really desired, save Frozen Orb for last
and max Lightning Mastery and Lightning next.

====================
 7.2. Enchantresses
====================
The one skill all of the following sorceress fighter builds have in common
is Enchant.

-----------------
 ORB ENCHANTRESS
-----------------
This is a Frozen Orb sorceress with Enchant as the backup skill to destroy
monsters immune to cold.  For this sorceress, Enchant is learned for one of
two reasons:  either for her to become an Enchant slave (for low level
characters in Hardcore) or to use a weapon with properties such that when
combined with Enchant, the weapon becomes very powerful.  (Details about
such weapons are discussed under Equipment.)  The design of this sorceress
build is a true hybrid.  The sorceress plays like a blaster when she is
fighting monsters vulnerable to Frozen Orb.  Once monsters immune to cold
appear, she uses weapons like a fighter to defeat those monsters.
----------------------+----------------------+----------------------
   Fire Skills        |   Lightning Skills   |   Cold Skills
----------------------+----------------------+----------------------
 Fire Bolt .......  1 | Static Field ....  1 | Ice Bolt ........  1
 Warmth .......... 20 | Telekinesis .....  1 | Frozen Armor ....  1
 Fire Ball .......  1 | Teleport ........  1 | Frost Nova ......  1
 Enchant ......... 20 | Lightning Mastery  1 | Ice Blast .......  1
 Fire Mastery .... 20 |                      | Shiver Armor ....  1
                      |                      | Glacial Spike ...  1
                      |                      | Blizzard ........  1
                      |                      | Frozen Orb ...... 20
                      |                      | Cold Mastery ....  1
----------------------+----------------------+----------------------
   TOTAL:  94
--------------------------------------------------------------------
Since the sorceress will need skill points for both Frozen Orb and Enchant,
she cannot pump Warmth early in the game.  Aside from placing one point in
each of the prerequisites and one point wonders, skill points are to be
saved until level 18 when Enchant can be learned then developed.  As with
nearly any other Frozen Orb sorceress, she will need to use Static Field,
freezing attacks, weapons, and a merc to destroy monsters until the
sorceress reaches level 30 and learns Frozen Orb and Masteries.  From there,
she develops Frozen Orb and Enchant concurrently while the extra skill
points last.  Once the skill points run out, Frozen Orb becomes top priority
to max as soon as more skill points are gained.  Next skill to max is
Enchant.  After Enchant is done, all that is left to max is Warmth and Fire
Mastery.  Warmth is the third skill to max because it increases not only
Enchant's damage more than Fire Mastery, but also the sorceress's mana
regeneration.  When Warmth is done, Fire Mastery is the final skill to max.
Once all the necessary skills are finished, all extra points earned should
be placed into either Cold Mastery for stronger Frozen Orb or Static Field
for easier mass damage against monsters with over half life.

------------
 PURE MELEE
------------
The pure melee Enchantress includes any sorceress build designed to fight
monsters in hand-to-hand combat, including the Avenger, Dreamer, and
Werebear.  The melee Enchantress forsakes blasting skills such as Fire Ball,
Blizzard, or Frozen Orb.  Instead she uses Enchant and various passive and
buffing skills.

Enchantress sub-builds:
Avenger = Uses Vengeance oskill from Kingslayer.
Dreamer = Uses Holy Shock aura from Dream.
Werebear = Uses Werebear oskill from Beast.
----------------------+----------------------+----------------------
   Fire Skills        |   Lightning Skills   |   Cold Skills
----------------------+----------------------+----------------------
 Fire Bolt .......  1 | Static Field ....  1 | Frozen Armor ....  1
 Warmth .......... 20 | Telekinesis .....  1 | Cold Mastery ....  1
 Fire Ball .......  1 | Teleport ........  1 |
 Enchant ......... 20 | Lightning Mastery 20 |
 Fire Mastery .... 20 |                      |
----------------------+----------------------+----------------------
   TOTAL:  87
--------------------------------------------------------------------
Warmth will be developed from the get-go until level 18 when Enchant is
available.  At that point, Enchant becomes top priority to max.  At level
30, one point is placed into Fire Mastery.  From there, Enchant, Warmth,
and Fire Mastery are maxed in order.  Once all the fire skills are finished,
the sorceress needs to decide where extra skill points go.  In this case,
points go to Lightning Mastery.  Lightning Mastery increases the lightning
damage given by Vengeance or Holy Shock.  After Lightning Mastery is maxed,
the sorceress can spend her final skill points into either Thunder Storm for
an extra passive attack or Telekinesis for Energy Shield usage.


============================================================================
  8. Equipment
============================================================================

Like it or not, Diablo II is a game of equipment.  Items make or break the
characters.  While the sorceress does not need to rely on equipment as
heavily as some other classes, you will want equipment to make the sorceress
more powerful and durable.

================================
 8.1. Important Item Properties
================================
Regardless of build, you want your sorceress to accumulate as much skill
boosters and faster cast as you can to increase her damage output.  At the
same time, the sorceress needs to acquire life and resistances to survive
the inevitable beating she will take.  Below is a list of item properties
the sorceress will need to survive.

-- RESISTANCES --
Resistances are essential for survival, especially in Nightmare and Hell due
to penalties.  Elemental attacks have become very common since 1.10, and
they are often are very damaging.  Resistance must be maximized to soften
the blows.  Otherwise, such attacks will kill the sorceress in one or two
hits easily.

-- FASTER CAST RATE --
Faster spells give two obvious benefits.  One, the sorceress spends less
time frozen in casting animation, which is useful for hit-and-run tactics or
trying to Teleport out of a jam.  Two, faster spells mean more attacks over
time which in turn mean more damage.  For the lightning sorceress, faster
cast is especially important because Lightning and Chain Lightning are cast
at slower rates than other skills.  Aim for at least 63 total faster cast,
which provides 9 fps Teleport.

-- LIFE --
The sorceress can never have too much life, and she needs a high amount of
life in Hell to save her from dying in one or two hits. The sorceress needs
a minimum of 800 life for Hell.  Strive to break the 1000 life barrier.

-- MANA --
All sorceresses, whether it is the standard base energy blaster sorceress
or the high mana Energy Shield sorceress, need more mana from items to fuel
their skills.  Fortunately, there are plenty of items that do just that.

-- FASTER HIT RECOVERY --
When the sorceress loses more than 1/12th of her life in a single hit, she
is forced into hit recovery, which freezes her in place.  Needless to say,
this is bad.  What is even worse is the sorceress has horridly slow
recovery, the worst in the game, and prone to stunlock.  The item property
faster hit recovery speaks for itself, and it may mean the difference of the
sorceress escaping or getting stunlocked by repeated attacks.  Even a small
amount will make a big difference.

-- + TO SKILLS --
The sorceress needs high level skills to kill quickly.

-- STRENGTH --
Several desirable items have enormous strength requirements.  To meet these
requirements, the sorceress can either spend stat points on Strength or
equip items with bonuses to strength.  The stat points that are saved by
wearing items with stat boosts can be spent elsewhere, usually Vitality.

>> Enchantresses will also want the following item properties: <<

-- CANNOT BE FROZEN --
While the typical blaster couldn't care less about getting chilled, the
fighter will attack much slower if chilled, and that will not also lower the
damage over time, but also lock the sorceress in attack animation longer,
which can be deadly if things turn ugly during mid-swing.  An item with this
property immunizes the sorceress from chilling.  Note:  This will not stop
the slow effect from Holy Freeze.

-- ATTACK RATING --
The sorceress needs high attack rating to hit her enemies reliably in Hell.
7000 is the bare minimum needed to do just that.  Strive to get 10000 or
higher.

-- INCREASED ATTACK SPEED --
Even though the sorceress will likely equip fast weapons, she still needs
increased attack speed to reach the next breakpoint or two.  However, do NOT
sacrifice too many skill boosts or other properties for this.

-- DEFENSE --
Melee fighters who engage in hand-to-hand combat with the enemy will want
high defense to lower the enemies' chances of landing a hit.

-- DAMAGE REDUCED BY x or x% --
This acts like physical resistance, and even a small amount will help reduce
the life the sorceress loses after she takes a hit.  DR% is capped at 50%,
though you can stockpile more than that to offset penalties bestowed by
Amplify Damage or Decrepify.  Absolute DR has no limit (beyond what is
possible to equip).

==================
 8.2. Breakpoints
==================
This is a good place for the breakpoint data since you need equipment to
obtain the faster breakpoints, and we are in the equipment section of the
FAQ.  The breakpoints for block rate, hit recovery, cast rate, and a few
select weapons are listed.  All the breakpoints here apply only to the
sorceress; other classes have different breakpoints.

Quick reminder:  FPS = Frames Per Second.  Game runs at 25 FPS.

-- FASTER BLOCK RATE --
------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----
 FPS  |   9 |   8 |   7 |   6 |   5 |   4
------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----
 Block|   0 |   7 |  15 |  27 |  48 |  86
------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----

-- FASTER HIT RECOVERY --
------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----
 FPS  |  15 |  14 |  13 |  12 |  11 |  10 |   9 |   8 |   7 |   6 |   5
------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----
 FHR  |   0 |   5 |   9 |  14 |  20 |  30 |  42 |  60 |  86 | 142 | 280
------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----

-- FASTER CAST RATE:  Standard --
------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----
 FPS  |  13 |  12 |  11 |  10 |   9 |   8 |   7
------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----
 cast |   0 |   9 |  20 |  37 |  63 | 105 | 200
------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----

-- FASTER CAST RATE:  Lightning / Chain Lightning --
------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----
 FPS  |  19 |  18 |  17 |  16 |  15 |  14 |  13 |  12 |  11
------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----
 cast |   0 |   7 |  15 |  23 |  35 |  52 |  78 | 117 | 194
------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----
As you can see, Lightning and Chain Lightning are cast at a slower pace than
other skills.

-- INCREASED ATTACK SPEED:  Various elite weapons --
----------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----
 Frames/second  |  17 |  16 |  15 |  14 |  13 |  12 |  11 |  10 |   9
-- 1H MELEE ----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----
 Berserker Axe  |   0 |   8 |  15 |  26 |  39 |  58 |  86 | 138 | n/a
 Scourge        |     |   0 |   4 |  13 |  23 |  39 |  60 |  99 | n/a
 Phase Blade    |     |     |     |     |   0 |  10 |  24 |  48 | n/a
-- 2H MELEE ----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----
 Cryptic Axe    |   0 |   5 |  11 |  22 |  32 |  48 |  70 | 105 | 174
 Great Poleaxe  |     |     |   0 |   9 |  18 |  30 |  48 |  75 | 125
 Giant Thresher |     |     |     |   0 |   6 |  16 |  30 |  52 |  89
---- BOWS ------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----
 Ward Bow       |     |   0 |   8 |  16 |  27 |  42 |  65 | 102 | 174
 Blade Bow      |     |     |   0 |   5 |  14 |  26 |  44 |  72 | 125
-- CROSSBOWS ---+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----
 Demon Crossbow |     |     |     |     |     |   0 |   8 | n/a | n/a
----------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----
For a complete list, see below under 'Weapon IAS Breakpoints'.

==================
 8.3. Cheap Stuff
==================
Some of the ideal equipment is very hard to obtain, and your sorceress will
need to use the next best thing in the meantime.  Below are some alternative
item suggestions.  Some of the items may not look like much, but they will
help get the job done.

-------------
 8.3.1. Helm
-------------
Lore is a solid choice for the newbie without any good items.  Later, if the
likes of Harlequin Crest or Nightwing's Veil are not found yet, gambling
circlets or coronets offers the chance for something better.

Lore (runeword:  Ort Sol)
STR:  ??
LEVEL:  27+
  +1 to All Skills
  +10 to Energy
  Lightning Resist +30%
  Damage Reduced by 7
  +2 to Mana after each Kill
  +2 to Light Radius

Easy to make, yet effective caster helm.

--------------
 8.3.2. Armor
--------------
Stealth is an excellent low cost caster armor that will work well up to the
end of Nightmare.  By Hell, more resistance will be needed.  Stuffing Tal,
Ral, Ort, and/or Thul runes into a plain four socket armor will provide some
resistance in case, due to really bad luck, a Lum rune for Smoke or unique
armor like Goldskin or Vipermagi cannot be found.

Smoke (runeword:  Nef Lum)
STR:  12+
LEVEL:  37+
  +20% Faster Hit Recovery
  +75% Enhanced Defense
  +280 Defense vs. Missile
  +10 to Energy
  All Resistances +50
  -1 to Light Radius
  Level 6 Weaken (18 Charges)

This is the best low-cost defensive armor, with resistances higher than any
other armor except for Chains of Honor and any armor socketed with four Um
runes, both of which are much harder to obtain.  Take advantage of the
Weaken charges when highly damaging enemies are present.  Obtaining the Lum
rune required is somewhat difficult but not impossible for the beginner.

Stealth (runeword:  Tal Eth)
STR:  12+
LEVEL:  17+
  +25% Faster Run/Walk
  +25% Faster Cast Rate
  +25% Faster Hit Recovery
  +6 to Dexterity
  Regenerate Mana 15%
  +15 Maximum Stamina
  Poison Resist +30%
  Magic Damage Reduced by 3

Very easy to make, and perhaps the best low level armor until Smoke or
Vipermagi is found.

'Tal Ral Ort Thul' armor
STR:  70+
LEVEL:  23+
  All Resistances +30

For the desperately poor, this can do in a pinch if the sorceress needs
resistance badly.  Runes up to Thul are common.  Since this isn't a
runeword, the item quality and order does not matter.

---------------
 8.3.3. Weapon
---------------
If available, Spirit is a powerful no-brainer choice that is useful to the
end of the game.  In fact, Spirit is an ideal choice if you need a high
amount of faster hit recovery.  In a game where Spirit is unavailable, your
best bet is to find either a magic or rare orb with skills and faster cast,
or make Honor.

Leaf (runeword:  Tir Ral -- staff)
* Two-handed only *
LEVEL:  19+
  +3 to Fire Skills
  Adds 5-30 fire damage
  +3 to Inferno (Sorceress Only)
  +3 to Warmth (Sorceress Only)
  +3 to Fire Bolt (Sorceress Only)
  +2-198 Defense (Based on Character Level)
  Cold Resist +33%
  +2 to Mana after each Kill

IMPORTANT NOTE:  Staff runewords do NOT work in orbs.
Cheap and easy to make, yet effective weapon for the fire sorceress.  Not
much use to lightning or cold sorceresses.  Enchantresses should shop for
a two socket staff with +3 to Enchant at Normal Drognan (or Nightmare Akara
if clvl is under 20).  Making Leaf out of such a staff results in a total
of +6 to Enchant (+3 from staff, +3 from runeword), which is tough to beat.

Spirit (runeword:  Tal Thul Ort Amn -- sword)  *REALM ONLY*
DEX:  ??
STR:  ??
LEVEL:  25+
  +2 to All Skills
  +25-35% Faster Cast Rate
  +55% Faster Hit Recovery
  +250 Defense vs. Missile
  +22 Vitality
  +89-112 to Mana
  Adds 3-14 Cold Damage
  Adds 1-50 Lightning Damage
  +75 Poison Damage over 5 Seconds
  +3-8 Magic Absorb
  7% Life Stolen Per Hit

With skills, faster cast, and large boosts to a variety of stats, Spirit is
a powerful all-purpose caster weapon that is easy to make.  Obtainable by
Act 5 Normal or Act 1 Nightmare, this can last until the end of Hell.
Although Spirit is not the most powerful caster weapon, it is powerful
enough to render most magic and rare orbs obsolete.  Since Spirit is a
caster weapon, use basic swords as a base.  A Broad Sword and Long Sword
found in Act 5 Normal or beyond   will yield four sockets from Larzuk's
socket reward.

magic or rare orb with the following:
LEVEL:  ??
  +1-2 to Sorceress Skill Levels
  +10-20% Faster Cast Rate

The best bet in a game without Spirit.  You will get some chances to get a
decent rare, either from imbuing at Charsi or freeing Anya.

---------------
 8.3.4. Shield
---------------
Ancient's Pledge or a three diamond shield are easy to come by and boost
resistances significantly.  For those who want blocking, Rhyme is decent.

3 perfect diamond shield
STR:  47+
LEVEL:  18+
Chance to Block:  28-44%
  All Resistances +57

Slightly harder to assemble than Ancients' Pledge, but the resistance boost
is higher.

Ancients' Pledge (runeword:  Ral Ort Tal)
STR:  47+
LEVEL:  21+
Chance to Block:  28-44%
  +50% Enhanced Defense
  Cold Resist +43%
  Lightning Resist +48%
  Fire Resist +48%
  Poison Resist +48%
  10% Damage Taken Goes To Mana

Easily assembled from the "free the barbs" quest reward.

Rhyme (runeword:  Shael Eth)
STR:  22+
LEVEL:  29+
Chance to Block:  45-64%
  +40% Faster Block Rate
  20% Increased Chance of Blocking
  Regenerate Mana 15%
  All Resistances +25
  Cannot Be Frozen
  50% Extra Gold from Monsters
  25% Better Chance of Getting Magic Items

Used primarily for the magic-find bonus, though it has some useful defensive
properties, such as resistances and fairly high block rate.

---------------
 8.3.5. Gloves
---------------
There are plenty of useful basic unique gloves that drop fairly often.
Among these are Bloodfist, Magefist, and Frostburn.  If none of them are
found, gambling is a viable way to obtain a good rare with stat and/or
resistance boosts.  Ultimately, the caster will want Frostburn or one of
the two faster cast gloves.

-------------
 8.3.6. Belt
-------------
String of Ears and Nightsmoke are good choices that are not too difficult to
find.  Even if they are not found, rare or crafted belts are easy to come
by, and they can get some useful affixes.  Among them are resistances,
strength, life, and faster hit recovery.

--------------
 8.3.7. Boots
--------------
None of the set or unique boots offer any faster cast or sorceress skills,
so this slot should be used to patch any defensive weaknesses.  Good boots
can be found among rares, crafts, sets, or uniques.  The best rare or
crafted boots can have better resistance mods than set or unique boots,
and such rares can be gambled for.

---------------
 8.3.8. Amulet
---------------
For the untwinked sorceress, the best bet for finding a good amulet with
skills and/or resistances is by gambling or crafting.  Some very powerful
amulets can spawn as a result for high level characters.

--------------
 8.3.9. Rings
--------------
Since finding either a Bul-Kathos' Wedding Band or The Stone of Jordan is
nearly impossible, gambling or crafting rings is your best bet for finding
a pair of good rings.  Ideal properties on such rings include mana,
resistances, faster cast, life, and strength.  When starting out with junk
items, mana and resistances will be lacking, and they will be the two
properties that should take priority when selecting rings to use from among
the countless junk you will pick up.

Bahamut's Ring (magic)
LEVEL:  37
  +91-120 to Mana

This has mana comparable to what the Stone of Jordan can provide, but not
the +1 to All Skills.  Ideal suffixes that can spawn on a magic ring include
one of the following:
  of the Apprentice ... +10% Faster Cast Rate
  of Wizardry ......... +16-20 to Energy
  of the Mammoth ...... +31-40 to Life
  of the Titan ........ +16-20 to Strength

----------------
 8.3.10. Charms
----------------
When starting out with a blank inventory, any charm with resistance or
life, no matter how shabby, should be saved until they can be replaced
by something better once inventory space fills up.

==================
 8.4. Ideal Items
==================
Listed below is the equipment your sorceress should strive for.  Obtaining
and donning many of these items will greatly powerup your sorceress, and the
powerup is necessary to survive in Hell.

-- Definitions for the following terms. --
LADDER ONLY
  Cannot spawn in closed realm BattleNet non-ladder games, although they can
  be traded for (thanks to ladder resets).  They are available everywhere
  else, including single player.

REALM ONLY
  Available only in closed realm BattleNet games.  Runewords that are
  realm only are also be restricted to ladder games as well.

Named items are listed in alphabetical order.

-------------
 8.4.1. Helm
-------------
-- CASTER --
Griffon's Eye (unique Diadem)  *LADDER ONLY*
LEVEL:  76
  +1 to All Skills
  +25% Faster Cast Rate
  -15-20% to Enemy Lightning Resistance
  +10-15% to Lightning Skill Damage
  +100-200 Defense

Griffon's Eye is THE helm for the PvM lightning sorceress.  The lightning
pierce lets the sorceress fry resistant monsters much more easily, and she
does not need to use Crescent Moon as her primary weapon.  Griffon's Eye
also has the most faster cast of any helm, and the only unique helm with
faster cast for that matter.

Harlequin Crest (unique Shako)
STR:  50
LEVEL:  62
  +2 to All Skills
  +2 to all Attributes
  +1-148 to Life (Based on Character Level)
  +1-148 to Mana (Based on Character Level)
  Damage Reduced by 10%
  50% Better Chance of Getting Magic Items

Great all-around caster helm, and the helm of choice for many magic find
sorceresses.  Lacks faster cast though.

Kira's Guardian (unique Tiara)  *LADDER ONLY*
LEVEL:  77
  +20% Faster Hit Recovery
  +50-120 Defense
  All Resistances +50-70
  Cannot Be Frozen

Excellent defensive helm despite lack of caster mods.  Handy for duels if
you need to stack resistance beyond the maximum to offset resistance
draining effects such as Conviction.  The bow enchantress will appreciate
the "cannot be frozen" and resistances.

Nightwing's Veil (unique Spired Helm)
STR:  96
LEVEL:  67
  +2 to All Skills
  +8-15% to Cold Skill Damage
  +90-120 Enhanced Defense
  +10-20 to Dexterity
  +5-9 Cold Absorb
  Half Freeze Duration
  Requirements -50%

Nightwing's Veil increases cold damage more than any other helm.  It boosts
cold damage in a manner similar to fire and lightning mastery for their
respective elements.

Volcanic/Powered/Glacial circlet of the Magus (magic)
LEVEL:  45+
  +3 to Fire/Lightning/Cold Skills (Sorceress only)
  +20% Faster Cast Rate
  Socketed (2)

Good for the single tree sorceress who wants max skill damage and some
faster cast.  The player will need to use Larzuk's socket reward to add one
or two sockets to the circlet.  A cold sorceress should use a Glacial
circlet only if she needs the faster cast because Nightwing's Veil increases
cold damage more.

rare circlet, coronet, tiara, or diadem
LEVEL:  ??
  -- Up to six random affixes. --
  Ideal Prefixes:
    Great Wyrm's .... +61-90 to Mana
    Prismatic ....... All Resistances +16-20
  ! Mechanic's ...... Socketed (1-2)
  ! Arch-Angel's .... +2 to Sorceress Skill Levels
  Ideal Suffixes:
  ! of the Magus .... +20% Faster Cast Rate
    of Balance ...... +10% Faster Hit Recovery
    of Regrowth ..... Replenish Life +6-10
    of the Colossus . +41-60 to Life
    of Defiance ..... Poison Length Reduced by 75%
    of Atlas ........ +21-30 to Strength

The best among the many possibilities is the 2/20/2 circlet.  A rare circlet
with +2 skills, +20% faster cast, 2 sockets, and three other ideal affixes
is the most powerful caster helm a sorceress can use, due to the variety of
offensive and defensive powers such a circlet can offer.  Unfortunately,
rare circlets with six great affixes are very difficult to find.

TIP:  If a normal white diadem is found, use the Imbue reward from Charsi to
transform it into a rare.  If the item properties are not good enough, use
the rare plus six perfect skull recipe to reroll the properties.  Rare
diadems (and only diadems) can get any affix regardless of item level, and
they have a tendency to select good, if not perfect, affixes.

-- ENCHANTRESS --
Andariel's Visage (unique Demonhead)  *LADDER ONLY*
STR:  102
LEVEL:  83
  15% Chance to cast level 15 Poison Nova when struck
  +2 to All Skills
  +20% Increased Attack Speed
  8-10% Life stolen per hit
  +100-150% Enhanced Defense
  +25-30 to Strength
  +10% to Maximum Poison Resist
  Fire Resist -30%
  Poison Resist +70%
  Level 3 Venom (20 Charges)

Skills, IAS, and leech are just what the Enchantress wants.

Delirium (runeword:  Lem Ist Io)
STR:  ??
LEVEL:  51+
  1% Chance to cast Level 50 Delirium Change when struck
  10% Chance to cast Level 14 Mind Blast when struck
  20% Chance to cast Level 13 Terror when struck
  11% Chance to cast Level 18 Confuse on striking
  +2 to All Skills
  +261 Defense
  +10 to Vitality
  50% Extra Gold from Monsters
  25% Better Chance of Getting Magic Items
  Level 17 Attract (60 Charges)

For the blaster sorceress and bow Enchantress, the Delirium Change renders
this helm into a cursed item, for when delirium activates, the wearer of the
helm morphs into an undead stygian doll.  While in doll form, the sorceress
cannot cast spells, and is limited to normal melee attacks -- ouch!  For the
melee Enchantress, the morph is a powerup, because the sorceress can attack
faster while in doll form.  Aside from Delirium, the Confuse on striking and
the Attract charges can turn packs of monsters against each other, which is
great for relieving pressure off the Enchantress.

Dream (runeword:  Io Jah Pul)  *REALM ONLY*
STR:  ??
LEVEL:  65
  10% Chance to cast level 15 Confuse when struck
  Level 15 Holy Shock Aura When Equipped
  +30% Faster Hit Recovery
  +30% Enhanced Defense
  +150-220 Defense
  +10 to Vitality
  Increase Maximum Life 5%
  +0-61 to Mana (Based on Character Level)
  All Resistances +5-20
  15-25% Better Chance of Getting Magic Items

The lightning damage Holy Shock adds to attacks is multiplied by Lightning
Mastery in a manner similar to Enchant and Fire Mastery.  That is, melee
attacks get mastery squared while missile attacks only get mastery bonus
multiplied once.  With level 15 Holy Shock, melee attacks cause over 4,500
average damage with level 20 Lightning Mastery, and over 12K average damage
with level 40 Lightning Mastery.  If the character wears both a Dream helm
and a Dream shield, the auras from both items will stack, adding up to level
30 Holy Shock.  Level 30 Holy Shock that is double multiplied by high level
Lightning Mastery is extremely powerful, with damage in the tens of
thousands.  To compare the damage difference of Holy Shock levels 15 and 30,
multiply level 15 damage by 2.574 to get level 30 damage.

--------------
 8.4.2. Armor
--------------
-- CASTER --
Chains of Honor (runeword:  Dol Um Ber Ist)
STR:  70+
LEVEL:  63
  +2 to All Skills
  +200% Damage to Demons
  +100% Damage to Undead
  8% Life stolen per Hit
  +70% Enhanced Defense
  +20 to Strength
  Life Replenish +7
  All Resistances +65
  Damage Reduced by 8%
  25% Better Chance of Getting Magic Items

Although it lacks faster cast, it has nearly everything else a great armor,
at least for a caster, should have.  With "All Resistances +65", Chains of
Honor boosts resistances more than any other body armor.

Enigma (runeword:  Jah Ith Ber)
STR:  30+
LEVEL:  65
  +2 to All Skills
  +45% Faster Run/Walk
  +1 to Teleport
  +750-775 Defense
  +0-74 to Strength (Based on Character Level)
  Increase Maximum Life 5%
  Damage Reduced by 8%
  +14 Life after each Kill
  15% Damage Taken Goes To Mana
  1-99% Better Chance of Getting Magic Items(Based on Character Level)

The armor every other class wants thanks to the Teleport oskill.  For the
sorceress, this armor is good because of the massive STR boost and +2
skills.  This can be placed in a Breast Plate, which is ideal for twinkers
who abhor investing points into Strength and feel the need to spend them
elsewhere.

Ormus' Robes (unique Dusk Shroud)
STR:  77
LEVEL:  75
  +20% Faster Cast Rate
  +10-15% to Cold Skill Damage
  +10-15% to Fire Skill Damage
  +10-15% to Lightning Skill Damage
  +3 to <one random sorceress clvl 1-24 skill> (Sorceress Only)
  +10-20 Defense
  Regenerate Mana 10-15%

Excellent offensive armor for a cold sorceress.

Skin of the Vipermagi (unique Serpentskin Armor -> Wyrmhide)
STR:  43 -> 84
LEVEL:  29 -> 57
  +1 to All Skills
  +30% Faster Cast Rate
  +120% Enhanced Defense
  All Resistances +20-35
  Magic Damage Reduced by 9-13

A worthy alternative to Chains of Honor and much easier to obtain, some
prefer the faster cast and possible open socket to the extra skill and dr%
from Chains of Honor.  Vipermagi can and should be upgraded to a Wyrmhide.
Doing so will boost the defense from 279 to 728+ (up to 1034).

-- ENCHANTRESS --
Duress (runeword:  Shael Um Thul)
STR:  30+
LEVEL:  47+
  +40% Faster Hit Recovery
  +10-20% Enhanced Damage
  Adds 37-133 cold damage
  15% Chance of Crushing Blow
  33% Chance of Open Wounds
  +150-200% Enhanced Defense
  -20% Slower Stamina Drain
  Cold Resist +45%
  Lightning Resist +15%
  Fire Resist +15%
  Poison Resist +15%

Useful if you wish to stack open wounds and/or crushing blow.  Also features
high defense, faster hit recovery, and resistance.  The increased stamina
drain is not even noticable by the time the sorceress can wear Duress.

Fortitude (runeword:  El Sol Dol Lo)  *REALM ONLY*
STR:  30+
LEVEL:  59+
  20% Chance to cast level 15 Chilling Armor when struck
  25% Faster Cast Rate
  300% Enhanced Damage
  200% Enhanced Defense
  +15 Defense
  +1-(99-148) to Life (Based on Character Level)
  Replenish Life +7
  +5 to Maximum Lightning Resist
  All Resistances +25-30
  Damage Reduced by 7
  12% Damage Taken Goes To Mana
  +1 to Light Radius

Great for the enchantress who wants to multiply the physical damage from
a high damage weapon.  Also features a variety of useful mods, including
faster cast, defense, resistance, and life.  The one thing you need to watch
out for is the Shiver Armor proc, which can override the sorceress's
Frozen/Shiver armor.

Shaftstop (unique Mesh Armor -> Boneweave)
STR:  92 -> 158
LEVEL:  38 -> 54
  +180-220% Enhanced Defense
  +250 Defense vs. Missile
  +60 to Life
  Damage Reduced by 30%

This has the highest damage reduction of any body armor.  Useful for those
who want damage reduction, but cannot equip Stormshield.

---------------
 8.4.3. Weapon
---------------
-- CASTER --
Crescent Moon (runeword:  Shael Um Tir -- axe, sword, polearm)
STR:  32+ (Axe)
LEVEL:  47+
  10% Chance to cast level 17 Chain Lightning on striking
  7% Chance to cast level 13 Static Field on striking
  +20% Increased Attack Speed
  +160-220% Enhanced Damage
  Ignore Target's Defense
  -35% to Enemy Lightning Resistance
  25% Chance of Open Wounds
  +7-11 Magic Absorb
  +2 to Mana after each Kill
  Level 18 Summon Spirit Wolf (30 Charges)

For the PvM lightning sorceress without Griffon's Eye, this weapon is
MUST-HAVE despite the lack of other useful caster mods.  The lightning
pierce gives lightning skills a fighting chance against monsters highly
resistant to lightning, especially Uber Diablo or lightning immune monsters
whose immunity was removed by Conviction or Lower Resist.  In addition, the
Spirit Wolves are handy to cut off and delay approaching monsters for a few
seconds.

Death's Fathom (unique Dimensional Shard)  *LADDER ONLY*
LEVEL:  73
  +3 to Sorceress Skill Levels
  +20% Faster Cast Rate
  +15-30% to Cold Skill Damage
  Lightning Resist +25-40%
  Fire Resist +25-40%

This increases cold damage from sorceress skills more than any other weapon.
Enough said.

Eschuta's Temper (unique Eldritch Orb)
LEVEL:  72
  +1-3 to Sorceress Skill Levels
  +40% Faster Cast Rate
  +10-20% to Fire Skill Damage
  +10-20% to Lightning Skill Damage
  +30-40 to Energy

A +3 skills Eschuta's will boost fire and lightning damage more than any
other one-handed caster weapon.  However, anything less than +3 skills makes
this a glorified rare that is weaker than other uniques.

Heart of the Oak (runeword:  Ko Vex Pul Thul -- mace, staff)
DEX:  35+
STR:  41+
LEVEL:  55
  +3 to All Skills
  +40% Faster Cast Rate
  +75% Damage to Demons
  +100 to Attack Rating against Demons
  Adds 3-43 cold damage
  7% Mana stolen per hit
  +10 to Dexterity
  Life Replenish +20
  Increase Maximum Mana 15%
  All Resistances +30-40
  Level 4 Oak Sage (25 Charges)
  Level 14 Raven (60 Charges)

This combines some of the best features from The Oculus (skills) and
Wizardspike (faster cast, mana, resistances) and then some, making Heart of
the Oak the ultimate all-around caster weapon.  Assemble the runeword in a
flail so the sorceress can still hold a shield.

Infinity (runeword:  Ber Mal Ber Ist -- polearm)  *REALM ONLY*
* Two-handed only *
DEX:  ??
STR:  ??
LEVEL:  63
  50% Chance to cast level 20 Chain Lightning when you Kill an Enemy
  Level 12 Conviction Aura When Equipped
  +35% Faster Run/Walk
  +255-325% Enhanced Damage
  -45-55% to Enemy Lightning Resistance
  40% Chance of Crushing Blow
  Prevent Monster Heal
  0-49 to Vitality (Based on Character Level)
  30% Better Chance of Getting Magic Items
  Level 21 Cyclone Armor (30 Charges)

Useful for Conviction, which at level 12 subtracts fire, cold, and lightning
resistances by 85% (or 17% from immune monsters).  This would be the best
PvM weapon for a fire or lightning sorceress, except an Act 2 merc can equip
it instead so the sorceress doesn't need to.
----------------------------
Level 12 Conviction:
  Radius:  13.3 yards
  Enemy Defense:  -83%
  Enemy Resistances:  -85%
----------------------------
In addition to Conviction, Infinity features Cyclone Armor charges which,
at level 21, absorbs 280 elemental damage.  Elemental damage in this case
is fire, lightning, or cold.

Wizardspike (unique Bone Knife)
DEX:  75
STR:  38
LEVEL:  61
  Indestructible
  +50% Faster Cast Rate
  Increase Maximum Mana 15%
  +2-198 to Mana (Based On Character Level)
  Regenerate Mana 15%
  All Resistances +75

Although it lacks skills, Wizardspike is popular for the combination of high
faster cast, high mana, and high resistances.  It is a powerful defensive
weapon, and somewhat common for an elite item.  Yes, 75 DEX is steep for
non-block builds, but for the sorceress who does not have anything better,
the dexterity investment is worth it.  In a game where the Spirit runeword
is unavailable, sorceresses who want 200% faster cast must use Spectral
Shard, Suicide Branch, or Wizardspike.

-- ENCHANTRESS:  Melee --
This assumes the sorceress is fighting while in normal, human form.
In other words, no Werebear from Beast.

Doom (runeword:  Hel Ohm Um Lo Cham -- axe, hammer, polearm)
DEX:  ??
STR:  ??
LEVEL:  67
  5% Chance to cast level 18 Volcano on striking
  Level 12 Holy Freeze Aura When Equipped
  +2 to All Skills
  +45% Increased Attack Speed
  +330-370% Enhanced Damage
  -40-60% to Enemy Cold Resistance
  20% Deadly Strike
  25% Chance of Open Wounds
  Prevent Monster Heal
  Freezes target +3
  Requirements -20%

This powerful melee weapon features Holy Freeze, which slows enemies to a
crawl.  Assemble this in a Berserker Axe for damage and range from a
one-handed weapon.
--------------------------------------
Level 12 Holy Freeze:
  Radius:  11.3 yards
  Cold Damage:  85-90 to your Attack
  Cold Damage:  17-18 (aura pulse)
  Enemies slowed 50 percent
--------------------------------------

Eternity (runeword:  Amn Ber Ist Sol Sur -- melee)
DEX:  ??
STR:  ??
LEVEL:  63+
  Indestructible
  +260-310% Enhanced Damage
  +9 to Minimum Damage
  7% Life stolen per hit
  20% Chance of Crushing Blow
  Hit Blinds Target
  Slows Target by 33%
  Replenish Life +16
  Regenerate Mana 16%
  Cannot Be Frozen
  30% Better Chance of Getting Magic Items
  Level 8 Revive (88 Charges)

This may not be the quickest or most damaging weapon, but it is perhaps one
of the safest.  The Revive charges lets the sorceress raise some beefy
monsters to act as meat shields.  Often, the sorceress can attack enemies
without getting attacked back because the enemies are busy pounding on the
revives.  Thanks to the extra safety revives can provide, Eternity is the
best bet for an Enchantress who is dead set on wielding a big, nasty-looking
two-handed melee weapon.

Since Eternity has no IAS, fast weapons should be used as a base.  For
one-handed weapons, nothing beats the speedy Phase Blade.  For two-handed
weapons, you want not only speed, but also range.  For the sorceress, that
means polearms, and the best choices out of those are Great Poleaxe or
Giant Thresher.  Great Poleaxe has more damage and less requirements.
Giant Thresher is faster and has the fashionable scythe appearance.  In any
case, use only a normal, non-ethereal weapon to build Eternity.  Although
Eternity is indestructible, recharging is possible only on non-ethereal
items, and the Revive charges are the only reason to use this weapon
instead of something faster and more damaging like Grief.  Recharging
Eternity can get expensive, but it is cheaper than recharging Harmony.

The one complication Eternity has is if you remove it, all revives the
sorceress has perish instantly.  This makes refreshing buffs, especially
those from CtA, painful.  What tends to happen is that pre-buffing is done,
monsters are revived, then when the revives are ready to perish, switch
equipment to restore buffs before the next batch of monsters are revived.

Grief (runeword:  Eth Tir Lo Mal Ral -- axe, sword)  *REALM ONLY*
DEX:  136 /  55 (Phase Blade/Berserker Axe)
STR:   25 / 138 (ditto)
LEVEL:  59 / 64
  35% Chance to cast level 15 Venom on striking
  +30-40% Increased Attack Speed
  Damage +300-400
  Ignore Target's Defense
  -25% Target Defense
  +1-185% Damage to Demons (Based on Character Level)
  Adds 5-30 fire damage
  -20-25% to Enemy Poison Resistance
  20% Deadly Strike
  Prevent Monster Heal
  +2 to Mana after each Kill
  +11 Life after each Kill

Do not let the damage display from the Lying Character Screen fool you, the
Grief runeword is (usually) the most damaging one-handed weapon available.
The damage from this can rival even the best two-handed weapons.  Assemble
in a phase blade for the fastest swing speed, or in a berserker axe for
slightly greater reach.

Kingslayer (runeword:  Mal Um Gul Fal -- axe, sword)
DEX:  ??
STR:  ??
LEVEL:  53+
  +30% Increased Attack Speed
  +230-270% Enhanced Damage
  -25% Target Defense
  20% Bonus to Attack Rating
  33% Chance of Crushing Blow
  50% Chance of Open Wounds
  +1 to Vengeance
  Prevent Monster Heal
  +10 to Strength
  40% Extra Gold from Monsters

The best all-around offensive weapon for the melee Enchantress to use if
Grief is not available.  What makes this weapon so good is the Vengeance
oskill.  Vengeance not only provides attack rating, but also elemental
damage which can be multiplied by the sorceress's elemental masteries.
Thanks to Vengeance, this weapon, in the sorceress's hands, can inflict
more damage than even the almighty Breath of the Dying runeword.  The other
special effect mods such as open wounds, crushing blow, and prevent monster
heal are just icing on the cake.  Recommended weapon choices to assemble
this runeword include the following:  Phase Blade, Cryptic Sword, or
Berserker Axe.

Passion (runeword:  Dol Ort Eld Lem)
DEX:  ??
STR:  ??
LEVEL:  49+
  +25% Increased Attack Speed
  +160-210% Enhanced Damage
  50-80% Bonus to Attack Rating
  +75% Damage to Undead
  +50 to Attack Rating against Undead
  Adds 1-50 lightning damage
  +1 to Berserk
  +1 to Zeal
  Hit Blinds Target +10
  Hit Causes Monster to Flee 25%
  75% Extra Gold from Monsters
  Level 3 Heart of Wolverine (12 Charges)

This affordable weapon is used by the melee sorceress for the Zeal oskill.
In a Phase Blade, only 40% more IAS (not including the +25% from Passion)
is needed to reach the max sorceress Zeal speed of 7 fps.

-- ENCHANTRESS:  Ranged --
Demon Machine (unique Chu-Ko-Nu -> Demon Crossbow)
* Two-handed only *
DEX:  95 ->  98
STR:  80 -> 141
LEVEL:  49 -> 70
  Fires Explosive Arrows or Bolts (level 6)
  Piercing Attack (66%)
  123% Enhanced Damage
  +66 to Maximum Damage
  +632 to Attack Rating
  +321 Defense
  +36 to Mana

Demon Machine has everything a bow enchantress needs -- exploding and
piercing shots, speed, and huge attack rating bonus.  The sorceress only
needs 8% more IAS to reach the final breakpoint with crossbow of 11 fps.

Harmony (runeword:  Tir Ith Sol Ko -- missile)  *REALM ONLY*
* Two-handed only *
DEX:  ??
STR:  ??
LEVEL:  39+
  Level 10 Vigor Aura When Equipped
  +200-275% Enhanced Damage
  +9 to Minimum Damage
  +9 to Maximum Damage
  Adds 55-160 fire damage
  Adds 55-160 lightning damage
  Adds 55-160 cold damage
  +2-6 to Valkyrie
  +10 to Dexterity
  Regenerate Mana 20%
  +2 to Mana after each kill
  +2 to Light Radius
  Level 20 Revive (25 charges)

Harmony may not have the exploding arrows and pierce of Kuko Shakaku and
Demon Machine, but it provides the sorceress the means to create an army
to enchant, tank, and kill.  This is a very good choice for safety-minded
players that Hardcore players tend to be.  The only major weakness with
Harmony is recharging Revive is expensive, 13742.12 gold per charge
(with decimals raised to the next integer).  Better have Edge and maybe
Gheed's Fortune to lower the cost of repairs, or have a ready supply of
Ort runes and chipped gems for the repair-and-recharge cube recipe.
Without any IAS, Harmony should be assembled in a fast bow.

Widowmaker (unique Ward Bow)  *LADDER ONLY*
* Two-handed only *
DEX:  146
STR:  72
LEVEL:  65
  Fires Magic Arrows (level 11)
  +150-200% Enhanced Damage
  Ignore Target's Defense
  33% Deadly Strike
  +3-5 to Guided Arrow

Used for Guided Arrow, which always hits (but can be blocked).

-- ENCHANTRESS:  Werebear --
The sorceress werebear needs speed above all else in a weapon.  As such,
the desired weapons are radically different from the standard fare of other
melee classes.

5 Shael, 1 Eth Phase Blade
DEX:  136
STR:  25
LEVEL:  59
  +100% Increased Attack Speed
  -25% Target Defense

This is the easiest speed weapon to obtain, and it is reasonably effective.
A phase blade with at least +93% WIAS provides a 5 fps attack to a sorceress
werebear.  The Eth rune in the sixth socket is a cheap but easy way to make
enemies easier to hit.  Better but more expensive substitutions for the
sockets are possible, as long as the total WIAS is at least 93%.

6 Shael War Scythe/Grim Scythe/Giant Thresher
DEX:  70 / 140 / 140
STR:  70 / 140 / 188
LEVEL:  29 / 29 / 66
  +120% Increased Attack Speed

This weapon has range 5 and provides a 4 fps attack.  With +117% WIAS
required for 4 fps attack, all six sockets must be filled with Shael runes,
with no substitutions possible.  Of course, dual Dream is not possible with
a two handed weapon, but the extra range, faster swing speed, and the lack
of blocking makes up for that.

Griswold's Redemption (set Caduceus)
DEX:  56
STR:  78
LEVEL:  66
  +40% Increased Attack Speed
  +200-240% Enhanced Damage
  +250% Damage to Undead
  Requirements -20%
  Socketed (3-4)
  (2 items) +2 to Combat Skills (Paladin only)
  (3 items) Adds 10-20 damage
  (4 items) Adds 10-20 damage

This is the most damaging one-handed speed weapon for a wereform.  With a
-10 speed weapon, the sorceress needs a total of +113 WIAS to get a 5 fps
attack.  With +40% from the weapon, the sorceress needs +73% more, which is
possible only if the weapon has four sockets.  Three Shael runes are
mandatory.  The fourth socket can be filled with another Shael, or better
yet, a jewel of Fervor with a good prefix.

Jeweler's Scourge of Quickness (magic)
DEX:  77
STR:  125
LEVEL:  57
  +40% Increased Attack Speed
  Socketed (4)

This may not have the damage or reduced requirements of Griswold's
Redemption, but it has more range (3 instead of 2) than other one-handed
weapons.  The required socketing options are the same as Griswold's caddy.

Tomb Reaver (unique Cryptic Axe)
DEX:  103
STR:  165
LEVEL:  84
  +60% Increased Attack Speed
  +200-280% Enhanced Damage
  +150-230% Damage to Undead
  +250-350 to Attack Rating against Undead
  All Resistances +30-50
  10% Reanimate as: Returned
  +10-14 Life after each Kill
  50-80% Better Chance of Getting Magic Items
  +4 to Light Radius
  Socketed (1-3)

This weapon can reach an attack speed of 6 fps, which is good considering
the damage and resistances the sorceress gets from this weapon.  To get that
speed, you will need a total of 111% WIAS, which is possible only with three
sockets, filled with Shael runes.

-- SWITCH:  Prebuffing --
The following weapons are used not for killing things, but for
powering up the sorceress with buffs.

Call to Arms (runeword:  Amn Ral Mal Ist Ohm)
DEX:  ??
STR:  ??
LEVEL:  57+
  +1 to All Skills
  +40% Increased Attack Speed
  +250-290% Enhanced Damage
  Adds 5-30 fire damage
  7% Life stolen per Hit
  +2-6 to Battle Command
  +1-6 to Battle Orders
  +1-4 to Battle Cry
  Prevent Monster Heal
  Life Replenish +12
  30% Better Chance of Getting Magic Items

If you have plenty of 'All Skills' boosters, you can greatly boost the
sorceress's life and mana with the Battle Orders oskill granted by this
runeword.  If you need Lower Resist charges on the switch, CtA should be the
primary weapon.  If you do not need Lower Resist, CtA should be the switch
weapon.  The extra life and mana are too good to pass up.

Memory (runeword:  Lum Io Sol Eth -- staff)
* Two-handed only *
DEX:  ??
STR:  ??
LEVEL:  37+
  +3 to Sorceress Skill Levels
  +33% Faster Cast Rate
  Increase Maximum Mana 20%
  +3 to Energy Shield (Sorceress Only)
  +2 to Static Field (Sorceress Only)
  +10 to Energy
  +10 to Vitality
  +9 to Minimum Damage
  -25% Target Defense
  Magic Damage Reduced by 7
  +50% Enhanced Defense

This item can get up to +9 to Energy Shield (+6 from runeword, +3 inherit),
the highest boost possible, making it the best for prebuffing that skill.
Memory also adds to Static Field, which is useful for the PvP sorceress who
did not learn it and needs it only when leveling up in experience or quest
games.

-- SWITCH:  Miscellaneous --
The following weapons are used not for killing things, but for the various
utility functions.

Beast (runeword:  Ber Tir Um Mal Lum -- axe, scepter, hammer)
DEX:  ??
STR:  ??
LEVEL:  63+
  Level 9 Fanaticism Aura when equipped
  +40% Increased Attack Speed
  +240-270% Enhanced Damage
  20% Chance of Crushing Blow
  25% Chance of Open Wounds
  +3 to Werebear
  +3 to Lycanthropy
  Prevent Monster Heal
  +25-40 to Strength
  +10 to Energy
  +2 to Mana after each Kill
  Level 13 Summon Grizzly (5 Charges)

Despite the impressive stats on this weapon, the only one that matters to
the sorceress is the Werebear oskill.  Once in bear form, the sorceress
should switch out Beast for a weapon with extremely high IAS.  With a fast
enough weapon, the sorceress in werebear form can attack at a much faster
rate than in human form.

Edge (runeword:  Tir Tal Amn -- missile)  *REALM ONLY*
* Two-handed only *
DEX:  ??
STR:  ??
LEVEL:  25+
  Level 15 Thorns Aura When Equipped
  +35% Increased Attack Speed
  +320-380% Damage to Demons
  +280% Damage to Undead
  +75 poison damage over 5 seconds
  7% Life stolen per hit
  Prevent Monster Heal
  +5-10 to all Attributes
  +2 to Mana after each Kill
  Reduces all Vendor Prices 15%

This is your shopping discount card in town.  Very useful when gambling or
repairing items.  Equip it when you shop, then put it away in the stash
before you leave town.

Ondal's Wisdom (unique Elder Staff)
* Two-handed only *
DEX:  37
STR:  44
LEVEL:  66
  +2-4 to All Skills
  +45% Faster Cast Rate
  +450-550 Defense
  +40-50 to Energy
  Magic Damage Reduced by 5-8
  +5% to Experience Gained

While not the strongest weapon out there, this is the only item aside from
the Annihilus that increases the experience points your sorceress gains.
This is useful mostly in Hell Worldstone/Baal runs with a high player count,
where the sorceress can hide behind other players and cast spells safely
from a distance.  If you play solo, do not bother with this item.

<knife or wand> of Life Tap (magic or rare)
DEX:  ??
STR:  ??
LEVEL:  24+
  Level 1-6 Life Tap (67-105 charges)

This gives your merc 50% leech against any target cursed with Life Tap,
including those that are normally unleechable, such as skeletons.  This
is great for helping your merc live through really tough battles.

<knife or wand> of Lower Resist (magic or rare)
DEX:  ??
STR:  ??
LEVEL:  36+
  Level 1-3 Lower Resist (67-82 charges)

You may want this to remove immunity from many monsters and/or increase the
damage to non-immune monsters.  Although level 3 charges are ideal, they are
hard to obtain (only Hell Baal can drop, or level 94+ characters can buy
one).  Level 2 charges are much easier to find and will get the job done
nearly as well.  For more details, see below under 'Immunity Breaking'.
-----------------------------------------------
 slvl  Charges  Cost  Radius  Duration  Resist
-----------------------------------------------
   1      67    2640    4.6      20      -31%
   2      75    2478    5.3      22      -37%
   3      82    2375    6.0      24      -41%
-----------------------------------------------

---------------
 8.4.4. Shield
---------------
-- CASTER --
Lidless Wall (unique Grim Shield)
STR:  58
LEVEL:  41
Chance to Block:  40%
  +1 to All Skills
  +20% Faster Cast Rate
  +80-130% Enhanced Defense
  +10 to Energy
  Increase Maximum Mana 10%
  +3-5 to Mana after each Kill
  +1 to Light Radius

This is the best caster shield to use if Spirit is unavailable.  Has poor
blocking and no resists though.  You will definitely want to add a socket
to this and fill it with an Um rune or perfect diamond to add much needed
resistance.  Unlike some other  shields, there is almost no benefit for
upgrading this shield to a Troll Nest.  Upgrading will greatly increase the
requirements needed, while only increasing defense by a few points, and
blocking remains the same.

Spirit (runeword:  Tal Thul Ort Amn)  *REALM ONLY*
STR:  156
LEVEL:  54
Chance to Block:  42%
  +2 to All Skills
  +25-35% Faster Cast Rate
  +55% Faster Hit Recovery
  +250 Defense vs. Missile
  +22 Vitality
  +89-112 to Mana
  Cold Resist +35%
  Lightning Resist +35%
  Poison Resist +35%
  +3-8 Magic Absorb
  Attacker Takes Damage of 14

The ultimate caster shield, which boosts skills and faster cast more than
any other shield.  As if that was not enough, Spirit boosts life, mana,
resistances, and faster hit recovery.  Its only weakness is the STR required
to equip a Monarch, the lightest shield with four sockets available.
However, that weakness is offset by the substantial VIT and mana bonuses.

Tip:  If you use want to use Spirit only for prebuffing purposes, namely
Enchant or CtA warcries, look for an ethereal monarch and use it as a base
for Spirit.  An ethereal monarch requires only 146 STR.

-- DEFENSE --
Sanctuary (runeword:  Ko Ko Mal)
STR:  47+
LEVEL:  51+
Chance to Block:  48-64%
  +20% Faster Hit Recovery
  +20% Faster Block Rate
  20% Increased Chance of Blocking
  +130-160% Enhanced Defense
  +250 Defense vs. Missile
  +20 to Dexterity
  All Resistances +50-70
  Magic Damage Reduced by 7
  Level 12 Slow Missile (60 charges)

This has a variety of powerful defensive mods:  high block rate, high
resistances, faster hit recovery, and Slow Missile charges.  With Slow
Missiles, dangerous ranged attackers such as archers, succubi, and even
the Ancient Madawc become much less dangerous to fight against once their
missiles are slowed down.

Stormshield (unique Monarch)
STR:  156
LEVEL:  73
Chance to Block:  67%
  Indestructible
  +35% Faster Block Rate
  25% Increased Chance of Blocking
  +3-371 Defense (Based on Character Level)
  +30 to Strength
  Cold Resist +60%
  Lightning Resist +25%
  Damage Reduced by 35%
  Attacker Takes Lightning Damage of 10

Due to its high strength requirement and its lack of some elemental
resistances, this shield is not for everyone.  However, it boasts the
highest dr% of any item in the game.  If you can get enough resistance
and faster hit recovery from other equipment, this shield is great as it
provides the best protection against physical damage.

Viscerataunt (unique Defender -> Heater)
STR:  38 -> 77
LEVEL:  28 -> 50
Chance to Block:  60% -> 72%
  +1 to Sorceress Skill Levels
  +30% Faster Block Rate
  30% Increased Chance of Blocking
  +100-150% Enhanced Defense
  Attacker Takes Lightning Damage of 10

Nothing remarkable as a Defender, but as a Heater, this shield has excellent
blocking in addition to the +1 sorc skills.  Great for Energy Shield
sorceresses who need block more and resistances less.

Whinstan's Guard (set Round Shield)
STR:  53
LEVEL:  29
Chance to Block:  87% (Displayed as 75% in the game.)
  +40% Faster Block Rate
  55% Increased Chance of Blocking
  +175% Enhanced Defense
  Half Freeze Duration
  +5 to Light Radius

This shield has the highest blocking percentage in the game.  This means the
sorceress needs less dexterity to reach maximum block rate with this shield
than with any other.  Aside from blocking, this shield has nothing else to
offer.  However, it is still good for an Energy Shield sorceress, who does
not benefit very much from resistances.

-- ENCHANTRESS --
Dream (runeword:  Io Jah Pul)  *REALM ONLY*
STR:  47+
LEVEL:  65
Chance to Block:  28-44%
  10% Chance to cast level 15 Confuse when struck
  Level 15 Holy Shock Aura When Equipped
  +30% Faster Hit Recovery
  +30% Enhanced Defense
  +150-220 Defense
  +10 to Vitality
  +50 to Life
  +0-61 to Mana (Based on Character Level)
  All Resistances +5-20
  15-25% Better Chance of Getting Magic Items

The lightning damage Holy Shock adds to attacks is multiplied by Lightning
Mastery in a manner similar to Enchant and Fire Mastery.  That is, melee
attacks get mastery squared while missile attacks only get mastery bonus
multiplied once.  With level 15 Holy Shock, melee attacks cause over 4,500
average damage with level 20 Lightning Mastery, and over 12K average damage
with level 40 Lightning Mastery.  If the character wears both a Dream helm
and a Dream shield, the auras from both items will stack, adding up to level
30 Holy Shock.  Level 30 Holy Shock that is double multiplied by high level
Lightning Mastery is extremely powerful, with damage in the tens of
thousands.  To compare the damage difference of Holy Shock levels 15 and 30,
multiply level 15 damage by 2.574 to get level 30 damage.

---------------
 8.4.5. Gloves
---------------
-- CASTER --
Frostburn (unique Gauntlets)
STR:  60
LEVEL:  29
  +5% Enhanced Damage
  Adds 1-6 cold damage
  +10-20% Enhanced Defense
  +30 Defense
  Increase Maximum Mana 40%

The best gloves for an Energy Shield sorceress.  +40% adds a HUGE chunk of
mana, which is too good to pass up.  Remember, mana is life for an energy
shield sorceress.

Magefist (unique Light Gauntlets -> Battle Gauntlets)
STR:  45 -> 88
LEVEL:  24 -> 30
  +1 to Fire Skills
  +20% Faster Cast Rate
  Adds 1-6 fire damage
  +20-30% Enhanced Defense
  +10 Defense
  Regenerate Mana 25%

Best gloves for the non-ES, fire sorceress hands down, though the faster
cast and mana regeneration bonus is nice too for other builds.

Trang-Oul's Claws (set Heavy Bracers)
STR:  58
LEVEL:  45
  +2 to Curses (Necromancer Only)
  +20% Faster Cast Rate
  +25% to Poison Skill Damage
  +30 Defense
  Cold Resist +30%
  (4 items) +25% to Poison Skill Damage

The only other gloves besides Magefist that quickens cast rate.  For
non-fire builds, this offers higher defense and cold resistance instead of
faster mana regeneration from Magefist.

-- DEFENSE --
Bloodfist (unique Heavy Gloves -> Sharkskin Gloves)
STR:  None -> 20
LEVEL:  9 -> 30
  +10% Increased Attack Speed
  +30% Faster Hit Recovery
  +5 to Minimum Damage
  +10-20% Enhanced Defense
  +10 Defense
  +40 to Life

For non-fire or non-ES builds, if your sorceress does not need faster cast
from gloves, these gloves are the best thanks to life and huge faster hit
recovery boost.  You can upgrade these all the way to Vampirebone Gloves,
but that is a waste of runes just for a small defense boost.

Death's Hand (set Leather Gloves)
STR:  None
LEVEL:  6
  Poison Resist +50%
  Poison Length Reduced by 75%
  (2 items) +30% Increased Attack Speed

Useful if you need to reduce poison duration during a duel.

-- ENCHANTRESS --
Dracul's Grasp (unique Vampirebone Gloves)
STR:  50
LEVEL:  76
  5% Chance to cast level 10 Life Tap on striking
  7-10% Life stolen per hit
  25% Chance of Open Wounds
  +90-120% Enhanced Defense
  +10-15 to Strength
  +5-10 Life after each Kill

Used for leech and open wounds.  Nice when more IAS will do the sorceress
no good.

Laying of Hands (set Bramble Mitts)
STR:  50
LEVEL:  63
  10% Chance to cast level 3 Holy Bolt on striking
  +20% Increased Attack Speed
  +350% Damage to Demons
  +25 Defense
  Fire Resist +50%

Nice gloves to use when the sorceress has a high damage weapon and are
fighting demons.  Also features high fire resistance.

Magnus' Skin (set Sharkskin Gloves)
STR:  20
LEVEL:  37
  +20% Increased Attack Speed
  +100 to Attack Rating
  +50% Enhanced Defense
  Fire Resist +15%
  +3 to Light Radius

If your sorceress needs IAS, these are very good gloves for the job, with
attack rating and some fire resistance.

crafted blood gloves
STR:  None / 20 / 50
LEVEL:  ??
  -- Preset Properties --
  CUBE (Blood):  magic heavy gloves + jewel + Nef rune + perfect ruby
    1-3% Life stolen per hit
    5-10% Chance of Crushing Blow
    +10-20 to Life
  -- Up to four random affixes. --
  Ideal Prefixes:
    Dragon's ..... +31-40 to Mana
    Cobalt ....... Cold Resist +21-30%
    Garnet ....... Fire Resist +21-30%
    Coral ........ Lightning Resist +21-30%
    Jade ......... Poison Resist +21-30%
  Ideal Suffixes:
    of Alacrity .. +20% Increased Attack Speed
    of Precision . +10-15 to Dexterity
    of Remedy .... Poison Length Reduced by 25%
    of the Giant . +10-15 to Strength

These can blow the other set and unique gloves out of the water if you
happen to roll IAS and other choice mods.

-------------
 8.4.6. Belt
-------------
-- CASTER --
Arachnid Mesh (unique Spiderweb Sash)
STR:  50
LEVEL:  80
  +1 to All Skills
  +20% Faster Cast Rate
  Slows Target by 10%
  +90-120% Enhanced Defense
  Increase Maximum Mana 5%
  Level 3 Venom (11 Charges)

The ultimate caster belt, nothing else even comes close.

Snowclash (unique Battle Belt)
STR:  88
LEVEL:  42
  5% Chance to cast Level 10-20 Blizzard when struck
  Adds 13-21 cold damage
  +2 to Chilling Armor (Sorceress Only)
  +2 to Blizzard (Sorceress Only)
  +3 to Glacial Spike (Sorceress Only)
  +130-170% Enhanced Defense
  +15% to Maximum Cold Resist
  +15 Cold Absorb

Powerful caster belt for a Blizzard/Glacial Spike sorceress.  Not much use
to other builds.

-- DEFENSE --
Thundergods Vigor (unique War Belt)
STR:  110
LEVEL:  47
  5% Chance to cast Level 7 Fist of the Heavens when struck
  Adds 1-50 lightning damage
  +3 to Lightning Fury (Amazon Only)
  +3 to Lightning Strike (Amazon Only)
  +160-200% Enhanced Defense
  +20 to Strength
  +20 to Vitality
  +10% to Maximum Lightning Resist
  +20 Lightning Absorb

Useful mainly for the lightning maximum resist and absorb, which is a real
life-saver when combating souls or bad mannered trap assassin PKs.  The
stat bonuses are just icing on the cake.

Verdungo's Hearty Cord (unique Mithril Cord)
STR:  106
LEVEL:  63
  +10% Faster Hit Recovery
  +90-140% Enhanced Defense
  +30-40 to Vitality
  Replenish Life +10-13
  +100-120 Maximum Stamina
  Damage Reduced by 10-15%

Offers several powerful defensive mods.  Handy if you need them more than
Arachnid's offensive power.

-- ENCHANTRESS --
Razortail (unique Sharkskin Belt)
STR:
LEVEL:  32
  Piercing Attack (33%)
  +10 to Maximum Damage
  +120-150% Enhanced Defense
  +15 Defense
  +15 to Dexterity
  Attacker Takes Damage of 1-99 (Based on Character Level)

This is the best belt for the bow Enchantress if she is armed with a Kuko
Shakaku or Demon Machine.  The pierce from Razortail stacks with the pierce
from missile weapons.  For Kuko Shakaku and Demon Machine, the combined
pierce is 83% and 99% respectively, which turns those weapons into killing
machines.

--------------
 8.4.7. Boots
--------------
None of the boots have significant caster properties such as skills or
faster cast, so they should be used to provide resistances or stats.

Aldur's Advance (set Battle Boots)
STR:  95
LEVEL:  45
  Indestructible
  +40% Faster Run/Walk
  +50 to Life
  +180 Maximum Stamina
  Heal Stamina Plus 32%
  Fire Resist +40-50%
  10% Damage Taken Goes To Mana
  (2 items) +15 to Dexterity
  (3 items) +15 to Dexterity

Good alternate to Waterwalk if fire resistance is less than max.

Hotspur (unique Boots -> Demonhide Boots)
STR:  None -> 20
LEVEL:  5 -> 29
  Adds 3-6 fire damage
  +10-20% Enhanced Defense
  +6 Defense
  +15 to Life
  +15% to Maximum Fire Resist
  Fire Resist +45%

The increase in maximum fire resist makes it useful against fire-using
opponents, especially in duels.  Since the sorceress can teleport, lack of
faster run/walk is not a problem.

Sandstorm Trek (unique Scarabshell Boots)
STR:  91
LEVEL:  64
  +20% Faster Run/Walk
  +20% Faster Hit Recovery
  +140-170% Enhanced Defense
  +10-15 to Strength
  +10-15 to Vitality
  +1-99 Maximum Stamina (Based on Character Level)
  50% Slower Stamina Drain
  Poison Resist +40-70%
  Repairs 1 durability in 20 seconds

One of the best options in the game thanks to the massive poison resistance,
faster hit recovery, and stats.  It is the faster hit recovery that gives
Sandstorm Trek the edge over Waterwalk.  Keep in mind that it takes four
small charms of Balance to get +20 FHR, while four charms of Vita give up
to +80 life.  From a numbers standpoint, Sandstorm Trek beats Waterwalk.

Waterwalk (unique Sharkskin Boots)
STR:  20
LEVEL:  32
  +20% Faster Run/Walk
  +180-210% Enhanced Defense
  +100 Defense vs. Missile
  +15 to Dexterity
  +45-65 to Life
  +40 Maximum Stamina
  Heal Stamina Plus 50%
  +5% to Maximum Fire Resist

Provides the most life of any boots and the extra DEX is nice.

rare or crafted boots
STR:  ??
LEVEL:  ??
  -- Preset Properties --
  CUBE (Blood):  magic light plated boots + jewel + Eth rune + perfect ruby
    1-3% Life stolen per hit
    +10-20 to Life
    Replenish Life +5-10
  CUBE (Caster):  magic boots + jewel + Thul rune + perfect amethyst
    +10-20 to Mana
    Increase Maximum Mana 2-5%
    Regenerate Mana 4-10%
  CUBE (Safety):  magic greaves + jewel + Ort rune + perfect emerald
    +10-30% Enchaned Defense
    Fire Resist +5-10%
    Damage Reduced by 1-4
    Magic Damage Reduced by 1-2
  -- Up to four (crafted) or six (rare) random affixes. --
  Ideal Prefixes:
    Dragon's .... +31-40 to Mana
    Sapphire .... Cold Resist +31-40%
    Ruby ........ Fire Resist +31-40%
    Amber ....... Lightning Resist +31-40%
    Emerald ..... Poison Resist +31-40%
    Godly ....... +101-200% Enhanced Defense
  Ideal Suffixes:
    of Accuracy . +6-9 to Dexterity
    of Balance .. +10% Faster Hit Recovery
    of Remedy ... Poison Length Reduced by 25%
    of Speed .... +30% Faster Run/Walk

Rare and crafted boots can get three resistances up to 40% each, which is
more combined resistance than any set or unique boots can offer.

-- ENCHANTRESS --
Gore Rider (unique War Boots)
STR:  94
LEVEL:  47
  +30% Faster Run/Walk
  15% Chance of Crushing Blow
  15% Deadly Strike
  10% Chance of Open Wounds
  +160-200% Enhanced Defense
  +20 Maximum Stamina
  Requirements -25%

The crushing blow and open wounds are good for weakening bosses.

---------------
 8.4.8. Amulet
---------------
Mara's Kaleidoscope (unique)
LEVEL:  67
  +2 to All Skills
  +5 to all Attributes
  All Resistances +20-30

Good if you need to patch up resistances or if you rely on oskills such as
warcries from Call to Arms, Valkyrie from Harmony, etc.

Tal Rasha's Adjudication (set)
LEVEL:  67
  +2 to Sorceress Skill Levels
  Adds 3-32 lightning damage
  +50 to Life
  +42 to Mana
  Lightning Resist +33%
  (4 items) +10% Faster Cast Rate

Probably the best all-around sorceress amulet.  It has skills, large life
and mana boost, and lightning resistance that will help protect against
burning souls in Worldstone Keep.

Volcanic/Powered/Glacial Amulet (magic)
LEVEL:  45
  +3 to Fire/Lightning/Cold Skills (Sorceress only)
  -- Ideal Suffixes (only one) --
    of Life Everlasting . Damage Reduced by 10-25
    of the Apprentice ... +10% Faster Cast Rate
    of the Whale ........ +81-100 to Life
    of Atlas ............ +21-30 to Strength

Good choice for the one-tree sorceress going all out on skill boosts.

rare or crafted caster amulet
LEVEL:  ??
  -- Preset Properties --
  CUBE:  magic amulet + jewel + Ral rune + perfect amethyst
    +5-10% Faster Cast Rate
    +10-20 to Mana
    Regenerate Mana 4-10%
  -- Up to four (crafted) or six (rare) random affixes. --
  Ideal prefixes:
    Great Wyrm's ...... +61-90 to Mana
  ! Prismatic ......... All Resistances +16-20
    Sapphire .......... Cold Resist +31-40%
    Ruby .............. Fire Resist +31-40%
    Amber ............. Lightning Resist +31-40%
    Emerald ........... Poison Resist +31-40%
  ! Arch-Angel's ...... +2 to Sorceress Skill Levels
  Ideal suffixes:
  ! of the Apprentice . +10% Faster Cast Rate
    of Regrowth ....... Replenish Life +6-10
    of the Colossus ... +41-60 to Life
    of Defiance ....... Poison Length Reduced by 75%
    of Atlas .......... +21-30 to Strength

The best rare or crafted amulets can exceed Tal's or Mara's, but those with
such perfect stats are very rare.  Anyone who wants the sorceress to cast at
7 fps must use an amulet with faster cast.  The crafted caster amulet can
get up to 20% faster cast.

-- ENCHANTRESS --
Angelic Wings (set)
LEVEL:  12
  20% Damage Taken Goes To Mana
  +3 to Light Radius
  (2 items) +75 to Life
  (3 items) +1 to All Skills

Useless by itself.  However, you need to equip this to activate the attack
rating bonus from the Angelic Halo rings.

Highlord's Wrath (unique)
LEVEL:  65
  +1 to All Skills
  +20% Increased Attack Speed
  Adds 1-30 lightning damage
  +0-37% Deadly Strike (Based on Character Level)
  Lightning Resist +35%
  Attacker Takes Lightning Damage of 15

The only amulet that provides both IAS and +skills.  Great for any
Enchantress who needs the IAS to reach the next breakpoint for her selected
weapon.  This is also handy for any sorceress who lacks any +2 sorceress
skills amulet.

Metalgrid (unique)
LEVEL:  81
  +400-450 to Attack Rating
  +300-350 Defense
  All Resistances +25-35
  Level 22 Iron Golem (11 Charges)
  Level 12 Iron Maiden (20 Charges)

Good for the enchantress if she needs attack rating and resistances in one
handy package.  The Iron Golem does not have the life to tank enemies in
Hell and the charges are expensive to replenish (25,618 gold per charge) so
ignore the charges.

--------------
 8.4.9. Rings
--------------
-- CASTER --
Bul-Kathos' Wedding Band (unique)
LEVEL:  58
  +1 to All Skills
  3-5% Life stolen per hit
  +0-49 to Life (Based on Character Level)
  +50 Maximum Stamina

This ring and the SoJ are the only rings that increase skill levels, and
both are very rare and difficult to find.  While the SoJ boosts mana, BK
boosts life instead.

The Stone of Jordan (unique)
LEVEL:  29
  +1 to All Skills
  Adds 1-12 lightning damage
  +20 to Mana
  Increase Maximum Mana 25%

The ultimate caster ring.  It is extremely difficult to find.

rare or crafted ring
LEVEL:  ??
  -- Preset Properties --
  CUBE (Blood):  magic ring + jewel + Sol rune + perfect ruby
    1-3% Life stolen per hit
    +1-5 to Strength
    +10-20 to Life
  CUBE (Caster):  magic ring + jewel + Amn rune + perfect amethyst
    +1-5 to Energy
    +10-20 to Mana
    Regenerate Mana 4-10%
  -- Up to four (crafted) or six (rare) random affixes. --
  Ideal Prefixes:
  ! Great Wyrm's ...... +61-90 to Mana
    Rainbow ........... All Resistances +8-11
    Cobalt ............ Cold Resist +21-30%
    Garnet ............ Fire Resist +21-30%
    Coral ............. Lightning Resist +21-30%
    Jade .............. Poison Resist +21-30%
  Ideal Suffixes:
  ! of the Apprentice . +10% Faster Cast Rate
    of Regrowth ....... Replenish Life +6-9
    of the Mammoth .... +31-40 to Life
    of Remedy ......... Poison Length Reduced by 25%
    of the Titan ...... +16-20 to Strength

Although rare and crafted rings cannot boost skill levels, they can get a
variety of useful properties, including faster cast.  Sorceresses who want
+200% FCR for 7 frame cast speed must use at least one ring with faster
cast.

-- DEFENSE --
Dwarf Star (unique)
LEVEL:  45
  +40 to Life
  +40 Maximum Stamina
  Heal Stamina Plus 15%
  Fire Absorb 15%
  Magic Damage Reduced by 12-15
  100% Extra Gold from Monsters

The fire absorb and mdr will greatly reduce the damage the sorceress takes
from fire.  Great when fighting Council Members or Diablo.  Aside from that,
the life and mdr will help keep your sorceress alive.

Nature's Peace (unique)  *LADDER ONLY*
LEVEL:  69
  Slain Monsters Rest in Peace
  Prevent Monster Heal
  Poison Resist +20-30%
  Damage Reduced by 7-11
  Level 5 Oak Sage (11 Charges)

One out of the few items with the R.I.P. property, this is your secret
weapon against Hell Nihlathak.  With R.I.P, any monster the sorceress kills
cannot be targeted by corpse skills, such as reviving or corpse exploding.
Without corpses to explode, Nihlathak is a sitting duck.  Contrary to what
Arreat Summit says, this WILL WORK on monsters killed by spell attacks.
Aside from this ring, the only other items with R.I.P are the extremely rare
armor Tyreal's Might and the realm-only runeword Lawbringer.

Raven Frost (unique)
LEVEL:  45
  +150-250 to Attack Rating
  Adds 15-45 cold damage
  +15-20 to Dexterity
  +40 to Mana
  Cold Absorb 20%
  Cannot Be Frozen

For the blaster, this is not a bad ring, and it has a variety of useful
properties such as cold absorb and more dexterity.  However, the blaster
benefits more from the likes of SoJ or Wisp.  For the Enchantress, this ring
is almost must-have because of the "Cannot Be Frozen" property.  In addition
to that, the ring also provides attack rating, which is always useful to an
archer or melee attacker.

Wisp Projector (unique)
LEVEL:  76
  10% Chance to cast Level 16 Lightning on striking
  Lightning Absorb 10-20%
  10-20% Better Chance of Getting Magic Items
  Level 7 Spirit of Barbs (11 Charges)
  Level 5 Heart of Wolverine (13 Charges)
  Level 2 Oak Sage (15 Charges)

Nice defensive ring.  The absorb will help protect the sorceress further
from souls and horror magi in Worldstone Keep.  Spirit of the Barbs makes a
nice emergency decoy/tank, and Heart of the Wolverine is useful to boost
merc damage output when a dangerous immune rears its ugly head.  On top of
the powerful mods, the ring also has some magic-find.

-- ENCHANTRESS --
Angelic Halo (set)
LEVEL:  12
  +20 to Life
  Replenish Life +6
  (2 items) +12-1188 to Attack Rating (Based on Character Level)
  (3 items) 50% Better Chance of Getting Magic Items

This is most useful for the extremely high attack rating bonus it provides.
The boost from one ring should be more than enough to let the sorceress hit
enemies easily, but if it isn't, wearing a second Halo ring should do the
trick.  To activate the rings' attack rating bonus, the sorceress must equip
one other item from the Angelic Raiment set, which is usually the amulet.

----------------
 8.4.10. Charms
----------------
Annihilus (unique small charm)  *REALM ONLY*
LEVEL:  70
  +1 to All Skills
  +10-20 to all Attributes
  All Resistances +10-20
  +5-10% to Experience Gained

Extremely powerful charm, but you can hold only one on your character.
Only Uber Diablo can drop this.

Hellfire Torch (unique large charm)  *REALM ONLY*
LEVEL:  75
  25% Chance to cast Level 10 Firestorm on striking
  +3 to <random class> Skill Levels
  +10-20 to all Attributes
  All Resistances +10-20
  +8 to Light Radius
  Level 30 Hydra (10 Charges)

(NOTE:  The Firestorm from this charm is Diablo's version.)
Extremely powerful charm if you can find one with +3 to sorceress skills.
This can be found only in Uber Tristram, after the final prime evil super
boss is slain.  As with other unique charms, you can hold only one torch on
your character.
------------------------------------------
Stats for Diablo's Firestorm at level 10:
  Missiles:  10
  Average Damage:  51-70 per second
  Average Fire Damage:  133-164 per second
------------------------------------------
Yes, Diablo's firestorm causes physical and fire damage.
Unfortunately, Fire Mastery does not increase its fire damage.

Gheed's Fortune (unique grand charm)  *LADDER ONLY*
LEVEL:  62
  80-160% Extra Gold from Monsters
  20-40% Better Chance of Getting Magic Items
  Reduces all Vendor Prices 10-15%

While magic find sorceresses will appreciate the magic find, the most
important stat is the vendor discount.  Lower prices means cheaper gambling
and repairs.

Burning/Sparking/Chilling Grand Charm (magic prefix)
LEVEL:  42+
  +1 to Fire/Lightning/Cold skills (Sorceress only)
  -- Ideal Suffixes (only one) --
    of Balance .............. 12% Faster Hit Recovery
    of Dexterity ............ +3-6 to Dexterity
    of Life/Sustenance/Vita . +5-45 to Life

Several of these in the sorceress's inventory will greatly increase the
damage of her attacks.  In addition, fire sorceresses will have faster mana
regeneration, lightning sorceresses will have a larger static field radius
and cheap teleport, and cold sorceresses will have higher defense; all that
from the charms boosting the one-point wonder skills.

Small Charm of Vita (magic suffix)
LEVEL:  39+
  +16-20 Life
  -- Ideal Suffixes (only one) --
    Shimmering .................. All Resistances +3-5
    Lizard's/Snake's/Serpent's .. +1-17 to Mana
    Crimson/Russet/Garnet/Ruby .. Fire Resist +3-11%
    Azure/Lapis/Cobalt/Sapphire . Cold Resist +3-11%
    Tangerine/Ocher/Coral/Amber . Lightning Resist +3-11%
    Beryl/Viridian/Jade/Emerald . Poison Resist +3-11%

Stacking a lot of these will boost your life by a few hundred points, which
will make the sorceress much more robust.  The life boost from the charms
can be boosted further by effects such as Battle Orders or Oak Sage.

============================
 8.5. Tal Rasha's Wrappings
============================
One option that is useful and popular for magic finding and all-around
monster killing is Tal Rasha's set.  In its ugly purple glory, the full set
provides a balanced combination of caster power, defenses, and magic find.
Even if you do not want the full set, the three piece combo consisting of
the amulet, armor, and belt is useful for stacking magic find and some
resistances.  The full set consists of the following five items:

Tal Rasha's Horadric Crest (set Death Mask)
STR:  55
LEVEL:  66
  10% Mana stolen per hit
  10% Life stolen per hit
  +45 Defense
  +60 to Life
  +30 to Mana
  All Resistances +15

With properties like these, you wonder what was Blizzard thinking when
they made this helm for the sorceress, as it is more appropriate for a
weapon-based, physical damage build such as a barbarian or your merc.
By itself, the helm leaves much to be desired as it offers no skill boosts
but instead... life, mana, and some resistance.  Even the lowly Lore
runeword is a more useful caster helm than this.  Tal Rasha's helm is useful
only because you need the helm to complete the set and gain all those juicy
full set bonuses.

Tal Rasha's Guardianship (set Lacquered Plate)
STR:  84
LEVEL:  71
  +400 Defense
  Cold Resist +40%
  Lightning Resist +40%
  Fire Resist +40%
  Magic Damage Reduced by 15
  88% Better Chance of Getting Magic Items
  Requirements -60%
  (2 items) +10% Faster Cast Rate

While it does not have the caster-friendly bonuses of Vipermagi or the other
usual suspects, this armor not only has some powerful defensive properties,
but also has high magic-find.  The resistance and magic-find combo, in
addition to the set bonuses, makes this a very popular choice for magic find
sorceresses.

Tal Rasha's Lidless Eye (set Swirling Crystal)
LEVEL:  65
  +20% Faster Cast Rate
  +1-2 to Cold Mastery (Sorceress Only)
  +1-2 to Lightning Mastery (Sorceress Only)
  +1-2 to Fire Mastery (Sorceress Only)
  +10 to Energy
  +57 to Life
  +77 to Mana
  (2 items) +1 to Sorceress Skill Levels
  (3 items) -15% to Enemy Fire Resistance
  (4 items) -15% to Enemy Lightning Resistance
  (5 items) +15% to Cold Skill Damage

By itself, this orb is weak, though it gets better as you don more pieces
of the set.  For the fire sorceress, this is the easiest way to get fire
resistance drain.

Tal Rasha's Adjudication (set Amulet)
LEVEL:  67
  +2 to Sorceress Skill Levels
  Adds 3-32 lightning damage
  +50 to Life
  +42 to Mana
  Lightning Resist +33%
  (4 items) +10% Faster Cast Rate

Probably the best all-around sorceress amulet.  It has skills, large life
and mana boost, and lightning resistance that will help against burning
souls in Worldstone Keep.

Tal Rasha's Fine Spun Cloth (set Mesh Belt)
STR:  53
LEVEL:  53
  +20 to Dexterity
  +30 to Mana
  37% Damage Taken Goes To Mana
  10-15% Better Chance of Getting Magic Items
  Requirements -20%
  (2 items) +60 Defense
  (3 items) +10% Faster Cast Rate

As a stand-alone item, this belt has some excellent mods, and one of the few
quality belts with magic-find.

Set Bonuses
-----------
(2 items) Replenish Life +10
(3 items) 65% Better Chance of Getting Magic Items
(4 items) +25% Faster Hit Recovery
(5 items) +3 to Sorceress Skill Levels
          +150 Defense
          +50 Defense vs. Missile
          +150 to Life
          All Resistances +50

The bonuses are cumulative.  For example, if the sorceress wears three
items, she gets the life replenish in addition to the magic-find.  Also,
if the sorceress wears the complete set, a shiny aura will glow around the
sorceress.  This aura does nothing aside from letting others know your
sorceress is wearing full Tal Rasha set.


============================================================================
  9. Mercenaries
============================================================================

Mercs are great companions for the sorceress.  The sorceresses is a
relatively fragile character that usually relies on powerful ranged attacks.
Without any true summoning skills that create minions to distract the enemy,
the sorceress can benefit greatly from a tough merc that can absorb hits
and/or keep the enemy at bay.  This lets the sorceress spend less time
running and more time casting spells and killing things.

====================
 9.1. Merc Behavior
====================
Each merc has one of two behavior patterns:  melee or ranged.

-- MELEE --
This merc runs mindlessly toward the nearest target to hack at it until the
merc or his target dies.  When the target goes down, the merc runs to the
next target to kill it if there are anymore left.  The merc fights to the
death against any opposition, and his aggressiveness makes him the perfect
tank for the sorceress.  However, the sorceress must be prepared to run or
teleport a few screens away if you do not want your merc to fight a monster
for whatever reason.  (For example, Iron Maiden was placed on merc.)
Act II Town Guards and Act V Barbarians are melee mercs.

-- RANGED --
This merc will stand still and shoot projectiles at the enemy.  If an enemy
moves too close to the merc (or the sorceress teleports too close to an
enemy), the merc will try to walk away to a safer spot away from trouble
before attacking again.  A ranged merc does not tank well against melee
attackers, and such a merc is not recommended to sorceresses who want to
reliable tank to keep enemies at bay.  Against ranged attackers, a ranged
merc will stand his ground to trade shots with the enemy.  Because of this,
the sorceress can use the merc as cover from enemy fire until the merc dies
or retreats.  Ranged mercs are not as sturdy as melee mercs, but they still
have significantly more life than the average sorceress.  Act I Rogues and
Act III Iron Wolves are ranged mercs.

Regardless of attacking behavior, a merc will retreat to follow you if you
and your merc are separated by a little more than a screen away.

==================
 9.2. Act I Rogue
==================
All rogues use the skill Inner Sight, which lights up enemies and lowers
their defense.  Since 1.10, Inner Sight is effective enough such that
monsters really do become easier to hit even in Hell, but that is irrelevent
to the typical blaster sorceress.  Rogues may also use either Fire or Cold
arrows.  Both types of arrows inflict similar damage, and a portion of the
damage is converted to elemental damage based on its type.  The Cold Arrow
may appear to be a no-brainer choice, but it is not.  Cold Arrows have half
the range of normal or Fire arrows.

Compared to melee mercs, Rogues have no extra damage skills (like Bash) and
get less damaging weapons.  Even the strongest bows are weaker than an
ethereal elite melee weapon with +400% or more Enhanced Damage.  As a
result, the rogues' damage potential is less than a well armed melee merc.
If a merc is needed to kill immune monsters, look elsewhere.

However, Rogues are the better of the two ranged merc types.  With a good
bow and/or help from the sorceress's Enchant, she can inflict more damage
than an Iron Wolf is capable of.  For sorceresses who do not need a tank,
a Rogue can provide good artillery support.  With the right equipment,
Rogues are the best at picking off tough foes trapped at a distance.

-- EQUIPMENT --
The rogue is an archer and a ranged attacker.  For a weapon, the rogue may
only use bows that are not labeled Amazon-only; she cannot use crossbows or
Amazon-only bows.

Since the rogue gets pummeled by melee much less often than melee mercs,
she does not need much damage reduction, defense, or leech.  What she needs
is resistance because she is much more likely to take damage from ranged
attackers, who more often than not pack elemental damage.

As for offense, there are two main equipment options depending on the role
the player wants the rogue to take:  damage or support.  For those who
really want to use a rogue, the support setup is recommended.

* Damage
The player wants the rogue to inflict the most damage possible with her bow.
While this can be handy to pick off an immune from a distance, she cannot
take it down as quickly as a melee merc, and if the monster is a fast melee
bruiser, the sorceress will either need to tank for the rogue or teleport
often to keep the both of them a safe distance away.  Getting Knockback on
an item will be useful for the rogue since it will push her target away.

* Support
While high damage is useful, the emphasis is the stacking the special
abilities that cripple monsters.  Examples include hit causes monster to
flee, hit blinds target, freezes target, and slows target.  The most useful
is slows target.  This effect is irresistable and works on anything, even
act bosses.  With enough slow, fast bruisers such as Duriel become much
easier to avoid and much less dangerous.  The application of weapon-based
special effects from a distance is the one true advantage rogue has over
other mercs.

------
 HELM
------
Blackhorn's Face (unique Death Mask)
  The slows target is enough to make it one of the best for the rogue.
  The lightning resist and absorb on top of slow help her survive deadly
  electrical attacks from souls in Worldstone.

Giant Skull (unique Bone Visage)
  Nice if you want to give the rogue knockback without adding Nef rune to
  the bow.  Also has sockets.

Howltusk (unique Great Helm)
  The only other helm with knockback.  Also has hit causes monster to flee,
  which is bad if you rely on Lower Resist to kill immunes.  Howltusk isn't
  as powerful as Giant Skull, but it is much easier to find.

Kira's Guardian (unique Tiara)  *LADDER ONLY*
  Has high resists and cannot be frozen.

Tal Rasha's Horadric Crest (set Death Mask)
  Has high leech, life, and resistances.  Great all-around helm, and it is
  not too hard to find.

-------
 ARMOR
-------
Chains of Honor (runeword:  Dol Um Ber Ist)
  Has leech, resists, and damage boost to demons and undead.  This was the
  best before the advent of Duress and Fortitude.

Duriel's Shell (unique Cuirass -> Great Hauberk)
  Nice for the life, resists, and cannot be frozen.

Duress (runeword: Shael Um Thul)
  The perfect armor for the support rogue, with open wounds, resists, and
  extra physical and cold damage.

Fortitude (runeword:  El Sol Dol Lo)  *REALM ONLY*
  The ultimate merc armor, with extra damage (+300%!), high defense, life,
  and resistances.

Lionheart (runeword:  Hel Lum Fal)
  Boosts damage, life, and resistance.

Skin of the Vipermagi (unique Serpentskin Armor -> Wyrmhide)
  Resistance and mdr will help protect the rogue from getting fried by
  elemental attacks.  Armor should be upgraded to Wyrmhide for the defense
  boost.

Smoke (runeword:  Nef Lum)
  Easier to assemble than Lionheart, and offers more defense and resistance.
  Doesn't have Lionheart's extra life and damage.

--------
 WEAPON
--------
Faith (runeword:  Ohm Jah Lem Eld)  *REALM ONLY*
  Fanaticism aura turns this otherwise highly damaging and accurate bow into
  a fast, ungodly monster of a weapon with killing power that can exceed
  Windforce.

Harmony (runeword:  Tir Ith Sol Ko)  *REALM ONLY*
  A fairly high damage bow that is easy to make.  Since it lacks increased
  attack speed, assemble the runeword in a fast (-10 speed) bow, with
  Blade Bow being the ideal choice for the merc.

Ice (runeword:  Amn Shael Jah Lo)  *REALM ONLY*
  Gives the rogue high level Holy Freeze to slow nearby enemies.

Riphook (unique Razor Bow -> Blade Bow)
  Though low on damage, the speed, slow, and open wounds are a deadly combo.
  Best weapon for the support role rogue.  Riphook can be upgraded to a
  Blade Bow, and doing so will greatly boost its damage.

Windforce (unique Hydra Bow)
  This legendary bow is famous for its extremely high damage.  Only Faith
  can match it.

========================
 9.3. Act II Town Guard
========================
With his auras, long reach, access to powerful weapons, and aggressive
behavior, he is the best merc for the sorceress.  He will intercept monsters
and take them down or die trying.  His only major weakness is oblivion
knights.  As soon as they cast Iron Maiden on him, he dies the instant he
reaches out and touch someone.  The main uses of the Act II merc is for
tanking and immune killing.

For skills, the Town Guard attacks with Jab, and he can use an aura like a
paladin or aura enchanted monster.  The aura he uses depends on the type of
merc and difficulty he was hired in.

  Normal/Hell auras:
    Combat    = Prayer (slowly regenerates life)
    Defensive = Defiance (increases defense)
    Offensive = Blessed Aim (increases attack rating)

  Nightmare auras:
    Combat    = Thorns (reflects damage taken)
    Defensive = Holy Freeze (chills and slows enemy)
    Offensive = Might (increases damage)

Out of all the auras, only three are useful:  Defiance, Holy Freeze, and
Might.

Defiance:  Causes defense ratings of merc and everyone around him to
  skyrocket.  He can tank the best against physical attackers.  Not so great
  against spellcasters and other elemental attackers.

Holy Freeze:   Most monsters near the merc are slowed down to a crawl,
  even cold immunes.  Act bosses and their clones, plus a few other select
  monsters are immune to the slow effect of the aura.  In addition to the
  slow, the aura adds cold damage to the merc's attacks.  Easiest merc to
  use, and recommended for multi-tree sorceress.

Might:  Boosts merc's damage to obscene levels, and he can kill immune
  monsters the fastest.  Best merc for one-tree sorceress and Enchantress.

-- EQUIPMENT --
These desert mercenaries are spear fighters and melee attackers.  They
may use any polearm or spear (including javelins) except those that are
Amazon-only.

Since the mercenary's primary job is to tank for the sorceress, items that
help the merc stay alive are most important.  For offense, the merc needs a
powerful high damage weapon to not only kill enemies quickly, but also to
leech as much life back as possible.  Of course, the merc will need an item
with life stealing to provide leech in the first place.  For defense, high
defense is good for reducing the chances the merc gets hit.  However, damage
reduction is better at resisting physical damage.  Against poison and
elemental attacks, the merc needs max resistances to protect him from
getting fried, especially against bosses.

------
 HELM
------
Andariel's Visage (unique Demonhead)  *LADDER ONLY*
  Strength, attack speed, and high leech.  Only problem with this helm is
  the fire resistance penalty, so the armor will need to pick up the slack.

Crown of Ages (unique Corona)
  Rockstopper's big brother, with damage reduction, resistance, high
  defense, and faster hit recovery in one handy package.  Also comes with a
  socket or two.

Delirium (runeword:  Lem Ist Io)
  If you do not care about overriding useful curses cast from other items,
  this helm can cause absolute chaos against packs of monsters by turning
  them against each other once Confuse activates.  The delirium change turns
  your merc into a undead stygian doll for about a minute.  While in doll
  form, the merc is even more vicious.

Rockstopper (unique Sallet)
  Doesn't have leech, but has resists and dr%.

Tal Rasha's Horadric Crest (set Death Mask)
  Has high leech, life, and resistances.  Great all-around helm, and it is
  not too hard to find.

Stealskull (unique Casque)
  Does not have as much leech as Tal Rasha's mask or Vampire Gaze, but has
  speed properties and magic find.

Vampire Gaze (unique Grim Helm)
  Not as much leech as Tal Rasha's Mask, but offers dr% and mdr.  Also adds
  minor cold damage to the merc's attacks.

-------
 ARMOR
-------
Chains of Honor (runeword:  Dol Um Ber Ist)
  Though the defense is not as high some of the other armors, it provides
  resists, leech, and a damage boost against many monsters.

Duriel's Shell (unique Cuirass -> Great Hauberk)
  Has cannot be frozen, and it boosts strength, life, and resists.  Can be
  upgraded to Great Hauberk for more defense.

Duress (runeword: Shael Um Thul)
  One of the few armors with crushing blow or open wounds, and the only
  armor with both.  In addition to these properties, Duress has high
  defense, resists, and extra damage.

Fortitude (runeword:  El Sol Dol Lo)  *REALM ONLY*
  The ultimate merc armor, with extra damage (+300%!), high defense, life,
  and resistances.

Griswold's Heart (set Ornate Plate)
  Good defense, boosts strength, and has open sockets you can fill with gems
  to pump strength even higher or runes to boost resistance.

Leviathan (unique Kraken Shell)  *LADDER ONLY*
  High defense, damage reduction, and huge strength boost.

Shaftstop (unique Mesh Armor -> Boneweave)
  Nice defensive armor thanks to high dr% and life.  You will want to
  upgrade this to Boneweave for even higher defense.

Stone (runeword:  Shael Pul Um Lum)
  Useful for the extremely high defense potential, especially if it is
  assembled in an ethereal, elite armor.

Smoke (runeword:  Nef Lum)
  Has high resists and moderate defense.

--------
 WEAPON
--------
Bonehew (unique Ogre Axe)
  High damage and relatively common for an elite unique.  If your merc is
  not very high in level though, you will need to boost the merc's strength
  and/or lower the weapon requirements so the merc can equip it.

Breath of the Dying (runeword:  Vex Hel El Eld Zod Eth)
  Barring the near-zero chance of a super rare, this is the ultimate weapon
  in terms of damage.  Also comes with high leech.

Doom (runeword:  Hel Ohm Um Lo Cham)
  Bestows Holy Freeze aura on the wielder.  Useless to a Holy Freeze merc,
  but godly on the other types.  Give this to a Defiance merc and you will
  have the ultimate tank.  Rivals Breath of the Dying if you assemble this
  in an ethereal weapon.

Honi Sundan (unique Yari -> Ghost Spear)
  Cheap but effective mid-level weapon for merc.  Crushing blow helps raise
  the damage, and you can fill the sockets with Amn runes for high leech.

Honor (runeword:  Amn El Ith Tir Sol)
  Easy runeword to complete, yet effective if assembled in an elite ethereal
  weapon.  Use only if Insight and Obedience are not available.

Infinity (runeword:  Ber Mal Ber Ist)  *REALM ONLY*
  The most important feature of this high damage weapon is the built-in
  level 12 Conviction aura, which subtracts 85% from enemy fire, lightning,
  and cold resistances; and reduces enemy (base) defense by 83%.  The severe
  resistance drain will greatly increase the sorceress's killing power
  (except cold-only sorceresses with high Cold Mastery).  Infinity is,
  without a doubt, the most powerful offensive weapon for a sorceress's
  merc.

Insight (runeword:  Ral Tir Tal Sol)  *REALM ONLY*
  This runeword stronger than Honor, and no harder to complete.  What
  really makes this weapon useful is the high level Meditation aura.  With
  Meditation, the sorceress will recovery mana very quickly, cutting down
  the consumption of mana potions.  If the merc has Prayer, Meditation will
  also heal life, which doubles the life a Prayer merc can heal.

Kelpie Snare (unique Fuscina -> Stygian Pike)
  Low damage, but this will slow any monster down to a crawl.  Very handy in
  boss battles.

Obedience (runeword:  Hel Ko Thul Eth Fal)  *REALM ONLY*
  This features extremely high damage, moderately high chance of crushing
  blow, elemental damage thanks to the Enchant proc, and some resistance.
  The only things missing are speed and leech.  What sets Obedience apart
  from all the other heavyweights is the ease this weapon can be obtained.
  With no high runes required, the hardest item to find is a ethereal elite
  polearm.

The Reaper's Toll (unique Thresher)  *LADDER ONLY*
  Best defensive weapon for the merc.  Decrepify casts all the time, which
  slows down and weakens his target.  However, it can cause grief if you
  rely on Lower Resist to break immunity since Decrepify will override
  Lower Resist and restore immune status.

========================
 9.4. Act III Iron Wolf
========================
Iron Wolves come in one of three elemental flavors:  Fire, Lightning, or
Cold.  The only element worth considering is cold.  The cold merc is highly
effective in Normal and Nightmare, where he can spam endless Ice Blasts and
Glacial Spikes to freeze then vaporize the enemy.  However, the immunities
in Hell can leave him totally powerless in some areas of the game.  Overall,
the damage all the Iron Wolves' skills can do is too low for Hell games.
Fire and lightning mercs' attacks will have little or no effect on the
monsters.  At least cold can be used to freeze or slow down monsters, that
is until cold immunes show up.  In any event, any other merc with at least
a decent weapon will outdamage the Iron Wolf.

-- EQUIPMENT --
These are sorcerers equipped with a sword and shield.  Despite their
equipment, Iron Wolves are ranged mercs and almost always attack with
spells.  If cornered by an enemy, an Iron Wolf might poke at it with his
sword once in a blue moon.  As a spellcaster, he will need items with
spellcaster bonuses, just like the sorceress, since his main source of
damage are spells.  He will need skill boosters and faster cast to boost
his damage output.  If such items cannot be found, then defensive items
that boost resistances or life will help the merc survive more easily.

Finding good weapons for an Act III merc is a hassle since the majority of
swords do not have spellcaster-friendly bonuses.  If available, Spirit is
the only sensible choice, as only one other sword has +2 skills (Silence)
and no other sword has faster cast.  If Spirit is not an option, then you
want swords that increase +skills or reduce enemy resistances.  Failing
that, give the merc something that will boost his resistances or life.

Surprisingly enough, the Iron Wolf is incapable of blocking, even if he
truly has a shield equipped.  Therefore, increased blocking on a shield
is useless.  You will want shields with caster bonuses or those with
resistances and/or life.

------
 HELM
------
Lore (runeword:  Ort Sol)
  Easiest helm with (+1) all skills to obtain.

Griffon's Eye (unique Diadem)  *LADDER ONLY*
  The only unique with faster cast.  Also provides +1 skills and lightning
  damage boost.

Harlequin Crest (unique Shako)
  Has +2 skills, huge life, and damage reduced by 10%.

Nightwing's Veil (unique Spired Helm)
  Adds extra damage to cold skills, +2 to all skills, and dexterity.

-------
 ARMOR
-------
Stealth (runeword:  Tal Eth)
  The easiest and cheapest way to get faster cast on the armor.

Duriel's Shell (unique Cuirass -> Great Hauberk)
  Boosts strength, life, and resists.

Skin of the Vipermagi (unique Serpentskin Armor -> Wyrmhide)
  One of the best sorceress armors is one of the best for the merc too.
  The combination of +1 skills, faster cast, and resistance make this armor
  almost unbeatable.

Ormus' Robes (unique Dusk Shroud)
  Since the Iron Wolves lack the elemental mastery skills, the extra damage
  the armor provides can really help.

--------
 WEAPON
--------
6 Rainbow Facet sword (unique Jewel x6)
  Jam as many 5/5 facets (of the damage type corresponding to your merc)
  into a Crystal Sword for increased elemental damage and pierce.  Probably
  the strongest skill damage boosting weapon the merc can use, and the most
  difficult to obtain.

Azurewrath (unique Phase Blade)  *LADDER ONLY*
  Aside from the +1 to All Skills, the Sanctuary aura will repel undead away
  from merc.  Difficult to find, but not too expensive to trade for.

Culwen's Point (unique War Sword)
  In a game without Spirit, this is the easiest to obtain sword with
  'All Skills'.

Honor (runeword:  Amn El Ith Tir Sol)
  A bit harder to obtain than Culwen's thanks to the fact no one-handed
  sword will get five sockets if you use the Larzuk quest reward on it.
  However, once you find a five socket sword, the runeword is easy to
  complete, and it has few extra bonuses (namely +10 STR and life replenish)
  beyond the '+1 to All Skills' that makes it superior to Culwen's.

Lawbringer (runeword:  Amn Lem Ko)  *REALM ONLY*
  Sanctuary repels undead away from merc.  It is easier to obtain this
  instead of Azurewrath.  It also has R.I.P., but that is of little use
  to a cold merc, who freezes most things to death.

Silence (runeword:  Dol Eld Hel Ist Tir Vex -- any weapon)
  Offers +2 to All Skills and massive resistance bonus (+75).

Spirit (runeword:  Tal Thul Ort Amn)  *REALM ONLY*
  The one and only choice.  It has faster cast and +2 to all skills.  Best
  of all, it is easy to make.  A Broad Sword or Long Sword found in Act 5
  Normal or beyond will yield four sockets from Larzuk's socket reward.

--------
 SHIELD
--------
3 perfect diamond shield
  *OR*
Ancients' Pledge (runeword:  Ral Ort Tal)
  Cheap and effective way to max out the merc's elemental resistances.
  Lack of blocking is not a factor since the merc cannot block.

Blackoak (unique Luna)
  Provides huge life and some dexterity.  Handy if your merc needs the
  dexterity to equip a phase blade.

Lidless Wall (unique Grim Shield)
  Has +1 skills and +20% fast cast.  Best caster shield to use if Spirit is
  unavailable.

Stormshield (unique Monarch)
  Provides damage reduced by 35% and some other resistances.  You will need
  to boost the merc's STR and/or lower Stormshield's requirements.

Spirit (runeword:  Tal Thul Ort Amn)  *REALM ONLY*
  The ultimate caster shield.  However, the merc will never have the base
  STR to equip a Monarch even at level 98.  He will need a STR boost from
  the armor and/or helm slots (since weapon slot will likely be Spirit as
  well) in order to reach 156 STR and equip a Spirit Monarch.  (Note:  an
  ethereal monarch needs only 146 STR.)

======================
 9.5. Act V Barbarian
======================
A barbarian can use the skills Bash and Stun.  With them, he can stunlock
single enemies rather easily until death.  In addition to skills, the
barbarian's normal attack is a brutal two-hit similar to the town guards'
Jab.

The barbarian is a decent tank.  He has high life, and when hurt, he
regenerates it back 2.5 times faster than other mercs.  However, aside from
stunning, the barbarian does not have any other tricks that can help defend
him or the sorceress from monsters.  Offensively, with weapons of similar
damage, the barbarian can slightly outdamage the town guard (except ones
with the Might aura) thanks to higher strength and somewhat stronger moves.
However, the town guards have superior range and equipment choices,
especially with weapon runewords.  Overall, the Barbarian is somewhat
inferior to the Town Guard.

-- EQUIPMENT --
The big, beefy barbarians whom you can hire favor swords and will wade
into combat like any other melee attacker.  As barbarians, they can wear
Barbarian-only helms (such as Arreat's Face).  Although these barbarians
cannot dual-wield two swords, they may use any one-handed or two-handed
sword.  With few exceptions, two-handed swords should be used for greater
damage.

The barbarian needs the same kind of properties the Act II merc needs.
That is high damage, leech, defense, and resistances.  He can get by with
somewhat less leech since he regenerates quickly if not poisoned.

------
 HELM
------
Arreat's Face (unique Slayer Guard)
  The only barbarian helm that can compete with the other great unique
  helms.  Provides life leech, high STR and DEX boosts, and enough
  resistance to reach the maximum.

Other useful helms available are the same as those listed for the Act II
merc -- see above for list.

-------
 ARMOR
-------
Same as Act II merc -- see above for list.

--------
 WEAPON
--------
Azurewrath (unique Phase Blade)  *LADDER ONLY*
  One of the most powerful one-handed weapons thanks to its very fast speed,
  high magic and cold damage, and the Sanctuary aura.  The Sanctuary aura
  will not only repel undead, but also allow the merc to ignore physical
  resistance or immunity on undead.  Only bad thing about this weapon is
  the merc will have to wait until at least level 85 to equip it.

Breath of the Dying (runeword:  Vex Hel El Eld Zod Eth)
  Extreme damage, leech, and speed in one lethal package.  This is the most
  damaging sword the barbarian can use if none of the realm only runewords
  are available and if assembled in an ethereal Colossus Blade.  Its only
  weakness is the merc cannot scratch physical immunes with it.

Crainte Vomir (unique Espandon -> Legend Sword)
  Aside from the Eternity runeword, this is the only sword with Slows
  Target.  This speedy sword also has some interesting properties such as
  faster run/walk speed and damage reduction.  Damage is relatively low
  though.

Honor (runeword:  Amn El Ith Tir Sol)
  Easy runeword to complete, yet effective if assembled in an ethereal
  Colossus Sword.  However, without any increased attack speed, this weapon
  is slow for the merc.

Grief (runeword:  Eth Tir Lo Mal Ral)  *REALM ONLY*
  Brutal damage even in a one-handed weapon.  Use in a Phase Blade for the
  fastest speed.  Also adds poison damage thanks to the high level Venom
  proc.

Last Wish (runeword:  Jah Mal Jah Sur Jah Ber)  *REALM ONLY*
  With its Might aura and crushing blow factored in, this is the most
  damaging weapon the barbarian can use.  It is not without its drawbacks
  however.  Without IAS, a Last Wish colossus blade swings slowly.  It also
  has no leech, although the Life Tap proc sometimes takes care of that.

Lawbringer (runeword:  Amn Lem Ko)  *REALM ONLY*
  While low on damage, this weapon has three things going for it.  One, the
  Decrepify proc will slow monsters down to a crawl.  Two, any monster the
  merc kills stays dead due to 'slain monsters rest in peace'.  Three, high
  level Sanctuary will repel undead, and let the merc chop them up quickly
  regardless of damage reduction.

Oath (runeword:  Shael Pul Mal Lum)  *REALM ONLY*
  While not as powerful as BotD, this comes close for a mere fraction of
  the cost, as Mal is MUCH easier to acquire than Vex and Zod.  Only thing
  missing is leech.  Best assembled in an ethereal Balrog Blade or Colossus
  Sword.


============================================================================
  10. Tips
============================================================================

==============
 10.1. Basics
==============
Like any other hack-and-slash game, gameplay in Diablo 2 can be summed up in
five basic steps:

1. Prepare for battle.
2. Kill monsters.
3. Grab loot.
4. Go to town to rest.
5. Go to step 1.

#1. Prepare For Battle
----------------------
This can be divided into two extra sub-steps:
1. Grab your items.
2. Cast your buffs.

* Grab your items:
The sorceress should carry at least one town portal scroll at all times.
Several scrolls, at least enough to fill up a belt slot are recommended.
The town portal scroll is the sorceress's lifeline; without it, she may
have a long walk back.  Never leave town without one.  The rest of the
belt should be filled with potions.  The sorceress will take hits and lose
life or burn up her mana pool as she cast spells.  Drinking potions will
replenish whatever life or mana the sorceress loses.  For equipment, the
sorceress wears the best she has available.  It is as simple as that.

* Cast your buffs:
Before the sorceress leaves town to hunt some monsters, she should cast
every buff skill she has.  Some can be cast in town, others must be cast out
of town.  If she has Call to Arms, you definitely want to use the warcry
oskills that can only be cast out of town.  cast Battle Command twice, then
Battle Orders, then the rest of her buffs, which may include any of the
following:  Enchant, Thunder Storm, Energy Shield, and any of the three cold
armors.  Once the sorceress is buffed up, she can go and seek out prey.
After a few minutes of running and fighting, her buffs will time out; find
a safe place to recast them.

#2. Kill Monsters
-----------------
The sorceress must kill monsters to gain experience, take their loot, and
possibly complete some quests requiring their extermination.  It does not
matter if the character is a noble paladin fighting for the cause of good
or an insidious necromancer bent on world domination.  In games like these,
all characters are bloodthirsty killers.

The life of a typical blaster sorceress is that of a scared little girl
holding a really big, big gun in her trembling hands.  As a sorceress, your
basic strategy is to force the merc out in front of sorceress to take hits
from monsters, then while she hides behind the the merc like a scared little
girl, you click on the monsters to launch the sorceress's killer artillery
of doom until they die.  At this point, gameplay is like that of a video
game shooter.

Okay, maybe at very early levels, the sorceress neither has a merc nor
enough firepower to kill monsters.  At the very beginning of the game,
monsters inflict very little damage and are weak enough to die from the
sorceress's bare hands, but you will want her to use a weapon anyway to
speed things up.  The beginning of the game should be very easy and a
no-brainer.  Enjoy it while it lasts.

One thing the player must be prepared for is that the sorceress may
encounter some fights she cannot win by force.  If the sorceress encounters
monsters immune to her attacks, and her merc dies fighting them, the
sorceress had better run away!

#3. Grab Loot
-------------
While you may find some stray junk out in the open, most of the good stuff
is found in the clutches of vile monsters, who you need to kill in order to
force them to drop the goods.  Regardless where the loot is, the sorceress
will eventually grab it all with her greedy paws.  In Diablo 2, you simply
click on the shiny piles of gold and items.

While gold is handy to buy common services, what everyone really wants are
the potent magical items, the stuff that turns mortals into gods.  In D&D,
Mr. Fighter will want that Vorpal sword +5 so he can force heads to
rock-and-roll.  In Diablo 2, such items include powerful uniques such as
Arachnid Mesh, Harlequin Crest, Stormshield just to name a few, or rare
runes that allow the player to construct extremely powerful runewords such
as Breath of the Dying or Enigma.  Hack-and-slash games tend to be item
driven.  That is, you are what you wear, and items that seem like the toys
of gods become basic equipment needed to survive the dangers of high level
combat.

#4. Go to Town to Rest
----------------------
The sorceress will eventually need to return to town to recover life and
mana, sell items for gold, repair equipment, revive her merc, and deposit
gold and new items you found clogging her inventory into the stash.  If the
sorceress has leveled up, this is also a good time to allocate her stat and
skill points where they are needed.  Once done, you will...

#5. Go to Step 1
----------------
...prepare for battle yet again.  The sorceress will be stronger, either by
gaining levels and/or stronger items from her last adventure.  However, the
sorceress will seek out more powerful monsters, where the danger and rewards
are greater.  Thus, the level of power escalates.

==============================
 10.2. Common Newbie Mistakes
==============================
Below are some mistakes that a beginning sorceress player may unwittingly
fall prey to.

Sorceress is dying all the time.
--------------------------------
* Resistances are not maxed.
Untwinked characters who rush too far ahead before collecting enough
resistances from items, or players obsessed with maximum killing power or
magic-find to the point of sacrificing defensive power will experience this
problem.  Many elemental based attacks are very damaging without maximum
resistance to protect the sorceress, and some attacks hurt badly even with
75% resistance.  Keep her resistances as high as possible at all times.

* Too little life.
The combination of low Vitality and no or few life boosting items give these
sorceresses about 400 to 500 life, which is clearly not enough.  Even with
maximum resistances, some attacks are strong enough to kill these wimpy
characters in one or two hits.

* Too much Energy.
Perhaps inspired by other games (including the first Diablo game), newbie
players may see the Energy stat as the equivalent to Intelligence or
whatever name the "Magic" stat is, and they crank Energy up to 200+ by high
levels, thinking they will gain super strong spells.  This is a no-no for
the sorceress!  All Energy does in Diablo 2 is increase a character's mana
pool and the chance of getting double mana from potions.  In 1.10, the
sorceress relies on equipment to boost her mana to sufficient levels.
If somehow you cannot find the necessary equipment, one welcomed feature
introduced in 1.10 is the sorceress can buy all the mana potions she needs
to refill mana on demand.  The only exception to the "too much Energy"
mistake is the Energy Shield sorceress, who needs high Energy in order to
maximize her mana pool and use Energy Shield effectively.

Skills are too weak/not killing fast enough.
--------------------------------------------
* Spreading points in every skill.
Doing this will ensure weak attacks that will kill very slowly, if at all.
The sorceress needs to maximize few skills so she can inflict enough damage
to dispatch enemies quickly.

* Investing too many points in non-combat skills.
Investing twenty points in Warmth may sound like a good idea, but unless
the sorceress is an Enchantress, doing so will cripple her killing power by
denying her the points she needs to maximize her attack skills and their
synergies.

* Investing points in weak skills.
Some may not like this, but the harsh truth is some skills are weaker
(or better) than others.  An example of a weak skill since 1.10 is Inferno.
Inferno may look cool, but it deals less damage and is more dangerous to use
than the Fire Ball/Meteor combo.  Players who wish to play underpowered
characters might want to play the Inferno sorceress -- more power to them.
However, if you are trying to build a powerful sorceress, and you are
wondering why you are struggling with something like the above mentioned
Inferno sorceress, even with every skill needed maxed, the answer may be
the skill is flat-out weak, pure and simple.

=====================
 10.3. Survival Tips
=====================
* When planning your character's stats, consider items with strength and/or
  dexterity bonuses.  With such items, the sorceress needs less base
  strength and/or dexterity to meet requirements for the rest of her
  equipment, and the saved points can be spent in vitality or energy
  instead.  Items with a dexterity bonus can also be used to improve
  blocking percentage.  Be careful you do not get burned by the Strength
  bug.

* All the sorceress's elemental resistance should be as high as possible.
  If you expect her to die, such as in dueling games, stack some extra to
  compensate for the Anya bug.

* If you know the sorceress will fight tough monsters known for their
  powerful poison and cold attacks, namely Andariel and Duriel, buy and
  drink antidote or thawing potions.  Antidote adds 10% to maximum poison
  resistance and 50% to poison resistance.  Thawing potions add the same
  amount to cold resistances.  The resistance granted by each potion lasts
  thirty seconds.  If the sorceress drinks multiple potions in quick
  succession, the durations stack.  In other words, the sorceress can drink
  a beltful of these potions at once and the effect will last for several
  minutes.

* Consider using Telekinesis to use objects from a distance if you suspect
  (idle) monsters nearby the desired objects.  For example, Cain can be
  freed without even seeing and alerting the champion monsters that loiter
  around the middle in Tristram.

* Use charged items to the sorceress's benefit.  Some examples include the
  following:  Lower resists can cause skills to inflict more damage; Weaken
  can help reduce damage from bruisers such as Duriel.

* When using single-target attacks, concentrate your attacks on one target
  at a time.  Since damaging a monster does not impair its offensive power,
  it is better to kill one enemy than to damage many.

* When attacking a very tough group of monsters (e.g., Council), divide the
  group and attack each monster one at a time.

* The sorceress should hide behind cover when fighting ranged attackers.
  Pop out briefly to attack, then run back for cover before their missiles
  hit her.  Repeat when the missiles clear.

* If the sorceress gets cursed (with Amplify Damage), kill the monster that
  is causing it as soon as possible, then go to town and visit the healer to
  remove it.  Taking double damage (or more if she had damage reduction)
  from physical attackers is bad news.

* Hire and use mercs.  They are great for absorbing hits meant for the
  sorceress.  In addition, they are immune to the explosions of Frenzied
  Enslaved and their ilk.

* When the sorceress Teleports, her merc teleports with her.  If the merc is
  losing a battle against monsters, teleport away from them to save the merc
  from death.  Also, if the sorceress has a melee merc, she can teleport
  close to a monster so the merc can attack it.

* Keep your merc alive at all times.  If he falls, go back to town to revive
  him.  (PvM only.)

================================
 10.4. The "Bullfighter" Tactic
================================
Below is a strategy to help defeat a fast-moving, melee attacker when the
sorceress is alone or has only a ranged merc to help, and there is nowhere
to hide (e.g., Duriel in Tal Rasha's Chamber).  Examples of such attackers
include gargantuan beasts, scarabs, blunderbores, stygian dolls, blood lords
(minotaurs), and even some quest bosses such as The Countess and Duriel.
This will also work against a few aggressive monsters with short-ranged
missile attacks, namely balrogs and their ilk.  The concept is similar to
what you expect of a bullfight,  The sorceress is the bullfighter with the
red cape, and the enemy is the bull.

This assumes the sorceress has the skill Teleport and enough mana to sustain
Teleport and some attacks for more than a few seconds.  Thus, this will not
help much in early Normal.  Then again, monsters are not very dangerous so
early in the game.

When an enemy approaches, wait until he is nearly close enough to attempt an
attack.  Cast Teleport and aim far away from the enemy as possible.  Time
the cast so that when he takes a swing, he will miss, and the sorceress will
be some distance away.  Timing is everything; depending on when you cast
Teleport, one of three events will happen.

* You cast Teleport at the right time:
The enemy will attack, but your sorceress will have teleported to a new
location before the attack can connect.  While the enemy is stuck swinging
at air, blast the enemy with your attacks.  You will have time to cast two
or more attacks before the enemy recovers and runs after the sorceress.

* You cast Teleport too early:
The enemy will not attack.  Instead, it continues after the sorceress toward
her new location.  If the enemy is fast, you will not have enough time to
cast an attack before the enemy reaches the sorceress and attacks.  Instead,
you will need to try again and cast Teleport when the enemy is close.

* You cast Teleport too late:
The enemy will have a chance to hit the sorceress.  If she takes a hit, but
does not go into hit recovery, proceed as if you teleported at the right
time.  If the sorceress takes a hit and is forced into hit recovery, the
Teleport attempt will fail.  After hit recovery, the sorceress will need to
escape before you can attempt another Teleport.

When the enemy recovers and approaches again, your sorceress Teleports then
blasts the enemy while it stikes at air.  Repeat until the enemy dies.
Keep your eye on your mana and drink potions when it gets low.

This strategy works best against a single target.  It is very difficult to
pull this off against a crowd, with a few whiffing while the rest continue
straight after the sorceress.  Divide the crowd first, then attack a lone
monster separated from the crowd.

Caveat:  If you play online, and you experience some lag, the Bullfighter
tactic may be difficult to impossible to execute reliably.

=======================
 10.5. Killer Monsters
=======================
Some monsters are feared and hated by many because they are often
responsible for the deaths of many hapless characters.  Once the
sorceress meets the following monsters, you will find out why.

-- DOLLS (a.k.a. Undead Soul Killers, Undead Stygian Dolls) --
These little boneheads are fast and usually found in packs.  What makes
dolls deadly is their explosive demise.  When killed, a doll explodes and
inflicts damage equal to their maximum life to anyone standing next to the
explosion.  Be especially wary of champion or boss dolls; explosions from
them can be a one-hit kill if the sorceress is hit.  In Hell, dolls cannot
be frozen.

-- SOULS (a.k.a. Gloams, Burning Souls, Black Souls) --
These ghostlike entities fire lightning bolts.  The lightning is very
damaging in Hell even with 75% lightning resistance.  Most of the unique
mods from a boss mob can stack with the lightning, so even if the sorceress
can withstand normal souls' lightning, she can still get fried by lightning
modified by mods.  Spectral hit and/or elemental enchantments result in
lightning that can inflict fire, cold, and/or poison damage in addition to
lightning.  Mana burn will cause their lightning to drain mana on contact.
Extra strong will magnify the base damage the lightning can do.  In Hell,
souls cannot be frozen.

-- OBLIVION KNIGHTS --
Since your sorceress will likely employ a melee merc, the one curse you need
to absolutely watch out for is Iron Maiden.  While the blaster sorceress
herself is likely unaffected, the merc, if he wields any useful weapon, will
die after striking a monster in one or two hits if he gets afflicted with
Iron Maiden.  Lower Resist can also be deadly if there are souls nearby.
Last but not least, Oblivion Knights always have a large following of angry
Doom Knights ready to swarm the sorceress.  In Hell, Oblivion Knights are
immune to cold, and resistance is so high (180) that Lower Resist and
Conviction combined cannot break immunity.  However, Holy Freeze will slow
these guys down.

-- HORADRIC ANCIENTS --
By themselves, they are not very dangerous.  What makes them terrifying
(or annoying more accurately) is they can revive all the above undead;
i.e., dolls, souls, and knights.  If the sorceress does not have the means
to dispose of corpses, she should kill the mummies first!

-- MINOTAURS (Moon Lords, Blood Lords, Hell Lords, Death Lords) --
Even the average of these guys can take a beating and cause a lot of damage
with their attacks.  If you let them Frenzy up, they can run and attack
very fast, and be nearly impossible to shake off.  They get really scary
if enhanced by boss mobs such as Extra Strong, Extra Fast, Cursed, and/or
any damage boosting aura.  Also, the death lord version in any difficulty
cannot be frozen.

-- SUCCUBI (a.k.a. Hell Temptress, Siren, Hell Witch) --
Here is a monster that can have feathered or batlike wings, and they
have several abilities that make them dangerous in more ways than one.
Regardless of appearance, they have two abilities in common.  One, they
can launch blood stars that can cause massive amounts of physical damage
rivaling that of souls.  As with souls, mods from a boss can stack.  One
with Extra Strong, Cursed, and maybe an elemental enchantment or two, can
launch modified blood stars that can kill many characters after one or two
hits easily.  Also, since their shots cause physical damage, Fanaticism and
Might auras will increase the damage -- not good.  Two, succubi can cast
Blood Mana if the sorceress has more mana than life.  Blood Mana really
hurts if the sorceress relies on spamming mana intensive attacks (e.g.,
Blizzard plus Glacial Spike between delays.)  If the sorceress has more life
than mana, they will cast Defense Curse instead, which will greatly lower
her defense, but that can be easily ignored most of the time.  The above
two abilites is the most the feathered-winged versions can do, but the
bat-winged versions have two extra curses they can hex the sorceress with:
Amplify Damage and Weaken.  They are fond of Amplify Damage, and once the
sorceress is cursed, they will spam blood stars.  (Note to pre-1.10
veterans:  succubi are much stronger than they were in 1.09.  In fact,
they are about as dangerous as the succubi from the first Diablo game.)

-- TOMB VIPERS --
These green snakes are sometimes found in the Halls of Vaught, same level as
Nihlathak, in Nightmare and Hell.  Their signature attack is a poison shot
that emulates the amazon's Poison Javelin.  What make the attack so deadly
is the victim takes full damage, mostly physical, for *EVERY* frame the
character moves through a cloud.  This is true even if the character is
shoved through the cloud by a viper charge.  The best defense against these
clouds (other than avoiding them entirely) is to stockpile damage reduction.


============================================================================
  11. Sample Progression for Meteorb Sorceress
============================================================================

Below is a sample progression of an untwinked, Meteorb sorceress who uses
Frozen Orb, Meteor, and Fire Ball as her primary attacks.  This is not a
straitjacket on how to play a sorceress, since there are several other
viable builds.  However, the Meteorb sorceress is the easiest to use.

If you are playing Single Player, use the '/players x' command.  On Normal
and Nightmare, set the game to '/players 8'.  Although the monsters take
longer to kill, the experience and drops are much better.  You may lower
/players down to 1 just before engaging difficult boss fights such as
Duriel, Nihlathak, or The Ancients.  Don't forget to raise /players back up
to 8 after such boss fights.  When you reach Hell, '/players 8' monsters
take far too long to kill without the very best items.  It is recommended
you set /players to 1 or 2.

Below are the range of levels you can expect the sorceress to be at while
playing through the game.

Normal
  Act I   =  1 - 17
  Act II  = 18 - 24
  Act III = 25 - 28
  Act IV  = 29 - 31
  Act V   = 32 - 45

Nightmare = 45 - 75

Hell      = 75 - 85

==============
 11.1. Normal
==============

LEVELS 1-5
----------
In the beginning, the sorceress neither has the mana nor the money to buy
mana potions to be able to cast spells continuously.  Therefore, she will
need to rely on weapons.  Don't worry, all the monsters near town are wimps.
Just kill things in Blood Moor, Den of Evil, and Cold Plains for experience.
Soon the sorceress will reach level 6, and when that happens, send her out
to Burial Grounds or Stony Field.

  -- STATS --
  Strength and vitality are most important now.  The sorceress needs STR to
  wear even the lightest of armor, and she needs VIT to run longer and take
  some hits without dying.  For the 20 points the sorceress receives between
  levels 2 and 5, increase STR until it is at 22 (for long bow requirements)
  first.  Place the remaining points into VIT.

  -- SKILLS --
  Spend the first point skill in Frozen Armor.  While Frozen Armor is
  active, it will slow down enemies that hit the sorceress as she fights
  enemies in hand-to-hand combat.  Spend the next three points in Fire Bolt,
  Warmth, and Ice Bolt.  If the sorceress has an extra point left after she
  learns all four of the above skills, save it until she reaches level 6.

  -- EQUIPMENT --
  Weapon:  Buy a long bow (from Gheed) as soon as the sorceress has the
  strength to use one.  This will serve as a viable weapon until level 12
  when Fire Ball and Lightning become available.  Until the sorceress buys
  her bow, just hit things with her staff.

  Belt:   Find or buy a sash as soon as possible.  You want the sorceress to
  carry more potions in her belt, not her inventory.

  Other Equipment:  Don't waste money on the remaining equipment -- the
  sorceress will find some soon enough.

  Scrolls are expensive now; hold off on buying them if possible.  Try to
  wait until after Cain is rescued, when Act I vendors will offer a 10%
  discount.  However, keep at least one Town Portal scroll in the
  sorceress's inventory at all times.

  The sorceress should pick up everything she finds and sell everything she
  doesn't need to raise the cash she needs for later.  Stacks of throwing
  items are the most profitable items to sell early in the game.  Later in
  the game, armor and any item with skill bonuses will sell for the most
  gold.

  The sorceress should save every gem and rune she finds.  They will be used
  for the various stats they bestow on socketed items or as ingredients for
  cube recipes.

LEVELS 6-11
-----------
During these levels, the sorceress will progress through much of Act I,
from Blood Raven to somewhere in the Rogue Monastery.  Although she has the
skills Static Field and Ice Blast to help, weapons remain to be her main
source of damage.  By now, she should have a Rogue merc, who will be relied
on to help kill things from time to time.

  -- STATS --
  For every 5 points per level up, spend 3 to STR, and 2 to VIT.  Strength
  will be needed for bigger and better items, and vitality to withstand some
  hits.

  -- SKILLS --
  At level 6, spend a point into Static Field.  Static Field will let the
  sorceress weaken tough monsters like Blood Raven or Griswold quickly.
  When the sorceress earns more skill points, use them to learn Ice Blast,
  Telekinesis, Frost Nova, and Inferno.  Save any leftover skill points for
  later.

  -- EQUIPMENT --
  Belt:  Get a "Belt" as soon as possible; twelve slots will be handy.
  Charsi may carry one once the sorceress reaches level 7.  If Charsi won't
  cooperate, gamble one from Gheed.

  Buying better armor is an option, just don't spend all the gold for
  magical armor.  Pay just enough for normal, non-magical items.  Better
  yet, save the money now.  The sorceress will need to buy lots of mana
  potions once she reaches level 12.

  Save amulets or rings with resistances.  The sorceress will need them when
  she encounters elemental attackers later in the game.

  If the sorceress finds small or large charms that add elemental damage or
  resistance, keep them in her inventory for now; the extra damage provided
  by charms will help her kill things faster with weapons, and resistance
  charms will lower the damage the sorceress takes from elemental attacks
  later in the game.

LEVELS 12-17
------------
By now, the sorceress is dungeon-crawling around the monastery, looking for
Andariel.  At any rate, she has reached a turning point.  Fire Ball and
Lightning are available, and the sorceress probably has accumulated enough
gold to buy many mana potions.  You will begin to rely on her skills instead
of weapons to kill.

  -- STATS --
  Continue the 3:2 ratio for strength and vitality.

  -- SKILLS --
  Place one point each into Blaze and Fire Ball.  Blaze will be useful for
  killing Andariel in Normal, and you need Blaze anyway to learn Meteor.
  Fire Ball will be the main attack skill for some time to come.  Shiver
  Armor is useful, but not necessary if you need to save a skill point for
  something else later.  After these skills are learned, save three skill
  points for level 18.  If you have extra points to spare (i.e., more than
  three), boost Fire Ball for more power.

  -- EQUIPMENT --
  Since the sorceress uses skills as the main source of damage, look for
  weapons that boost spellcasting or resistances.  In any case, your
  sorceress will start guzzling mana potions like water or Kool-Aid on a
  hot summer day.  Keep a health supply of them, and portal back to town to
  refill when needed.

LEVELS 18-23
------------
The sorceress will progress from the start of Act II to the Arcane Sanctuary
or beyond.  In Act II, you will have the chance to hire a Town Guard merc
for the sorceress.  Do so -- he can tank and do much of the fighting.  If
the sorceress makes it to Canyon of the Magi before she reaches level 24,
clear Arcane Sanctuary or all of Tal Rasha's Tombs repeatedly for more
experience.

  -- STATS --
  The 3:2 ratio ends.  Increase strength to 60, but no higher.  With 60 STR,
  the sorceress can equip Plated Belt as well as many of the best unique
  items later on if you are lucky enough to find some.  Spend the rest of
  her stat points in vitality; your sorceress will need the life.

  -- SKILLS --
  Add one point each into Teleport, Glacial Spike, and Fire Wall as soon as
  the sorceress reaches level 18.  Teleport is a MUST-HAVE skill as it gives
  the sorceress mobility.  Glacial Spike and Fire Wall are prerequisites
  needed for Frozen Orb and Meteor respectively.  Spend any excess points
  into Fire Ball.  At level 23, save the skill point for level 24.

  -- EQUIPMENT --
  As you shop or kill monsters, keep an eye out for socketed items.  Save
  any three socket Kite Shield you find; you will need it to make Ancient's
  Pledge later.  Save a normal two socket Breast Plate (or better armor) you
  find for possible Stealth.  Save a two socket helm for Lore.  Normal items
  are usually preferable to superior items due to inflated repair cost for
  superior items.

  One weapon you may find useful now is the Leaf Staff.  The sorceress can
  farm the Countess for Tir and Ral runes, then buy a non-magical two socket
  staff from Akara or Drognan.  If possible, try to get one with +2 or +3 to
  Fire Ball.

  Find and use items with cold and/or lightning resistance.  Scarabs are
  common in the open desert, and you want lightning resistance to lessen the
  damage the sorceress takes from their electric bolts.  You will want cold
  resistance to protect the sorceress from the Summoner and Duriel.

LEVELS 24-29
------------
The sorceress will go from the start of Act III to somewhere in Act IV.
In later parts of Act III, the sorceress will face many enemy spellcasters,
and their elemental attacks can hurt her badly if she is caught unprotected,
so try to build up her resistances.

  -- STATS --
  You can spend points wherever you want for now.  If in doubt, spend them
  in vitality; the extra life will help.  Before long, the sorceress will be
  able to wear some exceptional items.  Plan ahead for their requirements.

  -- SKILLS --
  Add one point each into Blizzard and Meteor as soon as the sorceress
  reaches level 24.  Both are potent skills now.  You need Blizzard to learn
  Frozen Orb, and Meteor will become one of your primary skills later.
  Ignore Chilling Armor; it is not useful enough to deserve a point.  As the
  sorceress approaches level 30, save three skill points for Fire Mastery,
  Frozen Orb, and Cold Mastery.  If the sorceress has extra points, boost
  Meteor for more damage.

  -- EQUIPMENT --
  Buy a Plated Belt as soon as possible -- you want the 16 slots!
  If possible, buy one with a resistance mod.

  The sorceress needs items with resistances.  When shopping, if you find an
  item with better resistances than what the sorceress has, and she meets
  the item's requirements, buy it.  If the sorceress has excess cash, gamble
  for circlets.  Some very nice properties can spawn on them.

  One note:  if the sorceress kills Hephasto and picks up the Hell Forge
  Hammer, consider skipping the quest for now and hold the hammer if the
  sorceress needs fire resistance.  (Hammer provides Fire Resist +40%.)
  The Infernos from Venom Lords are deadly, and big bad Diablo likes to
  spray fire everywhere.  Once she kills Diablo, go back to the Hellforge
  and complete the quest.  The hammer disappears when the Hellforge quest
  is complete.

  If you want Energy Shield, buy a staff (or find an orb) with the skill.
  Spending four points just to get Energy Shield and its other prerequisites
  hurt.  Energy Shield is relatively long-lasting, so the sorceress can cast
  it even in town, then put the item away in the stash.

LEVELS 30-45
------------
At last, Frozen Orb and Masteries are available.  Things start to get much
easier in Normal thanks to those skills.  Even a low level Frozen Orb will
slay everything with ease in Act V Normal.  Just finish off the rest of
Normal.  If the sorceress is under level 45 when she defeats Baal for the
first time, stay in Normal and clear Worldstone and Baal repeatedly game
after game for experience.  As the sorceress gains levels, add more points
to Frozen Orb.

  -- STATS --
  Try to boost vitality to at least 100; the sorceress will need the life to
  survive the rigors of Nightmare.  Also, start adding points into strength
  and/or dexterity to meet future item requirements.

  -- SKILLS --
  Place one point into Fire Mastery, Frozen Orb, and Cold Mastery as soon as
  the sorceress reaches level 30.  As she gains more levels, add more points
  to Frozen Orb.  Max out Frozen Orb as soon as possible; a high level
  Frozen Orb will obliterate nearly everything in Normal and Nightmare.

  -- EQUIPMENT --
  If the sorceress does not have a three perfect diamond shield or the
  unique gothic shield The Ward, make Ancient's Pledge for a resistance
  boost -- the sorceress will need it.  Qual-Kehk will give the runes you
  need to make it.

  Soon, monsters will have the potential to drop charms with good
  properties.  Pick them up and keep them if they turn out to be good.
  Charms that boost resistances or life are keepers.

  If you are playing on the realms, look for a four socket non-magical
  Crystal Sword, Broad sword, or Long Sword.  Such a sword will be used to
  make Spirit, a powerful caster weapon runeword.

=================
 11.2. Nightmare
=================

LEVELS 45-75
------------
Nightmare is rather uneventful, and the sorceress can vaporize most monsters
with a high level/maxed Frozen Orb.  Just play through all the acts while
killing every monster your sorceress meets.  She will steadily gain levels,
about five levels per act if you do all the quests and kill everything the
sorceress meets along the way.  Try to level the sorceress up to 75 before
you send her to Hell difficulty.  If the sorceress does not level up to 75
by the time she reaches Baal, clear Worldstone Keep repeatedly for the
experience.

When the sorceress reaches Act II, hire a Defensive (Holy Freeze) Town
Guard.  He is the best bodyguard for the Meteorb sorceress, and given a
powerful weapon, he can take down monsters immune to her attacks.

  -- STATS --
  Increase vitality to 150 -- the life will be needed in Nightmare.  Then
  consider the strength and dexterity requirements for all your planned
  items, and boost your scores to match.  All leftover stat points should
  be added to vitality to increase life even higher to help prepare the
  sorceress for Hell.

  -- SKILLS --
  During the thirty levels spent in Nightmare, the sorceress will earn
  enough skill points to max her three primary attacks which are already
  partially developed.  Frozen Orb should be the first skill to max, which
  will happen at level 49 if you added points to Frozen Orb at every level.
  The second skill to max is Meteor.  When Meteor is done, the third skill
  to max is Fire Ball.  Once Fire Ball is done, add points to Fire Mastery.

  -- EQUIPMENT --
  Unless your sorceress has found or gambled a nice rare (or better) helm,
  use the Lore runeword.  Sol rune isn't too hard to find, especially from
  the Countess.

  If the sorceress has not found a great set or unique belt, craft a caster
  belt.  Use a sharkskin belt as a base for the 16 slots.  It will give the
  sorceress some much needed mana and, if you are lucky, some resistance
  and/or life.  The recipe for the crafted caster belt is a magic
  light/sharkskin/vampirefang belt, Ith rune, jewel, and perfect amethyst.

  Nightmare is a good difficulty to farm bosses because the rewards are
  good, and the monsters are not too powerful.  The Countress can yield
  runes as high as Ko (though her special drop peaks at Io).  Andariel and
  Mephisto are excellent targets for set and unique items.  Contrary to what
  Arreat Summit says, magic-find works even on act bosses, and you will find
  set and unique items after some runs.  Upgrade to better items when you
  get the chance.

============
 11.3. Hell
============

LEVELS 75+
----------
Playtime is over!  Hell lives up to its namesake as nearly every monster can
take a lickin' and keep on tickin' thanks to high life, resistances, and
regeneration.  Experience gains will slow down as you are forced to play at
lower player counts (that or get bored out of your mind spending a minute or
longer to kill each monster).

You need to be patient and play smart.  If your sorceress runs around in the
open like an idiot, wakes up hordes of monsters, then tries to nuke them all
at once with whatever attack skill of choice; the monsters will take some
damage, but they will survive then swarm around the sorceress, and she will
die.  A sorceress twinked with the best equipment might be able to steamroll
through monsters with ease, but an untwinked sorceress with common junk
cannot.

As the sorceress enters unknown territory, she will need to walk, not run,
WALK as she explores the area.  Once monsters are encountered, stop and kill
them all.  Be prepared to retreat some distance as the sorceress and her
merc slowly kill off the monsters one at a time.  Only when the group is
eradicated (or parked if unbeatable) can the sorceress safely advance
forward until she meets the next group of monsters.  Progress in Hell feels
like two steps forward, one step back.

You will need to take advantage of the terrain to protect your sorceress
from bloodthristy monsters.  Hide behind small fences, rivers, or similar
gaps of terrain; and blast monsters from there.  Against ranged attackers,
hide behind whatever cover is available when missile fire comes her way.

Keep her merc alive and handy at all times.  He will be used as a tank.
Some fights, such as The Ancients, are very hard for the untwinked.
Good luck!

At this stage of your character's life, you will play out your endgame
goals, whether it is to farm the Countess repeatedly for runes, kill
Mephisto for items, or clear Worldstone Keep and Baal repeatedly for
experience and the occasional item.

  -- STATS --
  If you have not fulfilled the strength and dexterity requirements for all
  your items by now, do so until all requirements are met.  If the sorceress
  uses a shield to block, invest just enough dexterity to maintain 75% block
  rate.  Spend all the remaining points into vitality.

  -- SKILLS --
  Add points to Fire Mastery until it is maxed.  When that happens, spend
  the rest of the skill points into either Fire Bolt or Cold Mastery,
  depending on which element you want to power up.

  -- EQUIPMENT --
  Resistances are paramount.  If your sorceress only has common junk, do
  something to boost those resistances:  prismatic amulet, 3 perfect diamond
  or Ancient's Pledge shield, safety crafts, charms, anything!  Failing
  that, consider going back to Nightmare, farm some bosses, and pray
  something good drops.

  If armor is lackluster, make Smoke as soon as possible.  Farm the Countess
  repeatedly for runes until Nef and Lum are found.  Find a two socket Dusk
  Shroud or Wyrmhide as a base for Smoke.  Hell Countess runs also yield
  good experience until level 80.

  If the sorceress raises excess gold, gamble on jewelry.


============================================================================
  12. Boss Strategies
============================================================================

Below are strategies for defeating the various bosses that stand in your way
toward Matriarch (or Guardian) status.

Caveat #1:  Much of this is based on my experience playing with the 1.10
betas, and when my test sorceress was untwinked.  If you have a fully
optimized sorceress, you will mostly likely sweep away the boss and its
minions in a few seconds.

Caveat #2:  I have not yet played through the game with the melee
Enchantress build.  Obviously, tips that involve shooting at the enemy
do not apply, but I do not have an alternative strategy for the Enchantress
yet (and most likely never will).

=============
 12.1. Act I
=============

BLOOD RAVEN
-----------
You can skip the quest and come back later when the sorceress is much higher
in level and can kill Blood Raven in one hit.  If you decide not to skip the
quest, the sorceress should be at least level 6 and have learned Static
Field.  If she does not have Static Field, Blood Raven may take a long time
to kill depending on how high the players setting is.

Blood Raven is a corrupt rogue archer.  As an archer, she shoots arrows at
the sorceress.  She can also shoot flaming arrows, and those hurt low level
characters badly.  In addition to arrows, she can create zombies at will.
When she is doing neither, she runs at fast speeds trying to keep her
distance away from the sorceress, but close enough so she can snipe at her.

When the sorceress enters Burial Grounds, kill every monster you find
outside the graveyard (gates).  This area will be your sanctuary;
Blood Raven will not follow characters outside the graveyard.  Her minions
will though, and this is where you kill them if you need to lure some away
from Blood Raven.

Once the parimeter is clear, slowly enter the graveyard until you find some
monsters.  Draw them out and kill them.  Repeat until there are few enough
that the sorceress can attack Blood Raven without interference from them.

As for Blood Raven, close in on her while avoiding stray zombies and cast
Static Field.  Once her life is low, finish her off with weapons or other
spells.  The sorceress will almost certainly take hits from her arrows
and/or run out of mana after casting spells.  Drink potions to keep her
life and mana up.  If either drop too low, run away past the graveyard and
recover.  If Blood Raven creates enough zombies such that they get in the
way, run away from Blood Raven and lure the zombies outside the graveyard,
then kill them.  Just make sure Blood Raven is out of sight or she will
snipe at the sorceress or create more undead for her to play with.  Once
the sorceress has recovered and/or eliminated obstructing minions, go back
to Blood Raven and resume the fight.

(Hell)
All the undead have immunity to lightning, and Blood Raven gains knockback.
Otherwise, the basic strategy is the same.  Lightning sorceresses may have
to dodge the undead, but with Lightning and/or Chain Lightning, they have
no problems hitting Blood Raven.  Fire and/or Cold sorceress can simply
vaporize any undead that get in the way.

THE COUNTESS
------------
The Countess and her minions are nearly the same as yet another random boss
pack, and may be treated as such.  They are all melee attackers, and can be
taken out with hit-and-run tactics.  The Countess can create Firewalls to
block the doors to her chamber, but they are weak and not much of a threat
as long as the sorceress does not stand in them for long.

(Hell)
The Countess is always Fire AND Cold immune.  If the sorceress does not have
viable lightning attacks, she will need to cast Static Field to weaken the
Countess, then let the merc finish the job (or use weapons yourself).
Fortunately for you, the Countess has low life, and any good merc should
have no problem pasting her.  In 1.11, the Countess has a small chance to
drop the Key of Terror.

ANDARIEL (CATACOMBS LEVEL 4)
--------

     +------+
     |      |
     | ANDY |           
     |      |           Clear the first two rooms before you let the
     |      |           sorceress proceed through the big doors to the
 +---+      +---+       north.  In the middle of the second room is a large
 |              |       pit.  You may find it useful as an obstacle to slow
 |              |       down Andariel.
 +---+      +---+
     |      |           Before the sorceress enters the final chamber, send
   +-+--  --+-+-3-+     her to town to buy some antidote.  Use them to boost
   |          |   |     poison resistances of the sorceress and her merc.
   |    []        |     Have some extra handy to reboost resistances or to
   |          |   |     remove poison if the sorceress takes a hit from
   +----------+---+     Andariel's venomous attacks.

Open the doors and slowly move forward.  If you find monsters, stop and kill
them immediately; you do not want interference from other monsters once you
start fighting Andariel.  Eventually, the sorceress will gain Andariel's
attention, and she will head straight for the sorceress or her merc.
 
If Andariel is distracted by your merc, the sorceress can approach Andariel
once she starts an attack then cast Static Field to weaken her.  Run away
once Andariel recovers.  If your merc dies, you may want to resurrect her
(only Rogue is available in Normal).  Do not let the sorceress try to use
Static up close if Andariel has not committed to an attack -- she can turn
on the sorceress in a blink and kill her quickly.

Once Static is no longer useful, use other attacks to finish Andariel off.
If the sorceress has Blaze, cast it, run or walk away from Andariel, and let
Andariel follow the sorceress.  Soon, Andariel will fall easily.  Just watch
out for the occasional poison spray and try to dodge it. 

(NM/Hell)
In higher difficulty levels, a low level Blaze is too weak to kill.  Just
blast her with your primary skills.  Hide behind the pit of blood in the
second room to slow down Andariel's pursuit.

==============
 12.2. Act II
==============

RADAMENT
--------
Radament is an unraveler with a unique look.  As an unraveler, his attacks
include powerful magic missiles against distant foes, or poison gas or
brutal arm swipes against nearby foes.  He can also heal and revive lesser
undead.

As soon as you see his skeleton minions, stop and lure them away, few at a
time.  Lead the skeletons far away from Radament as possible so he cannot
revive his minions when the sorceress kills them.  Repeat until most or all
the minions are gone.  Cold can be used to freeze and shatter the minions,
but some are immune to cold in Hell.

Use Static Field to weaken Radament.  If the sorceress needs to get close to
Radament, bring some antidote to remove any poison she may take.  Otherwise,
blast Radament from a distance.  His missiles are powerful, so either dodge
them or hide behind the merc.

(Nightmare)
Beware if Radament has Fire Enchanted.  He has so much hit points for his
level that the sorceress, if she is around level 40-50, has low enough life
that his explosion on death will likely one-hit kill the sorceress if she
gets caught by the explosion.  (I have even seen barbarians die to this in
large games.)

COLDWORM THE BURROWER
---------------------
If you are lucky, you will find Coldworm alone, and the sorceress can reach
the chest before more adult maggots appear out of nowhere.  She can simply
open the chest, grab the Staff of Kings, then leave.  Coldworm does not need
to be killed in order to progress.  However, more often than not, chances
are that the room will be filled with a combination of beetles, swarms,
and/or maggots that spawned randomly near Coldworm; and the sorceress will
have to blast a way through to the chest.  

If the sorceress needs to kill some bugs, stay inside the narrow hall
before the chamber so that monsters that come after her are forced into a
single-file line, and only one monster can attack the sorceress at a time.
Go after the chest once the coast is clear.

FANGSKIN
--------
The sorceress should be at least level 18 and have learned Teleport.
If not,  She is probably too weak to continue on anyway without some
leveling up first.

At the very least, Fangskin and his minions inhabit the level, and can spawn
anywhere except near the stairs.  Often, other random monsters can spawn
here, and these can include unravelers, zombies, skeletons, or more claw
vipers.  More random boss packs are possible.

At the center of this level is an altar surrounded by a circle of stone.
This circle has a narrow break at the bottom, which is the only way by
foot to the altar.  The break is too small for the claw vipers to cross.
However, any random undead that have spawned are thin enough to walk across
the break in the circle.

Usually, the space inside the circle is clear (or maybe occupied by one or
two weak undead the sorceress can pushover).  If this is the case, all the
sorceress needs to do is teleport to the altar, kick it, grab the amulet,
then portal back to town.  If you want her to stick around and kill
monsters, just stay inside the circle and blast away.

In the event Fangskin spawns inside the circle, he and any minions with him
are trapped and helpless, and all you need to do attack them from a distance
until they die.  Dodging the sparks from Fangskin should be easy enough.  If
possible, stay near the entrance so the sorceress does not get overwhelmed
by possible random monsters out in the open.  Once the altar is clear,
teleport over there and smash it.

SUMMONER
--------
This sorcerer can cast a variety of spells, which include the following:
Fire Ball, Fire Wall, Frost Nova, Glacial Spike, and Weaken.  However,
he favors Frost Nova against targets close to him or Glacial Spike against
targets at a distance.  Both of them can hurt the sorceress badly if her
cold resistance is low.

Before you try to fight the summoner, lure away any monsters that get in the
way, then kill them.  Once the way is clear, make sure cold resistance is
high before the sorceress goes after the Summoner; if it isn't, drink a
thawing potion for a quick boost.  When ready to fight the summoner, attack
him from a distance with powerful long-range skills while avoiding his.
The Summoner has low life, so he should fall quickly.

(Note to pre-1.10 veterans:  his Fire Wall is much weaker than it used to
be, so it is not much of a threat anymore.  However, his Glacial Spikes seem
to have improved, and he can kill with a few shots if you get careless.
Overall, he is no longer the cheap, killer boss he used to be.)

(Hell)
In 1.11, The Summoner has a small chance to drop the Key of Hate.

DURIEL
------
"Looking for Baal?" -- Duriel

Although he has no ranged attacks aside from his Holy Freeze aura, his melee
attacks are brutal and will tear the sorceress apart.  There is no way she
can tank him, especially if Duriel decides to Jab or Smite.  Mercs will fare
a little better, but they will die quickly without support, and sometimes
they will die anyway.

The sorceress will fight Duriel in a very small room with nowhere to hide.
Before you enter Tal Rasha's Chamber, use thawing potions to boost cold
resistances of the sorceress and her merc.  Bring some extra potions to
refresh resistance when needed.  As soon as the sorceress enters the
chamber, open a town portal.  Duriel will greet the sorceress by quickly
closing in then grinding her or the merc to a pulp.  Once the fighting
starts, the sorceress will spend nearly every moment on the run.

Once Duriel targets the merc, approach Duriel and cast Static Field to
weaken him.  If possible, feed potions to your merc to help keep him alive.
If the merc dies, go to town immediately and resurrect him, then resume the
fight.  Before reentering your portal, drink some more thawing potions.
Reopen the portal as soon as the sorceress reenters the chamber with Duriel.
(It is a good idea to put a TP scroll in a belt slot.)  Once Duriel's life
is down to a sliver, blast him with other attacks.

(NM/Hell)
This is one long, hard fight.  Once Static Field becomes ineffective,
the sorceress will need to use the Bullfighter tactic to fight Duriel.
Be careful though, he can use the skill Charge to ram the sorceress to
her death.  If you see multiple transparent images trailing Duriel, he is
Charging.  Fortunately, Duriel does not seem to charge very often, if at
all.  Duriel is content on running after the sorceress before taking a
normal swing at her.  In any case, keep the sorceress's mana up at all
times.  If mana runs low, go back to town and refill on potions.

===============
 12.3. Act III
===============

RUINED TEMPLE
-------------
The place can literally be a death trap.  It is possible for monsters to
spawn right next to the entrance then ambush the sorceress.  Your best bet
is to clear the entrance if possible.  If the sorceress is overwhelmed, you
may want her to teleport to a dead-end room and pray that it is clear.  If
it is, open a town portal, then blast monsters few at a time.  If the place
is too hot to handle, you may need to start a new game and hope for a less
dangerous spawn.

The tome is guarded by the extra fast Sarina the Battlemaid and her minions.
If you can, try to separate some of her minions and kill them one or few at
a time.

TRAVINCAL
---------
You will want to split up the council and kill each of them one by one.
To do this, you need some place to lure them to.  Before the sorceress even
tries to face the council, Travical should be cleared first.  As for the
council, attack the minions first; they are weaker and can be frozen.
Save the uniques for last.  One change for the better since 1.10 is that a
council member cannot target himself with healing spells.  However, multiple
council members can still heal each other.  All the more reason to pick off
the council one by one.

Against a minion, if the sorceress has Ice Blast, freeze him.  Alternate
between power skills and Ice Blast.  Against unique council (or any council
if the sorceress lacks cold attacks), just blast them from a distance.  If
you see Hydra cast against the sorceress, move her away from it, though try
to keep your target on the screen so the sorceress can continue attacking.

MEPHISTO (DURANCE OF HATE LEVEL 3)
--------

         +-----+
         | $$$ |              Mephisto himself is not too hard, but the
      +--+ - - +--+           sorceress should face him without interference
      |    MEPH   |           from his lackeys.  When entering Durance 3,
+-----+  +     +  +-----+     stay near the bottom and go left.  If you find
|      - -     - -      |     any blood lords (vampires) or undead stygian
+- - -+--+-___-+--+- - -+     dolls, wipe them all out.
|     |~~~~~~~~~~~|     |
|     +--+~~X~~+--+     |     Once the bottom is clear. Slowly move north.
|  C     |~+-+~|     C  |     You will eventually wake up Bremm Sparkfist
|     |  |~| |~|  |     |     (Aura Enchanted, Lightning Enchanted).  This
+---+-+ ++~| |~++ +-+---+     guy can be very dangerous to fight.  If his
    |   +--+ +--+   |         aura is really nasty (e.g., Might, Conviction)
    |       C       |         or your sorceress's lightning resistance is
    +-+----+ +------+         too low, just park him at the lower left
    | +----+ +------+         corner of the level.  Once Sparky is out of
    |    - - - -    2         the way, progress to the middle and kill any
    +----+     +----+         stray undead or council minions before you go
         +-----+              further.

The path ahead splits, and the sorceress can go either left or right.
Either way has a council member unique -- Maffer Dragonhand (Extra Strong,
Extra Fast) on the left, and Wyand Voidfinger (Mana Burn, Teleportation) on
the right.  The sorceress should fight Voidfinger because he is weaker and
slower, making him the easier of the two council members.  His mana burn is
just an inconvenience (unless you are playing an Energy Shield sorceress).
After Voidfinger is gone, destroy any more undead you find before you send
the sorceress to Mephisto.

Now to Mephisto himself.  He has a variety of nasty attacks that can make
short work of the sorceress and her merc.  She may or may not be able to
approach Mephisto safely to cast Static Field on him.  However, Mephisto
has one fatal weakness:  he is nearsighted. Mephisto cannot target much more
than a screen away, but you can!  Therefore, if you can keep Mephisto away
from the sorceress within this magic distance, the sorceress can attack
Mephisto without resistance, and this is all possible thanks to the
Moat Trick.

The "Moat Trick":
Use the bloody moat to separate your sorceress from Mephisto.  Lure Mephisto
to the top end of the moat, and teleport the sorceress to some distance
away from the bottom of the moat.  Mephisto will try in vain to approach
the sorceress, and remain stuck at the north end of the moat.  Move the
sorceress far enough away so that Mephisto is barely visible at the upper
left corner of your screen.  If done correctly, Mephisto cannot target the
sorceress, and he is at your mercy.  From here, get a namelock on him and
blast away with long range skills.  It may take a while, but he will die
eventually.

If the sorceress has a melee merc, kill him off (let Mephisto kill the merc
before you try the moat trick if necessary).  Otherwise, the merc will also
try in vain to reach Mephisto, and he will stand directly between the
sorceress and Mephisto.  Mephisto will target the merc, but with the merc
dancing back-and-forth like a moron, any shots that miss him will very
likely hit the sorceress instead!

If the sorceress has a ranged merc, you only have to worry if the merc
starts to wander ahead of the sorceress towards Mephisto, trying to find a
good spot to shoot from.  If that happens, cast Teleport in place to recall
the merc.  Eventually, the merc will find a safe spot to shoot from and be
of some help.

==============
 12.4. Act IV
==============

IZUAL
-----
Izual is always found within or near a large pack of monsters.  Destroy all
other active monsters before you fight Izual.  Do not run the sorceress into
unknown territory.  She might wake up even more monsters and make the fight
harder.

As for Izual himself, he can cast Frost Nova or take a swing at the
sorceress with his sword, which adds cold damage if it hits.  His attacks
are strong, but are not excessively so (i.e., no one-hit kills).  Thawing
potions will help if the sorceress needs cold resistance.

Use Static Field to weaken Izual.  Otherwise, if the sorceress has a tank to
hide behind, let her do so and blast Izual from a distance.  If there are no
tanks to hide behind, use the Bullfighter tactic.

HEPASHTO THE ARMORER
--------------------
"Your soul shall fuel my Hellforge!" -- Hepashto

The sorceress must kill Hepashto to get the Hell Forge Hammer.  He hits very
hard, and if he gains something like Fanaticism or Conviction for an aura,
you are looking at a likely one-hit kill if he touches the sorceress.
If the sorceress's Static Field level is low, don't even try to use it.
To make matters worse, Hepashto speeds up as he takes damage.  By the time
his health is low, he can outrun the sorceress.

The key to killing Hepashto is to find a spot where he cannot reach the
sorceress (easily) and from there, blast him non-stop from a distance.  The
pathways between the River of Flame waypoint and Chaos Sanctuary are ideal
for separating the sorceress from Hepashto.  Hepashto may be dumb, but he
is smart enough to back off the screen beyond the reach of the sorceress's
attacks when he cannot reach her after several seconds.  If this happens,
your sorceress will need to teleport closer to him and lure him back to the
sorceress.  When Hepashto follows the sorceress again, send her back to the
safe spot and resume blasting.  Repeat until Hepashto is dead.

As an alternate strategy, the sorceress can go to Chaos Sanctuary, open four
of the five seals and kill all of the seal boss monsters.  Lure Hepashto
close to the fifth seal, then activate it.  Hepashto will die instantly.

GRAND VISIER OF CHAOS (left seal boss)
---------------------
This is easy.  The storm casters like to stay in one place and shoot a bunch
of weak shots at the sorceress that are easy to shrug off.  Just blast them.
If they approach, just back off until they cannot resist the urge to shoot.

LORD DE SEIS (middle seal boss)
------------
Lord De Seis is an Oblivion Knight, but his minions are Doom Knights.
De Seis' aura always spawns as Fanaticism, but it can change if the
sorceress leaves the area then returns.  Although the Doom Knights will
chase after the sorceress, they are bound to De Seis via the teather effect,
and will turn back to De Seis if separated by more than a screen away,
which is conveniently about the same distance as Lord De Seis' aura range.

Avoid De Seis and attack his minions first.  Lure the Doom Knights away from
De Seis.  The sorceress should stay far enough away so that the Doom Knights
will lose the aura when they go after the sorceress.  Once the Doom Knights
turn away, blast them in the back.  Once all the Doom Knights are gone,
attack Lord De Seis.  De Seis himself is not much of a threat; just blast
him and dodge his shots when necessary.

INFECTOR OF SOULS (right seal boss)
-----------------
Infector and his minions are the hardest of the three seal bosses.  As Venom
Lords, their overpowered Infernos can burn the sorceress to a crisp almost
instantly.  To make matters worse, Infector has the Extra Fast mod, making
him and his minions very fast and hard to break up.  As with Lord De Seis,
the balrog minions are bound to Infector of Souls via the Teather Effect,
but because of their speed, it is hard to separate minions from Infector.
Be VERY careful if you see a lone minion run after the sorceress; Infector
and the rest of his pack may rush in to join the fun a second later, and if
they catch the sorceress while she tries to blast that one stray minion,
she may die.

The best way to beat Infector's group is to separate and kill each minion
one at a time, despite the difficulty of doing so.  Slowly approach
Infector's group.  If you see a minion give chase, try to lure it away
(and pray that the teather breaks).  Usually, if the sorceress moves too
far away, the minion will turn back toward Infector and you will need to
try again.  Sometimes, you will get lucky and the minion will chase the
sorceress relentlessly.  This is your chance to kill the lone minion.  You
can use the Bullfighter tactic out in the open, or you can play it safe by
treating the minion like Hepashto and lure it to the River of Flame where
you can easily find a safe place for the sorceress to blast the monster.
Once Infector himself starts chasing the sorceress, treat him like Hepashto,
and lure him and any minions following him to the River of Flame, where you
can find a safe place for the sorceress to blast them all.

DIABLO
------
"Not even death can save you from me!" -- Diablo

Diablo has powerful attacks, but he telegraphs them and his recovery is
relatively slow.  You can tell which attack Diablo will use if you pay
attention to his body movement.  Below are the three attacks you need to
watch out for:

FLAME NOVA:  Diablo curls up a little before thrusting his body forward and
his arms back.  Just take the hit.  It is nearly impossible to avoid, but
it is weak if the sorceress's fire resistance is high.  If you want the
sorceress to approach and use Static Field against Diablo, this is the
perfect time to do that.

LIGHTNING INFERNO:  Diablo quickly thrusts his hands up and out.  Run to the
side and around Diablo to avoid it.  The sorceress should not try to stand
her ground -- it is too strong.  If the sorceress needs to approach Diablo,
run toward him at a spiral inward.

FIRESTORM:  Diablo lowers his hands to the ground then raises them up high
as if scooping up dirt.  Run to the side to avoid it.  In Nightmare and
Hell, this is even stronger than his Lightning Inferno and it can kill
instantly if the sorceress is caught by multiple streams at point-blank
range.  Note, he uses the same animation to cast Fire Wall and his evil
prisons, but since those are insignificant and he seldomly uses them, always
assume he will cast Firestorm.

The sorceress should not stand close to Diablo when he is standing or
walking around doing nothing.  However, this is not because of his melee
attacks; in fact, they are rather weak.  It is because Diablo can unload a
Firestorm to fry the sorceress in an instant.  Sometimes, Diablo can run on
all fours and chase after the sorceress.  Just run away so the sorceress is
not standing close to Diablo when he stops.  Keep Diablo clearly visible on
your screen at all times so you can see what he will do and you can react
accordingly.  All this fight boils down to is a matter of dodging Diablo's
attacks, and blasting him between them.

If you have town portals near Diablo, he will cast a special bone prison,
labeled "an evil force", to block town portals.  This is of no concern since
the sorceress can teleport in and out at will.  If your sorceress uses Chain
Lightning, she can even shoot the prison and have the lightning bounce
between it and Diablo.

=============
 12.5. Act V
=============

SHENK THE OVERSEER
------------------
Shenk is surrounded by Enslaved.  Kill the Enslaved and any other random
monsters nearby.  Once Shenk is alone, just blast him from a distance.
Be careful though, his whip gives him very long reach, and he can tag the
sorceress from several yards away.  Use the terrain to your advantage and
make it hard for Shenk to get the sorceress.  When Shenk dies, every monster
near him will die also, except for Uber Diablo should he spawn in your game.

Note about Uber Diablo here:  At the start of the first 1.10 ladder season,
the fireworks resulting from Shenk's death could indeed slay Uber Diablo
instantly.  That exploit has been patched on the realm servers and it no
longer works there.  The auto-kill will still work on 1.10 mods that feature
Uber Diablo however.  In 1.11, the auto-kill exploit does not work anymore
anywhere.

(Hell)
Shenk and minions are immune to Cold.  A Blizzard or Frozen Orb sorceress
will need to rely on a merc or find another way to overcome Shenk.

NIHLATHAK
---------
Nihlathak has the skills Teleport, Arctic Blast, and the feared Corpse
Explosion.  He can create minions and turn them into suicide minions at
will.

If the sorceress has an item with the mod 'Slain Monsters Rest In Peace',
wear it!  That will make corpses from the monsters the sorceress kills
unusable, and Nihlathak cannot blow up those corpses with his Corpse
Explosion.  Without Corpse Explosion, Nihlathak is a wimp.  Likely, you will
not have a R.I.P. item, and the sorceress must kill Nihlathak the hard way.

First, lets talk about some Corpse Explosion basics.  The damage caused by
Corpse Explosion is 60%-100% of the monster's base life.  The higher life
the corpse had, the more damage Corpse Explosion will cause.  The type of
damage caused by Corpse Explosion is half physical and half fire.
Therefore, the sorceress should have at least maximum fire resistance.
Damage reduction and fire absorb will lower the damage even more, but since
those items are uncommon, they may not always be an option.

Nihlathak's Corpse Explosion is a bit different than the Necromancer's.
The good news is Nihlathak has a damage penalty to his Corpse Explosion.
The bad news is his Corpse Explosion can critical hit for double damage, and
it can inherit some unique boss mods such as Cursed if Nihlathak has them.
(Before 1.10, Nihlathak had no damage penalty.  Combined with a huge
explosion radius, Nihlathak could easily kill a sorceress without max damage
reduction and fire resistance in one blast in Nightmare and Hell.)

Now on to beating Nihlathak...

If you are playing solo, turn /players down to 1 before the sorceress enters
the Halls of Vaught.  Also, you may want to kill off the merc if you do not
want him creating corpses.  If the sorceress has Thunder Storm active, wait
for it to time out and do not recast it.  If the sorceress has Energy
Shield, turn it on.

Once you find Nihlathak, lure as many monsters away from Nihlathak as
possible.  Lure them a few screens away to about half way between the
stairs and Nihlathak's pentagram so Nihlathak cannot target the corpses for
explosion.  Once Nihlathak is as alone as he can be, get him on your screen
and blast him from as far away as possible.  If he creates some minions,
ignore them and teleport to another suitable spot to attack Nihlathak from
and continue the attack.  The sorceress will probably need to teleport
around or back-and-forth frequently to avoid getting caught.  If Nihlathak
creates too many minions and they get in the way, lure them away for the
kill then come back for Nihlathak.

Keep the sorceress's life full at all times; she needs all the life she can
get to withstand a corpse explosion in case a corpse is accidently made.
If her life drops, drink a potion immediately.  If you need time for the
potion to take effect, teleport away to safety.

Whatever you do, do not move the sorceress too close to Nihlathak.  His
Arctic Blast can hurt, but worst of all, he may Teleport away... possibly
to your corpse pile where he can have a field day blowing up corpses when
the sorceress catches up to him again.

(NM/Hell)
Nihlathak spawns with random mods.  Watch out if he is Cursed.  If the
sorceress receives Amplify Damage, teleport away from him and go to town
immediately to get rid of the curse.

In Hell, his minions are cold immune, but Nihlathak sometimes isn't.
If your sorceress has a strong Blizzard or Frozen Orb, and he is vulnerable
to cold, use it against him.

Some comfort to pre-1.10 veterans:  Since 1.10, the radius of Nihlathak's
Corpse Explosion in Hell is only several yards, comparable to the radius of
the sorceress's Nova.  Before 1.10, the radius was much larger -- about two
screens at least!  With greatly reduced range, it should be much easier for
the sorceress to stay away and avoid getting blown up by an exploding
corpse.

In 1.11, Hell Nihlathak has a small chance to drop the Key of Destruction.

THE ANCIENTS
------------
Three barbarians make up The Ancients.  They include Talic, Korlic, and
Madawc, and each barbarian uses different skills.  Talic carries a sword and
shield, and uses the skill Whirlwind.  Korlic carries a big polearm, and
uses the skill Leap Attack.  Madawc carries two axes, and uses the skill
Shout and a normal attack that emulates Double Throw.  Once the Ancients
wake up, the sorceress must defeat all three without leaving Arreat Summit.
If you open a town portal during battle, the Ancients will revert to statue
form, and the sorceress will need to use the altar again to restart the
battle. (In single-player, if the sorceress dies, the Ancients will reset
also.)

Because the sorceress cannot go to town during the fight (without losing),
she should bring an excess of life and mana potions.  Before she wakes up
the Ancients, fill the belt and free inventory space full of potions.  In
addition, drop a belt full or two of potions on the ground, preferably at
or near a corner, then return to town briefly to refill the belt before
returning to the summit.  Once done, the sorceress has about two minutes(?)
to act and fight the Ancients before the potions on the ground disappear.
If the sorceress drinks potions, pick the potions off the ground to replace
them as soon as possible.  In addition to potions, get an item with life
replenish.  If you can park the Ancients (difficult but possible), the
sorceress will need the item to slowly regenerate life.  Thankfully, the
Ancients themselves cannot regenerate.

After the sorceress activates the altar, she has a second or two to act
before the Ancients hunt her down.  During this time, cast Static Field
against them.  If its range is short, pick an Ancient.  Korlic is a good
choice because he is the least dangerous up close, but perhaps the most
dangerous if left alone due to his Leap Attack.  After that, the basic
strategy is hit-and-run: attack the Ancients from a distance, then run or
teleport away when they get close.  Often, Talic and Korlic will be in the
lead after the sorceress with Madawc trailing behind them.

Basic Ancient AI:
TALIC: will follow the sorceress mindlessly.  Once he gets close, he may use
Whirlwind.  Never let him get close to the sorceress.

KORLIC: will follow the sorceress like Talic.  Sometimes, he will use Leap
Attack from a distance.  If you see Korlic leap after the sorceress,
teleport away.

MADAWC: will follow the sorceress until he gets a few yards away from her.
Then he will pause or back off a little, then throw axes at her.  If the
sorceress tries to approach him, he may run away until backed into a corner,
then he will throw axes like a maniac.

Other Tips:
* Do NOT try to use the Bullfighter tactic against any of the Ancients.
  Talic can Whirlwind as he nears striking distance and mow the sorceress
  down.  Korlic can suddenly Leap Attack from even a short distance and nail
  the sorceress.  Madawc simply throws axes at the sorceress.

* If you need to park one of the Ancients, lure an Ancient either to the
  bottom of the level near the sealed Ancient's Way passage, or to one of
  the top corners flanking the Worldstone Keep entrance.  Once you lure the
  Ancient to one of those spots, quickly teleport the sorceress away, from
  the bottom end to the top end or vice-versa.  There is a chance that
  Ancient will not follow and will stand idle until the sorceress approaches
  him again.  If he follows her anyway, try again.

* Madawc has a stupid weakness.  If a pillar is between him and the
  sorceress, Madawc may throw axes at the sorceress, but the axes will hit
  the pillar.  If the sorceress stands still, he will continue to throw axes
  at the pillar.  If the sorceress has a ranged merc or a skill that can hit
  him while he is stuck (Hydra is great for this), you can beat him without
  any risk.

* It is a good idea to park Madawc first, then attack Talic and Korlic.
  Once Talic and Korlic are defeated, go after Madawc.  Take advantage of
  Madawc's pillar weakness.

(NM/Hell)
Each of the Ancients gain boss mods just like random unique bosses, and
depending what they get, the fight can become much harder.  Fortunately, you
can use the "reset" feature to your advantage. If their random mods make the
Ancients unbeatable, open a town portal to reset The Ancients, then reuse
the altar.  The Ancients will respawn at full strength, with mods selected
randomly again.

You should reset the Ancients if any the following apply:
* If any Ancient spawns with Aura Enchanted, and the aura is anything except
  Blessed Aim.

* If more than one Ancient spawns immune to all of the sorceress's attack
  skills.

* If Talic or more than one Ancient spawns with Extra Fast.

* If Talic or Korlic spawn with Lightning Enchanted.

(Hell)
In addition to random mods, each Ancient has a default immunity to one of
the sorceress's elemental trees.  Talic is Fire Immune, Korlic is Cold
Immune, and Madawc is Lightning Immune.  This is the toughest fight in the
game hands down!  If the sorceress is untwinked, this fight is long and very
hard at best, impossible at worst.  Good luck!

THRONE OF DESTRUCTION
---------------------

         +-----+
         | <B> |
         | . . |
+---+    | . . |    +---+
|   |    | . . |    |   |     The sorceress should clear the bottom and
|   |    | . . |    |   |     sides of the entire level before she visits
+-+ |    +-+ +-+    | +-+     Baal at the top center of the level.  Doing
  | |      | |      | |       so will give the sorceress plenty of space to
  | +-+  +-+ +-+  +-+ |       park Baal's minions in case some of them prove
  |   |  | . . |  |   |       too difficult to fight.
  +- -+--+ . . +--+- -+
  |                   |       When entering the top center room, you will
  +- -+--+ +-+ +--+- -+       find Baal blocking the way to the Worldstone
  |   |  | | | |  |   |       Chamber.  You cannot attack Baal here.
  +- -+--+ +-+ +--+- -+       However, If the sorceress strays too close to
  |                   |       him, he will cast Decrepify on her.  When the
  +- -+--+ +-+ +--+- -+       room is clear, Baal will laugh then conjure a
  |   |  | | | |  |   |       wave of minions for the sorceress to fight.
  | +-+ ++ +-+ ++ +-+ |       When the first wave of minions is defeated,
  | |   |       |   | |       Baal will laugh again then launch the second
  | |   | +---+ |   | |       wave.  The sorceress will fight five waves of
  | +-+ | |   | | +-+ |       minions.  After the fifth wave is gone, Baal
  |   | | +-3-+ | |   |       will laugh then walk through the portal to the
  |   | |       | |   |       Worldstone Chamber.  The sorceress will enter
  +---+ +-------+ +---+       the portal to fight Baal.

General tips on the waves:
* Before each wave, if the sorceress has attacks with a duration (e.g.,
  Meteor, Blizzard), cast them repeatedly where the wave will appear.
  The monsters will take some damage as soon as they spawn.

* Stay away from Baal if possible.  Decrepify is murder to mercs, and taking
  extra damage is not good for the sorceress.  The exception to this is if a
  wave leader is Cursed.  Amplify Damage is even worse than Decrepify.

* If the sorceress gets cursed (Amplify Damage) by one of the wave leaders,
  approach Baal so that he will cast Decrepify on the sorceress and/or her
  merc.  Taking +50% damage is better than taking +100% damage.  In
  addition, Decrepify from Baal will wear off sooner than Amplify Damage
  from a cursed boss.

* If the sorceress needs to stay near Baal so that his Decrepify will
  override Amplify Damage from a cursed boss, a good place to stand is where
  Baal is standing.  Have the merc block the stairs so that monsters cannot
  reach the sorceress without killing the merc first.

* The teather effect applies to the forth and fifth waves.  They are led by
  Ventar and Lister respectively.

(Baal's minions #1)
COLENZO THE ANNIHILATOR: can raise any of his minions the sorceress kills.
However, the group is rather weak.  The sorceress can either lure the
minions away and kill them, then go after Colenzo; or she can try to kill
Colenzo immediately then the minions.

(Baal's minions #2)
ACHMEL THE CURSED: leads a mixed group of unravelers and skeletons.  Try
to lure the skeletons away from the unravelers then kill them.  Once the
skeletons are gone, go after the unravelers.  Baal's unravelers are
especially nasty; in addition to their usual abilities, these unravelers can
poison the sorceress just by being within a screen distance away.  If you do
not want to mess with their poison, blast them from as far away as possible.

(Baal's minions #3)
BARTUC THE BLOODY: and his group can be treated like the Council in
Travical.  Seperate minions from Bartuc and kill them one by one.

(Baal's minions #4)
VENTAR THE UNHOLY: leads a group of extra fast Venom Lords that are just
as nasty as Infector of Souls from Chaos Sanctuary, only this time the
sorceress has no River of Flame to stop them from reaching her.  Break
up the group and attack them few at a time.  You may need to use the
Bullfighter tactic to kill at least some of the minions.  If Ventar is
too much for the sorceress, park him.

(Baal's minions #5)
LISTER THE TORMENTOR: and his minions are a unique species of monsters found
nowhere else.  Although they have no ranged attacks, their melee attacks are
extremely damaging.  They can also Smite, which has knockback and hits
automatically, bypassing defense and blocking.  Unless Lister spawns with
Extra Fast, the Minions of Destruction are rather slow, and all the
sorceress needs to do is blast them from a distance, run or teleport away
if they get close, repeat.  If Lister spawns with Extra Fast, he and his
minions can reach the sorceress quickly, and it is best to park them.  They
represent the last wave of minions from Baal.  If you can clear the throne
room, Baal will leave to the Worldstone Chamber, and the sorceress can
follow him there.  With this in mind, you need not kill all the minions; you
can simply lure them away then teleport the sorceress back to the throne.

BAAL (THE WORLDSTONE CHAMBER)
----

   +---+-------+---+
+--+ $ |//^^^//|  -+--+
|$ |   |/+---+/|      |
|$     |/|   |/| X    |
|  |   |/++ ++/|      |     Baal is more annoying than dangerous, but he
+--+   |//|B|//|  -+--+     does have some nasty tricks that can kill the
   |   |//|A|//|   |        sorceress if you get too careless.  None of
   |   |//|A|//|   |        Baal's elemental attacks are very strong if the
   +-  +--+L+--+  -+        sorceress's resistances are high, although the
   |               |        constant knockback from his Hoarfrost
   |   |       |   |        (a.k.a. cold wedge) can get very annoying if the
   +---++ . . ++---+        sorceress gets caught and dragged along by it.
        | . . |             However, Baal has some attacks you need to watch
        +-----+             out for:

BLOOD MANA:  Just like succubi, Baal can place this vile curse on the
sorceress if she has more mana than life.  The easiest defense is to have
more max life than max mana, but if that is not an option, bring some extra
life potions and drink them when needed to keep the sorceress's life up.
(If the sorceress has more life than mana, Baal will cast Defense Curse
instead, which can be ignored easily.)

FESTERING APPENDANGES:  These vine-like creations will lash out at the
sorceress and can inflict heavy damage if she is hit.  In Hell, these are
Cold Immune.  Just teleport away from them.  If you must get rid of them,
blast them from a safe distance.

MANA RIFT:  This is a huge yellow flaming stream similar to Inferno in
appearance.  If the sorceress gets caught in it, she will take little
damage, but her mana will be drained down to nothing or close to it.
(Note to pre-1.10 veterans:  Before 1.10, this used to be a helix-shaped
bolt similar to lightning, except it did irresistable magic damage, and
a lot of it, enough to kill in two hits, plus the huge mana burn.  This
inferno-like replacement since 1.10 is much weaker than the original
helix-shaped attack.)

VILE EFFIGY:  Baal makes a copy of himself, much like the assassin Shadow
Master.  His copy has less life, but has all of Baal's firepower.  You can
tell the fake from the real Baal by looking at Baal's life bar.  If the word
Demon is perfectly centered below Baal, you are highlighting the real Baal.
If the 'D' in Demon is lined up with the 'B' in Baal, you are highlighting
the fake Baal.  If you are playing solo, you can get rid of the copy by
going to town, wait a few seconds (do some shopping while you are waiting),
then come back.  The copy will be gone, though Baal can easily conjure up
another at any time.  Of course, you can kill the copy by damage if you
want.

The first thing the sorceress should do when she gets to Baal is to cast
Static Field on him.  If the level of Static is low, Teleport her on top of
Baal then cast Static.  Baal's melee attack will hurt quite a bit, but it is
not overwhelmingly strong.  Be prepared to Teleport away if the sorceress's
life gets too low.  Once Static loses its effectiveness, attack Baal from as
far away as possible, at least beyond the range of his Mana Rift.  If the
sorceress has long range killers such as Hydra or Lightning, Baal should be
easy.  If the sorceress has medium to short range attacks such as Frozen Orb
or Nova, treat him like a ranged attacker; that is hide behind cover, take a
shot, then duck back.  While the sorceress attacks, be prepared to teleport
to a safer spot in case Baal teleports next to the sorceress, or if Baal's
double or numerous appendages appear to whack the sorceress.

If you are playing solo, don't be afraid to send the sorceress back to town
when Baal creates too many appendages and/or his double.  As stated earlier,
if the sorceress stays in town for a few seconds before returning to Baal,
they usually disappear when the sorceress reenters the battle.

(Note to pre-1.10 veterans:  Although Baal is weaker than before
offensively, he has 50% blocking and much higher life now.  Prior to 1.10,
Baal was a pushover and leech-bait for melee but was a nightmare for some
caster builds.  Now, Baal is just a punching bag that is a chore to kill for
less-than-optimized characters.)

===================
 12.6. World Event
===================
The World Event is only available on BattleNet realms, and can be triggered
only in games of Hell difficulty.  When triggered, the message "Diablo Walks
the Earth" will appear, and the screen will go dark and quake.  That means
the special boss monster "Uber Diablo" has arrived, and he will replace the
first superunique the game tries to spawn since his arrival.

UBER DIABLO
-----------
Uber Diablo is faster and far stronger than Act IV boss Diablo. He has all
of Diablo's attacks, except they are more damaging.  Even his melee attacks
hurt, and can kill the sorceress in one or two hits.  In addition, Uber
Diablo can cast Armageddon.

ARMAGEDDON:  Much like the druid version, except Uber Diablo's version
actually hurts the sorceress.  Small meteors rain down randomly on a small
area centered on Uber Diablo.  The animation used to cast this is the same
scoop animation used to cast Firestorm.  If not active, Uber Diablo's first
move will usually be to cast Armageddon before he uses other attacks.

Uber Diablo has extremely high life, magic and physical resistances of 50,
and all elemental resistances at 95!  As if that was not enough, Uber Diablo
can regenerate -- quickly.  His blocking percentage is 50%, which would seem
useless against the sorceress, except the sorceress must use weapons to
transmit prevent monster heal and stop Uber Diablo's regeneration, should
you find that necessary.  If chilled by cold, Uber Diablo is slowed only
by 15%.

To prepare for and defeat Uber Diablo, the sorceress will need the
following:
* Weapon with Prevent Monster Heal, preferably ranged
* Maximum fire and lightning resistances
* Some way to lower enemy resistance
* Rest of inventory filled with potions, to minimize town visits

If the sorceress is an Enchantress (fighter) she will also need the
following:
* High attack rating
* Fast attack speed
* High (90% or higher) chance of crushing blow
* Life Tap (either Dracul's or knife/wand with Life Tap charges)
* Cannot Be Frozen

Defeating Uber Diablo is a four step process:

#1. Select the Battlefield
--------------------------
First of all, pick a place where you want Uber Diablo to spawn.  The ideal
place is Arreat Summit.  If the sorceress wakes up the Ancients, Uber Diablo
will spawn along with the Ancients behind Madawc.  Opening a town portal
after the spawn will reset the Ancients, leaving Uber Diablo alone with the
sorceress.  At Arreat Summit, Uber Diablo has the same "kill the pillar"
flaw Madawc has, allowing the sorceress to attack and hide from Uber Diablo
at the same time.

If the sorceress cannot reach Arreat Summit, the next best place to fight
Uber Diablo is one of the early areas in Act 1, where the area is wide open
with few obstacles, easily accessable via waypoint, and the monsters are
relatively easy to kill.  You want a wide open field so the sorceress has
plenty of room to maneuver and dodge Uber Diablo's attacks.  Pick Bishibob
in Cold Plains or Rakanishu in Stony Field as the spawner for Uber Diablo.
Kill all monsters in the way BEFORE your sorceress attacks Uber Diablo.

#2. Stop the Healing
--------------------
If the sorceress cannot damage Uber Diablo faster than he can regenerate,
the first thing the sorceress must do is hit Uber Diablo with her weapon
with Prevent Monster Heal to nullify his regeneration. For the blaster
sorceress, it will not be easy due to the combination of her poor attack
rating and Uber Diablo's stats, but it can be done.  Be cautious though, the
sorceress is a slow attacker, especially with throwing weapons, and she will
likely take damage as she tries to hit Uber Diablo.  Once Uber Diablo is
hit, the sorceress can attack him with spells.  The sorceress must stay
close to (or within two screens of) Uber Diablo at all times to maintain the
vileness effect.  If the sorceress is forced to go to town (or run far away
from Uber Diablo) for whatever reason (e.g., killed, need to refill potions,
etc.), and no other players are nearby, the sorceress will need to hit Uber
Diablo with Prevent Monster Heal again or he will resume regeneration as
soon as he takes damage.

#3. Crush the Resistance
------------------------
With all of Uber Diablo's elemental resistances at 95, the sorceress needs a
way to lower them so her spells can inflict any meaningful damage.

If your sorceress specializes and uses Cold and has high Cold Mastery, you
are in luck.  High level Cold Mastery can lower Uber Diablo's mighty cold
resistance of 95 down to sub-zero cold resistance.  With Cold Mastery, the
sorceress does not need resistance lowering items for cold attacks to be
effective.

If your sorceress specializes and uses fire or lightning attacks, she needs
Lower Resist charges, Infinity, and/or items with enemy resistance drain to
reduce Uber Diablo's resistances of 95 down to more reasonable numbers.
Unless the sorceress has a merc equipped with Infinity, she will need a
knife or wand with Lower Resist charges on the weapon switch.  The sorceress
will use the weapon to cast Lower Resist on Uber Diablo.

#4. Fire at Will
----------------
Once Uber Diablo loses his regeneration and, if necessary, suffers from the
Lower Resist curse, it is time for the sorceress to blast Uber Diablo with
her best attacks.  Cast Static Field until it reduces Uber Diablo's life
below half, then cast your sorceress's strongest attacks to wipe out the
rest of Uber Diablo's life.  Be warned that it may take a long time if the
sorceress is not fully twinked out.  If the sorceress needs Lower Resist
charges to lower Uber Diablo's resistances, keep the curse on him at all
times; if Lower Resist wears off, use another charge to renew it.

Tactics for fighting Uber Diablo are much the same as Act IV boss Diablo.
Recommended times for the sorceress to attack Uber Diablo:
* When Uber Diablo is casting a Flame Nova.  The Nova is still weak if the
  sorceress has high fire resistance.

* When Uber Diablo is walking around.

* When Uber Diablo is nearly finished with a Lightning Inferno attack.
  The sorceress can eat a frame or two without much trouble.

If your sorceress manages to slay Uber Diablo, he will drop one of the most
powerful items in the game, the Annihilus.  Uber Diablo drops only one
charm, regardless how many players are in the game.  Good luck!

===================
 12.7. Pandemonium
===================
Pandemonium is a special quest available only on BattleNet realms, and can
be accessed only in games of Hell difficulty.  To get started, the player
must find the following three items:  the Key of Terror from The Countess,
the Key of Hate from The Summoner, and the Key of Destruction from
Nihlathak.  Keys are not guaranteed to drop after you slay one of the key
bosses.  In fact, assuming a full drop of five items, the chance for one key
to appear out of the whole pile is approximately 10% (exact odds vary with
each boss).

Once you have all three keys, go to Harrogath in Act 5, place the three keys
in the cube, then hit transmute to open a portal to one of following three
places:  Matron's Den, Forgotten Sands, or Furnace of Pain.

The level chosen is random.  However, the portal to the chosen level can be
spawned only once per game.  Cubing a second set of keys in the same game
will select one of the two remaining levels randomly.  Cubing a third set of
keys will open the last level.  Therefore, it is a good idea to bring three
sets of keys and open all the portals in the same game.  Otherwise, you may
waste keys opening a portal to a level you have been to before.

In each of the three levels lurks a super boss.  These bosses include the
following:  Lilith in Matron's Den, Duriel in Forgotten Sands, and Izual in
Furnace of Pain.  You must slay these bosses to gather relics from the prime
evils, which include the following:  Diablo's Horn, Baal's Eye, and
Mephisto's Brain.

Once you have gathered all three relics, go to Harrogath in Act 5, place the
relics in the cube, then hit transmute to open a portal to Tristram.  This
Tristram is not the same level where you have found Deckard Cain, zombified
Griswold, and Wirt's Leg.  Instead, this is the home of very angry,
beefed-up versions of Diablo, Baal, and Mephisto, all three in the same
level -- welcome to Uber Tristram.  If you manage to defeat all three
bosses, which is easier said the done, the last one to fall will drop the
Hellfire Torch and Standard of Heroes.

Notes about all the Pandemonium bosses:
* All the Pandemonium bosses are immune to Prevent Monster Heal.

* All the Pandemonium bosses are immune to at least one type of elemental
  damage.  These immunities are NOT displayed.

* The bosses have predefined special boss attributes much like superunique
  monsters, but they are hidden like their immunities.  Every boss has the
  boss attribute Extra Fast, and most have extra attributes.

----------+-------------------+--------------------------------------
 Boss     | Immunities        | Properties (all have Extra Fast)
----------+-------------------+--------------------------------------
 Lilith   | Poison            | Multiple Shots, Extra Strong(?)
 Duriel   | Cold              | Cold Enchanted
 Izual    | Cold              | Cold Enchanted
 Mephisto | Lightning, Poison | Lightning Enchanted, Aura Enchanted**
 Diablo   | Fire              | --
 Baal     | Fire, Cold        | Cold Enchanted, Magic Resistant(?)
----------+-------------------+--------------------------------------
** Uber Mephisto's aura is Conviction, level 20.

-----------------------------------
 12.7.1. Resources Required to Win
-----------------------------------
Okay, you are crazy enough to send a sorceress instead of a paladin to take
care of the uber pest problem.  Whatever the reason, what can the sorceress
do to win and nab the Hellfire Torch, all by herself in a one-player game?

Attack spells alone cannot defeat all the bosses.  The sorceress needs top
gear for her spells to barely overcome the bosses' regeneration, and some
bosses are immune.  Only weapon attacks can stop regeneration and cause
enough damage to defeat all the bosses.

Although it is possible to build and equip the sorceress such that she can
kill the bosses herself, the sacrifices required to do so are too much; the
sorceress will lack either the offense or defense to do the job.  What can
be done instead is to equip a melee merc for the job.  The merc can hit
faster and more reliably, not to mention it is much safer for the sorceress.
However, no matter how buff the merc can be, the bosses are so powerful that
they can crush your puny merc in a blink.  As if that wasn't enough, any
other monsters in the area might distract your merc, leaving the boss free
to regenerate.

So what can you do to protect your merc?  The best protection is not let
your merc get hit.  How you may ask?  You find an item with Revive charges,
raise some powerful monsters, then go say hello to the big boss with your
army.  Once the boss starts attacking your revives, the merc can literally
administer crushing blows to slay the big, bad boss.

While your army is busy with the boss, your job as the sorceress is support.
If more monsters appear, the sorceress should destroy them if possible.  If
no other monsters are around and it is just your army against one boss, your
sorceress, assuming she is using Harmony, can shoot at the boss to help
suppress regeneration.

The resources the sorceress and her mercenary need to conquer Pandemonium
are listed below.

Item Properties
---------------
* Crushing Blow
You need this close to or at 100% to damage bosses quickly.  In a one-player
game, Crushing Blow from a melee attack removes 1/4th current life from
normal monsters or 1/8th current life from bosses.  The Pandemonium bosses
have over a half a million life, and 1/8th from a five or six-digit number
is huge.

* Open Wounds
Since all the Pandemonium bosses are immune to "Prevent Monster Heal", you
need another way to stop their crazy fast regeneration.  Poison can stop
regeneration, but two out of the six bosses are immune to it.  The one
irresistable and reliable method to stop the bosses' regeneration is open
wounds.  Open wounds causes the monster to bleed uncontrollably for eight
seconds.  During that time, the monster loses health instead of regenerating
it back.

* Revives
You need tough summons to help protect the sorceress and her merc.  It is
they who will absorb the damage the bosses will dish out, and they can tank
better than the merc.

Other classes, such as the paladin, use life tap.  However, the sorceress
doesn't have the attack speed or skills like Smite to make it work, and
Life Tap alone isn't going to save the merc from a quick one-two killing
blow from the likes of Lilith or Uber Mephisto.

Mercenary
---------
Hire an Act 2 merc only; he has reach and the best weapon options.
The Act 5 barbarian can do the job, but his weapon options are neither
as effective nor as cheap as the Act 2 merc.  The ranged mercs are not
powerful enough to take down the Pandemonium bosses by themselves.

As for the merc's aura, choose either Might or Blessed Aim.  Might is ideal
for the extra damage, but if you notice that your merc cannot hit reliably
enough, Blessed Aim might help.  Also, if you want the sorceress to use a
bow to shoot at bosses (to keep them poisoned or bleeding), but cannot hit
reliably, Blessed Aim may help her too.

Act 2 Merc Equipment
--------------------
You will load as much crushing blow and open wounds as possible on to the
merc, with crushing blow taking top priority.  Given the options available,
the merc will not be able to amass damage reduction to protect him from
heavy hits.

Helm:  Guillaume's Face
  Features 35% chance of crushing blow, and there is no substitute for this.
  If you want to socket this with something, add a perfect ruby for more
  life or Jewel of Fervor for more attack speed.  (Actually, Cham rune is
  ideal for cannot be frozen, but most legitimate players will never obtain
  a Cham rune.)

Armor:  Duress
  Features crushing blow, open wounds, resists, and high defense.  Again,
  there is no substitute for this.  Rattlecage may have more crushing blow,
  but you need the open wounds from Duress if you want the merc to do all
  the work.

With the above two items, your merc will have 50% crushing blow and 33% open
wounds.  For crushing blow to be effective, your merc needs at least 90%
total.  This means at least 40% more crushing blow must from the weapon.

Weapon option #1:  Infinity
  The ideal weapon, with crushing blow and Conviction, the latter of which
  destroys the bosses' defense and resistance.  Conviction will not only let
  the merc and revives hit the bosses' (except Uber Mephisto) easily, but
  also let the sorceress damage bosses easily with spells, barring immunity.
  However, most will not be able to afford or find the two Ber runes needed
  for this powerful weapon.

Weapon option #2:  Ber'd The Reaper's Toll
  The Decrepify proc is perfect for slowing and weakening the bosses.
  Decrepify is also the perfect Uber Baal killer because it slows him enough
  to short curcuit many of his attack attempts, causing them to fail.  With
  only 50% chance of crushing blow from the helm and armor, socketing a Ber
  rune into The Reaper's Toll is necessary to increase the percentage to
  70%, which will be enough once Decrepify activates.  The damage resistance
  penalty from Decrepify increases the damage from crushing blow, so the
  killing speed evens out more or less.  The Ber rune needed for
  The Reaper's Toll also makes this an expensive option.

Weapon Option #3:  Obedience
  This affordable weapon features high damage, crushing blow, and an Enchant
  proc.  Just take the merc to Act I, and have him kill some wimps until
  Enchant activates.

Weapon Option #4:  Hone Sundan
  Not as powerful as Obedience, but viable nonetheless thanks to the
  all-important crushing blow.  Three sockets give you some options.  Three
  Um runes will add enough open wounds for it to bleed bosses constantly.
  If Um runes are not an option, place a perfect emerald in one of the
  sockets for 7 seconds of poison damage and either Eth runes to reduce
  target defense or Shael runes to speed up attacks.  Alternatively, you
  can just socket this with whatever and let the sorceress or revives take
  care of the poisoning.

Sorceress Equipment
-------------------
If the merc is going to do all the work killing Pandemonium bosses, then
Revive charges are absolutely REQUIRED.  Revives are needed to protect the
merc from the bosses' attacks.  Only two weapons provide this capability for
the sorceress.

Weapon Option #1:  Harmony
  Easy to make, can create more minions than any other item, and lets the
  sorceress launch arrows at bosses.  However, the sorceress must lose the
  shield to equip Harmony, and the Revive charges are expensive to
  replenish.  For a blaster sorceress, only the Valkyrie oskill, Revive
  charges, and weapon speed matter, so Harmony can be assembled in a
  Hunter's Bow rather than in an elite bow to avoid requirements.

Weapon Option #2:  Eternity
  The only other weapon with Revive, and the only option if Harmony is not
  available.  With Sur and Ber runes required, Eternity is difficult to
  obtain.  Availability issues aside, Eternity can only create eight revives
  at a time, which is barely enough.  However, the charges are much less
  expensive to replenish, and the sorceress can still use a shield.

The one thing you must keep it mind is that once you have revived monsters,
you do not want to remove or switch weapons.  Doing so kills all revives
instantly.  Therefore, if you want to prebuff, do so before you raise an
army.

You do not need to switch other equipment except possibly to reclaim the
resistance the sorceress lost as a result of removing the shield.  For
instance, you may want to swap out Harlequin Crest or Nightwing's Veil for
Kira's Guardian.  However, if you want the sorceress to hit bosses, there
are some other equipment options that can help.  Everything below is purely
optional.

Switch Weapon Option #1:  Demon Limb
  This is for the blaster sorceresses who did not learn Enchant.  Before
  you start raising an army and killing monsters, you want to buff your
  sorceress with Enchant if you want her to hit bosses with weapons.  While
  you are at it, buff your merc too.  Enchant from this is used solely for
  the attack rating boost.

Switch Weapon Option #2:  Call to Arms
  This will raise the life of your sorceress and, more importantly, your
  merc.  Once you have Revives, you will not be able to switch back to this
  without killing them.  Use the warcries right before reviving the first
  monster.  If you plan to use Demon Limb, use that first, then remove it
  for CtA.

Gloves Option #1:  Cleglaws's Pincers
  Adds slows target by 25%.  This combined with Arachnid Mesh may disrupt
  some of Uber Baal's attacks.

Gloves Option #2:  Dracul's Grasp
  Adds 25% chance of open wounds.

Boots:  Gore Rider
  Adds 10% chance of open wounds.  Wear this only if the sorceress is
  wearing Dracul's.

Charms:  any poison damage charm.
  Place one charm with poison damage in the inventory, the longer the
  duration the better.  This will be used to stop regeneration.

Gold
----
Yes, gold!  If you use Harmony, recharging Revive is expensive.  Without
vendor discounts from items (e.g., Edge), you need anywhere from one to two
million gold to replenish all the revive charges you need to defeat all six
Pandemonium bosses a single time.

-----------------------------------------
 12.7.2. Basic Pandemonium Boss Strategy
-----------------------------------------
The strategies below assumes the above equipment configurations for crushing
blow merc and Revive charges.

1) Use any prebuffs the sorceress has before you revive the first monster.

2) Kill and revive several monsters.  Eight revives, the limit from
   Eternity, is barely enough.  Twelve to fifteen is ideal and plenty.
   For the relic bosses, you can simply revive monsters killed along the
   way.  For Tristram bosses, you may need to search various areas to find
   suitable monsters to revive.  Don't forget that revives last for three
   minutes tops, so be quick.

3) Once a boss is found, let your army swarm the boss.

4) Cast Static Field to lower boss health to half.  Exception:  If the boss
   is Uber Mephisto, who is immune to lightning, skip this step.

5) If the sorceress uses Harmony, shoot the boss to poison it, provided it
   is not immune to poison.

6) If monsters appear out of nowhere or from offscreen, the sorceress should
   destroy them while her army concentrates on the boss.

7) Keep an eye on the merc's health.  If the boss wises up and targets the
   merc, teleport to recall the merc and let your army swarm the boss again.
   If you are lucky, the boss will target the revives instead of your merc.
   If the boss manages to kill your merc, go back to town immediately, raise
   the merc, then return to the fight.

----------------------------
 12.7.3. Pandemonium Levels
----------------------------

MATRON'S DEN
------------
The design of this level resembles the Crypt and Mausoleum levels in Burial
Grounds.  The red portal the sorceress steps out of appears near a staircase
leading up, but she cannot climb them.  This immediate area is clear and
relatively safe, but once the sorceress starts exploring, you will encounter
corrupted rogues and/or succubi.  Hiding in one of the many hallways is your
target Lilith.

LILITH: is perhaps the strongest of the three relic bosses.  She has the
boss attributes of Multiple Shots and possibly Extra Strong.  Her melee
attacks are very powerful, dealing hundreds of points of damage plus poison
per hit.  Thanks to Multiple Shots, she can spray more poison than Andariel
could ever dream of.  Between freaky high damage and mass poison, Lilith can
shred even well equipped mercs in less than a second.  If defeated, Lilith
will drop Diablo's Horn.

Recommended Revives:
Any of the melee rogues in Matron's Den will tank well enough if you raise
several.  Otherwise, revive monsters immune to physical damage.

FORGOTTEN SANDS
---------------
This level is similar to one the open desert levels in Act 2.  The waypoint
near the red portal is non-functional.  Do not let these landmarks fool you,
this is not a mirror image of the Canyon of the Magi.  In fact, the layout
of the level is somewhat random.  Roaming around this dark desert are
numerous insect monsters and Uber Duriel.

UBER DURIEL: has the boss attribute Cold Enchanted, which increases his cold
resistance of 75 to 150, making him immune to cold, and gives his attacks
cold damage with cold duration.  If defeated, Uber Duriel drops Baal's Eye.

Warning:  Uber Duriel has a threat level of zero.  This means unless Uber
Duriel is the only enemy nearby, your merc and your army will chase after
other enemies, ignoring Uber Duriel.  All other Pandemonium bosses have a
threat level of 14, the highest of all monsters.

Tip:  Duriel's Holy Freeze will slow down your merc.  As a result, 33%
chance of open wounds may not activate frequently enough to stop Uber
Duriel's regeneration.  Therefore, you want constant poison damage to
suppress regeneration.  Revives that cause poison damage are ideal.  As a
alternative, the sorceress can shoot arrows at Uber Duriel to deliver the
poison damage herself.

Recommended Revives:
With Duriel's Holy Freeze and cold attacks, you want some monsters that can
deal poison damage in case your merc cannot hit quickly enough to maintain
open wounds.  Otherwise, use physical immune monsters as tanks.  The Hell
Swarms that can spawn here are ideal for tanking Duriel.  Scarabs can also
tank decently if you raise enough of them.

FURNACE OF PAIN
---------------
If not for the level's name and inhabitants, this level would appear no
different than Abaddon or the other Hell dungeons in Act 5.  This is the
hardest of the three Pandemonium key levels because of two out of the four
possible monsters that can spawn here:  Pit Lords and Oblivion Knights.
The Pit Lords found here (and in Uber Tristram) are immune to everything
except physical damage.  This means attack spells of ANY kind are useless.
Sorceresses who are not built to fight with weapons must let the merc do all
the killing.  This would not be so bad, unless Oblivion Knights have spawned
here too.  If that is the case, Iron Maiden will be a problem.  Fortunately
for you, this is the smallest of the three relic levels.  It should not take
long before you find Uber Izual.

UBER IZUAL: has the same skills as regular Izual plus two new skills:
Teleport and Chilling Armor.  When not in melee, Uber Izual will activate
Chilling Armor, then teleport on top of your sorceress for a quick, decisive
strike.  Uber Izual has the boss attribute Cold Enchanted, which just makes
his inherit cold immunity unbreakable.  Izual is the only Pandemonium boss
without blocking, making him the easiest boss to destroy, as long as your
merc is alive.  Any aggressive melee monster found in this level is suitable
as a revive.  If you encounter Izual just beyond the entrance portal and
need to find an army to revive, use the minions from Eldritch and Shenk.
If defeated, Uber Izual will drop Mephisto's Brain.

Tips:
* If you see knights, remove your merc's weapon, then destroy the leading
  oblivion knights immediately.  Give the weapon back once the knights are
  gone.

* If you find Izual amidst packs of other monsters, lure him away to a clear
  spot, with Izual's speed and Teleport, that should be easy.

(UBER) TRISTRAM
---------------
Caveat:  I used the PlugY mod (v 7.01b) to access Pandemonium in
single player.  The Uber Tristram bosses in the PlugY mod are unable to
summon monsters like they can in BattleNet realms.

Notes about Uber Tristram:
* You cannot use town portal scrolls in Uber Tristram.

* The red portal is the only way in and out.  Keep it clear and safe.
  Do not let monsters swarm the portal, or it may be impossible to return
  if the sorceress dies.

* Attack each boss one at a time.  If the bosses spawn next to each other,
  do whatever you can to lure the bosses away from each other.  Diablo is
  the easiest to lure away.  Baal will sometimes teleport after the
  sorceress.  Mephisto usually stays put to launch attacks nonstop.

* No sorceress can defeat all three bosses with spells alone.  No matter
  what attack skills the sorceress uses, at least of one of the bosses will
  be immune.

* All three bosses can spawn monsters at will.  Pandemonium Diablo can
  spawn the elemental-immune Pit Lords.  Uber Baal can spawn vampires and
  specters.  Uber Mephisto can spawn a variety of skeletons.  (The PlugY mod
  does not feature this.)

PANDEMONIUM DIABLO: has nearly the same stats as World Event's Uber Diablo,
with immunity to fire, slightly lower resistance to other elements, slightly
higher life and damage, and faster regeneration as minor differences.
The greatest difference between Pandemonium Diablo and all his other
incarnations is his behavior.  Instead of erratic movements and frequent
casting of Firestorm or Lightning Inferno, Pandemonium Diablo tends to chase
an enemy then beat it down with melee attacks, pausing occasionally to cast
a Flame Nova.  Pandemonium Diablo rarely uses his other attacks.  This
behavior is remarkably similar to Izual.  Perhaps the greatest threat from
him are the elemental immune Pit Lords he can summon.

UBER BAAL: is much like his Act 5 boss incarnation except he is faster,
and he likes to teleport on top of the sorceress often. He has the boss
properties Cold Enchanted and Magic Resistant, making him immune to both
fire and cold.  Uber Baal has few tricks that makes him the most obnoxious
and difficult boss for your army to destroy.  His Hoarfrost will shove your
army away from him and severely damage revives not immune to cold.  His
penchant for teleporting on the sorceress forces everyone on your side to
move, and the possible appearance of festering appendages and a vile effigy
can distract your army from your true target, Uber Baal.

Tips against Uber Baal:
* Hoarfrost will demolish anything not immune to cold.  Use revives immune
  to cold.  Fortunately for you, the minions from Eldritch and Shenk are
  excellent choices and are close to the Frigid Highlands waypoint.

* The Baal clone does not share Uber Baal's immunities.  The sorceress
  should blast it away while her army attacks the real Baal.

UBER MEPHISTO: is the most feared of the three, and with good reason.
Out of all the Pandemonium bosses, he has the nastiest combination of boss
attributes:  Lightning Enchanted and Aura Enchanted, and the aura is level
20 Conviction.  This means elemental resistances are reduced by -125%.
Uber Mephisto has the same attacks as his Act 3 boss incarnation, except the
level of his Charged Bolt has been increased to 29.  High level charged bolt
combined with low resistances as a result from Conviction can instantly kill
players and mercs, reminding veteran players of patches prior to 1.10 the
horror that was known as a MSLE (Multiple Shots, Lightning Enchanted) boss.
You will need revives immune to Lightning (pre-Conviction), lancers or
scarabs being the ideal candidates, to absorb all the charged bolts Uber
Mephisto will be sweating out.  Otherwise, the sorceress and merc will die
for sure.


============================================================================
  13. Dueling
============================================================================

This assumes high level dueling, where players are level 80+ and can wear
all the equipment they intend their character to use.

============
 13.1. Tips
============
When coming over from PvM...
----------------------------
* Most duels take place in Blood Moor, Act I.

* Fill your character's entire inventory with charms.  If you are used to
  having the Horadric Cube and tomes in the inventory, stash the cube and
  dump the tomes to make room for charms.

* Buy some wands that you can sell back for 35k gold.  About four or five
  will do.  Put them in the stash.  During your duels, you will lose gold
  to rude gold stealers after your character dies.  When you tire of dueling
  and need some quick cash, sell the wands.

What to expect in a duel.
-------------------------
* No matter how good you think you are, expect your sorceress to
  die -- often.

* Your damage will be reduced to 17% against other players.

* Most good duelists have at least 75% resistance to your skills.  Some have
  even higher, and may wear absorb equipment.  However, many generally limit
  themselves to one absorb item per element.

* Some players have no qualms stacking resistances and absorb to nullify
  your sorceress's attacks.  There is nothing you can do about this no-win
  situation other than switch to another character that does not depend on
  elemental damage to win.

* Expect to duel against filthy rich players who have all of the
  top-of-the-line equipment.  If your character is not equipped similarly,
  you will lose easily against better equipped opponents.

Helpful Hints:
--------------
* Maximize your sorceress's resistances.  It does not hurt to stack extra
  beyond the maximum since elemental attackers may use resistance draining
  items and/or skills.  Do not forget about the resistance loss from the
  Anya bug.

* Beware of magic damage, there is only one item in the game that gives
  magic resistance, and that is a crafted safety shield, which boosts
  resistance by up to 10%.  However, nearly every rare/crafted item is
  grossly underpowered compared to other uniques and runewords, and the
  safety shield is no exception.  The item property 'magic damage reduced
  by x' reduces magic damage, but they are in such small amounts as to be
  insignificant against the standard attacks encountered in duels.  In other
  words, magic damage is irresistable for the most part.  Beware the bone
  necromancer and Enigma hammerdin.

* Always have at least +63% faster cast for 9 fps Teleport.  If your build
  is a lightning sorceress, then at least +78% faster cast for 13 fps
  Lightning.  Faster breakpoints are even better, but the 9/13 breakpoints
  will suffice.

* When your sorceress is not casting attacks, she should be casting Teleport
  to move.

* Be unpredictable in your movements.  If your opponent can read your
  patterns, he can run or lead his shots ahead of your path to intercept
  the sorceress.  In particular, the circle pattern is easy to spot.

* If your ping is consistently high (about 200+) because your connection is
  56k dialup, consider a blocking sorceress.  A blocking sorceress can tank
  bowazons and some melee builds effectively enough for you to win a
  shootout.

===============================
 13.2. Commonly Accepted Rules
===============================
Below are some unwritten rules that respectable players will observe.
A player who breaks the rules for whatever twisted reason can expect the
injured players at best, to avoid dueling the offending player, or at worst
gang up on the offending player and try to kill his character by any means
necessary, then guard the corpse until the player is driven out of the game.

-- NO CAMPING --
Do not guard the town entrance in an attempt to get cheap kills on players
trying to leave town.  Players get annoyed at campers.

-- NO NAKED KILLING --
Nobody likes getting killed while trying to recover his character's body,
and it is very annoying when it happens.  Sometimes, stray shots can and do
hit people trying to recover body.  It is unfortunate, but do not get angry
if that happens to you.  If you die repeatedly (three or more times) while
naked and/or you see other naked players die by the same player, you have a
naked killer on your hands.  Feel free to administer retribution should you
turn the tables.

-- NO GOLD STEALING --
Many people frown on gold stealing.  Do not take the pile of gold that drops
after you kill an opponent.  However, if the opponent recovers his body, but
does not take his gold some time after recovering body, feel free to take
the gold.

-- NO MAPHACK --
Maphack has features such as scrolling which allow the cheater to target
players off the screen, before the target arrives within screen distance.
(Note:  Using Maphack breaks BattleNet's Terms of Service agreement, not to
mention the malware risks involved with downloading and using Maphack.)

-- NO MERCS --
Dueling is supposed to be between players (and minions) only, without
interference from mercs.  This is usually not a problem because mercs tend
to drop like flies and constant resurrection, along with your character's
deaths, will quickly drain gold down to zero.

-- NO POTIONS --
Potion drinking is considered cheating, and people may refuse to duel you if
you get caught.  However, mana potion usage is undetectable.  (On the other
hand, if you win a duel and see several mana potions pop out of the slain
character, that may serve as a clue.)

-- NO SHRINES --
Also considered cheating.

-- NO TOWN RUNNING --
If your character runs away to town just because you are on the losing end
and did not want your character to die, it is often considered an automatic
loss.  However, it is okay to go to town AFTER you win a duel in order to
refill your life and/or mana, then go back out to begin another duel.

====================
 13.3. Which Skills
====================
Only few attack skills are powerful enough to be useful in a duel.
They include the following:

Primary Skills
--------------
* Fire Bolt / Fire Ball -- Both are direct fire attacks that can become so
  strong they can dispatch many opponents in one or two hits.

* Lightning -- This is a direct lightning attack with killing power and
  effectiveness similar to Fire Bolt/Ball.

* Blizzard -- This is a deadly carpet bomber that can one-hit kill players
  who cannot stack enough resistance to overcome Cold Mastery.

* Frozen Orb -- Despite relatively low damage, this fills the screen with
  hard-to-dodge shots, making it great for defensive oriented builds.

Secondary Skills
----------------
* Meteor -- Handy if you want to stack flames in an area, or to nail
  opponents who teleport on top of the sorceress.

* Chain Lightning -- Decent against opponents with minions.  Shoot the
  minion for some interesting results.

* Thunder Storm -- Handy for the extra damage.  Can put amazons into evade
  lock for a brief moment, weaken the druid's Cyclone Armor, and drain the
  mana from a sorceress with Energy Shield up.

* Ice Blast / Glacial Spike -- They can severely hurt those who fail to
  stack enough cold resistance to overcome Cold Mastery.  (Rather hard to
  do in Hell.)

=====================
 13.4. Basic Tactics
=====================
While dueling, your sorceress will employ one of the following basic tactics
against her opponent.

* Tanking
Your sorceress stands her ground, allowing her opponent to close in so she
cannot miss.  The sorceress relies on blocking and possible damage reduction
to protect her long enough for her to shoot down her opponent.

* Shootout
Your sorceress and her opponent simply stand still and trade shots with each
other.  Useful if think you can outdamage the opponent and your opponent is
spamming attacks that may be difficult or impossible to dodge.  (e.g.,
against Guided Arrow bowazon, Teeth necro, FoH paladin.)

* Hit-and-run
Against opponents that can absorb multiple hits from the sorceress's attacks
and/or can kill the sorceress in one or two hits, the sorceress teleports
away from her opponent, then fires a shot at the opponent when she has an
opportunity to do so.  Try to be be unpredictable with your Teleport
destinations.  If you fall into a pattern that your opponent can read,
he will move to cut you off (if melee) or lead shots to intercept you
(if ranged).

* Dogfight
This will happen when your opponent is constantly on the move, pausing only
briefly to fire a shot before moving again, and you must respond in a like
manner lest the sorceress will get hit.  In effect, both sides are trying
to employ hit-and-run against each other.  This frequently happens in a
sorc vs. sorc duel.

=================
 13.5. Opponents
=================
Below are details on what to expect from your opponents and, if possible,
some basic tips on how to defeat them.

Caveat:  The only sorceress build I have used for dueling is a pure
lightning sorceress with high blocking, so the comments may be biased
toward blasting the opponent with high damage attacks for a quick kill.

----------------
 13.5.1. Amazon
----------------
There are two main types:  bowazon and javazon.  Effective hybrids combining
the two styles are possible.  Regardless of the build, the amazon can dodge
spells with her passive skills, and she may have a Valkyrie out.

-- BOWAZON --
Amazon equipped with a bow, usually Windforce (or Faith), and uses the skill
Guided Arrow to kill.  If the opponent is a pure bowazon, she may use high
level Multishot to fill the screen full of arrows.  If the opponent is a
hybrid, she may switch to javazon mode at a moments notice.

* Expect the amazon to use knockback.  Windforce has it built-in.  Even if
   the amazon uses Faith instead of Windforce, she can still use crafted
   hitpower gloves to provide knockback.
* Blocking can stop Guided Arrow.  Since 1.10, the sorceress cannot get
   block-locked like she could in 1.09.
* Try to teleport close to the amazon, while avoiding the guided arrows.
   Once the sorceress is close, you can try to overpower the amazon in a
   shootout.

-- JAVAZON --
Amazon equipped with Titan's Revenge (usually) or Thunderstroke.  They can
be melee or ranged depending on the skills chosen.

Melee:  Will simply run up and try to stab the sorceress to death with Jab
 or Charged Strike.
Poison Javelin:  Will try to poison the sorceress with Poison Javelin.  If
 successful, the amazon will play defensively.  The poison is long-lasting,
 and the sorceress's life will eventually drain down to one.
Lightning Fury:  Will throw javelins at the sorceress.  Since the sorceress
 does not have minions, this is weak compared to other attacks.

* Several bolts from a high level Charged Strike together can rival the
   damage of Lightning from a lightning sorceress.  Stay away and use
   hit-and-run.
* Avoid getting hit by poison javelins or the clouds they leave behind.
   If the sorceress gets poisoned, her life will drain steadily toward one,
   and you may be forced to chase the amazon.
* Consider equipping Death's Hand against a poison javazon.
* You can attempt a shootout against a Lightning Fury javazon.

------------------
 13.5.2. Assassin
------------------
There are two main types:  melee and trapper.  Effective hybrids are
possible.  Some assassins use a powerful Shadow Master to help pin the
soceress down while the assassin attacks.  Also, assassins that duel-wield
claws can use Weapon Block to block spells.

-- MELEE --
These often use Dragon Flight (or Enigma/Teleport) to get close to
sorceress, then they will they to slash her to death.  Many use the
Whirlwind oskill from the Chaos runeword.

* A well built Whirlwind assassin can shred sorceresses quickly.
   Stay away and use hit-and-run.

-- TRAPPER --
These try to stun the sorceress with Mind Blast, then finish her off with
traps, usually Lightning Sentry as the trap of choice, and/or Shadow Master.
Pure trappers tend to have high trap damage, and they may use caster weapons
other than claws.  Hybrids have lower trap damage, but they are often
equipped like melee (e.g., dual-claw, with Chaos as one of them) and can
close in for the kill while your sorceress is stunned.

* Try to catch the assassin while she is laying traps.
* If your sorceress gets hit and stunned, run away from the traps before
   trying to cast Teleport.
* If the assassin hides behind her traps and refuses to come after the
   sorceress, just leave her alone and avoid the traps.

-------------------
 13.5.3. Barbarian
-------------------
The only dueling build I encountered so far in 1.10 is the Whirlwind
barbarian.

-- WHIRLWIND/BERSERK --
The barbarian will simply run after the sorceress (or Teleport if he has
Enigma).  Once he gets close, he will either try to Whirlwind through the
sorceress or whack her with Berserk.

* The barbarian is a FAST runner, thanks to Increased Speed.  He can reach
   the sorceress quickly.  (On the other hand, some barbarian builds I have
   read do not use Increased Speed.)
* The barbarian has the same base cast rate as the sorceress.  With Enigma
   and some faster cast, he can teleport quickly.
* If the barbarian is weak and uses Whirlwind mindlessly, the sorceress can
   try to tank.  However, most can take several hits before falling, so you
   will likely need to use hit-and-run.
* If you see the barbarian use Leap Attack, quickly Teleport out of the way,
   and aim at his landing destination.  (Note:  I have not dueled anyone
   smart enough to use high level Leap to take advantage of its huge
   irresistable knockback radius.)
* If do not mind some risk, you can let the barbarian get close then try to
   dodge Whirlwind.  If successful, you have a moment to blast him while he
   is helpless.
* Never try to tank against Berserk.  Berserk causes magic damage.  It can
   be blocked, but Berserk really hurts if it connects.

---------------
 13.5.4. Druid
---------------
The only dueling build I have encountered is the windy druid.  I have read
about fire druids, shapeshifters, and other builds, but I have not dueled
against them.

-- ELEMENTAL:  WINDY --
The likely druid build you will find in a dueling game is the windy variety,
specializing in Cyclone Armor, Tornado, and Hurricane.  With strong Cyclone
Armor, a windy druid can absorb thousands of damage from your sorceress's
attacks, making him hard to kill.  Hurricane is not very damaging.  What
really hurts is Tornado.  Without damage reduction, two tornados are usually
enough to kill the sorceress.  Tornadoes are slow and difficult to hit with
unless the druid is right on top of you.  That should not happen unless the
druid can teleport.

* Never let the druid get close.  This should not be a problem if the druid
   cannot Teleport.  If he can teleport (Enigma), anticipate when he will
   teleport, then teleport away before he can strike.  (Note:  Hard to do
   with high ping.)
* Your sorceress will probably need to launch multiple attacks in quick
   succession to weaken the druid.  Her first shot will probably get
   absorbed by Cyclone Armor, while successive shots might actually hurt
   the druid.
* If you ever stun the druid, finish him off before he can recast
   Cyclone Armor.

---------------------
 13.5.5. Necromancer
---------------------
The most common dueling necromancer build is the bonemancer, but you may
find summoners and the occasional poisonmancer.  Regardless of build, many
necromancers have a clay golem as a companion and a distraction to slow down
the enemy or to absorb Thunder Storm.  The golem's slow effect is of no
concern to our teleporting sorceress.

-- BONEMANCER --
Specializes in Teeth, Bone Spear, and Bone Spirit.  Bonemancer also has Bone
Armor and Bone Wall, but since those are useless against a sorceress, you
will not see the bonemancer use them while he is fighting your sorceress.
For his main skills, he can spray the area with Teeth, try to aim at your
sorceress with Bone Spear, or simply fire Bone Spirit and forget about them.
All of the above mentioned attacks cause irresistable magic damage.

* If the necro spams Teeth, you may attempt a shootout.  Teeth are tough to
   avoid, but cause relatively low damage.  Teeth will still hurt because it
   is irresistable (magic).
* Bone Spear can cause damage similar to Fire Ball or Lightning.  Standing
   still to blast a Bone Spear using necro in a shootout, while winnable,
   is not recommended.  Treat him like a sorceress and use hit-and-run.
* Avoid Bone Spirits at all costs.  Fortunately, they are slow.

-- SUMMONER --
This necromancer joins the game, spends a few minutes elsewhere looking for
monsters to kill and raise, then returns with a huge army.

* Stay away from his army!
* Lightning sorceress can try Chain Lightning against the army.
   Do not expect it to nuke the army though, the minions are tough.
* If the necro can teleport, and you have lag problems, do not duel him!
   Just leave the game.  If you stay and let him teleport on your sorceress,
   his army of monsters will hit her almost simultaneously, which is likely
   instant death.
* If you insist on dueling a teleporting, summon necromancer, be aware that
   some projectile attacks can hit only so many targets on the same square,
   and the necro can avoid them totally if he can stack enough minions over
   himself, which he can do easily with Teleport.  For example, Nova,
   Lightning, and Blizzard are all absorbed by minions.  The only attacks
   that will hit everything, including the necro, are splash effects such as
   Fire Ball or Glacial Spike.  The Lightning sorceress is out of luck here.

-- POISONMANCER --
This guy casts Lower Resist on you, then spams Poison Nova.  The nova
is difficult to avoid.

* Blitz him while he is busy casting Lower Resist/Poison Nova.  Yes, your
   sorceress will trade hits and lose life, but if her attacks are strong,
   he should die before your life drains to one.

-----------------
 13.5.6. Paladin
-----------------
-- MELEE --
The paladin will use Charge to catch the sorceress.  If the paladin
connects, and your sorceress is knocked back far away enough, he may attempt
another Charge.  Once the paladin gets too close to use Charge, he may use
Smite, Zeal, and/or Vengeance to finish your sorceress off.

* Charge is extremely fast and hard to avoid.
* If you find obstacles, hide your sorceress behind them to impair the
   paladin's charge.  If the obstacle is merely a gap, your sorceress can
   shoot over the gap to hit the paladin.
* Paladin cannot use Charge if your sorceress stands next to him.
* If the paladin uses Smite, never fight near walls.  If he Smites your
   sorceress into a wall, you will lose since the sorceress cannot escape
   perpetual knockback and stun once pinned to the wall.
* If your sorceress has high blocking and high damage attacks, tanking and
   trading hits is effective.
* If your opponent likes to use Vengeance up close with a slow weapon
   (such as a BotD Thunder Maul), quickly back off from melee range
   then blast him when he tries to attack.

-- HAMMERDIN --
Specializes in Blessed Hammer and uses Concentration for an aura.  Blessed
Hammers travel in a clockwise path, spiraling outward; and they inflict
magic damage.  Concentration boosts hammer damage, and if the paladin's
skill levels are high, his hammers will kill in one hit.  If the hammerdin
lacks Enigma, he will cast a hammer or two, run a step or two away, cast
another hammer or two, repeat.  If the hammerdin has Enigma, he will try to
teleport on top of your sorceress and cast a hammer.  If he succeeds, it is
usually instant death to the sorceress.

* Blessed Hammers are irresistable and unblockable.  One hit from a very
   high level hammer is fatal.
* Never chase the hammerdin directly.  You will blunder into hammers if you
   try.  Teleport around his hammers and catch the hammerdin from another
   direction.
* If the hammerdin can teleport, never let him teleport on top of your
   sorceress.  Treat him like a windy druid.

-- TEMPLAR --
Specializes in Fist of Heavens and uses Conviction for an aura.  Once your
sorceress enters the paladin's screen, he can easily target and hit the
sorceress with FoH.  With maxed resistances, FoH is weak.  What makes this
build deadly is if your sorceress is hit with Conviction and you fail to
stack enough lightning resistance, then FoH will really hurt, and one or two
FoHs while your sorceress is Convicted can kill her.

* Your sorceress WILL get hit by Fist of Heavens.
* Stack as much lightning resistance as you can.  If you stack enough to
   have max even after Conviction, the two of you can have a shootout,
   and the sorceress will outdamage the paladin.
* If your sorceress is unable to stack enough resistance to offset
   Conviction, attack the paladin from outside his Conviction radius.
   If Conviction sticks, Teleport away immediately.  Resume the fight
   once the aura disappears.

-------------------
 13.5.7. Sorceress
-------------------
Every sorceress I have encountered in a dueling game specializes in a single
tree.  This is done the maximize damage, which is necessary to win a duel.
Some may use Energy Shield to lower the damage taken.  Regardless of type,
the sorceress is the master of teleportation.  The combination of mobility,
high damage attacks, and relatively low life ensures that nearly every sorc
vs. sorc duel is a dogfight, since the both of you will employ similar
tactics.

-- FIRE --
Uses Fire Bolt or Fire Ball to blast opponents.  Either one at very high
levels can kill in one or two hits.  Meteor may also be used to create
patches of fire and clutter the screen.  (Lamers often use Meteor to set
fires in front of the town entrance to kill others trying to leave town.)

* The fire sorceress is capable of spamming fiery shots, about three per
   second.
* Fire Bolt/Fire Ball is as strong as dynamite.  Do not try to tank it or
   let it hit your sorceress.
* Never try to walk through patches of fire created by Meteor.

-- LIGHTNING --
Uses Lightning as a primary attack and Thunder Storm to chip away at your
sorceress's life.  Thunder Storm is not very strong, but a lucky hit with
lightning at maximum damage can kill your sorceress in one hit.  Also has
Chain Lightning to take care of minions.

* Lightning packs a huge wallop, do not try to tank it or let it hit your
   sorceress.
* Be wary of using charges that make minions.  The Sorceress can aim
   Chain Lightning at the minion and hit everyone.
* Stay outside of Thunder Storm's radius.

-- COLD --
Can be divided into two sub-types:  Blizzard or Frozen Orb.

Blizzard:  This build seeks maximum cold damage.  Also has the option to use
 Ice Blast and/or Glacial Spike to attack between casting delays.
Frozen Orb:  This build trades damage for defense.  Since Frozen Orb only
 needs 60 points plus prerequisites to max, the sorceress has extra points
 to develop a powerful Energy Shield.  Also, Frozen Orb is easier to aim and
 hit opponents with, despite much lower damage.

* Stack cold resistance high enough to overcome Cold Mastery if possible.
* If your sorceress cannot stack enough resistance, avoid Blizzard at all
   costs.  One hit may kill your sorceress.
* Do NOT chase the Blizzard sorceress.  She may cast Blizzard ahead of her
   path, much like a non-teleporting hammerdin, and your sorceress may
   teleport into a Blizzard if you pursue.
* Frozen Orb may look weak, but it can hurt if your sorceress's resistance
   after enemy Cold Mastery is less than maximum.  Never let the sorceress
   hit your sorceress with a full orb explosion.


============================================================================
  14. Miscellaneous
============================================================================

This section contains content that either does not fit well in any other
section, or are too large to place in a section that might have been
appropriate for it.

=========================
 14.1. Immunity Breaking
=========================
One tactic against immunes you may have considered is the use of
Lower Resist charges and/or the Conviction aura from the Infinity runeword.
When used against an immune monster, Lower Resist and Conviction work at
20% effectiveness.  For example, level 3 Lower Resist, which normally lowers
resistance by -41%, only lowers resistance by -8.2%.  This removes immunity
from monsters with up to 107% resistance.  Against monsters with more than
that, they retain immunity.  If immunity is removed, the sorceress can hurt
the monster while it is convicted and/or cursed.  However, the monster
remains be highly resistant.  This is when resistance drain from Cold
Mastery and items such as Griffon's Eye and Crescent Moon come in handy.
Once immunity is broken, elemental piercing works at full effectiveness,
and the sorceress can easily blast the monsters dead.  When it works,
Conviction and/or Lower Resist is the most effective anti-immunity tactic.
Immunity breaking will work on any non-boss monster in Nightmare.  But in
Hell, some monsters have resistances so high it is impossible to break
immunity with Conviction and Lower Resist combined.

-- Resistance Breaker Chart --
-------------------------------------+--------+--------+--------
                                     | Resist | Resist | Break
 Resistance Lowering Effect          | < 100  | >= 100 | Limit
-------------------------------------+--------+--------+--------
 Lower Resist charges (level 3)      |   -41  |    -8  |  105
 Infinity (level 12 Conviction)      |   -85  |   -17  |  115
 Infinity AND Lower Resist charges   |  -126  |   -25  |  120
-------------------------------------+--------+--------+--------
 Maximum Lower Resist (level 60)     |   -70  |   -14  |  110
 Maximum Conviction (level 25)       |  -150  |   -30  |  125
 Maximum Conviction AND Lower Resist |  -220  |   -44  |  140
-------------------------------------+--------+--------+--------
The top three effects listed are what the sorceress can do with the items
available.  The bottom three effects listed are what an optimized paladin
and/or necromancer can do.  It is impossible to break immunity on a monster
with resistance at 145 or higher.

-- Hell Monster Immunity Chart --
------------------------+----------------------+------------------------
      FIRE IMMUNES      |  LIGHTNING IMMUNES   |      COLD IMMUNES
 Monster         Resist | Monster       Resist | Monster         Resist
------------------------+----------------------+------------------------
 -- ACT 1 --            | -- ACT 1 --          | -- ACT 1 --
 Blood Clan         100 | Dark Spearwoman  100 | Dark Hunter        100
 Fallen             100 | Skeleton         100 | Gargantuan Beast   100
 Fallen Shaman      100 | Afflicted        100 | Moon Clan          100
 Ghoul              100 | Tainted          105 | Bone Warrior       110
 Rat Man            100 | Dark Archer      110 | Zombie             120
 Returned Mage      100 | Dark Lancer      110 | Vile Hunter        120
 Bone Mage          105 | Hungry Dead      110 | Brute              120
 Carver Shaman      105 | Misshapen        110 | Dark Stalker       130
 Arach              110 | Night Clan       110 | Black Rogue        140
 Devilkin Shaman    110 | Black Archer     115 | Banished           150
 Vile Archer        110 | Disfigured       115 | Gargoyle Trap     1000
 Vile Lancer        110 | -- ACT 2 --          | -- ACT 2 --
 Dark One Shaman    115 | Dung Soldier     100 | Huntress           100
 Carver             120 | Flying Scimitar  100 | Marauder           100
 Devilkin           120 | Hollow One       100 | Cave Leaper        100
 Dark One           125 | Night Tiger      100 | Unraveler          100
 -- ACT 2 --            | Lightning Spire  100 | Bone Warrior       110
 Burning Dead       100 | Undead Scavenger 100 | Ghoul Lord         110
 Desert Wing        100 | Death Beetle     105 | Salamander         110
 Flying Scimitar    100 | Scarab           110 | Claw Viper         120
 Guardian           100 | Horror Mage      115 | Crusher            120
 Saber Cat          100 | Steel Scarab     115 | Hell Cat           120
 Sand Leaper        100 | -- ACT 3 --          | Slinger            120
 Sand Raider        100 | Cantor           100 | Gorebelly          140
 Hell Slinger       105 | Cloud Stalker    100 | Spear Cat          140
 Tomb Creeper       105 | Council Member   100 | Sarcophagus        150
 Burning Dead Mage  110 | Fetish           100 | Horror Mage        170
 Hell Clan          110 | Fetish (b)       100 | -- ACT 3 --
 Invader            110 | Gloam            100 | Flayer             100
 Blunderbore        115 | Mauler           100 | Gloombat           100
 Horror Mage        115 | Tree Lurker      100 | Infidel            110
 -- ACT 3 --            | Winged Nightmare 100 | Bog Creature       120
 Hell Buzzard       100 | Zealot           100 | Night Lord         120
 Swamp Dweller      100 | Jungle Hunter    105 | Serpent Magus      120
 Zakarumite         100 | Fiend            110 | Thorned Hulk       120
 Blood Diver        105 | Soul Killer      110 | Bramble Hulk       130
 Drowned Carcass    110 | Temple Guard     110 | Dark Lord          130
 Fetish Shaman      110 | Bone Scarab      120 | Flesh Archer       130
 Flame Spider       115 | Horror           120 | Blood Lord         140
 Flayer Shaman      115 | -- ACT 4 --          | Faithful           140
 Council Member     120 | Abyss Knight     100 | Flayer (b)         140
 Soul Killer Shaman 120 | Cliff Lurker     100 | Sexton             140
 Spider Magus       120 | Doom Caster      100 | Thrasher           140
 -- ACT 4 --            | Strangler        100 | Flesh Hunter       150
 Doom Knight        110 | Storm Caster     100 | Heirophant         160
 Pit Lord           120 | Burning Soul     110 | -- ACT 4 --
 Venom Lord         130 | Damned           120 | Flesh Spawner      140
 -- ACT 5 --            | Dark Familiar    120 | Flesh Beast        140
 Demon Imp          100 | -- ACT 5 --          | Stygian Hag        150
 Quill Rat          100 | Afflicted        100 | Stygian Dog        150
 Demon Rascal       105 | Black Lancer     100 | Trapped Soul       150
 Fetish             105 | Black Soul       100 | Grotesque          160
 Fetish (b)         105 | Blood Maggot     100 | Grotesque Wyrm     160
 Slayer             105 | Bone Warrior     100 | Oblivion Knight    180
 Fire Boar          110 | Burning Soul     100 | -- ACT 5 --
 Barricaded Tower   110 | Dark Lancer      100 | Cave Leaper        100
 Moon Lord          110 | Death Brawler    100 | Spike Fiend        100
 Slinger            110 | Death Mauler     100 | Blood Bringer      120
 Demon Gremlin      115 | Fiend            100 | Foul Crow          120
 Hell Spawn         115 | Gloam            100 | Overseer           120
 Soul Killer        115 | Gloombat         100 | Tomb Creeper       120
 Soul Killer (b)    115 | Hell Lord        100 | Siren              125
 Vile Archer        115 | Night Lord       100 | Enslaved           130
 Arach              120 | Razor Spine      100 | Ghoul Lord         130
 Crush Beast        120 | Returned         100 | Lasher             130
 Death Lord         120 | Scarab           100 | Rot Walker         130
 Demon Sprite       120 | Steel Scarab     100 | Slayer             130
 Fetish Shaman      120 | Storm Caster     100 | Dark Lord          135
 M. of Destruction  120 | Temple Guard     100 | Death Slasher      135
 Succubus           120 | Thorned Hulk     100 | Greater Hell Spawn 135
 Returned Mage      125 | Tomb Viper       100 | Night Clan         135
 Soul Killer Shaman 130 | Vile Lancer      100 | Dark Archer        140
 Assailant          130 | Zealot           100 | Grotesque          140
 Doom Knight        140 | Returned Mage    120 | Grotesque Wyrm     140
 Pit Lord           145 | Horror Mage      130 | Ice Boar           140
                        | Pit Lord         145 | Death Brigader     145
                        |                      | Flesh Beast        145
                        |                      | Flesh Spawner      145
                        |                      | Oblivion Knight    145
                        |                      | Pit Lord           145
                        |                      | Pit Viper          145
                        |                      | Blood Boss         150
                        |                      | Flesh Hunter       150
                        |                      | Frozen Creeper     150
                        |                      | Ice Spawn          150
                        |                      | Infidel            150
                        |                      | Reanimated Horde   150
                        |                      | Slinger            150
                        |                      | Snow Drifter       150
                        |                      | Vile Witch         155
                        |                      | Bone Mage          160
                        |                      | Death Mage         160
                        |                      | Frozen Terror      160
                        |                      | Hell Witch         160
                        |                      | Hell Whip          160
                        |                      | Invader            160
                        |                      | Death Clan         165
                        |                      | Abominable         170
                        |                      | Prowling Dead      170
                        |                      | Frozen Abyss       210
------------------------+----------------------+------------------------
The monsters listed above haunt areas either the sorceress needs to travel
through to complete quests, or wants to clear because of their high level
(85+) and potential to drop any item in the game.

Notes on Monsters
-----------------
SKELETON MAGI:  All species of the Skeleton Mage have an immunity keyed to
the element of the missiles they cast.  For example, magi who cast fire
bolts are immune to fire, and those who cast ice bolts are immune to cold.

COUNCIL MEMBERS:  There are three different versions of Council Members in
Act 3.  Some versions are slower and weaker than others.  Also, one version
has fire immunity while the other two versions have lightning immunity.

FLYING SCIMITARS:  They are immune to both fire and lightning.

LIGHTNING SPIRES:  Spires are immune to Lower Resist.  Conviction is
required to remove immunity from them.

PIT LORDS:  Those found in Throne of Destruction are immune to fire only.
Pit Lords found in Furnace of Pain and Uber Tristram are immune to
everything except physical damage.

SLINGERS:  In Act 5, the slingers in Bloody Foothills are immune to fire.
The slingers in Frigid Highlands are immune to cold.  Those found in
Arreat Plateau are immune to poison.

Summary
-------
* FIRE:  Infinity plus Lower Resist charges removes many immunities.
  Infinity is required to break many immunities.  In act 5, both Infinity
  and Lower Resist are required to break immunity.

* LIGHTNING:  Infinity plus Lower Resist charges removes immunity from
  nearly everything in Hell.  In fact, Infinity alone removes immunity from
  most monsters.  Excluding bosses, only two monster species have resistance
  too high to break, the Horror Magi in Worldstone Keep 3, and the elemental
  immune Pit Lords in Furnace of Pain and Uber Tristram.

* COLD:  The majority of the monsters have resistance greater than 120,
  so immunity breaking items are often ineffective.

==============================
 14.2. Weapon IAS Breakpoints
==============================
Below is a list of tables of weapon IAS breakpoints for the sorceress when
she attacks with a weapon.  'WSM' stands for weapon speed modifier, or the
weapon's base speed.  Obviously, this is only useful to a fighter sorceress
since the blaster will rarely, if ever, wield weapons to hit things with.

-----------------------------------------------------------
-- ONE-HANDED THRUSTING WEAPONS --
(daggers, javelins)
-----+-----------------------------------------------------
     |  Frames per Second
 WSM |  21  20  19  18  17  16  15  14  13  12  11  10   9
-----+-----------------------------------------------------
  20 |   0   2   6  10  16  24  35  48  65  89 129 200 377
  10 |  --  --  --   0   5  11  20  30  44  63  92 142 250
   0 |  --  --  --  --  --   0   8  16  27  42  65 102 174
 -10 |  --  --  --  --  --  --   0   5  14  26  44  72 125
 -20 |  --  --  --  --  --  --  --   0   3  13  27  50  89
-----+-----------------------------------------------------
  Weapons with speed [20]:
    Glaive *            Spiculum *          Ghost Glaive *
  Weapons with speed [10]:
    Short Spear *       Simbilan *          Balrog Spear *
  Weapons with speed [0]:
    Dirk                Rondel              Mithril Point
    Throwing Knife *    Battle Dart *       Flying Knife *
    Pilum *             Great Pilum *       Stygian Pilum *
  Weapons with speed [-10]:
    Blade               Stilleto            Legend Spike
    Javelin *           War Javelin *       Hyperion Javelin *
    Throwing Spear *    Harpoon *           Winged Harpoon *
  Weapons with speed [-20]:
    Dagger              Poignard            Bone Knife
    Kris                Cinquedeas          Fanged Knife
    Balanced Knife *    War Dart *          Winged Knife *
  * = melee, not thrown

-----------------------------------------------------------
-- ONE-HANDED SLASHING AND BLUDGEONING WEAPONS --
(orbs, wands, 1h axes, 1h maces, 1h swords)
-----+-----------------------------------------------------
     |  Frames per Second
 WSM |  22  21  20  19  18  17  16  15  14  13  12  11  10
-----+-----------------------------------------------------
  20 |   0   3   6  11  16  24  35  46  63  83 117 168 280
  10 |  --  --  --   0   5  11  20  29  42  58  83 120 194
   0 |  --  --  --  --  --   0   8  15  26  39  58  86 138
 -10 |  --  --  --  --  --  --   0   4  13  23  39  60  99
 -20 |  --  --  --  --  --  --  --   0   2  10  23  40  70
 -30 |  --  --  --  --  --  --  --  --  --   0  10  24  48
-----+-----------------------------------------------------
  Weapons with speed [20]:
    War Hammer          Battle Hammer       Legendary Mallet
    Falchion            Tulwar              --
  Weapons with speed [10]:
    Axe                 Cleaver             Small Crescent
    Double Axe          Twin Axe            Ettin Axe
    Yew Wand            Petrified Wand      Ghost Wand
    Grand Scepter       Holy Scepter        Seraph Rod
    Morning Star        Jagged Star         Devil Star
    --                  --                  Hydra Edge
    Throwing Axe *      Francisca *         Flying Axe *
    Jared's Stone       Swirling Crystal    Dimensional Shard
  Weapons with speed [0]:
    Hand Axe            Hatchet             Tomahawk
    War Axe             Naga                Berserker Axe
    Wand                Burnt Wand          Polished Wand
    Grim Wand           Grave Wand          Unearthed Wand
    Scepter             Rune Scepter        Mighty Scepter
    Spiked Club         Barbed Club         Tyrant Club
    Mace                Flanged Mace        Reinforced Mace
    Short Sword         Gladius             Falcata
    Crystal Sword       Dimensional Blade   --
    Broad Sword         Battle Sword        Conquest Sword
    War Sword           Ancient Sword       Mythical Sword
    Smoked Sphere       Cloudy Sphere       Demon Heart
    Clasped Orb         Sparkling Ball      Vortex Orb
  Weapons with speed [-10]:
    Military Pick       Crowbill            War Spike
    Club                Cudgel              Truncheon
    War Scepter         Divine Scepter      Caduceus
    Flail               Knout               Scourge
    Saber               Shamshir            Elegant Blade
    Long Sword          Rune Sword          Cryptic Sword
    Balanced Axe *      Hurlbat *           Winged Axe *
    Eagle Orb           Glowing Orb         Heavenly Stone
    Sacred Globe        Crystalline Globe   Eldritch Orb
  Weapons with speed [-20]:
    Bone Wand           Tomb Wand           Lich Wand
    Scimitar            --                  Ataghan
  Weapons with speed [-30]:
    --                  Cutlass             --
    --                  --                  Phase Blade
  * = melee, not thrown

-------------------------------------------------------------------
-- TWO-HANDED SPEARS --
-----+-------------------------------------------------------------
     |  Frames per Second
 WSM |  25  24  23  22  21  20  19  18  17  16  15  14  13  12  11
-----+-------------------------------------------------------------
  20 |   0   5   8  13  18  24  34  42  54  70  92 125 168 259 456
   0 |  --  --  --  --  --   0   7  13  20  30  44  63  86 129 200
 -10 |  --  --  --  --  --  --   0   2   8  16  27  42  60  92 142
 -20 |  --  --  --  --  --  --  --  --   0   5  14  26  40  65 102
-----+-------------------------------------------------------------
  Weapons with speed [20]:
    Pike                Lance               War Pike
  Weapons with speed [0]:
    Trident             Fuscina             Stygian Pike
    Spetum              Yari                Ghost Spear
  Weapons with speed [-10]:
    Spear               War Spear           Hyperion Spear
  Weapons with speed [-20]:
    Brandistock         War Fork            Mancatcher

-----------------------------------------------------------
-- TWO-HANDED SWORDS --
-----+-----------------------------------------------------
     |  Frames per Second
 WSM |  24  23  22  21  20  19  18  17  16  15  14  13  12
-----+-----------------------------------------------------
  10 |   0   2   6  11  19  26  35  46  60  80 109 157 240
   5 |  --  --   0   6  13  19  27  37  50  68  92 133 200
   0 |  --  --  --   0   7  13  20  29  40  56  78 113 168
  -5 |  --  --  --   0   2   7  14  22  32  46  65  95 142
 -10 |  --  --  --  --   0   2   8  15  24  37  54  80 120
 -15 |  --  --  --  --  --   0   3   9  18  29  44  68 102
-----+-----------------------------------------------------
  Weapons with speed [10]:
    Claymore            Dacian Falx         --
    Bastard Sword       Gothic Sword        --
    --                  --                  Colossus Sword
    Great Sword         Executioner Sword   --
  Weapons with speed [5]:
    --                  --                  Colossus Blade
  Weapons with speed [0]:
    Two-Handed Sword    Espandon             --
    Giant Sword         Tusk Sword          Balrog Blade
  Weapons with speed [-5]:
    --                  --                  Highland Blade
  Weapons with speed [-10]:
    --                  --                  Champion Sword
    Flamberge           Zweihander          --
  Weapons with speed [-15]:
    --                  --                  Legend Sword

---------------------------------------------------
-- TWO-HANDED OTHER MELEE --
(2h axes, mauls, polearms, and staves)
-----+---------------------------------------------
     |  Frames per Second
 WSM |  19  18  17  16  15  14  13  12  11  10   9
-----+---------------------------------------------
  20 |   0   5  10  16  24  37  50  70  99 147 250
  10 |  --  --   0   5  11  22  32  48  70 105 174
   0 |  --  --  --  --   0   9  18  30  48  75 125
 -10 |  --  --  --  --  --   0   6  16  30  52  89
 -15 |  --  --  --  --  --  --   0  10  23  42  75
-----+---------------------------------------------
  Weapons with speed [20]:
    Great Maul          Martel de Fer       Thunder Maul
    War Staff           Rune Staff          --
  Weapons with speed [10]:
    Battle Axe          Tabar               Decapitator
    Giant Axe           Ancient Axe         Glorious Axe
    Maul                War Club            Ogre Maul
    Bardiche            Lochaber Axe        --
    --                  --                  Colossus Voulge
    Poleaxe             Partizan            Cryptic Axe
    --                  --                  Stalagmite
    Gnarled Staff       Cedar Staff         --
    --                  --                  Archon Staff
  Weapons with speed [0]:
    Broad Axe           Bearded Axe         Silver Edged Axe
    --                  --                  Ogre Axe
    Voulge              Bill                --
    Halberd             Bec-de-Corbin       Great Poleaxe
    Long Staff          Quarterstaff        --
    --                  --                  Elder Staff
    Battle Staff        Gothic Staff        Shillelah
  Weapons with speed [-10]:
    Large Axe           Military Axe        --
    Great Axe           Gothic Axe          Champion Axe
    Scythe              Battle Scythe       Thresher
    War Scythe          Grim Scythe         Giant Thresher
    Short Staff         Jo Staff            Walking Stick
  Weapons with speed [-15]:
    --                  --                  Feral Axe

-----------------------------------------------
-- BOWS --
-----+-----------------------------------------
     |  Frames per Second
 WSM |  18  17  16  15  14  13  12  11  10   9
-----+-----------------------------------------
  10 |   0   5  11  20  30  44  63  92 142 250
   5 |  --   0   6  14  23  35  52  78 120 208
   0 |  --  --   0   8  16  27  42  65 102 174
 -10 |  --  --  --   0   5  14  26  44  72 125
-----+-----------------------------------------
  Weapons with speed [10]:
    Long Battle Bow     Long Siege Bow      Crusader Bow
    Long War Bow        Gothic Bow          Hydra Bow
  Weapons with speed [5]:
    Short Bow           Edge Bow            Spider Bow
  Weapons with speed [0]:
    Long Bow            Cedar Bow           Shadow Bow
    Short Battle Bow    Short Siege Bow     Diamond Bow
    Short War Bow       Rune Bow            Ward Bow
  Weapons with speed [-10]:
    Hunter's Bow        Razor Bow           Blade Bow
    Composite Bow       Double Bow          Great Bow

-------------------------------------------------------
-- CROSSBOWS --
-----+-------------------------------------------------
     |  Frames per Second
 WSM |  22  21  20  19  18  17  16  15  14  13  12  11
-----+-------------------------------------------------
  10 |   0   2   6  11  19  27  37  50  70  95 138 215
   0 |  --  --  --   0   7  14  22  32  48  68  99 152
 -10 |  --  --  --  --   0   3   9  18  30  46  70 109
 -40 |  --  --  --  --  --  --  --  --   0   4  16  35
 -60 |  --  --  --  --  --  --  --  --  --  --   0   8
-----+-------------------------------------------------
  Weapons with speed [10]:
    Heavy Crossbow      Ballista            Colossus Crossbow
  Weapons with speed [0]:
    Crossbow            Siege Crossbow      Gorgon Crossbow
  Weapons with speed [-10]:
    Light Crossbow      Arbalest            Pellet Bow
  Weapons with speed [-40]:
    Repeating Crossbow  --                  --
  Weapons with speed [-60]:
    --                  Chu-Ko-Nu           Demon Crossbow

---------------------------------------------------------------
-- THROWING WEAPONS --
-----+---------------------------------------------------------
     |  Frames per Second
 WSM |  24  23  22  21  20  19  18  17  16  15  14  13  12  11
-----+---------------------------------------------------------
  20 |   0   4   8  13  18  24  34  44  56  77  99 133 194 317
  10 |  --  --   0   2   6  11  19  27  37  50  70  95 138 215
   0 |  --  --  --  --  --   0   7  14  22  32  48  68  99 152
 -10 |  --  --  --  --  --  --   0   3   9  18  30  46  70 109
 -20 |  --  --  --  --  --  --  --  --   0   6  16  29  48  78
-----+---------------------------------------------------------
  Weapons with speed [20]:
    Glaive              Spiculum            Ghost Glaive
  Weapons with speed [10]:
    Throwing Axe        Francisca           Flying Axe
    Short Spear         Simbilan            Balrog Spear
  Weapons with speed [0]:
    Throwing Knife      Battle Dart         Flying Knife
    Pilum               Great Pilum         Stygian Pilum
    (all throwing potions)
  Weapons with speed [-10]:
    Balanced Axe        Hurlbat             Winged Axe
    Javelin             War Javelin         Hyperion Javelin
    Throwing Spear      Harpoon             Winged Harpoon
  Weapons with speed [-20]:
    Balanced Knife      War Dart            Winged Knife

========================
 14.3. Sorceress Quotes
========================
Listed below are the quest-related quotes from the sorceress.  The quotes
come from the .wav and .tbl files found in the various .mpqs, and some of
them are not used at all in the game.  Quotes such as those from the number
pad are not listed.

-------
 Act 1
-------
Quest:  Den of Evil
  Leaving Rogue Encampment
    "Evil beware!"
  Entering Den of Evil
    "This place is trouble."
  Completing Den of Evil
    "This cave has been purged of evil."

Quest:  Sisters' Burial Grounds
  Entering Burial Grounds
    "There is dark magic at work here."
  Defeating Blood Raven
    "Rest now, Blood Raven."

Quest:  The Search for Cain
  Finding Cairn Stones
    "These stones radiate powerful magic."
  Finding Tree of Inifuss
    "This ancient tree has an aura of magic about it."
  Entering Tristram
    "Tristram was no match for Diablo's fury."
  Rescue Cain
    "Deckard Cain, get to the Rogue camp!"

Quest:  The Forgotten Tower
  Entering Forgotten Tower
    "This place holds many secrets."
  Completing Forgotten Tower
    "I hope to find other such treasures!"

Quest:  Tools of the Trade
  Entering Monastery
    "Ah, the Monastery... Andariel's stronghold!"
  Finding Horadric Malus
    "I hope the Sisters appreciate this thing..."

Quest:  Sisters to the Slaughter
  Entering Jail
    "If there was magic here, it's long gone now."
  Entering Catacombs
    "This place chills me to the bone."
  Defeating Andariel
    "The evil queen has fallen."

-------
 Act 2
-------
Quest:  Radament's Lair
  Defeating Radament
    "What a misguided monster."

Quest:  The Horadric Staff
  <NONE!>

Quest:  Tainted Sun
  Entering Claw Viper Temple
    "I sense strong magic within this place."
  Completing Tainted Sun
    "Who would have thought that such primitive beings could cause so much
     trouble!"

Quest:  Arcane Sanctuary
  Entering Arcane Sanctuary
    "This place actually... distorts reality.  Fascinating."

Quest:  The Summoner
  Defeating The Summoner
    "That couldn't have been Horazon.  Poor wretch."

Quest:  The Seven Tombs
  Completing Tomb (after talking to Tyreal)
    "Diablo and Baal have escaped me!  Next time... vengeance!"

UNUSED QUOTES:
  (Entering Sewers/Finding Radament)
    "I sense strange magic here."
  (Finding Maggot Lair)
    "What a strange outcropping."
  (Completing Maggot Lair)
    "I'm glad to win something from my troubles."
  (Begin Tainted Sun)
    "Only powerful magic can conjure an eclipse."
  (Finding The Summoner)
    "Is this truly Horazon?"
  (Finding False Tomb)
    "This tomb has Horadric markings.  I wonder if this is Tal Rasha's
     tomb?"
  (Finding True Tomb)
    "This must be the true Tomb of Tal Rasha!"
  (Unknown -- Trigger Field)
    "There's an invisible barrier here.  Very strange."

-------
 Act 3
-------
Quest:  The Golden Bird
  Finding Jade Figurine
    "I don't sense any magic about this item.  Very strange."

Quest:  Blade of the Old Religion
  Finding The Gidbinn
    "I must take this to Ormus."

Quest:  Khalim's Will
  <NONE!>

Quest:  Lam Esen's Tome
  Completing Lam Esen's Tome
    "May the Black Book bring a black day to hell!"

Quest:  The Blackened Temple
  Completing Travincal
    "The Temple's power is annulled."

Quest:  The Guardian
  Defeating Mephisto
    "Mephisto shall no longer darken our souls with hatred."

UNUSED QUOTES:
  (Completing Golden Bird)
    "Ah... the receptacle of Ku Y'leh's ashes!"
  (Entering Kurast Sewers)
    "It smells worse than rotting reagents down here."
  (Finding Drain Lever)
    "This looks promising."
  (Completing Kurast Sewers)
    "I hope these items can aid me against the demons."
  (Finding Lam Esen's Tome)
    "This tome has the weight of knowledge about it."
  (Entering Travincal)
    "I sense tremendous evil within this place."
  (Entering Durance of Hate)
    "Ah... Mephisto's prison."

-------
 Act 4
-------
Quest:  The Fallen Angel
  Defeating and talking to Izual
    "He was corrupted to the core.  I pity him."

Quest:  Hell's Forge
  <NONE!>

Quest:  Terror's End
  Defeating Diablo
    "Terror stalks Hell no more."

-------
 Act 5
-------
Quest:  Siege on Harrogath
  Leaving Harrogath
    "My magic will break the siege."
  Defeating Shenk the Overseer
    "Harrogath can rest easier now."

Quest:  Rescue on Mount Arreat
  Rescue last five prisoners
    "Follow me."

Quest:  Prison of Ice
  <NONE!>

Quest:  Betrayal of Harrogath
  Entering Nihlathak's Temple
    "Could this be a trap?"
  Defeating Nihlathak
    "Your power was no match for mine."

Quest:  Rite of Passage
  Entering Arreat Summit
    "The Ancients must be close."

Quest:  Eve of Destruction
  Entering the Worldstone Chamber
    "The power of the Worldstone washes over me."
  Defeating Baal
    "The last of the Three has fallen."


============================================================================
  15. Credits
============================================================================

Thanks to the following:
* Blizzard for the Diablo games.
* PhrozenHeart for the DiabloII mod site Phrozen Keep.
* ChippyDip for his DiabloII skill calculator.
* The Dragoon for (the now dead) Wereform Central.
* Yohann Nicolas for the mod "PlugY, The Survival Kit".

DiabloII Links:
* http://www.battle.net/diablo2exp
A.k.a. Arreat Summit, this is the official site for D2: LoD.

* http://phrozenkeep.it-point.com
The Phrozen Keep is the place to go if you want to learn how mods work in
DiabloII.

* http://www.d2items.com/skills.php
This site has Chippydip's excellent skill calculator.

Below are more links to DiabloII sites worth browsing:
* http://diablo2.ingame.de
* http://www.diabloii.net
* http://www.lurkerlounge.com/diablo2
* http://www.theamazonbasin.com/d2


============================================================================
Copyright 2002-2006 Patrick Martin
============================================================================