*******************************************************************************
                      Sid Meier's CIVILIZATION II for PC
*******************************************************************************
                              UNITS GUIDE v1.1
*******************************************************************************
                      By DENOUEMENT (cgparham757@aol.com)
*******************************************************************************
DISCLAIMER:
This file is copyright by Denouement (Chris Parham). You may NOT reproduce or
distribute this guide in any manner, electronically or otherwise, without the
express written permission of the author. You may not display this guide on any
page in which there are advertisment banners. Below can be found the list of
sites that are permitted to host this guide. This list can be changed at any
time.

List of acceptable sites:
GameFAQs (www.gamefaqs.com).

List of sites which do NOT have permission:
www.cheats.de

Remember, plagiarism is a crime and is punishable under the law.

Note: You can always find the latest version at GameFAQs, at www.gamefaqs.com
Thanks CJayC!

*******************************************************************************
E-MAIL POLICY:
I welcome e-mails at cgparham757@aol.com but here are the Do's and the Dont's:

DO send questions not in the FAQ.
DO send questions in text or HTML format.
DO send e-mails with "GameFAQs" in the subject line.
DO send suggestions and corrections, this is not a final guide.
DO tell me if you find this guide on a site where it is not permitted (see
   above).

DON'T send executables.
DON'T send vulgar or inappropriate mail.
DON'T send mail over and over again, I only check it once every day, at most.

I will try to get back to you as soon as possible...unless you did one of the
"DONTS", in which case your mail will be summarily ignored and ruthlessly
deleted.
*******************************************************************************
CONTENTS:

1.     Disclaimer

2.     E-Mail Policy

3.     Contents

4.     Introduction

5.     The Guide
       -Units
       -How To Modify Units
       -Unit Cheats

6.     Closing Remarks

7.     Acknowledgements

8.     Postscript

*******************************************************************************
INTRODUCTION
This FAQ concerns the units of Civilization II. Civ II is a classic game that
spawned a host of clones and countless rip-offs, as well as the hit game
Civilization III. The unit descriptions in this guide come straight out of the
game's own in-game reference material.

Finally, to make sure the upcoming ASCII boxes will be depicted accurately,
make sure the line of numbers lines up with the line of letters:

12345678901234567890
ABCDEFGHIJabcdefghij

Good? Then enjoy the guide.
*******************************************************************************

*******************************************************************************
THE UNITS
*******************************************************************************
Key to the Unit Charts:
|--------------------------------------------------------------------
|                                                                   |
|  UNIT NAME                                                        |
|  Required Tech                             Cost to build          |
|  Attack                           Firepower                       |
|  Defense                          Hit Points                      |
|  Movement                                                         |
|  Special (if any)                                                 |
|  Computer AI Role                                                 |
|  Computer AI Ranking of Associated Tech (1 low, 8 high)           |
|  Made Obsolete By:                                                |
|  Description (from the Civ II in-game Civilopedia)                |
|                                                                   |
--------------------------------------------------------------------|

About the Computer AI Role:
If you access the "Rules" file you can learn more about this aspect. In short,
this value reflects the role in which the AI will use this unit. Generally,
it also reflects the way YOU should use the unit. (But, not always.) Here are
the values and the associated role:
0=Attack Unit
1=Defense Unit
2=Naval Superiority Unit
3=Airpower Superiority Unit
4=Sea borne Transport
5=Settler Unit*
6=Diplomatic Unit*
7=Trade Unit*
These values reflect special, unique values of the unit.

About the Computer AI Tech Ranking:
The computer ranks each technology advancement in the game. If a tech has a
high rank, then the computer will be eager to develop it or trade for it, and
it will be wary of any civilization that has it. A low rank means just the
opposite. While the tech ranking is far from tied to the value of the
units it allows, this is an important indicator of how valuable the computer
judges this unit to be.

The units are presented in alphabetical order.
*******************************************************************************
|--------------------------------------------------------------------
|                                                                   |
|  AEGIS CRUISER                                                    |
|  Required Tech: Rocketry              Cost to build: 100 shields  |
|  Attack: 8                            Firepower: 2                |
|  Defense: 8                           Hit Points: 3               |
|  Movement: 5                                                      |
|  Special: 2X defense versus air and missile unit                  |
|           Sees adjacent enemy submarines                          |
|  Computer AI Role: 2 (Naval Superiority)                          |
|  Computer AI Ranking of Associated Tech (1 low, 8 high): 6        |
|  Made Obsolete By: None                                           |
|  Cruisers have long served in the role of escort and defensive    |
|  vessels, screening carrier task forces and amphibious assaults   |
|  from enemy ships and aircraft. In recent years, the abilities of |
|  the cruiser have been upgraded significantly. In addition to     |
|  their traditional five-inch guns, cruisers also carry batteries  |
|  of Harpoon and Tomahawk missiles. The latest development in      |
|  cruiser armament is the AEGIS surface to air missile system,     |
|  which allows cruisers to target and fire their missiles more     |
|  accurately and more effectively than ever before. The cruisers   |
|  of today are highly capable of intercepting and destroying enemy |
|  submarines, surface ships, aircraft, and missiles.               |
|                                                                   |
--------------------------------------------------------------------|
Considering how late in the game you can get the AEGIS Cruiser, it is not that
useful a unit. Certainly, once you get the Rocketry advance you will more than
likely want to concentrate on building the long range strike weapons--Cruise
and possibly Nuclear missiles. There are two instances in which the AEGIS is
effective. First, if your enemy is building air power to bear against you, the
AEGIS is an excellent defensive stopper if you fortify it in a city. The
doubled defense can confound enemy bomber units and can sometimes even survive
a Cruise Missile offensive. So, if one of your larger and more important cities
happens to be within air range of your opponent's bombers, or your opponent
is building airfields to extend his range, it might be wise to build a quick
defensive AEGIS in nearby cities. One advantage the AEGIS has over the SAM
battery improvement is that once that city is no longer threatened from the
air, the AEGIS can move to the next front and continue to be effective.
The other situation in which the AEGIS is useful is of course against a
sub-laden enemy. The computer rarely builds large submarine fleets, but if you
find yourself competing against one--or have set up such a situation in the
game editor--the AEGIS becomes an essential unit. Transports especially need
protection from an AEGIS or two. The advance warning that you get from this
ship's ability to see subs will allow your transports to run, and a sub isn't
going to chase you down. In virtually all other situations, you're better off
building a Battleship, as that extra cost pays off big dividends in attack,
defense, and speed.

*******************************************************************************
|--------------------------------------------------------------------
|                                                                   |
|  ALPINE TROOPS                                                    |
|  Required Tech: Tactics               Cost to build: 50 shields   |
|  Attack: 5                            Firepower: 1                |
|  Defense: 5                           Hit Points: 2               |
|  Movement: 1                                                      |
|  Special: Treats all squares as road squares                      |
|  Computer AI Role: 1 (Defense)                                    |
|  Computer AI Ranking of Associated Tech (1 low, 8 high): 6        |
|  Made Obsolete By: None                                           |
|  In the colder regions of the world, where winter months tend to  |
|  leave the ground snow covered, skiing often becomes one of the   |
|  most reliable means of transportation. In the alpine countries   |
|  of Europe, it became commonplace to train special groups of      |
|  soldiers to take advantage of the snow-covered, mountainous      |
|  terrain by traveling on skis. This proved to be a huge advantage |
|  especially if the enemy forces were not likewise equipped. In    |
|  November 1939, for example during the Russo-Finnish War, the     |
|  Finns managed to cut off the supply and communications lines of  |
|  the vastly superior Russian army through the use of their        |
|  extremely mobile ski troops, and the Finns continued to hold an  |
|  advantage throughout the winter months. Alpine troops continue   |
|  to be trained and utilized in military forces of the present     |
|  day.                                                             |
|                                                                   |
--------------------------------------------------------------------|
Alpine troops are one of the strongest units of the late game. Other than
the Mobilized Infantry, it has the highest defense of the cheaper units, and
its attack is solid for everything but assaults on cities. Like Mobilized
Infantry, it is a versatile player, and as soon as you get either of these
units you should build a few as frontline scouting forces. With the special
movement bonus this unit receives, the usefulness and versatility of the
Alpine Troops increases exponentially as the terrain grows more mountainous.
One particular application of these troops is when a group of mountains
divides your cities from your opponents' cities. The use of Alpine Troops
in conjunction with heavy troops for a three pronged attack is ideal: a Tank
from the flanks, around the mountains, and Alpine Troops over the mountains.
Hills and mountains are among the most underused terrain types in the game,
and Alpine Troops take excellent advantage of them.

*******************************************************************************
|--------------------------------------------------------------------
|                                                                   |
|  ARCHERS                                                          |
|  Required Tech: Warrior Code          Cost to build: 30 shields   |
|  Attack: 3                            Firepower: 1                |
|  Defense: 2                           Hit Points: 1               |
|  Movement: 1                                                      |
|  Special: None                                                    |
|  Computer AI Role: 1 (Defense)                                    |
|  Computer AI Ranking of Associated Tech (1 low, 8 high): 4        |
|  Made Obsolete By: Gunpowder                                      |
|  The bow and arrow, invented in prehistoric times, greatly        |
|  improved the hunting skills of early man, allowing him to kill   |
|  his targets from a distance. The bow was eventually adapted for  |
|  use in battle, and was first used by Egyptian, Persian, and      |
|  Assyrian armies as early as 5000 BC. The range provided by the   |
|  bow allowed small forces of archers to rout armies of superior   |
|  number who were armed with hand-to-hand weapons. Archers were    |
|  often used to soften enemy resistance prior to sending in        |
|  mounted and skirmishing forces. Refinements in design and        |
|  construction allowed the bow to remain an effective weapon until |
|  it was finally replaced by firearms in the 1500's.               |
|                                                                   |
--------------------------------------------------------------------|
The archer is a nice little unit. I'd complain about the lack of mobility, but
I'm going to do that enough later on. Anyway, it's excusable in this case
because of the well-balanced attack and defense numbers. In this age, a 3/2
unit is quite a powerhouse. One plus of the archer is that it is frequently
found in huts.

*******************************************************************************
|--------------------------------------------------------------------
|                                                                   |
|  ARMOR                                                            |
|  Required Tech: Mobile Warfare         Cost to build: 80 shields  |
|  Attack: 10                           Firepower: 1                |
|  Defense: 5                           Hit Points: 3               |
|  Movement: 3                                                      |
|  Special: None                                                    |
|  Computer AI Role: 0 (Attack)                                     |
|  Computer AI Ranking of Associated Tech (1 low, 8 high): 8        |
|  Made Obsolete By: None                                           |
|  The rise and use of semi-automatic and automatic firearms in the |
|  late 19th and early 20th century led to the demise of            |
|  horse-mounted cavalry. Attackers lost a significant advantage in |
|  both scouting and deployment as a result of the cavalry's        |
|  vulnerability. It was only with the development of tanks,        |
|  armored mobile attack vehicles equipped with high caliber guns,  |
|  that new weapon was found that could once more be used to punch  |
|  a hole through enemy field forces. First appearing in World War  |
|  I, armored attack vehicles moved quickly and struck with power,  |
|  while still possessing an effective defensive strength. Tanks    |
|  are a powerful weapon against any enemy ground unit.             |
|                                                                   |
--------------------------------------------------------------------|
In real life, a column of heavy armor coming down the road at you is a fearsome
thing. Just so, armor is a fearsome force in Civilization as well. As one of
the few "ultimate units" in the game, the Armor takes what began with the
Knight to the highest level--a fast unit with powerful attack and decent
defenses. Armor will certainly form most of the army on both sides of a battle.
It's pointless to specify strategies for Armor; it's pretty obvious that you
just keep pounding away, and then fortify Armors in cities that you take. All
in all Armor is the equivalent of the Battleship--the ultimate unit in its
domain.

*******************************************************************************
|--------------------------------------------------------------------
|                                                                   |
|  ARTILLERY                                                        |
|  Required Tech: Machine Tools         Cost to build: 50 shields   |
|  Attack: 10                         Firepower: 2                  |
|  Defense: 1                         Hit Points: 2                 |
|  Movement: 1                                                      |
|  Special: None                                                    |
|  Computer AI Role: 0 (Attack)                                     |
|  Computer AI Ranking of Associated Tech (1 low, 8 high): 4        |
|  Made Obsolete By: Robotics                                       |
|  Artillery is a general term covering several varieties of large  |
|  caliber weapons including mortars and field guns. Mortars fire   |
|  an explosive projectile in a high arc, and are particularly      |
|  effective against small, concealed targets. Feild guns, long     |
|  range weapons that fire ther projectiles in a flat arc, are used |
|  primarily for their ability to penetrate hard targets. Powerful  |
|  enough to batter opposing forces even behind the strongest       |
|  fortifications, artillery is also able to move quickly from one  |
|  firing position to another. This is an important capability when |
|  fighting a moving battle or when avoiding enemy fire.            |
|                                                                   |
--------------------------------------------------------------------|


*******************************************************************************
|--------------------------------------------------------------------
|                                                                   |
|  BATTLESHIP                                                       |
|  Required Tech: Automobile           Cost to build: 160 shields   |
|  Attack: 12                         Firepower: 2                  |
|  Defense: 12                        Hit Points: 4                 |
|  Movement: 4                                                      |
|  Special: Can see two spaces                                      |
|  Computer AI Role: 2 (Naval Superiority)                          |
|  Computer AI Ranking of Associated Tech (1 low, 8 high): 6        |
|  Made Obsolete By: None                                           |
|  The battleship was once the most powerful vessel on the seas.    |
|  Heavily armored and difficult to destroy, its massive guns could |
|  accurately fire heavy projectiles at targets miles away. The     |
|  battleship had two primary functions: clearing the seas of enemy |
|  ships and bombarding enemy coastal targets, usually in           |
|  preparation for an invasion. The battleship's importance began   |
|  to decline in World War Two when the increasing use of fighters  |
|  and bombers launched from aircraft carriers greatly extended the |
|  range of naval conflicts. Ship-to-ship combat became less        |
|  frequent than long range air attacks against enemy battle        |
|  groups. The last of the U.S. Navy's battleships was              |
|  decommissioned shortly after the Vietnam War, but the four       |
|  battleships of the Iowa class were remodeled and recommissioned  |
|  in the 1980's.                                                   |
|                                                                   |
--------------------------------------------------------------------|
The battleship is unquestionably the best military unit in the game, unless the
board is VERY low on sea squares. Once the battleship is built, it is a power
house on both offense and defense, plus it is speedy. Battleships work even
better in groups, because a strong and effective defense can take out one
battleship, but two together are almost invulnerable. When they are not engaged
in an attack, keep your battleship well out to sea, where the enemy will
hopefully lose contact with their location. This is important because Cruise
Missiles will pose a major threat to your battleships, and your enemy will
certainly scramble missiles to hit you if he knows where you are. Moreover,
when you do attack, don't bother with sea battles, or picking off coastal
units. Go straight for the CITIES. The immense cost of a battleship must be
offset by tangible, immediate rewards--like the capture of an enemy port city.
It's simple, really: just keep attacking with the battleship, and the enemy
city will lose unit after unit. Once it's empty, run any old unit ashore and
move into the city. Then move the battleship into the city and fortify. Viola!
An instant defense that should stand up to an enemy Armor or a few Mobile
Infantries, until you land more defenders. The combined attack and defense of
the battleship--in addition to its above average mobility--make it the most
powerful and fearsome unit you can put in the field. Basically, if you're
planning to fight at sea, transport over sea, or bombard from the sea, you
should put producing a battleship at the top of your priority list.

*******************************************************************************
|--------------------------------------------------------------------
|                                                                   |
|  BOMBER                                                           |
|  Required Tech: Advanced Flight      Cost to build: 120 shields   |
|  Attack: 12                         Firepower: 2                  |
|  Defense: 1                         Hit Points: 2                 |
|  Movement: 8 (2)                                                  |
|  Special: Ignores enemy zones of control.                         |
|           Ignores City Walls                                      |
|  Computer AI Role: 0 (Attack)                                     |
|  Computer AI Ranking of Associated Tech (1 low, 8 high): 4        |
|  Made Obsolete By: Stealth                                        |
|  The bombing of strategic targets from the air dates back to the  |
|  beginning of World War I, when the Germans used zepplins to bomb |
|  Paris and London. Because zepplins proved to be extremely        |
|  vulnerable, they were withdrawn from war in favor of airplanes.  |
|  By the end of World War I, planes were being designed            |
|  specifically as bombers. The bomber's job is to carry bombs into |
|  enemy territory, normally beyond the range of artillery, and     |
|  destroy targets of military and economic value. Bombers were     |
|  often designed for specific missions, such as attacking ships,   |
|  bombing vehicles and railroads, daylight precision bombing, and  |
|  carpet bombing.                                                  |
|                                                                   |
--------------------------------------------------------------------|
Bombers aren't a very good unit. They pack a decent punch, but it's too easy
for them to be destroyed by fighters, since their defense is just way too low.
You're better off using fighters to attack enemy cities and units, for the sole
reason that they have the ability to get back into a city before the enemy has
a chance to kill them. Even though the fighter has just a third of the bomber's
attack strength, it will still be able to destroy most units because of its two
firepower.

*******************************************************************************
|--------------------------------------------------------------------
|                                                                   |
|  CANNON                                                           |
|  Required Tech: Metallurgy           Cost to build:  40 shields   |
|  Attack: 8                          Firepower: 1                  |
|  Defense: 1                         Hit Points: 2                 |
|  Movement: 1                                                      |
|  Special: None                                                    |
|  Computer AI Role: 0 (Attack)                                     |
|  Computer AI Ranking of Associated Tech (1 low, 8 high): 6        |
|  Made Obsolete By: Machine Tools                                  |
|  Closely following the invention of gunpowder, the development of |
|  the cannon caused a revolution in siege warfare. Invented by a   |
|  German monk in the 14th century, early cannons used gunpowder to |
|  fire rocks or metal balls. The cannon forced a redesign of most  |
|  fortifications because the straight, high walls surrounding most |
|  cities could easily be destroyed by direct fire. This was the    |
|  fate of the walls of Constantinople, which had held against      |
|  countless sieges for over a thousand years. The cannon quickly   |
|  assumed an important role on the battlefield.                    |          
                        |                                                      
            |
--------------------------------------------------------------------|
I have some big problems with the cannon. Personally, I don't like these slow,
defenseless units even though they have the great attack numbers. I prefer to
fight a mobile style, striking in to attack my opponent and then moving back
to escape retaliation. With the Cannon, you might be able to deal an attack,
but then you will be left wide open for reprisal.

*******************************************************************************
|--------------------------------------------------------------------
|                                                                   |
|  CARAVAN                                                          |
|  Required Tech: Trade                Cost to build:  50 shields   |
|  Attack: 0                          Firepower: 1                  |
|  Defense: 1                         Hit Points: 1                 |
|  Movement: 1                                                      |
|  Special: Ignores enemy zones of control                          |
|  Computer AI Role: 7 (Trade)                                      |
|  Computer AI Ranking of Associated Tech (1 low, 8 high): 4        |
|  Made Obsolete By: Corporation                                    |
|  Trade has been a major source of income to civilizations         |
|  throughout history. Journeying to distant lands, caravans        |
|  exchanged their loads of goods for money or other items of       |
|  value. In addition, the traders who accompanied the caravans     |
|  often brought back new knowledge about the advances made by the  |
|  civilizations with whom they did business. Marco Polo, for       |
|  example, went with traders to China. He remained there for many  |
|  years, and brought back much valuable information to the West.   |
|                                                                   |
--------------------------------------------------------------------|
The caravan is another unique unit along the lines of the Settler, so you can't
really deny its value. However, it is certainly not as useful as the Settler
and the trade system in Civ II doesn't really earn you much in the way of
money. The main use of the Caravan for me--and the much more strategic and
effective use--is to put the caravan into play for finishing Wonders quickly.
By using caravans to add shields to your Wonders-in-progress, you can often
steal a wonder from the computer by suddenly adding on that last 50 shields or
so of production. Until you are late in the game, where money is rarely a
problem anyway, trade routes will not generate a lot of profit for you, but
the rapid production of Wonders you can really move your civilization to the
forefront. Using a Caravan to contribute to Adam Smith's Trading Company is
much more cost-effective that using it to establish a trade route. Ordinarily,
I wouldn't build any Caravans, as there are better units you could spend your
production on. But, if a window comes up telling you that a rival is starting
a vital wonder (some of the most important include Hoover Dam, Leonardo's
Workshop, and SETI Program) don't hesitate to beat them to it using your
caravan strategy. After all, when the AI is only using one city to build his
Wonder, how can he beat you when you are uniting the resources of three or
four cities? That is the real benefit of the Caravan unit.

*******************************************************************************
|--------------------------------------------------------------------
|                                                                   |
|  CARAVEL                                                          |
|  Required Tech: Navigation           Cost to build:  40 shields   |
|  Attack: 2                          Firepower: 1                  |
|  Defense: 1                         Hit Points: 1                 |
|  Movement: 3                                                      |
|  Special: Can transport 3 friendly ground units                   |
|  Computer AI Role: 4 (Sea Transport)                              |
|  Computer AI Ranking of Associated Tech (1 low, 8 high): 6        |
|  Made Obsolete By: Magnetism                                      |
|  The caravel was a small sailing ship with three or four masts, a |
|  broad bow, and a high, narrow stern. Though often used as a      |
|  warship, the caravel could also carry just over 100 metric tons  |
|  of cargo. Caravels were commonly used by the Spanish and the     |
|  Portuguese for both commerce and exploration. Christopher        |
|  Columbus' three ships, the "Nina", "Pinta", and "Santa Maria",   |
|  were all caravels.                                               |
|                                                                   |
--------------------------------------------------------------------|
The caravel is a very nice little ocean unit for this point in the game, and it
should be your main means of sea transport for the first few centuries. It is
a quick improvement over the Trireme and its oceangoing ability is a big point
of improvement. The Caravel will be the first ship you use for serious
exploration of the world around you. As such, I'd suggest that you send out
Caravels with at least a Chariot or Horsemen on board, or maybe two, so that
you can snap up any huts you see, and also explore the interiors of interesting
continents. Chariot and Horsemen are good choices because of their added
mobility which will often allow them to cross a continent while the Caravel
goes around it, and meet up on the other side. This will allow you to get a
good bit of exploring in; the next step, obviously, is colonization of these
continents. The Caravel can hold three units, just the right amount to hold a
couple settlers and a defending unit, so load them up and ship them out.
One thing I would advise against: Don't send a Caravel out empty. It's the type
of action that seems alright when you do it, but then you spot that pair of
huts you can't get to because you don't have a unit to land. So avoid this
problem by always sticking a unit on any Caravel you send out, even if it's
just a Warrior--but as I said above Chariots and Horsemen are ideal. The
minimal effort this takes now will save you a lot of annoyance in the longer
run, trust me.

*******************************************************************************
|--------------------------------------------------------------------
|                                                                   |
|  CARRIER                                                          |
|  Required Tech: Advanced Flight      Cost to build: 160 shields   |
|  Attack: 1                          Firepower: 2                  |
|  Defense: 9                         Hit Points: 4                 |
|  Movement: 5                                                      |
|  Special: Can transport friendly air units                        |
|  Computer AI Role: 2 (Naval Superiority)                          |
|  Computer AI Ranking of Associated Tech (1 low, 8 high): 4        |
|  Made Obsolete By: None                                           |
|  The aircraft carrier first came into widespread use during World |
|  War II. Carriers act as floating airfields, carrying fighters    |
|  and bombers far from friendly territory to be launched against   |
|  enemy targets. This allows an air strike against targets on both |
|  land and sea that would otherwise be far out of range. Carriers  |
|  also have the capability to launch nuclear weapons. The range of |
|  the aircraft launched from carriers forever changed the          |
|  methodology of naval battles. Opposing fleets could now engage   |
|  in battle without either fleet ever entering the other's visual  |
|  range, ending the dominance of the battleship as the strongest   |
|  vessel on the sea.                                               |
|                                                                   |
--------------------------------------------------------------------|
I don't often use the carrier because it rarely becomes useful in real game
situations. Theoretically, it should have two uses: a staging area for bombing
and fighter runs against a far-off enemy, and an ocean going platform for
bombers and fighters which can then control the open sea. There are two holes
in this theory. One, building a carrier is expensive, and building fighters
and bombers to be its "air wing" also ties up a lot of production. Moreover,
unless you want to leave all this wide open to attack, you will very likely
want an AEGIS or two and perhaps a battleship to defend your carrier and its
planes from enemy cruise missiles. The sheer expense of this is staggering and
rarely worth it (except in many war scenarios, but that's a different matter.)
Also, it is rare for random maps to have expanses of sea so large that they
cannot be controlled from land. Finally, you do not often get into wars with
an opponent on the opposite edge of the world. At the very least, you will
be on the next continent over, but usually you will be fighting over the same
piece of land--that is, sharing a landmass. So I don't often see good reason to
build the Carrier. However, if you think you NEED a Carrier, build it, because
it is an excellent unit overall. With a 9 defense and 2 firepower it has good
defenses, though not good enough considering the treasure trove it will be
carrying. Also, if nuclear war seems like a possibility, carriers are an
important staging area to hit your enemy's far off cities.

*******************************************************************************
|--------------------------------------------------------------------
|                                                                   |
|  CATAPULT                                                         |
|  Required Tech: Mathematics          Cost to build:  40 shields   |
|  Attack: 6                          Firepower: 1                  |
|  Defense: 1                         Hit Points: 1                 |
|  Movement: 1                                                      |
|  Special: None                                                    |
|  Computer AI Role: 0 (Attack)                                     |
|  Computer AI Ranking of Associated Tech (1 low, 8 high): 4        |
|  Made Obsolete By: Metallurgy                                     |
|  The catapult was one of the earliest forms of artillery. It was  |
|  a large mechanical arm that propelled heavy stones and other     |
|  missiles from a great distance, battering down walls and         |
|  inflicting damage on buildings and defenders. Though cumbersome  |
|  and nearly useless on the battlefield, the catapult was an       |
|  effective weapon for attacking cities and fortified enemies.     |
|                                                                   |
--------------------------------------------------------------------|
A lot of people like the catapult, for its high attack value that will
demolish most other units early on in the game. However, I find this unit to
be generally quite weak and I don't really keep any in my basic early game
army. I prefer to load up on Chariots for attack, and maybe build a Catapult if
I'm having great difficulty taking a city. The problem with the catapult is its
combination of slow speed and lacking defense. You almost have to wait for a
turn outside any city, or next to any unit you plan to attack, because the
catapult is limited to just one move. A smart opponent will then just attack
you right away, and you lose the unit. To make catapults worthwhile, you
really need to move them with large masses of other troops, like horsemen
and phalanxes, but this poses two problems. First, at this stage of the game
your armies are hardly developed or large enough to be moving in mass groups.
Two or three units together are a pretty formidable force in this time period.
Second, in order to protect your catapult you will often have to stack units,
and this is rarely a good idea because only one of the stacked units can
defend any attack, but all units are destroyed should it lose. So, if you
stack a catapult with a phalanx for protection, and get attacked by a horseman,
your phalanx might lose, and if it does you lose your catapult too! This kind
of double loss can be devastating early in the game, when each unit might
represent six or seven turns of production for a city.

*******************************************************************************
|--------------------------------------------------------------------
|                                                                   |
|  CAVALRY                                                          |
|  Required Tech: Tactics              Cost to build:  60 shields   |
|  Attack: 8                          Firepower: 1                  |
|  Defense: 3                         Hit Points: 2                 |
|  Movement: 2                                                      |
|  Special: None                                                    |
|  Computer AI Role: 0 (Attack)                                     |
|  Computer AI Ranking of Associated Tech (1 low, 8 high): 6        |
|  Made Obsolete By: Mobile Warfare                                 |
|  Cavalry are mounted soldiers trained to fight on horseback.      |
|  Because of their speed, cavalry units were often used for        |
|  reconnaissance missions and hit-and-run raids on enemy           |
|  installations and troops. Although warriors fighting from        |
|  horseback with a variety of weapons dates back to ancient Egypt, |
|  horse-mounted cavalry as we generally think of it today actually |
|  began in the late 1700's. Under Napoleon, the cavalry became     |
|  an elite force, frequently deployed simultaneously with foot     |
|  soldiers, to mask the movements of the main battle force.        |
|  Cavalry were used extensively in the American Civil War, and in  |
|  other conflicts throughout the mid to late 19th century. When    |
|  the repeating rifle replaced earlier single-shot firearms,       |
|  horse-mounted troops became easy targets for infantrymen. The    |
|  South African War, from 1899 to 1902, was the last major         |
|  conflict where the cavalry played a major role. Today, the roles |
|  once performed by horse-mounted cavalry have been assumed by     |
|  troops utilizing armored assault vehicles and aircraft.          |
|                                                                   |
--------------------------------------------------------------------|
Cavlary is your major attack unit of the late middle game, and occupies a nice
long time period between Knight (Dragoon if you must) and Armor.

*******************************************************************************
|--------------------------------------------------------------------
|                                                                   |
|  CHARIOT                                                          |
|  Required Tech: The Wheel            Cost to build:  30 shields   |
|  Attack: 3                          Firepower: 1                  |
|  Defense: 1                         Hit Points: 1                 |
|  Movement: 2                                                      |
|  Special: None                                                    |
|  Computer AI Role: 0 (Attack)                                     |
|  Computer AI Ranking of Associated Tech (1 low, 8 high): 4        |
|  Made Obsolete By: Polytheism                                     |
|  The chariot was the first true fighting vehicle. It was used by  |
|  ancient armies to transport archers and other troops to the      |
|  battlefield, where they would disembark and fight. The chariot   |
|  was turned into a fearsome offensive weapon by the Assyrians,    |
|  whose archers and spearmen fought from inside the chariot        |
|  itself. Few enemies were able to withstand an onslaught of       |
|  Assyrian chariots. This devastating form of attack was soon      |
|  adopted by many of the Assyrian's enemies, who used the chariot  |
|  against them with good effect.                                   |
|                                                                   |
--------------------------------------------------------------------|
The chariot is among the strongest units in the early going and will be useful
well into the knight age, so feel free to build a ton of them. Once you invent
the wheel, the chariot should be your primary instrument for attack. It's
especially great if you play like me and take a long time to develop polytheism
and the elephant unit. On the other hand, if you're planning to get polytheism
early, then you might want to hold off on chariots and wait for the elephant
since its a better unit. However, the Chariot is more than powerful enough to
attack and destroy any unit in the game it this time, unless they are fortified
or protected by City Walls.

*******************************************************************************
|--------------------------------------------------------------------
|                                                                   |
|  CRUISE MISSILE                                                   |
|  Required Tech: Rocketry             Cost to build: 60 shields    |
|  Attack: 18                         Firepower: 3                  |
|  Defense: 0                         Hit Points: 1                 |
|  Movement: 12 (1)                                                 |
|  Special: Destroyed after attacking                               |
|  Computer AI Role: 0 (Attack)                                     |
|  Computer AI Ranking of Associated Tech (1 low, 8 high): 6        |
|  Made Obsolete By: None                                           |
|  One of the most effective weapons in modern military arsenals    |
|  is the cruise missile. Cruise missiles such as the AGM-86 and    |
|  the Tomahawk can be launched against a strategic target hundreds |
|  of miles away, traveling low to avoid radar and other means of   |
|  detection, and hitting its target with unnerving accuracy. They  |
|  can also be used against short-range, tactical targets such as   |
|  ships. In this role, it is often possible for a single, $1       |
|  million missile to seriously damage or even destroy $80 million  |
|  warships. These versatile weapons can be launched from air, sea, |
|  or land with equal effectiveness.                                |
|                                                                   |
--------------------------------------------------------------------|
The cruise missile is one of my personal favorite weapons. Once I get my
production ramped up, I just keep building cruise missiles in my border cities,
and that pretty much takes care of my defenses. Plus, a quick barrage of
missiles will open pretty much any city to an attack. The cruise missile
represents the ultimate development in the "strike from afar" weaponry. The
only disadvantage of missiles is that they are destroyed after attacking.
(Using the editor to get rid of this flag--and make them able to survive--
makes it ridiculously powerful.) Since you need to replace them so often, you
should only build them if your production has reached end-of-game values, with
railroads all around your cities to increase shield production and power plants
to boost it more, along with measures to keep down pollution. Cities with
around 20 shield per turn production can churn them out every three turns, and
this rate will devastate your opponents. Considering a single missile can
easily destroy an enemy Armor that cost 80 shields to build, it's more than
worth it.

*******************************************************************************
|--------------------------------------------------------------------
|                                                                   |
|  CRUISER                                                          |
|  Required Tech: Steel                Cost to build:  80 shields   |
|  Attack: 6                          Firepower: 2                  |
|  Defense: 6                         Hit Points: 3                 |
|  Movement: 5                                                      |
|  Special: Spots adjacent enemy submarines                         |
|  Computer AI Role: 2 (Naval Superiority)                          |
|  Computer AI Ranking of Associated Tech (1 low, 8 high): 4        |
|  Made Obsolete By: Rocketry                                       |
|  The cruiser is the modern equivalent of the frigate. Although    |
|  much more powerful that its sailing forebearer, it is designed   |
|  for the same type of mission: to act as a sea raider and escort. |
|  Cruisers can conduct shore bombardments, though their firepower  |
|  cannot match the destructive force of the battleship. The        |
|  cruiser's defensive capabilities are also inferior to those of   |
|  the battleship. These shortcomings are balanced by the cruiser's |
|  lower cost and higher speed. Cruisers serve an important role in |
|  scouting missions, convoy escorts, and the attack of transport   |
|  vessels.                                                         |
|                                                                   |
--------------------------------------------------------------------|
Cruisers are a good lower-level sea unit. Their speed allows them to cover a
lot of ground, and they have enough attack to take care of destroyers and
submarines. They alos, unlike the destroyer, have enough defense to defeat or
severely weaken an attacking submarine.

*******************************************************************************
|--------------------------------------------------------------------
|                                                                   |
|  CRUSADERS                                                        |
|  Required Tech: Monotheism           Cost to build:  40 shields   |
|  Attack: 5                          Firepower: 1                  |
|  Defense: 1                         Hit Points: 1                 |
|  Movement: 2                                                      |
|  Special: None                                                    |
|  Computer AI Role: 0 (Attack)                                     |
|  Computer AI Ranking of Associated Tech (1 low, 8 high): 5        |
|  Made Obsolete By: Leadership                                     |
|  Between 1095 and 1270, European Christians waged a series of     |
|  wars known as the Crusades. These holy wars, sanctioned by the   |
|  Pope, were fought to free the Christian Holy Lands from          |
|  Muslim control. The crusaders themselves were a mixed lot, with  |
|  many different backgrounds and reasons for fighting. However,    |
|  most of them joined the ranks out of religious fervor, and a     |
|  feeling that their personal salvation was guaranteed when        |
|  fighting for such a holy cause. Despite the fact that the        |
|  crusaders fought with all the strength of their religious        |
|  conviction, the Crusades accomplished very little in a military  |
|  sense; however, the European economy and desire for exploration  |
|  was greatly increased.                                           |
|                                                                   |
--------------------------------------------------------------------|
Yet another upgrade of the Chariot and Elephant series of units. While, for
all-out attack units, they out rate artillery units such as the Catapult and
Cannon, you would still be better off waiting for more well rounded units. The
Knight, which can be obtained around this time period, is far superior to the
Crusader unit.

*******************************************************************************
|--------------------------------------------------------------------
|                                                                   |
|  DESTROYER                                                        |
|  Required Tech: Electricity          Cost to build:  60 shields   |
|  Attack: 4                          Firepower: 1                  |
|  Defense: 4                         Hit Points: 3                 |
|  Movement: 6                                                      |
|  Special: Spots adjacent enemy submarines                         |
|  Computer AI Role: 2 (Naval Superiority)                          |
|  Computer AI Ranking of Associated Tech (1 low, 8 high): 4        |
|  Made Obsolete By: None                                           |
|  Destroyers are small escort ships that serve a variety of useful |
|  functions. These light, fast vessels were used extensively in    |
|  World War II to provide air and sea cover for carrier groups.    |
|  One of the primary functions of the destroyer is to locate and   |
|  destroy enemy submarines. Using their sonar equipment to locate  |
|  the subs, and their batteries of depth charges and torpedoes to  |
|  destroy them, the destroyer forces of World War II were the key  |
|  to the success of many crucial naval operations. Modern          |
|  destroyers are still used in much the same role, as escorts for  |
|  larger vessels and as submarine hunters. In addition to five     |
|  inch guns, the arsenal of today's destroyer includes             |
|  antisubmarine helicopters, anti-ship cruise missiles, and the    |
|  Phalanx system for defense against anti-ship missiles.           |
|                                                                   |
--------------------------------------------------------------------|

*******************************************************************************
|--------------------------------------------------------------------
|                                                                   |
|  DIPLOMAT                                                         |
|  Required Tech: Writing              Cost to build:  30 shields   |
|  Attack: 0                          Firepower: 1                  |
|  Defense: 0                         Hit Points: 1                 |
|  Movement: 2                                                      |
|  Special: Ignores enemy zones of control                          |
|  Computer AI Role: 6 (Diplomacy)                                  |
|  Computer AI Ranking of Associated Tech (1 low, 8 high): 4        |
|  Made Obsolete By: Espionage                                      |
|  Diplomats serve their homeland in a variety of ways. Their       |
|  primary function is to maintain contact with other civilizations |
|  and report on any developments of interest. Diplomats are also   |
|  capable of engaging in less reputable activities, including      |
|  sabotage of enemy production; the theft of civilization          |
|  advances; and the subversion of enemy troops and cities.         |
|  Although they have no combat value, diplomats are nevertheless   |
|  potent weapons if utilized properly.                             |
|                                                                   |
--------------------------------------------------------------------|
Diplomats are the predecessor to one of the best units in the game, the spy,
but on the whole they become obsolete before the peak of the espionage-class
unit's usefulness.

*******************************************************************************
|--------------------------------------------------------------------
|                                                                   |
|  DRAGOONS                                                         |
|  Required Tech: Leadership           Cost to build:  50 shields   |
|  Attack: 5                          Firepower: 1                  |
|  Defense: 2                         Hit Points: 2                 |
|  Movement: 2                                                      |
|  Special: None                                                    |
|  Computer AI Role: 0 (Attack)                                     |
|  Computer AI Ranking of Associated Tech (1 low, 8 high): 5        |
|  Made Obsolete By: Tactics                                        |
|  Dragoons were mounted foot soldiers armed with short muskets who |
|  fought, both on horseback and on foot, during the time of the    |
|  American Revolution. The name comes from the French word for     |
|  "dragon", and refers to the "fire breathing weapons" used by     |
|  these troops. British general John Burgoyne utilized a force of  |
|  Hessian dragoons to attack an American supply base in the Battle |
|  of Bennington in 1777. Despite their large numbers, the dragoon  |
|  mercenaries were severely routed by several detachments from the |
|  New Hampshire militia.                                           |
|                                                                   |
--------------------------------------------------------------------|

*******************************************************************************
|--------------------------------------------------------------------
|                                                                   |
|  ELEPHANT                                                         |
|  Required Tech: Polytheism           Cost to build:  40 shields   |
|  Attack: 4                          Firepower: 1                  |
|  Defense: 1                         Hit Points: 1                 |
|  Movement: 2                                                      |
|  Special: None                                                    |
|  Computer AI Role: 0 (Attack)                                     |
|  Computer AI Ranking of Associated Tech (1 low, 8 high): 4        |
|  Made Obsolete By: Monotheism                                     |
|  The elephant is the largest living land mammal, reaching a size  |
|  of 10 to 13 feet depending on the species. Descended from the    |
|  ancient mammoths and mastodons, elephants can be trained to      |
|  serve humans in many fields of endeavor. One such use of         |
|  elephants in ancient times was as beasts of war. Elephants were  |
|  used in battle against Alexander the Great in 326 BC, and they   |
|  were used both as pack animals and in battle by Hannibal of      |
|  Carthage in his famous alpine crossing in 218 BC. Although       |
|  generally impractical as mounts due to their slow speed, the     |
|  mere mental impact of seeing such massive beasts included in the |
|  advancing enemy ranks could provide an attacker with the element |
|  of surprise.                                                     |
|                                                                   |
--------------------------------------------------------------------|
It's an ugly unit, but it's a strong unit that improves on the Chariot.

*******************************************************************************
|--------------------------------------------------------------------
|                                                                   |
|  ENGINEERS                                                        |
|  Required Tech: Explosives           Cost to build:  40 shields   |
|  Attack: 0                          Firepower: 1                  |
|  Defense: 2                         Hit Points: 2                 |
|  Movement: 2                                                      |
|  Special: Can build roads and improve terrain                     |
|           Ignores enemy zones of control                          |
|  Computer AI Role: 5 (Settler)                                    |
|  Computer AI Ranking of Associated Tech (1 low, 8 high): 5        |
|  Made Obsolete By: None                                           |
|  As technology progressed through the centuries, people began to  |
|  specialize in a single skill or field of knowledge. The early    |
|  pioneers who acted in the multiple roles of farmers, builders,   |
|  and just about any other occupation required by their situation, |
|  were replaced by engineers specifically trained in a single      |
|  discipline. Specialized training provided engineers the time and |
|  the skill necessary to accomplish feats of construction and      |
|  environmental manipulation never before experienced in history.  |
|                                                                   |
--------------------------------------------------------------------|
Obviously you can't contest the goodness of the Engineer unit, since its
unique abilities are absolutely necessary for the growth and maintenance of
your empire.

*******************************************************************************
|--------------------------------------------------------------------
|                                                                   |
|  EXPLORER                                                         |
|  Required Tech: Seafaring            Cost to build:  30 shields   |
|  Attack: 0                          Firepower: 1                  |
|  Defense: 1                         Hit Points: 1                 |
|  Movement: 1                                                      |
|  Special: Treats all squares as road squares                      |
|  Computer AI Role: 0 (Attack)                                     |
|  Computer AI Ranking of Associated Tech (1 low, 8 high): 4        |
|  Made Obsolete By: Guerilla Warfare                               |
|  Since the dawn of history, there has been a need for humans to   |
|  investigate their surroundings and expand their knowledge of the |
|  world around them. Even the earliest civilizations sent people   |
|  in search of wealth and resources in distant lands. With the     |
|  advent of extensive sea travel, explorers such as Christopher    |
|  Columbus and Amerigo Vespucci mapped and charted territories far |
|  from their homelands. These early explorers opened the New World |
|  to trade and colonization.                                       |
|                                                                   |
--------------------------------------------------------------------|
The explorer isn't that useful of a unit to me. I mean, how big a hurry are you
in to explore? Everything you can do with the explorer would be better done
with a chariot or horsemen unit. (Still, at least you can get it early, unlike
in Civ III.) While the explorer's three moves per turn is nice, it's only one
better than the chariot or horseman can do in most terrain areas. And in enemy
lands, where roads have been built, the chariot or horseman move twice as fast
as the explorer does. Plus, the far more significant disadvantage for the
explorer, it's nearly defenseless, and it has literally no attack. Which means
that entering huts might not be a great idea, as barbarians will mop the floor
with it. A good strategy, however, for entering huts with less risk, is always
to enter on the first of the explorer's three moves. Then, unless you get an
unfavorable distribution of barbarians, you may be able to use the remaining
two moves to escape. And no unit the barbarians make is able to keep up with
the explorer, so those barbarians will just go annoy your enemies instead.
But a chariot or horseman could do the same thing just as easily. Overall, I
recommend staying away from this unit.

*******************************************************************************
|--------------------------------------------------------------------
|                                                                   |
|  FANATICS                                                         |
|  Required Tech: Fundamentalism       Cost to build:  20 shields   |
|  Attack: 4                          Firepower: 1                  |
|  Defense: 4                         Hit Points: 2                 |
|  Movement: 1                                                      |
|  Special: Can only be built under Fundamentalism                  |
|           No support required under Fundamentalism                |
|  Computer AI Role: 1 (Defense)                                    |
|  Computer AI Ranking of Associated Tech (1 low, 8 high): 3        |
|  Made Obsolete By: None                                           |
|  Certain circumstances, such as strong religious beliefs or a     |
|  totalitarian system of government, can "inspire" citizens or     |
|  factions to nationalism that approaches maniacal fervor.         |
|  Fanatical groups can often succeed in seemingly hopeless         |
|  situations, fighting and defeating superior enemy forces. Often, |
|  fanatics pursue military and terrorist activity for years, even  |
|  decades, before they can be caught or stopped. Their strength    |
|  for both attack and defense comes from their willingness to      |
|  fight for the ideals they believe in, and, if necessary,         |
|  sacrifice their lives in the name of their cause.                |
|                                                                   |
--------------------------------------------------------------------|
Fanatics aren't a very good unit in themselves. A 4 attack is pretty weak, and
4 defense won't stand up to much, especially when both are combined with a
firepower of one.

*******************************************************************************
|--------------------------------------------------------------------
|                                                                   |
|  FIGHTER                                                          |
|  Required Tech: Flight               Cost to build:  60 shields   |
|  Attack: 4                          Firepower: 2                  |
|  Defense: 3                         Hit Points: 2                 |
|  Movement: 10 (1)                                                 |
|  Special: Ignores enemy zones of control                          |
|           Can attack aircraft in flight                           |
|           Ignores City Walls                                      |
|  Computer AI Role: 3 (Air Superiority)                            |
|  Computer AI Ranking of Associated Tech (1 low, 8 high): 4        |
|  Made Obsolete By: Stealth                                        |
|  The earliest military aircraft were used primarily in a          |
|  reconnaissance role. In 1915, during World War I, aircraft       |
|  designer Anthony Fokker developed a gear system that allowed a   |
|  plane-mounted machine gun to fire through the propeller, giving  |
|  birth to the first fighter aircraft. The fighter's mission       |
|  was to shoot down enemy reconnaissance and fighter planes. Later |
|  as the use of bombers became more widespread, fighters were      |
|  called upon to act as interceptors against enemy bombing runs    |
|  and escorts for friendly bombers. The best way to ensure the     |
|  safe passage of friendly bombers to their selected targets is    |
|  the destruction of enemy fighters.                               |
|                                                                   |
--------------------------------------------------------------------|

*******************************************************************************
|--------------------------------------------------------------------
|                                                                   |
|  FREIGHT                                                          |
|  Required Tech: Corporation          Cost to build:  50 shields   |
|  Attack: 0                          Firepower: 1                  |
|  Defense: 1                         Hit Points: 1                 |
|  Movement: 2                                                      |
|  Special: Ignores enemy zones of control                          |
|  Computer AI Role: 7 (Trade)                                      |
|  Computer AI Ranking of Associated Tech (1 low, 8 high): 4        |
|  Made Obsolete By: None                                           |
|  Freight units are the modern day equivalent of the trade         |
|  caravans in the ancient world. Whereas in early history raw      |
|  materials, trade goods, food, and manufactured items were        |
|  transported by camel or wagon, modern shipments are transported  |
|  by a variety of methods including trucks and railroads. The      |
|  speed and convenience of modern transportation methods allows    |
|  civilizations to set up supply routes and move large quantities  |
|  or merchandise and trade goods farther and faster than ever.     |
|                                                                   |
--------------------------------------------------------------------|
Frieght is one unit that I would rank as less useful than its previous
incarnation, the caravan. By this time in the game, speeding up Wonders--the
main purpose of the Caravan--will be less useful, since the cities where you
are building Wonders should already have massive production capacity. Of course
if you need to steal a wonder from one of the computer civilizations, go ahead
and use Freight to speed it up. Again, trade routes tend to be less than worth
it; unless you can find a supply/demand link between two massive cities, they
won't even give you 100 gold when completed, and won't produce more than 1 or
2 gold per turn. On the whole its not worth it; you'd be better off just
assigning the city to build Capitalization instead of Freight.

*******************************************************************************
|--------------------------------------------------------------------
|                                                                   |
|  FRIGATE                                                          |
|  Required Tech: Magnetism            Cost to build:  50 shields   |
|  Attack: 4                          Firepower: 1                  |
|  Defense: 2                         Hit Points: 2                 |
|  Movement: 4                                                      |
|  Special: Can transport 2 friendly ground units                   |
|  Computer AI Role: 2 (Naval Superiority)                          |
|  Computer AI Ranking of Associated Tech (1 low, 8 high): 4        |
|  Made Obsolete By: Electricity                                    |
|  The frigate was a fast and powerful sailing warship that evolved |
|  to fill several important naval roles, primarily to raid enemy   |
|  shipping. These three masted ships were lighter and faster than  |
|  the European great ship or man-of-war, and usually carried 36 or |
|  fewer guns. The frigate was powerful enough to overcome most of  |
|  its prospective opponents and fast enough to escape those it     |
|  could not outgun. Because of their speed and strength, frigates  |
|  were often employed as escorts for merchant vessels during times |
|  of war. The frigate remained the most useful and dominant naval  |
|  vessel until the development of the ironclad.                    |
|                                                                   |
--------------------------------------------------------------------|

*******************************************************************************
|--------------------------------------------------------------------
|                                                                   |
|  GALLEON                                                          |
|  Required Tech: Magnetism            Cost to build:  40 shields   |
|  Attack: 0                          Firepower: 1                  |
|  Defense: 2                         Hit Points: 2                 |
|  Movement: 4                                                      |
|  Special: Can transport 4 friendly ground units                   |
|  Computer AI Role: 4 (Sea Transport)                              |
|  Computer AI Ranking of Associated Tech (1 low, 8 high): 4        |
|  Made Obsolete By: Industrialization                              |
|  By the late 15th century, oar-powered vessels had all but        |
|  disappeared from the world's oceans, to be replaced by sailing   |
|  vessels of various types. The galleon was one such vessel.       |
|  Galleons were three- or four-masted ships, built high in both    |
|  the forecastle and the stern. Developed in the 15th and 16th     |
|  century, these versatile ships were mainly used as cargo vessels |
|  although they were sometimes outfitted as light warships as      |
|  well. Ships of this type served European nations well into the   |
|  1700s.                                                           |
|                                                                   |
--------------------------------------------------------------------|

*******************************************************************************
|--------------------------------------------------------------------
|                                                                   |
|  HELICOPTER                                                       |
|  Required Tech: Combined Arms        Cost to build: 100 shields   |
|  Attack: 10                         Firepower: 2                  |
|  Defense: 3                         Hit Points: 2                 |
|  Movement: 6                                                      |
|  Special: Ignores enemy zones of control                          |
|           Ignores City Walls                                      |
|           Can spot adjacent enemy submarines                      |
|  Computer AI Role: 0 (Attack)                                     |
|  Computer AI Ranking of Associated Tech (1 low, 8 high): 5        |
|  Made Obsolete By: None                                           |
|  The concept that was to become the modern helicopter was first   |
|  explored by artist/engineer Leonardo da Vinci. He made sketches  |
|  of a rotor-driven aircraft in the early 16th century. It was not |
|  until 1939, however, that the first practical helicopter design  |
|  was developed. Helicopters have a distinct advantage over fixed- |
|  wing aircraft in that they can take off and land vertically.     |
|  This makes it possible for helicopters to operate in many places |
|  that would be too small to accommodate a runway. Today,          |
|  helicopters are used in civilian roles as rescue vehicles and by |
|  law enforcement agencies. All branches of the military use many  |
|  different types of helicopters, from giant cargo and troop       |
|  carriers to fast and maneuverable gunships used as air support   |
|  for ground troop operations.                                     |
|                                                                   |
--------------------------------------------------------------------|

*******************************************************************************
|--------------------------------------------------------------------
|                                                                   |
|  HORSEMEN                                                         |
|  Required Tech: Horseback Riding     Cost to build:  20 shields   |
|  Attack: 2                          Firepower: 1                  |
|  Defense: 1                         Hit Points: 1                 |
|  Movement: 2                                                      |
|  Special: None                                                    |
|  Computer AI Role: 0 (Attack)                                     |
|  Computer AI Ranking of Associated Tech (1 low, 8 high): 4        |
|  Made Obsolete By: Chivalry                                       |
|  The necessity for speed and mobility in times of war was         |
|  recognized even in ancient times. The infantrymen of some        |
|  ancient armies would ride horses to get from one engagement to   |
|  another, dismounting to fight when they reached the battlefield. |
|  Because of their speed, horsemen could also be used as scouts to |
|  pinpoint enemy positions. In the second century BC, the Chinese  |
|  invention of the stirrup allowed this concept of mobility to go  |
|  one step further. Stirrups provided the stability and leverage   |
|  necessary to allow soldiers to fight from horseback, leading to  |
|  the earliest examples of cavalry units. Continuous development   |
|  in arms and armor eventually led to knights, dragoons, and       |
|  finally the advanced cavalry of the 18th and 19th century.       |
|                                                                   |
--------------------------------------------------------------------|

*******************************************************************************
|--------------------------------------------------------------------
|                                                                   |
|  HOWITZER                                                         |
|  Required Tech: Robotics             Cost to build:  70 shields   |
|  Attack: 12                         Firepower: 2                  |
|  Defense: 2                         Hit Points: 3                 |
|  Movement: 2                                                      |
|  Special: Ignores City Walls                                      |
|  Computer AI Role: 0 (Attack)                                     |
|  Computer AI Ranking of Associated Tech (1 low, 8 high): 5        |
|  Made Obsolete By: None                                           |
|  The howitzer is a specialized piece of artillery. As originally  |
|  designed, the howitzer was a cross between the short-ranged      |
|  mortar and the long-ranged field gun. When fired in a high arc,  |
|  the howitzer shell was able to achieve the mortar's              |
|  effectiveness against small, concealed targets. When fired in a  |
|  flat trajectory, the shell had more range than the mortar and    |
|  the penetration power of the field gun. Howitzers were easier to |
|  transport than other types of heavy artillery due to their small |
|  size, and could be mounted on wheels and towed by a truck.       |
|  Modern light howitzers fire a variety of specialized ammunition, |
|  and their accuracy now makes them more efficient and lethal than |
|  older heavy howitzers and field guns.                            |
|                                                                   |
--------------------------------------------------------------------|
Finally, after years of waiting, you receive an artillery unit that is really
powerful in the way artillery should be. The added point of defense--two as
opposed to one for all other artillery-class units--doesn't make much of a
difference, but the second point of range is very significant. This allows it
to move up to the front and make an attack in the same turn. This is a big
improvement over other units that had to move, then wait a turn before
attacking. Plus, with railroads, Howitzers may be able to advance, attack, and
then withdraw back into a well-defended city or fortress, all in one turn.
If you see a battlefield where this is possible, build Howitzers there, because
they will dominate on all other land units. Other units, like Armor, might seem
to approach the attack power of the Howitzer, but the Howitzer's 2 rating in
firepower makes a huge difference. This means that while Howitzer hits only
marginally more often than the Armor, it does twice as much damage each with
every hit. Thus the howitzer should stand a good chance of taking out the
entrenched defenders of cities, or pounding holes in the front line of an
advancing enemy. In my opinion, the Howitzer is the third best attacking unit
in the game, surpassed only by the Battleship and the Stealth Bomber, and it
costs less than half what those units do. Obviously, however, Howitzers have no
value in making long journeys to a new battle front, and are also worthless in
occupying the land you've conquered. So use them for attack, and once you've
won, airlift them to another site or disband them. Nevertheless, while they
don't have the lasting value of an Armor or a Mechanized Infantry, they can
act as the spearhead of your victorious land armies. So once you discover
Robotics, build a few Howitzers and watch the damage they unleash upon the
enemy.

*******************************************************************************
|--------------------------------------------------------------------
|                                                                   |
|  IRONCLAD                                                         |
|  Required Tech: Steam Engine         Cost to build:  60 shields   |
|  Attack: 4                          Firepower: 1                  |
|  Defense: 4                         Hit Points: 3                 |
|  Movement: 4                                                      |
|  Special: None                                                    |
|  Computer AI Role: 2 (Naval Superiority)                          |
|  Computer AI Ranking of Associated Tech (1 low, 8 high): 4        |
|  Made Obsolete By: Electricity                                    |
|  Ironclads were the forerunners of future generations of armored  |
|  naval vessels. Instead of the simple wooden hulls found on the   |
|  other ships at the time, ironclads were covered with strong      |
|  metal plating. This plating made them nearly impervious to large |
|  caliber explosive shells that would easily penetrate and destroy |
|  wooden vessels. Ironclads made their first appearence during the |
|  American Civil War, and quickly gained dominance over other      |
|  ships of that era. Perhaps the most famous naval battle of the   |
|  Civil War was the battle between the Confederate ironclad        |
|  "Merrimack", and the Union ironclad "Monitor", which lasted for  |
|  several hours before the "Merrimack" was forced to withdraw.     |
|                                                                   |
--------------------------------------------------------------------|

*******************************************************************************
|--------------------------------------------------------------------
|                                                                   |
|  KNIGHTS                                                          |
|  Required Tech: Chivalry             Cost to build:  40 shields   |
|  Attack: 4                          Firepower: 1                  |
|  Defense: 2                         Hit Points: 1                 |
|  Movement: 2                                                      |
|  Special: None                                                    |
|  Computer AI Role: 0 (Attack)                                     |
|  Computer AI Ranking of Associated Tech (1 low, 8 high): 4        |
|  Made Obsolete By: Leadership                                     |
|  Knights were heavily armored, mounted men-at-arms in medieval    |
|  Europe. Like the samurai of ancient Japan, knights followed a    |
|  strict code that covered their behavior both in battle and in    |
|  their personal pursuits. Fighting astride powerful horses,       |
|  armored knights had a distinct advantage over enemies on foot    |
|  and remained the dominant force on the battlefield when battles  |
|  were fought primarily hand-to-hand. Occasionally, brilliant      |
|  tactics allowed knights to be outmaneuvered, but it wasn't until |
|  the development of gunpowder that knights were rendered          |
|  obsolete.                                                        |
|                                                                   |
--------------------------------------------------------------------|
The Knight is the first of the truly well-rounded units you can build, and it
should therefore form the core of your excess army--and by that I mean the
army not used defensively, but either held in reserve or used on the attack.
Knights are quick to respond defensively and are good either to pre-emptively
attack an invader, or to fortify in a city to back up the defenders. Just as
easily, the Knight can mobilize to assume an offensive role. Earlier in the
game, you may have mounted some successful campaigns with Chariots, Elephants,
or Horsemen, but might not have gotten too far. With the development of the
Knight, you gain the ability to mount a continuous assault and advance, since
you will not have to stop and consolidate conquered territory. An attacking
Knight can easily assume the role of fortified city defender to take care of
this problem. While the Knight is powerful, they are expensive, so follow my
usual advice and be cautious and well-prepared with any attack you consider.
However, if you do get the Chivalry advance before your opponent does, don't
be merciful, since he won't be merciful to you. :)

*******************************************************************************
|--------------------------------------------------------------------
|                                                                   |
|  LEGION                                                           |
|  Required Tech: Iron Working         Cost to build:  40 shields   |
|  Attack: 4                          Firepower: 1                  |
|  Defense: 2                         Hit Points: 1                 |
|  Movement: 1                                                      |
|  Special: None                                                    |
|  Computer AI Role: 1 (Defense)                                    |
|  Computer AI Ranking of Associated Tech (1 low, 8 high): 5        |
|  Made Obsolete By: Gunpowder                                      |
|  The Roman Legions, created during the early wars of the Republic |
|  and tested during the three Punic Wars against Carthage, were    |
|  the fighting force that conquered and held the Roman Empire for  |
|  five centuries. Each legion was composed of 6000 man, divided    |
|  into 60 smaller groups known as centuries. Nearly unstoppable on |
|  the attack, the legion was relatively weak on defense. The       |
|  legion's demise as a military unit was accelerated by the        |
|  destruction of Emperor Valens' army by gothic knights in the 4th |
|  Century.                                                         |
|                                                                   |
--------------------------------------------------------------------|

*******************************************************************************
|--------------------------------------------------------------------
|                                                                   |
|  MARINES                                                          |
|  Required Tech: Amphibious Warfare   Cost to build:  60 shields   |
|  Attack: 8                          Firepower: 1                  |
|  Defense: 5                         Hit Points: 2                 |
|  Movement: 1                                                      |
|  Special: Can attack directly from a ship                         |
|  Computer AI Role: 0 (Attack)                                     |
|  Computer AI Ranking of Associated Tech (1 low, 8 high): 3        |
|  Made Obsolete By: None                                           |
|  The Marines are a branch of the military service that operates   |
|  separately, but is under the ultimate control of the secretary   |
|  of the navy. The Marine Corps is a combined branch of the        |
|  military; their training prepares them to carry out integrated   |
|  land, sea, and air operations. The first marines were            |
|  commissioned during the American Revolution, only to be          |
|  inactivated after the war. The Marine Corps was then permanently |
|  reestablished by Congress in July, 1798. Legendary for their     |
|  toughness, rigid codes of behavior, and adaptability, they have  |
|  played an important role in almost every major war and conflict  |
|  of the 19th and 20th centuries.                                  |
|                                                                   |
--------------------------------------------------------------------|
The designers of Civ II seem to have been under the impression that cool
abilities like "amphibious assault" would actually be of great use in warfare
during the game. Well, guess what? They aren't! The best way to fight in Civ II
is the same old ground warfare approach, maybe with some aerial tactics built
in--I'm thinking Cruise Missile and Stealth Bomber. Plus some heavy battleship
bombardment, and that's all the late game tactics you'll need to win most any
war. So really, the Marines isn't an especially worthwhile unit. It's good,
stat-wise, but if you want an attacking unit, choose an Armor, and it you want
defense, a Mech Infantry is a much better pick--cheaper, but with an extra
point of defense. Plus, both are three times faster than the Marines, and speed
is to me the most important characteristic of units in Civ II.

*******************************************************************************
|--------------------------------------------------------------------
|                                                                   |
|  MECHANIZED INFANTRY                                              |
|  Required Tech: Labor Union          Cost to build:  50 shields   |
|  Attack: 6                          Firepower: 1                  |
|  Defense: 6                         Hit Points: 3                 |
|  Movement: 3                                                      |
|  Special: None                                                    |
|  Computer AI Role: 1 (Defense)                                    |
|  Computer AI Ranking of Associated Tech (1 low, 8 high): 4        |
|  Made Obsolete By: None                                           |
|  The introduction of armored tanks meant that armies could        |
|  quickly break through enemy defensive positions and move         |
|  aggressively forward on the battlefield. Such a quick advance,   |
|  however, left the ground won in the advance largely undefended.  |
|  Mechanized infantry, which was first used during World War II,   |
|  was designed to be able to move in quickly and defend the areas  |
|  behind the tanks. Infantry were mounted in armored vehicles,     |
|  such as half-tracks and Armored Personnel Carriers (APCs), to    |
|  carry the quickly and safely along with the rapidly advancing    |
|  armored divisions.                                               |
|                                                                   |
--------------------------------------------------------------------|
Mechanized Infantry is simply the strongest defensive units in the game. In
this era of tanks, they will have difficulty taking cities, but once your tanks
and battlehsips take a city, you should have mechanized infantry ready to come
in behind and occupy it. Fortified, this unit has an effective defense of 9, or
even twelve when Veteran. Not only does this represent a 4.16:1 shield per
defense point ratio, the best for any unit in the game, it also represents a
defense value that will stand up to any attacking unit you name. This is more
so when City Walls are taken into effect, though a few units of this age--air
units and howitzers--disregard City Walls. Still, this means that for a measly
50 shields, you can have a solid defensive unit: four fortified Mech Infantries
will make a city almost untakeable.

*******************************************************************************
|--------------------------------------------------------------------
|                                                                   |
|  MUSKETEERS                                                       |
|  Required Tech: Gunpowder            Cost to build:  30 shields   |
|  Attack: 3                          Firepower: 1                  |
|  Defense: 3                         Hit Points: 2                 |
|  Movement: 1                                                      |
|  Special: None                                                    |
|  Computer AI Role: 1 (Defense)                                    |
|  Computer AI Ranking of Associated Tech (1 low, 8 high): 8        |
|  Made Obsolete By: Conscription                                   |
|  One of the most important developments in the history of warfare |
|  was the invention of firearms. Originally developed in the 14th  |
|  century, firearms eveolved quickly, and by the late 17th century |
|  flintlock muskets had become commonplace in battle. Musketeers,  |
|  who were relatively inexpensive to equip and train, proved a     |
|  deadly foe for the knights who had dominated the battlefield for |
|  so many years. Armies were often comprised of a combination of   |
|  musketeers, cannon, and knights, each complementing the          |
|  strengths and weaknesses of one another. Large forces of         |
|  musketeers within a fortress or behind city walls proved an      |
|  exceedingly difficult obstacle to an attacking army. Muskets     |
|  were the primary firearm in use until they were replaced by      |
|  repeating rifles in the mid-19th century.                        |
|                                                                   |
--------------------------------------------------------------------|

*******************************************************************************
|--------------------------------------------------------------------
|                                                                   |
|  NUCLEAR MISSILE                                                  |
|  Required Tech: Rocketry             Cost to build: 160 shields   |
|  Attack: 99                         Firepower: 1                  |
|  Defense: 0                         Hit Points: 1                 |
|  Movement: 16 (1)                                                 |
|  Special: Destroyed after attacking                               |
|  Computer AI Role: 0 (Attack)                                     |
|  Computer AI Ranking of Associated Tech (1 low, 8 high): 6        |
|  Made Obsolete By: None                                           |
|  The deployment of atomic bombs at Nagasaki and Hiroshima at the  |
|  end of World War II changed the world's standards for measuring  |
|  military power. Nuclear weapons can eradicate ground forces and  |
|  armored divisions, and flatten cities with their awesome         |
|  explosive power. In the years following World War II, arsenals   |
|  of nuclear weapons were built up rapidly by opposing nations,    |
|  each fearing the capabilities of the other. This massive arms    |
|  build up has acted as a deterrant to full-scale war, since all   |
|  the governments involved are aware of the consequences should    |
|  such a war take place. The threat imposed by the huge nuclear    |
|  arsenals of the world powers may one day be eradicated by the    |
|  development of the Strategic Defense Initiative, or SDI, a       |
|  system designed to destroy enemy missiles in flight before they  |
|  can reach theis targets.                                         |
|                                                                   |
--------------------------------------------------------------------|
It doesn't take a racket scientist to understand the advantages and the
disadvantages of the nuclear missile. Pro: very simply, with this weapon you
can start dealing death and destruction like it's your job. Seriously. A well
executed nuclear strike will leave anyone incapacitated, and has the potential
to wipe away an opposing civilization in a single turn. But in return, you will
face the brunt of the world's backlash. And if they have nukes, they will not
hesitate a moment to return your fire. However, I have never seen the AI
initiate a nuclear attack. So whether nukes get used or not is really up to
you, isn't it?

If you decide to take the conflict to the nuclear level, make sure it's the
right choice. Don't do it if you know the opposing civs have more nukes than
you, because a nuclear war will only hurt you. Don't do it if you still have
a good position in terms of conventional weaponry; a nuclear victory might seem
easy but in fact a conventional victory is almost always cheaper, and safer.
When you begin to plan a strike, organize first. Get your carriers into range
so as to set yourself up for a single-wave attack that can hopefully eliminate
your enemy's nukes before they can fire. A surgical strike is rarely effective
either, so feel free to go all out. Also, be ready to deal with the response.
All cities within range of an enemy strike should have an SDI defense,
especially your most likely targets--the largest cities and the ones with
important Wonders. Once the SDI is taken care of, get your major ships and
units that aren't involved in the attack back into cities so they are protected
also. Finally, start on the production of engineers. You will need a lot of
them to clean up the mess of pollution you made. As you can see, I'm not a big
fan of the nuclear strike--it's messy and nukes are expensive anyway. But if
you want to have fun, go ahead and blow the **** out of those bastards!

*******************************************************************************
|--------------------------------------------------------------------
|                                                                   |
|  PARATROOPERS                                                     |
|  Required Tech: Combined Arms        Cost to build:  60 shields   |
|  Attack: 6                          Firepower: 1                  |
|  Defense: 4                         Hit Points: 2                 |
|  Movement: 1                                                      |
|  Special: Can make paradrops                                      |
|  Computer AI Role: 1 (Defense)                                    |
|  Computer AI Ranking of Associated Tech (1 low, 8 high): 5        |
|  Made Obsolete By: None                                           |
|  Although the idea of the parachute was suggested in the 16th     |
|  century drawings of Leonardo da Vinci, the first parachute was   |
|  not invented until the late 1700s. For years, parachutes were    |
|  standard emergency equipment for balloonists. Claire Chennault,  |
|  an American pioneer of avaition pursuit tactics during World War |
|  I, was the first to suggest using parachutes to drop troops      |
|  behind enemy lines. This idea was widely used. Paratroopers were |
|  flown behind enemy lines in transport planes and dropped from    |
|  low altitude, allowing them to attack the enemy from behind.     |
|  Today, paratroopers are usually highly-trained special forces    |
|  personnal, trained to covertly infiltrate enemy territory.       |
|                                                                   |
--------------------------------------------------------------------|

*******************************************************************************
|--------------------------------------------------------------------
|                                                                   |
|  PARTISANS                                                        |
|  Required Tech: Guerrilla Warfare    Cost to build:  50 shields   |
|  Attack: 4                          Firepower: 1                  |
|  Defense: 4                         Hit Points: 2                 |
|  Movement: 1                                                      |
|  Special: Treats all squares as road sqaures                      |
|           Ignores enemy zones of control                          |
|  Computer AI Role: 1 (Defense)                                    |
|  Computer AI Ranking of Associated Tech (1 low, 8 high): 4        |
|  Made Obsolete By: None                                           |
|  Partisans are militant groups who pledge their support to a      |
|  leader or a system of government. Partisans differ from fanatics |
|  in their methods. Whereas fanatics are usually radicals prone to |
|  use terrorist tactics, partisans are usually trained soldiers    |
|  who practice the more organized tactics of guerilla warfare.     |
|  Partisan groups have existed at various times through history.   |
|  Partisans were particularly active in the Nazi occupied          |
|  countries of Europe during World War II, where their acts of     |
|  sabotage against their conquerors often kept German troops busy  |
|  quelling partisan uprisings while they should have been fighting |
|  on the front lines. Because of their unflagging dedication to    |
|  their cause, partisans make formidable opponents.                |
|                                                                   |
--------------------------------------------------------------------|

*******************************************************************************
|--------------------------------------------------------------------
|                                                                   |
|  PHALANX                                                          |
|  Required Tech: Bronze Working       Cost to build:  20 shields   |
|  Attack: 1                          Firepower: 1                  |
|  Defense: 2                         Hit Points: 1                 |
|  Movement: 1                                                      |
|  Special: None                                                    |
|  Computer AI Role: 1 (Defense)                                    |
|  Computer AI Ranking of Associated Tech (1 low, 8 high): 6        |
|  Made Obsolete By: Feudalism                                      |
|  The phalanx was a military formation developed in Greece, and    |
|  perfected in Macedonia. It consisted of a large group of         |
|  soldiers in ranks and files, usually from 8 to 32 men deep,      |
|  armed with spears, swords, and large shields. The first five     |
|  ranks of men pointed their weapons forward, while the others     |
|  kept their spears upright to deflect incoming missiles. An enemy |
|  had difficulty approaching this formation. The attacking army    |
|  was faced with a densely packed body of warriors, who were often |
|  advancing on the run. This usually caused the attackers to give  |
|  ground rather than being impaled. Unfortunately, the phalanx     |
|  lacked maneuverability, and became less prevalent when enemy     |
|  forces became more professional and learned to outflank the      |
|  formation.                                                       |
|                                                                   |
--------------------------------------------------------------------|
Early in the game, the Phalanx will be your primary defensive unit, and since
defense is a top priority you will probably build a lot of them. I like to
have one or two Phalanxes in every city early in the game, but there are other
good uses for them besides fortifying in cities. First, I like to send a
Phalanx out with every Settler. While in general, I try to discourage stacking
of units, stacking a Phalanx with a Settler is usually pretty effective, not
only because the defensive strength will ward off an attacker, but because the
opponent rarely has two attackers to throw at you, and when attacked one-on-one
the Phalanx will usually win. Also, with the Phalanx, I like to take advantage
of the terrain bonuses, which play a huge role at this phase of the game. A
Phalanx on a mountain square is almost unbeatable for the first few centuries.

*******************************************************************************
|--------------------------------------------------------------------
|                                                                   |
|  PIKEMEN                                                          |
|  Required Tech: Feudalism            Cost to build:  20 shields   |
|  Attack: 1                          Firepower: 1                  |
|  Defense: 2                         Hit Points: 1                 |
|  Movement: 1                                                      |
|  Special: 2X Defense versus mounted units                         |
|  Computer AI Role: 1 (Defense)                                    |
|  Computer AI Ranking of Associated Tech (1 low, 8 high): 4        |
|  Made Obsolete By: Gunpowder                                      |
|  The growing deployment of knights on the battlefield demanded    |
|  that foot soldiers develop new means of fighting that would      |
|  lessen their vulnerability against mounted opponents. One of the |
|  best ways to do this was to lengthen the reach of the            |
|  infantrymen by arming them with long, strudy spears known as     |
|  pikes. Massed infantry armed with pikes, in conjunction with     |
|  archers, managed to even the battlefield odds. Armies equipped   |
|  in this manner managed to hold their own until the invention of  |
|  gunpowder made knights a thing of the past.                      |
|                                                                   |
--------------------------------------------------------------------|

*******************************************************************************
|--------------------------------------------------------------------
|                                                                   |
|  RIFLEMEN                                                         |
|  Required Tech: Conscription         Cost to build:  40 shields   |
|  Attack: 5                          Firepower: 1                  |
|  Defense: 4                         Hit Points: 2                 |
|  Movement: 1                                                      |
|  Special: None                                                    |
|  Computer AI Role: 1 (Defense)                                    |
|  Computer AI Ranking of Associated Tech (1 low, 8 high): 7        |
|  Made Obsolete By: None                                           |
|  Two developments in the 19th century made early firearms such as |
|  the musket obsolete. The first was the use of a spiral groove,   |
|  or "rifling" inside the barrel of a gun. Second, was the         |
|  development of the repeating rifle, which could fire multiple    |
|  shots before it required reloading. The rifle was a better       |
|  weapon than its ancestors, with much more accuracy over a        |
|  greater range than the musket. Riflemen were first employed in   |
|  large numbers during the American Civil War. The rifle gave a    |
|  strong defensive advantage, since riflemen could fire several    |
|  times while the attackers attacked. Theis was normally enough to |
|  hold any position. Riflemen held the advantage on the            |
|  battlefield until the appearence of armored attack vehicles.     |
|                                                                   |
--------------------------------------------------------------------|

*******************************************************************************
|--------------------------------------------------------------------
|                                                                   |
|  SETTLERS                                                         |
|  Required Tech: None                 Cost to build:  40 shields   |
|  Attack: 0                          Firepower: 1                  |
|  Defense: 1                         Hit Points: 2                 |
|  Movement: 1                                                      |
|  Special: Can build roads and improve terrain                     |
|  Computer AI Role: 5 (Settler)                                    |
|  Computer AI Ranking of Associated Tech (1 low, 8 high): NA       |
|  Made Obsolete By: Explosives                                     |
|  When cities grew to a size where the resources were insufficient |
|  to adequately insure a decent standard of living for the         |
|  populace, adventurous groups of citizens set out on their own in |
|  search of a place to build a new city. Once a suitable site was  |
|  found, the settlers would build their new homes, and develop the |
|  land surrounding the city. Eventually the whole process repeated |
|  and the new city would send out settlers of its own. This        |
|  process allowed civilizations to grow throughout history, from   |
|  the empires of the ancient world to the discovery and settlement |
|  of the New World.                                                |
|                                                                   |
--------------------------------------------------------------------|
Ahh, Settlers. The one unit you always, always have to build. How could you
give this unit a bad rating? It's so powerful that in Civ III they decided to
break up its abilities among two distinct units, the Settler and the Worker.
But honestly, wise use of settlers is one of the keys to Civilization. Knowing
when to make that big expansionist push is a skill that can't be taught, it's
kind of a "natural" ability. All I can say is, build settlers whenever you can.
Expand. Improve your cities with roads, mines, and irrigation. While you can
play other styles successfully, Expansionist is by far the easiest style of
play to win with. Anyway, here are some tips on the use of settlers.

In the early game, always try to send out a Settlers unit with some military
unit, usually a Phalanx. Once I get my second city built, I usually have them
alternate between Phalanxes and Settlers and send them out in pairs. Then, once
the city is established, change the Phalanx's home city to the new city, and
fortify it inside. This will prevent the city from being hit by barbarians or
another civ before it can even get off the ground. Also, as you send out
Settlers, make sure that they continue to build roads and improvements as they
go. It might take longer for them to get to the city site but that road will
do wonders for you in the future.

*******************************************************************************
|--------------------------------------------------------------------
|                                                                   |
|  SPY                                                              |
|  Required Tech: Espionage            Cost to build: 30 shields    |
|  Attack: 0                          Firepower: 1                  |
|  Defense: 0                         Hit Points: 1                 |
|  Movement: 3                                                      |
|  Special: Ignores enemy zones of control                          |
|  Computer AI Role: 6 (Diplomacy)                                  |
|  Computer AI Ranking of Associated Tech (1 low, 8 high): 2        |
|  Made Obsolete By: None                                           |
|  One of the most effective ways to compile information about an   |
|  enemy [or potential enemy] is by infiltrating the enemy's ranks. |
|  This is the job of the spy. Spies can bring back all sorts of    |
|  information concerning the size and strength of an enemy army.   |
|  They can also find dissidents within the enemy's force and       |
|  influence them to defect. In times of crisis, spies can also be  |
|  used to steal technology and to sabotage the enemy in various    |
|  ways. Counterintelligence operatives can feed false information  |
|  to enemy spies, protecting important domestic secrets and        |
|  preventing attempts at subversion. Nearly every society has very |
|  strict laws concerning espionage, and the penalty for being      |
|  caught is often death. However, the benefits that can be gained  |
|  through espionage are generally felt to outweigh the risks.      |
|                                                                   |
--------------------------------------------------------------------|
Among the strongest units in the game, the spy is simply impossible to defend
against if you choose to utilize the "save and reload" trick (see the first
topic in the Cheats section). Even without that, spies are still difficult to
stop for any enemy not using a democracy. One spy can have major effects--
not only can you steal vital techs, you can bribe enemy cities and units, and
if you don't have the money to buy enemy units or subvert cities outright, the
destruction of a City Walls, SAM Battery, or Coastal Fortress can devastate the
defenses. Alternately, the elimination of a Temple, Cathedral, or Coliseum
will quickly send a city spiraling into disorder. The other spy missions are
less effective. A word of warning, DON'T send a spy to plant a nuclear device
unless you can handle being at war with every other civilization. (Exception--
if you absolutely must destroy a capital to stop a spaceship, do it, but send
multiple spies, because this mission has a high rate of failure.) Multiple
spies are effective under any conditions, for any assignment, in order to
counterattack the likelihood of missions failing. I like to take two transports
and load one up with Spies and the other with a few Armors. Land the Spies
first and buy all the units in the area, then try to destroy as many
improvements in the city as possible. The loss of a single structure your enemy
can cope with--he can just buy it back next turn--but he can't stop the effects
of losing his Walls, Marketplace, Cathedral, SAM Battery, and the Marines he's
building. So try to annihilate a city, not just chip away.

In fact there's an entire style of play centered on the Spy, which I name the
CIA strategy. It involves building a few defensive units and then churning out
nothing but Spies and, if necessary, Transports. Spies, being cheap, can be
built at an astonishing rate, and since they are often consumed in use, you
won't have to support too many units. The only real way for an opponent to
defend this is to go democratic. Or, as another effective defense, create a
roadless space between you and your opponent that Spies can't cross in one
turn. This way, when a spy tries to get to you, you can catch it in the open
and destroy it easily. Correspondingly, if you're using the CIA strategy,
try to connect your rail network to your opponent's network, to give your spies
easier access. Roads and railroads really make up for a spy's weak defense.
Spies aren't really a necessary development--in fact you can skip the Espionage
advance altogether--but they can be a valuable addition to your forces. Getting
to Espionage as fast as you can might not be a bad idea, because, as you can
see from the AI rating, the computer seriously undervalues the Spy unit. After
you get the spy, you can make up any technologies you might have missed in no
time at all!

*******************************************************************************
|--------------------------------------------------------------------
|                                                                   |
|  STEALTH BOMBER                                                   |
|  Required Tech: Stealth              Cost to build: 160 shields   |
|  Attack: 14                         Firepower: 2                  |
|  Defense: 5                         Hit Points: 2                 |
|  Movement: 12 (2)                                                 |
|  Special: Ignores enemy zones of control                          |
|           Ignores City Walls                                      |
|  Computer AI Role: 0 (Attack)                                     |
|  Computer AI Ranking of Associated Tech (1 low, 8 high): 3        |
|  Made Obsolete By: None                                           |
|  Concurrent with the development of a stealth fighter,            |
|  aeronautical engineers began to apply stealth technology to a    |
|  full-scale bomber. The B-1B bomber, which went into service in   |
|  1986 as a replacement for the B-52, incorporated some of these   |
|  innovations. The radar signayure of the B-1B was reduced to a    |
|  mere 1 percent that of the B-52 due to its low cross-section and |
|  its minimal use of radar-reflective, hard-edged surfaces. Soon   |
|  after the B-1B entered service, the U.S. Air Force commissioned  |
|  Northrop to develop a true stealth bomber as an eventual         |
|  replacement. First revealed to the public in 1988, the B-2       |
|  stealth bomber uses a flying wing design similar in shape to the |
|  F-117A stealth fighter. The flying wing design reduces the       |
|  profile of the B-2 by incorporating its engines into the body of |
|  the plane. The engine exhausts and intakes are shielded to       |
|  prevent infrared tracking. The B-2 also makes use of curved      |
|  surfaces and radar-absorbing materials to enhance its            |
|  "invisibility", and make it far less detectable than the B-1B.   |
|  As of the late 1980s it was announced that 132 B-2's would be    |
|  constructed, and would enter service sometime in the 1990s.      |
|                                                                   |
--------------------------------------------------------------------|
Finally, at this late stage in the game, you will develop a flying unit that is
really worth your while. The power of the Stealth Bomber will allow it to beat
up on virtually any unit in the game, except the battleship. More importantly,
it is fast and because of its "invisibility" factor and high defense (for an
air unit) it wont die in one attack from an enemy fighter. Unlike other air
units, it is somewhat hardy, and this is a big plus.

*******************************************************************************
|--------------------------------------------------------------------
|                                                                   |
|  STEALTH FIGHTER                                                  |
|  Required Tech: Stealth              Cost to build:  80 shields   |
|  Attack: 8                          Firepower: 2                  |
|  Defense: 4                         Hit Points: 2                 |
|  Movement: 14                                                     |
|  Special: Ignores enemy zones of control                          |
|           Can attack aircraft in flight                           |
|           Ignores City Walls                                      |
|  Computer AI Role: 3 (Air Superiority)                            |
|  Computer AI Ranking of Associated Tech (1 low, 8 high): 3        |
|  Made Obsolete By: None                                           |
|  Starting in the Second World War, radar technology came into     |
|  widespread use both for detection and targeting of aircraft.     |
|  Because of this, aeronautical engineers began searching for ways |
|  to make aircraft less "visible" to electronic tracking and       |
|  weapon systems. The earliest stealth technologies consisted of   |
|  coating aircraft with materials that would absorb rather than    |
|  deflect a radar signal. In the late 1970s, designs incorporating |
|  this technology, as well as a unique fuselage shape dsigned to   |
|  deflect radar away from its source, were prototyped. The first   |
|  true stealth fighter, the Lockheed F-117A, flew for the first    |
|  time on June 18, 1981. This fighter, incorporating the latest    |
|  anti-radar and anti-thermal innovations, is capable of entering  |
|  enemy territory, delivering its payload, and returning to base   |
|  with little chance of detection. These unique, black aircraft    |
|  served well in the Persian Gulf War in 1991, and have served as  |
|  the basis for further development of stealth aircraft            |
|  technology.                                                      |
|                                                                   |
--------------------------------------------------------------------|
Like the stealth bomber, this is a pretty effective unit that will be able not
only to attack enemy air units, but can put a lot of pressure on enemy ground
units. Most enemy ground units, even Armor and Mech Infantry, will fall to the
attack of the Stealth Fighter. Its power is not as devastating as the Bomber,
but it costs half as much, so go ahead and build it, especially in frontline
cities that may not have particularly high production values.

*******************************************************************************
|--------------------------------------------------------------------
|                                                                   |
|  SUBMARINE                                                        |
|  Required Tech: Combustion           Cost to build:  60 shields   |
|  Attack: 10                         Firepower: 2                  |
|  Defense: 2                         Hit Points: 3                 |
|  Movement: 3                                                      |
|  Special: Invisible to most enemy ships                           |
|  Computer AI Role: 2 (Naval Superiority)                          |
|  Computer AI Ranking of Associated Tech (1 low, 8 high): 5        |
|  Made Obsolete By: None                                           |
|  A submarine is a submersible warship, designed to attack enemy   |
|  vessels while remaining hidden underwater. Although defensively  |
|  weak, submarines are feared because of their ability to make a   |
|  stealthy approach and attack without warning. Often, the         |
|  presence of a submarine is not detected until the first of the   |
|  sub's torpedoes strikes the target. Submarine warfare was first  |
|  used extensively by the Germans during World War I. Developments |
|  after the war, such as sonar, made the submarine even more       |
|  effective. During World War II, submarines were used extensively |
|  by all the world's naval powers. Today's submarines, in addition |
|  to their role as fast attack vessels, also carry nuclear weapons |
|  that can be fired from underwater positions just off the coast   |
|  of an enemy country.                                             |
|                                                                   |
--------------------------------------------------------------------|

*******************************************************************************
|--------------------------------------------------------------------
|                                                                   |
|  TRANSPORT                                                        |
|  Required Tech: Industrialization    Cost to build:  50 shields   |
|  Attack: 0                          Firepower: 1                  |
|  Defense: 3                         Hit Points: 3                 |
|  Movement: 5                                                      |
|  Special: Can transport 8 friendly ground units                   |
|  Computer AI Role: 4 (Sea Transport)                              |
|  Computer AI Ranking of Associated Tech (1 low, 8 high): 6        |
|  Made Obsolete By: None                                           |
|  The troop trnasport ship, which in peacetime serves as a cargo   |
|  or passenger vessel, is the principle means used by modern       |
|  powers to move large quantities of military equipment and        |
|  personnel over long distances. Because trnasports lack offensive |
|  weaponry, they require armed vessels as escorts during times of  |
|  war. A properly escorted transport can move large military       |
|  forces to a new area quickly to act as reinforcements or as an   |
|  attacking force.                                                 |
|                                                                   |
--------------------------------------------------------------------|
The utlimate in sea transportation, the Transport can hold twice as many units
as its nearest competitor. Eight units is more than enough to constitute a
fearsome army, especially when you're talking eight Armors or eight Mechanized
Infantries. The Transport helps to make continent-to-continent fighting a real
possibility, and the large volume of units to be transported allows for
serious assaults from the sea. Use Transports as the core of your assault
fleets; however, they will need to be protected by powerful sea units. I'm
talking about battleships here; it would be wise to have at least one, usually
two, defensive units assigned as an escort for each Transport. Considering the
large investment of land units aboard each vessel, this type of precaution is
not just worthwhile, but necessary.

*******************************************************************************
|--------------------------------------------------------------------
|                                                                   |
|  TRIREME                                                          |
|  Required Tech: Map Making           Cost to build:  40 shields   |
|  Attack: 1                          Firepower: 1                  |
|  Defense: 1                         Hit Points: 1                 |
|  Movement: 3                                                      |
|  Special: Can transport 2 friendly ground units                   |
|           May be lost if it ends movement away from coast         |
|  Computer AI Role: 4 (Sea Transport)                              |
|  Computer AI Ranking of Associated Tech (1 low, 8 high): 6        |
|  Made Obsolete By: Navigation                                     |
|  The trireme was the first ship designed for war. Introduced by   |
|  the Greeks, triremes were powered by three banks of oars on each |
|  side, manned by well-trained oarsmen. These oarsmen were highly  |
|  paid professionals or patriotic citizens, not slaves and         |
|  prisoners as depicted in fiction. A huge, bronze "beak" mounted  |
|  at the bow of the ship was used to ram and sink enemy ships.     |
|  Because of its long, narrow hul, the trireme was very unstable   |
|  in all but the calmest waters, and as a consequence its crew     |
|  rarely ventured out of sight of land for long periods of time,   |
|  lest the ship be caught in a storm and sunk.                     |
|                                                                   |
--------------------------------------------------------------------|
Well, it's the first ship you can get, no matter what route of research you
take. But, even so, I wouldn't bother building it. You will quickly be able to
build the Caravel, which is a far superior unit in that it can leave the coast.
As far as I can tell there's never any hurry to build ships, since they're
useless for defense at this point, and even if you have an urgent desire to get
off your continent, the Trireme isn't too useful for that anyway. Like the
Warriors unit (see below) the Trireme is only in the game so that you can
build a ship really quickly if you want, and it shares with the warrior the
distinction of terrible stats. Unlike the warrior, it doesn't satisfy your
need for instant defense. Nor is it particularly cheap to build. In fact, if
there is one unit I could tell you never to build, it would be the Trireme.
Well, I guess I made my opinion pretty clear, didn't I? Man, as this guide
finishes up I'm getting kinda critical aren't I? But now, the end is in sight--
one more unit to go baby!

*******************************************************************************
|--------------------------------------------------------------------
|                                                                   |
|  WARRIORS                                                         |
|  Required Tech: None                 Cost to build: 10 shields    |
|  Attack: 1                          Firepower: 1                  |
|  Defense: 1                         Hit Points: 1                 |
|  Movement: 1                                                      |
|  Special: None                                                    |
|  Computer AI Role: 1 (Defense)                                    |
|  Computer AI Ranking of Associated Tech (1 low, 8 high): NA       |
|  Made Obsolete By: Feudalism                                      |
|  The earliest military forces were simply the citizens of the     |
|  city armed with whatever implements they could use as weapons.   |
|  Although a militia made up of warriors was inexpensive, they     |
|  were no match for organized armies. Warriors were usually        |
|  used as a stopgap measure while waiting for superior units to be |
|  trained, or to defend a city that had been temporarily cut off   |
|  from military support. In a crisis situation, an assembly of     |
|  warriors is a better choice than no defense at all.              |
|                                                                   |
--------------------------------------------------------------------|
Ahh, the unit with the basic "1" in every stat. And no specials to boot.
Obviously, being the most basic unit in the game, these are not great. I would
actively advise against building any of these since you should very quickly be
able to develop the phalanx, which is far superior. The only reason to build
the warrior, is if you notice an enemy unit approaching your city while you are
still defenseless, and need a unit immediately to defend. Never use the warrior
for attack, you will just be throwing shields down the drain, as they will
most definitely lose. In short the warrior is a nice cheap defense to throw
out there while you are still getting your stuff together, but never rely on it
for anything more than defending against other Warriors.

*******************************************************************************

*******************************************************************************
HOW TO MODIFY UNITS
Units can be modified in two files in the primary game folder. The first is
UNITS.gif, where the pictures for each unit can be modified. The second is
RULES.txt, which controls all other aspects of the units--names, statistics,
etc.

For those who wish to modify the unit icons, open the gif file in a good art-
editing program. First things first, though. MAKE A BACKUP. Believe me, the
first few time you will mess this up, and you don't want to have to reinstall.
(Or maybe you do?) Anyway, once you've made a copy somewhere on your hard
drive, open up the GIF file in an editor. I use Paintshop Pro.

I just have two tips for this. One, don't break the border of each unit's box,
they are there for a reason, I know from experience. (Don't ask.) Also, the
background colors, I think it is purple, are set to be transparent, like the
"Chromakey" they have for TV. So don't make you're units this color, or they
will be see-through, like a weatherman wearing a blue shirt. Or, if you want
a unit to be transparent, use this color.

Before you mess with RULES.txt, be sure to save an original, unaltered copy of
the rules somewhere on your computer. The units section begins about halfway
down the document. For each unit, you will see a name, followed by a string of
numbers. We'll use Battleship as the example.

Battleship,   nil, 2,  4.,0, 12a,12d, 4h,2f, 16,0,  2, Aut, 000000000000001

The first piece of data is the name, which you can change, but keep in under
thirteen characters.

The second is the three-letter abbreviation for the advance which makes the
unit obsolete. Check out the "ADVANCES" section of RULES.txt to find the
abbreviations.

Column three must contain a 0, 1, or a 2. This refers to the type of unit it
is: 0 is ground, 1 is air, and 2 is sea.

The next set of two numbers (4.,0,) is the range of the unit and its number of
fuel turns. Only air units should have anything but a 0 as the second number.
An air unit that does have a 0 for fuel will be like the helicopter; it will
not need to refuel but will lose a few hit points each turn and eventually be
destroyed.

The next four pieces of data (a,d,h,f) determine the stats of the unit. Attack
is basically the hit % of the unit while attacking. The greater the attack is
the more chance you have of scoring a hit. Similarly defense is the chance to
hit when defending. Basically, the computer keeps picking from a hat to
determine who gets a hit, until one combatant is destroyed. The attack and
defense values then determine how many slips of paper you have in the hat.
H is the number of hit points the unit has. (Multiply by ten to get the actual
hit points.) This represents how much damage the unit can sustain. F is
firepower, the amount of hit points each successful hit takes away. Good attack
units have high firepower.

The next number is the cost of the unit in shield rows. The standard row is 10
shields, but you can change this in RULES.txt also.

The third to last entry is the number of units a transport ship can hold.

The second to last entry is the AI role of the unit (see the intro to the
main section.) This determines how the computer uses the unit, so if you really
want to abuse the new attack unit you made, have the computer use it as a
defensive unit.

The last group of numbers represent special characteristics. You can combine
these in any way, but don't try any really weird combinations as the game will
most likely crash. Here are the meanings of the different flags.

000000000000001 = Two space visibility
000000000000010 = Ignore zones of control
000000000000100 = Can make amphibious assaults
000000000001000 = Submarine advantages/disadvantages
000000000010000 = Can attack air units (fighter)
000000000100000 = Ship must stay near land (trireme)
000000001000000 = Negates city walls (howitzer)
000000010000000 = Can carry air units (carrier)
000000100000000 = Can make paradrops
000001000000000 = Alpine (treats all squares as road)
000010000000000 = x2 on defense versus horse (pikemen)
000100000000000 = Free support for fundamentalism (fanatics)
001000000000000 = Destroyed after attacking (missiles)
010000000000000 = x2 on defense versus air (AEGIS)
100000000000000 = Unit can spot submarines

In addition to changing all the regular units, there are three extra unit slots
available for you to experiment, so have fun.

*******************************************************************************
UNIT CHEATS
1) The "Save Game" Trick
This is so obvious that it isn't even a cheat, but I'll put it in anyway since
it can be very effective and should pretty much make you invincible. Pretty
much everything in the game, from battles to the success of spy assignments, is
determined by percentages. Thus, it is even possible for a frigate to defeat
a battleship, or a warriors to defeat an Armor. So, before you take any action
make a game save, and if it doesn't turn out well, reload. Repeat as needed,
until you get the outcome you want. Not only can this be applied to units, but
to huts--until you get the best reward you want, or just to avoid barbarians--
and to all other aspects of the game. While it doesn't exploit any flaw in the
game code, using it is clearly cheating, so if you use the Save Trick expect
people to disregard the impressive scores you will achieve.

*******************************************************************************

*******************************************************************************
CLOSING REMARKS
Hope you enjoyed the guide! If you want a more broad guide to Civilization II,
I recommend Ronan Murphy's (AlaskaFox's) FAQ/Strategy Guide. Obviously it
won't add anything to your knowledge of Units but it does have all the aspects
of the game covered. So read it and enjoy. And I hope you will check out
any future FAQs I make for your favorite games.

*******************************************************************************
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS:
Credit to the Civilization II in-game material, from which the description
and information in each unit box was lifted.

Thanks to Sid Meier for a great game!
Thanks to Dell for a great computer to play it on!
Thanks to GameFAQs, hopefully this will be the start of a productive career
there, and especially to CJayC for doing such a great job there.
Most of all thanks to me, for the time it took to gather this information.

*******************************************************************************
"The Civilization II Units Guide"
Last Update: 14.6.2002
Version: 1.1
DENOUEMENT