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    Leadership/Gang Module/Fleet FAQ by TheBeeej

    Version: 1.20 | Updated: 10/01/09 | Printable Version | Search This Guide

    Leadership
    Gang Assist Modules
    and
    Fleet Structure
    
    A Guide by Patrick Scott
    V 1.20
    
    
    Table of Contents
    
    I.  Version Info ................ [VER]
    II. Disclaimer .................. [DIS]
    
    1. Introduction ................. [INTRO]
    2. Leadership Skills ............ [SKILL]
       I. Tier 1 .................... [T1]
       II. Tier 2 ................... [T2]
       III. Fleet ................... [FLT]
    3. Gang Assist Modules .......... [MODS]
       I.   Armoured Warfare ........ [ARMD]
       II.  Information Warfare ..... [INFO]
       III. Siege Warfare ........... [SIEG]
       IV.  Skirmish Warfare ........ [SKRM]
       V.   Mining Foreman .......... [MINE]
       VI.  Fitting ................. [FIT]
       VII. Bonuses ................. [BONUS]
    4. Fleet Structure .............. [FLEET]
    5. Credits & Thanks ............. [CRED]
    
    
    I. Version Info [VER]
    
    1.00 - First public release.
    
    1.10 - Addition of the Orca and modified charts. Addition of new fleet structure
    	 options. Various spelling and grammar corrections.
    
    1.20 - Addition of the Tech 3 warfare subsystem information. Information on the
    	 Rorqual was added in between versions and I was lazy about recording it.
    
    II. Disclaimer [DIS]
    
    This may be not be reproduced under any circumstances except for personal,
    private use. It may not be placed on any web site or otherwise distributed
    publicly without advance written permission. Use of this guide on any other
    web site or as a part of any public display is strictly prohibited, and a
    violation of copyright.
    
    
    1. Introduction [INTRO]
    
    This is a guide to the Leadership skill category, gang modules, and fleet
    structure, and the first guide I've ever written. I hope you find some of this
    information helpful. For the sake of being thorough I will state some very
    basic information, it is as much so you can reference everything in one place
    as anything else. I'll often put the rank of a skill in brackets after it's
    name, mostly a habit from EVEMon, but it is good to see at a glance.
    
    2. Leadership Skills Category [SKILL]
    
    It contains 14 skills total. Five of them I refer to as 'Tier 1' are Armoured
    Warfare(2), Information Warfare(2), Siege Warfare(2), Skirmish Warfare(2), and
    Mining Foreman(2). Another five I refer to as 'Tier 2' are Armoured Warfare
    Specialist(5), Information Warfare Specialist(5), Siege Warfare Specialist(5),
    Skirmish Warfare Specialist(5), and Mining Director(5). Three of the skills
    are related to the fleet command structure, they are Leadership(1), Wing
    Command(8), and Fleet Command(12). The last skill is Warfare Link
    Specialist(6) and is solely for increasing the bonuses of all gang modules.
    Note: the Leadership skill could also belong with tier 1 skills, as it has a
    similar bonus attached to it, but I feel it's place is with the fleet
    structure skills. Descriptions are quoted from actual game text.
    
    I. Tier 1 [T1]
    
    Grant immediate, tangible benefits to those in your fleet. These bonuses are
    only active in a fleet, and only if you have the role of Booster.
    
    Armoured Warfare(2)
    - Grants a 2% bonus to gang members' armour hit points per skill level.
    Information Warfare(2)
    - Grants a 2% bonus to gang members' targeting range per skill level.
    Siege Warfare(2)
    - Grants a 2% bonus to gang members' shield capacity per skill level.
    Skirmish Warfare(2)
    - Grants a 2% bonus to gang members' maximum velocity per skill level.
    Mining Foreman(2)
    - Grants a 2% bonus to gang members' mining yield per level.
    *Leadership(1)
    - Grants a 2% bonus to gang members' targeting speed per skill level.
    
    II. Tier 2 [T2]
    
    Increase the bonus output of active gang modules. Again, bonuses only apply in
    a fleet if you have the Booster role.
    
    Armoured Warfare Specialist(5)
    - 100% bonus to effectiveness of armoured warfare link modules per level.
    Information Warfare Specialist(5)
    - 100% bonus to effectiveness of information warfare link modules per level.
    Siege Warfare Specialist(5)
    - 100% bonus to effectiveness of siege warfare link modules per level.
    Skirmish Warfare Specialist(5)
    - 100% bonus to effectiveness of skirmish warfare link modules per level.
    Mining Director(5)
    - 100% bonus to effectiveness of Mining Foreman link modules per level.
    
    III. Fleet [FLT]
    
    These skills allow you to maintain command as part of a fleet structure and
    ensure the bonuses from Boosters are available to everyone.
    
    *Leadership(1)
    - Allows command of a squadron. Increases maximum squadron size by 2 members
    per skill level, up to a maximum of 10 members.
    Wing Command(8)
    - Allows command of a Wing. Grants the Wing Commander the ability to operate a
    new Squadron per skill level, up to a maximum of 5 Squadrons.
    Fleet Command(12)
    - Allows command of a Fleet. Grants the Fleet Commander the ability to command
    a new Wing per skill level, up to a maximum of 5 Wings.
    
    Warfare Link Specialist - Boosts effectiveness of all warfare link modules by
    10% per level.
    
    *These are the same skill. It carries both bonuses and I placed it on both
    lists for easier reference.
    
    
    3. Gang Assist Modules [MODS]
    
    The effects of gang modules do not make or break battles, they do not turn the
    tide of wars, and they do not make poor pilots better. They are the icing on
    the cake, they are an edge in combat, and they make skilled pilots smile :)
    
    Gang modules are hi slot, active modules that emit a fleet wide bonus to an
    attribute for as long as it is active. You can only provide this bonus to
    others provided you have the Booster role, and the fleet chain of command is
    complete. They fall into 5 categories closely linked to the skills required to
    operate them. The actual module names all begin with "X Warfare Link -" so
    I've condensed the names on this list. I also note the base percentage bonus
    of the module in brackets following the description, the modules bonus is
    referred to as it's Command Bonus.
    
    I. Armoured Warfare Links [ARMD]
    
    Provide bonuses to support armour based activity. They all require Leadership
    5 and at least Armoured Warfare Specialist 1.
    Damage Control
    - Reduces the capacitor need of the gang's personal and targeted armour repair
    systems. (2%)
    Passive Defence
    - Grants a bonus to the gang's armour resistances. (2%)
    Rapid Repair
    - Increases the speed of the gang's personal and targeted armour repair
    systems. (2%)
    
    II. Information Warfare Links [INFO]
    
    Provide bonuses to support electronic warfare and ship sensors. They all
    require Leadership 5 and at least Information Warfare Specialist 1.
    
    Electronic Superiority
    - Boosts the strength of the gang's electronic warfare modules. (2%)
    Recon Operation
    - Boosts the range of the gang's electronic warfare modules. (2%)
    Sensor Integrity
    - Boosts sensor strengths for all of the gang's ships. (3%)
    
    III. Siege Warfare Links [SIEG]
    
    Provide bonuses to shield based activity. They all require Leadership 5 and at
    least Siege Warfare Specialist 1.
    
    Active Shielding
    - Increases the speed of the gang's shield boosters and decreases the speed of
    shield transporters. (2%)
    Shield Efficiency
    - Reduces the capacitor need of the gang's shield boosters and shield
    transporters. (2%)
    Shield Harmonizing
    - Boosts all shield resistances for the gang's ships. (2%)
    
    IV. Skirmish Warfare Links [SKRM]
    
    Provide bonuses to speed based activity. They all require Leadership 5 and at
    least Skirmish Warfare Specialist 1.
    
    Evasive Manoeuvres
    - Lowers the signature radius of ships in the gang. (2%)
    Interdiction Manoeuvres
    - Boosts the range of the gang's propulsion jamming modules. (3%)
    Rapid Deployment
    - Increases the speed of the gang's afterburner and microwarpdrive modules.
    (3%)
    
    V. Mining Foreman Links [MINE]
    
    Provide bonuses to mining activity. They all require Leadership 5 and at least
    Mining Director 1.
    
    Harvester Capacitor Efficiency
    - Decreases the capacitor need of mining lasers, gas harvesters and ice
    harvesters. (2%)
    Laser Optimization
    - Decreases mining lasers/ gas harvester and ice harvester duration. (2%)
    Mining Laser Field Enhancement
    - Increases the range of the gang's mining lasers, gas harvesters and ice
    harvesters. (4.5%)
    
    VI. Fitting [FIT]
    
    These modules can only be fit on Battlecruisers, Command Ships, Industrial
    Command Ships, Capital Industrial Ships, Carriers, Motherships, and Titans. This
    is enforced by all gang modules requiring 5000 CPU to fit, and those ships I
    listed all have the role bonus "99% reduction in Warfare Link module CPU need",
    so a gang module only takes up 50 CPU on one of them. Any of these ships can fit
    as many as they are able, but there are restrictions on how many they can
    activate at once.
    
    Strategic Cruisers - 1 active gang module
    Battlecruisers - 1 active gang module
    Field Command Ships - 1 active gang module
    Fleet Command Ships - 3 active gang modules
    Industrial Command Ship - 3 active gang modules
    Capital Industrial - 3 active gang modules
    Carriers - 1 active gang module
    Motherships - 1 active gang module plus 1 per level of the Carrier skill.
    Titans - 1 active gang module plus 1 per level of the Titan skill.
    
    Note: Strategic Cruisers can only run a gang link when it is using the Defensive
    Subsystem - Warfare Processor
    
    Any of these ships may fit a Command Processor (mid slot module) which, when
    fit, allows the ship to activate one additional gang module. In fact, as long
    as you have the CPU to do it (believe me it will be the CPU that stops you),
    you can fit as many Command Processors as you like and activate that many
    additional gang modules at once. The Command Processor also requires Warfare
    Link Specialist 5.
    
    VII. Bonuses [BONUS]
    
    The Command Bonuses provided by gang modules only come into play if the person
    running them has one of the 'Booster' roles in the fleet, the fleets chain of
    command is complete, and you are in space in system with other pilots of the
    fleet. That may sound like a very narrow field of use, but when we cover fleet
    structure later I hope you'll see how easy it really is.
    
    Now on to the numbers! If you've never dealt with them before, at first, that
    2% Command Bonus looks really crappy, but hang on that's just the base value.
    The base value is heavily modified by skills, ships, and implants. All gang
    modules rely on the Specialist skill for which it is named to determine its
    actual bonus, then that number has several percentage based variables applied
    to further increase it. I'll use a Siege Warfare Link - Shield Harmonizing
    (2%) module for this example.
    
    Siege Warfare Specialist states that it gives a "100% bonus to effectiveness
    of siege warfare link modules per level". The module requires level 1 of this
    specialist skill to fit it at all, and with that level 1 the module only
    provides the 2% Command Bonus. At level 2 the skill would give 200% of that
    base 2% effect, making for and actual 4% Command Bonus. You can easily see
    what follows: Actual Command Bonus = Base Command Bonus * Level of Specialist
    skill. So my shield module here it's got a 2% base Command Bonus, and I have
    Siege Warfare Specialist 5, so I get 2% * 5 = 10% Command Bonus. Ok 10% is a
    lot better than 2 right? Yes, but we're far from finished.
    
    Carrying on from that 10%, you can then add the Warfare Link Specialist skill.
    This skill gives an additional 10% per level to the modules effect.
    Unfortunately this is not added directly, but a percent of the current Command
    Bonus. If I have Warfare Link Specialist 5 That a 50% increase, or Actual
    Command Bonus = (Base Command Bonus * Level of Specialist Skill) * Percent of
    Warfare Link Specialist. e.g. (2% * 5) * 1.5 = 15%, now we're getting
    somewhere.
    
    Field Command Ships give a 3% bonus per level of Command Ship to increase
    gang modules appropriate to it's race. The Rorqual gives a 5% bonus per level
    of Capital Industrial Ships to increase Mining Foreman Links. Strategic Cruisers
    give a 5% bonus per level of Defensive Subsystem skill to increase gang modules
    appropriate to it's race, but only when fitting the Warfare Processor Subsystem.
    
    Amarr
    - Damnation - 3% bonus to effectiveness of Armored Warfare Links per level
    - Legion - 5% bonus to effectiveness of Armored Warfare Links per subsystem
    skill level
    Caldari
    - Vulture - 3% bonus to effectiveness of Siege Warfare Links per level
    - Tengu - 5% bonus to effectiveness of Siege Warfare Links per subsystem skill
    level
    Gallente
    - Eos - 3% bonus to effectiveness of Information Warfare Links per level
    - Proteus - 5% bonus to effectiveness of Information Warfare Links per subsystem
    skill level
    Minmatar
    - Claymore - 3% bonus to effectiveness of Skirmish Warfare Links per level
    - Loki - 5% bonus to effectiveness of Skirmish Warfare Links per subsystem skill
    level
    ORE
    - Orca - 3% bonus to effectiveness of Mining Foreman Links per level
    - Rorqual - 5% bonus to effectiveness of Mining Foreman Links per level when
    in deployed mode
    
    Continuing my example from 15%, my Command Ships level is 4, meaning my
    Vulture gives its own 12% bonus to just siege modules. That's 12% of the 15%
    so, 15% * 1.12 = 16.8%. The small extended bonus given by Command Ships is not
    really their strength, but these are the ships that can run 3 gang modules at
    once as a role bonus, with no additional help, good stuff.
    
    The final increase we can apply to this bonus is by plugging in a Mindlink.
    There are 5 possible Mindlinks, one for each category of Gang modules (Armour,
    Information, Siege, Skirmish, and Mining). A Mindlink will do two really great
    things, they increase the effect of the related tier 1 skill 50% and they
    increase their related gang modules Command Bonuses by 50%. The effect on the
    tier 1 skill means if you have Mining Foreman 5 (+10% yield) the mindlink
    would add 50% to that effect (+15% yield). Sadly all of the mindlinks are
    implant slot 10, so you can only plug in a single one per clone.
    
    For the Command Bonus part that's a further 50% to the existing 16.8% Command
    Bonus we have running: 16.8 * 1.5 = 25.2%. That number represents a 25.2%
    bonus to all shield resistances possibly across an entire fleet. This
    resistance bonus is applied as if it were another module fit on each ship so
    normal stacking nerf applies.
    
    This is a chart of each possible Base Command Bonus and I have applied the
    most common escalation of bonuses to them to demonstrate what is possible
    rounded off to one decimal point. This certainly does not represent the many
    combinations of skills and skill levels that are possible when working out
    your Command Bonus.
    
                                            |  2%  | 10% | 15% |22.5%|25.9%|28.1%|
                                            |  3%  | 15% |22.5%|33.7%|38.8%|42.2%|
                                            | 4.5% |22.5%|33.7%|50.6%|58.2%|63.3%|
                                               |     |     |     |     |     |
    Base Command Bonus of the Module ----------|     |     |     |     |     |
    'X' Warfare Specialist 5 (500% of Base) ---------|     |     |     |     |
    Warfare Link Specialist 5 (+50%) ----------------------|     |     |     |
    With X Warfare Mindlink plugged in (+50%) -------------------|     |     |
    *With Command Ships 5 racial module type only (+15%) --------------|     |
    With Capital Industrial Ships 5 instead (Rorqual only, +25%) ------------|
    With Defensive Subsystem 5 (Strategic Cruisers only, 25%) ---------------|
    
    Note: EVE calculates these bonuses to two decimal places, I rounded them up.
    *  This line also applies to the Orca with level 5 Industrial Command Ships.
    
    4. Fleet Structure [FLEET]
    
    I love Leadership and Fleet structure, but even I'm not going to lie. Properly
    organizing a fleet can be a huge pain in the ass. Speaking from experience, I
    find this most often comes from the fact that whoever the op FC is feels the
    need to also hold the in game Fleet Commander title as well as Boss. This
    either makes their life hell, or means some things don't get done because they
    have bigger fish to fry. Organizing a fleet structure cannot be done on the
    fly, it must be done in advance of battle or just agreed to be ignored for the
    moment. Again, as much as I love this area of EVE, DO NOT be that annoying guy
    bitching "I have skill X I should be a commander", or "I need to be in wing x
    squad x now!" when your command has better things to do. FC's will usually ask
    for people when they need certain roles filled, and when you ask for invites
    you should state your preferences for bonuses.
    
    To largely avoid this issue there are now a few new tools to help manage fleets
    and invites. If you are the fleet Boss, you can right click the small white
    arrow in the upper left corner of the fleet interface for a small context menu.
    The two options I want to point out here are 'Self Invite' and 'Self Move'.
    
    Self Invite - This comes in two flavors Self Invite(Corporation) and Self
    Invite(Alliance). When you enable either of these, any member of the fleet can
    post invite links into a chat channel, and any member of their corporation or
    alliance (as you enabled) can click that link and it gets them into the fleet. A
    fleet member can right click on their own portrait in any chat channel and from
    the context menu select 'Channel > Post Fleet Invitation'. This will put a
    yellow highlighted link in the chat channel 'Fleet Invitation (Corporation)' or
    'Fleet Invitation(Alliance)'. Any members of that corp or alliance not already
    in the fleet can click the chat link and get themselves in.
    
    Self Move - When the Boss enables self move, fleet members may move themselves
    from squad to squad, or make them selves Squad Commander if the squad does not
    already have one. Once enabled a fleet member only needs to right click
    themselves in the fleet interface then from the context menu select 'Move' and
    follow the drop downs through the wings and squads available to move to. If the
    squad does not yet have a squad commander, the option to become the squad
    commander will also appear in the 'Move' menu. Fleet members cannot move
    themselves up to Wing Commanders or Fleet Commander, only the FC and Boss can
    promote Wing Commanders, only the Boss can promote the FC.
    
    To make these features more effective, create as many wings and squads as you
    think you'll need in advance. Only the Boss or FC can create new wings and
    squads and if there are no extras, incoming members will have nowhere to go, or
    be unable to move themselves around. Also, wings and squads can be renamed, with
    the name appearing in the fleet interface. Naming wings and squads based on the
    leadership bonuses available or the roles they are meant to fill gives everyone
    a clear idea of where they ought to be, and makes the best use of 'Self Move'.
    To do this, right click the wing or squad in the fleet interface and select
    'Change Name'.
    
    There are several Roles in a fleet, beyond just being a member of the fleet.
    Unless you are otherwise promoted (by the Boss or Commanders) you are
    considered a Squad Member. The squad you are in may be part of a Wing, but you
    are still represented to the fleet as a member of the squad itself. The
    hierarchy is as follows:
    
    Squad Member
    - You are the soldiers, highly trained and motivated, you act on your
    Commanders orders precisely, and not before
    Squad Commander(SC)
    - With Leadership 5 you can Command a Squad of up to 10 pilots (this includes
    yourself) you may invite people only into your Squad.
    Wing Commander(WC)
    - With Wing Command 5 you may Command a Wing of up to 5 Squads (each with
    their own SC) you may invite or move people in any Squad in your Wing. You can
    promote or demote SC's in the squads of your Wing.
    Fleet Commander(FC)
    - With Fleet Command 5 you may lead a fleet of up to 5 Wings (each with their
    own WC's and SC's) you may invite or move people in any part of the fleet. You
    may promote or demote WC's and SC's in any part of the fleet.
    
    Also, any member of the fleet can also be a Scout, Booster, or the Boss. Scout
    is simply a way to designate which players are scouting for the fleet. Scouts
    move around up to several systems away from the main fleet to be eyes and ears
    for the fleet. The Booster is why I started this guide; they provide gang
    bonuses to the fleet. People with the Booster role are usually encouraged to
    bring gang modules suited to benefit certain types of ships, and are then made
    Booster for a Squad or Wing made up of those ship types. The Boss role is
    exactly what it sounds like, the Boss. Even if the person with the Boss role
    is not the Fleet Commander, they still have all of the powers needed to manage
    the fleet, from inviting people into any Squad or Wing, moving people to and
    from Squads, promoting and demoting Commanders of any rank, The Boss.
    
    I feel it's best if the actual op FC retains the Boss title, as they need that
    absolute control, but they do NOT have to be the Fleet Commander in game as
    well. If possible the Fleet Commander position should be given to someone with
    the Fleet Command skill and who is capable enough to manage invites,
    Commanders, and members and organize the fleet structure to make best use of
    the available bonuses. If this is simply not possible, then actual op leaders
    should only do this organization well out of danger. It is simply not a
    priority if they are trying to plan the actions and movements of the fleet to
    also be answering every cry to be moved by Squad Members.
    
    There are 3 types of Booster, Squad Booster, Wing Booster, and Fleet Booster,
    this is shown as a letter in brackets after the players name (S), (W), or (F).
    A Squad Booster can only give gang bonuses to other members of their own
    Squad. A Wing Booster can give bonuses to other pilots in their entire Wing.
    Of course the Fleet Booster provides gang bonuses across the entire fleet.
    Whether these bonuses are received by anyone depends on the fleets chain of
    command being complete. What this refers to is that the people in the Squad,
    Wing, and Fleet Commander positions have the necessary skills for the fleet
    they are leading. Anyone can occupy any of these positions, but without the
    proper skills, no bonuses can be passed down through the fleet. The Boosters
    can have any place in the fleet structure, being a Booster simply means they
    are the source of the gang bonuses for part of the fleet, nothing more.
    Boosters do not even need to have Wing Command or Fleet Command skills, even
    as a Squad Member they can be set as a Fleet Booster and provide the bonuses
    fleet wide.
     ___________________________________________________________________________
    |                               FC (skilled)                                |
    |______________________________Fleet Bonuses________________________________|
    |       WC 1 (skilled)               |        WC 2 (unskilled)              |
    |____Fleet + Wing Bonuses____________|___________No Bonuses_________________|
    |  SC 1 (skilled) | SC 2 (unskilled) | SC 3 (skilled) |  SC 4 (unskilled)   |
    |___All Bonuses___|____No Bonuses____|__Squad Bonuses_|_____No Bonuses______|
    
    Having an FC with the Fleet Command skill means that some people can benefit
    from the bonuses of the Fleet Booster, as long as the other Commanders are
    also skilled. Wing 1 has a skilled Commander, so Squads below him may receive
    bonuses of both the Fleet Booster and Wing Booster (yes AND, I'll get to
    that). Squad 1 having a skilled SC can get bonuses from the Fleet, Wing, and
    Squad Boosters, awesome. Squad 2 having an unskilled SC (or no SC at all, same
    effect) gets no bonuses from any Boosters. Due to Wing 2 having an unskilled
    WC Squads in this Wing cannot get either Fleet or Wing Boosters bonuses, they
    are cut off by the lack of command skills. Squad 3 is fortunate to have a
    skilled SC since they can at least get the Squad Boosters bonuses. Squad 4 is
    screwed.
    
    As previously stated the Boosters can be anywhere in the fleet structure, they
    do not have to occupy the Commander positions. In order for a Squad to get any
    bonuses the SC of that squad must have Leadership at a high enough level to
    support the numbers in the Squad (10 members at level 5). To get Wing bonuses,
    the WC must have the Wing Command skill level high enough to support the
    number of Squads they have (5 Squads in a Wing at level 5). For Fleet bonuses
    to work, the FC must have Fleet Command trained to support the number of Wings
    they command (5 Wings in a fleet at level 5). The Commanders DO NOT have to
    have the skills or modules that provide the bonuses, rather they only need to
    have Leadership, Wing Command, or Fleet Command to ensure the bonuses of the
    Boosters are passed along. Likewise the Boosters DO NOT need to have Wing
    Command or Fleet Command to be a Booster for those ranks (they just cannot
    hold the Commander position). Of course, it is very convenient if you are 'the
    whole package'.
    
    Now the best part: EVE will blend the best bonuses of all of the Boosters and
    give them ALL to the Squads. Assuming you have a completely skilled set of
    commanders, the members of a Squad will get the bonuses of the Fleet, Wing AND
    Squad Boosters. If two Boosters are running the same module, only the best
    effect is given to the fleet, the other is ignored.
    
    What this means is while most fleets divvy up into Shield, Armour, and Speed
    Wings, you can still pump more bonuses into them at the Fleet and Squad
    levels.
    
    At the end of the day, with a dedicated group of Boosters and Commanders you
    can provide a wide range of really solid bonuses to a fleet.
    
    5. Credits & Thanks [CRED]
    
    All of the module and skill descriptions are taken from EVE Online and are
    owned by CCP.
    
    Support for the original release by members of my (then) corporation, CAD Inc.
    and alliance, Executive Outcomes (esp. Magdala, who reminded me to include the
    Rorqual)
    
    Additional input and correction credits go to my current corp Void Engineers,
    executors of the alliance Mass - Effect. Join our public channel Mass Affection
    if you'd like to chat with us.
    
    My character is Celeste DiTaken, and for the purposes of this guide you can
    contact me in game (through eve-mail, convo, or in Mass Affection the public
    channel of our alliance and corp). I'm happy to answer questions or receive
    feedback on this guide.
    
    Copyright 2007 Patrick Scott