# Dragon Warrior

## Formula Guide by Ryan8bit

**Version:** 1.0 | **Updated:** 01/10/11 | **Printable Version** | Search Guide | Bookmark Guide

******************************************************************************* * * * Dragon Warrior (NES) Formulas v1.0 * * By Ryan8bit * * generalkillt@yahoo.com * * 01/07/11 * * * ******************************************************************************* Table of Contents ------------------- I. Introduction II. Simplified Formulas A. Journeying B. Combat C. Chests D. Name choice and stats III. Precise Formulas and Code A. Common algorithms B. Journeying C. Combat D. Chests E. Name choice and stats IV. Frequently Asked Questions ******************************************************************************* * I. Introduction * ******************************************************************************* I had often been curious about the formulas used to calculate damage and all sorts of other things in Dragon Warrior. Mostly I wanted to make games based on it, but I also wanted to use them to build a simulator of the game that could crank out data that could be analyzed. I have since learned the assembly language of the NES in order to learn all I could about the game's mechanics. With that knowledge, I have programmed my simulator which I will have a FAQ like this one for at a later date. So for whatever purpose you may have, I hope you get usage out of these formulas. I've broken down the sections into simple and complex, so that if you just want to get the general idea you want section II. If you're more into exact formulas and some actual code, you want section III. ******************************************************************************* * II. Simplified Formulas * ******************************************************************************* These formulas are simplified and as a result may not be exact when it comes to rounding. For more advanced assembly code formulas, see section III. ************************* A. Journeying ************************* -= Items and Spells =- Herb: +23-30 HP HEAL: +10-17 HP HEALMORE: +85-100 HP Torch: Unlimited Radiant: 200 total steps Radius of 3 squares: 80 steps Radius of 2 squares: 60 steps Radius of 1 square : 60 steps REPEL: 128 total steps Only works against enemies who have strength that is less than the hero's defense. Fairy Water has the exact same effect. The Silver Harp summons a Slime, Red Slime, Drakee, Ghost, Magician, or Scorpion, all with roughly equal chance. -= Encounters =- The chances for an encounter on the overworld vary by terrain type, and by location. For every step you take, you have a random chance to enter combat. In the zones where you fight only Slimes and Red Slimes around Tantegel (which I call Zone 0), the encounter rates are significantly lower. Zone 0 Grasslands: 1/48 Bridge: 1/48 Forest: 1/32 Hills: 1/32 Desert: 1/16 (There is only one square of desert in this region) Every other zone, including dungeons Grasslands: 1/24 Swamp: 1/16 Forest: 1/16 Hills: 1/8 Desert: 1/8 Stairs: 1/24 Chest: 1/24 Barrier: 1/16 Brick: 1/16 -= Monster Sets =- The entire world map is broken down into an 8x8 grid. Each cell of the grid has a different zone, or set of enemies. This is a representation of the grids corresponding to zone number: 3 3 2 2 3 5 4 5 3 2 1 2 3 3 4 5 4 1 0 0 1 3 4 5 5 1 1 12 9 6 6 6 5 5 4 12 12 7 7 7 10 9 8 12 12 12 8 7 10 10 11 12 13 13 9 8 11 11 12 13 13 12 9 9 So for instance, the top left corner represents the 15x15 tile area surrounding Garinham. http://www.gamefaqs.com/console/nes/file/563408/55534 is a good example of this visually. Every zone has five possible enemies in them, and some are duplicates. The chances of encountering each one is roughly equal. Zone 0: Slime, Red Slime, Slime, Red Slime, Slime Zone 1: Red Slime, Slime, Red Slime, Drakee, Red Slime Zone 2: Slime, Ghost, Drakee, Ghost, Red Slime Zone 3: Red Slime, Red Slime, Drakee, Ghost, Magician Zone 4: Ghost, Magician, Magidrakee, Magidrakee, Scorpion Zone 5: Ghost, Magician, Magidrakee, Scorpion, Skeleton Zone 6: Magidrakee, Scorpion, Skeleton, Warlock, Wolf Zone 7: Skeleton, Warlock, Metal Scorpion, Wolf, Wolf Zone 8: Metal Scorpion, Wraith, Wolflord, Wolflord, Goldman Zone 9: Wraith, Wyvern, Wolflord, Wyvern, Goldman Zone 10: Wyvern, Rogue Scorpion, Wraith Knight, Knight, Demon Knight Zone 11: Wraith Knight, Knight, Magiwyvern, Demon Knight, Metal Slime Zone 12: Knight, Magiwyvern, Demon Knight, Werewolf, Starwyvern Zone 13: Werewolf, Green Dragon, Starwyvern, Starwyvern, Wizard Zone 14: Poltergeist, Droll, Drakeema, Skeleton, Warlock Zone 15: Specter, Wolflord, Druinlord, Drollmagi, Wraith Knight Zone 16: Werewolf, Green Dragon, Starwyvern, Wizard, Axe Knight Zone 17: Wizard, Axe Knight, Blue Dragon, Blue Dragon, Stoneman Zone 18: Wizard, Stoneman, Armored Knight, Armored Knight, Red Dragon Zone 19: Ghost, Magician, Scorpion, Druin, Druin ************************* B. Combat ************************* -=Enemies=- These are all the stats of the enemies: Strength is used in figuring out how much damage will be done to you. Agility is used in figuring out how much damage will be reduced for the enemy, and it is used to determine how hard it is for you to run away. HP is how many hit points the enemy has, and this typically varies. SLEEP resist, STOPSPELL resist, and HURT resist are the chances that the spell will have no effect on the enemy. HURT and HURTMORE have the same chance. Dodge is the chance that the enemy will dodge any physical attack. GP is how much gold will be awarded, and this typically varies. XP is how many experience points will be awarded to you. Pattern is what the enemy decides to do when attacking. It starts with the first line and if it doesn't do that attack, it moves to the next line. #00 : Slime Strength: 5 Agility: 3 HP: 3 SLEEP resist: 0 / 16 STOPSPELL resist: 15 / 16 HURT resist: 0 / 16 Dodge: 1 / 64 XP: 1 GP: 1 Pattern: Attack only #01 : Red Slime Strength: 7 Agility: 3 HP: 4 SLEEP resist: 0 / 16 STOPSPELL resist: 15 / 16 HURT resist: 0 / 16 Dodge: 1 / 64 XP: 1 GP: 2 Pattern: Attack only #02 : Drakee Strength: 9 Agility: 6 HP: 5 - 6 SLEEP resist: 0 / 16 STOPSPELL resist: 15 / 16 HURT resist: 0 / 16 Dodge: 1 / 64 XP: 2 GP: 2 Pattern: Attack only #03 : Ghost Strength: 11 Agility: 8 HP: 6 - 7 SLEEP resist: 0 / 16 STOPSPELL resist: 15 / 16 HURT resist: 0 / 16 Dodge: 4 / 64 XP: 3 GP: 3 - 4 Pattern: Attack only #04 : Magician Strength: 11 Agility: 12 HP: 10 - 13 SLEEP resist: 0 / 16 STOPSPELL resist: 0 / 16 HURT resist: 0 / 16 Dodge: 1 / 64 XP: 4 GP: 9 - 11 Pattern: 50 % to cast HURT Otherwise attack #05 : Magidrakee Strength: 14 Agility: 14 HP: 12 - 15 SLEEP resist: 0 / 16 STOPSPELL resist: 0 / 16 HURT resist: 0 / 16 Dodge: 1 / 64 XP: 5 GP: 9 - 11 Pattern: 50 % to cast HURT Otherwise attack #06 : Scorpion Strength: 18 Agility: 16 HP: 16 - 20 SLEEP resist: 0 / 16 STOPSPELL resist: 15 / 16 HURT resist: 0 / 16 Dodge: 1 / 64 XP: 6 GP: 12 - 15 Pattern: Attack only #07 : Druin Strength: 20 Agility: 18 HP: 17 - 22 SLEEP resist: 0 / 16 STOPSPELL resist: 15 / 16 HURT resist: 0 / 16 Dodge: 2 / 64 XP: 7 GP: 12 - 15 Pattern: Attack only #08 : Poltergeist Strength: 18 Agility: 20 HP: 18 - 23 SLEEP resist: 0 / 16 STOPSPELL resist: 0 / 16 HURT resist: 0 / 16 Dodge: 6 / 64 XP: 8 GP: 13 - 17 Pattern: 75 % to cast HURT Otherwise attack #09 : Droll Strength: 24 Agility: 24 HP: 19 - 25 SLEEP resist: 0 / 16 STOPSPELL resist: 14 / 16 HURT resist: 0 / 16 Dodge: 2 / 64 XP: 10 GP: 18 - 24 Pattern: Attack only #10 : Drakeema Strength: 22 Agility: 26 HP: 16 - 20 SLEEP resist: 2 / 16 STOPSPELL resist: 0 / 16 HURT resist: 0 / 16 Dodge: 6 / 64 XP: 11 GP: 15 - 19 Pattern: 25 % to cast HEAL, but only if its HP < 1/4 of its max HP Otherwise 50 % to cast HURT Otherwise attack #11 : Skeleton Strength: 28 Agility: 22 HP: 23 - 30 SLEEP resist: 0 / 16 STOPSPELL resist: 15 / 16 HURT resist: 0 / 16 Dodge: 4 / 64 XP: 11 GP: 22 - 29 Pattern: Attack only #12 : Warlock Strength: 28 Agility: 22 HP: 23 - 30 SLEEP resist: 3 / 16 STOPSPELL resist: 1 / 16 HURT resist: 0 / 16 Dodge: 2 / 64 XP: 13 GP: 26 - 34 Pattern: 25 % to cast SLEEP, but only if you're not asleep Otherwise 50 % to cast HURT Otherwise attack #13 : Metal Scorpion Strength: 36 Agility: 42 HP: 17 - 22 SLEEP resist: 0 / 16 STOPSPELL resist: 15 / 16 HURT resist: 0 / 16 Dodge: 2 / 64 XP: 14 GP: 30 - 39 Pattern: Attack only #14 : Wolf Strength: 40 Agility: 30 HP: 26 - 34 SLEEP resist: 1 / 16 STOPSPELL resist: 15 / 16 HURT resist: 0 / 16 Dodge: 2 / 64 XP: 16 GP: 37 - 49 Pattern: Attack only #15 : Wraith Strength: 44 Agility: 34 HP: 28 - 36 SLEEP resist: 7 / 16 STOPSPELL resist: 0 / 16 HURT resist: 0 / 16 Dodge: 4 / 64 XP: 17 GP: 45 - 59 Pattern: 25 % to cast HEAL, but only if its HP < 1/4 of its max HP Otherwise attack #16 : Metal Slime Strength: 10 Agility: 255 HP: 4 SLEEP resist: 15 / 16 STOPSPELL resist: 15 / 16 HURT resist: 15 / 16 Dodge: 1 / 64 XP: 115 GP: 4 - 5 Pattern: 75 % to cast HURT Otherwise attack #17 : Specter Strength: 40 Agility: 38 HP: 28 - 36 SLEEP resist: 3 / 16 STOPSPELL resist: 1 / 16 HURT resist: 0 / 16 Dodge: 4 / 64 XP: 18 GP: 52 - 69 Pattern: 25 % to cast SLEEP, but only if you're not asleep Otherwise 75 % to cast HURT Otherwise attack #18 : Wolflord Strength: 50 Agility: 36 HP: 29 - 38 SLEEP resist: 4 / 16 STOPSPELL resist: 7 / 16 HURT resist: 0 / 16 Dodge: 2 / 64 XP: 20 GP: 60 - 79 Pattern: 50 % to cast STOPSPELL, but only if your spell isn't blocked Otherwise attack #19 : Druinlord Strength: 47 Agility: 40 HP: 27 - 35 SLEEP resist: 15 / 16 STOPSPELL resist: 0 / 16 HURT resist: 0 / 16 Dodge: 4 / 64 XP: 20 GP: 63 - 84 Pattern: 75 % to cast HEAL, but only if its HP < 1/4 of its max HP Otherwise 25 % to cast HURT Otherwise attack #20 : Drollmagi Strength: 52 Agility: 50 HP: 29 - 38 SLEEP resist: 2 / 16 STOPSPELL resist: 2 / 16 HURT resist: 0 / 16 Dodge: 1 / 64 XP: 22 GP: 67 - 89 Pattern: 50 % to cast STOPSPELL, but only if your spell isn't blocked Otherwise attack #21 : Wyvern Strength: 56 Agility: 48 HP: 32 - 42 SLEEP resist: 4 / 16 STOPSPELL resist: 15 / 16 HURT resist: 0 / 16 Dodge: 2 / 64 XP: 24 GP: 75 - 99 Pattern: Attack only #22 : Rogue Scorpion Strength: 60 Agility: 90 HP: 27 - 35 SLEEP resist: 7 / 16 STOPSPELL resist: 15 / 16 HURT resist: 0 / 16 Dodge: 2 / 64 XP: 26 GP: 82 - 109 Pattern: Attack only #23 : Wraith Knight Strength: 68 Agility: 56 HP: 35 - 46 SLEEP resist: 5 / 16 STOPSPELL resist: 0 / 16 HURT resist: 3 / 16 Dodge: 4 / 64 XP: 28 GP: 90 - 119 Pattern: 75 % to cast HEAL, but only if its HP < 1/4 of its max HP Otherwise attack #24 : Golem Strength: 120 Agility: 60 HP: 53 - 70 SLEEP resist: 15 / 16 STOPSPELL resist: 15 / 16 HURT resist: 15 / 16 Dodge: 0 / 64 XP: 5 GP: 7 - 9 Pattern: Attack only #25 : Goldman Strength: 48 Agility: 40 HP: 38 - 50 SLEEP resist: 13 / 16 STOPSPELL resist: 15 / 16 HURT resist: 0 / 16 Dodge: 1 / 64 XP: 6 GP: 150 - 199 Pattern: Attack only #26 : Knight Strength: 76 Agility: 78 HP: 42 - 55 SLEEP resist: 6 / 16 STOPSPELL resist: 7 / 16 HURT resist: 0 / 16 Dodge: 1 / 64 XP: 33 GP: 97 - 129 Pattern: 50 % to cast STOPSPELL, but only if your spell isn't blocked Otherwise attack #27 : Magiwyvern Strength: 78 Agility: 68 HP: 44 - 58 SLEEP resist: 2 / 16 STOPSPELL resist: 0 / 16 HURT resist: 0 / 16 Dodge: 2 / 64 XP: 34 GP: 105 - 139 Pattern: 50 % to cast SLEEP, but only if you're not asleep Otherwise attack #28 : Demon Knight Strength: 79 Agility: 64 HP: 38 - 50 SLEEP resist: 15 / 16 STOPSPELL resist: 15 / 16 HURT resist: 15 / 16 Dodge: 15 / 64 XP: 37 GP: 112 - 149 Pattern: Attack only #29 : Werewolf Strength: 86 Agility: 70 HP: 46 - 60 SLEEP resist: 7 / 16 STOPSPELL resist: 15 / 16 HURT resist: 0 / 16 Dodge: 7 / 64 XP: 40 GP: 116 - 154 Pattern: Attack only #30 : Green Dragon Strength: 88 Agility: 74 HP: 49 - 65 SLEEP resist: 7 / 16 STOPSPELL resist: 15 / 16 HURT resist: 2 / 16 Dodge: 2 / 64 XP: 45 GP: 120 - 159 Pattern: 25 % to breathe fire Otherwise attack #31 : Starwyvern Strength: 86 Agility: 80 HP: 49 - 65 SLEEP resist: 8 / 16 STOPSPELL resist: 0 / 16 HURT resist: 1 / 16 Dodge: 2 / 64 XP: 43 GP: 120 - 159 Pattern: 75 % to cast HEALMORE, but only if its HP < 1/4 of its max HP Otherwise 25 % to breathe fire Otherwise attack #32 : Wizard Strength: 80 Agility: 70 HP: 49 - 65 SLEEP resist: 15 / 16 STOPSPELL resist: 7 / 16 HURT resist: 15 / 16 Dodge: 2 / 64 XP: 50 GP: 123 - 164 Pattern: 50 % to cast HURTMORE Otherwise attack #33 : Axe Knight Strength: 94 Agility: 82 HP: 53 - 70 SLEEP resist: 15 / 16 STOPSPELL resist: 3 / 16 HURT resist: 1 / 16 Dodge: 1 / 64 XP: 54 GP: 123 - 164 Pattern: 25 % to cast SLEEP, but only if you're not asleep Otherwise attack #34 : Blue Dragon Strength: 98 Agility: 84 HP: 53 - 70 SLEEP resist: 15 / 16 STOPSPELL resist: 15 / 16 HURT resist: 7 / 16 Dodge: 2 / 64 XP: 60 GP: 112 - 149 Pattern: 25 % to breathe fire Otherwise attack #35 : Stoneman Strength: 100 Agility: 40 HP: 121 - 160 SLEEP resist: 2 / 16 STOPSPELL resist: 15 / 16 HURT resist: 7 / 16 Dodge: 1 / 64 XP: 65 GP: 105 - 139 Pattern: Attack only #36 : Armored Knight Strength: 105 Agility: 86 HP: 68 - 90 SLEEP resist: 15 / 16 STOPSPELL resist: 7 / 16 HURT resist: 1 / 16 Dodge: 2 / 64 XP: 70 GP: 105 - 139 Pattern: 75 % to cast HEALMORE, but only if its HP < 1/4 of its max HP Otherwise 25 % to cast HURTMORE Otherwise attack #37 : Red Dragon Strength: 120 Agility: 90 HP: 76 - 100 SLEEP resist: 15 / 16 STOPSPELL resist: 7 / 16 HURT resist: 15 / 16 Dodge: 2 / 64 XP: 100 GP: 105 - 139 Pattern: 25 % to cast SLEEP, but only if you're not asleep Otherwise 25 % to breathe fire Otherwise attack #38 : Dragonlord first form Strength: 90 Agility: 75 HP: 76 - 100 SLEEP resist: 15 / 16 STOPSPELL resist: 15 / 16 HURT resist: 15 / 16 Dodge: 0 / 64 XP: 0 GP: 0 Pattern: 25 % to cast STOPSPELL, but only if your spell isn't blocked Otherwise 75 % to cast HURTMORE Otherwise attack #39 : Dragonlord second form Strength: 140 Agility: 200 HP: 130 SLEEP resist: 15 / 16 STOPSPELL resist: 15 / 16 HURT resist: 15 / 16 Dodge: 0 / 64 XP: 0 GP: 0 Pattern: 50 % to breathe a very strong fire Otherwise attack -=Enemy attack formulas=- ~Attacks~ There are two formulas for attack damage for enemies. The standard range is from: (EnemyStrength - HeroDefense / 2) / 4, to: (EnemyStrength - HeroDefense / 2) / 2 The hero's defense is equal to his agility / 2 rounded down, plus the modifiers for his equipment. The other type of attack happens if your defense power is greater than or equal to the enemy's strength. In that case, the range is from: 0 to: (enemyStrength + 4) / 6 ~Spells~ NOTE: Enemy HURT and HEAL classes of spells have different ranges than the hero's spells. HURT does 3 - 10 damage HURTMORE does 30 - 45 damage Both Magic Armor and Erdrick's Armor will reduce HURT spells by 1/3. So: HURT does 2 - 6 damage vs. Erdrick's and Magic Armor HURTMORE does 20 - 30 damage vs. Erdrick's and Magic Armor SLEEP always puts you to sleep, and there is no resisting it. Waking up from sleep is a 50/50 chance, but because of the limitations of the game programming it's not possible for it to last for more than 6 turns. STOPSPELL has a 50/50 chance of working against you. If you have Erdrick's Armor it has no chance of working. HEAL recovers 20 - 27 HP HEALMORE recovers 85 - 100 HP ~Fire breath~ There are two types of fire breath. Only the Dragonlord's second form has the stronger breath. The rest of the enemies that have breath attacks only have the weaker type of breath. Weak breath does 16 - 23 damage Strong breath does 65 - 72 damage The only thing that protects against fire breath is Erdrick's Armor, which reduces the damage by 1/3. So: Weak breath vs. Erdrick's Armor does 10 - 14 damage Strong breath vs. Erdrick's Armor does 42 - 48 damage -=Hero attack formulas=- ~Attacks~ All enemies except the Golem and the Dragonlord have the capability of dodging any attack, including excellent moves, as is listed in the enemy chart above. Just like the standard enemy attack, the range for the hero's standard attack damage is from: (HeroAttack - EnemyAgility / 2) / 4, to: (HeroAttack - EnemyAgility / 2) / 2 If the damage done is less than 1, then there is 50/50 chance that you will do either no damage, or 1 damage. Excellent moves have a 1/32 chance of happening per attack, and the formulas completely ignore the defense of the enemy. They range from: Hero attack / 2 to: Hero attack Unfortunately, excellent moves are not possible against either form of the Dragonlord. They can also be dodged. ~Spells~ Hero spells have different ranges than enemy spells. HURT does 5 - 12 damage HURTMORE does 58 - 65 damage SLEEP effectiveness depends on the enemy's SLEEP resist stat. You're always guaranteed one turn of attack, and after that turn it is a 1/3 chance that the enemy will wake up. STOPSPELL effectiveness depends on the enemy's STOPSPELL resist stat. It never loses its effect. -=Running=- Enemy: If your strength is two times the enemy's strength or more, there is a 25% chance the enemy will run when it's given a turn. The enemy also makes this check right upon encounter, so he may get a chance to run right away regardless of initiative. Hero: Certain groups of monsters have higher chances of blocking your running. The more difficult an enemy is, it may belong to a group that is better at blocking. Group 1: #00 (Slime) - #19 (Druinlord) Group 2: #20 (Drollmagi) - #29 (Werewolf) Group 3: #30 (Green Dragon) - #34 (Blue Dragon) Group 4: #35 (Stoneman) - #39 (Dragonlord second form) So for instance, group 4 will block you much easier than group 1 will. On top of that is a test of agility. The test goes like this: If HeroAgility * Random # < EnemyAgility * Random # * GroupFactor, then the enemy will block you. Random # is a random number between 0 and 255. GroupFactor depends on the group: Group 1: 0.25 Group 2: 0.375 Group 3: 0.5 Group 4: 1.0 So you can see that enemies in group 1 are going to have a much lower product than enemies in group 4, meaning that it will be more likely that your product will be higher and that you will get away. And yes, it is possible to run from the Dragonlord, although you will repeat the same dialog and have to fight the first form again. You can also run from the Axe Knight in Hauksness, the Golem outside Cantlin, and the Green Dragon in the Marsh Cave, but it will put you back a spot so that you can't just skip them and get their prize. Also worth noting is that if the monster is asleep, you can run away every time. -=Initiative=- This is the same equation as running from enemies in Group 1, except instead of being blocked, the enemy will go first. ************************* C. Chests ************************* -=Shrine west of Kol=- Staff of Rain -=Charlock=- B2: Erdrick's Sword B7: Two Herbs, 500 - 755 gold, Magic Key, Wings, Cursed Belt -=Garinham=- Back room: 10 - 17 gold, Torch, Herb -=Grave of Garinham=- B1: 6-13 gold, 5-20 gold, Herb B3: Cursed Belt, Silver Harp -=Erdrick's Cave=- B2: Erdrick's Tablet -=Mountain Cave=- B1: Herb B2: Fighter's Ring, Torch, 10 - 17 gold, 100 - 131 gold (this chest can also be the Death Necklace, which is a 1/32 chance, and can only be obtained once) -=Rimuldar=- Wings -=Tantegel=- Throne Room: 120 gold, Torch, Magic Key Treasury: All chests are 6 - 13 gold Basement: Stones of Sunlight -=The treasure chest bug=- The handling of treasure chests in Dragon Warrior was done in a very strange way. Whenever you take a chest, it doesn't simply check to see if you are standing on a chest, but rather it checks what your position is on the map and it checks if you've already taken a chest at that position. These positions are loaded into a collection of numbers. Whenever you leave a town or cave, this collection is wiped clean, which in part is why chests reappear when you re-enter. The only time this collection is not cleared is when you die because it was an oversight on the part of the programmers, which was later corrected in sequels to the game. Because the data is not cleared, it thinks you still picked up those specific chests at those specific coordinates. Another thing is that whenever you enter the throne room in Tantegel, the original three chests that were in that room are placed into this collection to make certain you don't get them again. So if you die in one cave after having collected two chests, that makes the total chests it thinks you've collected as five. Because the maximum number of chest positions the game alotted is eight, that makes it so that when we pick up the fourth chest in the treasury, that it would be the ninth chest. Because the collection is full, it can't store that ninth chest's position, and therefore that position will never be on that list when you hit take. So if the game can't find that position on the list, the chest never disappears. The bug allows you to pull as much gold as you want, which effectively gives you lots of gold really fast, and allows you to buy some of the best equipment very early in the game. ************************* D. Name choice and stats ************************* The name you choose to give your hero will affect your stats and stat growth, so it becomes very important. Only the first four letters of the name are used in this calculation. Each letter has a corresponding numerical value, and they are added up to find the result. This is a simplification of those corresponding numbers: a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z ' . , - ? ! ) ( 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Take the values of the first four letters and add them up. This is our sum. If you divide that sum by 4, and take the remainder, that is your growth type. There are 4 different growth types, with each one focusing on two particular stats that will be reduced in the long term, but will be higher in the short term. Type 0: Long term HP and MP, short term Strength and Agility Type 1: Long term Strength and HP, short term Agility and MP Type 2: Long term Agility and MP, short term Strength and HP Type 3: Long term Strength and Agility, short term HP and MP So below is a chart with all the stat numbers at each level. If you have long term growth in that category, then the number is unchanged. If you have short term growth in that category, then there is some math to get the adjusted number. Take the sum from above and divide by 4 again, this time rounding down. Take that number, divide by 4, and take the remainder. Take this number and add it to 9/10 of the number on the chart to get your final value. Level Strength Agility HP MP 1 4 4 15 0 2 5 4 22 0 3 7 6 24 5 4 7 8 31 16 5 12 10 35 20 6 16 10 38 24 7 18 17 40 26 8 22 20 46 29 9 30 22 50 36 10 35 31 54 40 11 40 35 62 50 12 48 40 63 58 13 52 48 70 64 14 60 55 78 70 15 68 64 86 72 16 72 70 92 95 17 72 78 100 100 18 85 84 115 108 19 87 86 130 115 20 92 88 138 128 21 95 90 149 135 22 97 90 158 146 23 99 94 165 153 24 103 98 170 161 25 113 100 174 161 26 117 105 180 168 27 125 107 189 175 28 130 115 195 180 29 135 120 200 190 30 140 130 210 200 So as an example, I'll use the name Erdrick at level 20 and do the math. So I'll look up the values for the first four letters: E: 8 r: 11 d: 13 r: 11 My sum is then 8 + 11 + 13 + 11 = 43 My growth type is the remainder of 43 / 4, which is 3. Growth type 3 is long term Strength and Agility, so I can automatically pick those numbers off of the chart. My strength is 92 and my agility is 88. So now I need to find my short term stats. Again I take 43 / 4, but I round it down this time, giving me 10. I will take that result, divide by 4, and take the remainder, which is 2. So I will take that number and add it to 9/10 of what the base stat is. For HP it is 138, so 138 * 9/10 + 2 will give me the result, which is 126. Doing the same process for MP I will get 117. So my stats end up as: Strength: 92 Agility: 88 HP: 126 MP: 117 ******************************************************************************* * III. Precise Formulas and Code * ******************************************************************************* These are the advanced formulas that will reference assembly language straight from the game. Before reading onward, there are several algorithms you must be aware of. ************************* A. Common algorithms ************************* First and foremost is the random generator subroutine, which is located at $C55B. It generates a random number between 0 and 255, which for future reference I will refer to as RAND. This number is stored at $95. Here's how it works: The code What it does ------------------------- -------------------------------------------------- $C55B:A5 95 LDA $0095 Load up the previous random number. $C55D:85 3D STA $003D Put it into $3D. $C55F:A5 94 LDA $0094 Load up the random number's lower byte. $C561:85 3C STA $003C Put it into $3C. $C563:06 94 ASL $0094 $C565:26 95 ROL $0095 Multiply $9495 by 2. $94 is the lower byte and $95 is the higher byte. Together they are used as one larger number. This is apparent by doing the ASL on $94, and carrying the overflow into $95. These byte pairs will be referred to as $9495 and $3C3D. The code What it does ------------------------- -------------------------------------------------- $C567:18 CLC $C568:65 94 ADC $0094 Add $3C3D to the new $9495. $C56A:85 94 STA $0094 $C56C:A5 95 LDA $0095 $C56E:65 3D ADC $003D $C570:85 95 STA $0095 $C572:A5 94 LDA $0094 Add $94 to $95. $C574:18 CLC $C575:65 95 ADC $0095 $C577:85 95 STA $0095 $C579:A5 94 LDA $0094 Add 0x81 to $9495. $C57B:18 CLC $C57C:69 81 ADC #$81 $C57E:85 94 STA $0094 $C580:A5 95 LDA $0095 $C582:69 00 ADC #$00 $C584:85 95 STA $0095 $C586:60 RTS So to simplify a little bit, we have: $9495 = $9495 * 2 + $9495 $95 = $94 + $95 $9495 = $9495 + 0x81 We can simplify this a little bit more. The first line could be summed up as $9495 * 3. For our purposes, the second line can be expressed as $9495 * 257 since the overflow is inconsequential. So then we have: $9495 *= 3 $9495 *= 257 $9495 += 0x81 This can then be combined into one line as: $9495 = $9495 * 771 + 0x81 Or: $9495 = $9495 * 0x303 + 0x81 This formula presents some limitations. The modulo of the low byte ($94) by 4 can only ever equal 0 or 1 (bit 1 can never be 1). This means that $94 only represents 128 values, where $95 represents 256. This makes 32,768 possibilities. The biggest limitation is when it is run consecutively and the consecutive values are used. While the distribution is even, running it consecutively will result in patterns cropping up. In the case of the hero waking up from SLEEP, which is a 50/50 chance, after a few turns it is impossible for him to stay asleep. A true random generator could go on for a long time, but this one is fairly limited. It does work quite well when waiting for input though. When the player is idle, the generator runs once a frame, which almost guarantees that it will be random. The next algorithm to know is multiplication, which is located at $C1C9. The code What it does ------------------------- -------------------------------------------------- $C1C9:A9 00 LDA #$00 $40 and $41 form a double byte, and they represent $C1CB:85 40 STA $0040 the answer to the multiplication. Here they are $C1CD:85 41 STA $0041 zeroed. $C1CF:A5 3C LDA $003C $3C and $3D also form a double byte, and they are $C1D1:05 3D ORA $003D one of the factors. Here it checks if $3C3D is 0 $C1D3:F0 1A BEQ $C1EF and it ends the subroutine if so. $C1D5:46 3D LSR $003D $C1D7:66 3C ROR $003C $3C3D is divided by 2. $C1D9:90 0D BCC $C1E8 If the remainder is 0, it branches to $C1E8. $C1DB:A5 3E LDA $003E $C1DD:18 CLC $C1DE:65 40 ADC $0040 $C1E0:85 40 STA $0040 $3E and $3F are the other double byte factor. $C1E2:A5 3F LDA $003F Here they are added to $4041 (the result). $C1E4:65 41 ADC $0041 $C1E6:85 41 STA $0041 $C1E8:06 3E ASL $003E $C1EA:26 3F ROL $003F $3E3F is multiplied by 2. $C1EC:4C CF C1 JMP $C1CF The process is repeated until $3C == $3D $C1EF:60 RTS There are other FAQs that deal with the particulars of how this works, and it's rather lengthy. Suffice it to say that all that you need to know is that $3C3D * $3E3F = $4041. The last algorithm to know is division, which is located at $C1F0. The code What it does ------------------------- -------------------------------------------------- $C1F0:A9 00 LDA #$00 $C1F2:85 3D STA $003D $3D, part of a double byte $3C3D, is set to 0. $C1F4:A0 10 LDY #$10 Y = 0x10, which is setting up 16 loops. $C1F6:A9 00 LDA #$00 $C1F8:06 3C ASL $003C $C1FA:26 3D ROL $003D $C1FC:85 40 STA $0040 $40 is set to $3C3D * 2. $C1FE:65 40 ADC $0040 The accumulator is set to $40 (plus 1 if there is overflow). $C200:E6 3C INC $003C $3C++ $C202:38 SEC $C203:E5 3E SBC $003E $3E is subtracted from the accumulator. $C205:B0 05 BCS $C20C If there is no overflow, it branches to $C20C. $C207:18 CLC $C208:65 3E ADC $003E Else $3E is added to the accumulator. $C20A:C6 3C DEC $003C $3C-- $C20C:88 DEY Y-- $C20D:D0 E9 BNE $C1F8 If Y != 0, then repeat. $C20F:85 40 STA $0040 Store the accumulator in $40. $C211:60 RTS Like multiplication, the explanation for how this works is lengthy, so suffice it to say that all you need to know is that $3C3D / $3E = $3C remainder $40. Now that we know the basics of the algorithms, we can progress to the formulas. ************************* B. Journeying ************************* -= Items and Spells =- For all healing items and spells, the code is basically the same. The code What it does ------------------------- -------------------------------------------------- $DBB8:20 5B C5 JSR $C55B Do the random algorithm. $DBBB:A5 95 LDA $0095 Load our random number and... $DBBD:29 07 AND #$07 ...limit it to a number between 0-7. $DBBF:18 CLC $DBC0:69 0A ADC #$0A Add that number to 0x0A. $DBC2:18 CLC $DBC3:65 C5 ADC $00C5 Add that to your HP. $DBC5:B0 04 BCS $DBCB If it exceeds 255, branch to $DBCB. $DBC7:C5 CA CMP $00CA Or if it exceeds your max HP, branch to $DBCB. $DBC9:90 02 BCC $DBCD $DBCB:A5 CA LDA $00CA $DBCD:85 C5 STA $00C5 Make the HP the max HP. All the healing works this way. Here are the values for various spells/items: Item HP gained Code location Herb: RAND & 0x0F + 0x17 $DCFE HEAL: RAND & 0x07 + 0x0A $DBB8 HEALMORE: RAND & 0x0F + 0x55 $DBD7 Radiant spell The code What it does ------------------------- -------------------------------------------------- $DA6A:A9 50 LDA #$50 $DA6C:85 DA STA $00DA Puts 0x50 into the radiant counter. After initial casting, you have the three square radius for 0x50 steps. Every step you take does: The code What it does ------------------------- -------------------------------------------------- $CA5A:C6 DA DEC $00DA Decrease the radiant counter by 1. $CA5C:D0 0E BNE $CA6C If it's not 0, move on to other things. $CA5E:A5 D0 LDA $00D0 If it is 0, check the radius ($D0). $CA60:C9 01 CMP #$01 If it's 1... $CA62:F0 08 BEQ $CA6C ...Move on to other things. $CA64:A9 3C LDA #$3C Otherwise put 0x3C into $DA. $CA66:85 DA STA $00DA $CA68:C6 D0 DEC $00D0 $CA6A:C6 D0 DEC $00D0 $D0 -= 2 $D0 is the number that signifies the radius. It is initially set at seven. Every time $DA hits 0, $D0 is subtracted by 2. The radius could be expressed as ($D0 - 1) / 2. When it is 1, there is no more extra visible area. Torches simply set this value to 0x03 and they last until you leave the cave. REPEL spell The code What it does ------------------------- -------------------------------------------------- $DA98:A9 FF LDA #$FF $DA9A:85 DB STA $00DB Put 0xFF into the repel counter. After the initial casting you have the repel counter ($DB) / 2 number of steps. The reason it is divided by 2 is because Fairy Water sets $DB to 0xFE. They were separated in this way so that they could run the same formulas, but also to have different messages when the effect wears off. So every step subtracts 2 from the counter. The way encounters work with the effect: The code What it does ------------------------- -------------------------------------------------- $CF20:A5 45 LDA $0045 Load up the current area $CF22:C9 01 CMP #$01 Check if you're on the overworld $CF24:D0 1E BNE $CF44 $CF26:A5 DB LDA $00DB Load the repel counter $CF28:F0 1A BEQ $CF44 If it's not 0... $CF2A:A5 CD LDA $00CD ...load the hero's defense and... $CF2C:4A LSR ...divide that by 2... $CF2D:85 3E STA $003E ...and put it into $3E. $CF2F:A6 3C LDX $003C X = $3C (at current, $3C is the enemy ID) $CF31:BD FA F4 LDA $F4FA,X Load the current enemy's strength and... $CF34:38 SEC $CF35:E5 3E SBC $003E ...subtract $3E (HeroDefense / 2) from it. $CF37:90 0A BCC $CF43 Branch if there is overflow. $CF39:85 3E STA $003E Store (EnemyStrength - HeroDefense / 2) at $3E. $CF3B:BD FA F4 LDA $F4FA,X Load the current enemy's strength and... $CF3E:4A LSR ...divide it by 2. $CF3F:C5 3E CMP $003E If EnemyStrength / 2 > EnemyStrength - HeroDefense/2 $CF41:90 01 BCC $CF44 Branch $CF43:60 RTS There is some redundancy here. First it checks if the hero's defense is twice or more times the enemy's strength. If it's not, then it checks if the hero's defense is greater than the enemy's strength. The first check could essentially be cut, but probably wasn't for memory or speed reasons. So the only formula worth concerning yourself with here is: If (HeroDefense >> 1 > EnemyStrength >> 1) then the enemy is evaded. The bitwise right shifts make it worth noting that if your defense is say, 51, and the enemy's strength is say, 50, you won't evade them. So the formula can't be simplified to just HeroDefense > EnemyStrength like I do in the earlier section. The Silver Harp The code What it does ------------------------- -------------------------------------------------- $DE18:A5 45 LDA $0045 $DE1A:C9 01 CMP #$01 Check to make sure you're on the overworld. $DE1C:D0 23 BNE $DE41 $DE1E:20 5B C5 JSR $C55B $DE21:A5 95 LDA $0095 Load up a random number. $DE23:29 07 AND #$07 Limit that number to 0-7. $DE25:C9 05 CMP #$05 If the number is 5... $DE27:F0 F5 BEQ $DE1E $DE29:C9 07 CMP #$07 ...or 7... $DE2B:F0 F1 BEQ $DE1E repeat the random process until it isn't. This random number serves as the monster you will encounter. 5 is the Magidrakee and 7 is the Druin. This shows that the summoning of enemies only works on the overworld. Because of the limitations of the random generator, and the fact that it is repeated in succession if the result is 5 or 7, this makes the odds not an even 1/6 split for each remaining enemy. The actual odds are: 0 - Slime: 5504/32768 ~16.8% 1 - Red Slime: 5472/32768 ~16.7% 2 - Drakee: 5504/32768 ~16.8% 3 - Ghost: 5440/32768 ~16.6% 4 - Magician: 5472/32768 ~16.7% 6 - Scorpion: 5376/32768 ~16.4% So there's not a whole lot of variance there. There are other areas, such as the chances of encountering an enemy from each zone set, that are a bit more varied. -= Encounters =- For every step that you take, the random subroutine is called. First, it figures out what kind of tile you are on. Then it proceeds to check types of terrain. It starts with the swamp: The code What it does ------------------------- -------------------------------------------------- $CDC6:A5 E0 LDA $00E0 Load the current tile. $CDC8:C9 06 CMP #$06 Check if it's swamp. $CDCA:D0 36 BNE $CE02 If it's not, move on. $CDCC:A5 BE LDA $00BE If it is, load the equipment type. $CDCE:29 1C AND #$1C $CDD0:C9 1C CMP #$1C $CDD2:F0 27 BEQ $CDFB If you're wearing Erdrick's Armor skip the damage. ... $CDDF:A5 C5 LDA $00C5 $CDE1:38 SEC $CDE2:E9 02 SBC #$02 If not, subtract 2 hit points. $CDE4:B0 02 BCS $CDE8 Check if HP is less than 0. $CDE6:A9 00 LDA #$00 $CDE8:85 C5 STA $00C5 ... $CDF0:A5 C5 LDA $00C5 $CDF2:D0 07 BNE $CDFB If you're still alive, skip ahead. ... $CDFB:A9 0F LDA #$0F $CDFD:25 95 AND $0095 Limit the last random number to 0-15 $CDFF:F0 7B BEQ $CE7C If it's 0, move on to check the zone you're in. $CE01:60 RTS And then moves on to desert: The code What it does ------------------------- -------------------------------------------------- $CE02:C9 01 CMP #$01 Check if it's desert. $CE04:F0 0D BEQ $CE13 $CE13:A9 07 LDA #$07 $CE15:D0 E6 BNE $CDFD $CDFD:25 95 AND $0095 Limit the random number to 0-7. $CDFF:F0 7B BEQ $CE7C If it's 0, move on to check the zone you're in. $CE01:60 RTS And then to hills: The code What it does ------------------------- -------------------------------------------------- $CE06:C9 02 CMP #$02 Check if it's hills. $CE08:D0 0D BNE $CE17 ... $CE13:A9 07 LDA #$07 $CE15:D0 E6 BNE $CDFD $CDFD:25 95 AND $0095 Limit the random number to 0-7. $CDFF:F0 7B BEQ $CE7C If it's 0, move on to check the zone you're in. $CE01:60 RTS And then forest: The code What it does ------------------------- -------------------------------------------------- $CE17:C9 0B CMP #$0B Check if it's forest. $CE19:F0 44 BEQ $CE5F $CE5F:A9 0F LDA #$0F $CE61:D0 9A BNE $CDFD $CDFD:25 95 AND $0095 Limit the random number to 0-15. $CDFF:F0 7B BEQ $CE7C If it's 0, move on to check the zone you're in. $CE01:60 RTS And then brick floor: The code What it does ------------------------- -------------------------------------------------- $CE1B:C9 04 CMP #$04 Check if it's brick floor. $CE1D:F0 40 BEQ $CE5F $CE5F:A9 0F LDA #$0F $CE61:D0 9A BNE $CDFD $CDFD:25 95 AND $0095 Limit the random number to 0-15. $CDFF:F0 7B BEQ $CE7C If it's 0, move on to check the zone you're in. $CE01:60 RTS And then if it's barrier: The code What it does ------------------------- -------------------------------------------------- $CE1F:C9 0D CMP #$0D Check if it's barrier. $CE21:D0 40 BNE $CE63 $CE23:A5 BE LDA $00BE If it is, load the equipment type. $CE25:29 1C AND #$1C $CE27:C9 1C CMP #$1C $CE29:F0 34 BEQ $CE5F If you're wearing Erdrick's Armor skip the damage. $CE5F:A9 0F LDA #$0F $CE61:D0 9A BNE $CDFD $CDFD:25 95 AND $0095 Limit the random number to 0-15. $CDFF:F0 7B BEQ $CE7C If it's 0, move on to check the zone you're in. $CE01:60 RTS And if it's none of the above: The code What it does ------------------------- -------------------------------------------------- $CE63:A5 3A LDA $003A Load the hero's x position. $CE65:4A LSR $CE66:B0 07 BCS $CE6F If x is odd, proceed to check if y is even. $CE68:A5 3B LDA $003B If x is even, load the hero's y position. $CE6A:4A LSR $CE6B:90 07 BCC $CE74 If y is even, the random number will be 0-31. $CE6D:B0 09 BCS $CE78 If y is odd, the random number will be 0-15. $CE6F:A5 3B LDA $003B If the x position was odd... $CE71:4A LSR $CE72:90 04 BCC $CE78 ..and if the y position is even, the random number $CE74:A9 1F LDA #$1F will be 0-31. If y is odd, it will be 0-15. $CE76:D0 85 BNE $CDFD $CE78:A9 0F LDA #$0F $CE7A:D0 FA BNE $CE76 Basically, what this all does is set up a checker board style of encounters in places like grasslands. One type of checker is a 1 in 16 chance of encounter while the other type is a 1 in 32 chance. The point is to essentially make the encounter similar to a 1 in 24 chance. Then, we start to check what zone we're in: The code What it does ------------------------- -------------------------------------------------- $CE7C:A5 45 LDA $0045 Check which area you're in. $CE7E:C9 01 CMP #$01 If it's the overworld... $CE80:D0 56 BNE $CED8 ...don't branch. $CE82:A5 3B LDA $003B Load the hero's y coordinate... $CE84:85 3C STA $003C ...and put it into $3C. $CE86:A9 0F LDA #$0F $CE88:85 3E STA $003E Set $3E to 0x0F. $CE8A:20 F0 C1 JSR $C1F0 Run the division subroutine ($3C / $3E). $CE8D:A5 3C LDA $003C Load the result of the division... $CE8F:85 42 STA $0042 ...and put it into $42 for later. $CE91:A5 3A LDA $003A Load the hero's X coordinate... $CE93:85 3C STA $003C ...and put it into $3C. $CE95:A9 0F LDA #$0F $CE97:85 3E STA $003E Set $3E to 0x0F. $CE99:20 F0 C1 JSR $C1F0 Runs the division subroutine ($3C / $3E). $CE9C:A5 42 LDA $0042 Load the hero's y grid... $CE9E:0A ASL $CE9F:0A ASL ...and multiply it by 4. $CEA0:85 3E STA $003E Put the result in $3E. $CEA2:A5 3C LDA $003C Load the hero's x grid... $CEA4:4A LSR ...and divide it by 2... $CEA5:18 CLC $CEA6:65 3E ADC $003E ...and add it to the previous y grid * 4. $CEA8:AA TAX Transfer the result to X. $CEA9:BD 22 F5 LDA $F522,X Loads what zone grid you are in... $CEAC:85 3E STA $003E ...and stores it in $3E. $CEAE:A5 3C LDA $003C Load the hero's x grid again. $CEB0:4A LSR $CEB1:B0 08 BCS $CEBB If it's an odd number, get the small nibble of $3E $CEB3:46 3E LSR $003E If it's even, get the large nibble of $3E. $CEB5:46 3E LSR $003E $CEB7:46 3E LSR $003E $CEB9:46 3E LSR $003E $CEBB:A5 3E LDA $003E $CEBD:29 0F AND #$0F $CEBF:D0 43 BNE $CF04 If the zone isn't 0, go on to combat. So what this does is divides your x and y coordinates by 15 to figure out what grid you are currently in. It then takes that grid and converts it into a sequential number to figure out what enemy zone this grid represents. So for instance, let's say your coordinates are 0x2B, 0x2C (one square south of Tantegel). The x grid is 0x2B / 0x0F, which is 2 (the remainder is unimportant). The y grid is 0x2C / 0x0F, which is also 2. So now we follow the equation: yGrid * 4 + (xGrid >> 1) And we would have 2 * 4 + (2 >> 1), which is 9. This result is used as the offset from $F522, which in this case would be $F52B, which is 0x00. Normally we would find out which nibble is our zone (in this case it would be the large nibble), but it doesn't matter since they are both 0. Since the zone is 0, we go on to this next code: The code What it does ------------------------- -------------------------------------------------- $CEC1:20 5B C5 JSR $C55B If the zone is 0, run the random subroutine. $CEC4:A5 E0 LDA $00E0 Load the current tile. $CEC6:C9 02 CMP #$02 If it's hills... $CEC8:D0 07 BNE $CED1 $CECA:A5 95 LDA $0095 ...load the random number and... $CECC:29 03 AND #$03 ...limit it to 0-3 $CECE:F0 34 BEQ $CF04 If it's 0, go on to picking the enemy. Essentially what this does is that while you're in zone 0, hill encounters are reduced from 1/8 to 1/32. If it's not hills, the limitation is: The code What it does ------------------------- -------------------------------------------------- $CED1:A5 95 LDA $0095 Load the random number and... $CED3:29 01 AND #$01 ...limit it to 0 or 1. $CED5:F0 2D BEQ $CF04 If it's 0, go on to picking the enemy. So every other type of terrain is limited by a factor of 2. That means you're much less likely to have encounters near Tantegel. Now on to picking the enemy. -= Monster Sets =- The code What it does ------------------------- -------------------------------------------------- $CF04:85 3E STA $003E Store the zone number at $3E. $CF06:0A ASL $CF07:0A ASL $CF08:18 CLC $CF09:65 3E ADC $003E Multiply the zone number by 5. $CF0B:85 3E STA $003E Put the result in $3E. $CF0D:20 5B C5 JSR $C55B Run the random subroutine. $CF10:A5 95 LDA $0095 $CF12:29 07 AND #$07 Limit the random number to 0-7. $CF14:C9 05 CMP #$05 If it's 5-7... $CF16:B0 F5 BCS $CF0D ...go back and repeat until it's not. $CF18:65 3E ADC $003E Add the random number to $3E. $CF1A:AA TAX $CF1B:BD 4F F5 LDA $F54F,X Use the result as the offset from $F54F to get the enemy ID. $CF1E:85 3C STA $003C Store the ID at $3C. So since there are five possibilities per zone, this figures out the zone * 5 + a random number between 0 and 4. From there, it checks the offset at $F54F to see what enemy ID is there. The chart at $F54F is as follows: 00 01 00 01 00 01 00 01 02 01 00 03 02 03 01 01 01 02 03 04 03 04 05 05 06 03 04 05 06 0B 05 06 0B 0C 0E 0B 0C 0D 0E 0E 0D 0F 12 12 19 0F 15 12 15 19 15 16 17 1A 1C 17 1A 1B 1C 10 1A 1B 1C 1D 1F 1D 1E 1F 1F 20 08 09 0A 0B 0C 11 12 13 14 17 1D 1E 1F 20 21 20 21 22 22 23 20 23 24 24 25 03 04 06 07 07 Each enemy ID corresponds to this chart: Zone 0: Slime, Red Slime, Slime, Red Slime, Slime Zone 1: Red Slime, Slime, Red Slime, Drakee, Red Slime Zone 2: Slime, Ghost, Drakee, Ghost, Red Slime Zone 3: Red Slime, Red Slime, Drakee, Ghost, Magician Zone 4: Ghost, Magician, Magidrakee, Magidrakee, Scorpion Zone 5: Ghost, Magician, Magidrakee, Scorpion, Skeleton Zone 6: Magidrakee, Scorpion, Skeleton, Warlock, Wolf Zone 7: Skeleton, Warlock, Metal Scorpion, Wolf, Wolf Zone 8: Metal Scorpion, Wraith, Wolflord, Wolflord, Goldman Zone 9: Wraith, Wyvern, Wolflord, Wyvern, Goldman Zone 10: Wyvern, Rogue Scorpion, Wraith Knight, Knight, Demon Knight Zone 11: Wraith Knight, Knight, Magiwyvern, Demon Knight, Metal Slime Zone 12: Knight, Magiwyvern, Demon Knight, Werewolf, Starwyvern Zone 13: Werewolf, Green Dragon, Starwyvern, Starwyvern, Wizard Zone 14: Poltergeist, Droll, Drakeema, Skeleton, Warlock Zone 15: Specter, Wolflord, Druinlord, Drollmagi, Wraith Knight Zone 16: Werewolf, Green Dragon, Starwyvern, Wizard, Axe Knight Zone 17: Wizard, Axe Knight, Blue Dragon, Blue Dragon, Stoneman Zone 18: Wizard, Stoneman, Armored Knight, Armored Knight, Red Dragon Zone 19: Ghost, Magician, Scorpion, Druin, Druin Each enemy has a roughly equal chance to be encountered, although because of the limitations of the random generator, they are slightly imbalanced. It's called once to determine if there is combat, once again if you're in zone 0, and then however many times it takes to get a number between 0 and 4 instead of 0 and 7 (there is a maximum of 7). It's mostly because of that last part that the odds are uneven. Enemy # Chance to encounter 0 416/2048 ~20.3% 1 448/2048 ~21.9% 2 448/2048 ~21.9% 3 336/2048 ~16.4% 4 400/2048 ~19.5% Since there is one extra call in zone 0, the odds there are different: Enemy # Chance to encounter 0 368/2048 ~18.0% 1 384/2048 ~18.8% 2 448/2048 ~21.9% 3 416/2048 ~20.3% 4 432/2048 ~21.1% ************************* C. Combat ************************* -=Enemies=- These are all the stats of the enemies. ID Enemy Name Str Agi HP Pat SR DR XP GP 00 Slime 05 03 03 00 0F 01 01 02 01 Red Slime 07 03 04 00 0F 01 01 03 02 Drakee 09 06 06 00 0F 01 02 03 03 Ghost 0B 08 07 00 0F 04 03 05 04 Magician 0B 0C 0D 02 00 01 04 0C 05 Magidrakee 0E 0E 0F 02 00 01 05 0C 06 Scorpion 12 10 14 00 0F 01 06 10 07 Druin 14 12 16 00 0F 02 07 10 08 Poltergeist 12 14 17 03 00 06 08 12 09 Droll 18 18 19 00 0E 02 0A 19 0A Drakeema 16 1A 14 92 20 06 0B 14 0B Skeleton 1C 16 1E 00 0F 04 0B 1E 0C Warlock 1C 16 1E 12 31 02 0D 23 0D Metal Scorpion 24 2A 16 00 0F 02 0E 28 0E Wolf 28 1E 22 00 1F 02 10 32 0F Wraith 2C 22 24 90 70 04 11 3C 10 Metal Slime 0A FF 04 03 FF F1 73 06 11 Specter 28 26 24 13 31 04 12 46 12 Wolflord 32 24 26 60 47 02 14 50 13 Druinlord 2F 28 23 B1 F0 04 14 55 14 Drollmagi 34 32 26 60 22 01 16 5A 15 Wyvern 38 30 2A 00 4F 02 18 64 16 Rogue Scorpion 3C 5A 23 00 7F 02 1A 6E 17 Wraith Knight 44 38 2E B0 50 34 1C 78 18 Golem 78 3C 46 00 FF F0 05 0A 19 Goldman 30 28 32 00 DF 01 06 C8 1A Knight 4C 4E 37 60 67 01 21 82 1B Magiwyvern 4E 44 3A 20 20 02 22 8C 1C Demon Knight 4F 40 32 00 FF FF 25 96 1D Werewolf 56 46 3C 00 7F 07 28 9B 1E Green Dragon 58 4A 41 09 7F 22 2D A0 1F Starwyvern 56 50 41 F9 80 12 2B A0 20 Wizard 50 46 41 06 F7 F2 32 A5 21 Axe Knight 5E 52 46 10 F3 11 36 A5 22 Blue Dragon 62 54 46 09 FF 72 3C 96 23 Stoneman 64 28 A0 00 2F 71 41 8C 24 Armored Knight 69 56 5A F5 F7 12 46 8C 25 Red Dragon 78 5A 64 19 F7 F2 64 8C 26 Dragonlord 1 5A 4B 64 57 FF F0 00 00 27 Dragonlord 2 8C C8 82 0E FF F0 00 00 "Str" is the enemy's strength or attack power. "Agi" is the enemy's agility. "HP" is the enemy's hit points. This number is just the maximum that their HP can be, but it is variable. The code to calculate it is: The code What it does ------------------------- -------------------------------------------------- $E599:AD 02 01 LDA $0102 Load the enemy's max HP... $E59C:85 3E STA $003E ...and put it in $3E. $E59E:20 5B C5 JSR $C55B $E5A1:A5 95 LDA $0095 $E5A3:85 3C STA $003C Put the random number into $3C. $E5A5:A9 00 LDA #$00 $E5A7:85 3D STA $003D $E5A9:85 3F STA $003F $E5AB:20 C9 C1 JSR $C1C9 Multiply the random number by the max HP. $E5AE:A5 41 LDA $0041 Load the result / 256. $E5B0:4A LSR $E5B1:4A LSR Divide it by 4. $E5B2:85 40 STA $0040 Store the result at $40. $E5B4:AD 02 01 LDA $0102 Load the enemy's max HP. $E5B7:38 SEC $E5B8:E5 40 SBC $0040 Subtract $40 from the max HP. $E5BA:85 E2 STA $00E2 Set the enemy's current HP to that result. The result is: MaxHP - ((RAND * MaxHP) >> 10) So that will be a range from 75.1-100% of the value. The only exception to this is the Dragonlord's second form. He always has the full value for HP. "Pat" is the enemy's attack pattern. See below for the more advanced info on how this number works. "SR" is status resistance. The first nibble / 16 is the chance to resist SLEEP: The code What it does ------------------------- -------------------------------------------------- $E770:AD 04 01 LDA $0104 Load the enemy's status resistance. $E773:4A LSR $E774:4A LSR $E775:4A LSR $E776:4A LSR Get the first nibble (SLEEP resistance). $E777:20 46 E9 JSR $E946 $E946:85 3E STA $003E Store it at $3E. $E948:20 5B C5 JSR $C55B $E94B:A5 95 LDA $0095 Get the random number... $E94D:29 0F AND #$0F ...and limit it to 0-15. $E94F:C5 3E CMP $003E If that number is greater or equal to the enemy's $E951:90 01 BCC $E954 SLEEP resistance, then it is successful. $E953:60 RTS The second nibble / 16 is the chance to resist STOPSPELL: The code What it does ------------------------- -------------------------------------------------- $E78A:AD 04 01 LDA $0104 Load the enemy's status resistance. $E78D:29 0F AND #$0F Get the second nibble (STOPSPELL resistance). $E78F:20 46 E9 JSR $E946 $E946:85 3E STA $003E Store it at $3E. $E948:20 5B C5 JSR $C55B $E94B:A5 95 LDA $0095 Get the random number... $E94D:29 0F AND #$0F ...and limit it to 0-15. $E94F:C5 3E CMP $003E If that number is greater or equal to the enemy's $E951:90 01 BCC $E954 STOPSPELL resistance, then it is successful. $E953:60 RTS So for instance, a Slime's SR is 0F. That means SLEEP will always work and that STOPSPELL has a 15/16 chance of failing. Enemies who don't use magic have F as their STOPSPELL resistance, but this still allows a small chance of it working even though it will have no real effect. "DR" is damage resistance. The first nibble / 16 is the chance that HURT and HURTMORE will have no effect: The code What it does ------------------------- -------------------------------------------------- $E73A:AD 05 01 LDA $0105 Load the enemy's damage resistance. $E73D:4A LSR $E73E:4A LSR $E73F:4A LSR $E740:4A LSR Get the first nibble (HURT resistance). $E741:20 46 E9 JSR $E946 $E946:85 3E STA $003E Store it at $3E. $E948:20 5B C5 JSR $C55B $E94B:A5 95 LDA $0095 Get the random number... $E94D:29 0F AND #$0F ...and limit it to 0-15. $E94F:C5 3E CMP $003E If that number is greater or equal to the enemy's $E951:90 01 BCC $E954 HURT resistance, then it is successful. $E953:60 RTS The second nibble / 64 is the chance of dodging: The code What it does ------------------------- -------------------------------------------------- $E66E:20 5B C5 JSR $C55B $E671:A5 95 LDA $0095 Get a random number and... $E673:29 3F AND #$3F ...limit it to 0-63. $E675:85 95 STA $0095 Store the number at $95. $E677:AD 05 01 LDA $0105 Load the enemy's damage resistance. $E67A:29 0F AND #$0F Get the second nibble (dodging chance). $E67C:F0 1C BEQ $E69A If it is 0, the enemy dodges. $E67E:38 SEC $E67F:E9 01 SBC #$01 Subtract 1 from the dodging chance. $E681:C5 95 CMP $0095 If that number is greater or equal to the previous $E683:90 15 BCC $E69A random number (0-63), the enemy dodges. So for instance, a Slime's DR is 01. That means that HURT spells will always connect and that it has a 1/64 chance to dodge an attack. "XP" is the experience you will get. "GP" is the maximum gold you can get plus one. The code for gold received is: The code What it does ------------------------- -------------------------------------------------- $EA2A:AD 07 01 LDA $0107 Load the enemy's gold value. $EA2D:85 3E STA $003E Store it at $3E. $EA2F:20 5B C5 JSR $C55B $EA32:A5 95 LDA $0095 Get a random number and... $EA34:29 3F AND #$3F ...limit it to 0-63. $EA36:18 CLC $EA37:69 C0 ADC #$C0 Add that number to 0xC0. $EA39:85 3C STA $003C Store the result at $3C. $EA3B:A9 00 LDA #$00 $EA3D:85 3D STA $003D $EA3F:85 3F STA $003F $EA41:20 C9 C1 JSR $C1C9 Multiply the enemy's gold value by $3C. $EA44:A5 41 LDA $0041 Load the result / 256. $EA46:85 00 STA $0000 And store it at $00 That result is later added to your gold total. So the formula is: (GP * ((RAND & 0x3F) + 0xC0)) >> 8 So that will be a range from 75-99.9% of the value. You will never receive that full number. -=Enemy patterns=- The above mentioned enemy pattern is a little bit more elaborate than the other stats. An enemy can have up to two special moves. One focuses on status spells and healing, and the other focuses on damage spells and fire breath. Certain checks are made to see if they use these attacks. If they don't, they simply attack. Special move 1: The code What it does ------------------------- -------------------------------------------------- $EB4B:20 5B C5 JSR $C55B Run the random subroutine for later. $EB4E:AD 03 01 LDA $0103 Load the enemy's pattern. $EB51:29 30 AND #$30 Get bits 4 and 5, which is the 1/4 chance of carrying out special move 1. $EB53:85 3C STA $003C Store it at $3C. $EB55:A5 95 LDA $0095 Load the previous random number. $EB57:29 30 AND #$30 Get bits 4 and 5. $EB59:C5 3C CMP $003C If the random number is less than the enemy's $EB5B:B0 37 BCS $EB94 pattern, they will carry out special move 1. Otherwise move on to special move 2. $EB5D:AD 03 01 LDA $0103 Load the enemy's pattern. $EB60:29 C0 AND #$C0 Get bits 6 and 7, which is special move 1. $EB62:D0 07 BNE $EB6B $EB64:A5 DF LDA $00DF If special move 1 is 0, it is to cast SLEEP. $EB66:30 2C BMI $EB94 If the hero is already asleep, then move on to special move 2. Otherwise cast SLEEP, which is always successful. $EB6B:C9 40 CMP #$40 $EB6D:D0 09 BNE $EB78 $EB6F:A5 DF LDA $00DF If special move 1 is 1, it is to cast STOPSPELL. $EB71:29 10 AND #$10 If the hero's spell is already stopped, then move $EB73:D0 1F BNE $EB94 on to special move 2. Otherwise cast STOPSPELL, which has a 50/50 chance of success unless equipped with Erdrick's Armor, in which case there is no chance. $EB78:C9 80 CMP #$80 $EB7A:D0 0C BNE $EB88 If special move 1 is 2, it is to cast HEAL. $EB7C:AD 02 01 LDA $0102 Load the enemy's max HP. $EB7F:4A LSR $EB80:4A LSR Divide that by 4. $EB81:C5 E2 CMP $00E2 If the enemy's current HP is less than a quarter $EB83:90 0F BCC $EB94 of its max HP, then it will carry out the HEAL spell. Otherwise move on to special move 2. If special move 1 is 3, it is to cast HEALMORE. $EB88:AD 02 01 LDA $0102 Load the enemy's max HP. $EB8B:4A LSR $EB8C:4A LSR Divide that by 4. $EB8D:C5 E2 CMP $00E2 If the enemy's current HP is less than a quarter $EB8F:90 03 BCC $EB94 of its max HP, then it will carry out the HEALMORE spell. Otherwise move on to special move 2. Special move 2: The code What it does ------------------------- -------------------------------------------------- $EB94:20 5B C5 JSR $C55B Run the random subroutine for later. $EB97:AD 03 01 LDA $0103 Load the enemy's pattern. $EB9A:29 03 AND #$03 Get bits 0 and 1, which is the 1/4 chance of carrying out special move 2. $EB9C:85 3C STA $003C Store it at $3C. $EB9E:A5 95 LDA $0095 Load the previous random number. $EBA0:29 03 AND #$03 Get bits 0 and 1. $EBA2:C5 3C CMP $003C If the random number is less than the enemy's $EBA4:B0 1B BCS $EBC1 pattern, they will carry out special move 2. Otherwise move on to attack. $EBA6:AD 03 01 LDA $0103 Load the enemy's pattern. $EBA9:29 0C AND #$0C Get bits 2 and 3, which is special move 2. $EBAB:D0 03 BNE $EBB0 If special move 2 is 0, it is to cast HURT. $EBB0:C9 04 CMP #$04 $EBB2:D0 03 BNE $EBB7 If special move 2 is 1, it is to cast HURTMORE. $EBB7:C9 08 CMP #$08 $EBB9:D0 03 BNE $EBBE If special move 2 is 2, it is to breathe fire. $EBBE:4C E1 EC JMP $ECE1 If special move 2 is 3, it is to breathe strong fire. As an example of how it works, we will use a Starwyvern. The Starwyvern's pattern is F9, which is 11111001 in binary. The first bytes it checks are 4 & 5: 11111001 ^^ This number / 4 is the chance that they will do special move 1. In this case, it is a 3 / 4 chance that the Starwyvern will do special move 1. Bytes 6 & 7 correspond to what special move 1 is. 11111001 ^^ 00: Cast SLEEP 01: Cast STOPSPELL 10: Cast HEAL 11: Cast HEALMORE The Starwyvern's ability then is HEALMORE. There are always exceptions to if these will be performed. If the hero is already asleep, the enemy will not cast SLEEP. If the hero's spell is already stopped, the enemy will not cast STOPSPELL. If the enemy's HP >= their max HP / 4, then it will not cast healing spells. So if the enemy doesn't end up doing special move 1, it moves onto special move 2. Bytes 0 & 1 are checked: 11111001 ^^ Again, just like our first check, this number / 4 is the chance that they will do special move 2. In the case of the Starwyvern, it's chance is 1 / 4. Bytes 2 & 3 correspond to what special move 2 is. 11111001 ^^ 00: Cast HURT 01: Cast HURTMORE 10: Breath attack 1 11: Breath attack 2 The Starwyvern's ability then is breath attack 1. If this special attack isn't used, then the enemy will just do a regular attack. So the starwyvern's attack chances can be broken down as such: If starwyvern HP < 16 3/4 chance to HEAL, 1/16 chance to breathe fire, 3/16 chance to attack If starwyvern HP >= 16 1/4 chance to breathe fire, 3/4 chance to attack -=Enemy attack formulas=- ~Attacks~ There are two formulas for attack damage for enemies. This is the starting code: The code What it does ------------------------- -------------------------------------------------- $EBCD:AD 00 01 LDA $0100 Load the enemy's strength. $EBD0:85 42 STA $0042 Store it at $42. $EBD2:A5 CD LDA $00CD Load the hero's defense. $EBD4:85 43 STA $0043 Store it at $43. $EBD6:20 F4 EF JSR $EFF4 $EFF4:46 43 LSR $0043 Divide the hero's defense by 2. $EFF6:A5 42 LDA $0042 $EFF8:4A LSR Divide the enemy's strength by 2. $EFF9:85 3E STA $003E Store the result at $3E $EFFB:E6 3E INC $003E Add 1 to $3E. $EFFD:A5 42 LDA $0042 $EFFF:38 SEC $F000:E5 43 SBC $0043 Subtract the halved hero's defense from the enemy's strength. $F002:90 04 BCC $F008 Branch if it's less than 0. $F004:C5 3E CMP $003E Otherwise compare it to $3E, which is the enemy's strength / 2 + 1. $F006:B0 28 BCS $F030 If it's greater or equal, branch. If not, proceed to do lesser damage. So $F008 is where lesser damage is determined. $F030 is where regular damage is determined. Lesser damage is done if (EnemyStrength >> 2) is less than (HeroDefense >> 2 + 1). Lesser damage: The code What it does ------------------------- -------------------------------------------------- $F008:20 5B C5 JSR $C55B $F00B:A5 95 LDA $0095 $F00D:85 3C STA $003C Put a random number at $3C. $F00F:A9 00 LDA #$00 $F011:85 3D STA $003D $F013:85 3F STA $003F $F015:20 C9 C1 JSR $C1C9 Multiply the random number by $3E. $F018:A5 41 LDA $0041 Load the result / 256. $F01A:18 CLC $F01B:69 02 ADC #$02 Add 2 to that result. $F01D:85 3C STA $003C Store the result in $3C. $F01F:A9 03 LDA #$03 $F021:85 3E STA $003E $F023:4C F0 C1 JMP $C1F0 Divide $3C by 3. So the end result is floor(((((EnemyStrength >> 1 + 1) * RAND) >> 8) + 2) / 3). That's fairly simplified, although it could also be expressed as: floor((((EnemyStrength + 2) * RAND + 1024) >> 9) / 3) Regular damage: The code What it does ------------------------- -------------------------------------------------- $F030:85 42 STA $0042 Store the enemy's strength minus the halved hero's defense at $42. $F032:85 3E STA $003E Also store it at $3E. $F034:E6 3E INC $003E Add 1 to $3E. $F036:20 5B C5 JSR $C55B $F039:A5 95 LDA $0095 $F03B:85 3C STA $003C Put a random number at $3C. $F03D:A9 00 LDA #$00 $F03F:85 3D STA $003D $F041:85 3F STA $003F $F043:20 C9 C1 JSR $C1C9 Multiply the random number by $3E $F046:A5 41 LDA $0041 Load the result / 256 and... $F048:18 CLC $F049:65 42 ADC $0042 ...add it to $42. $F04B:6A ROR $F04C:4A LSR Divide that result by 4. $F04D:85 3C STA $003C Store the result at $3C. $F04F:60 RTS So the end result is (((EnemyStrength - (HeroDefense >> 1) + 1) * RAND) >> 8 + EnemyStrength - (HeroDefense >> 1)) >> 2. This can be simplified as: ((256 + RAND) * (EnemyStrength - (HeroDefense >> 1) + 1) - 256) >> 10 ~Spells~ Spell Damage done Code location HURT : RAND & 0x07 + 0x03 $EC2A HURTMORE : RAND & 0x0F + 0x1E $EC5C Both Magic Armor and Erdrick's Armor will reduce HURT spells: The code What it does ------------------------- -------------------------------------------------- $EC36:A5 BE LDA $00BE Load the hero's equipment byte. $EC38:29 1C AND #$1C Get bits 2-4, which is the armor. $EC3A:C9 1C CMP #$1C Check if it's Erdrick's Armor. $EC3C:F0 04 BEQ $EC42 If it is, branch. $EC3E:C9 18 CMP #$18 Otherwise, check if it's Magic Armor. $EC40:D0 10 BNE $EC52 If it is, continue. $EC42:A5 00 LDA $0000 Load the HURT damage. $EC44:85 3C STA $003C Store it at $3C. $EC46:A9 03 LDA #$03 $EC48:85 3E STA $003E $EC4A:20 F0 C1 JSR $C1F0 Divide the HURT damage by 3. $EC4D:A5 3C LDA $003C $EC4F:0A ASL Multiply the result by 2. $EC50:85 00 STA $0000 It's divided by 3, the remainder is discarded, and that result is multiplied by 2. SLEEP: The code What it does ------------------------- -------------------------------------------------- $EC99:A5 DF LDA $00DF Load the byte that has the hero's sleep status. $EC9B:09 80 ORA #$80 Set bit 7 to 1, which puts the hero to sleep. $EC9D:85 DF STA $00DF SLEEP always puts you to sleep, and there is no resisting it. Waking up from sleep is a 50/50 chance: The code What it does ------------------------- -------------------------------------------------- $E5D6:20 5B C5 JSR $C55B $E5D9:A5 95 LDA $0095 Get a random number. $E5DB:4A LSR $E5DC:B0 07 BCS $E5E5 If it's an odd number, proceed to wake up. $E5E5:A5 DF LDA $00DF Load the byte that has the hero's sleep status. $E5E7:29 7F AND #$7F Set bit 7 to 0, which wakes the hero up. $E5E9:85 DF STA $00DF Because of the limitations of the random generator, it's not possible for sleep to last on the hero for more than a set number of turns. Per turn, the random generator is run 4 times: 1. Check to see if the enemy does special move 1. Since special move 1 is SLEEP, it will not do this if you are sleeping. So it automatically goes to check 2. 2. Check to see if the enemy does special move 2. 3. If it does or doesn't do that move, it will run the random generator just once to calculate damage. 4. The check to see if the hero wakes up. The results of this are: Turns asleep Chance of being asleep that long ------------ -------------------------------- 1 100.0% 2 50.0% 3 25.0% 4 12.5% 5 ~9.0% 6 ~3.1% 7 ~0.4% 8 0.0% So the longest you could stay asleep would be 6 turns, although it is highly unlikely. There can actually be an extra random check added in there, and that is if the enemy feels intimidated and wants to run. This really shouldn't be of concern since if you're a lot stronger than them, it shouldn't matter if you get sleeplocked. Regardless, these are the odds: Turns asleep Chance of being asleep that long ------------ -------------------------------- 1 100.0% 2 62.5% 3 ~22.9% 4 ~9.0% 5 ~3.3% 6 ~3.1% 7 ~1.0% 8 ~0.6% 9 ~0.4% 10 ~0.2% 11 ~0.2% 12 0.0% So the odds are much better in the initial rounds, but it has the capacity to last 4 turns longer. Again, it probably wouldn't matter much if you are stronger than the enemy. STOPSPELL has a 50/50 chance of working against you unless you are equipped with Erdrick's Armor, in which case it won't work at all: The code What it does ------------------------- -------------------------------------------------- $EC70:A5 BE LDA $00BE Load the hero's equipment byte. $EC72:29 1C AND #$1C Get bits 2-4, which is the armor. $EC74:C9 1C CMP #$1C Check if it's Erdrick's Armor. $EC76:F0 16 BEQ $EC8E If it is, STOPSPELL will not work. $EC78:20 5B C5 JSR $C55B $EC7B:A5 95 LDA $0095 Otherwise get a random number. $EC7D:4A LSR $EC7E:90 0E BCC $EC8E If it's an odd number, your spell is stopped. $EC80:A5 DF LDA $00DF Load the byte with the hero's STOPSPELL status. $EC82:09 10 ORA #$10 Set bit 4 to 1, which stops the hero's spell. $EC84:85 DF STA $00DF Spell HP recovered Code location HEAL : RAND & 0x07 + 0x14 $ECAD HEALMORE : RAND & 0x0F + 0x55 $ECD5 ~Fire breath~ There are two types of fire breath. Only the Dragonlord's second form has the stronger breath. The rest of the enemies that have breath attacks only have the weaker type of breath. Breath type Damage done Code location Weak breath : RAND & 0x07 + 0x10 $ECED Strong breath : RAND & 0x07 + 0x41 $ECE1 The only thing that protects against fire breath is Erdrick's Armor, which reduces the damage: The code What it does ------------------------- -------------------------------------------------- $ECFC:A5 BE LDA $00BE Load the hero's equipment byte. $ECFE:29 1C AND #$1C Get bits 2-4, which is the armor. $ED00:C9 1C CMP #$1C Check if it's Erdrick's Armor. $ED02:D0 10 BNE $ED14 If it's not, do regular damage. $ED04:A5 00 LDA $0000 $ED06:85 3C STA $003C $ED08:A9 03 LDA #$03 $ED0A:85 3E STA $003E $ED0C:20 F0 C1 JSR $C1F0 Otherwise divide the fire damage by 3. $ED0F:A5 3C LDA $003C $ED11:0A ASL Multiply the result by 2. $ED12:85 00 STA $0000 It's divided by 3, the remainder is discarded, and that result is multiplied by 2. -=Hero attack formulas=- ~Attacks~ First, the initial values are loaded: The code What it does ------------------------- -------------------------------------------------- $E60C:A5 CC LDA $00CC Get the hero's attack power. $E60E:85 42 STA $0042 Store it at $42 for later. $E610:AD 01 01 LDA $0101 Get the enemy's agility. $E613:85 43 STA $0043 Store it at $43 for later. $E615:A5 E0 LDA $00E0 Get the enemy type. $E617:C9 26 CMP #$26 Check if it's the Dragonlord... $E619:F0 36 BEQ $E651 $E61B:C9 27 CMP #$27 ...in either form. $E61D:F0 32 BEQ $E651 It branches to $E651 in either case. This is where it determines if you can get an excellent move, and they aren't possible to achieve against the Dragonlord. So if the enemy is either form of the Dragonlord, it skips the check. Excellent move check: The code What it does ------------------------- -------------------------------------------------- $E61F:20 5B C5 JSR $C55B $E622:A5 95 LDA $0095 Load a random number. $E624:29 1F AND #$1F Limit that number to 0-31. $E626:D0 29 BNE $E651 Just like above, it will branch to $E651 if the random result is not 0. If it is, it will calculate the damage for a critical hit. Excellent move damage: The code What it does ------------------------- -------------------------------------------------- $E634:20 5B C5 JSR $C55B $E637:A5 95 LDA $0095 Load a random number. $E639:85 3C STA $003C Store it at $3C for later. $E63B:A5 CC LDA $00CC Load the hero's attack power. $E63D:4A LSR Divide it by 2. $E63E:85 3E STA $003E Put the result into $3E. $E640:A9 00 LDA #$00 $E642:85 3D STA $003D $E644:85 3F STA $003F $E646:20 C9 C1 JSR $C1C9 Multiply the random number by the hero's attack >> 1. $E649:A5 CC LDA $00CC Load the hero's attack power. $E64B:38 SEC $E64C:E5 41 SBC $0041 Subtract our previous product / 256 from the hero's attack power. So the end result for damage is HeroAttack - ((RAND * (Hero attack >> 1)) >> 8) Regular damage: The code What it does ------------------------- -------------------------------------------------- $E651:20 E5 EF JSR $EFE5 $EFE5:46 43 LSR $0043 Divide the enemy agility by 2 for later. $EFE7:A5 42 LDA $0042 Get the hero's attack power. $EFE9:38 SEC $EFEA:E5 43 SBC $0043 Subtract the halved enemy agility from it. $EFEC:90 38 BCC $F026 If it's less than 0, branch to calculate minimal damage. $EFEE:C9 02 CMP #$02 Otherwise check if it's 0 or 1. $EFF0:B0 3E BCS $F030 If not, it branches to calculate the rest of regular damage. $EFF2:90 32 BCC $F026 If so, it branches to calculate minimal damage. $F030:85 42 STA $0042 Store HeroAttack - (EnemyAgility >> 1) at $42. $F032:85 3E STA $003E Store the same number at $3E. $F034:E6 3E INC $003E Add 1 to $3E. $F036:20 5B C5 JSR $C55B $F039:A5 95 LDA $0095 Loads a random number. $F03B:85 3C STA $003C Store it at $3C. $F03D:A9 00 LDA #$00 $F03F:85 3D STA $003D $F041:85 3F STA $003F $F043:20 C9 C1 JSR $C1C9 Multiply the random number by $3E (Heroattack - (EnemyAgility >> 1)). $F046:A5 41 LDA $0041 Load the result / 256. $F048:18 CLC $F049:65 42 ADC $0042 Add that to HeroAttack - (EnemyAgility >> 1). $F04B:6A ROR $F04C:4A LSR Then divide that result by 4. $F04D:85 3C STA $003C Store the result at $3C. $F04F:60 RTS So the end result for damage is: (((HeroAttack - (EnemyAgility >> 1)) * RAND) >> 8 + HeroAttack - (EnemyAgility >> 1)) >> 2 This can be simplified as: ((RAND + 256) * (HeroAttack - (EnemyAgility >> 1))) >> 10 For the minimal damage, it may seem like the checks are redundant, but one is for numbers less than 0, and the other is for simply 0 and 1. This is just a limitation of the programming. Minimal damage is: Minimal damage: The code What it does ------------------------- -------------------------------------------------- $F026:20 5B C5 JSR $C55B $F029:A5 95 LDA $0095 Load a random number. $F02B:29 01 AND #$01 Limits that number to 0 or 1. $F02D:85 3C STA $003C Stores the result in $3C for later. $F02F:60 RTS The result is 0 or 1 damage. ~Spells~ Spell Damage done Code location HURT : RAND & 0x07 + 0x05 $E744 HURTMORE : RAND & 0x07 + 0x3A $E75F -=Running=- Every turn the enemy checks to see if it will run, even before the hero gets off a turn. Here's how it decides to run: The code What it does ------------------------- -------------------------------------------------- $EFB7:A5 C8 LDA $00C8 Load the hero's strength. $EFB9:4A LSR Divide it by 2. $EFBA:CD 00 01 CMP $0100 Compare to the enemy's strength. $EFBD:90 25 BCC $EFE4 If it's less, then continue to fight. $EFBF:20 5B C5 JSR $C55B $EFC2:A5 95 LDA $0095 Otherwise get a random number. $EFC4:29 03 AND #$03 Limit that number to 0-3. $EFC6:D0 1C BNE $EFE4 If it's 0, then the enemy will run away. Chances of the hero running: The code What it does ------------------------- -------------------------------------------------- $EE91:20 5B C5 JSR $C55B $EE94:A5 E0 LDA $00E0 Load the current enemy. $EE96:C9 23 CMP #$23 Compare its ID to 0x23. $EE98:90 05 BCC $EE9F $EE9A:A5 95 LDA $0095 If it's greater or equal to 0x23, use a plain $EE9C:4C C7 EE JMP $EEC7 random number 0-255. $EE9F:C9 1E CMP #$1E Otherwise if it's greater or equal to 0x1E... $EEA1:90 07 BCC $EEAA $EEA3:A5 95 LDA $0095 $EEA5:29 7F AND #$7F ...use a random number limited to 0-127. $EEA7:4C C7 EE JMP $EEC7 $EEAA:C9 14 CMP #$14 Otherwise if it's greater or equal to 0x14... $EEAC:90 12 BCC $EEC0 $EEAE:A5 95 LDA $0095 $EEB0:29 3F AND #$3F $EEB2:85 3E STA $003E ...put a random number limited to 0-63 at $3E. $EEB4:20 5B C5 JSR $C55B $EEB7:A5 95 LDA $0095 $EEB9:29 1F AND #$1F $EEBB:65 3E ADC $003E Add another random number limited to 0-31 to $3E. $EEBD:4C C7 EE JMP $EEC7 This effectively makes the random number 0-94. $EEC0:20 5B C5 JSR $C55B $EEC3:A5 95 LDA $0095 If the enemyID is less than 0x14, load a random $EEC5:29 3F AND #$3F number and limit it to 0-63. $EEC7:85 3C STA $003C Store whatever the limited random number is at $3C $EEC9:AD 01 01 LDA $0101 Load the enemy's strength. $EECC:85 3E STA $003E Store it at $3E. $EECE:A9 00 LDA #$00 $EED0:85 3D STA $003D $EED2:85 3F STA $003F $EED4:20 C9 C1 JSR $C1C9 Multiply the random number by the enemy's strength $EED7:A5 40 LDA $0040 $EED9:85 42 STA $0042 $EEDB:A5 41 LDA $0041 $EEDD:85 43 STA $0043 Store the double byte $4041 at $4243. $EEDF:20 5B C5 JSR $C55B $EEE2:A5 95 LDA $0095 $EEE4:85 3C STA $003C Put a random number at $3C. $EEE6:A5 C9 LDA $00C9 Load the hero's agility. $EEE8:85 3E STA $003E $EEEA:A9 00 LDA #$00 $EEEC:85 3D STA $003D $EEEE:85 3F STA $003F $EEF0:20 C9 C1 JSR $C1C9 Multiply the random number by the hero's agility. $EEF3:A5 40 LDA $0040 $EEF5:38 SEC $EEF6:E5 42 SBC $0042 $EEF8:A5 41 LDA $0041 $EEFA:E5 43 SBC $0043 Subtract the product $4041 from $4243. $EEFC:60 RTS $E89B:B0 07 BCS $E8A4 If the result is less than 0, the attempt to flee is successful. Essentially the harder enemies get, the better the chances that they'll have of blocking you. Here are the conditionals for being blocked: Group 1 (0x00-0x13): (EnemyAgility * (RAND >> 2)) > (HeroAgility * RAND) Group 2 (0x04-0x1D): (EnemyAgility * ((RAND >> 2) + (RAND >> 3))) > (HeroAgility * RAND) Group 3 (0x1E-0x22): (EnemyAgility * RAND) >> 1 > (HeroAgility * RAND) Group 4 (0x23-0x27): (EnemyAgility * RAND) > (HeroAgility * RAND) The only condition where running always works is if the enemy is asleep: The code What it does ------------------------- -------------------------------------------------- $E894:24 DF BIT $00DF Get bit 6 of $DF, which is if the enemy is asleep. $E896:70 0C BVS $E8A4 If he's asleep, running is successful. -=Initiative=- This is the same equation as running from enemies in Group 1 ($EEC0), except instead of the hero being blocked, the enemy will go first. ************************* C. Chests ************************* Each chest type has an ID that corresponds to what treasure is inside. Chest ID Chest location Contents Code location -------- -------------------- ------------------------- ------------- 02 Charlock B7 (x2) Herb $E248 Garinham back room Grave of Garinham B1 Mountain Cave B1 03 Charlock B7 Magic Key $E226 Tantegel throne room 04 Garinham back room Torch $E26C Mountain cave B2 Tantegel throne room 05 06 Charlock B7 Wings $E242 Rimuldar 09 Mountain Cave B2 Fighter's Ring $E26C 0C Charlock B7 Cursed Belt $E26C Grave of Garinham B3 0D Grave of Garinham B3 Silver Harp $E2B9 0E Mountain Cave B2 0x05 + (RAND & 0x0F) Gold $E250 or 1/32 chance for the Death Necklace (but only one can be acquired). 0F Tantegel basement Stones of Sunlight $E2DB 10 Shrine west of Kol Staff of Rain $E26C 11 Charlock B2 Erdrick's Sword $E297 12 Garinham B1 0x05 + (RAND & 0x0F) Gold $E2F1 13 Garinham B1 0x06 + (RAND & 0x07) Gold $E303 Tantegel treasury (x4) 14 Garinham back room 0x0A + (RAND & 0x07) Gold $E315 Mountain Cave B2 15 Charlock B7 0x1F4 + RAND Gold $E327 16 Tantegel throne room 120 Gold $E339 17 Erdrick's Cave B2 Erdrick's Tablet $E3C5 Notice that several of the locations refer to $E26C. This code takes the chest ID and subtracts 3 from it to determine what item you should get. Also, it would seem that various IDs are missing, but were never intended to be found in chests. Some of the same algorithms work with buying and receiving items. -=The treasure chest bug=- The code for opening a treasure chest: The code What it does ------------------------- -------------------------------------------------- $E209:A5 3A LDA $003A Load the hero's x position. $E20B:D9 21 03 CMP $0321,Y Check if that x position contains treasure. $E20E:D0 07 BNE $E217 $E210:A5 3B LDA $003B If it does, load the hero's y position. $E212:D9 22 03 CMP $0322,Y Check if that y position contains treasure. $E215:F0 0A BEQ $E221 $E221:B9 23 03 LDA $0323,Y If it does, load the treasure ID. $E224:85 DE STA $00DE Store it at $DE. So instead of checking if the actual sprite behind the hero is a treasure chest , it looks to see if that is a valid position for treasure. We will see why this is prone to be buggy in a bit. After the above code it starts checking which treasure to give you, which we'll skip here. Instead we'll move to right after that where that position is added to an array of coordinates: The code What it does ------------------------- -------------------------------------------------- $E39A:A2 00 LDX #$00 Set the pointer to the start of the array. $E39C:BD 1C 60 LDA $601C,X Check if the first slot is empty. $E39F:1D 1D 60 ORA $601D,X Also check if the second slot is empty. $E3A2:F0 07 BEQ $E3AB If they are full, then branch. $E3A4:E8 INX $E3A5:E8 INX Otherwise add 2 to the pointer. $E3A6:E0 10 CPX #$10 If the pointer is greater than or equal to the $E3A8:D0 F2 BNE $E39C size of the array, then the checking is complete. $E3AA:60 RTS Otherwise repeat the search for an empty slot. $E3AB:A5 3A LDA $003A If an empty slot was found, load the x coordinate $E3AD:9D 1C 60 STA $601C,X into it. $E3B0:A5 3B LDA $003B And load the y coordinate into the next slot. $E3B2:9D 1D 60 STA $601D,X The problem here comes if the array is full. If the array is full, the coordinates of the current chest won't be stored there and consequently you'd be able to keep opening that chest. The programmers thought they got around this with various methods. They made sure that no dungeon would contain more chests than could fit into the array, which would be 8. And whenever you entered or exited a town or dungeon, the array was always wiped. What they didn't foresee was to clear the array when you die. So you could go into a dungeon, collect treasure chests, die, and wake up in the castle with that array still full. On top of that, every time you start off in the throne room of Tantegel, it automatically fills the last 3 positions of the array so that you aren't able to pick up the initial 3 treasures anymore. It doesn't matter that you can't see the chests because as previously mentioned, seeing them doesn't matter. It's the array of coordinates that matter. So if you get enough chests in a cave (2 minimum), die, and raid the treasury in Tantegel, you will come upon a chest that never disappears. All because that coordinate can never be stored in that full array. ************************* D. Name choice and stats ************************* The algorithm for figuring out stats in relation to your name. This loads the base values for the four main stats plus which spells you will have at that level: The code What it does ------------------------- -------------------------------------------------- $99C0:A4 3C LDY $003C $99C2:B1 22 LDA ($22),Y Get the strength value. $99C4:85 C8 STA $00C8 Store it. $99C6:C8 INY Increment the pointer. $99C7:B1 22 LDA ($22),Y Get the agility value. $99C9:85 C9 STA $00C9 Store it. $99CB:C8 INY Increment the pointer. $99CC:B1 22 LDA ($22),Y Get the max HP value. $99CE:85 CA STA $00CA Store it. $99D0:C8 INY Increment the pointer. $99D1:B1 22 LDA ($22),Y Get the max MP value. $99D3:85 CB STA $00CB Store it. $99D5:C8 INY Increment the pointer. $99D6:B1 22 LDA ($22),Y Get the higher level spells. $99D8:05 CF ORA $00CF $99DA:85 CF STA $00CF Store it in bits 0 and 1 of $CF. $99DC:C8 INY Increment the pointer. $99DD:B1 22 LDA ($22),Y Get the lower level spells. $99DF:85 CE STA $00CE Store it at $CE. Later, the value of each of the first four letters of your name is added up: The code What it does ------------------------- -------------------------------------------------- $F085:A2 04 LDX #$04 Set the pointer to 4. $F087:A9 00 LDA #$00 Set the sum to 0. $F089:18 CLC $F08A:7D B4 00 ADC $00B4,X Add the value of $B4 offset by the pointer to the sum. $F08D:CA DEX Subtract 1 from the pointer. $F08E:D0 F9 BNE $F089 If it's 0, continue. Decide from that sum which attributes will be limited: The code What it does ------------------------- -------------------------------------------------- $F090:85 42 STA $0042 Store the sum of the letters at $42. $F092:29 03 AND #$03 Get bits 0 and 1 of the sum. $F094:85 43 STA $0043 Store that at $43. $F096:A5 42 LDA $0042 Load the sum. $F098:4A LSR $F099:4A LSR Divide it by 4. $F09A:29 03 AND #$03 Get bits 0 and 1 of the result. $F09C:85 42 STA $0042 Store that at $42. $F09E:A5 43 LDA $0043 Load $43 (bits 0 and 1 of the sum). $F0A0:4A LSR $F0A1:B0 0A BCS $F0AD $F0A3:A5 C8 LDA $00C8 If it's an even number, limit the strength. $F0A5:20 0C F1 JSR $F10C $F0A8:85 C8 STA $00C8 $F0AA:4C B6 F0 JMP $F0B6 $F0AD:A5 CB LDA $00CB If it's an odd number, limit the MP. $F0AF:F0 05 BEQ $F0B6 $F0B1:20 0C F1 JSR $F10C $F0B4:85 CB STA $00CB $F0B6:A5 43 LDA $0043 Load $43 (bits 0 and 1 of the sum). $F0B8:29 02 AND #$02 Get just bit 1. $F0BA:D0 0A BNE $F0C6 If bit 1 of the sum is 0, limit the agility. $F0BC:A5 C9 LDA $00C9 $F0BE:20 0C F1 JSR $F10C $F0C1:85 C9 STA $00C9 $F0C3:4C CD F0 JMP $F0CD $F0C6:A5 CA LDA $00CA If bit 1 of the sum is 1, limit the HP. $F0C8:20 0C F1 JSR $F10C $F0CB:85 CA STA $00CA The limiting of the attributes: The code What it does ------------------------- -------------------------------------------------- $F10C:85 3C STA $003C Store the current attribute at $3C. $F10E:A9 09 LDA #$09 $F110:85 3E STA $003E $F112:A9 00 LDA #$00 $F114:85 3D STA $003D $F116:85 3F STA $003F $F118:20 C9 C1 JSR $C1C9 Multiply the attribute by 9. $F11B:A5 40 LDA $0040 $F11D:85 3C STA $003C $F11F:A5 41 LDA $0041 $F121:85 3D STA $003D Store the result in the double byte $3C3D. $F123:A9 0A LDA #$0A $F125:85 3E STA $003E $F127:A9 00 LDA #$00 $F129:85 3F STA $003F $F12B:20 F4 C1 JSR $C1F4 Divide the result by 10. $F12E:A5 3C LDA $003C $F130:18 CLC Take that result and add it to $42, which is now $F131:65 42 ADC $0042 bits 2 and 3 of the original sum. So in general, the best sums are those where bits 2 and 3 are both 1. Bit 0 of the sum determines if it will be long term strength or long term MP. Bit 1 of the sum determines if it will be long term agility or long term HP. ******************************************************************************* * IV. Frequently Asked Questions * ******************************************************************************* Q: What is the best way to contact you? A: I read the gamefaqs.com forum for Dragon Warrior fairly often. I seldom check my e-mail. Q: Will you ever figure out formulas for other games like the rest of the Dragon Warrior series or other RPGs? A: I never say never, but I have no plans in the immediate future. Q: What does the Fighter's Ring do? A: It has no meaningful purpose. It only changes what a single townsperson says. Don't pay any attention to websites, FAQs, or even original manuals that say otherwise. They all just assumed that it had a function and made a sloppy guess that has carried on for some time. Q: Does the Silver Harp have any other effects depending on your location? A: Nope. It always summons the same lame group of enemies. Q: Is there a limit to how long enemies can be asleep? A: No. The reason the hero's nap time is limited is because the limited random generator produces distinct patterns when run consecutively. If you sit by idly while waiting to make a command, the random generator is run 60 times per second. This effectively makes it a time-based random, which can result in any outcome. Tool-assisted speedruns have taken advantage of this. Q: Is it possible to get in an encounter the first step after battle? A: Yes. There is no counter, so theoretically you could have infinte encounters in a row. This is actually used in various tool-assisted speed runs to level up quickly.