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    Damage Formula FAQ by instructrtrepe

    Version: 1.03 | Updated: 11/24/04 | Search Guide | Bookmark Guide

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    FF3j DAMAGE CALCAULATION FORMULA FAQ
    Version 1.02
    by J.L. Tseng, 2004
    
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    TABLE OF CONTENTS
    
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    I.    INTRODUCTION
    II.   CREDITS AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
    III.  VERSION HISTORY
    IV.   BRIEF OVERVIEW OF FAQ CONTENTS
    V.    NOTES
    VI.   GLOSSARY AND DEFINITIONS
    VII.  DAMAGE CALCULATION FORMULA:  BRIEF GENERAL FORMULA
    VIII. DAMAGE CALCULATION FORMULA:  BONUSES AND PENALTIES REFERENCE
    IX.   DAMAGE CALCULATION FORMULA:  CHARACTER PHYSICAL ATTACKS
    X.    DAMAGE CALCULATION FORMULA:  MONSTER PHYSICAL ATTACKS
    XI.   DAMAGE CALCULATION FORMULA:  MAGIC ATTACKS & ITEMS
    XII.  DATA
    XIII. OTHER ISSUES
    
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    I.  INTRODUCTION
    
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    This is my attempt at creating a FF3j damage formula that can predict how much 
    damage will be done from various attacks within the game.  Note that I'm NOT 
    an employee at Square nor have access to their source code or algorithms.  All 
    formulas in this FAQ were derived from experimental observations done by me.  
    This means that although I've done quite a lot of carefully set up experiments 
    to be very confident with the results in this FAQ, I by no means guarantee 
    that everything is absolutely 100% correct, nor do I disclude the possibility 
    that I have may missed some things.  If you do notice any discrepancies, 
    errors, omissions, etc. or have any suggestions or comments, please send your 
    feedback to instructrtrepe@hotmail.com, or post at the FF3j message board at 
    http://www.gamefaqs.com
    
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    II.  CREDITS AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
    
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    From the FF3j message board at http://www.gamefaqs.com, I'd like to thank Sir 
    Bahamut for all his feedback and help and sqpat17 for finding and posting the 
    hex offset data for the FF3j rom.
    
    Using sqpat17's hex offset data, I extracted the hex data from the rom myself 
    to create my own data tables, but FAQ's and guides that I used as references 
    to verify my own data:
    
    lordskylark's extended Ff3j monster list at 
    http://www.geocities.com/lord_skylark
    cidolfas's FF3j shrine at http://www.rpgclassics.com/shrines/nes/ff3/
    BSiron's FFII (US) FAQ at http://www.gamefaqs.com
    
    FF3j actually shares a lot of similar damage formula mechanics as FFIV, so 
    BSiron's FAQ for FFII(US) provided an excellent starting point for my FAQ.
    
    My emulator of choice for this game is VirtuaNES at 
    http://virtuanes.s1.xrea.com:8080/
    The translation .ips file I used was created by Alex W. Jackson, Neill Corlett 
    and SoM2Freak (downloaded at http://www.zophar.net)
    
    Copyright:
    
    Final Fantasy 3 (Japan) is Copyright 1990, Square
    This FAQ is Copyright 2004, InstructorTrepe
    
    This FAQ is not to be sold for profit.
    Changes to this FAQ are not permitted.
    Do not post this FAQ without asking permission (e-mail: 
    instructrtrepe@hotmail.com).
    Do not steal any information in this FAQ for your own FAQs or documents.  
    You may reference or quote from this document as long as you explicitly state 
    and credit this FAQ and myself as the author of your source.
    
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    III.  VERSION HISTORY
    
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    Version 1.0:  Initial release.
    Version 1.01: Corrected some spelling errors.  Thanks to Sir Bahamut for
                  spotting and notifying me of them!
    Version 1.02: More spelling, grammar fixes.
    Version 1.03: Corrected the mix-up between Intellect and Spirit in the 
                  Glossary section for White, Black and Call Magic Multipliers
    
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    IV.  BRIEF OVERVIEW OF FAQ CONTENTS
    
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    Section VI contains a glossary and explanation of all the terms I've used in 
    this FAQ.
    
    Sections VII and VIII contain a brief overview and summary of the damage 
    calculation formula and the various effects of commands, spells, elemental and 
    status effects.  If you want a general understanding of how damage is 
    calculated, these are the sections you want to read.
    
    Sections IX, X and XI provide detailed steps on the damage calculation formula 
    for character attacks, monster attacks and magic attacks.  They essentially 
    take the information in Sections VII and VIII and explicitly state all the 
    Steps that would occur for each type of attack.
    
    Section XII is the data reference section.  It contains weapon, armour, skill, 
    magic and enemy magic data that is used in the damage calculation formula.
    
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    V.  NOTES
    
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    This game uses integer values.  Therefore after every division shown in any 
    formula in this FAQ, immediately round down before proceeding with any further 
    calculation.
    
    Due to the way Level and Skill are stored internally in the game, all 
    references to Skill and Level in this FAQ actually refer to one minus the 
    value that is displayed in the game.  For example, at the start of New Game, 
    all characters begin at Level 0 and Skill 0 for calculation purposes of this 
    FAQ.
    
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    VI.  GLOSSARY AND DEFINITIONS
    
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    Just so everyone's on the same page in terms of terminology and for those who 
    may be unfamiliar with some the stats in FF3j, here's a list of stats that are 
    used in this FAQ.
    
    LEVEL:   Character level.  This is displayed in the game character status 
    screen as "Level".  As you increase in level, your main stats (Strength, 
    Agility, Vitality, Intellect, Spirit) increase as well as your HP and MP.  
    Level affects your Attack Multiplier, Defense Multiplier and your Magic Attack 
    Multiplier, as well as Steal Rate.  The difference between your level and 
    monster level affects whether an enemy will run from you, the chances of 
    getting "First Strike" or "Ambushed" and whether the Kill spell has a chance 
    of succeeding.  Monsters also have a Level stat.  In their case, however, 
    Level only affects Magic Attack Multiplier.
    
    SKILL:  The character's Skill level for his current job. This is displayed in 
    the game character status screen as "Skill".  Skill points are earned in 
    battle and are recorded separately for each job for every character.  Skill 
    affects your Attack Damage, Hit%, Magic Attack Multiplier and Steal rate.  It 
    also lowers the amount of Capacity points required to change into that job.  
    Monsters also have a Skill stat.  In their case, however, Skill only affects 
    Magic Attack Multiplier.
    
    STRENGTH:  The character's Strength, displayed in the game character status 
    screen as "Strength".  Strength affects your Attack Damage.
    
    AGILITY:  The character's Agility, displayed in the game character status 
    screen as "Agility".  Agility affects your Hit%, Attack Multiplier and Magic 
    Defense Multiplier.
    
    VITALITY: The character's Vitality, displayed in the game character status 
    screen as "Vitality".  Vitality affects your Defense.  Jobs with high Vitality 
    also get a higher HP gain on levelling up.
    
    INTELLECT: The character's Intellect, displayed in the game character status 
    screen as "Intellect".  Intellect affects your Black Magic Attack Damage, Call 
    Magic Attack Damage, Black Magic Hit%, Call Magic Hit%, Black Magic Attack 
    Multiplier, Call Magic Attack Multiplier, Magic Evade% and Magic Defense 
    Multiplier.  Monsters also have an Intellect stat.  In their case, however, 
    Intellect does not affect Magic Evade% nor Magic Defense Multiplier.
    
    SPIRIT: The character's Spirit, displayed in the game character status screen 
    as "Spirit".  Spirit affects your White Magic Attack Damage, White Magic Hit%, 
    White Magic Attack Multiplier, Magic Evade% and Magic Defense Multiplier.  
    Monsters also have a Spirit stat.  In their case, however, Spirit does not 
    affect Magic Evade% nor Magic Defense Multiplier.
    
    ATTACK DAMAGE:  The base amount of damage a character will do when attacking 
    physically.  This is displayed in the game character status screen to the 
    right of "Att. ?X ", parallel to the Strength stat.  If a character has a 
    weapon in both hands, the Attack Damage shown on the status screen is the sum 
    of the Attack Damages of each hand.  The formula for Attack Damage is:
    
    Attack Damage = (Weapon Damage) + (Strength/4)
    
    Monsters also have an Attack Damage stat.  In their case, however, they do not 
    follow the above formula and have their own specified value.
    
    ATTACK MULTIPLIER:  The maximum number times a character can hit in one 
    physical attack command.  This is displayed in the game character status 
    screen right after "Att.", to the left of the Attack Damage stat.  If a 
    character has a weapon in both hands, the Attack Multiplier shown on the 
    status screen is the sum of the Attack Multipliers of each hand.  The formula 
    for Attack Multiplier is:
    
    Attack Multiplier = (Agility/16) + (Level/16) + 1
    
    Monsters also have an Attack Multiplier stat.  In their case, however, they do 
    not follow the above formula and have their own specified value.
    
    HIT%: The chance a character has to land a hit.  This is displayed in the game 
    character status screen as "Hit %".  If a character has a weapon in both 
    hands, the Hit% shown on the status screen is the average of the Hit% of each 
    hand.  The formula for Hit% is:
    
    Hit% = (Weapon Hit%) + (Agility/4) + (Skill/4)
    
    Monsters also have a Hit% stat.  In their case, however, they do not follow 
    the above formula and have their own specified value.
    
    DEFENSE:  The amount of damage that any physical attack made on the character 
    will be reduced by. This is displayed in the game character status screen to 
    the right of "Def. ?X ", parallel to the Agility stat.  The formula for 
    Defense is:
    
    Defense = sum of all worn (Armour Defense) + (Vitality/2)
    
    Monsters also have a Defense stat.  In their case, however, they do not follow 
    the above formula and have their own specified value.
    
    DEFENSE MULTIPLIER:  The maximum number of hits a character can avoid from a 
    physical attack made on that character.  This is displayed in the game 
    character status screen right after "Def.", to the left of the Defense stat.  
    The formula for Defense Multiplier is:
    
    (with shield):
    
    Defense Multiplier = (Agility/16) + (Level/16) + 1 * (number of shields
                         equipped)
    
    (without shield):
    
    Defense Multiplier = (Agility/32) + (Level/32)
    
    Monsters also have a Defense Multiplier stat.  In their case, however, they do 
    not follow the any of the above formulas and have their own specified value.
    
    EVADE%:  The chance a character has to evade a hit.  This is displayed in the 
    game character status screen as "Evade".  The formula for Evade% is:
    
    Evade% = sum of all worn (Armour Evade%) + (Agility/4)
    
    Monsters also have an Evade% stat.  In their case, however, they do not follow 
    the above formula and have their own specified value.
    
    MAGIC DEFENSE: The amount of damage that any magic attack made on the 
    character will be reduced by. This is displayed in the game character status 
    screen as "M. Def.".  The formula for Magic Defense is:
    
    Magic Defense = sum of all worn (Armour Magic Defense)
    
    Monsters also have a Magic Defense stat.  In their case, however, they do not 
    follow the above formula and have their own specified value.
    
    MAGIC EVADE%: The chance a character has to evade a magic hit.  This is 
    displayed in the game character status screen as "M. Evade".  The formula for 
    Magic Evade% is:
    
    Magic Evade% = (Intellect/2) + (Spirit/2)
    
    Monsters also have a Magic Evade% stat.  In their case, however, they do not 
    follow the above formula and have their own specified value.
    
    MAGIC ATTACK MULTIPLIER:  The maximum number times a character can hit in one 
    magic attack command.  This is not displayed anywhere in the game.  The number 
    of hits that succeed are not shown in battle either, only the final resulting 
    magic damage.  There are three different types of magic, and thus three 
    different formulas for Magic Attack Multiplier:
    
    Black Magic Attack Multiplier = (Intellect/16) + (Level/16) + (Skill/32) + 1
    
    White Magic Attack Multiplier = (Spirit/16) + (Level/16) + (Skill/32) + 1
    
    Call Magic Attack Multiplier = (Intellect/8) + (((Skill/8)*3)/2) + 1
    
    Monsters use the same formulas shown above when attacking with magic.
    
    MAGIC HIT%:  The chance a character has to land a magic hit.  This is not 
    displayed anywhere in the game.  There are three different types of magic, and 
    thus three different formulas for Magic Hit%:
    
    Black Magic Hit% = (Spell Hit%) + (Intellect/2)
     
    White Magic Hit% = (Spell Hit%) + (Spirit/2)
    
    Call Magic Hit% = (Spell Hit%) + (Intellect)
    
    Monsters use the same formulas shown above when attacking with magic.
    
    MAGIC ATTACK DAMAGE:  The base amount of damage a character will do when 
    attacking with magic.  This is not displayed anywhere in the game.  There are 
    four different formulas for Magic Attack Damage:
    
    Black Magic Attack Damage = (Spell Damage) + (Intellect/2)
    
    For offensive White spells (Holy, Aero2, Aero):
    White Magic Attack Damage = (Spell Damage) + (Spirit/2)
    
    For non-offensive White spells (Cure4, Cure3, Cure2, Cure, Haste, Safe):
    White Magic Attack Damage = (Spell Damage) 
    
    Call Magic Attack Damage = (Spell Damage) + (Intellect)
    
    Monsters use the same formulas shown above when attacking with magic.
    
    MAGIC DEFENSE MULTIPLIER:  The maximum number of hits a character can avoid 
    from a magic attack made on that character.  This is not displayed anywhere in 
    the game.  The formula for Magic Defense Multiplier is:
    
    Magic Defense Multiplier = (Agility/32) + (Intellect/32) + (Spirit/32)
     
    Monsters also have a Magic Defense Multiplier stat.  In their case, however, 
    they do not follow the above formula and have their own specified value.
    
    WEAPON DAMAGE:  The Attack Damage of the equipped weapon.  Each weapon has 
    their own Weapon Damage value (see Weapon Data).
    
    WEAPON HIT%:  The Hit% of the weapon equipped.  Each weapon has their own 
    Weapon Hit% value (see Weapon Data).
    
    ARMOUR DEFENSE:  The Defense of the armour equipped.  Each armour has their 
    own Armour Defense value (see Armour Data).
    
    ARMOUR EVADE%: The Evade% of the armour equipped.  Each armour has their own 
    Armour Evade% value (see Armour Data).
    
    ARMOUR MAGIC DEFENSE:  The Magic Defense of the armour equipped.  Each armour 
    has their own Armour Magic Defense value (see Armour Data).
    
    SPELL DAMAGE:  The Magic Attack Damage of that spell.  Each spell has their 
    own Spell Damage value (see Magic Data).
    
    SPELL HIT%:  The Magic Hit% of that spell.  Each spell has their own Spell 
    Hit% value (see Magic Data).
    
    ITEM MAGIC ATTACK MULTIPLIER:  When items are used, they essential cast the 
    spell that is associated with it.  Items use their own Magic Attack Multiplier, 
    though (see Item Data).
    
    ITEM MAGIC HIT%:  When items are used, they essential cast the spell that is 
    associated with it.  Items always have a Magic Hit% of 100.
    
    BLACK MAGIC:  Magic spells usable by the Black Wizard, Red Wizard, Warlock and 
    Sage.  Also, for damage calculation purposes, all Terrain commands used by the 
    Geomancer are considered Black magic.
    
    WHITE MAGIC:  Magic spells usable by the White Wizard, Red Wizard, Hunter, 
    Mystic Knight, Shaman and Sage.  Note that there is a different Magic Attack 
    Damage formula for offensive White magic (Holy, Aero2, Aero) and non-offensive 
    White magic (Cure4, Cure3, Cure2, Cure, Haste, Safe).  Also, Toad, Mini, Life 
    and Life2 have a Magic Hit% of 100 when cast on a party member.  When cast on 
    an enemy, the Magic Hit% listed in the Magic Data section is used.
    
    CALL MAGIC:  Magic spells usable by the Conjurer, Summoner and Sage.
    
    VULNERABLE STATE:  There can be times when a character becomes vulnerable.  In 
    these cases, the character's Defense, and Defense Multiplier become zero and 
    they also receive double damage from physical attacks.  Vulnerable states 
    include becoming Toad, Mini, and immediately after executing a 'Buildup' 
    command until just prior to a subsequent 'Fight' or 'Overload'.  In addition, 
    if ANY character in the party chooses the 'Run' or 'Escape' command, then ALL 
    party members become vulnerable for the entire round.  
    
    In the case Buildup, Toad or Mini, the character's Magic Defense also becomes 
    zero and they will also receive double damage from magic attacks.  They will 
    not, however, receive double healing from White magic.  Also, in the case of 
    Toad and Mini, the character's Magic Defense Multiplier will also become zero.
    
    ATTACKER:  The one that is initiating an action command.  An action command 
    can be either 'Fight', 'Magic', 'Item', 'Jump', 'Sing'.  In the damage 
    calculation formulas, the stats Attack Damage, Attack Multiplier, Hit%, Magic
    Attack Damage, Magic Hit%, Magic Attack Multiplier all refer to the attacker's 
    stats.
    
    TARGET:  The target of the attacker's action command.  Most actions allow the 
    attacker to choose a target.  Some allow the attacker to attack all targets.  
    Some will automatically target all enemies or all allies.  In the damage 
    calculation formulas, the stats Defense, Defense Multiplier, Evade%, Magic 
    Defense, Magic Defense Multiplier, Magic Evade% all refer to the target's 
    stats.
    
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    VII.  DAMAGE CALCULATION FORMULA:  BRIEF GENERAL FORMULA
    
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    The damage calculation formula is essentially the same regardless of what type 
    of attack is made or who the attacker or target is.  The following is a very 
    brief overview of how damage is calculated from an attack.  For magic attacks, 
    use the appropriate magic stats.
    
    **************************
    NOTATION AND ABBREVIATIONS
    **************************
    (x..y)    Refers to a uniformly distributed random number between x and y
              inclusive.
    M         Net Attack Multiplier
    
    ************************
    DAMAGE CALCULATION STEPS
    ************************
    
    1) CALCULATE BASE DAMAGE
          Base Damage = Attack Damage
    
    2) APPLY BASE DAMAGE BONUSES AND PENALTIES
          Base Damage = (Base Damage + (additive bonuses)) * (multiplicative bonuses
                        or penalties)
    
    3) APPLY RANDOM RANGE TO BASE DAMAGE
          Base Damage = (Base Damage..Base Damage*1.5)
    
    4) SUBTRACT TARGET'S DEFENSE
          Base Damage = Base Damage - Defense
    
    5) CALCULATE NET ATTACK MULTIPLIER
          M (on average) ~= ((Attack Multiplier) * Hit%) - ((Defense Multiplier) *
                            Evade%)
    
    6) MULTIPLY BASE DAMAGE BY NET ATTACK MULTIPLIER
          Final Damage = Base Damage * M
    
    7) APPLY FINAL DAMAGE BONUSES AND PENALTIES
          Final Damage = Final Damage * (bonuses or penalties)
    
    8) DUAL WIELDING OR MULTIPLE TARGETS
          Repeat Steps 1-7 for each weapon in each hand.
          Repeat Steps 1-7 for each target.
    
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    VIII. DAMAGE CALCULATION FORMULA:  BONUSES AND PENALTIES REFERENCE
    
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    For easy reference, here is a list of commands, spells etc. and a summary of 
    their effects in the damage calculation formula.
    
    ***********
    1) COMMANDS
    ***********
    
    1.1) DEFEND
    Immediately after a character executes a 'Defend' command, he will receive a 
    bonus against physical attacks.  This bonus only lasts until the end of the 
    current round.
    
    Defense = Defense * 4
    
    This bonus is applied in Step 4.
    
    1.2) TERRAIN
    A Geomancer's 'Terrain' commands are considered Black Magic.  The same 
    formulas that pertain to Black Magic are also used for Terrain, namely:
    
    Magic Damage = (Spell Damage) + (Intellect/2)
    Magic Hit% = (Spell Hit%) + (Intellect/2)
    Magic Attack Multiplier = (Intellect/16) + (Level/16) + 1
    
    One important difference, though, is that if the Geomancer misses all targets 
    (i.e. M (calculated from Step 5) = 0 for ALL targets) then instead of an 
    'Ineffective' message, you get a 'Backfired' message.  The Geomancer also 
    subsequently sustains (MAX HP)/4 damage.
    
    1.3) JUMP
    If a Dragoon is landing an attack from a 'Jump' command:
    
    Final Damage = Final Damage * 3
    
    This bonus is applied in Step 7.
    
    1.4) BUILDUP
    The Karateka's 'Buildup' command has three basic effects:  a bonus to Final 
    Damage, a penalty to the Karateka's Defense, Defense Multiplier and Magic 
    Defense, and finally, the Karateka receives double damage (but not double 
    healing) whenever he is the target of a physical or magic attack.
    
    If a Karateka has executed one 'Buildup' command prior to the current attack, 
    then:
    
    Final Damage = Final Damage * 2
    
    If a Karateka has executed two 'Buildup' commands prior to the current attack, 
    then:
    
    Final Damage = Final Damage * 3
    
    Note that immediately after a Karateka executes a third 'Buildup' command 
    without a 'Fight' command, then an 'Overload' occurs and the current attack is 
    aborted and HP = (Current HP)/2
    
    These bonuses are applied in Step 7.
    
    Immediately after a Karateka has executed a 'Buildup' command and just prior 
    to a subsequent 'Fight' or 'Overload', becomes vulnerable and has the 
    following penalties: 
    
    Defense = 0
    Defense Multiplier = 0
    
    In addition the Karateka receives a penalty to his Magic Defense:
    
    Magic Defense = 0
    
    These penalties are applied in Steps 4 and 5.
    
    Also during this period, whenever the Karateka is the target of a physical or 
    magic attack, that attacker receives a bonus to Base Damage.  Non-offensive 
    White magic spells (i.e. healing), however, do not receive this bonus:
    
    Base Damage = Base Damage * 2 (not for non-offensive White magic)
    
    This bonus is applied in Step 2 for the one attacking the Karateka.
    
    1.5) SCARE
    Each use the Bard's 'Scare' command reduces all enemies' levels:
    
    Enemy level = Enemy level - 3
    
    Multiple uses of 'Scare' can eventually lead to enemies running away instead 
    of attacking in battle.  An enemy will only run away if:
    
    (Lowest character level) - (Enemy level) > 15
    
    If the above condition is met, then the chance that a monster will choose to 
    Run will be:
    
    %Chance to Run = 100 - Monster Hit%
    
    Also note that as an enemy level is decreased there is also the potential of 
    reducing its Magic Attack Multiplier.
    
    Bosses are immune to 'Scare' and will also never attempt to Run.
    
    1.6) CHEER
    Each use of the Bard's 'Cheer' command gives an additive bonus to physical 
    Base Damage for each party member:
    Base Damage = Base Damage + 10 (for physical attacks only)
    
    This bonus is applied in Step 2.
    
    1.7) RUN AND ESCAPE
    If a character chooses the 'Run' or 'Escape' command, then for that entire 
    round, ALL party members will be in a vulnerable state and receive the 
    following defensive penalties:
    
    Defense = 0
    Defense Multiplier = 0
    
    These penalties are applied in Steps 4 and 5.
    
    Anyone attacking any of the party members will also receive a bonus to Base 
    Damage for physical attacks:
    
    Base Damage = Base Damage * 2 (for physical attacks only)
    
    This bonus is applied in Step 2 for the one attacking the party member.
    
    Note that monsters that attempt to Run receive NO penalties and party members 
    that attack monsters that attempt to Run receive no bonuses.
    
    1.8) ITEM
    Using an item is essentially the same as casting the spell that is associated 
    with that item.  The damage calculation formula is same for items as it is for 
    magic attacks. There are, however, two important differences:
    
    i)  Items have their own Magic Attack Multiplier.  This is not influenced by 
    any of the attacker's stats.
    
    ii)  Items have their Magic Hit% of 100. This is also not influenced by any of 
    the attacker's stats, nor is it affected by Blind.
    
    In general, all weapons that can be used to cast spells have a Magic Attack 
    Multiplier of one.  Most other items have a Magic Attack Multiplier of three.
    
    *********
    2) SPELLS
    *********
    
    2.1) HASTE
    Although Haste doesn't appear to cause or heal any damage, it does have a 
    Spell Damage value.  When someone casts Haste, apply Steps 1-6 to calculate M 
    and Final Damage for Haste.  The target of the Haste spell then receives a 
    bonus to his Attack Multiplier and Base Damage:
    
    Base Damage = Base Damage + (Final Damage calculated from Haste)
    A.M = A.M. + (M calculated from Haste)
    
    The Base Damage bonus is applied in Step 2 for the Hasted target.
    The Attack Multiplier is applied in Step 5 for the Hasted target.
    
    Note that the maximum value for Base Damage is 255 and the maximum value for 
    A.M. is 16.  If the target already has a maximum value in either Base Damage 
    of A.M., then the Haste spell becomes 'Ineffective'.
    
    2.2) SAFE
    Although Safe doesn't appear to cause or heal any damage, it does have a Spell 
    Damage value.  When someone casts Safe, apply Steps 1-6 to calculate Final 
    Damage for Safe.  The target of the Safe spell then receives a bonus to his 
    Defense and Magic Defense:
    
    Defense = Defense + (Final Damage calculated from Safe)
    Magic Defense = Magic Defense + (Final Damage calculated from Safe)
    
    These bonuses are applied in Step 4 for the Safe target.
    
    Note that the maximum value for Defense or Magic Defense is 255.  If the 
    target already has a maximum value in either Defense or Magic Defense, then 
    the Safe spell becomes 'Ineffective'.
    
    2.3) KILL
    The Kill spell follows the normal Magic Hit% formulas like all other spells, 
    but with one major difference.  The Kill spell will not work at all against 
    targets whose levels are too high, relative to the caster.
    
    IF Target Level >= ((((Attacker Level)/2)*3)/2)
    Magic Hit% = 0
    
    This penalty is applied in Step 5
    
    2.4) CURE4
    If Cure4 is cast on a single target, that target fully heals his HP.  If Cure4 
    is cast on multiple targets, use Steps 1-8 normally to calculate the amount 
    cured.
    
    2.5) TOAD, MINI, LIFE, LIFE2
    When these spells are cast on a party member, their Magic Hit% is 100.  If 
    they are cast on an enemy, use the normal Magic Hit% formula.
    
    2.6) OFFENSIVE AND NON-OFFENSIVE WHITE SPELLS
    Offensive and non-offensive White spells have different formulas for Magic 
    Damage:
    
    Offensive White spells:
    White Magic Attack Damage = (Spell Damage) + (Spirit/2)
    
    Non-offensive White spells:
    White Magic Attack Damage = (Spell Damage) 
    
    Offensive White spells include Holy, Aero2 and Aero.  Non-offensive White 
    spells include Cure4, Cure3, Cure2, Haste and Safe.
    
    Note that the non-offensive formula still applies to the Cure spells, even if 
    they are used to inflict damage against the undead.
    
    2.7) AUTO-TARGETTING SPELLS
    Normally, when you choose to cast a spell against multiple targets, Final 
    Damage receives a penalty:
    
    Final Damage = (Final Damage)/(# of targets selected)
    
    This penalty is applied in Step 7.
    
    Some spells however, will automatically target all enemies or all allies.  
    These spells do not receive the above penalty.  Spells that automatically 
    target all enemies include Quake, Meteo, some Terrain spells and all Call
    spells cast by a Summoner or Sage.  Enemy magic that automatically targets
    all party members include Flame, Blizzard, Thunder, Tsunami, Flarewave, Atom
    Edge, Poison, Mindblast and Megaflare.
    
    2.8) WALL
    A successful casting of Wall on a target creates a barrier in front of that 
    target.  The next time an enemy targets that character with a magic attack, 
    the spell is redirected back to an enemy party member.  For damage 
    calculation purposes, the formulas, bonuses and penalties are the same as if 
    the caster had self-targeted himself or his party member with that spell.  
    After reflecting one spell, the effects of Wall cease.  Only one Wall may be 
    in effect for one character at a time.  Multiple castings of Wall on the same 
    target have no effect.  Wall does not reflects spells that were cast by their 
    own party member (i.e. you may still heal someone with Wall).  Only certain 
    Black, White and Enemy magic spells may be reflected (see Magic Data).
    
    2.9) WWIND
    A successful casting of WWind on a target reduces that target's HP to (Spell 
    Damage..Spell Damage * 2).  Note that in this case, Final Damage in Step 6 is 
    not used and M from Step 5 is used only to check for spell success.
    
    ********************
    3) ELEMENTAL EFFECTS
    ********************
    
    3.1) ELEMENTAL WEAKNESS
    Note that for attacks with multiple elements, as long as the target is weak 
    against at least one of those elements, then the target will be considered 
    weak.  If the target is weak against the attacking element, then:
    
    Base Damage = Base Damage * 2
    
    This bonus is applied in Step 2.
    
    3.2) ELEMENTAL STRENGTH
    Note that for attacks with multiple elements, as long as the target is strong 
    against at least one of those elements and is not weak against any of those 
    elements, then the target will be considered strong.  If the target is strong 
    against the attacking element, then:
    
    Base Damage = Base Damage / 2
    
    This bonus is applied in Step 2.
    
    *****************
    4) STATUS EFFECTS
    *****************
    
    4.1) BLIND
    An attacker that is 'Blind' receives a penalty to his Hit% and Magic Hit%.  
    Note that Item Magic Hit% is not affected by Blind.
    
    Hit% = (Hit%/2)
    Magic Hit% = (Magic Hit%/2)
    
    These penalties are applied in Step 5.
    
    4.2) TOAD AND MINI
    If a character that is Toad or Mini makes a physical attack:
    
    Base Damage = 0 (for physical attacks only)
    
    This penalty is applied in Step 2.  This penalty supersedes every other bonus 
    in Step 2 (i.e. a Hasted or Cheered Toad still only does 1 damage).  The other 
    bonuses are still recorded and in the event that the character recovers from 
    Toad or Mini, he will be restored to the new improved Base Damage.
    
    A Toad or Mini character is in a vulnerable state.  Whenever a Toad or Mini 
    character is the target of an attack:
    
    Defense = 0
    Defense Multiplier = 0
    
    In addition, a Toad or Mini character also has a penalty to Magic Defense and 
    Magic Defense Multiplier:
    
    Magic Defense = 0
    Magic Defense Multiplier = 0
    
    These penalties are applied in Steps 4 and 5.
    
    The one attacking the Toad or Mini character also receives a bonus to Base 
    Damage.  Non-offensive White magic spells (i.e. healing), however, do not 
    receive this bonus:
    
    Base Damage = Base Damage * 2 (not for non-offensive White magic)
    
    This bonus is applied in Step 2 for the one attacking the Toad or Mini 
    character.
    
    4.3) BACK ROW
    OK, not exactly a status effect, but it is a state of being.  Anyway, an 
    attacker that makes a physical attack to or from the back row receives a 
    penalty to Hit%:
    
    Hit% = (Hit%/2)
    
    This penalty is applied in Step 5.
    
    **************
    MINIMUM DAMAGE
    **************
    
    As long as you connect with at least one hit (i.e. M > 0 in Step 5), then the 
    Final Damage will always be at least one.
    
    IF (M > 0) and (Final Damage <= 0)
    Final Damage = 1
    
    This is applied in Step 7.
    
    ***************
    SELF-TARGETTING
    ***************
    
    If you target your own party member with a physical attack then that target 
    receives penalty to its Defense:
    
    Defense = 0
    
    This penalty is applied in Step 4.
    
    If you target your own party member with a magic attack, then that target 
    receives the following penalties:
    
    Magic Defense = 0
    Magic Defense Multiplier = 0
    
    These penalties are applied in Step 4.
    
    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    
    IX. DAMAGE CALCULATION FORMULA:  CHARACTER PHYSICAL ATTACKS
    
    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    The following are detailed steps for calculating damage when a character uses 
    a physical attack.  These steps are all cumulative, calculated in the 
    following order:
    
    ************************
    1) CALCULATE BASE DAMAGE
    ************************
    
    Base Damage = Weapon Base + (Strength/4) + (Skill/4)
    
    ******************************************
    2) APPLY BASE DAMAGE BONUSES AND PENALTIES
    ******************************************
    
    2.1) BASE DAMAGE ADDITIVE BONUSES
    
    2.1.1) HASTE SPELL
    Attackers that have had Haste cast on them get an additive bonus for physical 
    attacks.  This bonus is equal to the calculated Final Damage from the caster's 
    Haste spell (via Steps 1-6).
    
    Base Damage = Base Damage + (Final Damage calculated from Haste)
    
    2.1.2) CHEER COMMAND
    Each use of the Bard's 'Cheer' command gives an additive bonus to physical 
    Base Damage for each party member:
    
    Base Damage = Base Damage + 10
    
    2.2) BASE DAMAGE MULTIPLICATIVE BONUSES
    
    2.2.1) ELEMENTAL WEAKNESS
    Note that for attacks with multiple elements, as long as the target is weak 
    against at least one of those elements, then the target will be considered 
    weak.  If the target is weak against the attacking element, then:
    
    Base Damage = Base Damage * 2
    
    2.2.2) VULNERABLE TARGET
    Vulnerable states include being a Frog, Mini, immediately after executing a 
    'Buildup' command and just prior to a subsequent 'Fight' or 'Overload', and 
    also during the entire round when the target or any of its party members 
    attempt to Run or Escape. If the target of the attack is in a vulnerable 
    state:
    
    Base Damage = Base Damage * 2 
    
    Note the above vulnerable conditions can only apply to party members.  This 
    bonus is only applied to a character that targets his own party member that is 
    vulnerable.
    
    2.3) BASE DAMAGE MULTIPLICATIVE PENALTIES
    
    2.3.1) ELEMENTAL STRENGTH
    Note that for attacks with multiple elements, as long as the target is strong 
    against at least one of those elements and is not weak against any of those 
    elements, then the target will be considered strong.  If the target is strong 
    against the attacking element, then:
    
    Base Damage = Base Damage / 2
    
    2.3.2) TOAD OR MINI
    If the attacker is Toad or Mini then:
    
    Base Damage = 0 
    
    Note that this penalty supersedes every other bonus list above.  However, 
    bonuses are still remembered and in the event that the target recovers from 
    Toad or Mini status, he will be restored to the new, higher Base Damage value.
    
    ************************************
    3) APPLY RANDOM RANGE TO BASE DAMAGE
    ************************************
    
    Apply a random range to the Base Damage:
    
    Base Damage = (Base Damage..Base Damage*1.5)
    
    ****************************
    4) SUBTRACT TARGET'S DEFENSE
    ****************************
    
    The target's defense value will reduce the Base Damage of the attack.
    
    4.1) INITIAL DEFENSE VALUE
    
    4.1.1) MONSTER DEFENSE
    Against physical attacks, Monsters have their own Defense stat (referenced via 
    a lookup table):
    
    Defense = Monster Defense
    
    4.1.2) SELF-TARGETTING
    If the attacker is targeting a party member:
    
    Defense = 0
    
    4.2) DEFENSE BONUSES
    
    4.2.1) SAFE SPELL
    Targets that have had Safe cast on them get an additive bonus.  This bonus is 
    equal to the calculated Final Damage from the caster's Safe spell (via Steps 
    1-6).
    
    Defense = Defense + (Final Damage calculated from Safe)
    
    4.3) BASE DAMAGE CALCULATION 
    Subtract the target's Defense value from the attacker's base Damage:
    
    Base Damage = Base Damage - Defense
    
    **********************************
    5) CALCULATE NET ATTACK MULTIPLIER
    **********************************
    
    A.M. = Attack Multiplier
    D.M. = Defense Multiplier
    M = Net Attack Multiplier
    
    5.1) ATTACK MULTIPLIER
    
    5.1.1) INITIAL VALUE OF ATTACK MULTIPLIER
    
    A.M. = (Agility/16) + (Level/16) + 1
    
    5.1.2) ATTACK MULTIPLIER BONUSES
    
    5.1.2.1) HASTE SPELL
    Attackers that have had Haste cast on them get an additive bonus for physical 
    attacks.  This bonus is equal to the calculated Net Multiplier from the 
    caster's Haste spell (via Step 5).  Note that A.M. has a maximum value of 16.  
    If Haste is cast on a target that already has an A.M. of 16, then the spell 
    will be ineffective (the target will NOT receive a damage bonus).
    
    A.M. = A.M. + (M calculated from Haste)
    
    5.2) HIT%
    
    5.2.1) INITIAL VALUE OF HIT%
    Note that Hit% has a maximum value of 99.  This maximum limit is applied 
    BEFORE applying any Hit% penalties.
    
    Hit% = Weapons Base Hit% + (Agility/4) + (Skill/4)
    
    5.2.2) HIT% PENALTIES
    
    5.2.2.1) BACK ROW
    For physical attacks, if attacking to or from the back row:
    
    Hit% = Hit%/2 
    
    5.2.2.2) BLIND STATUS
    If the attacker is Blind:
    
    Hit% = Hit%/2
    
    5.3) DEFENSE MULTIPLIER
    
    5.3.1) INITIAL VALUE OF DEFENSE MULTIPLIER
    
    5.3.1.1) MONSTER DEFENSE MULTIPLIER
    Against physical attacks, Monsters have their own Defense Multiplier stat 
    (referenced via a lookup table):
    
    D.M. = Monster Defense Multiplier
    
    5.3.1.2) SELF-TARGETTING
    If the attacker is targeting a party member, then if the target is equipped 
    with a shield:
    
    D.M. = (Agility/16) + (Level/16) + 1 * (number of shields equipped)
    
    If the party member target is not equipped with a shield:
    
    D.M. = (Agility/32) + (Level/32)
    
    5.3.2) DEFENSE MULTIPLIER PENALTIES
    
    5.3.2.1) VULNERABLE TARGET
    If the character is physically attacking their own party member who is in a 
    vulnerable state:
    
    D.M. = 0 
    
    5.4) EVADE%
    
    5.4.1) INITIAL VALUES OF EVADE%
    
    5.4.1.1) MONSTER EVADE%
    Against physical attacks, Monsters have their own Evade% (referenced via a 
    lookup table):
    
    Evade% = Monster Evade%
    
    5.4.1.1) SELF-TARGETTING
    If the attacker is targeting a party member:
    
    Evade% = Sum of all worn (Armour Evade%) + (Agility/4)
    
    5.5) NET ATTACK MULTIPLIER CALCALUTION
    The following is just a theory, but it does fit with observed testing:
    
    M = 0
    FOR I = 1..A.M.
    IF (1..100) <= Hit% 
    M = M + 1
    
    FOR I = 1..D.M.
    IF (1..100) <= Evade%
    M = M - 1
    
    M is Net Attack Multiplier. If M <= 0 then the attack is a 'Miss'.
    
    ************************************************
    6) MULTIPLY BASE DAMAGE BY NET ATTACK MULTIPLIER
    ************************************************
    
    Using Base Damage calculated from Steps 1-4, and Net Attack Multiplier (M) 
    from Step 5:
    
    Final Damage = Base Damage * M
    
    *******************************************
    7) APPLY FINAL DAMAGE BONUSES AND PENALTIES
    *******************************************
    
    7.1) FINAL DAMAGE BONUSES
    
    7.1.1) BUILDUP COMMAND
    If a Karateka has executed one 'Buildup' command prior to the current attack, 
    then:
    
    Final Damage = Final Damage * 2
    
    If a Karateka has executed two 'Buildup' commands prior to the current attack, 
    then:
    
    Final Damage = Final Damage * 3
    
    Note that immediately after a Karateka executes a third 'Buildup' command 
    without a 'Fight' command, then an 'Overload' occurs and the current attack is 
    aborted and HP = (Current HP)/2
    
    7.1.2) JUMP COMMAND
    If a Dragoon is landing an attack from a 'Jump' command:
    
    Final Damage = Final Damage * 3
    
    7.2) MINIMUM DAMAGE
    As long as M > 0, then Final Damage is always at least one:
    
    IF (M > 0) and (Final Damage <= 0)
    Final Damage = 1
    
    7.3) STATUS ATTACKS
    If the attacker's physical attack has a Status effect, then:
    
    N = 0
    FOR I = 1..M
    IF (1..100) <= (Hit%-Evade%)
    N = N + 1
    
    The status will be inflicted on the target as long as N > 0.
    
    ****************
    8) DUAL WIELDING
    ****************
    
    If the attacker is wielding two weapons, apply Steps 1-7 for each hand.  Final 
    Damage is the sum from each hand and the number of hits shown on screen is the 
    sum of the Net Attack Multipliers from each hand:
    
    Final Damage = Final Damage (from Right Hand) + Final Damage (from Left Hand)
    
    M (displayed on screen) = M (from Right Hand) + M (from Left Hand)
    
    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    
    X.  DAMAGE CALCULATION FORMULA:  MONSTER PHYSICAL ATTACKS
    
    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    
    The following are detailed steps for calculating damage when a monster uses a 
    physical attack.  These steps are all cumulative, calculated in the following 
    order:
    
    ************************
    1) CALCULATE BASE DAMAGE
    ************************
    
    Monsters have their own Attack Damage (referenced via a lookup table):
    
    Base Damage = Monster Attack Damage
    
    ******************************************
    2) APPLY BASE DAMAGE BONUSES AND PENALTIES
    ******************************************
    
    2.1) BASE DAMAGE ADDITIVE BONUSES
    
    2.1.1) HASTE SPELL
    Attackers that have had Haste cast on them get an additive bonus for physical 
    attacks.  This bonus is equal to the calculated Final Damage from the caster's 
    Haste spell (via Steps 1-6).
    
    Base Damage = Base Damage + (Final Damage calculated from Haste)
    
    2.2) BASE DAMAGE MULTIPLICATIVE BONUSES
    
    2.2.1) ELEMENTAL WEAKNESS
    Note that for attacks with multiple elements, as long as the target is weak 
    against at least one of those elements, then the target will be considered 
    weak.  If the target is weak against the attacking element, then:
    
    Base Damage = Base Damage * 2
    
    2.2.2) VULNERABLE TARGET
    Vulnerable states include being a Frog, Mini, immediately after executing a 
    'Buildup' command and just prior to a subsequent 'Fight' or 'Overload', and 
    also during the entire round when the target or any of its party members 
    attempt to Run or Escape. If the target of the attack is in a vulnerable 
    state:
    
    Base Damage = Base Damage * 2 
    
    2.3) BASE DAMAGE MULTIPLICATIVE PENALTIES
    
    2.3.1) ELEMENTAL STRENGTH
    Note that for attacks with multiple elements, as long as the target is strong 
    against at least one of those elements and is not weak against any of those 
    elements, then the target will be considered strong.  If the target is strong 
    against the attacking element, then:
    
    Base Damage = Base Damage / 2
    
    ************************************
    3) APPLY RANDOM RANGE TO BASE DAMAGE
    ************************************
    
    Apply a random range to the Base Damage:
    
    Base Damage = (Base Damage..Base Damage*1.5)
    
    ****************************
    4) SUBTRACT TARGET'S DEFENSE
    ****************************
    
    The target's defense value will reduce the Base Damage of the attack.
    
    4.1) INITIAL DEFENSE VALUE
    
    4.1.1) CHARACTER DEFENSE
    
    Defense = Sum of all worn (Armour Defense) + (Vitality/2)
    
    4.2) DEFENSE BONUSES
    
    4.2.1) SAFE SPELL
    Targets that have had Safe cast on them get an additive bonus.  This bonus is 
    equal to the calculated Final Damage from the caster's Safe spell (via Steps 
    1-6).
    
    Defense = Defense + (Final Damage calculated from Safe)
    
    4.2.2) DEFEND COMMAND
    Immediately after a target executes a 'Defend' command, he will receive a 
    bonus against physical attacks.  This bonus only lasts until the end of the 
    current round.
    
    Defense = Defense * 4
    
    4.3) DEFENSE PENALTIES
    
    4.3.1) VULNERABLE TARGET
    If the target of the attack is in a vulnerable state:
    
    Defense = 0
    
    4.4) BASE DAMAGE CALCULATION 
    Subtract the target's Defense value from the attacker's base Damage:
    
    Base Damage = Base Damage - Defense
    
    **********************************
    5) CALCULATE NET ATTACK MULTIPLIER
    **********************************
    
    A.M. = Attack Multiplier
    D.M. = Defense Multiplier
    M = Net Attack Multiplier
    
    5.1) ATTACK MULTIPLIER
    
    5.1.1) INITIAL VALUE OF ATTACK MULTIPLIER
    Monsters have their own Attack Multiplier (referenced via a lookup table):
    
    A.M. = Monster Attack Multiplier
    
    5.1.2) ATTACK MULTIPLIER BONUSES
    
    5.1.2.1) HASTE SPELL
    Attackers that have had Haste cast on them get an additive bonus for physical 
    attacks.  This bonus is equal to the calculated Net Multiplier from the 
    caster's Haste spell (via Step 5).  Note that A.M. has a maximum value of 16.  
    If Haste is cast on a target that already has an A.M. of 16, then the spell 
    will be ineffective (the target will NOT receive a damage bonus).
    
    A.M. = A.M. + (M calculated from Haste)
    
    5.2) HIT%
    
    5.2.1) INITIAL VALUE OF HIT%
    Monsters have their own Hit% (referenced via a lookup table):
    
    Hit% = Monster Hit%
    
    5.2.2) HIT% PENALTIES
    
    5.2.2.1) BACK ROW
    For physical attacks, if attacking to or from the back row:
    
    Hit% = Hit%/2 
    
    5.2.2.2) BLIND STATUS
    If the attacker is Blind:
    
    Hit% = Hit%/2
    
    5.3) DEFENSE MULTIPLIER
    
    5.3.1) INITIAL VALUE OF DEFENSE MULTIPLIER
    
    5.3.1.1) CHARACTER DEFENSE MULTIPLIER
    If the target is equipped with a shield:
    
    D.M. = (Agility/16) + (Level/16) + 1 * (number of shields equipped)
    
    If the target is not equipped with a shield:
    
    D.M. = (Agility/32) + (Level/32)
    
    5.3.2) DEFENSE MULTIPLIER PENALTIES
    
    5.3.2.1) VULNERABLE TARGET
    If the target of a physical attack is in a vulnerable state:
    
    D.M. = 0 
    
    5.4) EVADE%
    
    5.4.1) INITIAL VALUES OF EVADE%
    
    5.4.1.1) CHARACTER EVADE%
    
    Evade% = Sum of all worn (Armour Evade%) + (Agility/4)
    
    5.5) NET ATTACK MULTIPLIER CALCALUTION
    The following is just a theory, but it does fit with observed testing:
    
    M = 0
    FOR I = 1..A.M.
    IF (1..100) <= Hit% 
    M = M + 1
    
    FOR I = 1..D.M.
    IF (1..100) <= Evade%
    M = M - 1
    
    M is Net Attack Multiplier. If M <= 0 then the attack is a 'Miss'.
    
    ************************************************
    6) MULTIPLY BASE DAMAGE BY NET ATTACK MULTIPLIER
    ************************************************
    
    Using Base Damage calculated from Steps 1-4, and Net Attack Multiplier (M) 
    from Step 5:
    
    Final Damage = Base Damage * M
    
    *******************************************
    7) APPLY FINAL DAMAGE BONUSES AND PENALTIES
    *******************************************
    
    7.1) MINIMUM DAMAGE
    As long as M > 0, then Final Damage is always at least one:
    
    IF (M > 0) and (Final Damage <= 0)
    Final Damage = 1
    
    7.2) STATUS ATTACKS
    If the attacker's physical attack has a Status effect, then:
    
    N = 0
    FOR I = 1..M
    IF (1..100) <= (Hit%-Evade%)
    N = N + 1
    
    The status will be inflicted on the target as long as N > 0.
    
    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    
    XI.  DAMAGE CALCULATION FORMULA:  MAGIC ATTACKS & ITEMS
    
    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    
    Monsters cast spells or use special attacks similar to the way characters cast 
    spells.  The damage calculation formula is essentially same in either case.  
    Also, a character that uses an item is essentially casting the spell that is 
    associated with that item and again the damage calculation formula is similar.  
    Two important differences with items are:
    
    i)  Items have their own Magic Attack Multiplier.  This is not influenced by 
    any of the attacker's stats.
    
    ii)  Items have their Magic Hit% of 100. This is also not influenced by any of 
    the attacker's stats, nor is it affected by Blind.
    
    Finally, the Geomancer's 'Terrain' command is essentially the same as casting 
    Black Magic, without using MP.
    
    The following are detailed steps for calculating damage when a magic attack is 
    made.  These steps are all cumulative, calculated in the following order:
    
    ************************
    1) CALCULATE BASE DAMAGE
    ************************
    
    1.1) BLACK MAGIC DAMAGE
    Note that Black Magic also includes the Terrain command from the Geomancer.
    
    Base Damage = Spell Damage + (Intellect/2)
    
    1.2) WHITE MAGIC DAMAGE
    For offensive White magic (Holy, Aero2, Aero):
    
    Base Damage = Spell Damage + (Spirit/2)
    
    For non-offensive White magic (Cure4, Cure3, Cure2, Cure, Haste, Safe):
    
    Base Damage = Spell Damage
    
    1.3) CALL MAGIC DAMAGE
    For Call Magic:
    
    Base Damage = Spell Damage + Intellect
    
    ******************************************
    2) APPLY BASE DAMAGE BONUSES AND PENALTIES
    ******************************************
    
    2.1) BASE DAMAGE MULTIPLICATIVE BONUSES
    2.1.1) ELEMENTAL WEAKNESS
    Note that for attacks with multiple elements, as long as the target is weak 
    against at least one of those elements, then the target will be considered 
    weak.  If the target is weak against the attacking element, then:
    
    Base Damage = Base Damage * 2
    
    2.1.2) TARGETS THAT ARE TOAD, MINI OR BUILDUP
    If the target is a Frog, Mini or has executed a 'Buildup' command and not 
    executed a subsequent 'Fight' or 'Overload', the attacker gets a bonus to Base 
    Damage.  Note this does NOT apply for non-offensive White magic:
    
    Base Damage = Base Damage * 2 (not for non-offensive White magic)
    
    2.2) BASE DAMAGE MULTIPLICATIVE PENALTIES
    
    2.2.1) ELEMENTAL STRENGTH
    Note that for attacks with multiple elements, as long as the target is strong 
    against at least one of those elements and is not weak against any of those 
    elements, then the target will be considered strong.  If the target is strong 
    against the attacking element, then:
    
    Base Damage = Base Damage / 2
    
    ************************************
    3) APPLY RANDOM RANGE TO BASE DAMAGE
    ************************************
    
    Apply a random range to the Base Damage:
    
    Base Damage = (Base Damage..Base Damage*1.5)
    
    ****************************
    4) SUBTRACT TARGET'S DEFENSE
    ****************************
    
    The target's magic defense value will reduce the Base Damage of the attack.
    
    4.1) INITIAL DEFENSE VALUE
    
    4.1.1) CHARACTER MAGIC DEFENSE
    
    Defense = Sum of all (Armour Base Magic Defense) worn 
    
    4.1.2) MONSTER MAGIC DEFENSE
    Against magic attacks, Monsters have their own Magic Defense stat (referenced 
    via a lookup table):
    
    Defense = Monster Magic Defense
    
    4.1.3) SELF-TARGETTING
    If the attacker is targeting his own party member:
    
    Defense = 0
    
    4.2) DEFENSE BONUSES
    
    4.2.1) SAFE SPELL
    Targets that have had Safe cast on them get an additive bonus.  This bonus is 
    equal to the calculated Final Damage from the caster's Safe spell (via Steps 
    1-6).
    
    Defense = Defense + (Final Damage calculated from Safe)
    
    4.3) DEFENSE PENALTIES
    
    4.3.1) TARGETS THAT ARE TOAD, MINI OR BUILDUP
    If the target is a Frog, Mini or has executed a 'Buildup' command and not 
    executed a subsequent 'Fight' or 'Overload', the target gets a penalty to 
    Defense:
    
    Defense = 0
    
    4.4) BASE DAMAGE CALCULATION 
    Subtract the target's Defense value from the attacker's base Damage:
    
    Base Damage = Base Damage - Defense
    
    **********************************
    5) CALCULATE NET ATTACK MULTIPLIER
    **********************************
    
    A.M. = Attack Multiplier
    D.M. = Defense Multiplier
    M = Net Attack Multiplier
    
    5.1) ATTACK MULTIPLIER
    
    5.1.1) BLACK MAGIC ATTACK MULTIPLIER
    Note that Black Magic also includes the Terrain command from the Geomancer.
    
    A.M. = (Intellect/16) + (Level/16) + (Skill/32) + 1
    
    5.1.2) WHITE MAGIC ATTACK MULTIPLIER
    For White magic:
    
    A.M. = (Spirit/16) + (Level/16) + (Skill/32) + 1
    
    5.1.3) CALL MAGIC ATTACK MULTIPLIER
    For Call magic:
    
    A.M. = (Intellect/8) + (((Skill/8)*3)/2) + 1
    
    5.1.4) ITEM ATTACK MULTIPLIER
    Items have their own attack multiplier that is not influenced by any of the 
    character's stats.
    
    A.M. = Item Attack Multiplier
    
    5.2) HIT%
    
    5.2.1) INITIAL VALUE OF HIT%
    
    5.2.1.1) BLACK SPELL HIT%
    Note that Black Magic also includes the Terrain command from the Geomancer.
    
    Hit% = Spell Hit% + (Intellect/2)
    
    5.2.1.2) WHITE SPELL HIT%
    For White magic:
    
    Hit% = Spell Hit% + (Spirit/2)
    
    5.2.1.3) CALL SPELL HIT%
    For Call Magic:
    
    Hit% = Spell Hit% + Intellect
    
    5.2.1.4) ITEM HIT%
    All items have a Hit% of 100 that is not influenced by any of the character's 
    stats.
    
    Hit% = 100 (for items only)
    
    5.2.2) HIT% BONUSES
    
    5.2.2.1) TOAD OR MINI ON PARTY MEMBERS
    Toad, Mini, Life and Life2 appear to have a Hit% of 100 when cast on party 
    members:
    
    Hit% = 100 (for Toad, Mini, Life and Life2 cast on party members)
    
    5.2.3) HIT% PENALTIES
    
    5.2.3.1) BLIND STATUS
    Note that being Blind does not affect the Hit% of items.  If the attacker is 
    Blind:
    
    Hit% = Hit%/2 (not for items)
    
    5.2.3.2) KILL SPELL
    The success rate of the Kill spell also depends on the relative levels between 
    the target and caster:
    
    IF Target Level >= ((((Attacker Level)/2)*3)/2)
    Hit% = 0
    
    5.3) DEFENSE MULTIPLIER
    
    5.3.1) INITIAL VALUE OF DEFENSE MULTIPLIER
    
    5.3.1.1) CHARACTER MAGIC DEFENSE MULTIPLIER
    
    D.M. = (Agility/32) + (Intellect/32) + (Spirit/32)
    
    5.3.1.2) MONSTER MAGIC DEFENSE MULTIPLIER
    Against magic attacks, Monsters have their own Base Magic Defense Multiplier 
    (referenced via a lookup table):
    
    D.M. = Monster Base Magic Defense Multiplier
    
    5.3.2) DEFENSE MULTIPLIER PENALTIES
    
    5.3.2.1) TOAD OR MINI
    If the target of a magic attack is a Toad or Mini:
    
    D.M. = 0 
    
    5.3.2.2) SELF-TARGETTING
    If the attacker is targeting a party member with magic, then:
    
    D.M. = 0 
    
    5.4) EVADE%
    
    5.4.1) INITIAL VALUES OF EVADE%
    
    5.4.1.1) CHARACTER MAGIC EVADE%
    
    Magic Evade% = (Intellect/2) + (Spirit/2)
    
    5.4.1.2) MONSTER MAGIC EVADE%
    Against magic attacks, Monsters have their own Magic Evade% (referenced via a 
    lookup table):
    
    Evade% = Monster Magic Evade%
    
    5.5) NET ATTACK MULTIPLIER CALCALUTION
    The following is just a theory, but it does fit with observed testing:
    
    M = 0
    FOR I = 1..A.M.
    IF (1..100) <= Hit% 
    M = M + 1
    
    FOR I = 1..D.M.
    IF (1..100) <= Evade%
    M = M - 1
    
    M is Net Attack Multiplier. If M <= 0 then the attack is 'Ineffective'.  For 
    the
    'Terrain' command, if M <= 0 against ALL targets, instead of 'Ineffective', 
    then 'Backfired' occurs.  The attacker subsequently also sustains (MAX HP)/4 
    damage.
    
    ************************************************
    6) MULTIPLY BASE DAMAGE BY NET ATTACK MULTIPLIER
    ************************************************
    
    Using Base Damage calculated from Steps 1-4, and Net Attack Multiplier (M) 
    from Step 5:
    
    Final Damage = Base Damage * M
    
    *******************************************
    7) APPLY FINAL DAMAGE BONUSES AND PENALTIES
    *******************************************
    
    7.1) FINAL DAMAGE BONUSES
    
    7.1.1) CURE4
    If Cure4 is cast on a single target, that target heals to full HP.  If Cure4 
    is cast on multiple targets, follow all Steps in Damage Calculation normally.
    
    7.2) FINAL DAMAGE PENALTIES
    
    7.2.1) MULTIPLE TARGETS
    If the attacker has selected multiple targets instead of single target, then:
    
    Final Damage = (Final Damage)/(number of targets selected)
    
    Note this does NOT apply to spells that automatically targets multiple targets 
    (Quake, Meteo, Call Spells)
    
    7.3) MINIMUM DAMAGE
    As long as M > 0, then Final Damage is always at least one:
    
    IF (M > 0) and (Final Damage <= 0)
    Final Damage = 1
    
    7.4) STATUS ATTACKS
    If the attacking spell has a Status effect, then the status will be inflicted 
    on the target as long as M > 0.
    
    *******************
    8) MULTIPLE TARGETS
    *******************
    
    If the attacker is attacking multiple targets, repeat Steps 1-7 for each 
    target.
    
    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    
    XII.  DATA
    
    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    
    These are my own data tables I've compiled from the FF3j rom hex data.  
    Special thanks goes again to sqpat17 for finding and posting the hex offset 
    data which let me find the data in the first place.
    
    Abbreviations:
    
    DAMAGE:  Any letters that precede damage indicate an attack element:
    
    F       Fire                    E       Earth
    I       Ice                     A       Air
    T       Thunder                 Dr      Drain
    H       Holy                    D       Dark
    
    Petr(1/2) Slow Petrify.  Requires two successful, separate attacks to Petrify
    Petr(1/3) Slow Petrify.  Requires three successful, separate attacks to 
    Petrify
    
    Str     Strength                Agl     Agility
    Vit     Vitality                Int     Intellect
    Spr     Spirit
    
    F Mag   Fire Magic Power Up 
    B Mag   Bolt Magic Power Up
    I Mag   Ice Magic Power Up
    
    On  Onion Kid           Fi  Fighter
    Mo  Monk                Ww  White Wizard
    Bw  Black Wizard        Rw  Red Wizard
    Hu  Hunter              Kn  Knight
    Th  Thief               Sc  Scholar
    Ge  Geomancer           Dr  Dragoon
    Vi  Viking              Ka  Karateka
    Mk  Mystic Knight       Co  Conjurer
    Ba  Bard                Wa  Warlock
    Sh  Shaman              Su  Summoner
    Sa  Sage                Ni  Ninja
    
    -Mk refers to all classes except the Mystic Knight
    
    ***********
    WEAPON DATA
    ***********
    
    FISTS+CLAWS                        
    WEAPON    DAMAGE  HIT%  NOTES          PRICE  JOB EQUIPPABLE
    Empty          1   80%                     0  All
    Kaiser        36  100%                  7000  Ka Ni
    CatClaw       42  100%                 14000  Ka Ni
    Dragon    F,T:48  100%                 18000  Ka Ni
    Elven         37  100%  Casts 'Confu'  18000  Ka Ni  
    HellClaw    D:60  100%  Adds Poison    40000  Ka Ni
                            
    NUNCHUCKS                        
    WEAPON    DAMAGE  HIT%  NOTES          PRICE  JOB EQUIPPABLE
    Nunchuck      12   70%                    60  Mo Ni
    Tonfa         20   80%                   500  Mo Ni
    3-Part        25   70%                  3000  Mo Ni
                            
    RODS                        
    WEAPON    DAMAGE  HIT%  NOTES          PRICE  JOB EQUIPPABLE
    Mithril        5   60%                   400  Ww Bw Rw Co Wa Sh Su Sa Ni
    Flame       F:12   70%  F Mag Up        3000  Bw Rw Co Wa Su Sa Ni
    Ice         I:12   70%  I Mag Up        3000  Bw Rw Co Wa Su Sa Ni
    Light       T:12   60%  B Mag Up        3000  Bw Rw Co Wa Su Sa Ni
    Ultimate H,E,A,    80%  Adds Petr(1/2) 30000  Wa Sa Ni
            F,I,T:20  
                 
    STAVES                        
    WEAPON    DAMAGE  HIT%  NOTES          PRICE  JOB EQUIPPABLE
    Staff          3   50%                    40  Ww Rw Sh Sa Ni
    Burning        8   50%  Casts 'Fire'    3500  Ww Rw Sh Sa Ni
    Freezing       8   50%  Casts 'Ice'     3500  Ww Rw Sh Sa Ni
    Shining        8   50%  Casts 'Bolt'    3500  Ww Rw Sh Sa Ni
    Golem       E:16   70%  Casts 'Break', 13500  Ww Rw Sh Sa Ni
                            Str+5,
                            Adds Petr(1/3)  
    Rune          20   80%  Casts 'Ice 3'  18000  Ww Rw Sh Sa Ni
    Eldest        30   90%  Casts 'Cure',  65000  Sh Sa Ni
                            Int+5, Spr+5,
                            F Mag Up,
                            I Mag Up,
                            B Mag Up,
                               
    AXES AND HAMMERS                        
    WEAPON    DAMAGE  HIT%  NOTES          PRICE  JOB EQUIPPABLE
    Hammer      T:25   60%                   500  Vi Ni
    Thor        T:30   70%  Casts 'Bolt2'  14000  Vi Ni
    Battle      T:45   60%                  5500  Vi Ni
    M.Star      T:50   70%                  8000  Vi Ni
    Tomahawk      60   80%                 20000  Vi Ni
    GreatAxe    T:75   80%                 14000  Vi Ni
    Triton      A:85   80%                 20000  Vi Ni
                            
    SPEARS                        
    WEAPON    DAMAGE  HIT%  NOTES          PRICE  JOB EQUIPPABLE
    Thunder   A,T:35   80%  Casts 'Bolt2'   8000  Dr Ni
    Wind        A:50   80%  Casts 'Aero'   10000  Dr Ni
    Blood    A,Dr:70   80%                 20000  Dr Ni
    Holy     H,A:100   80%                 45000  Dr Ni
                            
    KNIVES                        
    WEAPON    DAMAGE  HIT%  NOTES          PRICE  JOB EQUIPPABLE
    Knife          6   85%                    20  On Fi Bw Rw Kn Th Ni
    Dagger         8   85%                    60  On Fi Bw Rw Kn Th Ni
    Mithril       10   85%                   500  On Fi Bw Rw Kn Th Ni
    M.Gauche      30  100%                  7000  Th Ni
    Orialcon   Dr:45  100%                  1200  Th Ni
    AirKnife    A:60  100%  Casts 'Aero'   10000  Th Ni
                            
    SWORDS                        
    WEAPON    DAMAGE  HIT%  NOTES          PRICE  JOB EQUIPPABLE
    Shiny          5   20%                  5000  Fi Kn Ni
    Long          10   80%                   100  On Fi Kn Ni
    W.Slayer    H:15   80%                  1000  Rw Ni
    Mithril       17   85%                   500  On Fi Kn Ni
    Serpent     T:25   80%                  1500  Fi Kn Ni
    Tyrving       29   75%                  2800  Rw Ni
    Salamand    F:32   80%  Casts 'Fire'    3000  Fi Kn Ni
    IceBlade    I:40   80%  Casts 'Ice'     3000  Fi Kn Ni
    King          50   80%                  5000  Fi Kn Ni
    Ancient      H:5   80%  Adds Paralysis 16500  Fi Kn Ni
    Blood      Dr:35   80%                 16500  Fi Kn Ni
    Defender      95   80%  Casts 'Safe',  16500  Kn Ni
                            Vit+5
    Break      E:120   80%  Adds Petr(1/2) 30000  Kn Ni
    Excalibur    160   80%  Str+5          65000  Kn Ni
    Ragnarok   D:180  100%  Str+5, Agl+5,  65500  Kn Mk Ni
                            Vit+5
    Onion        200  100%  Str+5, Agl+5,  65500  On
                            Vit+5
    
    KATANAS
    WEAPON    DAMAGE  HIT%  NOTES          PRICE  JOB EQUIPPABLE
    Ashura      D:65  100%                 20000  Mk Ni
    Kotetsu    D:105   90%                 21000  Mk Ni
    Kiku       D:125  100%                 22000  Mk Ni
    Masamune   D:160   90%  Agl+5, Vit+5   65000  Mk Ni
                            
    BOOKS                         
    WEAPON    DAMAGE  HIT%  NOTES          PRICE  JOB EQUIPPABLE
    Flame       F:32   70%                  3300  Sc Sa Ni
    Ice         I:32   70%                  3300  Sc Sa Ni
    Light       T:32   70%                  3300  Sc Sa Ni
    Inferno     F:65   70%                 15000  Sc Sa Ni
    Illumina    T:65   80%                 15000  Sc Sa Ni
    Blizzard    I:65   80%                 15000  Sc Sa Ni
              
    THROWING WEAPONS             
    WEAPON    DAMAGE  HIT%  NOTES          PRICE  JOB EQUIPPABLE
    Boomerng      35   70%                  9000  Th Ni
    FullMoon     160   90%                 62000  Kn Mk Ni
    Shuriken     200  100%                 65500  Ni
    
    BELLS                        
    WEAPON    DAMAGE  HIT%  NOTES          PRICE  JOB EQUIPPABLE
    Giyaman       25   80%                  4500  Ge Ni
    Earth         30   80%  Adds Paralysis  5500  Ge Ni
    Rune          40  100%                  5500  Ge Ni
                            
    HARPS                        
    WEAPON    DAMAGE  HIT%  NOTES          PRICE  JOB EQUIPPABLE
    Madora        40   70%                  8000  Ba Ni
    Dream          0   60%  Adds Sleep      7500  Ba Ni
    Lamia          0   80%  Adds Confusion 21500  Ba Ni
    Loki          60  100%                 40000  Ba Ni
                            
    BOWS                        
    WEAPON    DAMAGE  HIT%  NOTES          PRICE  JOB EQUIPPABLE
    Bow            5   90%                   100  On Fi Rw Hu Ni
    GreatBow       8   85%                  1200  On Fi Rw Hu Ni
    Killer        15   85%                  2000  Hu Ni
    Rune          25   90%                  3000  Hu Ni
    Yoichi        50  100%                 42000  Hu Ni
                            
    ARROWS                        
    WEAPON    DAMAGE  HIT%  NOTES          PRICE  JOB EQUIPPABLE
    Wooden         6   90%                     5  On Fi Rw Hu Ni
    Holy        H:13   85%                    10  On Fi Rw Hu Ni
    Iron          17   85%                    10  On Fi Rw Hu Ni
    Bolt        T:30   85%                    30  Hu Ni
    Fire        F:30   90%                    30  Hu Ni
    Ice         I:30   90%                    30  Hu Ni
    Medusa      E:20  100%   Adds Petrified  100  Hu Ni
    Yoichi        70  100%                   200  Hu Ni
     
    ***********
    ARMOUR DATA
    ***********
    
    DEF:  Any letters that precede defense indicate element resistance.
    
    SHIELDS                  
    ARMOUR     DEF   EV% M.DEF  NOTES          PRICE  JOB EQUIPPABLE
    Leather      3    3%     2                    40  On Fi Rw Kn Th Dr Vi Ni
    Mithril      5    7%     7                   180  On Fi Rw Kn Th Dr Vi Ni
    Ice        F:8    9%     8  Weak:I          1800  On Fi Rw Kn Th Dr Vi Ni
    Hero        10   10%    12  Resist Petr,    3500  Kn Dr Vi Ni
                                Sleep 
    Demon       12   14%    18  Resist Frog,   12500  Mk Ni
                                Conf
    Diamond   T:13   14%    15  Resist Frog,   18000  Kn Dr Vi Ni
                                Conf
    Aegis       16   16%    25  Resist Petr,   28000  Kn Dr Vi Ni
                                Sleep, Frog,
                                Conf,
                                Agl+5 
    Genji       20   18%    35  Resist Petr,   38000  Mk Ni
                                Sleep, Frog,
                                Conf, Poison,
                                Str+5, Agl+5 
    Crystal     20   20%    30  Resist Petr,   50000  On Fi Rw Kn Dr Vi Mk Ni
                                Sleep, Frog,
                                Conf, Mini,
                                Parlyz,
                                Str+5, Agl+5,
                                Vit+5 
    Onion       48   48%    48  Resist Dead,   65500  On
                                Parlyz, Petr,
                                Sleep, Frog,
                                Conf, Mute,
                                Mini, Blind,
                                Poison
    
    HEADGEAR             
    ARMOUR     DEF   EV% M.DEF  NOTES          PRICE  JOB EQUIPPABLE
    Leather      1    1%     1                    15  -Mk
    Mithril      2    4%     4                   130  On Fi Rw Kn Th Dr Vi Ni
    Carapace     3    5%     5                   450  On Fi Kn Dr Vi Ni
    Ice        F:4    6%     6  Weak:I          1200  Fi Rw Hu Kn Th Dr Vi Ni
    Headband     4    6%     4                  1200  Mo Ka Ni
    Scholar      5   10%     6                  7500  Ww Bw Sc Wa Sh Sa Ni
    DarkHood     5    8%     5  Str+5           2000  Th Ni
    Chakra       6   10%     6  Str+5, Vit+5    2000  Mo Ka Ni
    Viking       7   10%     7                  3000  Vi Ni
    Dragon       7   10%     7                  8000  Dr Ni
    Feather      7   10%     8  Agl+5           8000  Hu Sc Ge Co Ba Wa Sh Su Sa
                                                      Ni
    Diamond    T:8   12%     9  Resist Frog,   20000  Kn Dr Vi Ni
                                Conf
    Genji       10   15%    11  Resist Petr,   32000  Mk Ni
                                Sleep, Frog,
                                Conf, Poison
    Crystal     12   15%    15  Resist Petr,   50000  On Fi Rw Kn Dr Vi Mk Ni
                                Sleep, Frog,
                                Conf, Mini,
                                Parlyz
    Ribbon   E,A,    10%    10  Resist Dead,      10  All
             F,I,               Parlyz, Petr,
             Dr:9               Sleep, Frog,
                                Conf, Mute,
                                Mini, Blind,
                                Poison
    Onion    E,A,    48%    48  Resist Dead,   65500  On
             F,I,               Parlyz, Petr,
             Dr:48              Sleep, Frog,
                                Conf, Mute,
                                Mini, Blind,
                                Poison
    
    BODY ARMOUR           
    ARMOUR     DEF   EV% M.DEF  NOTES          PRICE  JOB EQUIPPABLE
    Rusted       0    0%     0                   100  None
    Leather      2    1%     1                    95  -Mk
    Mithril      3    3%     3                   350  On Fi Rw Hu Kn Dr Vi Ni
    Carapace     4    4%     4                  1250  Fi Hu Kn Dr Vi Ni
    Ice        F:5    6%     4  Weak:I          2400  Fi Hu Kn Dr Vi Ni
    FlameMail  I:5    6%     4  Weak:F          2400  Fi Hu Kn Dr Vi Ni
    Viking      10    8%     7                  4000  Vi Ni
    Knight      12    9%     7  Resist Petr,    7500  Kn Ni
                                Sleep
    Dragon      15   10%     7                  8000  Dr Ni
    Demon       17   15%     9  Resist Frog,   25000  Mk Ni
                                Conf
    Diamond   T:18   10%    10  Resist Frog,   33000  Kn Dr Vi Ni
                                Conf
    Reflect     20   12%    12                 35000  Kn Dr Vi Ni
    Genji       24   20%    15  Resist Petr,   40000  Mk Ni
                                Sleep, Frog,
                                Conf, Poison
    Crystal     28   20%    18  Resist Petr,   65000  On Fi Rw Kn Dr Vi Mk Ni
                                Sleep, Frog,
                                Conf, Mini,
                                Parlyz
    Onion    E,A,    48%    48  Resist Dead,   65500  On
             F,I,               Parlyz, Petr,
             Dr:48              Sleep, Frog,
                                Conf, Mute,
                                Mini, Blind,
                                Poison
    
    ROBES
    ARMOUR     DEF   EV% M.DEF  NOTES          PRICE  JOB EQUIPPABLE
    Cloth        1    0%     0                    50  -Mk
    Kenpo        6    8%     3                  2000  Mo Ka Ni
    DarkSuit     8   70%     5  Agl+5           3800  Th Ni
    Wizard       9    7%     7                  2000  Ww Bw Rw Co Wa Sh Su Sa Ni
    BlackBelt   11   10%     5  Agl+5           3800  Mo Ka Ni
    Bard        15   12%     7                  5500  Ba Ni
    Scholar     15   12%     7                  5500  Ww Bw Sc Wa Sh Sa Ni
    Gaia        16   12%     8                  4200  Ge Ni
    WhiteRobe   20   12%    14  Spr+5           7000  Ww Rw Co Sh Su Sa Ni
    BlackRobe   20   12%    14  Int+5           7000  Bw Rw Co Wa Su Sa Ni
    
    GLOVES 
    ARMOUR     DEF   EV% M.DEF  NOTES          PRICE  JOB EQUIPPABLE
    Mithril      1    5%     2                   120  On Fi Rw Kn Dr Vi Ni
    Thief        3    9%     4  Str+5           2500  Th Ni
    Gauntlet     2    8%     3                  2500  Kn Dr Vi Ni
    Diamond    T:6   10%     5  Resist Frog,   15000  Kn Dr Vi Ni
                                Conf
    Genji        9   15%     7  Resist Petr,   30000  Mk Ni
                                Sleep, Frog,
                                Conf, Poison
    Crystal     10   15%    10  Resist Petr,   50000  On Fi Rw Kn Dr Vi Mk Ni
                                Sleep, Frog,
                                Conf, Mini,
                                Parlyz
    Onion    E,A,    32%    32  Resist Dead,   65500  On
             F,I,               Parlyz, Petr,
             Dr:32              Sleep, Frog,
                                Conf, Mute,
                                Mini, Blind,
                                Poison,
                                Str+5, Agl+5,
                                Vit+5 
    
    RINGS
    ARMOUR     DEF   EV% M.DEF  NOTES          PRICE  JOB EQUIPPABLE
    Copper       1    2%     3                    80  Ww Bw Rw Sc Ge Co Wa Sh Su
                                                      Sa Ni
    Mithril      2    7%     3                   120  Ww Bw Rw Sc Ge Co Wa Sh Su
                                                      Sa Ni
    Power        4   11%     1  Str+5           2500  Fi Mo Rw Hu Kn Th Sc Ge Dr
                                                      Vi Ka Ba Ni
    Rune         5   10%     6                  5000  Ww Bw Rw Sc Ge Co Wa Sh Su
                                                      Sa Ni
    Diamond    T:6   12%     6  Resist Frog,   10000  Ww Bw Rw Sc Ge Co Wa Sh Su
                                Conf                  Sa Ni
    Protect      7   15%     7  Vit+5          30000  -Mk
    
    **********
    SKILL DATA
    **********
    
    Every time a command is entered in battle, that character will receive a 
    certain amount of Percentile Points, depending on its Job and the command that 
    was entered.  Every 100 Percentile Points accumulated gives +1 to the 
    character's current Job Skill.  Percentile Points over 100 are discarded after 
    the battle.  Characters that are Dead or Petrified at the end of battle
    receive no Percentile Points.  If the party successfully runs or escapes from
    battle then no one receives any Percentile Points.  The following is a list of 
    all Jobs and the amount of Percentile Points (%PTS) earned for each command:
    
    JOB        COMMAND %PTS   COMMAND %PTS   COMMAND  %PTS   COMMMAND %PTS
    Onion Kid    Fight    4    Defend    4       Run     4       Item    4
    Fighter      Fight   12    Defend    8       Run     0       Item    8
    Monk         Fight   12    Defend    8       Run     0       Item    8
    White Wiz.   Fight    4    Magic    12       Run     0       Item    4
    Black Wiz    Fight    4    Magic    12       Run     0       Item    4
    Red Wiz.     Fight    8    Magic    12       Run     0       Item    4
    Hunter       Fight   12    Defend    4     Magic     8       Item    4
    Knight       Fight   12    Defend    8       Run     0       Item    4
    Thief        Fight    8    Steal    12    Escape     4       Item    4
    Scholar      Fight   12    Peep     12      Scan    12       Item   12
    Geomancer    Fight    8    Terrain  12    Defend     4       Item    4
    Dragoon      Fight    8    Jump     12    Defend     8       Item    4
    Viking       Fight   12    Defend    8       Run     0       Item    8
    Karateka     Fight   12    BuildUp  12    Defend     0       Item    4
    M. Knight    Fight   12    Defend    4     Magic     8       Item    4
    Conjurer     Fight    8    Magic    12       Run     0       Item    4
    Bard         Sing    12    Scare     8     Cheer    12       Item    4
    Warlock      Fight    4    Magic    12       Run     0       Item    4
    Shaman       Fight    4    Magic    12       Run     0       Item    4
    Summoner     Fight    8    Magic    12       Run     0       Item    4
    Sage         Fight    4    Magic    12       Run     0       Item    4
    Ninja        Fight    8    Defend    8       Run     4       Item    4
    
    **********
    MAGIC DATA
    **********
    
    DAMAGE:  Any letters that precede damage indicate an attack element.
    
    REF? refers to whether the spell can be reflected by Wall.
    
    TAR:  Refers to targeting parameters.
    Targeting Abbreviations:
    
    E   Single or Multiple targeting, default Enemy
    A   Single or Multiple targeting, default Ally
    SE  Single only, default Enemy
    SA  Single only, default Ally
    AE  Automatically targets all Enemies
    AA  Automatically targets all Allies
    
    BLACK MAGIC
    SPELL         DAMAGE  HIT%  NOTES       REF?  TAR  LEV  PRICE  JOB EQUIPPABLE
    Fire            F:25  100%                Y     E    1    100  Bw Rw Wa Sa
    Ice             I:25  100%                Y     E    1    100  Bw Rw Wa Sa
    Sleep              0   15%  Adds Sleep    N     E    1    100  Bw Rw Wa Sa
    
    Bolt            T:35  100%                Y     E    2    700  Bw Rw Wa Sa
    Venom             20   60%  Adds Poison   Y     E    2    700  Bw Rw Wa Sa
    Blind             10   60%  Adds Blind    N     E    2    700  Bw Rw Wa Sa
    
    Fire2           F:55  100%                Y     E    3   1500  Bw Rw Wa Sa
    Ice 2           I:55  100%                Y     E    3   1500  Bw Rw Wa Sa
    Bolt2           T:55  100%                Y     E    3   1500  Bw Rw Wa Sa
    
    Break            E:0   50%  Adds Ptr(1/2) Y    SE    4   3000  Bw Rw Wa Sa
    Ice 3           I:85  100%                Y     E    4   3000  Bw Rw Wa Sa
    Shade              0   80%  Adds Parlyz   N     E    4   3000  Bw Rw Wa Sa
    
    Bolt3          T:110  100%                Y     E    5   5000  Bw Wa Sa
    Kill             100  100%  Adds Dead     N    AE    5   5000  Bw Wa Sa
    Erase              0   60%  Removes Refl. N     E    5   5000  Bw Wa Sa
    
    Fire3          F:150  100%                Y     E    6  10000  Bw Wa Sa
    Bio              130  100%                Y     E    6  10000  Bw Wa Sa
    Warp               0    0%  Adds Dead     N    SE    6  10000  Bw Wa Sa
    
    Quake          E:133  100%                N    AE    7  20000  Bw Wa Sa
    Brak2            E:0   40%  Adds Petr     N    SE    7  20000  Bw Wa Sa
    Drain         Dr:160  100%                N    SE    7  20000  Bw Wa Sa
    
    Flare            200  100%                Y     E    8  60000  Wa Sa
    Death              0   35%  Adds Dead     N    SE    8  60000  Wa Sa
    Meteo            180  100%                N    AE    8  60000  Wa Sa
    
    WHITE MAGIC
    SPELL         DAMAGE  HIT%  NOTES       REF?  TAR  LEV  PRICE  JOB EQUIPPABLE
    Cure           Dr:42  100%                N     A    1    100  Ww Rw Hu Mk Sh 
    Sa
    Pure               0   50%  Cures Poison  N    SA    1    100  Ww Rw Hu Mk Sh 
    Sa
    Sight              0  100%                N    SE    1    100  Ww Rw Hu Mk Sh 
    Sa
    
    Aero          A,I:45  100%                Y     E    2    700  Ww Rw Sh Sa
    Toad               0    0%  Adds Frog     N    SE    2    700  Ww Rw Hu Mk Sh 
    Sa
    Mini               0    0%  Adds Mini     N    SE    2    700  Ww Rw Hu Mk Sh 
    Sa
    
    Cure2         Dr:125  100%                N     A    3   1500  Ww Rw Hu Mk Sh 
    Sa
    Exit               0    0%  Adds Dead     N    SE    3   1500  Ww Rw Hu Mk Sh 
    Sa
    Wash               0   75%  Cures Blind   N    SA    3   1500  Ww Rw Hu Mk Sh 
    Sa
    
    Libra              0  100%  Scans HP      N    SE    4   3000  Ww Rw Sh Sa
    Confu              0   25%  Adds Conf     N     E    4   3000  Ww Rw Sh Sa
    Mute               0   60%  Adds Mute     N     E    4   3000  Ww Rw Sh Sa
    
    Cure3         Dr:180  100%                N     A    5   5000  Ww Sh Sa
    Life            Dr:1   15%  Cures Dead    N    SA    5   5000  Ww Sh Sa
    Safe               5   75%                N    SA    5   5000  Ww Sh Sa
    
    Aero2        A,I:115  100%                Y     E    6  10000  Ww Sh Sa
    Soft               0   60%  Cures Petr    N    SA    6  10000  Ww Sh Sa
    Haste              5   16%                N    SA    6  10000  Ww Sh Sa
    
    Cure4         Dr:220  100%                N     A    7  20000  Ww Sh Sa
    Heal               0   60%  Cures All     N    SA    7  20000  Ww Sh Sa
    Wall               0   75%  Adds Reflect  N    SA    7  20000  Ww Sh Sa
    
    WWind            A:4   40%                N     E    8  60000  Sh Sa
    Life2         Dr:255    0%  Cures Dead    N    SA    8  60000  Sh Sa
    Holy           H:160  100%                Y    SE    8  60000  Sh Sa
    
    CALL MAGIC
    SPELL         DAMAGE  HIT%  NOTES       REF?  TAR  LEV  PRICE  JOB EQUIPPABLE
    Chocb                                                1    100  Co Su Sa
    Escape             0  100%                N    AA
    Stumble            0  100%                N    SE
    ChocoboKick       16  100%                N    SE
    
    Shiva                                                2    700  Co Su Sa
    HypnoBeam          0   80%  Adds Sleep    N    AE
    Icy Glare         53  100%                N    SE
    Diamond Dust    I:32  100%                N    AE
    
    Ramuh                                                3   1500  Co Su Sa
    MindBlast          0   70%  Adds Parlyz   N    AE
    God's Thunder   T:48  100%                N    SE
    Heaven's Rage   T:96  100%                N    AE
    
    Ifrit                                                4   3000  Co Su Sa
    Recover        Dr:90  100%                N    AA
    Flames of Fury  F:85  100%                N    SE
    Hellfire       F:128  100%                N    AE
    
    Titan                                                5   5000  Co Su Sa
    Punch            101  100%                N    SE
    Kick             106  100%                N    SE
    Earthquake     E:160  100%                N    AE
    
    Odin                                                 6  45000  Co Su Sa
    Barrier            0  100%                N    AA
    Sword Cut        117  100%                N    SE
    Atom Edge        195  100%                N    AE
    
    Levia                                                7  55000  Co Su Sa
    Stony Glare      E:0    5%  Adds Petr     N    AE
    Tempest        A:133  100%                N    AE
    Tsunami        T:202  100%                N    AE
    
    Baham                                                8  65000  Co Su Sa
    Aura               0  100%                N    AA
    Rend             144  100%                N    SE
    MegaFlare        255  100%                N    AE
    
    TERRAIN
    SPELL         DAMAGE  HIT%  NOTES       REF?  TAR
    Earthquake      E:90   50%                N    AE
    Quicksand          0   30%  Adds Dead     N    SE
    Air Blade      A:120   30%                N    SE
    Sinkhole           0   40%  Adds Dead     N    SE
    Rapids           T:0   40%  Adds Dead     N    SE
    Waterspout     A:120   60%                N    SE
    Tornado        A:120   60%                N    SE
    Cave In        E:120   40%                N    AE
    
    ENEMY MAGIC
    SPELL         DAMAGE  HIT%  NOTES       REF?  TAR 
    Recovery       Dr:30  100%                N    SA
    EchoHerb        Dr:0  100%  Cures Mute    N    SA
    LuckMallet      Dr:0  100%  Cures Mini    N    SA
    MaidKiss        Dr:0  100%  Cures Frog    N    SA
    Flame           F:40  100%                Y    AE
    Blizzard        I:40  100%                Y    AE
    Thunder         T:40  100%                Y    AE
    Glare (Sleep)      0   80%  Adds Sleep    N    SE
    Glare (Conf)       0   80%  Adds Confu    N    SE
    Glare (Petr)     E:0   80%  Adds Petr     N    SE
    Breath             0   60%  Adds Parlyz   N    SE
    Mindblast          0   80%  Adds Parlyz   N    AE
    Poison             0   80%  Adds Poison   Y    AE
    Quake           E:80  100%                N    AE
    Atom Edge         32  100%                N    AE
    Tsunami           37  100%                N    AE
    MegaFlare         80  100%                Y    AE
    FlareWave         80  100%                N    AE
    
    *********
    ITEM DATA
    *********
    A.M.   Refers to Item Attack Multiplier
    
    ITEMS
    ITEM          SPELL       A.M.  PRICE
    Magic Key                         100
    Carrot                            150
    Potion        Recovery       3    150
    HiPotion      Recovery      12   1200
    Elixir        Elixir             3000
    FenixDown     Life               3000
    MidgBread     Sight               200
    Soft          Soft                300
    MaidKiss      MaidKiss            100
    EchoHerb      EchoHerb            100
    LuckMallet    LuckMallet          100
    Eyedrop       Wash                 40
    Antidote      Pure                 80
    OtterHead     Exit (Menu only)   2000
    BombShard     Fire2          2   1000
    SouthWind     Ice2           2   1000
    Zeus' Rage    Bolt2          2   1000
    BombR.Arm     Fire3          3   1500
    NorthWind     Ice3           3   1500
    Gods' Rage    Bolt3          3   1500
    EarthDrum     Quake          3   2500
    LamiaScl.     Confu          3   3000
    Gods' Wine    Haste          3   3000
    TurtlShell    Safe           3   3000
    Devil'sSigh   Kill           3   3000
    BlackHole     Warp           3   4000
                  (Battle only) 
    DarkScent     Death          3   5000
    LilithKiss    Drain          3   3000
    Imp'sYawn     Aero2          3   3000
    SplitShell    Erase          3   3000
    Paralyzer     Shade          3   3000
    MuteCharm     Mute           3   2000
    Pillow        Sleep          3   2000
    BombHead      Flare          3   2000
    Barrier       Wall           3   5000
    ChocoRage     Flare          3   5000
    WhiteScent    Holy           3   5000
    
    WEAPONS USUABLE AS ITEMS
    CLAWS
    ITEM          SPELL       A.M.
    Dragon        Aero           1
    Elven         Confu          1
    
    STAVES
    ITEM          SPELL       A.M.
    Burning       Fire           1
    Freezing      Ice            1
    Shining       Bolt           1
    Golem         Break          1
    Rune          Ice 3          1
    Eldest        Cure           1
    
    HAMMERS
    ITEM          SPELL       A.M.
    Thor          Bolt2          1
    
    SPEARS
    ITEM          SPELL       A.M.
    Thunder       Bolt2          1
    Wind          Aero           1
    
    KNIVES
    ITEM          SPELL       A.M.
    AirKnife      Aero           1
    
    SWORDS
    ITEM          SPELL       A.M.
    IceBlade      Ice            1
    Salamand      Fire           1
    Defender      Safe           1
    
    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    
    XIII.  OTHER ISSUES
    
    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    
    *************
    CRITICAL HITS
    *************
    
    I don't know how to manipulate the critical hit rate of Weapons or Monsters, 
    so it is very difficult to figure out where and how much criticals affect the 
    damage calculation formula. Casual observation has shown it to sometimes be 
    double damage, and other times to be indistinguishable from the normal damage 
    range. The final damage shown is not always a multiple of 2, so if anything, 
    the damage bonus would probably be applied in Step 1 somewhere.
    
    **********
    STEAL RATE
    **********
    
    Steal rate is much harder to derive a formula for since there appears to only 
    be a single success rate% to check. With Magic Hit%, attack multipliers made it 
    easier to distinguish the observed data. With only a single check and the 
    sometimes erratic behaviour of the pseudo-random number generator, it's hard 
    to distinguish between a 66% success rate and a 75% success rate, or even a 
    25% success and 50% success, unless I do > 300 trials. What I CAN say for sure 
    is that:
    
    i) Steal rate only depends on Skill and Level (NOT Agility). Target's Level 
    also doesn't seem to have any effect.
    
    ii) At Level 99 and Skill 99, Steal Rate is not 100%. It appears to be ~ 75% 
    but could be 66%.
    
    Best guess for the Steal Rate formula would be either:
    
    Steal Rate% = (Level/3) + (Skill/3)
    
    or 
    
    Steal Rate% = (Level/2) + (Skill/4)
    

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