_       _                 _
                / \   __| |_   _____ _ __ | |_ _   _ _ __ ___ ___
               / _ \ / _` \ \ / / _ \ '_ \| __| | | | '__/ _ Y __|
              / ___ \ (_| |\ V /  __/ | | | |_| |_| | | |  __|__ \
             /_/   \_\__,_| \_/ \___|_| |_|\__|\__,_|_|  \___|___/
                                    ___  / _|
    FAQ By: THE SPELUNKER          / _ \| |_
    Copyright - 2004 - 2008.      | (_) |  _|
     All Rights Reserved.          \___/|_|
                 ____  _                  ____  _ _    _
                |  _ \(_)_ __   ___      |  _ \(_) | _(_)
                | | | | | '_ \ / _ \     | |_) | | |/ / |
                | |_| | | | | | (_) |    |  _ <| |   <| |
                |____/|_|_| |_|\___/     |_| \_\_|_|\_\_|
                                   


				LEGAL INFO:
This guide may not be used for any purpose other than personal use without the
written consent of the author, and the only e-mail address that may give this
consent is lance3335@gmail.com. Those that violate this should know that
they are breaking US copyright law. If you see this guide being hosted on a
site besides http://www.gamefaqs.com/ it is being done so illegally. Please
contact me if this is the case.


Table of Contents

1) Introduction
2) Controls
3) Walkthrough
4) Enemies
5) Power-ups



Version Info:

1.2 - 2008 - second submission, text ordered or rewritten, introduction
complete
1.0 - 2004 - first submission, text disorganized,introduction incomplete




{}{}{}{}{}{}{}{} PART 1 - INTRODUCTION {}{}{}{}{}{}{}{}{}

Adventures of Dino Riki is a game said to be inspired by a famous Japanese
wrestler named Riki. Wrestling in relation to the game makes sense because you
perhaps need any and every obtainable skill in self-defense before as Dino Riki
does you throw stones or boomerangs at giant dinosaurs.

Most of the game's parts, including the prehistoric theme, music, and graphics,
are pleasing. The challenge is very high, making for one of the NES' most
unforgiving games. Adventures of Dino Riki is surprisingly a shooter; but the
strangest part is that you walk on land rather than fly, as most shooters have
it, in a ship; you are barefoot and wearing a caveman's clothing. 

Solving this took a long time, and a walkthrough can only do so much to reduce
that time. Most of the game is reflexive and not intellectual so much. But no
one had written a walkthrough, and that seemed unfair to Dino Riki, which
despite the difficulty is interesting and light-hearted.


{}{}{}{}{}{}{}{} PART 2 - BASICS       {}{}{}{}{}{}{}{}{}

(Arrows) - Move in corresponding direction
(Start)  - Pause the game
(B)      - Shoot Dino Riki's projectile
(A)      - Jump into the air/(held)Fly if you have the Bird tile.


{}{}{}{}{}{}{}{} PART 3 - WALKTHROUGH  {}{}{}{}{}{}{}{}{}

  _______________________
 /  *** Jungle Land ***  \
/-------------------------\
   Music: "Bio Bounce"

Jungle Land is the first world that you start in. It's very green and the 
power-ups are hidden in flowers. The basic enemies are the Pink Groundhog and
the Purple Fly. A Pink Groundhog comes at you first, and some Purple Flies
second. They shouldn't be much trouble. You should pick up a weapon power-up
from an early flower.

A Flying Fish is next and then more Purple Flies. Try not to get hit, or you
will lose your Tomahawk. Get the Heart tile from the hard-to-destroy flower
before the big string of lakes. Up ahead are more Flying Fish, sprinkled with
some Orange Hogs and Purple Fliers. Another weapon power-up is near the
water before the last two puddles. There is also another power-up just before a
difficult platform up ahead. Also before the big leaf jump is a flower. It has
Boots in it.

You need to jump over the leaf now(or you can use the hidden wings on the west
edge before the leaf). This is REALLY hard at first. To do it, While _moving_,
you must jump from a little ways before the shore; otherwise you may plunge
into the water by over-jumping or not jumping at all. If you make the first
jump, the second one should be easier. This may take a few tries -- that's
okay; just be patient. On the other side is a new type of enemy: Flying Cactus.

Avoid these as most flying creatures, but understand that they fly in annoying
formation and that dodging them is hard. More Flying Fish are next as well as a
weapon power-up. Some Meat is on the left side of the screen in this area.
Rocks mixed with some Purple Flies fly at you now.

Ahead lies a lot of leaf jumps. These will be tough! They stretch for a while
and some of the leaves actually disappear. You can use your wings here if you
have them by holding jump down, but you'll have to face flyers. If you hoof it,
remember: don't get too close to the edge of a leaf before jumping. Also, the
tiny sliver of water that appears between two leaves(like the first two) can be
crossed without drowning. But there is one at the end that can't.

Persevere this very difficult test(it will more than likely take at least a
 few tries but if you die at the end you start beyond it)  Once on the other
side there aren't many enemies except some Purple Flies. Just watch out for the
lakes. Bust open the hard-to-destroy flower here for another heart. Another
jumping area is ahead(the agony!) with a brown landform moving side-to-side
that you must jump on. Yet another brown landform then some tricky side jumps
followed by a disappearing leaf and at the very end an odd cycle and a wave of
Flying Cacti and Purple Flies.

Lots more Cacti and Flies. More hearts in hard-to-destroy flowers as well. A
large door will appear eventually. Grab the weapon power-up outside of it and
to the right. Enter it for the boss!


----------------------------

((((FLYING WALKTHROUGH))) - Assuming you're doing good and have the wings and
some flames, you're ready to take to the sky in Jungle Land! There are two
pairs of wings hidden in the main land area of Jungle Land right after the
section of lakes with Flying Fish and before the first Lily Pad jumps. They'll
be on the right hand side. One is hidden by a Meat tile, and the other is above
the Meat tile.

Hold down the jump button(don't release it until you're at the boss) and hang
against the very bottom of the screen, holding down attack as well, assuming
you have the flames and can do the rapid-fire attack. Just move side to side,
and you will kill everything that comes at you and believe me, there is a lot
of it -- Cactuses, Bats, Cherub Heads and Rocks. The Cherub Heads are the most
difficult because they come in on the edges.

A useful secret is that you can actually hit the Cherub Heads
even if they are on your side. Just go over near there -- carefully -- while
holding down attack with flames and bingo. Be warned, though, one hit, and you
will fall. However, you should be able to fly through the whole level unharmed
if you have some practice with flying. A perfect game in Jungle Land consists
of getting through it with 6 lives, flames and a score of over 100,000 -- did
you get all of that?

----------------------------

        BOSS FIGHT
___________________________
}_}_}_} PTERODACTYL {_{_{_{


A flying Pterodactyl will intercept you here. This is a pretty easy fight. Just
move side to side, avoiding the fireballs(both slow and fast ones come at you).
Unfortunately, some fireballs will blink and therefore be hard to see. I doubt
this was intentional when they made the game. Still, you shouldn't have much
trouble. All of Pterodactyl's fire can be destroyed and once you hit him
enough, he'll explode. Next level!



  _______________________
 /  *** Desert Land ***  \
/-------------------------\
  Music: "Wasteland Waltz"

Desert Land is actually easier than Jungle Land since there aren't any jumps.
The tiles are all inside the pots. Grab as many Diamonds as possible to gain
extra lives!

Some Purple Flies, then Orange Hogs, Desert Bats at the bend and a sprinkling
of Cow Skulls. A lot of sinking pools ahead. Avoid them! Some Purple Elders and
many more fliers. Flame-breathing dragons make their appearance next in big
numbers. Their flame waves cross the whole screen so be careful. Desert
Burrowers, too. Don't try to get all the pots in the next area, or you will get
overwhelmed. Just clear one path.

Soon you will come to White Flies and other assorted flyers. White Flies are
the hardest regular creature yet. They will fly straight for you like a homing
missile unless you KILL THEM FIRST or KEEP MOVING! More Flying Cacti, Desert
Burrowers and Purple Elders ahead. Then, an intersection. Take the right path
to avoid the sinking sand pit, though you will run into some Desert Burrowers.
A Heart tile is in the pot right before the first flame-breathing dragon. Hit
it many times to earn your treasure!

More Flame-Breathing Dragons ahead. Pass several of them at a time to avoid
getting trapped as the screen advances. Now, a lot of White Flies!! Be very
careful; this is the hardest test yet. You will most likely get nailed if you
don't have at least a Tomahawk! Thankfully, you'll restart at 2-4 UNLESS THAT
WAS YOUR LAST LIFE. Two more flame-breathing dragons at the end and then....
AND THEN A DOOR!!

Grab the two pots on the left side of the screen before entering. Each contains
a weapon power-up!!! Make sure to avoid the flames. Behind the door is a boss!

-------------------------

((((FLYING WALKTHROUGH))) - The wings in the desert may be grabbed very early
on, but will be hard to hold onto if you don't have a powerful weapon. As you
start out in the desert, you will want to walk forward and proceed through the
narrow corridor until it broadens and almost the whole screen is open to you.
On the left side, by a wall, is the hidden tile which will allow you to fly.


-------------------------

           BOSS FIGHT
_________________________________
}_}_}_} TYRANNOSAURUS REX {_{_{_{

This boss should be super easy if you have a Boomerang, which you should if you
FOLLOWED MY DIRECTIONS AND COLLECTED THE TWO WEAPON POWER-UPS BEFORE THE BOSS
CAVE!!!

Just follow him around -- get RIGHT IN THIS FACE -- and repeatedly launch
boomerangs at him. His fireballs won't be able to touch you if you're
firing non-stop, and you'll easily beat him. Don't worry; he won't touch you as 
long as you're up against the southern wall. On to Swamp Land!!


  _______________________
 /  *** Swamp Land  ***  \
/-------------------------\
  Music: "Marsh March"

The items in Swamp Land are found in skulls on the ground. First some flyers
come at you and later some Skull-Men. Avoid all of the damage balls from the
Skull-Men; they will still shoot them while crumbled! After a lot of regular
fights and some Boot and Diamond tiles, you'll reach an area where Black Balls
begin to swarm around you. When this happens, IGNORE EVERYTHING ELSE AND FOCUS
ON DESTROYING THE BLACK BALLS. They will not go away unless DESTROYED!!

Up ahead, there is a pit on the right side of the screen. Instead of trying to
jump over it(the shading makes it hard to see the edge), circle around to the
left. Some Cherub Heads and Skull-Men await ahead. When you can fade back into
the middle of the screen, you'll see a skull right against the pit. Bust this
up to get a Heart tile!

After a while, you'll see another pit with a skull in the middle. This skull
holds a heart, BUT IT'S VERY DANGEROUS TO TRY THE JUMP. Do so at your own risk,
and definitely don't attempt it if you have Boots currently active! Continue
fighting tons of Cow Skulls and other assorted flyers/hogs. The next obstacle
you'll reach, after some Black Balls, are two pits that appear gradually.

They start out small and then cover the whole screen. Just over the first pit
and on the right side of the land, you'll find a hidden Star tile if you shoot.
Use this to get rid of the black balls!! Later, you'll see three pits like
that, along with a slew of Flyers. This is 3-4 right here, which means you're
close to the end. However, it gets tough here. You'll have to cross the three
pits, hitting all the Flyers(plus destroying all the annoying black balls
before they hit you) and then on the other side YET ANOTHER PIT AWAITS YOU!!!
ARGH!

Hop onto the small ledge(make your first jump from the edge) and then over to
the other side. I hope you don't have Boots active! Up ahead is a tricky part.
That skeleton is a Marsh Wyrm and there is also a Skull-Man blocking the path.
You'll probably get hit here, but whatever you do, don't get trapped against
the screen by the Marsh Wyrm! Try to run by the fallen Skull-Man or let him
walk by you.

Up ahead are some more assorted creatures and then another pit and finally, THE
BOSS DOOR!!!! Grab the two Fist tiles in the flowers outside the boss' lair and
then enter.


-------------------------

((((FLYING WALKTHROUGH))) - The Marsh Wings are located on the right ledge that
can only be reached by jumping across the platform with the Diamond on it. They
can be useful, but aren't necessary to complete the stage.


-------------------------


            BOSS FIGHT
______________________________
}_}_}_} SPITTING COBRA {_{_{_{

While not a true dinosaur boss, Spitting Cobra ranks up there, especially if
you're unfortunate enough to be stuck in the fight with only your basic
fireball/stone weapon, which you shouldn't be if you followed my advice. You'll
notice that Spitting Cobra's pattern is to fire a few shots and then teleport
somewhere else in the designated boss area. The idea with the weak weapon(with
a strong weapon, you don't need help) is to line yourself up directly in front
of Spitting Cobra when it teleports.

Don't do this at too much of an angle, though, since the cobra is about to
start spitting damage balls at you. If you don't think you can make it in front
of him before he starts shooting, DON'T TRY!!! Otherwise, line yourself up in
front of it and start moving forward while firing. You're in no danger of
getting hit by its damage balls as long as you shoot as fast as possible, but
you have to be RIGHT UP AGAINST IT to actually inflict damage. 

You'll know the sound when you're doing damage. This fight may take a while,
but it's still pretty easy!


 ___________________________________
 /  *** Super Jungle Land(4-1) ***  \
/------------------------------------\
   Music: "Frenetic Finale"

As you might have guessed, Super Jungle Land, being the final level, cuts very
little slack. It is incredibly difficult and a disappointing texture rehash of
the first stage as well. After only a few flowers, you'll be bumped into a
mildly difficult Lily Pad crossing(at least, mildly difficult if you haven't
been doing them over and over for a week straight :) that features tons of
vanishing ones and even a surprise Flying Cactus wave at the end. Get the
flowers and then head to the left of the screen and shoot at the area on the
small inlet on the very left. You don't have to make any jumps to get here, and
you will earn a Wing tile if you shoot the right spot. Now, you can FLY over
the water.

Next on the list is a narrow, winding forest path with limited movement and a
ton of Cow Skulls, Purple Flies and Black Bats. I'd be surprised if you get
through here without getting hit at least once. After that is a massive series
of lakes with even more limited movement(at risk of instant death) plus Dolphin
Spitters and Purple Flies. Assuming you aren't already dead... :)

A lot of White Flies come up next as well as some required jumping over the
series of lakes. Now, there is a really hard part with moving landforms --
three to be exact. Jump onto the first from the middle platform and then the
second, which should be easy.You should be able to walk onto the next platform
if you did it right, and from there it's just a bunch of jumps across
disappearing leaves(stay to the right to reach land the quickest) However, it
is advised that you are flying here, or you'll have a heck of a time.

Disappearing platforms are next(how cruel!) and finally land will be in sight.
Go ahead and drop your wings if you're flying at this point, because there are
no more death hazards to fly over. The boss is next, and he shouldn't be hard
at all. Make sure to collect all of the power-ups before entering his lair,
though(this will require you to drop your wings immediately because the bottom
power-ups will get scrolled over if you don't soon enough)

____________________________________
 /  *** Super Desert Land(4-2)***  \
/-----------------------------------\

This level is swamped with creatures and quicksand hazards. From the beginning,
you're confronted by Purple Flies, followed by Cow Skulls and then some
Flame-Breathing Dragons not too long after. These flame-breathing dragons
aren't too tricky, but you will soon come to two very narrow walkways with pots
blocking them. You'll be ambushed here by more flies and Flying Cacti, which
will make things difficult for you. Destroy the pots and axe your assailants as
soon as possible. 

This is the only real narrow area for a while because you will soon come to a
grueling strip of quicksand hazards, Flame-Breathing Dragons and, of course,
creatures en masse. It's a good to go into this part with A LOT of hearts
because sometimes that will be the only way you'll make it through, just by
sheer endurance -- avoiding contact with enemies can be nearly impossible in
this level. Pay attention to where the quicksand hazards are coming up and move
accordingly; you might not realize that you're about to step right into a death
trap just because of the sheer number of them.

At one part you'll be able to use a large section of pillars as cover and there
will also be some pots here, which you should definitely bust open. Towards the
end will be another area ala level 2-4, with the two split paths. The level
will end in an area similar to level 2-4 as well, except this time the
Flame-Breathing Dragons will be much harder to avoid. You might even have to
jump their flames. Don't miss the meat hidden cleverly behind the right Dragon.
The boss is Tyrannosaurus, so you should know what to do by now.


____________________________________
 /  *** Super Swamp Land (4-3)***  \
/-----------------------------------\


To be frank, if you don't like jumping, you won't like Super Swamp Land. The
whole level's challenge is created by the tricky jumps in it. It starts off
easy enough, though. Two diagonal lines of skulls will come from the bottom of
the screen. Move to the middle immediately to avoid them. More enemies will
come and you'll need to make a jump across a gorge. Speed boots rest on the 
ledge you need to jump to and from, unfortunately, so do your best not to lose
control. Eventually the path will split. Take the right path, taking out the
Desert Burrower(what's he doing here? :)) and grabbing the power-up from the
skull. Stay to the side to avoid the oncoming Marsh Wyrm and then proceed along
the path. Don't bother getting the power-up in the center after the paths
converge; you definitely don't want speed boots in this stage. Trust me on that
:)

Anyhow, the skull on the left edge contains another weapon power-up.  Many
enemies will start to move towards you at this point, but the real threat is a
line of skulls coming from the bottom-right of the screen, just waiting to
catch you doddling around after collecting the power-up. Don't let them.
Instead, move to the right of the screen and proceed. You should practice your
diagonal jump her if you're not good with it yet because you absolutely HAVE to
execute it at the upcoming jump.

Speaking of the upcoming jump, gorges will start to form as the ground splits
horizontally. You need to jump over the gorge(preferably on the far right)
while avoiding the oncoming White Eggs, which can be lured to the left before
you make your jump on the right side. Two groups come and after the second you
should be preparing to make a diagonal jump from the right path across the
second gorge and right beside the far right side of the screen. Another group
of eggs comes once you make it, followed by literally swarms of Rocks.

Then White Flies come, which are, of course, homing creatures. Use this to your
advantage and do some fake-outs, NFL-style. In not too long, you will reach the
hardest section of jumps in the game(taking into consideration that there are
no wings to fly over these, while there are for others). Don't go for any
power-ups before the jumps except the last(a weapon power-up) because one is a
heart that will take you off course(and possibly cause you to die) while the
other is a speed boots. The first jump will take you to a desperately needed
Meat.

After making the jump, make sure to walk downwards before jumping again to the
left, so you don't walk off right as you land. Do the same before you jump
northwards and then do the same for the right ledge. Make the next jump onto a
brief section of flat land and get ready to hop two more gorges(Jesus...) and
finally you'll be at the end. Grab any power-ups you can find and prepare to
confront Spitting Cobra.

____________________________________
 /  *** Ultra Desert Land(4-4)***  \
/-----------------------------------\

Music: Boss

Whew, this is the type of level where you imagine the creators' evil grin
mocking you as you repeatedly die, over and over and over. The fast-paced,
panic-inducing boss music playing certainly doesn't help, either. When you
first start out, you will be confronted by a few bats. Kill these, and you will
approach a quicksand hazard. You don't have to cross it yet, though, and in
fact you shouldn't. Stay back until the skulls go by and then proceed. You'll
get your weapon upgraded to the tomahawks here.

Up ahead is a long, long section that is actually pretty similar, but that
doesn't make it any easier. Really, they ke to beating this level is simply
playing it over and over until you get the hang of moving back and forth
between the Flame-Breathing Dragons while dodging all of the bullets from the
Skull-Men and other creatures. The Quicksand hazards will also pose a problem,
but not nearly as much as the two aforementioned things. The first pot you
reach in the middle contains a weapon power-up. You should get this as soon as
possible because you're about to be assaulted by some Black Balls.

You will need to stay between the two lines of fire while fighting off these
Black Balls. If you do it perfectly, they will all die just before making
contact. From this point, move forward. You'll run across another pot with a
weapon upgrade in it, and eventually in the northwest will be a heart. Soon
after, the Flame-Breathing Dragons will go away for a while and some White
Flies and Quicksand hazards will apear. Scoot past these in whatever way
possible and pass the last two Flame-Breathing Dragons to reach the end of the
level. You can -- and should -- collect the Meat on the left before entering
the boss door because inside is a new foe!


BOSS FIGHT
__________________________
}_}_}_} MAD HORNET {_{_{_{

This guy is going to be a pain if you don't at least have Boomerangs. He
releases underlings similar to Cherub Heads(they're actually baby hornets) and
flies about in a horizontal line. He'll also fire damage
balls of his own and split into two big hornets, just in case you decide to
approach the top edge of the screen, which you shouldn't.

To defeat him, it's best to focus on not getting hit at all because you
probably have very few hearts here, if any(somehow Meat doesn't seem to have an
effect once you enter Mad Hornet's lair) Doing damage should be a lower
priority because Mad Hornet has a good many hitpoints. There really isn't any
particular strategy to use, except to maybe try to lure all of the hornet
underlings to the middle of the screen and then scroll downwards and blast them
all while they come by -- nailing Mad Hornet in the process. Good luck! The
game loops over when you have beaten Mad Hornet. 





{}{}{}{}{}{}{}{} PART 4 - ENEMIES      {}{}{}{}{}{}{}{}{}



Orange Groundhog - The first creature you encounter in Jungle Land. It moves in
a straight line and spits damage balls. Easy to kill.

Purple Fly - One of the most common and, unfortunately, most annoying enemies
in the game. Purple Flys can be defeated easily; however, they always travel in
large swarms. Be wary and be quick!

Flying Fish - Lives in small pools. Jumps from pool to pool. Fires when below
water. 

Flying Cactus - Travels in groups, spitting damage balls. First encountered in
Jungle Land. Weave between their formation unless you have a high-powered
weapon like flames.

Purple Flyers - Weird looking purple creatures with wings. They usually only
travel in small groups. Not much more dangerous than Purple Flys.

Orange Hog - Annoying creatures that backpedal and spit at you. They're hard to
kill and vanish fast. Look out for them mid-way through Jungle Land.

Rock - These things come at you so fast that you can't even see what they are!
Best eliminated with a weapon other than your puny fireballs!

Dolphin Spitter - Lurk in the sea and spit at you. First encountered in Jungle
Land.

Pterodactyl - Boss of Jungle Land. Moves side-to-side and fires two variants of
fireballs. A rather easy boss.

Cow Skull - Flying cow skulls in Desert Land. Occasionally go in a weird
pattern, but mostly diagonal flyers. Not hard to kill. 
l
Black Bats - Fly across the middle of screen usually, so they can be tricky.
Stand below their flight and fire

Desert Burrower - A creature that buries in the sand and pops up to spit damage
balls at you. Attacks in combination with flyers normally.

Flame-breathing dragon - A desert creature that blows out huge waves of fire
that cross the whole screen. Indestructable.

White Fly - VERY ANNOYING! Moves to one spot on the screen and then makes a
bee-line straight for you. Hard to avoid unless destroyed early on or moving
around A LOT.

Purple Elder - A tough desert creature that moves horizontally. Takes more
damage than it dishes out.

Tyrannosaurus Rex - Big dinosaur with a louder bark than bite. Should easily be
defeatable with Boomerang but is a boss nonetheless.

Skull-Man - Denizen of swamp land. Walks towards you shooting and will slump
over and continue shooting when hit. Stands up after a while and can not be
killed.

White Egg - Flying, glowing eggs that look harmless at first, but in fact shoot
damage balls as they pass!

Black Balls - Travel in huge strings and circle around Dino Riki invariably.
Must all be eliminated, or they will constrict poor Dino Riki! Shoot fast with
a strong weapon.

Cherub Head - These things appear as early as the first stage if you're flying.
However, you won't see them until Swamp Land otherwise. They travel down the
screen in a line, circle around a bit and then head straight at you in another
line. Try to avoid them if you don't kill them right away.

Marsh Wyrm - Originally dormant skeletons in Marsh Land, Marsh Wyrms will rise
from the ground and crawl straight forward. They are rather easily avoided but
will do serious damage if they hit you! Hard/impossible to kill.

Spitting Cobra - Boss of Marsh Land. Must be defeated by confrontation up close
and constant pushing of fire button! Can be tough to combat with Stones.

Mad Hornet - Final boss of the game. Splits into two big hornets and also fires
out baby hornet underlings and shoots damage balls of his own. Tough to beat
without boomerang!

Baby Hornet - Underlings of the Mad Hornet. Opperate similar to Cherub Heads
except they don't shoot damage balls.



{}{}{}{}{}{}{}{} PART 5 - POWER-UPS    {}{}{}{}{}{}{}{}{}



Diamond - 100 points

Boots - Temporary speed boost

Fist - weapon power-up ( Tomahawk -> Boomerang -> Flames)

Meat - Restores one heart

Bird - Gives Dino Riki a flying ability(hold jump)

Star - Kills all enemies on screen

Heart - Restores two hearts

Macho Riki - Turns Dino Riki into the bulky Macho Riki, making him capable of
tossing powerful mirror images of himself.