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    Strategy Guide by EKenworthy

    Version: 2.2 | Updated: 03/31/96 | Search Guide | Bookmark Guide

    
    
    
                                    The Unofficial
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                                   Release v2.2
                      Last Updated: May 31, 1996  15:44 GMT
                 Written by: Edward Kenworthy (ekenworthy@cix.compulink.co.uk)
    
    ===========================
    ***A PLEA FROM THE HEART***
    ===========================
    
    I had a hard disk crash which meant I lost version 2.1 and all the 
    contributions made by people after that. If you contributed and your 
    contribution is not here can you get back to me. I'm particularly 
    keen to get the naval strategy someone contributed - but I can't even 
    get back to them to ask because my email address book went with 
    the hard disk.
    
    This is version 2.2
    
    DISCLAIMER
    The purpose of this FAQ is to aid the public regarding strategies 
    and tactics to use in the game Civilization II, by Micrprose.  In no 
    way should this promote your killing yourself, killing others, or 
    killing  in any other fashion.
    
     Edward Kenworthy claims NO responsibility regarding any illegal 
    activity concerning this FAQ, or indirectly related to this FAQ.
    
    TRADEMARK INFORMATION
    Civilization 2 is a trademark, and is so acknowledged. Any 
    trademarks not mentioned here are still acknowledged.
    
    COPYRIGHT NOTICE
    This article is Copyright 1996 by Edward Kenworthy.  All rights 
    reserved. You are granted the following rights:
    
    I.  To make copies of this work in original form, so long as
          (a) the copies are exact and complete;
          (b) the copies include the copyright notice and these paragraphs
              in their entirety;
          (c) the copies give obvious credit to the author, Edward  Kenworthy;
          (d) the copies are in electronic form.
    II. To distribute this work, or copies made under the provisions
        above, so long as
          (a) this is the original work and not a derivative form;
          (b) you do not charge a fee for copying or for distribution;
          (c) you ensure that the distributed form includes the copyright
              notice, this paragraph, the disclaimer of warranty in
              their entirety and credit to the author;
          (d) the distributed form is not in an electronic magazine or
              within computer software (prior explicit permission may be
              obtained from Edward Kenworthy);
          (e) the distributed form is the NEWEST version of the article to
              the best of the knowledge of the distributor;
          (f) the distributed form is electronic.
    
    You may not distribute this work by any non-electronic media, 
    including but not limited to books, newsletters, magazines, 
    manuals, catalogs, and speech.  You may not distribute this work in 
    electronic magazines or within computer software without prior 
    written explicit permission.  These rights are temporary and 
    revocable upon written, oral, or other notice by Edward Kenworthy. 
    This copyright notice shall be governed by international copyright 
    law.
    
    If you would like additional rights beyond those granted above, 
    write to the author at "ekenworthy@cix.compulink.co.uk" on the 
    Internet.
    
    CONTENTS:
    [1] Introduction
         [1-1] Foreword
         [1-2] About the unofficial Civilization II Strategy FAQ
         [1-3] Getting the unofficial Civilization II Strategy FAQ
         [1-4] Adding to the FAQ
         [1-5] Acknowledgments
         [1-6] Accurate Information
         [1-7] The format of this FAQ
    
    -Section One-  GAME ELEMENTS
    [2] The Tools Of The Trade 
         *2-1* Infantry
         [2-2] Mounted
         [2-3] Vehicles
         [2-4] Big Guns
         [2-5] Naval Units
         *2-6* Aircraft
         [2-7] Trade Units
         *2-8* Buildings
         [2-9] Terrain Improvements
         *2-10* Governments
         [2-11] Wonders of The World
    
     [3] Important information not in the manual
              [3-1] [blank]
    
    -Section Two- STRATEGIES
    *5* The Early Game
    [6] The Mid Game
    *7* The Late Game
    *8* Player tips
    [9] War Stories
    
    -Section Four- MISCELLANEOUS
    *10* Internet resources
         [10-1] Third party programs
         [10-2] World Wide Web sites
         *10-4* Other FAQs and texts
    *11* Bugs, updates, future games
         [11-1] The wishlist
         [11-2] Questions regarding Civ2 present and future
         *11-3* Update patches
         [11-4] Errors in the Civ2 manual
    [12] Conclusion
    *13* Revision History
    
    -------------------------
    CHAPTER [1]: Introduction
    -------------------------
    [1-1]: Foreword
    ==================
    
    I was rather disappointed at the lack of any sort of strategy guide or 
    faq for Civ2 - so rather whine about it I decided to write my own. 
    And here it is. What are my credentials ? Well I've been playing 
    Civ since 4000BC (or does it just seem that way) and Civ2 ever 
    since it was published (about five minutes ago). I've never scored 
    over 200% (basically because I declined to use the various "cheats" 
    in Civ (goody two shoes!) but did regularly score over 100% on 
    Emperor. I seem to be managing similar scores in Civ 2.
    
    If you have any new tips, comments or questions please email them 
    to ekenworthy@cix.compulink.co.uk. Good ones will be included 
    in the next version of this document - with a credit of course.  
    
    [1-2]: About the unofficial Civilization 2 Strategy FAQ
    ===============================================
    Welcome to v2.2 of the Unofficial Civilization 2 Strategy FAQ. 
    Version 2.2 is an update from v2.0 but excludes material in v2.1 
    because I had a hard disk crash. See top of this faq for a plea for 
    help.
    
    'Unofficial' means that this FAQ is not supported by Microprose. 
    Civilization II is the name of the game. FAQs are 
    (F)requently
    (A)sked 
    (Q)uestions.
    
    Revision classification works something like the following. If a new 
    version of the FAQ has only a small amount of information 
    changed or added, the version number is increased by 0.1, and is 
    called a 'minor revision.' If a new version of the FAQ has a 
    substantial amount of new information changed or added, the 
    version number is increased by 0.5, and is called a 'standard 
    revision.' If a new version of the FAQ has a huge amount of added 
    or changed information, major parts of the FAQ are rearranged, or 
    major parts of the FAQ are rewritten, the version number is 
    increased by 1.0, and it is called a 'major revision.'
    
    You may be wondering why chapter numbers are enclosed in either 
    []'s or **'s The definition of these is as follows:
    
    
         []: Chapters enclosed in square brackets mean that the information
             contained in the chapter has not been updated since the
             previous FAQ.
         **: Chapters enclosed in asterisks mean that the information
             contained in the chapter is new or has been updated for the
             current version of the FAQ you are reading.
    
    [1-2-1]: Is the FAQ related to the Official Guide to Civilisation II?
    ===============================================
    
    No, the Unofficial Civilization II Strategy FAQ is not related in any 
    way with the Official Guide to Civilization 2 other than in topic.
    
    Nor is the Unofficial Civ2 Strategy FAQ meant to be competition to 
    the Official Guide.
    
    [1-3]: Getting the unofficial Civ2 Strategy FAQ
    ===============================================
    
    [1-3-2]: via Usenet
    ----------------------
    The unofficial Civ2 Strategy FAQ is posted on the first of every 
    month (or earlier if a new version is released) on the following 
    Usenet groups.
    
         (1) comp.sys.ibm.pc.games.strategic
    
    The 'Subject:' line of the post will be 'Unofficial Civ2 Strategy    
    FAQ v??.??' where '??.??' is the version number of the FAQ.
    
    [1-3-3]: via Internet FTP
    ----------------------------
    
    New releases of the Unofficial Civ II Strategy FAQ can be found at 
    the following Internet FTP sites:
    
    [well actually nowhere yet. But if someone would care to carry it 
    and let me know I'll note it here.]
    
    The file name of the upload will be 'civ2s??.faq' where '??' is the 
    version number of the FAQ.  This filename is for FTP sites only. 
    BBS filenames are outlined in [1-3-5]
    
    [1-3-4]: via WWW
    -------------------
    New releases of the Unofficial Civ2 Strategy FAQ will be found on 
    the following World-wide Web sites:
    
    	http://ourworld.compuserve.com/homepages/POde/
    	Gamer's Site: http://www.cybernet.dk/users/kolstrup/
    
     HTML versions of the Unofficial Civ2 Strategy FAQ can be found 
    on the following World-wide Web sites:
    
    [None yet, but I'm working on it]
    
    [1-3-5]: via BBS
    -------------------
    New releases of the Unofficial Civ2 Strategy FAQ will be uploaded 
    to other BBSes as the opportunity arises. They will be under the file 
    name 'civ2sfaq??' where '??' is the version number of the FAQ.
    
    ATTENTION: ALL BBSes, CompuServe, Ammerica On-line, and 
    all other information services.  PLEASE conform to the naming 
    standard of the Unofficial Civ2 Strategy FAQ when placing this file 
    on your system.  The file name should be 'civ2s??.zip' where the '??' 
    is the version number of the FAQ or 'civ2sfaq??.txt' if the FAQ is a 
    text file instead of PKZIPped.
    
    [1-4]: Adding to the FAQ
    ===========================
    
    Where you see the words [blank] or [incomplete] in this FAQ is a 
    section that needs filling in. I depend heavily on contributions from 
    people like yourself to make this FAQ whole. Please, don't make 
    me beg. Help me fill in the blanks.
    
     If you have something to add to the FAQ, please send E-mail to 
    'ekenworthy@cix.compulink.co.uk' (no quotes), with the subject 
    'Civ2 Strategy Guide' explaining what your addition is. It will be 
    reviewed, and if accepted, added to the next FAQ version.  In the 
    E-mail, please supply your name and E-mail address.
    
    Please note that all submissions to the FAQ become property of the 
    author (Edward Kenworthy) and that they may or may not be 
    acknowledged. By submitting to the FAQ, you grant permission for 
    use of your submission in any future publications of the FAQ in any 
    media.  The author reserves the right to omit information from a 
    submission or delete the submission entirely.
    
    [1-5]: Acknowledgments
    ==========================
    
    Microprose Studios for making this great game.
    
    My wife. (Hi Angela!)
    
    And big thanks to everyone else who sent something my way, or 
    posted answers to questions in comp.sys.ibm.pc.games.strategic. 
    You are all listed next to your contributions in this FAQ!
    
    Forgive me if I miss anyone. If for some reason I HAVE missed 
    you, PLEASE send me E-mail so I can give credit where credit is 
    due.
    
    Jim Venn <100071.2311@CompuServe.COM> who has made 
    contributions all over the place - rather than scatter his name all 
    over the place I've listed it here as an acknowledgement.
    
    [1-6]: Accurate Information
    ==============================
    An attempt has been made to make the information in this FAQ as 
    accurate as possible.
    
    Harder still is verifying the correctness of every hint and tip. I 
    do try hard to make sure there are no bogus entries in this FAQ, 
    but, undoubtedly, one or two will probably slip by. Please let me 
    know immediately if there is any information in this FAQ that you 
    know is incorrect.
    
    Also, because the game was recently released, future updates and 
    add-ons may render parts of this FAQ obsolete.
    
    [1-7]: The format of this FAQ
    ================================
    I have been copying the format and style of the granddaddy of all 
    FAQ keepers, Hank Leukart (ap641@cleveland.freenet.edu) of the 
    'Official' DOOM FAQ.
    
    ==============================
    -SECTION ONE- GENERAL OVERVIEW
    ==============================
    
    -------------------------------------------
    CHAPTER[2]: The Tools Of The Trade
    -------------------------------------------
    
    This chapter contains information on the various units, buildings, 
    wonders etc available for use in Civ2.
    
    *2-1*: Foot Troops
    ==================
    
    [2-1-1]: Settlers
    --------------------
    Settlers are replaced by Engineers with the discovery of 
    Explosives.
    
    [incomplete]
    
    [2-1-2]: Engineers
     ----------------------
    
    Engineers work at twice the speed of settlers - so for 
    example a road across a plain is completed in 1 turn 
    rather than two. They also move at a speed of 2 and can 
    actually radically change terrain - for example 
    mountains to hills and desert to plains !
    
    [incomplete]
    
    *2-1-3*: Warrior
     ---------------------
    
    These are the worst combat unit in the game. Only build 
    them if you’re desperate and have no better technology.
    
    *2-1-4*: Phalanx
    ---------------------
    
    Best value for money in terms of defence in the early part 
    of the game.  Great when used in conjuction with 
    Elephants and eventually Crusaders.
    
    Phalanxes are upgraded to Pikemen.
    
    2-1-5]: Legion
     ---------------------
    
    Legions are upgraded to Musketeers.
    
    [incomplete]
    
    *2-1-6*: Explorer
     ---------------------
    
    An extremely underrated unit. The explorer has a 
    movement of 3 regardless of terrain and it ignores enemy 
    zones of control.  Very useful for maneuvering combat 
    troops through enemy zones of control.
    
    If adjacent to an enemy unit just move the explorer 
    forward and wait them,  move a combat unit on top of the 
    explorer,  then pull the explorer back out of the front line 
    reducing the risk of them being attacked. Repeat until 
    troops have flowed past the enemy fortifications.
    
    A good substitue until you've researched guerrilla warfare 
    in which case partisans can be used
    
    Explorers are never upgraded by Leonardo's Workshop. 
    They also never become obsolete !
    
    [2-1-7]: Pikemen
    ---------------------
    
    Pikemen have their defensive strength doubled if  they're 
    attacked by mounted troops. Legions still walk all over 
    them however. (Perhaps this should have been modified so 
    that they receive the same bonus against non-gun powder 
    infantry. Remember the Swiss ?)
    
    Phalanxes are upgraded to this unit. Pikemen are upgraded 
    to Musketeers.
    
    *2-1-8*: Musketeer
    ---------------------
    
    A good defensive and reasonable offensive unit.  It's hit 
    points are double that of the non-gunpowder troops so 
    don't be affraid of taking on fortified pikemen.
    
    [2-1-9]: Rifleman
    ---------------------
    
    On a cost/strength ratio these are probably the best 
    defensive unit.
    
    These are the final troop type that infantry are 
    automatically upgraded to by Leonardo's Workshop.
    
    [2-1-10]: Alpine Ski Troops
    ---------------------
    
    The major ability of Alpine Ski Troops is that they can 
    travel three squares regardless of the terrain type.
     They do still take advantage of Railroads, but Roads
     have no effect.
    
    These troops are never upgraded by Leonardo's Workshop-
    nor is any other infantry type upgraded to it.
    
    [2-1-11]: Marines
    ---------------------
    
    The major ability of Marines is that they can directly 
    attack a city from a transport ship (what Civ2 calls an 
    Amphibious assault).
    
    These troops are never upgraded by Leonardo's Workshop 
    -nor is any other infantry type upgraded to it.
    
    *2-1-12*: Paratroopers
    ---------------------
    
    The computer makes extensive use of these. If you leave a 
    city undefended (or all the defenders are killed) you can be 
    sure there'll be one of these around ready to drop in for a 
    cup of tea and a bite to eat.
    
    Great when used in conjuction with bomber strikes across 
    bodies of water that leave an enemy city defenceless. The 
    computer AI seems to be particularly keen on this tactic.
    
    These troops are never upgraded by Leonardo's Workshop-
    nor is any other infantry type upgraded to it.
    
    [2-2]: Mounted
    ===================
    
    [2-2-1]: Horsemen
    ---------------------
    
    [blank]
    
    [2-2-2]: Chariots
    ---------------------
    
     Chariots were significantly down graded from Civ. If 
    you want to go an early crusade - choose Elephants.
    
    [2-2-3]: Elephants
     ---------------------
    
    [2-2-4]: Knights
    ---------------------
    
    [blank]
    
    [2-2-5]: Crusaders
     ---------------------
    
    [blank]
    
    2-2-6]: Dragoons
    ---------------------
    
    [blank]
    
    [2-2-7]: Cavalry
    ---------------------
    
    The best of the mounted troops.
    
    [incomplete]
    
    [2-3]: Vehicles
    ===================
    
    [blank]
    
    [2-4]: Big Guns
    ===================
    
    [blank]
    
    [2-5]: Naval Units
    ===================
    
    [blank]
    
    *2-6*: Aircraft
    ===================
    
    2-6-1]: Fighter
    ---------------------
    
    Fighters are only really useful for a couple of jobs: taking 
    out bombers that are hanging around and for attacking that 
    spy or diplomat that's just out of reach.
    
    Forget trying to escort bomber groups - it just don't work.
    
    *2-6-2*: Bomber
    ---------------------
    
    Can be used for interdiction as it exerts a zone of control 
    and grounds units are not able to attack it. Particularly 
    effective if your oppent hasn't discovered flight yet.
    
    Useful for taking out marauding stacks of enemy units.
    
    [2-6-3]: Stealth Fighter
    ---------------------
    
    Calling this unit a Stealth fighter is a bit of a misnomer. A 
    better name would have been Jet Fighter.
    
    There is a rules.txt and unit.gif file that adds Jet Fighters 
    Bombers between Fighter/Bomber and their Stealth 
    versions.
    
    [2-6-4]: Stealth Bomber
    ---------------------
    
    Useful for taking out marauding stacks of enemy units.
    
    See comments about Stealth Fighter.
    
    [incomplete]
    
    [2-6-5]: Cruise Missile
    ---------------------
    
    An expensive unit to use - it dies regardless of whether it  
    wins. As with all air units it causes unrest in a Republican 
    or Democratic city. (Remember Greenham common ?)
    
    Useful for a quick surgical strike against a stack of  naval 
    units. But not if there's an AEGIS Cruiser present (and 
    you're playing a version after 1.07).
    
    [incomplete]
    
    [2-6-6]: Nuclear Missile
    ---------------------
    
    Expensive and as with all aircraft causes unrest. Besides 
    who  wants a nuclear arsenal planted in their driveway?
    
    Here's a tip:
    "I have noticed that if you build an airbase 2 hexes from 
    your  city and station nukes there, the Ai does not seem to 
    be able to detect them.  Wala! Missile silos."
    [jeferi@inlink.com (JefEri)]
    
    [incomplete]
    
    [2-7]: Trade Units
    ===================
    
    [2-7-1]: General Comments
    ---------------------
    
    blank]
    
    
    [2-7-2]: Caravan
     ---------------------
    
    [blank]
    
    
    [2-7-3]: Freight
     ---------------------
    
    [blank]
    
    [2-8]: Buildings
    ===================
    
           	[2-8-1]: Palace
            	---------------------
    
    Important for corruption calculation. The further a city 
    from the one with your Palace in - the greater the 
    corruption (except at Democracy of course).
    
    Without a capital EVERY city is treated as being the 
    maximum range away !!
    
    [2-8-1]: Temple
    ---------------------
    
    Reduces the number of unhappy citizens by 2. Increased 
    effect with Mysitcism and double effect if you control the 
    Oracle.
    
    *2-8-1*: Granary
    ---------------------
    
    Allows you to create a food stockpile. This is  important for 
    two reasons a) it gives you a buffer zone in case of famine 
    and b) it halves the amount of stored food you need to build 
    up to create a new citizen.
    
    The Pyramid gives a granary in each of your cities. 
    Perhaps something to with the story of Joseph and his Coat 
    of Many Colours ?
    
    Not a particularly useful improvement.  Happiness 
    improvements are more valuable as the best mechanisim 
    for growth is gaining We Love ? Day in your cities. But 
    this of course depends on being democracy or republic.
    
    [2-8-1]: Barracks
    ---------------------
    
    Barracks have two effects. Firstly all new land unit (except 
    settlers, engineers, explorers, diplomats and spies) are built 
    as veteran units.
    
    Second, and the thing that makes Sun Tzu's Academy less 
    valuable IMHO (because you have to build the barracks 
    anyway to get this benefit) is that each turn all land units 
    in a city with a barracks are healed back to full strength.
    
    [2-8-1]: City Wall
     ---------------------
    
    City Walls have two effects. Firstly the defensive strenght 
    of any unit attacked in the city is doubled. Bombers,Stealth  
    Bombers, Howitzers and naval units ignore this effect.
    
    City Walls also prevent the loss of population should one 
    of your units inside the city be destroyed.
    
    
    [2-9]: Terrain Improvements
    ===================
    
    [2-9-1]: Irrigation
    ---------------------
    
    [blank]
    
    [2-9-2]: Roads
    ---------------------
    
    [blank]
    
    [2-9-3]: Mines
     ---------------------
    
    [blank]
    
    [2-9-4]: Railroads
    ---------------------
    
    2-9-5]: Farmland
    ---------------------
    
    
    *2-10*: Governments
    ===================
    
    [2-10-1]: Republic
    ---------------------
    This is the most versatile and usually the one I stick with. 
    Can punish weak civilizations while still keeping up in  
    science. [ctown@en.com (William R. Brickles III)]
    
    *2-10-2*: Democracy
    ---------------------
    This is purely a mind-your-own-business government. The 
    best economically, but I'd rather go to war in Anarchy. 
    [ctown@en.com (William R. Brickles III)]
    
    The best government in terms of trade and research. With 
    the assistance of happiness wonders and improvements it is 
    possible to sustain periods of warfare without having to 
    switch to Fundamentalism.
    
    Additionally your cities can't be bribed when your under a 
    democracy.
    
    [2-10-3]: Fundamentalism
    ---------------------
    Sure science is low but you can put Luxury at 0% and 
    Science at max (I think 70%) and still grow a huge bank 
    account.  War is the focus here.  I still remember the time I 
    sent 20 tanks to crush the Chinese and backed them up 
    with 20 more in very few turns...  Or how about that Celtic 
    town I attacked with 4 nuclear warheads just for kicks? 
    [ctown@en.com (William R. Brickles III)]
    
    *2-10-4*: Communism
    ---------------------
    Not good for much actually, but better than primitive 
    governments. [ctown@en.com (William R. Brickles III)]
    
    Easily the worst of the modern governments and not 
    recommended. Fundamentalism is a better platform for all 
    out war.
    
    *2-10-5*: Monarchy
    ---------------------
    I usually skip right to Republic. [ctown@en.com (William 
    R. Brickles III)]
    
    Important to switch to Monachy as soon as possible and all 
    initial researchshould be channelled towards attaining this.
    
    [2-10-6]: Despotism
    ---------------------
    Better than Anarchy ! [ctown@en.com (William R. 
    Brickles III)] but don't wait for some kid to draw the sword 
    out of  the stone.  Crown yourself and go Monachy as soon 
    as possible.
    
    [2-10-1]: Anarchy
    ---------------------
    It's better to hear your advisors argue than listen to the 
    terrible Elvis impersonator. [ctown@en.com (William
    R. Brickles III)]
    
    [2-11]: Wonders of The World
    ===========================
    **[2-11-1]**: Must Haves
    ---------------------
    
     Great Library, Leonardo's Workshop, Michaelangelo's 
    Chapel, Women's Suffrage, Hoover Dam, Great Wall.
    
    [2-11-2]: Nice To Haves
    ---------------------
    
    King Richard's Crusade, Oracle, Copernicus's Observatory, 
    Magellan's Voyage, SETI project, Eiffel Tower, Statue of 
    Liberty, Cure for Cancer, United Nations.
    
    [2-11-3]: Not Really Bothered
    ---------------------
    
    Pyramids,Hanging Gardens, Lighthouse, Shakespeare's 
    Theatre, Marco Polo's Expedition, Apollo Project, 
    Manhattan Project, Sun Tzu's Academy. 
     
    [2-11-4]: Exceptions
    ---------------------
    
    This may alter slightly depending on the environment. 
    For example if you have lots of small continents in your 
    world the Magellan's Voyage and Lighthouse become more 
    important.
    
    [2-11-5]: Wonder Denial
    ---------------------
    
    Of course by having a Wonder yourself you deny anyone 
    else from having its benefits. This is particularly important 
    for certain Wonders, like United Nations. It's incredibly 
    frustrating to have to stop fighting because the other side 
    has this Wonder ! (Or to struggle to research a technology 
    only to have your enemy acquire it from his Great 
    Library!)
    
    [2-11-6]: Obsolete Wonders
    ---------------------
    
    Be careful about the technology you choose in order to 
    avoid accidentally making one of your critical Wonders 
    obsolete too early. Metallurgy for Great Wall and Mobile 
    Warfare for Leonardo's Workshop are the critical ones.
    
    [2-11-7]: Specific Wonders
    ---------------------
    
    [2-11-7-1]: The Great Wall
     --------------------- 
    If you have the Great Wall - remember to prepare 
    for it's obsolescence. There's nothing quite so 
    unpleasant as being attacked by another civilisation 
    only to have all your cities lose their walls because 
    some SOB discovers metallurgy ! 
    
    *2-11-7-2*: Leonardo’s Workshop
    ---------------------
    A note on Leonardo's workshop. It does not 
    immediately upgrade all your troops - that only 
    happens when you gain a technology. So when you 
    build Leonardo's workshop all your units get 
    upgraded. And when you gain a new technology 
    Civ2 checks to see if your units should be upgraded. 
    But if you gain control of other units (except by 
    building them) - for example through bribery - these 
    are not upgraded until the next time you gain a 
    technology advance. Another effect of being 
    upgraded by Leonardo's Workshop is that any 
    veteran units lose their veteran status - even if 
    they're in the city with a barracks.
    
    *2-11-7-2-1* Evolutionary Paths
    ------------------------------
    [rad@via.East.Sun.COM (Bob Doolittle)]
    
    These are some of the upgrade paths units take. Any 
    further contributions gratefully accepted.
    
    Horsemen -> Knights   ->  Dragoons -> Cavalry
    
    Chariots -> Elephants -> Crusaders 
    
    Settler -> Engineer (explosives needed to evolve)
    
    Phalanx -> Pikeman -> Musketeer -> Rifleman      
    
    ==============================
    -SECTION TWO- STRATEGIES
    ==============================
    
    -------------------------------------------
    CHAPTER[5]: The Early Game
    -------------------------------------------
    
    [5-1]: Expand Rapidly
    ===========================
    
    Build lots of cities quickly. Forget about building an army or 
    garrisons and build settlers. On Emperor level this is easy because 
    you don't get any discontent until your third citizen and by building 
    lots of settlers you ensure you don't have cities that big. On Deity 
    level it's harder because the second citizen is discontented. The 
    plan here is to still build lots of settlers quickly - but take the 
    occasional break to build a garrison or temple to keep the citizens 
    quiet.
    
    The sole exception to this is if you find yourself on the same 
    continent as another player. In which case the priority is to kill 
    them as quickly possible. Do *not* build up first - they will be too 
    !!
     
    [5-2]: Build Roads
    ===========================
    
    Always build at least one road or irrigation with each settler before 
    building a city. Roads are important early for the trade boost you 
    get. Otherwise you'll run out of money !
     
    Once you have 5-6 cities established begin to build roads 
    connecting them - both too increase the speed of response of your 
    armies and to improve trade.
    
    [5-3]: Establish Your Borders
    ===========================
     
    Seal off your continent as quickly as possible ! Along with 
    destroying any other civilisations you find on your continent you 
    should fortify units on its land borders as soon as possible to 
    prevent others moving in and thereby giving yourself exclusive 
    access to the continent. 
    
    If you're playing in the real world then Africa is one of the 
    easiest continents to achieve this in - simply fortify a unit (and 
    build fortification when possible) at the Suez canal to prevent 
    access to the whole of Africa. (The Americas comes a close second 
    - because you have an ocean to separate you. The disadvantge is a 
    lack of opportunities to trade technology with other civilisations.) 
    
    [5-4]: Change To Monarchy
    ===========================
     
    The most important early advance to get is Monarchy. Despotism is 
    just too inefficient for you to get far with it. Although it is OK for 
    the early turns because of the reduced maintenance you pay for 
    units.
    
    "Get into Monarchy ASAP. Then once you have monarchy start 
    irrigating the hell out of your land. At this point, pump up the 
    population with a We love the ___ celebration. Boost the luxary 
    rate to get all of your cities into We_Love, and let this go for a few 
    years till they hit the aquaduct wall at size 8. Then reset the 
    tax/science rate, build aquaducts and temples, etc, and then have 
    another celebration and boost your cities to size 12. Once you 
    research sewers, you can have another sale.
    
    "Of course, to have such large cities, its necessary to have Mike's 
    chappel (sp?) and other people pacifying Wows." 
    [jthibeau@wellfleet.com (John Thibeault)]
    
    [5-5]: Republic Costs
    ===========================
     
    Be careful about switching to Republic too soon. If you have lots of 
    settlers around (as I suggest) then you'll quickly starve them 
    because of doubling of food support. It's important to build 
    Michelangelo's Chapel before switching to Republic or the cost due 
    to unhappiness can be great.
    
    "I am playing on the King Level, and I recently switched from 
    Monarchy to Republic.  I had a bunch of cities, ranging up to size 
    14 (captured from the Babylonians), and I immediately had 
    problems with famines. I did not have many cathedrals (the evil 
    Yanks had built Michelangelo's Chapel), and popularity was a 
    problem.  I then switched to Communism, and I am awash in food.  
    During my brief stint as a Republican, I lost several engineers to 
    the famine.  As a Commisar, I am building new engineers and am 
    growing my population.  Long live Marx (Groucho, that 
    is)!"[zcbag@cnfd.pgh.wec.com (B. Alan Guthrie)]
    
    [5-6]: Trade, Trade, Trade
    ===========================
    
    With the exception of one or two critical technologies I always 
    trade everything I can. This is because unless you have a 
    commanding lead over all other civilisations the others will trade 
    amongst themselves and you'll lose out.  Don't trade a techology 
    that allows construction of Wonder you want to build. Unless it's 
    for a technology that allows construction of a more important 
    Wonder that you won't acquire for a while.  
    
    [5-7]: Wonders of The World
    ===========================
    
    Wonders To Build. The ones to go for are: Great Library and Great 
    Wall. Some people also adivse Hanging Gardens and Colossus - but 
    I wouldn't bother - there' better stuff.
    
    The Great Library is a good wonder to build early.  You can usually 
    pick up quite a few "base level" early to give your civ a 
    technological edge. Additionally you'll prevent the other civ's from 
    picking up easy advances off your back through denying them the 
    Great Library.
    
    The only other ancient wonder of  significant value is Colossus to 
    give your science city an early boost.  Pyramids is made obsolete by 
    the fact that the best strategy for growth is gaining We Love ? Days 
    in your cities which Pyramids or granaries for that matter play no 
    part of.
    
    An Alternative Point of View from jthibeau@wellfleet.com (John 
    Thibeault)
    
    "Initial WoWs to get are the Colossus, as this is a great boost for 
    trade, cash and research. Then go for the Great Wall, then the 
    Great Library, as a defensive measure to keep this thing out of the 
    hands of the Ai civs. My latest game on Emperor level (7 civs) I 
    have my capital building the Wow's, and 3 cities feeding it with 
    caravans, and I have managed to just squeak by in building these 
    Wow's (plus the pyramids) before the Ai civs have. It is important 
    to get the Trade tech pretty early, so you can use caravans to beat 
    the Ai at making WoW's. The Ai cheats by 'buying' Wows a little at 
    a time each turn, and they seem to be able to generate more cash 
    than the human player can. The Great Library will not help you if 
    you are in the lead, but I feel that it is vital to keep this thing out of 
    the hands of the AI civs.
    
    "Another strategy concerning the Great library is to destroy it! Find 
    the city that the AI has built it in, and keep attacking the city 
    (without capturing it) till the city is reduced to pop 1, and then 
    destroyed. No more library!  =)
    
    "One great way to wage war while in a republic or democracy is to 
    have both King Richards crusade and Shakespear in the same city. 
    This city can then support quite a large army in the field. My last 
    game (King,7) I had both of these in a sixe 19 city, and had an 
    army of 36 Dragoons in the field, just waiting for the Ai civs to 
    break those treaties!! hehe"
    
    "Has anyone researched for the "Great Library" right away, then 
    put your efforts and taxes into producing big cities, all the while 
    your getting tech from the library???" 
    [schollr@esc.ccsd15.k12.il.us (Ryan 
    Scholl)]
    
    *5-8*:  Build a Science City
    ===========================
    
    A principle founded in Civ1 and still holds true in Civ2.  Select a 
    city site with good potential for trade (usually one with plenty of 
    rivers and a trade special).  Concentrate your growth and trade 
    efforts around this city by roading and irrigating the area.
    
    Build a temple early and don't produce settlers from this city as you 
    want the population to grow as rapidly as possible.  Look to build 
    science wonders and improvements in this city to maximise 
    scientific research.  ie. Colossus, Copernicus' Oberservatory,  Isaac 
    Newton's College,  Library and University.  
    
    Additionally build caravans from other cities and set up trade 
    routes to the science city.  Don't underestimate the value of trade 
    routes.  They can be a great source of income and research 
    particularly in the mid to late game.
    
    
    -------------------------------------------
    CHAPTER[6]: The Mid Game
    -------------------------------------------
    
    [incomplete]
    
    [6-1]: Get Outta Here
    ===========================
    
    Regularly insist that anyone you have a peace treaty with withdraws 
    their troops (if they're imposing). 
    
    [6-2]: Trust You Again ?!?
    ===========================
    
    If a civilisation regularly breaks treaties never, never, ever, sign 
    another one with them. They *will* break it again. (And there's a 
    bug, at least in 1.06, that means you take the blame if someone 
    violates a treaty with you !! Nice one MP.)
    
    [6-3]: Wonders of The World
    ===========================
    
    Wonders to aim for are: Michaelangelo's Chapel and Hoover Dam.
    
    -------------------------------------------
    CHAPTER[7]: The Late Game
    -------------------------------------------
    
    [7-1]: Wonders of The World
    ===========================
    
    You really should be a Democracy in the late game - otherwise 
    you're going to fall badly behind in production and technology. 
    Fundamentalism appears to be a sound alternative but fanatics are 
    not good units and technology is the only way to break the 
    stalemates that can develop in the late game - and Fundamentalist 
    governments lose 50% of their research (especially if it contradicts 
    the Bible or Koran etc Darwin's Voyage ? Lose two technology 
    advances ;)).
    
     Alternate points of view:
    "Once you switch into a Fundamentalist gov't, stick with it to the 
    end.  Granted, you loose alot of sci. but you make it back with the 
    cities you capture.  The only reason you should change back to 
    democracy is if you have no idea where any of the other civs 
    are."[jake@gwis2.circ.gwu.edu (Jacob Daniel Walter)]
    
    "One common approach, which works too well IMO, is to use 
    Fundamentalism to destroy all but one competing civilization, and 
    to reduce that last one to a single city. Then you can gently restore 
    your cities (using all the cash you get from tithes, disbanding units, 
    and selling your expensive coastal defenses and city walls to offset 
    the cost of raising the luxury rate and buying colliseums) to prepare 
    them to the switch back to democracy." [rdclark@aol.com 
    (RDClark)]
    
    "I agree that Fundamentalism is too powerful. I've had several 
    games on Emperor and Deity level that I won simply by building 
    lots of cities early, getting to Fundamentalism quickly, then out-
    producing all the other civs and drowning them in cavalry, cannons 
    and fanatics, accompanied by huge gangs of settlers to make roads 
    and, later, railroads so that a cannon can be purchased outright in 
    one turn, then in the next railroaded right up to an enemy city to 
    attack."[rdclark@aol.com (RDClark)]
    
    [7-2]: Defending Your Cities
    ===========================
    
    Defending your cities. It makes sense to have a mix of units in your 
    front line cities. I.e. two good defensive units plus one or two good 
    attackers to take out those slow moving heavy hitters as they 
    trundle up to your city walls. A barracks (for the healing capability) 
    and of course city walls are a must.
     
    [7-3]: Espionage
    ===========================
    
    The only way that you're going to realistically win the game by 
    conquest is by using diplomats and spies to incite revolts in 
    opponents cities.  Obviously this won't work against Democracies - 
    but that's not a problem because the computer seems to prefer 
    Fundamentalism anyway.
    
    [7-4]: Spaceward Ho!
    ===========================
    
    Alternatively, concentrate on defending your territory whilst 
    knocking you closest competitors and aim to win by building the 
    spaceship. 
    
    [7-5]: Oops - silly me !
    ===========================
    
    Unless you really, really have to have a city and can't bribe it (costs 
    too much or it's a Democracy) do *not* send a spy in to plant a 
    Nuclear device ! It can be quite embarassing for the whole world to 
    declare war on you. Unless of course your a Fundamentalist regime 
    and everyone expects the worst from you anyway :) (Didn't stop the 
    Yanks bombing Libyan civilian centres though did it ? Perhaps 
    there should be an extra qualifier to this: As long as no oil is 
    involved no-one will care. ;))
    
    [7-6] "The Vikings Launch..." AAAHHHH !
    ===========================
    
    If another civilisation builds and launches their spaceship 
    before your ready - don't despair. Build the maximum structure, 
    minimum life support etc and maximum engines and fuel. As long 
    as you pile enough resources in and weren't already too far behind, 
    your spaceship will fly faster, catch up, overtake and you'll win.
    
    (I've only been beaten to the lauunch twice. Both times by the 
    Vikings. The first time I won anyway because of a bug in 1.0 which 
    meant as long as you had launched a spaceship you won regardless 
    of who actually got to Alpha Centauri first. The second time I won 
    by using the above tactic.)
    
    [7-7] Wonders of the World
    ===========================
    
    You really should be aiming to gain the following Wonders: SETI 
    project and Cure for Cancer.
    
    Don't worry if someone else beats you to Apollo Project or 
    Manhattan project because you get all the benefits anyway ! The 
    only problem is if you're not ready to take advantage of these - you 
    can be sure the other civilisations will be !
    
    [7-8] M.A.D.
    ===========================
    
    How to wage nuclear war. One short answer: don't. Enemy civs do 
    sometimes clean up pollution - but don't count on it. If you've 
    managed to build SDI in all vulnerable cities and need to then go 
    ahead and try a limited surgical strike.
    
    [7-9] Guerilla’s In the Mist
    ===========================
    
    Dealing With Partisans. Guerilla Warfare really bogs the game 
    down. If your opponents have this then you can probably forget 
    about a quick military victory. Conversley if you have it then you're 
    unlikely to be knocked out before you finish building your 
    spaceship.
    
    "I think I have found a strategy that helps limit those pesky 
    Partisans.  Partisans only appear on empty land squares within a 
    cities zone of control. If you fill up all available land squares then 
    take the city you do not get any partisans.  If you can't fill all of the 
    squares you can at least determine were the partisan will go.  That 
    way you can kill him quicker. I like using bombers or fighters to fill 
    up the squares.  With fighter I send them to the square they will 
    occupy then press 'W' to have them wait.  Take the city then move 
    the unit.  The computer player has placed a lot of rail around his 
    cities.  With Rail you can send a land unit to occupy a square then 
    Press 'W' then take the city.  You can use all of the units you have 
    Waited with to take the next city."
    [nowakowsky@arc.ab.ca (Blair Nowakowsky)]
    
    [7-10] Broken AEGIS
    ===========================
    
    The earlier versions of Civ2 had a bug in it that meant the AEGIS 
    cruiser did *not* intercept attacking missiles and aircraft. This was 
    fixed in 1.07.
    
    *7-11* Global Warning
    ============================
    Global warming can be a killer. If it happens you all lose.
    
    -------------------------------------------
    CHAPTER*8*: Player Tips
    -------------------------------------------
    
    *8-1* cpl@phy.auckland.ac.nz (Caton Little)
    ===========================================
    *8-1-1* Global Warning
    -----------------------
    Global warming appears to vanish once 15 or so cities have 
    solar plants (These are *GREAT*, no recycling req'd),so 
    nukes are not so annoying.
    
    	*8-1-2* Bribery & Corruption
    	-----------------------
    
    	Bribe settlers whenever possible. The two foods they us 
    	will halt a cities growth altogether until you can 
    	irrigate...but a dozen settlers from NONE will work 
    	wonders!
    
    	*8-1-3* 
    	-----------------------
    	If a big empire is just asking for a pounding, but they're 
    	too far away, use 3 engineers to RR one plains/grassland 
    	per turn right into the heart of the enemy empire. Can you 
    	say 'instant reinforcements'? Send a few units to the target 
    	city (base of operations), just to see where they go, and
    	build the RR on the path they use, as the GOTO algorithm 
    	isn't always predictable. Always keep at least a couple of 
    	units in fortified positions along the RR to stop the buggers 
    	using the same trick to get you back. Always put 4 or 5 
    	units in the target city, and a couple around it. By this 
    	stage you should be well ahead of the computer, and 
    	having them steal mobile warfare or adv. flight would be 
    	most annoying. I tend to starve/poison enemy cities to 
    	death (capture them at one population), they're usually 
    	badly placed, and not worth the effort to maintain.
    
    *8-2* Jukka Michelsson
    ===========================================
    	*8-2-1* The Space Race
    	-----------------------
    
    	When you notice that you are falling - or already have 
    	fallen -behind in military power and decide to win the 
    	game by sending "a man into the moon" you should never 
    	let the strongest power to live in peace, because they will 
    	take the advantage and use all his/her cities to build space 
    	ship parts. Instead, you should use your diplomatic skills to 
    	arrange war between your allies and the strongest power to 
    	keep him busy while you build space ships. You might 
    	want to produce some military units in one or two cities 
    	and give them away to your allies to keep them fighting. 
    
    -------------------------------------------
    CHAPTER[9]: War Stories
    -------------------------------------------
    
                    [blank]
    
    ==============================
    -SECTION THREE- MISCELLANEOUS
    ==============================
    
    -------------------------------------------
    CHAPTER*10*: Internet Resources
    -------------------------------------------
    [10-1] Third party programs
    
            [blank]
    
    [10-2] World Wide Web sites
    
            [blank]
    
    *10-3* Other FAQs and texts
    
    	*10-3-1*Wonder of the World
    	-----------------------------
    
    	There's a document about the Wonders available from: 
    	http://www.gamelord.com/civ/wow.htm (note the
    	missing trailing 'l' in the URL - sic).
    
    	
    
    	*10-3-2* Shareware Civ2 Strategy Guide
    	-----------------------------
    	Pascal Ode is co-ordinating a shareware Civ2 strategy 
    	guide, those of you familiar with his Steel Panthers guide 
    	will know what to expect. It'll be all original material - 
    	concentrating on the strategy aspect and will be published 
    	at:
    
    	http://ourworld.compuserve.com/homepages/POde/
    	
    	The name is : Strategies for a Deity, the un-official strategy 
    	guide for Civilization II.
    
    	Pascal uses a shareware concept called "trustware". The 
    	word trustware is self explanatory: you get the *complete* 
    	edition of the guide *before* sending the fee. The fee is 
    	about half the price of a paper traditional strategy guide.  
    	Just visit the above mentioned homepage to get more 
    	details.
    
    	As it is implied by the name, this guide is about wining 
    	strategies at deity level. Whether you are a beginner or a 
    	seasoned veteran, you  get wining strategies at the higher 
    	level but also some good food for thoughts in order to 
    	enjoy even more what we believe is the best game ever 
    	designed.
    
    	Release date is June 15 1996. I'm involved with this -
    	principally as the maintainer of this freeware faq which 
    	seems to have received wide dispersal.
    
    	Any contributions made to this faq may be used in the 
    	shareware product Pascal is working on but will ALWAYS 
    	be available FREE as part of this work as well. SO you 
    	won't pay for your own effort !
    
    -------------------------------------------
    CHAPTER[11]: Bugs, updates, future games
    -------------------------------------------
    [11-1] The wishlist
    
            [blank]
    
    [11-2] Questions regarding Civ2 present and future
    
            [blank]
    
    *11-3* Update patches
    
    The current patch is version 1.11, available from the civ2 home 
    page.
    
    [11-4] Errors in the Civ2 manual
    
    None that I’m aware of.
    
    -------------------------------------------
    CHAPTER[12]: Conclusion
    -------------------------------------------
    
    My best score so far is 83% on Emperor level - without cheating. 
    I'm currently playing a Divinty level game and doing quite nicely ! 
    Andthis is all on a version of Civ2 that still has the auto-production 
    bug !
    
    My favourite starting position used to be America - but you're just 
    too isolated. So now my favourite is Zulus, default starting position 
    and the real world map. Just the right balance between isolation 
    and access.
    
    -------------------------------------------
    CHAPTER*13*: Revision History
    -------------------------------------------
    
    Having had my hard disk smoke on me 13 seems an appropriate 
    number for this section.
    
    Version 1.0     Initial Strategy Guide
    Version 1.1     Added Usenet culled comments
    Version 2.0     Changed the format of the guide and extended it 
    somewhat.
    Version 2.1	Published on the usenet but lost.
    Version 2.2	Based on v2.0 not 2.1 as that went up in smoke.
    
    If you have v2.1 or have contributions that were lost please re-mail 
    them to me.
    
    Edward
    
    

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