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    AD&D Rules FAQ by DSimpson

    Version: 4.41 | Updated: 01/17/05 | Printable Version | Search Guide | Bookmark Guide

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       ŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻ
                                    AD&D Rules FAQ
    
                 for every CRPG based on the 2nd Edition AD&D ruleset:
    
       Baldur's Gate                          Gateway to the Savage Frontier
       Baldur's Gate 2: Shadows of Amn        Hillsfar
       Champions of Krynn                     Icewind Dale
       Curse of the Azure Bonds               Menzoberranzen
       Dark Queen of Krynn                    Planescape: Torment
       Death Knights of Krynn                 Pool of Radiance
       Descent to Undermountain               Pools of Darkness
       Dungeon Hack                           Secret of the Silver Blades
       Eye of the Beholder                    Treasures of the Savage Frontier
       Eye of the Beholder 2                  Warriors of the Eternal Sun (Genesis)
       Eye of the Beholder 3
       ____________________________________________________________________________
                      ŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻ
    
                                   January 17, 2005
                                     Version  4.41
    
                            Written by:  Dan Simpson
                                 Email:  dsimpson.faqs@gmail.com
    
    
    
                                          Notes
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    You will find the most up to date version of this FAQ at:
    
      http://www.gamefaqs.com/
      http://www.gamewinners.com/
    
    Having written a number of FAQs for AD&D games (Baldur's Gate, Baldur's Gate II
    Icewind Dale, and Planescape: Torment), I often get questions on the basics of 
    the ruleset.  What is THAC0?  What is AC?  How does magic work?  Since I've
    done so many different AD&D games, I didn't want to duplicate information in
    each one, and so I have created this file.  So the purpose of this document is
    to explain these concepts to people who aren't familiar with the AD&D ruleset.
    
    3rd Edition Note:  This document works mostly for the 2nd Edition ruleset.
                       There are several upcoming 3rd Edition rules games -- namely
                       Neverwinter Nights and Pool of Radiance II: Ruins of Myth
                       Drannor.  These are not covered in this FAQ.  And in case
                       you are curious, as of the 3rd Edition the "Advanced" in
                       AD&D is being dropped.  Why?  The "basic" D&D is out of
                       print, so there was nothing for AD&D to be "advanced" from.
    
                       I also have a 3rd Edition D&D FAQ at GameFAQs.
    
    This document is divided up into a series of Articles, such as the first which
    is "Thac0 and Armor Class (AC)".
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    
    ___________________
    What's New in 4.41:
    ŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻ
        Changed email addresses. Small changes to the format.
    
      A complete version history can be found in the Final Words... section at the
      end of the FAQ.
    
    
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Table of Contents
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    
      Articles
    
        Ĝ.  Basic Concepts
        1.  THAC0 and Armor Class (AC)
        2.  Magic
        3.  Levels
        4.  Multiclassing and Dual Classing
    
      Frequently Asked Questions
    
      Final Words...
    
    
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Article Ĝ:  Basic Concepts
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    
      Dice = Everyone knows what dice are.  The most recognized form of dice is the
             "D6" or the six sided die.  If you find a weapon that deals out 3d6
             worth of Damage, then that means the weapon uses 3 six sided dice for
             a Damage Range of 3 to 18.
    
      +,-  = Throughout AD&D there are modifiers in both the positive and negative
             directions.  Any + modifier improves a stat, any - modifier degrades
             a stat.  Why is this distinction important?  Some stats are improved
             by decreasing their number, THAC0 for instance.  If you find a +2
             Sword, it improves your THAC0 by 2, which is actually a decrease in 
             the overall THAC0 number.  If you had started with 20 you would get 
             18.
    
      Encumberance = The weight that your character is currently holding.  
             Depending on how strong she is, she will be able to carry more things.
             In AD&D when you carry close to your limit, you will move slower, and
             if you go over your limit, you won't be able to move at all.  In
             Baldur's Gate, you get the message "Encumbered - Cannnot move."  
    
    
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Article 1:  THAC0 and Armor Class (AC)
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    
      THAC0 = "To Hit Armor Class 0", of a 20 sided dice the number needed to hit 
              an enemy with an AC of 0.  For example, if the THAC0 is 19, a roll of 
              19 or higher is needed to hit an enemy with an AC of 0.  A roll of
              1 is always a miss, and a roll of 20 is always a hit, called
              CRITICAL MISS and CRITICAL HIT respectively.
    
      AC    = Armor Class, roughly how difficult a figure is to hit.  AC starts 
              with a base score of 10 and is improved by lowering the number.
              Therefore a 0 AC is better than a 10, and a -10 is better still.
    
      These two things are what determines when a hit (that scores damage) is made.
      THAC0 is the offensive end of the roll, and AC is the defensive end of the
      roll.
    
      A successful hit is decided when the random roll is greater than the 
      attacker's THAC0 - enemy AC.  If a 15 THAC0 Fighter attacks a 0 AC
      goblin then you must roll 15 or greater. (The game itself usually does the
      rolling for you, but it still follows these mechanics) Remember that a roll
      of 20 will always hit.  So, even if the goblin's AC was -400, if you roll a 
      20 you will still hit it.  If the goblin has 10 AC then you need only roll a 
      5 or better, etc. (THAC0 - EnemyAC = 15 - 10 = 5)
    
        Note: Just because you hit, that doesn't mean you'll deal damage. There is
              the concept in second edition D&D of weapon immunities. Some monsters
              require a certain type of weapon to be hit. Also, wizards can cast
              spells such as "Protection from Magic Weapons" which makes them
              temporarily immune to magic weapons. Baldur's Gate represents this by
              having characters say "my weapon is useless" or something similar.
    
      THAC0 Explained:
      ----------------
    
        THAC0 defaults at 20 and is gradually lowered when levels are gained.
        Depending on the class (i.e. Fighter, Cleric, Mage) of the person involved
        the THAC0 will decrease at different rates.  For a Fighter (or Ranger, or
        Paladin) THAC0 decreases by a score of 1 per level.  A level 1 Fighter
        starts at 20 THAC0, but by level 10 he is at 11. (He has gained 9 levels, 
        and so loses 9 THAC0)  The lower the THAC0 the better, and there is no 
        limit to how low it can go.
    
        THAC0 Progression by Level & Class Chart:
                                                Level
          Group     1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   10  11  12  13  14  15  16
          -----     --------------------------------------------------------------
          Warrior   20  19  18  17  16  15  14  13  12  11  10   9   8   7   6   5
          Wizard    20  20  20  19  19  19  18  18  18  17  17  17  16  16  16  15
          Priest    20  20  20  18  18  18  16  16  16  14  14  14  12  12  12  10
          Rogue     20  20  19  19  18  18  17  17  16  16  15  15  14  14  13  13
    
          Patterns
          --------
          Warrior   1 every level
          Wizard    1 every 3 levels
          Priest    2 every 3 levels
          Rogue     1 every 2 levels
    
        At this point we're still just referring to RAW THAC0, there are still
        several things that modify it before it is used.  There are, in fact, four
        main things that modify THAC0 from here:  Strength, Weapon, Special 
        Effects, and Proficiency.  A super low strength score will raise your THAC0 
        (which is bad), while super high Strengths will lower your THAC0 (which is 
        good).
    
        STRENGTH as a THAC0 modifier
    
            STR     THAC0 Adj.                    STR      THAC0 Adj.
             3         -3                          17         +1
             4         -2                          18         +1
             5         -2                        18/01-50     +1
             6         -1                        18/51-75     +2
             7         -1                        18/76-90     +2
             8          0                        18/91-99     +2
             9          0                        18/00        +3
            10          0                          19         +3
            11          0                          20         +3
            12          0                          21         +4
            13          0                          22         +4
            14          0                          23         +5
            15          0                          24         +6
            16          0                          25         +7
    
        Notice how any improvement in THAC0 is denoted by a +3 or a +4, while in
        fact these numbers are how much your THAC0 is DECREASED.  A level 1 Fighter 
        has 20 THAC0, but if he has 18/00 STR, his THAC0 is decreased to 17.
    
        The weapon used also has an effect on THAC0, both by the weapon itself and
        also through Proficiency (although Proficiency is an optional rule, and
        of the games listed at the top, only Baldur's Gate, Planescape: Torment,
        Icewind Dale, and Baldur's Gate II follow this rule).  Generally speaking,
        the amount the THAC0 is changed is the number after the +.  A Long Sword +1
        would improve THAC0 by 1 point.  There are exceptions to this, some weapons
        won't have a + but improve THAC0 anyway, and some will say +1, but will in
        fact improve THAC0 more than 1 point.  In these cases, checking that items
        information will reveal how it modifies THAC0 (only available in some 
        games).
    
          Note: To check the item information in BG1, BG2 and IWD, right click the
                item in the inventory screen. Also note that magical items are very
                often "NOT IDENTIFIED." Meaning that you won't know what they do
                until they are IDENTIFIED.  See the FAQ below.
    
        Special Effects can be either a spell that improves THAC0 (Bless, for
        instance), or an Item that improves THAC0, but isn't a weapon, such as an
        Amulet of Thac0 +1.
    
        Proficiency was introduced to show what your character is skilled in, or
        not skilled in.  It has only really been used since Baldur's Gate in 1998.
        Since proficiency represents your character's knowledge of the weapon being
        used, using a weapon that you don't have proficiency in will result in a
        penalty to THAC0 and to Damage.
    
        PROFICIENCY as a THAC0 Modifier: (Baldur's Gate I & II, Icewind Dale,
                                          Planescape: Torment only)
    
          Level of Proficiency    Points Spent    Bonus to Hit
    
          Non-Proficient               0            -2 (Warrior)
                                                    -5 (Wizard)
                                                    -3 (Priest or Rogue)
          Proficient                   1             0 (but there is no penalty)
          Specialized                  2            +1
          Master                       3            +3
          High Master                  4            +3
          Grand Master                 5            +3
    
        As you can see, a Wizard using a weapon that he isn't proficient in will
        result in a steep penalty, so he could have 20 THAC0, but because he is
        using the wrong weapon his THAC0 leaps up to 25.
    
        Dexterity Note:  Dexterity has one small effect on THAC0, but only towards
                         the use of MISSILE WEAPONS (bows, crossbows, etc.).  At
                         a DEX of 16 you get a +1 to hit, 17 & 18 +2, and 19 +3.
    
      Armor Class Explained:
      ----------------------
    
        Armor Class isn't really about armor.  It is the composite of Armor and
        Dexterity that determines how hard it is for a damaging hit to be made.
        The base Armor Class (AC) is 10.  Anything lower is better and makes your
        character harder to hit. It does NOT reduce the amount of damage taken.
    
        The first facet of Armor Class is your Dexterity Score.  The higher the
        Dexterity, the lower (better) your Armor Class.  This reflects your 
        character's ability to dodge attacks. So, here, negative numbers are 
        better.
    
        DEXTERITY as an Armor Class Modifier
    
            DEX       AC Adj.                      DEX      AC Adj.
             3         +4                          14          0
             4         +3                          15         -1
             5         +2                          16         -2
             6         +1                          17         -3
             7          0                          18         -4
             8          0                          19         -4
             9          0                          20         -4
            10          0                          21         -5
            11          0                          22         -5
            12          0                          23         -5
            13          0                          24         -6
                                                   25         -6
    
        Whether you are on level 1 or level 20 your AC is still determined by the
        same two factors, DEX and Armor.  So, a level 1 Fighter with a Dex of 18
        would have an AC of 6 (before putting any armor on, BASE AC(10) + 
        DEX ADJ.(-4) = AC).  A level 20 fighter who has no armor would have the
        same AC with the same DEX.
    
        Which brings us to the BULK of where AC is made up, Armor.  We will divide
        armor into two categories, actual Armor (such as Plate Mail Armor) and
        support Items (such as Ring of Protection +1).
    
        Armor usually lists what your AC will be based from the Base AC itself.
        So Leather Armor will list its AC as AC 8.  What this means is that if you
        had the base AC of 10, wearing Leather Armor will decrease your AC to 8.
        If you do NOT have the Base AC (and who does), it still decreases your AC
        by 2 points.  If we wanted to determine the AC of our 18 DEX Fighter
        wearing Leather Armor we would need to take the Leather Armor AC(8) +
        Dexterity Bonus(-4) to get 4.  In this way you can think of your Armor's
        AC as REPLACING your Base AC.  So instead of starting at 10, with Leather
        Armor you would start at 8.
    
        Armor as an AC modifier (not all armors are in all games)
    
             Armor                  AC
    
             Leather Armor           8
             Studded Leather         7
             Hide Armor              6
             Scale Mail              6
             Brigandine Armor        6
             Chain Mail              5
             Ring Mail               5
             Elven Chainmail         5
             Drow Chainmail          4
             Banded/Splint Mail      4
             Plate Mail              3
             Field Plate             2
             Full Plate              1
    
        If an armor is said to be +1, or +2 that means that the armor has an extra
        special bonus attached that further lowers AC by that number.  So a Chain
        Mail +4 would have an AC score of 1 rather than 5.
    
        In addition to your Armor, AC is also determined by special items being
        worn by the character.  The most common special item is the common shield
        which improves AC by one point (our 4 AC, 18 DEX Leather Armor Fighter
        would then drop to 3 AC with a Shield).  There are various varieties of
        shields, but they all do the same job.  Other items would be Rings of
        Protection or Cloaks of Protection.  These all improve the AC of the
        wearer.
    
          Note:  Some games (Baldur's Gate, for example) allow only ONE extra 
                 protective item (not counting shields) to be worn at a time.  This 
                 includes Magic Armors.  So, if you wore a Chainmail +1, you
                 couldn't wear a Ring of Protection +1.  Or, if you had that
                 Ring of Protection +1 you couldn't wear the Cloak of 
                 Protection +1.
    
        Magic can also function as armor, however, it usually acts in place of 
        armor rather than as a bonus to it. Take the spell "Armor" or "Shield" for
        example. They set your AC to 6 and 4, respectively, but if you're wearing
        armor better than either, you get no extra benefit.  There are some spells
        that provide a simple bonus, such as Defensive Harmony (BG1, BG2, IWD), so
        check spell descriptions.  
    
    
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Article 2:  Magic
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    
      The Magic System used in AD&D is different from almost every other magic
      system out there.  For one thing, there is no "Mana" system, or anything
      similar that most games run on.  So, how does Magic work in the AD&D games?
    
      First, magic is divided into two main categories, MAGIC-USER and PRIEST.
      This is an important distinction as there are some subtle and some 
      not-so-subtle differences between the two.
    
      Who Casts Which Magic
    
        Magic User         Priest
        ----------         -------
        Mage               Cleric
        Bard               Paladin (at experience level 9)
        Sorcerer           Ranger (at experience level 8)
                           Druid
    
      Separate from your EXPERIENCE LEVEL is your spellcaster's SPELL LEVEL.  This
      is an important distinction that a lot of novices miss.  A level 6 mage
      CANNOT cast level 6 spells.  In fact, a mage can't cast level 6 spells until
      he has reached EXPERIENCE LEVEL 12.  There are 9 Wizard SPELL LEVELS but
      only 7 Priest SPELL LEVELS.  However, when a spell says that it becomes more
      powerful "for every 3 levels of the caster" it is referring to EXPERIENCE
      LEVELS rather than SPELL LEVELS.  It's easiest to remember that you gain a
      SPELL LEVEL at every other EXPERIENCE LEVEL.  So a mage starts at level 1,
      and can cast level 1 spells, at level 2, still just level 1 spells, but level
      3, he gains abilities in the 2nd level spells.
    
      How powerful a spellcaster you are depends on the class of the magic-user or 
      priest and on the stats as well.  The Mage, Druid and Cleric are the only
      classes who can learn all spell levels.  Druids and Clerics can only cast
      the 6th and 7th level spells if they have wisdoms of at least 17 or 18
      respectively. (7th level is as far as Priest spells go)
    
      Spell Level Limit
    
        Mage          * Depends on Intelligence, see Intelligence Chart below *
        Bard          6
        Ranger        3
        Paladin       4
    
      This way a Bard can learn up to 6th level wizard spells, and a Ranger can
      learn up to 3rd, but no farther.  You won't find Bards casting level 7 spells
      as it can't happen.
    
      Now that we understand who can do what, let's talk about how magic works
      more specifically.  There are three steps towards casting a spell (depending
      on the game).
    
        1. Add a spell to spellbook.  Priests do this automatically and know every
           spell for their spell level.  Mages need to find a spell scroll and
           scribe that spell into their spell book.  Since Mages have to actually
           find a scroll and scribe it in, there is a chance that they might fail,
           which is based on their intelligence. (Clerics already know all spells
           so they can't fail)  There is an intelligence chart later in this 
           article.  Mages are further limited by the number of spells they can
           learn per spell level, again this relates to intelligence.
    
        2. Memorize the spell.  Once the spell is in your spellbook, you need to
           decide which spells you want to "memorize".  Only spells that you have
           memorized can be cast, and they can only be cast once per memorization.
           So if you memorize one Magic Missile, then you can cast one Magic
           Missile.  The number of spells that you can memorize per spell level
           are listed below.  The memorization process usually involves Resting for
           a set amount of time.  Baldur's Gate does this through the spellbook 
           (w) and the priest scroll (p) interfaces. Empty boxes represent spell
           slots that are available on the left, with known spells on the right.
    
        3. And then you can actually cast the spell.  Again, you only get to cast
           a memorized spell once before needing Rest to rememorize it.  If you
           memorized a spell more than once (and you can memorize one spell as
           many times as you have free slots), you can cast it as many times as it
           was memorized.
    
      Spell Progression Charts by Class
    
        CLERIC / DRUID
    
               Spell Levels ---->         1   2   3   4   5   6*  7**
    
          Exp. Level
               1                          1   -   -   -   -   -   -
               2                          2   -   -   -   -   -   -
               3                          2   1   -   -   -   -   -
               4                          3   2   -   -   -   -   -
               5                          3   3   1   -   -   -   -
               6                          3   3   2   -   -   -   -
               7                          3   3   2   1   -   -   -
               8                          3   3   3   2   -   -   -
               9                          4   4   3   2   1   -   -
              10                          4   4   3   2   2   -   -
              11                          5   4   4   3   2   1   -
              12                          6   5   5   3   2   2   -
              13                          6   6   6   4   2   2   -
              14                          6   6   6   5   3   2   1
              15                          6   6   6   6   4   2   1
              16                          7   7   7   6   4   3   1
              17                          7   7   7   7   5   3   2
              18                          8   8   8   8   6   4   2
              19                          9   9   8   8   6   4   2
              20                          9   9   9   8   7   5   2
    
              * Use of 6th level spells requires a WIS of 17 or greater
              ** Use of 7th level spells requires a WIS of 18 or greater
    
        PALADIN
    
               Spell Levels ---->         1   2   3   4
    
          Exp. Level    Casting Level*
    
               9            1             1   -   -   -
              10            2             2   -   -   -
              11            3             2   1   -   -
              12            4             2   2   -   -
              13            5             2   2   1   -
              14            6             3   2   1   -
              15            7             3   2   1   1
              16            8             3   3   2   1
              17            9             3   3   3   1
              18            9             3   3   3   1
              19            9             3   3   3   2
              20            9             3   3   3   3
    
              * Casting Level is the effective EXPERIENCE LEVEL the Paladin is for
                purposes of spellcasting.  If a spell is more powerful for higher
                EXP LEVELS, this is the level they're referring to, not his actual
                EXP LEVEL. Because of this, Paladins make poor spellcasters.
    
        RANGER
    
               Spell Levels ---->         1   2   3
    
          Exp. Level    Casting Level*
    
               9            1             1   -   -
              10            2             2   -   -
              11            3             2   1   -
              12            4             2   2   -
              13            5             2   2   1
              14            6             3   2   1
              15            7             3   2   2
              16            8             3   3   3
    
              * Casting Level is the effective EXPERIENCE LEVEL the Ranger is for
                purposes of spellcasting.  If a spell is more powerful for higher
                EXP LEVELS, this is the level they're referring to, not his actual
                EXP LEVEL.
    
        MAGE
    
               Spell Levels ---->         1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9
    
          Exp. Level
               1                          1   -   -   -   -   -   -   -   -
               2                          2   -   -   -   -   -   -   -   -
               3                          2   1   -   -   -   -   -   -   -
               4                          3   2   -   -   -   -   -   -   -
               5                          4   2   1   -   -   -   -   -   -
               6                          4   2   2   -   -   -   -   -   -
               7                          4   3   2   1   -   -   -   -   -
               8                          4   3   3   2   -   -   -   -   -
               9                          4   3   3   2   1   -   -   -   -
              10                          4   4   3   2   2   -   -   -   -
              11                          4   4   4   3   3   -   -   -   -
              12                          4   4   4   4   4   1   -   -   -
              13                          5   5   5   4   4   2   -   -   -
              14                          5   5   5   4   4   2   1   -   -
              15                          5   5   5   5   5   2   1   -   -
              16                          5   5   5   5   5   3   2   1   -
              17                          5   5   5   5   5   3   3   2   -
              18                          5   5   5   5   5   3   3   2   1
              19                          5   5   5   5   5   3   3   3   1
              20                          5   5   5   5   5   4   3   3   2
    
        BARD
    
               Spell Levels ---->         1   2   3   4   5   6
    
          Exp. Level
               1                          -   -   -   -   -   -
               2                          1   -   -   -   -   -
               3                          2   -   -   -   -   -
               4                          2   1   -   -   -   -
               5                          3   1   -   -   -   -
               6                          3   2   -   -   -   -
               7                          3   2   1   -   -   -
               8                          3   3   1   -   -   -
               9                          3   3   2   -   -   -
              10                          3   3   2   1   -   -
              11                          3   3   3   1   -   -
              12                          3   3   3   2   -   -
              13                          3   3   3   2   1   -
              14                          3   3   3   3   1   -
              15                          3   3   3   3   2   -
              16                          4   3   3   3   2   1
              17                          4   4   3   3   3   1
              18                          4   4   4   3   3   2
              19                          4   4   4   4   3   2
              20                          4   4   4   4   4   3
    
      The final concept that we'll deal with here are the Stat bonuses as they
      relate to spellcasting.  The two stats in question are, of course, WISDOM and
      INTELLIGENCE.  Only Priests gain extra casting spells per level (the number
      of spells which can be memorized and cast), however Mages are very dependent
      upon Intelligence for other things, such as % to scribe a spell into their
      spellbook and how many spells they can know per spell level.  A lot of games
      don't deal with some of these stats.
    
      Intelligence as it relates to Mages
    
        Intelligence       Max Spell Level    % to Learn Spell   # Spells / Level
        ŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻ
             8                  --  can't cast magic at these levels  --
             9                  4th                 35%                6
            10                  5th                 40                 7
            11                  5th                 45                 7
            12                  6th                 50                 7
            13                  6th                 55                 9
            14                  7th                 60                 9
            15                  7th                 65                11
            16                  8th                 70                11
            17                  8th                 75                14
            18                  9th                 85                18
            19                  9th                 95               All
            20                  9th                 96               All
            21                  9th                 97               All
            22                  9th                 98               All
            23                  9th                 99               All
            24                  9th                100               All
            25                  9th                100               All
    
      So a Mage with only 17 INT can't learn 9th level spells, has a 75% chance to
      copy a scroll into his spellbook, and can only learn 14 spells per level
      anyway.  Thus we see why having an 18 INT mage is important.
    
      Wisdom as it relates to Priests
    
        Wisdom        Bonus Spells          % Spell Failure
        ŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻ
          8               --  can't cast spells at this level  --
          9               0                        20
         10               0                        15
         11               0                        10
         12               0                         5
         13           +1 1st level                  0
         14           +1 1st level                  0
         15           +1 2nd level                  0
         16           +1 2nd level                  0
         17           +1 3rd level                  0
         18           +1 4th level                  0
         19           +1 1st & +1 4th               0
         20           +1 2nd & +1 4th               0
         21           +1 3rd & +1 5th               0
         22           +1 4th & +1 5th               0
         23           +2 5th                        0
         24           +2 6th                        0
         25           +1 6th & +1 7th
    
      Note:  Bonus spells are cumulative, so an 18 WIS cleric would get +2 1st
             level, +2 2nd level, +1 3rd level and +1 4th level spells.  While a
             13 WIS cleric would get only +1 1st level.
    
      Also Note:  Paladins and Rangers don't get Bonus Spells.
    
      Final Note:  If you, or any spellcaster, is hit while casting their spell,
                   the spell is interrupted and won't be cast.
    
    
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Article 3:  Levels
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    
      With the proliferation of less "realistic" RPG levelling systems, I am often
      asked why your stats never improve when you gain levels, and what levels
      do gain you; which is what this article is all about. (of course, it didn't
      help that Torment DID give you stat increases)
    
      Basically, there are three things that levels improve: Hit Points, THAC0, and 
      Saving Throws. (There are other "secondary" effects of higher levels, such as
      more powerful magics, but that isn't necessary to understand the basics here)
    
      Hit Points gained per level:
    
        level     Fighters   Priests   Rogues   Wizards
        -----------------------------------------------
        1 to 9      10         8         6        4
        10+          3         2         2        1
    
      You gain most of your character's HP during the first 9 levels.  A Fighter
      with average Constitution will gain 10 HP a level, and so could be a level
      9 fighter with 90 HP (assuming that you got max HP each level).  The number
      of HP you get is usually random.  Meaning you can get anywhere from 1 to
      your classes max (in the Fighters case, he would gain between 1 - 10 HP a
      level).
    
      Also for the first 9 levels you will also gain a Constitution bonus to your
      HP.
    
      Constitution HP Bonuses:
    
        CON    HP Adj.             CON    HP Adj.
    
         3       -1                15      +1
         4       -1                16      +2
         5       -1                17      +2 (+3)
         6        0                18      +2 (+4)
         7        0                19      +2 (+5)
         8        0                20      +2 (+5)
         9        0                21      +2 (+6)
        10        0                22      +2 (+6)
        11        0                23      +2 (+6)
        12        0                24      +2 (+7)
        13        0                25      +2 (+7)
        14        0
    
        Only Fighters/Paladins/Rangers gain the CON bonus in the parenthesis.
        Because of this, only these classes need a CON score above 16.
    
      So, a Fighter with 18 CON (the best a Human can get) COULD gain 14 HP a 
      level. (the range would be 5-14)
    
      Finally there are Saving Throws.  Saving Throws represent your character's
      ability to avoid various effects, such as a Death Spell.  If he has good
      enough Saving Throws (and makes the random roll) then he can survive the
      spell.  These also improve as you go up in level, with the lower scores being
      better (just like golf).
    
      Saving Throws per Level:
                           
                           Para/Pois/           Petrification/   Breath
        Class      Level     Death       Wand     Polymorph      Weapon     Spell
        ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
        Priest     1 to 3      10         14          13           16         15
                   4-6         9          13          12           15         14
                   7-9         7          11          10           13         12
                   10-12       6          10           9           12         11
                   13-15       5           9           8           11         10
                   16-18       4           8           7           10          9
                   19+         2           6           5            8          7
        ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
        Rogues     1-4        13          14          12           16         15
                   5-8        12          12          11           15         13
                   9-12       11          10          10           14         11
                   13-16      10           8           9           13          9
                   17-20       9           6           8           12          7
                   21+         8           4           7           11          5
        ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
        Warriors   1-2        14          16          15           17         17
                   3-4        13          15          14           16         16
                   5-6        11          13          12           13         14
                   7-8        10          12          11           12         13
                   9-10        8          10           9            9         11
                   11-12       7           9           8            8         10
                   13-14       5           7           6            5          8
                   15-16       4           6           5            4          7
                   17+         3           5           4            4          6
        ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
        Wizards    1-5        14          11          13           15         12
                   6-10       13           9          11           13         10
                   11-15      11           7           9           11          8
                   16-20      10           5           7            9          6
                   21+         8           3           5            7          4
    
    
      Items can also improve Saving Throws. A Ring of Protection +1 adds both a +1
      to AC and Saves. At higher levels, saving throws become much more important 
      than AC as monsters will use many spells and supernatural abilities against
      you.
    
        Note:  Saving throws are better when they're lower, and can even go into
               the negatives. However, the random roll is still 1 to 20. Thus, 
               someone with a -2 Save vs. Death should always make that save,
               although some spells will state that all saves against that spell
               are made at a penalty.
    
    
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Article 4:  Multiclassing and Dual Classing
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    
      Normally the 2nd Edition AD&D rules allows for 8 character classes:
    
        Paladin*
        Bard*
        Fighter
        Ranger
        Druid
        Cleric
        Mage
        Thief
    
        * Cannot be multi/dual classed
    
      Not all of these classes will be in all games.  There are also combinations
      of these classes called, Multiclasses, where one person can be two or three
      classes at once.  Humans cannot multiclass, they can only Dual class.
    
      Which multiclass you can be depends on the race of your character.
    
      Races and Multiclasses:
      -----------------------
    
        Dwarf                           Halfling
        -----                           --------
        Fighter/Thief                   Fighter/Thief
        Fighter/Cleric
                                        Half-Elf
        Elf                             --------
        ---                             Fighter/Cleric
        Fighter/Mage                    Fighter/Thief
        Fighter/Thief                   Fighter/Druid**
        Mage/Thief                      Fighter/Mage
        Fighter/Mage/Thief              Cleric/Ranger
                                        Cleric/Mage
        Gnome                           Thief/Mage
        -----                           Fighter/Mage/Cleric
        Fighter/Cleric                  Fighter/Mage/Thief
        Fighter/Illusionist*
        Fighter/Thief
        Cleric/Illusionist*
        Cleric/Thief
        Illusionist/Thief*
    
        *Illusionists are not in all games, this could be considered "mage"
        **Druids are not in all games
    
      As you can see, Half-Elves are the most versatile of all races when it comes
      to multiclassing.
    
      Experience for the multiclassed character is divided evenly among his
      various classes.  If a Fighter/Thief gains 1000 experience from killing an 
      evil Halfling of Doom, then his Fighter half gains 500 experience and his
      Thief half gains 500 experience.  Thusly, the multiclassed character usually
      levels up at half the speed of "plain" characters. This does not mean that
      this multi- character will be half the levels, he usually is only a couple
      levels behind.
    
      Hitpoints are handled similarly.  When the Fighter/Thief gains a Fighter
      level, he gains 1/2 the normal Fighter HP.  Fighters normally get 10 HP per
      level, and the Fighter/Thief would gain 5 HP max for a Fighter level and 3
      for the Thief level.  Constitution bonuses are handled in one of two ways:
    
        1) You get the bonus once per number level.  So, our Fighter/Thief would
           get the CON bonus when his Thief level goes up as that levels up faster.
        2) The CON bonus is divided by your number of classes and you get one part 
           per each class' level.  If you were a Fighter/Thief you would still get
           the extra CON for warriors.
    
      Dual classing is the Human answer to Multiclassing.  At level 2 or higher, 
      the human can decide to switch to a new class.  Then for a time he will be
      JUST that class until his new class exceeds the level of his old class.  At
      that point your old classes' abilities return and you become similar to a
      Multiclass... except that you are only levelling one class now, rather than
      dividing your exp amongst classes.
    
        Note:  As far as I know, only the Baldur's Gate/Infinity Engine games have
               implemented Dual Classing.  Bryan A. Keith mentions that some of
               the later Gold Box games implemented Dual Classing (Curse and 
               beyond).
    
      There are several conditions to Dual Classing:
    
        1)  You MUST be Human.
    
        2)  You MUST be at least level 2.
    
        3)  You MUST start from a Class that can dual.  Paladins/Bards cannot Dual
            to anything, nor can you dual anyone to a Bard/Paladin.
    
        4)  The combination MUST be a valid "Multiclass."  If you can't find it
            on the list above (ignore the race restrictions), then you can't dual
            it.  An example of an ILLEGAL class would be a Fighter/Ranger.  Not
            a valid Multiclass, so you can't Dual it either.
    
        5)  You need to have sufficient Stats.  You need at least 15 in the Prime
            Stats of your current class (i.e. 15 STR for a Fighter) and at least
            17 in the Prime Stats of your desired class (i.e. 17 INT for a Mage).
    
              Note:  Specialist Mages have an extra "Prime Stat" beyond just INT.
    
        6)  Finally there is also an Alignment Requirement.  Thieves cannot be
            Lawful, so a Lawful Good Fighter cannot Dual to a Thief.  Also Druids
            must be True Neutral.
    
      So, a level 2, Neutral Good Fighter with 15 STR and 17 DEX can dual to a
      Thief.  While a level 2, Neutral Good Thief with 15 STR and 17 DEX can't
      dual to fighter. (he would need 17 STR and 15 DEX)  When the first 
      hypothetical character gained level 3 as a Thief, he would become a   
      true Fighter/Thief, however he would only gain Thief levels.
    
        Note:  It doesn't matter which order you go from.  You can start out as a
               Thief and dual to a Fighter, or a Fighter to a Thief.  It amounts
               to the same thing.  Which way you do it only affects which class
               will continue to gain experience.
    
    
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Frequently Asked Questions
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    
      Q:  What is a CRPG?
    
      A:  Computer Role Playing Game.
    
    
      Q:  Aren't there other AD&D games that you didn't mention in your list?  What
          about the Dragonlance games?
    
      A:  I am completely unfamiliar with those games to be able to say how they
          implemented the rules.  They might not even be based on the AD&D ruleset
          for all I know.
    
    
      Q:  Why don't my stats improve when I get a level?
    
      A:  Stats such as Strength and Dexterity are considered "set" when you start
          your adventure.  Other stats such as HP and THAC0 improve as you go up
          in level.  This is a more realistic (though I use that term loosely)
          system than most of the others out there in which your stats improve
          upon every level up.  Killing monsters doesn't make you stronger, 
          smarter, or faster, it merely gives the experience allowing you to kill
          monsters easier.
    
    
      Q:  I have a magic item, but I don't know what it does? How can I get it
          IDENTIFIED?
    
      A:  Three ways:
    
          1.) Lore. (At least in BG1, IWD1, BG2 and PST) All characters have a 
              certain Lore skill that is based on class/levels and int/wis. Bards 
              get the most while fighters get the least. Every item has a lore 
              value. (which you don't know) If your character's Lore is equal to 
              the item's Lore, the item is identified for free. (usually done with 
              a right-click in the inventory screen)
          
          2.) The Identify spell. In Baldur's Gate, right click the item, click
              Identify, and by Scroll (if you have one) or by Spell (if you have it
              memorized). Only done by wizards.
    
          3.) At stores. The most common way in all games, all stores will IDENTIFY
              items for you for a fee. 
    
    
      Q:  I'm stuck in [game], where is the [whatever]?
    
      A:  Of the games listed, I have made only 5 walkthroughs, Dungeon Hack,
          Baldur's Gate, Icewind Dale, Baldur's Gate II and Planescape: Torment.  
          If your question isn't about one of those games, and has nothing to do 
          with the general rules system, don't ask.
    
    
      Q:  In [game] the rules are different than you say here.  What gives?
    
      A:  Not every game has all the rules, and often they change them to fit
          within the confines of their game better.  These are the 2nd Edition
          AD&D Rules.  Whether the game makers adhered to these rules is another
          matter.
    
    
      Q:  Where can I get any of these old games, like Dungeon Hack or Pool of
          Radiance?
    
      A:  Try the Interplay Forgotten Realms Archives Silver Edition.  I can't
          find any place online to buy this, but it might pop up on eBay or
          another auction site.
    
          Just don't expect Baldur's Gate style action, these games are quite
          primitive.
    
          I do not know where you could get any of the other games.
    
    
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Final Words...
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    
    This FAQ was written entirely using the GWD Text Editor:  (shareware)
      http://www.gwdsoft.com/
    
    _________________________
    Special Thanks: (Credits)
    ŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻ
      Poromenos who pointed out that I said Paladin when I should say Ranger
      Jopezu for pointing out a THAC0/AC error
      Leo Wang for some pointers
      Edward Lacey for pointing out Dexterity as a THAC0 modifier
      CJayC for posting this FAQ
      Anyone who emails me with nice things to say, you are appreciated!
    
    _________________________
    Shameless Self Promotion:
    ŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻ
      I am Dan Simpson (dsimpson.faqs@gmail.com) and have also written FAQs for:
    
        NES:      Disney Adventures in the Magic Kingdom
                  Final Fantasy -- Magic FAQ
                  The Legend of Zelda
        SNES:     Aerobiz
                  Aerobiz Supersonic
                  Utopia: Creation of a Nation
        Genesis:  StarFlight
        PSX:      Thousand Arms -- Walkthrough
                                -- Forging/Dating FAQ
        PS2:      Madden NFL 2001
        XBOX:     Star Wars: KotOR II: The Sith Lords -- FAQ/Walkthrough
                                                      -- Influence Guide
        PC:       AD&D Rules FAQ, 2nd and 3rd Editions
                  Baldur's Gate & Tales of the Sword Coast -- FAQ/Walkthrough
                                                              NPC List
                                                              Creature List
                  Baldur's Gate II & Throne of Bhaal -- FAQ/Walkthrough
                                                     -- Items List
                                                     -- Class FAQ
                                                     -- Creature List
                  Civilization III (incomplete)
                  Colonization -- the Single Colony Strategy Guide
                               -- the Cheat Guide
                  Drakan: Order of the Flame
                  Dungeon Hack
                  Icewind Dale & Heart of Winter -- FAQ/Walkthrough
                                                    Items List
                                                    Kresselack's Tomb Map (JPG)
                                                    Burial Isle Map (JPG)
                                                    Shattered Hand Map (JPG)
                  Icewind Dale II                -- Items List
                  Master of Magic (revision)
                  Messiah
                  Pharaoh (currently being edited by Red Phoenix)
                  Planescape: Torment  -- FAQ/Walkthrough
                                          Items Listing
                  Rollercoaster Tycoon
                  Sid Meier's Alpha Centauri
                  The Sims
                  Ultima 4: Quest of the Avatar
                  Ultima 7: The Black Gate
                  Ultima 7 Part 2: Serpent Isle
                  Ultima Underworld -- Keyboard Commands
                  Ultima Underworld II -- Keyboard Commands
                                       -- Spell List
      All of my FAQs can be found at:
        http://www.gamefaqs.com/features/recognition/2203.html
        ŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻ
    
    ________________
    Version History:
    ŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻ
      Version 1.0  August 15, 2000  19k
    
      Version 2.0  August 17, 2000  33k
    
        Added the Magic Article.
    
      Version 2.1  August 20, 2000  34k
    
        Added a Dexterity Note to the Article on THAC0, and some other small
        changes.
    
      Version 3.0  October 26, 2000  39k
    
        Filled in the Levels article.  Other small updates.
    
      Version 4.0  November 26, 2000  44k
    
        Filled in the Multi/Dual Classing article.  So, barring questions, this
        guide is finished.
    
      Version 4.1  May 31, 2001  45k
    
        Corrected a small mistake in the THAC0/AC section. (thanks to Jopezu)
    
      Version 4.2  June 18, 2001  45k
    
        Corrected a mistake (with thanks to Poromenos).
    
      Version 4.3  Septebmer 11, 2002  45k
    
        Tiny changes.
    
      Version 4.4  December 22, 2004  49k
    
        Clarified a few things.
    
      Version 4.41  January 17, 2005  49k
    
        Changed email addresses. Small changes to the format.
    
    
    _______________________________________________________________________________
    ŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻŻ
    This Document is Copyright 2000-2005 by Dan Simpson and is intended SOLELY to
    help people with little or no AD&D experience get by in oft confusing CRPGs.
    
    DUNGEONS & DRAGONS, ADVANCED DUNGEONS & DRAGONS, D&D, AD&D, and all related
    marks are Trademarks, Registered Trademarks, or Copyrights owned by Wizards of
    the Coast, Inc. All rights reserved.
    
    This FAQ may be posted on any site so long as NOTHING IS CHANGED and you EMAIL
    ME telling me that you are posting it.  You may not charge for, or in any way
    profit from this FAQ.