============================================================================
  ARCHER SORCERESS
----------------------------------------------------------------------------
A character guide for Diablo II: Lord of Destruction v1.11.

Author:   Patrick Martin
Contact:  cimartin isp com (Put @ and . into the blanks.)
Date:     8/24/2006
Version:  1.01
============================================================================

+---------------+
|  Legal Stuff  |
+---------------+
Diablo II is copyright of Blizzard Entertainment.

This document is totally unofficial and copyright by the author, though some
information, such as what is shown in tables, came from various sources,
such as Arreat Summit or TheAmazonBasin.

+ This document may be reproduced for your personal, private use only.

- This document may NOT be placed on any web site or otherwise distributed
  publicly without advance written permission from the author.

+---------------------+
|  Table of Contents  |
+---------------------+
  1. History
  2. Introduction
  3. Skills
     3.1. Skills to Max
     3.2. Other Useful Skills
     3.3. Unnecessary Skills
  4. Stats
  5. Equipment
     5.1. Important Item Properties
     5.2. Ideal Items
          5.2.1. Helm
          5.2.2. Armor
          5.2.3. Weapon #1
          5.2.4. Weapon #2
          5.2.5. Shield #2
          5.2.6. Gloves
          5.2.7. Belt
          5.2.8. Boots
          5.2.9. Amulet
          5.2.10. Rings
          5.2.11. Charms
          5.2.12. Sockets
          5.2.13. Item List
     5.3. Bow Analysis
  6. Mercenary
  7. Army of Harmony
     7.1. Valkyrie
     7.2. Revives
  8. How to Play
  9. Credits


============================================================================
  1. History
============================================================================

8/24/2006 -- 1.01
Corrected some errors.

4/12/2006 -- 1.00
First release.


============================================================================
  2. Introduction
============================================================================

What is the purpose of this guide?
----------------------------------
The purpose is to show the reader how to build and use an effective,
Hell-viable archer sorceress for player vs. monster (PvM) games.

What is an archer sorceress?
----------------------------
The archer sorceress presented in this guide is a Frozen Orb sorceress and
an Enchantress who uses a bow to attack enemies from a distance.

Why use an Enchantress?
-----------------------
The Enchantress contributes to the party by powering-up her allies with
Enchant.  What makes Enchant special is it adds a fixed number of damage
instead of a percentage, and it lasts a long time.  An fully developed
Enchantress can add anywhere from 2000 to over 5000 fire damage to everyone
she enchants.

The Enchantress is the perfect tool for twinking low level Hardcore
characters.  With 2000-5000 fire damage given by an Enchantress, low level
characters can tear through Normal easily all by themselves as long as the
Enchant lasts.

Why learn Frozen Orb?
---------------------
Frozen Orb is a cheap and effective method for destroying fire immune
monsters quickly.  Without it, the Enchantress takes a very long time to
kill fire immune monsters in Hell.  Also, unless the sorceress has the ideal
equipment setup, Frozen Orb kills faster than Enchant unless the enemy is
immune to cold.

Why use an archer sorceress?
----------------------------
Melee combat is dangerous business and building a sorceress that can do the
job effectively without rare and expensive items is hard.  Also, since this
sorceress learns Frozen Orb, she has incentive to stay back to launch
attacks from a distance.  In short, this is an Enchantress that can be
played much like a caster.

What are the archer sorceress strengths?
----------------------------------------
+ Multiple damage types.
The archer sorceress has cold damage from Frozen Orb, fire damage from
Enchant, and physical damage from the bow.  Nothing in the game is immune
to all three of the above types of damage.

+ Enchantress is unusual.
The Enchantress is almost unheard of in softcore.  The Enchantress is more
common in Hardcore, but most Enchantresses there are built purely as rushing
tools for new low level characters rather than as an endgame questing
character who is capable of holding her own.

What are the archer sorceress weaknesses?
-----------------------------------------
- Killing speed not fast enough for powergamers.
Although the archer sorceress can be powerful, she usually does not kill as
quickly as a Blizzard or Fire Ball sorceress.

- No shield.
One item nearly every sorceress takes for granted is the shield,  whether it
is Lidless Wall or Spirit providing more caster power, or Stormshield or
various other resistance and block combination shields providing protection.
The archer sorceress cannot hold a shield while she wields her bow.  This is
a serious blow to the sorceress's power, and she must compensate for lost
resistance and caster power in other item slots.

- Painfully tough to develop before level 30.
Until the archer sorceress can learn Frozen Orb, the player must hoard skill
points as they are earned.  Early in the game, her killing power is weak,
and she must rely on low level prerequisite skills, short ranged Static
Field, and a sturdy merc to kill monsters.

- Some itemfinding is required.
The archer sorceress is item dependent.  Thankfully, it is possible to build
a viable archer on a budget and without the need for runewords that require
high runes to make (such as Call to Arms or Enigma).  However, the archer
sorceress requires specific items for her to be effective.  Also, obtaining
maximum resistances in Hell is difficult without some of the more uncommon
items in the game.


============================================================================
  3. Skills
============================================================================

Regardless which bow the archer sorceress uses, skill development is the
same.

Endgame skill distribution of the archer sorceress:
----------------------+----------------------+----------------------
   Fire Skills        |   Lightning Skills   |   Cold Skills
----------------------+----------------------+----------------------
 Fire Bolt .......  1 | Static Field ....  1 | Ice Bolt ........  1
 Warmth .......... 20 | Telekinesis .....  1 | Frozen Armor ....  1
 Fire Ball .......  1 | Teleport ........  1 | Frost Nova ......  1
 Enchant ......... 20 |                      | Ice Blast .......  1
 Fire Mastery .... 20 |                      | Glacial Spike ...  1
                      |                      | Blizzard ........  1
                      |                      | Frozen Orb ...... 20
                      |                      | Cold Mastery ....  1
----------------------+----------------------+----------------------
   TOTAL:  92
--------------------------------------------------------------------
This can be finished by level 81 at the earliest.  Excess skill points can
be placed into Cold Mastery and/or Static Field.

====================
 3.1. Skills to Max
====================
The archer sorceress is a Frozen Orb sorceress and an Enchantress.  She will
need to add the full twenty points to maximize the following four skills:
Frozen Orb, Enchant, Warmth, and Fire Mastery.

------------
 FROZEN ORB
------------
Required level:  30
"Creates a magical globe that sprays a torrent of ice bolts to lay waste to
 your enemies."

Frozen Orb is absolutely overpowered in Normal and Nightmare, killing
monsters there with ease.  This is a good thing, because the sorceress can
play level up or magic find games in Nightmare efficiently until she is
ready to play in Hell.  Once in Hell, Frozen Orb no longer dominates
monsters as before, but it still packs a wallop and slows them down.
The best part about Frozen Orb is it is powerful without any synergies and
with even low Cold Mastery, making it the perfect backup skill against fire
immune monsters.  Because of Frozen Orb's overpoweredness early in the game,
it should be the first skill to max.  (Tip:  To inflict maximum damage
against a single target, aim the orb so that it explodes inside the target.)

---------
 ENCHANT
---------
Required level:  18
"Enchants equipped weapon of targeted character or minion."

Enchant lets the sorceress add fire damage and multiply attack rating to
herself and her allies.  Enchant works best when its damage can be applied
many times as quickly as possible.  The sorceress can do this by enchanting
numerous attackers, attackers with extremely fast attack speeds, and/or
attackers that can hit multiple targets per attack.

The archer sorceress is a full blown Enchantress.  Naturally, Enchant is
a must max skill.  However, the archer sorceress is also a Frozen Orb
sorceress, and without numerous allies to Enchant, Frozen Orb is much
stronger than Enchant, and Frozen Orb requires fewer points to max than
Enchant, Warmth, and Fire Mastery.  Therefore, Frozen Orb takes priority
over Enchant.  That said, the sorceress can learn Enchant at level 18, but
must wait until level 30 before she can learn Frozen Orb.  Also, there are
times when the sorceress has unused skill points, and when she is unable to
add points to Frozen Orb, she can add them to Enchant.  In fact, by the time
the sorceress can max Frozen Orb at level 49, Enchant will be near the
maximum as well.

Below is table displaying the average damage of Enchant at various levels of
power.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
Receives Bonuses From:
Warmth:  +9% Fire Damage per Level
-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------
 slvl  |   20  |   25  |   30  |   35  |   40  |   45  |   50  |   55
-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------
 Mana  |   44  |   49  |   54  |   59  |   64  |   69  |   74  |   79
 Dura. |   600 |   720 |   840 |   960 |  1080 |  1200 |  1320 |  1440
 +AR%  | +191% | +236% | +281% | +326% | +371% | +416% | +461% | +506%
       |-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------
       |(NO synergy points)    |       |       |       |       |
 Base  |    78 |   115 |   158 |   209 |   258 |   309 |   358 |   409
Max FM |   207 |   342 |   529 |   768 |  1043 |  1353 |  1697 |  2074
       |-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------
       |(20 synergy points -- +180% damage)    |       |       |
 Base  |   220 |   321 |   444 |   584 |   724 |   864 |  1004 |  1144
Max FM |   581 |   959 |  1482 |  2153 |  2922 |  3789 |  4754 |  5817
-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------
Base = Damage without any Fire Mastery.
Max FM = Damage with maximum Fire Mastery.

--------
 WARMTH
--------
Required level:  1
"Passive -- increases the rate at which you recover mana."

Warmth is Enchant's one and only damage synergy, and that fact alone is
reason enough to add the full twenty points to max out Warmth.  Aside from
powering up Enchant, Warmth increases mana regeneration.  Warmth gives +30%
mana regeneration at level 1, then +12% per level after.  Early in the game,
place only one point in Warmth then wait until after Frozen Orb and Enchant
are maxed before adding more points to Warmth.

--------------
 FIRE MASTERY
--------------
Required level:  30
"Passive -- increases all damage caused by your fire spells."

Fire Mastery is useful only for multipling the fire damage provided by
Enchant.  However, the damage boost is vital.  Fire Mastery adds +30% to
fire damage at level 1, then +7% per level after.  Since Fire Mastery does
nothing else like Warmth can, this is the fourth and final skill to max.
Place one point here at level 30 then add no more until after the more
important skills are maxed.

==========================
 3.2. Other Useful Skills
==========================
Aside from the four must-max skills, the archer sorceress learns a variety
of other skills that are useful in their own right and/or needed as
prerequisites to other skills.  Skills that have a use beyond meeting a
prerequisite are discussed below.

--------------
 STATIC FIELD
--------------
Required level:  6
"Creates an electrical field that reduces life of all nearby enemies."

When hit by Static Field, enemies instantly lose 25% of their current life,
modified by lightning resistance.  Against high life targets, such as act
bosses, Static can cause an enormous amount of damage.  In higher difficulty
levels, Static Field misses monsters whose life is below a certain point,
33% in Nightmare or 50% in Hell.  Despite that limitation, removing half
life from tough monsters such as bosses after few castings is very useful.
Having at least one point in Static Field is a given.

Static Field zaps enemies in an area centered around the sorceress.  How
big the area is depends on the skill level of Static Field; the higher the
level, the bigger the area.  At level 1, the area is so short it is within
melee range of enemies.  Needless to say, that is unsafe for the sorceress.
Static Field needs to be at least level 5 for it to create an area large
enough to hit monsters far enough away from the sorceress for her to be
relatively safe.  Ideally, Static Field should be at level 10 or higher, so
the sorceress can zap a large area without the need of getting close to the
enemy.

The typical blaster sorceress has no problem getting five or more bonus
skill levels from even junk equipment, so one point in Static Field is
usually good enough for her.  However, the archer sorceress struggles to get
more than two bonus skill levels without using rare and expensive items.
Without these rare and expensive items boosting skill levels, one point in
Static Field may not be enough.  In fact, the archer sorceress may want from
three to five points in Static Field.  Of course, adding more than one point
to Static Field early in the game delays when the sorceress will complete
all her skills.  The bottom line is this:  if your archer sorceress can get
by with just one point in Static Field, by all means do it!  If one point is
not enough, placing up to five points in Static Field to enlarge the radius
is acceptable.

-------------
 TELEKINESIS
-------------
Required level:  6
"Uses the power of your mind to pick up items, use objects, and knock back
 enemies."

Aside from the fact that the sorceress needs to learn Telekinesis before
she is allowed to learn Teleport, Telekinesis has its uses.  In town, the
sorceress can use telekinesis to access the stash, waypoint, or town portals
without the need of walking up to them -- very convenient.  Outside of town,
the sorceress can use Telekinesis to open doors, smash barrels, or use other
objects similarly from a distance.  While this application of Telekinesis
seems useless in a normal game, it can be a lifesaver in Hardcore.  One
point is all that is needed for the remote control features of Telekinesis.

----------
 TELEPORT
----------
Required level:  18
"Instantly moves to a destination within your line of sight."

This gives the sorceress supreme mobility by letting her pass through
obstacles or cover great distances faster than running.  Definitely a
must-learn skill!  The ability to teleport is so powerful that players of
other classes go to great lengths to obtain Enigma, an armor runeword that
provides unlimited Teleport (oskill).

If the archer sorceress uses Harmony, Teleport becomes even more vital
because her whole army (merc, valkyrie, and revives -- all of them)
teleports with her.  The sorceress can control what her army attacks by
teleporting near or on top of her target.  Also, if the enemy tries to
approach the sorceress from another direction where nothing stands in its
way, the sorceress can teleport to recall her army and have them intercept
the enemy.  Teleporting the army also helps preserve Revives.  As summon
necromancers may know, Revives tend to disappear and perish long before
their three minute time limit is up if the summoner moves too far away of
the them.  With teleport, the sorceress will never need to worry about
revives lagging behind and disappearing.

Teleport costs 24 mana per cast at level 1.  The only benefit more levels do
is decrease the mana cost by one per level, to a minimum cost of one mana
point at level 24.  With max Warmth and better skills to put points into,
the archer sorceress needs only one point in Teleport.

----------
 ICE BOLT
----------
Required level:  1
"Creates a magical bolt of ice that damages and slows your enemies."

As an early skill for Den of Evil, Ice Bolt is useless.  The damage is so
low that weapons are more effective.  However, Ice Bolt is Frozen Orb's only
synergy, making it a possible late-bloom skill after all other skills are
finished.  If the sorceress wants a stronger Frozen Orb, and she already
has plenty of resistance drain from mid level Cold Mastery and Conviction,
the latter provided by an Infinity merc, then placing points here will
strengthen Frozen Orb more.

--------------
 FROZEN ARMOR
--------------
Required level:  1
"Increases your defense rating and freezes enemies that hit you."

Frozen Armor protects the sorceress by not only increasing her defense, but
also freezing enemies that hit the sorceress in melee, which gives her extra
time to escape from her now frozen attackers.  Of course, even with extra
protection from a cold armor, the archer sorceress should still do her best
to stay away from enemies, especially since she has no shield and cannot
tank effectively.  With the help from skill boosting items, the sorceress
only needs one point in Frozen Armor for it to be effective.

Another feature of Frozen Armor, or any other cold armor for that matter,
has is it sheds bright light while active.  It does not add to the
sorceress's light radius.  Rather, it brightens the area near her.  This is
nice in a dark dungeon since the player can see the area (and enemies) more
easily.

-----------
 ICE BLAST
-----------
Required level:  6
"Creates a magical sphere of ice that damages and freezes your enemy."

Even with one point, Ice Blast is useful for freezing monsters.  When
fighting monsters that can be raised by their leaders, they should be
dispatched in such a way that makes their remains unusable.  Ice Blast can
be used to freeze enemies before they are killed.  Enemies who die while
frozen shatter into ice fragments that melt away and disappear in seconds,
leaving no corpse behind for the enemy to revive.  The basic strategy for
shattering foes is the sorceress casts Ice Blast (or Glacial Spike)
repeatedly at the enemy.  While the enemy is frozen, her merc finishes them
off.  The sorceress can speed up the killing time by casting Frozen Orb
alternatively with her freezing skill of choice; that is cast Ice Blast,
then Frozen Orb, then repeat until the enemy is dead.

---------------
 GLACIAL SPIKE
---------------
Required level:  18
"Creates a magical ice comet that freezes or kills nearby enemies."

Similar to Ice Blast, Glacial Spike flies faster and the explosion can hit
and freeze multiple targets in one shot, but the freeze time is less.
Nonetheless, Glacial Spike's properties often make it more effective than
Ice Blast as a freezing tool, especially against groups.  As with Ice Blast,
Glacial Spike needs only one point.

--------------
 COLD MASTERY
--------------
Required level:  30
"Passive -- increases all damage caused by your cold attacks by piercing
 enemies resistances to cold."

Cold Mastery lowers cold resistance of enemies, provided they are not immune
to cold in the first place.  In effect, this increases the damage and chill
duration of Frozen Orb, but the change is not displayed on the lying
character screen.  This also increases the freeze duration of Frozen Armor.
Cold Mastery subtracts 20% from enemy cold resistance at level 1, then 5%
per level after.  However, Cold Mastery can never reduce cold resistance
below -100%.  This translates to a maximum of double the listed cold damage
and cold or freeze lengths.  Cold Mastery cannot reduce resistances of
monsters immune to cold.

Once Cold Mastery becomes available at level 30, only one point is
necessary.  Frozen Orb alone will clean house in Normal and Nightmare,
without needing any help from more than minimum Cold Mastery.  By the time
the sorceress is ready to go into Hell, she will need to develop her fire
skills, leaving no room for Cold Mastery until all of the necessary skills
are finished.

======================
 3.3. Optional Skills
======================
These are skills the archer sorceress does not and should not need to learn.
However, the reasons why may not be apparent, and should be explained.

-------
 HYDRA
-------
Required level:  30
"Summons a multi-headed beast of flame to reduce your enemies to ashes."

While one point Hydra is useless for killing things, it has some other
(minor) uses.  Hydra can be used to detect enemies beyond the screen.  Cast
one at the edge of the screen, and if the Hydra attacks, you know the enemy
is near.  One other use for Hydra is to dodge-lock amazons in case you are
crazy enough to duel with the archer sorceress.

---------------
 ENERGY SHIELD
---------------
Required level:  24
"Creates a magical shield that consumes mana instead of health when you take
 damage."

When Energy Shield is active, some of the damage taken goes to mana instead
of life.  Without Telekinesis, the mana drained is two per damage point
absorbed.  Points in Telekinesis reduce the mana lost per life point by
6.25% or 1/16th.  With Telekinesis at an unmodified skill level of 20, the
mana drained is 0.75 per damage point absorbed.  The archer sorceress does
not have enough skill points to spare for max Telekinesis, which is
necessary for an effective Energy Shield.

For the archer sorceress with low mana and level 1 Telekinesis, Energy
Shield will consume the whole mana bulb after one or two hits.  Thus, it is
a usually a good idea for her to forsake Energy Shield.  However, there are
(rare) situations in Hell when monsters can deal over a thousand damage in
a single hit.  This is when Energy Shield might mean the difference between
surviving or dying.  If Energy Shield is used, the sorceress should retreat
the moment she takes a hit and let her mana regenerate before returning to
battle.

In normal games, Energy Shield should be ignored.  In Hardcore, it is a good
idea either to learn Energy Shield or to keep an item that grants the skill
and use it while the sorceress is prebuffing.  If Energy Shield is desired,
it should be kept at a low-to-medium absorption percentage, ideally no
higher than 50%.

-------------------
 LIGHTNING MASTERY
-------------------
Required level:  30
"Passive -- increases all damage caused by your lightning spells."

The archer sorceress requires no points (zip, zero, nada) in Lightning
Mastery.  Yes, this seemingly defies common sense.  Harmony features
lightning damage, so wouldn't Lightning Mastery increase this damage?
Sadly, the answer is no in 1.10/1.11.

Arrows do not inherit elemental damage multipliers, even though the lying
character screen says otherwise.  This means Lightning Mastery will not
multiply Harmony's 55-160 damage into something greater.  For that matter,
lightning damage added to attacks by other items, such as the 1-12 lightning
damage from The Stone of Jordan, are not multiplied either.

Lightning Mastery will powerup skills that cause lightning damage.  However,
the archer sorceress uses no lightning skills that benefit from Lightning
Mastery.  Lightning Mastery does not increase the damage caused by Static
Field, and Telekinesis is not used for damage since it is negligable.  The
Holy Shock aura from Dream and various procs that cast skills that cause
lightning damage, such as "Chain Lightning when you die", are powered-up by
Lightning Mastery.  However, the archer sorceress does not use any of those
items because they are not the best items for her to use.

With all that said, if you anticipate that your archer sorceress will take
off her bow and use melee weapons (such as her bare hands) for fun at times,
then put one point in Lightning Mastery AFTER all her skills are finished.

--------------
 SHIVER ARMOR
--------------
Required level:  12
"Increases your defense rating freezes and damages enemies that hit you."

Same as Frozen Armor except it chills and causes (insignificant) damage
every time an enemy attacks the sorceress within melee range regardless if
the attack hits.  Also, the defense boost is greater than Frozen Armor.  As
with Frozen Armor, its most important function is to slow down enemies that
manage to get close enough to attack the sorceress in melee.  Since Frozen
Armor can do this already, it is up to you whether or not the extra defense
from Shiver Armor is worth one point.


============================================================================
  4. Stats
============================================================================

A level one sorceress begins with the following stats:

  Strength:   10
  Dexterity:  25
  Vitality:   10
  Energy:     35

The sorceress can earn up to 505 points to distribute among her stats.

   490 from level ups
    15 from Lam Esen Tome quest
  ------------------------------
   505 total extra stat points

Due to experience penalties at higher character levels, reaching level 99 is
highly unlikely.  You can expect the sorceress to reach somewhere between
level 80 and 90.  Progressing beyond 90 will be tedious.  Therefore, plan on
the sorceress earning from 400 to 450 more stat points, not the full 505 a
level 99 character can get.

----------
 STRENGTH
----------
As with nearly every character build, the archer sorceress needs only enough
to equip all her items.   A strength score of 80 is the minimum required to
equip the bows the sorceress needs.  Depending on the other items you want
your sorceress to equip, she may need more strength.  Upgraded Skin of the
Vipermagi, which is perhaps the best armor for the archer sorceress,
requires 84 strength.  Sandstorm Trek and War Traveler, which are all good
boots for almost anyone, require 91 and 95 strength respectively.  Also, you
may want the sorceress to equip a Spirit monarch on the weapon switch for
more powerful spellcasting, especially for prebuffing with various skills.
If such is the case, the sorceress will need 156 strength to equip a
monarch.  Having the strength to equip Spirit also allows the sorceress to
equip high strength bows such as a Great Bow or Demon Crossbow, which make
good Harmony bows for this sorceress (but are lousy for other classes).  If
you think the strength needed for Spirit is too high, then a strength score
of 95 should allow the sorceress to wear all the popular items she needs.

-----------
 DEXTERITY
-----------
Dexterity affects attack rating and damage from bows, both of which are
important to the archer sorceress, but not enough to trump the life given by
vitality.  Thus, she needs only enough for equipment.  The sorceress needs a
minimum dexterity score of 95 to equip a Demon Machine Chu-Ko-Nu, and if you
plan for her to equip other elite bows, she will need a dexterity score
somewhere between 98 and 146 depending on the type of bow used.

Each character has two sets of hand slots.  The sorceress uses one set of
hand slots to hold her bow.  The other set of hand slots can hold the
typical one-handed weapon and shield for more effective spellcasting and/or
defense.  If the sorceress has high dexterity to equip the likes of
Widowmaker, she also has close to 75% block rate with Whinstan's Guard.
75% block rate stops many incoming attacks that would otherwise hit the
sorceress.  Such protection is great when the sorceress casts Frozen Orbs
at enemies or Teleport to find the stairs in levels such as Durance of Hate
or Worldstone Keep.  The dexterity requirements for 75% block rate with
Whinstan's Guard varies by character level.

Dexterity required for 75% block rate with shields:
  Dexterity = (150 * Character Level / Chance to Block) + 15

Chance to Block for Whinstan's Guard is 87.
Decimals are raised to the next integer.  For example, raise 3.1 to 4.

-- 75% Block Rate for high level sorceress with Whinstan's Guard --
------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----
 Character Level  |  85 |  87 |  89 |  91 |  93 |  95 |  97 |  99
------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----
 Dexterity Needed | 162 | 165 | 169 | 172 | 176 | 179 | 183 | 186
------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----
As you can see, 186 dexterity is only forty more than the 146 needed to
equip Widowmaker or any other Ward Bow, and that is only if the sorceress
is level 99.  Lower level sorceresses need less dexterity to reach maximum
block rate.

There are shields with better defensive properties than Whinstan's Guard,
but they require much more dexterity, usually over 200, to reach 75% block
rate with, and the archer sorceress cannot afford to spend stat points to
reach scores that high.  In fact, if your archer sorceress equips only
weapons that require less than 100 dexterity, even 186 dexterity for
Whinstan's Guard is too much.  Remember, during the times when the sorceress
holds her bow to fire arrows (or to use Valkyrie and Revive in the case of
Harmony), she has no shield and cannot block.  When a shieldless sorceress
is under attack, she needs life more than anything to withstand any damage
the sorceress takes, and Vitality gives her some of the life she needs.

----------
 VITALITY
----------
Like most other builds, as much as can be spared.  The sorceress needs life
to withstand hits; the higher, the better.  At first, the sorceress needs to
divide her stats between strength, dexterity, and vitality.  Later in the
game, once the requirements of all her items are met, all stat points go to
vitality.  By level 80, Vitality should be over 200.

--------
 ENERGY
--------
This is easy, NONE at all!  The other stats are more important, especially
in Hardcore mode.  Early in the game, the sorceress will run out of mana
often and need to drink mana potions frequently -- just suck it up.  By the
higher levels, with high Warmth and higher mana reserves, not to mention the
possibility of an Insight merc, the sorceress will have plenty of mana.

Tips on stat point placement.
-----------------------------
* Early in the game, the archer sorceress needs strength to equip items and
  vitality to withstand hits and run longer.  In act 1, the sorceress needs
  25 strength by level 7 for a 12 slot belt.  By level 24, the sorceress
  should have 60 strength for a 16 slot plated belt.  All excess points
  should be placed in vitality.

* This archer sorceress does not (need to) use a bow until she is ready for
  Hell at about level 75.  Before then, she plays much like a typical
  Frozen Orb sorceress.  Dexterity can be ignored until the sorceress
  reaches level 50.  This gives the sorceress the chance to pump up
  vitality.

* Incorporate stat boosting items to save stat points if possible.  However,
  most of the endgame items the archer sorceress should use do not boost
  stats.  In other words (assuming no Annihilus or Torch to boost stats,
  which is the case in unmodified single-player), be prepared to increase
  base scores to or very close to the weapon's requirements.

* Do NOT give the sorceress high strength for Spirit AND high dexterity
  for 75% block rate.  Doing so takes too much out of vitality.  Choose
  high STR/low DEX, low STR/high DEX, or low STR/low DEX, but NEVER
  high STR/high DEX.

* There are three (recommended) endgame stat placement options depending
  on what the player wants for the sorceress:  Vitality, Strength, or
  Dexterity.
  - Vitality:  Player wants the sorceress's life as high as possible.
     Player raises Strength and Dexterity enough only for a Wyrmhide
     (for upgraded Skin of the Vipermagi) and a Chu-Ko-Nu.
  - Strength:  Player wants the sorceress to equip Spirit in order to get
     maximum Enchant damage.  Player raises dexterity enough for a Great Bow
     (for runewords).
  - Dexterity:  Player wants either to equip all of the fancy bows or to
     reach 75% block rate with Whinstan's Guard on the weapon switch.
     Player raises strength enough to wear Sandstorm Trek or War Traveler.

Recommended endgame stats for level 85:
-----------+-----------------
           |  Build Options
 Attribute | VIT | STR | DEX
-----------+-----+-----+-----
 Strength  |  84 | 156 |  95
 Dexterity |  95 | 107 | 162
 Vitality* | 301 | 217 | 223
 Energy    |  35 |  35 |  35
-----------+-----+-----+-----
 * Minimum Vitality score.
-----------------------------


============================================================================
  5. Equipment
============================================================================

Like it or not, Diablo II is a game of equipment.  Items make or break
characters.

================================
 5.1. Important Item Properties
================================
As with any other sorceress, you want yours to accumulate as much skill
boosters as you can to increase damage output.  At the same time, your
sorceress needs to acquire life and resistances to help survive the
inevitable beating she will take.  Since the archer sorceress is an
Enchantress and uses weapons to kill some enemies, she will want certain
properties, such as attack rating and increased attack speed, which most
sorceresses and other spellcasters couldn't care less about.  Below is a
list of the most important item properties.

-- RESISTANCES --
Resistances are essential for survival, especially in Nightmare and Hell due
to penalties.  Elemental attacks have become very common since 1.10, and
they are often are very damaging.  Resistance must be maximized to soften
the blows.  Otherwise, such attacks will kill the sorceress in one or two
hits easily.

-- FASTER CAST RATE --
Every sorceress needs some to teleport quickly.  Most sorceresses accept
no slower than 9 fps Teleport, which requires 63% faster cast.  All bows
(except Fortitude) have zero faster cast, and since the archer sorceress
cannot get faster cast from the weapon or shield slots when she holds her
bow, building up faster cast is tough.  9 fps Teleport is the best the
archer sorceress can get without sacrifing more important equipment options.
In any case, regardless of the sorceress's choice of equipment, she needs at
least +37% faster cast for 10 fps cast rate.
------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----
 FPS  |  13 |  12 |  11 |  10 |   9 |   8 |   7
------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----
 cast |   0 |   9 |  20 |  37 |  63 | 105 | 200
------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----
NOTE:  Lightning and Chain Lightning have different FCR breakpoints, but the
archer sorceress does not use those skills.

-- LIFE --
The sorceress can never have too much life, and she needs a high amount of
life in Hell to save her from dying in one or two hits.  The sorceress needs
a minimum of 800 life for Hell.  Strive to break the 1000 life barrier.

-- FASTER HIT RECOVERY --
When the sorceress loses more than 1/12th of her life in a single hit, she
is forced into hit recovery, which freezes her in place.  Needless to say,
this is bad.  What is even worse is the sorceress has horridly slow
recovery, the worst in the game, and prone to stunlock.  The item property
faster hit recovery speaks for itself, and it may mean the difference of the
sorceress escaping or getting stunlocked by repeated attacks.  Even a small
amount will make a big difference.
------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----
 FPS  |  15 |  14 |  13 |  12 |  11 |  10 |   9 |   8 |   7 |   6 |   5
------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----
 FHR  |   0 |   5 |   9 |  14 |  20 |  30 |  42 |  60 |  86 | 142 | 280
------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----

-- CANNOT BE FROZEN --
Getting chilled is not a pretty sight because it slows the sorceress's
attack speed.  That not only lowers the number of arrows (and the amount of
damage) the sorceress can launch over time, but also locks the sorceress in
attack animation longer, which gives the enemy more time to target the
sorceress while she is busy shooting an arrow.  An item with this property
immunizes the sorceress from chilling.  This will not stop the slow effect
from Holy Freeze.

-- + TO ALL SKILLS --
The sorceress needs bonus skill levels to powerup not only her own skills,
but also the Valkyrie oskill from Harmony.  Only "+x to All Skills" can
boost oskills.

-- MANA --
With base energy and no mana from items, the sorceress has 35 mana plus 2
mana per level.  By level 80, she has 193 mana.  Even with max Warmth,
200 mana is not enough.  Unless the sorceress wants to depend on an Insight
merc for Meditation, she needs a minimum of 300 mana to launch more than a
few orbs and teleport before running out of mana.  Ideally, if the sorceress
can get 700 mana, she will have enough mana to spam Frozen Orbs and Teleport
almost indefinitely without the need for Mediation.

-- ATTACK RATING --
Against cold immune enemies, the sorceress will fire arrows at them.
At level 75, she needs an attack rating minimum of 7000 to hit monsters
somewhat reliably in Hell.  Without attack rating and/or defense modifiers
from the bow, this is difficult to obtain without sacrifing resistances
and/or caster power.

-- INCREASED ATTACK SPEED --
The sorceress attacks slower than she can cast, and even with fast bows,
she will need some IAS to speed up her archery.  How much she needs depends
on her chosen bow.
-------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----
 Frames per second       |  16 |  15 |  14 |  13 |  12 |  11 |  10 |   9
---- BOWS ---------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----
 Shadow/Diamond/Ward Bow |   0 |   8 |  16 |  27 |  42 |  65 | 102 | 174
 Blade/Great Bow         |     |   0 |   5 |  14 |  26 |  44 |  72 | 125
-- CROSSBOWS ------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----
 Demon Crossbow          |     |     |     |     |   0 |   8 | n/a | n/a
-------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----
The rest of the elite bows are not listed; they are slow and the archer
sorceress should not even consider using them.

-- REDUCES ALL VENDOR PRICES x% --
Recharging Revive on the Harmony bow is very expensive.  Any discount on
repair costs is very welcome.  Currently in 1.11, only two items have this
property, Edge and Gheed's Fortune.

-- x% BETTER CHANCE OF GETTING MAGIC ITEMS --
Handy when you have item lust and are killing bosses repeatedly for those
items.  Because of the items the archer sorceress needs to equip in order to
be functional, she cannot stockpile magic find as high as other sorceress
builds.  However, having even a relatively modest amount, say 100%, works
wonders on drops.

-- x% EXTRA GOLD FROM MONSTERS --
This causes monsters and treasure chests to cough up more gold when they
drop some.  Archer sorceresses who depend on Harmony will need a lot of gold
to fund the Revive war machine.

==================
 5.2. Ideal Items
==================
As an Enchantress, the archer sorceress has two sets of ideal equipment.
One for battling and killing monsters, and the other for Enchant prebuffing.

-------------
 5.2.1. Helm
-------------
All of the best bows in the game for the sorceress lack resistance, so when
the sorceress holds her bow, she cannot get resistance from the weapon and
shield slots.  Without the weapon and shield slots providing resistance, the
helm will need to pick up the slack.

-- BATTLE OPTIONS:  Ideal --
Kira's Guardian (unique Tiara)  *LADDER ONLY*
LEVEL:  77
  +20% Faster Hit Recovery
  +50-120 Defense
  All Resistances +50-70
  Cannot Be Frozen

Although Kira's lacks skill levels, it offers three very important
properties the archer sorceress needs to survive.  One of those properties
is a resistance boost greater than any other helm.  Kira's is uncommon and
can be found only in Hell.

"2/20/2 + mods" rare circlet, coronet, tiara, or diadem
LEVEL:  67
  -- 2/20/2 --
  +2 to Sorceress Skill Levels   (prefix:  Arch-Angel's)
  +20% Faster Cast Rate          (suffix:  of the Magus)
  Socketed (2)                   (prefix:  Mechanic's)
  -- mods... up to three more affixes --
  All Resistances +16-20         (prefix:  Prismatic)
  (other properties such as strength, life, etc.)

The only other helm that can compete with the power that is Kira's.
Such as circlet is very rare and highly desired by nearly every PvP caster
character.  Fill the sockets with Um runes for resistance or, if you can get
them, Scintillating Jewels of Fervor for resistance and IAS.

TIP:  If a normal white diadem is found, use the Imbue reward from Charsi to
transform it into a rare.  If the item properties are not good enough, use
the rare plus six perfect skull recipe to reroll the properties.  Rare
diadems (and only diadems) can get any affix regardless of item level, and
they have a tendency to select good, if not perfect, affixes.

-- BATTLE OPTIONS:  Cheap --
Rockstopper (unique Sallet)
STR:  43
LEVEL:  31
  +30% Faster Hit Recovery
  +160-220% Enhanced Defense
  +15 to Vitality
  Cold Resist 20-40%
  Lightning Resist 20-40%
  Fire Resist 20-50%
  Damage Reduced by 10%

The cheap alternative to Kira's and 2/20/2, though nowhere near as
effective.  Rockstopper can be found in Normal Worldstone Keep or later.

-- PREBUFF OPTIONS --
Volcanic circlet (magic)
LEVEL:  45+
  +3 to Fire Skills (Sorceress only)
  Socketed (2)

The best helm for prebuffing Enchant is a simple Volcanic circlet that can
be found or even gambled.  Since the circlet is used for prebuffing only,
no suffixes are necessary.  (On the other hand, if the Volcanic circlet gets
the +20% fcr suffix "of the Magus", and then two sockets from Larzuk, it
will become a very valuable circlet for a PvP Fire Ball sorceress.)  Larzuk
can and will be needed to add one or two sockets to this circlet.  If he
adds two sockets to the circlet, fill them with fire Rainbow Facets to
strengthen Enchant.

--------------
 5.2.2. Armor
--------------
The sorceress needs resistance and either faster cast and/or increased
attack speed from the armor.

-- BATTLE OPTIONS --
Skin of the Vipermagi (unique Serpentskin Armor -> Wyrmhide)
STR:  43 -> 84
LEVEL:  29 -> 57
  +1 to All Skills
  +30% Faster Cast Rate
  +120% Enhanced Defense
  All Resistances +20-35
  Magic Damage Reduced by 9-13

Skin of the Vipermagi has the best combination of caster power and
resistances, which the archer sorceress desperately needs.  Fortunately for
you, Vipermagi is obtainable from Nightmare bosses and not too hard to find
with some effort.  Once the sorceress finds a Vipermagi with high stats, she
should upgrade it (to a Wyrmhide) if possible and add a socket (by using
Larzuk's quest reward).  Upgrading Vipermagi from Serpentskin Armor to a
Wyrmhide will boost its defense from 279 to 728+ (up to 1034), and an open
socket lets the sorceress add a resistance and/or IAS jewel.

Jeweler's armor with 4x Scintillating Jewels of Fervor (magic)
STR:  ??
LEVEL:  ??
  +60% Increased Attack Speed
  All Resistances +44-60
  Socketed (4)
  -- Ideal Suffixes (only one) --
  of Stability = +24% Faster Hit Recovery
  of the Whale = +81-100 to Life

While most would fill the sockets with Ruby Jewels of Fervor for the famous
160 ED/60 IAS armor, the archer sorceress (at least for PvM) is better
served by Scintillating Jewels of Fervor for 60 resist all and 60 IAS.
With this armor, the sorceress trades caster power for faster attack speed
with bows.  Only the filthy rich speed freaks need apply.

-- PREBUFF OPTIONS:  Ideal --
Ormus' Robes (unique Dusk Shroud)
STR:  77
LEVEL:  75
  +20% Faster Cast Rate
  +10-15% to Cold Skill Damage
  +10-15% to Fire Skill Damage
  +10-15% to Lightning Skill Damage
  +3 to <one random sorceress clvl 1-24 skill> (Sorceress Only)
  +10-20 Defense
  Regenerate Mana 10-15%

For Enchant boosting, nothing beats Ormus' Robes with Enchant as the random
skill.  Without any defensive properties to speak of, Ormus' Robes should be
used only for prebuffing Enchant.

-- PREBUFF OPTIONS:  Cheap --
Enlightenment (runeword:  Pul Ral Sol)
STR:  30+
LEVEL:  45+
  5% Chance to cast level 15 Blaze when struck
  5% Chance to cast level 15 Fire Ball on striking
  +2 to Sorceress Skill Levels
  +1 to Warmth
  +30% Enchanted Defense
  Fire Resist +30%
  Damage Reduced by 7

The cheap alternate for those who cannot find (or are not at a high enough
level to wear) an Enchant Ormus.  While a Pul rune is not cheap, it is much
easier to get than the high runes needed for Chains of Honor or Enigma.

-- OTHER OPTIONS --
Treachery (runeword:  Shael Thul Lem)
STR:  30+
LEVEL:  43+
  5% Chance to cast level 15 Fade when struck
  25% Chance to cast level 15 Venom on striking
  +2 to Assassin Skills
  +45% Increased Attack Speed
  +20% Faster Hit Recovery
  Cold Resist +30%
  50% Extra Gold from Monsters

Until the sorceress has near perfect equipment, her resistances will
probably be lacking.  There is a way to pump resistance even higher... for
a limited time.  Introduced in 1.11 is the armor runeword Treachery, and its
most popular feature is the level 15 Fade when struck.  When actived, Fade
adds 15% damage reduction and 60% resist all for almost five minutes.  The
basic idea for exploiting Fade is to switch the sorceress's regular armor
to Treachery, take damage until Fade activates, then switch back to the old
armor.  The least painful method to activating Fade is to search for a fire
in Act 1, and let the sorceress stand in it until Fade activates.  Yes, the
sorceress will take damage as she burns.  It helps if she wears anti-fire
equipment such as Hotspur or Dwarf Star as she stands in a fire to reduce
the damage taken.
----------------------------------------
Level 15 Fade:
  Reduce curse duration by 79 percent
  Damage reduced by 15 percent
  Resist All:  60 percent
  Duration:  288 seconds

NOTE:  As far as the game is concerned, curses also include beneficial
shrine effects.
----------------------------------------
In addition to Fade prebuffing, Treachery can also serve as a relatively low
budget attack speed armor (when compared to the likes of a 160/60 armor).

------------------
 5.2.3. Weapon #1
------------------
The primary weapon for the archer sorceress is her bow.  While the sorceress
can use any of them to kill monsters immune to cold, some of the bows are
used for the special powers they bestow rather than raw firepower.

-- BATTLE OPTIONS:  Ideal --
Demon Machine (unique Chu-Ko-Nu -> Demon Crossbow)
* Two-handed only *
DEX:  95 -> 98
STR:  80 -> 141
LEVEL:  49 -> 70
  Fires Explosive Arrows or Bolts (level 6)
  Piercing Attack (66%)
  +123% Enhanced Damage
  +66 to Maximum Damage
  +632 to Attack Rating
  +321 Defense
  +36 to Mana

Demon Machine has everything an archer enchantress needs -- exploding and
piercing shots, speed, and huge attack rating bonus.  The sorceress only
needs 8% more IAS to reach the final breakpoint with crossbow of 11 fps.

Why are exploding and piercing shots important?  Explosions from the arrow
inherit all fire damage from every source.  That includes equipment, Holy
Fire, and Enchant.  An enemy always takes damage from the explosion (unless
it is immune to fire), and if the arrow successfully hits, the enemy takes
all the fire damage again plus the arrow damage as well.  In effect, the
enemy takes double fire damage from one shot.  If the arrow pierces, the
enemy can take even more fire damage from explosions that result from
impacting more enemies and/or the wall behind it.  Against massives hordes
like those in the Cow Level, a single exploding and piercing shot can create
a series of explosions that cause massive fire damage to all enemies hit.

One important note:  An arrow cannot pierce if the attack fails a to-hit
check.  If the arrow hits an enemy, but the to-hit check fails, that enemy
takes damage from the explosion part only.  If the arrow makes a pierce
check, it will appear to pierce to the client, but that arrow no longer
exists on the server.  This means whatever enemies the client sees hit by
the phantom arrow and its explosions have no effect.  Moral of the story:
the sorceress had better get high attack rating and/or high penalties to
enemy defense so she can hit enemies easily.

Harmony (runeword:  Tir Ith Sol Ko -- missile)  *REALM ONLY*
* Two-handed only *
DEX:  ??
STR:  ??
LEVEL:  39+
  Level 10 Vigor Aura When Equipped
  +200-275% Enhanced Damage
  +9 to Minimum Damage
  +9 to Maximum Damage
  Adds 55-160 fire damage
  Adds 55-160 lightning damage
  Adds 55-160 cold damage
  +2-6 to Valkyrie
  +10 to Dexterity
  Regenerate Mana 20%
  +2 to Mana after each kill
  +2 to Light Radius
  Level 20 Revive (25 charges)

Harmony may not have the exploding arrows and pierce of Kuko Shakaku and
Demon Machine, but it provides the sorceress the means to create an army
to enchant, tank, and kill.  This is a very good choice for safety-minded
players that Hardcore players tend to be.  The only major weakness with
Harmony is recharging Revive is expensive.  Better have Edge and maybe
Gheed's Fortune to lower the cost of repairs, or have a ready supply of
Ort runes and chipped gems for the repair-and-recharge cube recipe.

Ice (runeword:  Amn Shael Jah Lo -- missile)  *REALM ONLY*
* Two-handed only *
DEX:  ??
STR:  ??
LEVEL:  65
  100% Chance to cast level 40 Blizzard when you Level-Up
  25% Chance to cast level 22 Frost Nova on striking
  Level 18 Holy Freeze Aura When Equipped
  +20% Increased Attack Speed
  +140-210% Enhanced Damage
  Ignore Target's Defense
  +25-30% to Cold Skill Damage
  +7% Life stolen per hit
  -20% to Enemy Cold Resistance
  20% Deadly Strike
  3-309% Extra Gold from Monsters (Based on Character Level)

Ice is a powerful defensive weapon (that is fun to use).  While it won't
tear through crowds like Demon Machine or Harmony, Ice offers two major
benefits.  One, the high level Holy Freeze slows nearly everything.  Yes,
the sorceress can hire a Holy Freeze merc, but a Might merc kills enemies
faster.  Two, the cold damage modifiers powerup the sorceress's cold skills.
Ice increases cold damage more than even the +5 skills from the popular
Heart of the Oak and Spirit setup.  Only Death's Fathom can beat the powerup
from Ice.  What this means is the sorceress can spam Frozen Orb and Glacial
Spike while holding the bow, and the weapon switch can be used solely for
prebuffing (or magic find).  Another minor benefit from Ice is the huge gold
find.  The main reason to use Ice is so the sorceress can cast powerful cold
spells without giving up Call to Arms or some other weapon on the switch.
----------------------------------------
Level 18 Holy Freeze:
  Radius:  13.3 yards
  Cold Damage:  155-160 to your Attack
  Cold Damage:  31-32 (aura pulse)
  Enemies slowed 53 percent
----------------------------------------

Widowmaker (unique Ward Bow)  *LADDER ONLY*
* Two-handed only *
DEX:  146
STR:  72
LEVEL:  65
  Fires Magic Arrows (level 11)
  +150-200% Enhanced Damage
  Ignore Target's Defense
  33% Deadly Strike
  +3-5 to Guided Arrow

If you want to try your luck at killing other players with the archer
sorceress, she will need Guided Arrow from this bow to hit them.  With
Guided Arrow's auto-hit property, the sorceress does not need attack rating
to hit.

-- BATTLE OPTIONS:  Cheap --
Kuko Shakaku (unique Cedar Bow -> Shadow Bow)
* Two-handed only *
DEX:  49 -> 188
STR:  53 -> 52
LEVEL:  33 -> 54
  +3 to Bow and Crossbow Skills (Amazon Only)
  Fires Explosive Arrows or Bolts (level 7)
  Piercing Attack (50%)
  +160% Enhanced Damage
  Adds 40-180 fire damage
  +3 to Immolation Arrow (Amazon Only)

One of only two weapons with both exploding and piercing arrows, which
makes Kuko Shakaku powerful enough to be endgame material.  Compared to
Demon Machine, Kuko Shakaku offers little else.  Kuko Shakaku can outgun
Demon Machine, but the sorceress must equip nearly every slot with IAS items
to do so, sacrifing skills and cast rate in the process.  Demon Machine does
better with less.  Also, upgrading Kuko Shakaku is a bad idea since the
dexterity requirement for a Shadow Bow is 188, which is much too high.

One note:  In case an Act 1 rogue merc was chosen instead of the Act 2 town
guard, the merc does not benefit from explosive shots.  To the client, she
appears to have exploding arrows.  However, this is not the case on the
server.  The result is the client sees phantom explosions that never hit
the enemy.

Witchwild String (unique Short Siege Bow -> Diamond Bow)
* Two-handed only *
DEX:  80 -> 132
STR:  65 -> 89
LEVEL:  39 -> 61
  2% Chance to cast level 5 Amplify Damage on striking
  Fires Magic Arrows (level 20)
  +150-170% Enhanced Damage
  1-99% Deadly Strike (Based on Character Level)
  All Resistances +40
  Socketed (2)

PROS:
+ Magic arrows provide free and unlimited ammunition.
+ +40 to all resistances lets a low budget sorceress max resistances more
   easily.  Only Silence or a bow socketed with four or more Scintillating
   jewels have more resistance, and both of those options are rare and
   expensive.
+ High deadly strike and amplify damage proc make Witchwild String
   deceptively strong.
+ Two open sockets can be filled to cover a weakness.
CONS:
- It doesn't kill as quickly as other bows.

------------------
 5.2.4. Weapon #2
------------------
Now it is time to discuss weapons other than bows for a change.
The secondary set of hands is for caster and/or prebuffing items.

-- BATTLE OPTIONS:  Ideal --
Call to Arms (runeword:  Amn Ral Mal Ist Ohm)
DEX:  ??
STR:  ??
LEVEL:  57+
  +1 to All Skills
  +40% Increased Attack Speed
  +250-290% Enhanced Damage
  Adds 5-30 fire damage
  7% Life stolen per Hit
  +2-6 to Battle Command
  +1-6 to Battle Orders
  +1-4 to Battle Cry
  Prevent Monster Heal
  Life Replenish +12
  30% Better Chance of Getting Magic Items

One of the most useful and powerful weapons is Call to Arms, which grants
Battle Orders.  Battle Orders increases life, mana, and stamina by 35% at
level 1 plus 3% per level.  The extra life and mana are too good to pass up.
However, there are two complications.  One, Ohm rune is difficult to
impossible to come by.  Two, if the sorceress is using Harmony, removing
it will destroy any Revives on the field.  What the sorceress needs to do
before she revives any monster is to prebuff with the warcries first, then
sorceress skills such as Enchant.  After all prebuffing is done, Valkyrie
and Revives can be created.

Although Call to Arms can be made in any normal or superior weapon with five
sockets, it should be made in a one-handed weapon so the character can equip
a shield with "+ to All Skills" to increase the level of Battle Orders even
higher.  Since all missile weapons with sockets are two-handed, that leaves
one-handed melee weapons.  Since Call to Arms is used solely for the
warcries, it should be made in a basic weapon with low requirements.
For the Enchantress, the best weapon to build Call to Arms in is a flail.
With huge melee fire damage from Enchant combined with a flail's speed and
range, a Call to Arms flail can serve as an effective melee weapon in a
pinch.

Death's Fathom (unique Dimensional Shard)  *LADDER ONLY*
LEVEL:  73
  +3 to Sorceress Skill Levels
  +20% Faster Cast Rate
  +15-30% to Cold Skill Damage
  Lightning Resist +25-40%
  Fire Resist +25-40%

This increases cold damage from sorceress skills more than any other weapon.
Enough said.

Wizardspike (unique Bone Knife)
DEX:  75
STR:  38
LEVEL:  61
  Indestructible
  +50% Faster Cast Rate
  Increase Maximum Mana 15%
  +2-198 to Mana (Based On Character Level)
  Regenerate Mana 15%
  All Resistances +75

Although it lacks skills, Wizardspike is popular for its combination of high
faster cast, high mana, and high resistances.  It is a powerful defensive
weapon, and somewhat common for an elite item.  The earliest Wizardspike can
be found is from Nightmare Baal.

-- BATTLE OPTIONS:  Cheap --
Spirit (runeword:  Tal Thul Ort Amn -- sword)  *REALM ONLY*
DEX:  ??
STR:  ??
LEVEL:  25+
  +2 to All Skills
  +25-35% Faster Cast Rate
  +55% Faster Hit Recovery
  +250 Defense vs. Missile
  +22 Vitality
  +89-112 to Mana
  Adds 3-14 Cold Damage
  Adds 1-50 Lightning Damage
  +75 Poison Damage over 5 Seconds
  +3-8 Magic Absorb
  7% Life Stolen Per Hit

With skills, faster cast, and large boosts to a variety of stats, Spirit is
a powerful all-purpose caster weapon that is easy to make.  Obtainable by
Act 5 Normal or Act 1 Nightmare, this can last until the end of Hell.
Although Spirit is not the most powerful caster weapon, it is powerful
enough to render most magic and rare orbs obsolete.  Since Spirit is a
caster weapon, use basic swords as a base.  A Broad Sword and Long Sword
found in Act 5 Normal or beyond will yield four sockets from Larzuk's socket
reward.

-- PREBUFF OPTIONS:  Ideal --
The absolute best weapon for prebuffing Enchant is yet another Volcanic
magic item.

Volcanic orb (magic)
LEVEL:  45+
  +3 to Fire Skills (Sorceress only)
  +3 to Fire Mastery (Sorceress only)
  +3 to Enchant (Sorceress only)
  Socketed (2)

Such an orb is rare and painfully difficult to find, although it can be
cubed with the various three gem reroll recipes.

-- PREBUFF OPTIONS:  Cheap --
Memory (runeword:  Lum Io Sol Eth -- staff)
* Two-handed only *
DEX:  ??
STR:  ??
LEVEL:  37+
  +3 to Sorceress Skill Levels
  +33% Faster Cast Rate
  Increase Maximum Mana 20%
  +3 to Energy Shield (Sorceress Only)
  +2 to Static Field (Sorceress Only)
  +10 to Energy
  +10 to Vitality
  +9 to Minimum Damage
  -25% Target Defense
  Magic Damage Reduced by 7
  +50% Enhanced Defense

This is an option in case a sorceress finds a plain Gnarled Staff or Battle
Staff (or their exceptional or elite counterparts) with +3 to Enchant in
Act 5 Normal or beyond.  Rather than take her chances with the add socket
recipe with the cube, she can take it to Larzuk, and he will add four
sockets to the staff.  Such a Memory staff adds not only +6 to Enchant,
but also at least +5 to Energy Shield, making it a great prebuffing item.
Memory is also powerful enough to serve as a decent caster weapon.

Leaf (runeword:  Tir Ral -- staff)
* Two-handed only *
LEVEL:  19+
  +3 to Fire Skills
  Adds 5-30 fire damage
  +3 to Inferno (Sorceress Only)
  +3 to Warmth (Sorceress Only)
  +3 to Fire Bolt (Sorceress Only)
  +2-198 Defense (Based on Character Level)
  Cold Resist +33%
  +2 to Mana after each Kill

A cheap but effective alternate for prebuffing Enchant is Leaf.  Non-magical
staves with two sockets and +3 to Enchant can be bought from Drognan in
Act 2 Normal or, if character level is below 20, from Akara in Act 1
Nightmare.  Leaf made out of such as staff provides +6 total to Enchant.

-- OTHER OPTIONS --
Edge (runeword:  Tir Tal Amn -- missile)  *REALM ONLY*
* Two-handed only *
DEX:  ??
STR:  ??
LEVEL:  25+
  Level 15 Thorns Aura When Equipped
  +35% Increased Attack Speed
  +320-380% Damage to Demons
  +280% Damage to Undead
  +75 poison damage over 5 seconds
  7% Life stolen per hit
  Prevent Monster Heal
  +5-10 to all Attributes
  +2 to Mana after each Kill
  Reduces all Vendor Prices 15%

Whenever the sorceress is ready to spend gold in town for any reason, she
should equip Edge before making any transactions.  The most important
property on Edge is the 15% discount on all transactions from vendors,
whether is normal buying, gambling, or even repairing items.  Edge is easy
to make since the runes needed are common and a three socket bow can be
bought from the vendors in Act 1 Normal.  Once the sorceress is done
shopping, she can put Edge back in the stash until next time.

------------------
 5.2.5. Shield #2
------------------
Equipping a shield is possible only if the sorceress is not holding a
two-handed weapon such as Leaf or Memory.

Whinstan's Guard (set Round Shield)
STR:  53
LEVEL:  29
Chance to Block:  87%
  +40% Faster Block Rate
  55% Increased Chance of Blocking
  +175% Enhanced Defense
  Half Freeze Duration
  +5 to Light Radius

This shield has the highest blocking percentage in the game, which means the
sorceress needs less dexterity to reach maximum block rate with this shield
than with any other.  Aside from blocking, Whinstan's Guard offers nothing
else useful.  However, that's okay.  The archer sorceress cannot afford to
spend the stat points needed to maximize block rate with any other shield.
Whinstan's Guard is also inexpensive and not too hard to find.

Spirit (runeword:  Tal Thul Ort Amn)  *REALM ONLY*
STR:  156 (or 146 if the monarch is ethereal)
LEVEL:  54
Chance to Block:  42%
  +2 to All Skills
  +25-35% Faster Cast Rate
  +55% Faster Hit Recovery
  +250 Defense vs. Missile
  +22 Vitality
  +89-112 to Mana
  Cold Resist +35%
  Lightning Resist +35%
  Poison Resist +35%
  +3-8 Magic Absorb
  Attacker Takes Damage of 14

Spirit is the most powerful caster shield available (in the realms).
However, the strength required to equip it is more than what the sorceress
needs to equip the rest of her items, and she is not going to benefit from
Spirit's faster cast and stat boosts when she attacks with the bow.
However, if you want to please the crowds, they care only how high the
damage Enchant can give, and you need Spirit to give them the damage they
crave.

For those who think the strength for Spirit is too high or those
single-players who cannot get Spirit in an unmodified game, there are three
"+1 to All Skills" shields available to choose from.

Lidless Wall (unique Grim Shield)
STR:  58
LEVEL:  41
Chance to Block:  40%
  +1 to All Skills
  +20% Faster Cast Rate
  +80-130% Enhanced Defense
  +10 to Energy
  Increase Maximum Mana 10%
  +3-5 to Mana after each Kill
  +1 to Light Radius

Lidless Wall was the best caster shield before the advent of Spirit.

Sigon's Guard (set Tower Shield)
STR:  75
LEVEL:  6
Chance to Block:  64%
  +1 to All Skills
  20% Increased Chance of Blocking

Sigon's Guard is the easiest skill shield to find and features medium-high
blocking.

Splendor (runeword:  Eth Lum)
STR:  22+
LEVEL:  37+
Chance to Block:  25-44%
  +1 to All Skills
  +10% Faster Cast Rate
  +20% Faster Block Rate
  +60-100% Enhanced Defense
  +10 to Energy
  Regenerate Mana 15%
  50% Extra Gold from Monsters
  20% Better Chance of Getting Magic Items
  +3 to Light Radius

Splendor has gold and magic find in addition to some minor caster
properties.  Because Splendor is a runeword, it has no open sockets.

---------------
 5.2.6. Gloves
---------------
The archer sorceress will need either faster cast or increased attack speed
from the gloves.

-- CASTER OPTIONS --
Magefist (unique Light Gauntlets -> Battle Gauntlets)
STR:  45 -> 88
LEVEL:  24 -> 30
  +1 to Fire Skills
  +20% Faster Cast Rate
  Adds 1-6 fire damage
  +20-30% Enhanced Defense
  +10 Defense
  Regenerate Mana 25%

For the archer sorceress starving for caster power, nothing beats Magefist.
Aside from providing much needed faster cast, the plus to fire skills
strengthens Enchant for battlefield use on her allies.

Trang-Oul's Claws (set Heavy Bracers)
STR:  58
LEVEL:  45
  +2 to Curses (Necromancer Only)
  +20% Faster Cast Rate
  +25% to Poison Skill Damage
  +30 Defense
  Cold Resist +30%
  (4 items) +25% to Poison Skill Damage

The only other gloves that quicken cast rate.  Useful for the archer
sorceress if her cold resistance is less than the maximum.

-- IAS OPTIONS --
crafted hitpower gloves
STR:  25 / 58 / 106
LEVEL:  ??
  -- Preset properties --
  5% Chance to cast level 4 Frost Nova when struck
  Knockback
  Attacker Takes Damage of 3-7
  -- Desired random affixes --
  +20% Increased Attack Speed
  (other properties such as dexterity, attack rating, or resistance)

If you want knockback for the archer sorceress, crafted hitpower gloves with
IAS and other useful properties are your best bet.  The cube recipe for
crafted hitpower gloves requires magic chain gloves/heavy bracers/vambraces,
any jewel, Ith rune, and perfect amethyst.

Laying of Hands (set Bramble Mitts)
STR:  50
LEVEL:  63
  10% Chance to cast level 3 Holy Bolt on striking
  +20% Increased Attack Speed
  +350% Damage to Demons
  +25 Defense
  Fire Resist +50%

Famous for its huge damage boost against demons.  For the archer sorceress,
these gloves offer IAS and high fire resistance.

Magnus' Skin (set Sharkskin Gloves)
STR:  20
LEVEL:  37
  +20% Increased Attack Speed
  +100 to Attack Rating
  +50% Enhanced Defense
  Fire Resist +15%
  +3 to Light Radius

Compared to Laying of Hands, Magnus' Skin trades damage to demons and some
fire resistance for attack rating.

Sigon's Gage (set Gauntlets)
STR:  60
LEVEL:  6
  +20 to Attack Rating
  +10 to Strength
  (2 items) +30% Increased Attack Speed

The only useful property on these gloves is the 30% increased attack speed.
To get it, the sorceress must equip one other item from the Sigon set.  In
the archer sorceress's case, the best choice is the boots, Sigon's Sabot.

-- OTHER OPTIONS --
Chance Guards (unique Chain Gloves)
STR:  25
LEVEL:  15
  +25 to Attack Rating
  +20-30% Enhanced Defense
  +15 Defense
  200% Extra Gold from Monsters
  25-40% Better Chance of Getting Magic Items
  +2 to Light Radius

When the sorceress is looking for gold and items to fund the war machine,
and she is willing to sacrifice faster cast to get it, wearing Chance Guards
will help.

-------------
 5.2.7. Belt
-------------
Depending on which bow the sorceress equips, the ideal belt is either
Arachnid Mesh or Razortail.

-- BATTLE OPTIONS:  Ideal --
Arachnid Mesh (unique Spiderweb Sash)
STR:  50
LEVEL:  80
  +1 to All Skills
  +20% Faster Cast Rate
  Slows Target by 10%
  +90-120% Enhanced Defense
  Increase Maximum Mana 5%
  Level 3 Venom (11 Charges)

The ultimate caster belt.  Nothing else even comes close.  It is a very high
level item, which only Hell boss monsters can drop.

Razortail (unique Sharkskin Belt)
STR:  20
LEVEL:  32
  Piercing Attack (33%)
  +10 to Maximum Damage
  +120-150% Enhanced Defense
  +15 Defense
  +15 to Dexterity
  Attacker Takes Damage of 1-99 (Based on Character Level)

This is the best belt for the archer sorceress if she is armed with a Kuko
Shakaku or Demon Machine.  The pierce from Razortail stacks with the pierce
from missile weapons.  For Kuko Shakaku and Demon Machine, the combined
pierce is 83% and 99% respectively, which turns those weapons into killing
machines.

-- BATTLE OPTIONS:  Cheap --
For the sorceress struggling to build up cast rate, a crafted caster belt
can add 5-10% faster cast, which may be enough to let the sorceress hit the
next faster cast breakpoint.  The cube recipe for a crafted caster belt is
magic light/sharkskin/vampirefang belt, any jewel, Ith rune, and perfect
amethyst.

Other useful belts for the low budget sorceress include the following:

Nightsmoke (unique Belt -> Mesh Belt)
STR:  25 -> 58
LEVEL:  20 -> 30
  +30-50% Enhanced Defense
  +15 Defense
  +20 to Mana
  All Resistances +10
  Damage Reduced by 2
  50% Damage Taken Goes To Mana

Relatively easy to find and provides resistance.

String of Ears (unique Demonhide Sash)
STR:  20
LEVEL:  29
  6-8% Life stolen per hit
  +150-180% Enhanced Defense
  +15 Defense
  Damage Reduced by 10-15%
  Magic Damage Reduced by 10-15

Instead of resistance, SoE offers damage reduction and flat magic damage
reduction.  Late normal bosses and Nightmare Andariel are the easiest magic
find targets if you seek this belt.

--------------
 5.2.8. Boots
--------------
None of the boots have significant caster properties such as skills or
faster cast, so they should be used to provide resistances or stats.  The
best boots possible for the archer sorceress would be rare or crafted boots
with three individual resists near or at 40%.  Such ideal rare boots are
very difficult to find.  Rare boots can also get up to 25% magic find and
80% gold find.  For those looking toward set or unique boots, there are many
good options, too many to list them all.  Listed below are some of the more
popular options.

Hotspur (unique Boots -> Demonhide Boots)
STR:  None -> 20
LEVEL:  5 -> 29
  Adds 3-6 fire damage
  +10-20% Enhanced Defense
  +6 Defense
  +15 to Life
  +15% to Maximum Fire Resist
  Fire Resist +45%

The increase in fire resistance AND maximum fire resist makes Hotspur useful
for defending against strong fire-using opponents, especially Diablo or
Nihlathak, or when standing in a fire trying to activate Fade from the
Treachery armor.  Hotspur also adds life and a small amount of fire damage
to the sorceress's attacks.  Hotspur is one of the lowest level unique items
in the game, and can be found in Act 1 Normal with relatively little effort.

Sandstorm Trek (unique Scarabshell Boots)
STR:  91
LEVEL:  64
  +20% Faster Run/Walk
  +20% Faster Hit Recovery
  +140-170% Enhanced Defense
  +10-15 to Strength
  +10-15 to Vitality
  +1-99 Maximum Stamina (Based on Character Level)
  50% Slower Stamina Drain
  Poison Resist +40-70%
  Repairs 1 durability in 20 seconds

One of the best options in the game thanks to the massive poison resistance,
faster hit recovery, and stats.  It is the faster hit recovery that gives
Sandstorm Trek the edge over Waterwalk.  Keep in mind that it takes four
small charms of Balance to get +20 FHR, while four charms of Vita give up
to +80 life.  From a numbers standpoint, Sandstorm Trek beats Waterwalk.
Sandstorm Trek can be found only in Hell though.

War Traveler (unique Battle Boots)
STR:  95
LEVEL:  42
  +25% Faster Run/Walk
  Adds 15-25 damage
  +150-190% Enhanced Defense
  +10 to Strength
  +10 to Vitality
  40% Slower Stamina Drain
  Attacker Takes Damage of 5-10
  30-50% Better Chance of Getting Magic Items

For those magic find junkies who want magic find on the boots, War Traveler
has the most.  Aside from magic find, War Traveler is similar to a weaker
version of Sandstorm Trek.

Waterwalk (unique Sharkskin Boots)
STR:  47
LEVEL:  32
  +20% Faster Run/Walk
  +180-210% Enhanced Defense
  +100 Defense vs. Missile
  +15 to Dexterity
  +45-65 to Life
  +40 Maximum Stamina
  Heal Stamina Plus 50%
  +5% to Maximum Fire Resist

Waterwalk provides the most life of any boots and the extra dexterity
provides more attack rating, which is nice.  Waterwalk can be found in
Normal Worldstone Keep or later.

Sigon's Sabot (set Greaves)
STR:  70
LEVEL:  6
  +20% Faster Run/Walk
  Cold Resist +40%
  (2 items) +50 to Attack Rating
  (3 items) 50% Better Chance of Getting Magic Items

By itself, it is not as good as other boots.  When paired with the gloves
Sigon's Gage, the gloves get an impressive bonus of +30% Increased Attack
Speed.

---------------
 5.2.9. Amulet
---------------
The archer sorceress needs skills and/or resistance from the amulet.
The best amulet for her is one of the following uniques:  Highlord's Wrath,
Mara's Kaleidoscope, or Metalgrid.  Unfortunately, all three are high level
items that can be found only in Hell.  In the meantime, the sorceress will
need to find, gamble, or craft less powerful yet useful amulets.

-- BATTLE OPTIONS:  Ideal --
Highlord's Wrath (unique)
LEVEL:  65
  +1 to All Skills
  +20% Increased Attack Speed
  Adds 1-30 lightning damage
  +0-37% Deadly Strike (Based on Character Level)
  Lightning Resist +35%
  Attacker Takes Lightning Damage of 15

The best choice if the sorceress needs IAS from the amulet.

Mara's Kaleidoscope (unique)
LEVEL:  67
  +2 to All Skills
  +5 to all Attributes
  All Resistances +20-30

Without a doubt, Mara's is the best amulet for the archer sorceress.  It
boosts all skills, including oskills, by two, and it adds more resistance
than any other amulet except Metalgrid.

Metalgrid (unique)
LEVEL:  81
  +400-450 to Attack Rating
  +300-350 Defense
  All Resistances +25-35
  Level 22 Iron Golem (11 Charges)
  Level 12 Iron Maiden (20 Charges)

Good for the archer sorceress if she needs attack rating and resistances in
one handy package.  The Iron Golem does not have the life to tank enemies in
Hell and the charges are expensive to replenish (25,618 gold per charge) so
ignore the charges.

-- BATTLE OPTIONS:  Cheap --
Angelic Wings (set)
LEVEL:  12
  20% Damage Taken Goes To Mana
  +3 to Light Radius
  (2 items) +75 to Life
  (3 items) +1 to All Skills

Useless by itself.  However, the sorceress needs to equip this to activate
the attack rating bonus from the Angelic Halo rings.

Prismatic Amulet (magic)
LEVEL:  31
  All Resistances +16-20

A common alternate is a magic prismatic or chromatic amulet.  A prismatic
amulet can be created with the following cube recipe:  magic amulet plus one
of each variety of perfect gems except the skull, which totals six perfect
gems.  The recipe is a waste of gems just for a simple prismatic amulet
since better can be found or gambled.  However, for those very unlucky
players who are unable to find a good amulet, the recipe is a guaranteed
method for obtaining an amulet with much needed resistance.

-- PREBUFF OPTIONS --
Volcanic Amulet (magic)
LEVEL:  45
  +3 to Fire Skills (Sorceress only)

For Enchant prebuffing, a simple magic Volanic amulet boosts fire skills
more than any other amulet.  As with the circlet, it can be found or
gambled, and no suffixes are needed.

---------------
 5.2.10. Rings
---------------
In most cases, one of the rings the archer sorceress needs is a Raven Frost
for the attack rating bonus and/or Cannot Be Frozen.  The second ring should
either be a Stone of Jordan for the skills and mana or a good rare with
faster cast, resistances, and mana.

-- BATTLE OPTIONS:  Ideal --
Raven Frost (unique)
LEVEL:  45
  +150-250 to Attack Rating
  Adds 15-45 cold damage (cold length: 4 seconds)
  +15-20 to Dexterity
  +40 to Mana
  Cold Absorb 20%
  Cannot Be Frozen

Raven Frost has the property "Cannot Be Frozen", which makes the ring a
must if the sorceress is not wearing Kira's Guardian.  Aside from that one
property, Raven Frost adds more useful properties to make it even better.
Among them includes an attack rating bonus that only the Angelic Raiment set
can beat.  Although unique rings do not drop often, Raven Frost is one of
the more common types later in the game.

Bul-Kathos' Wedding Band (unique)
LEVEL:  58
  +1 to All Skills
  3-5% Life stolen per hit
  +0-49 to Life (Based on Character Level)
  +50 Maximum Stamina

The Stone of Jordan (unique)
LEVEL:  29
  +1 to All Skills
  Adds 1-12 lightning damage
  +20 to Mana
  Increase Maximum Mana 25%

Either skill ring is ideal for raising skill levels.  Unfortunately, both
are extremely difficult to find and are expensive to trade for.

Dwarf Star (unique)
LEVEL:  45
  +40 to Life
  +40 Maximum Stamina
  Heal Stamina Plus 15%
  Fire Absorb 15%
  Magic Damage Reduced by 12-15
  100% Extra Gold from Monsters

A cheap but effective choice for the second ring if nothing better is
available.  Harmony users will love the gold find.

-- BATTLE OPTIONS:  Cheap --
Angelic Halo (set)
LEVEL:  12
  +20 to Life
  Replenish Life +6
  (2 items) +12-1188 to Attack Rating (Based on Character Level)
  (3 items) 50% Better Chance of Getting Magic Items

This is most useful for the extremely high attack rating bonus it provides.
The boost from one ring should be more than enough to let the sorceress hit
enemies easily, but if it isn't, wearing a second Halo ring should do the
trick.  To activate the rings' attack rating bonus, the sorceress must equip
one other item from the Angelic Raiment set, which is usually the amulet.

-- OTHER OPTIONS --
Nature's Peace (unique)  *LADDER ONLY*
LEVEL:  69
  Slain Monsters Rest in Peace
  Prevent Monster Heal
  Poison Resist +20-30%
  Damage Reduced by 7-11
  Level 5 Oak Sage (11 Charges)

One out of the few items with the R.I.P. property, this is your secret
weapon against Hell Nihlathak.  With R.I.P, any monster the sorceress kills
cannot be targeted by corpse skills, such as reviving or corpse exploding.
Without corpses to explode, Nihlathak is a sitting duck.  Contrary to what
Arreat Summit says, this WILL WORK on monsters killed by spell attacks.
(Not that it matters since Nihlathak's minions are immune to cold in Hell.)
Aside from this ring, the only other items with R.I.P are the extremely rare
armor Tyreal's Might and the realm-only runeword Lawbringer.

----------------
 5.2.11. Charms
----------------
Unless the archer sorceress has perfect equipment, she will need charms in
her inventory to cover any weaknesses.

Annihilus (unique small charm)  *REALM ONLY*
LEVEL:  70
  +1 to All Skills
  +10-20 to all Attributes
  All Resistances +10-20
  +5-10% to Experience Gained

Hellfire Torch (unique large charm)  *REALM ONLY*
LEVEL:  75
  25% Chance to cast Level 10 Firestorm on striking
  +3 to <random class> Skill Levels
  +10-20 to all Attributes
  All Resistances +10-20
  +8 to Light Radius
  Level 30 Hydra (10 Charges)

The unique charms Annihilus and Hellfire Torch are so powerful they are
no-brainers to keep in anyone's invertory.  Only one of each is allowed
per character.

NOTE:  The Firestorm from Hellfire Torch is Diablo's version.
------------------------------------------
Stats for Diablo's Firestorm at level 10:
  Missiles:  10
  Average Damage:  51-70 per second
  Average Fire Damage:  133-164 per second
------------------------------------------
Yes, Diablo's firestorm causes physical and fire damage.
Unfortunately, Fire Mastery does not increase its fire damage.

Gheed's Fortune (unique grand charm)  *LADDER ONLY*
LEVEL:  62
  80-160% Extra Gold from Monsters
  20-40% Better Chance of Getting Magic Items
  Reduces all Vendor Prices 10-15%

Anyone who uses Harmony will love this charm, even if she is allowed to hold
only one.  The most important property is the vendor price reduction.  15%
out of a 300,000 gold repair bill is a lot of gold (45,000).  Combined with
Edge, the sorceress can save up to 30%.

Aside from unique charms, the sorceress will find a variety of magic charms
to sort through.  The most important properties include +1 to fire or cold
skills, life, resistances, and mana.  The archer sorceress should also have
at least one charm with poison damage over the longest duration possible.
Long lasting poison is the sorceress's ghetto version of Prevent Monster
Heal.

-- IDEAL GRAND CHARM AFFIXES --
Prefixes:
  Sharp ...... +7-10 to Maximum Damage / +49-76 to Attack Rating
  Serpent's .. +40-59 to Mana
  Shimmering . All Resistances +13-15
  Sapphire ... Cold Resist +26-30%
  Ruby ....... Fire Resist +26-30%
  Amber ...... Lightning Resist +26-30%
  Emerald .... Poison Resist +26-30%
  Burning .... +1 to Fire skills (Sorceress only)
  Chilling ... +1 to Cold skills (Sorceress only)
Suffixes:
  of Balance . 12% Faster Hit Recovery
  of Vita .... +36-45 to Life

-- IDEAL SMALL CHARM AFFIXES --
Prefixes:
  Fine ....... +1-3 to Maximum Damage / +10-20 to Attack Rating
  Serpent's .. +13-17 to Mana
  Shimmering . All Resistances +3-5
  Sapphire ... Cold Resist +10-11%
  Ruby ....... Fire Resist +10-11%
  Amber ...... Lightning Resist +10-11%
  Emerald .... Poison Resist +10-11%
  Pestilent .. +175 poison damage over 6 seconds
Suffixes:
  of Balance . 5% Faster Hit Recovery
  of Good Luck 6-7% Better Chance of Getting Magic Items
  of Vita .... +16-20 to Life
  of Anthrax . +50 poison damage over 6 seconds

-----------------
 5.2.12. Sockets
-----------------
The sorceress should use Larzuk's quest reward to add sockets to all of her
final equipment capable of receiving sockets, then fill the sockets with
jewels to add more useful properties.

-- BATTLE OPTIONS:  Ideal --
Scintillating Jewel of Fervor (magic)
LEVEL:  31
  +15% Increased Attack Speed
  All Resistances +11-15

The holy grail of all jewels is the Scintillating Jewel of Fervor.  It
provides two propeties the archer sorceress greatly desires: resistances and
increased attack speed.  Unfortunately, a jewel of that caliber is very rare
and expensive to trade for (not to mention possible dupe).

-- BATTLE OPTIONS:  Cheap --
Scintillating Jewel (magic)
LEVEL:  26
  All Resistances +11-15

Um Rune
LEVEL:  47
  Weapons:  25% Chance of Open Wounds
  Armor:    All Resistances +15
  Helms:    All Resistances +15
  Shields:  All Resistances +22

Um runes and plain Scintillating Jewels boost all resistances in the helm
and armor slots.  Both are uncommon and valuable, but much easier to obtain
than a Scintillating Jewel of Fervor.

Jewel of Fervor (magic)
LEVEL:  31
  +15% Increased Attack Speed

If increased attack speed is desired, then a plain Jewel of Fervor in the
helm and/or armor will do the trick.  The archer sorceress should get at
least one IAS jewel if none of her equipment has any IAS.

Shael Rune
LEVEL:  29
  Weapons:  +20% Increased Attack Speed
  Armor:    +20% Faster Hit Recovery
  Helms:    +20% Faster Hit Recovery
  Shields:  +20% Faster Block Rate

If the sorceress needs faster hit recovery, and doesn't need more resistance
or IAS, a Shael rune is a good idea.  It takes four small charms of balance
to get 20% faster hit recovery.  It only takes two small charms of vita to
get 40 life, more than the life given by a perfect ruby.

Perfect Ruby
LEVEL:  18
  Weapons:  Adds 15-20 fire damage
  Armor:    +38 to Life
  Helms:    +38 to Life
  Shields:  Fire Resist +40%

More life from a perfect ruby never hurts, although consider the Shael rune
instead if the sorceress needs more faster hit recovery.

Perfect Topaz
LEVEL:  18
  Weapons:  Adds 1-40 lightning damage
  Armor:    24% Better Chance of Getting Magic Items
  Helms:    24% Better Chance of Getting Magic Items
  Shields:  Lightning Resist +40%

Perfect Topaz in the helm and/or armor slot is an easy way to get some
magic find.

-- PREBUFF OPTIONS --
Rainbow Facet (unique jewel)
LEVEL:  49
  100% Chance to cast level 31 Meteor when you die
  Adds 17-45 fire damage
  -3-5% to Enemy Fire Resistance
  +3-5% to Fire Skill Damage

NOTE:  The Rainbow Facet has eight different versions.  The stats shown
above are for the fire/die version.

Rainbow Facets are used only in the prebuffing equipment for Enchant.
"+x% to Fire Skill Damage" is the only property the archer sorceress needs.
When trading for them, accept no less than the maximum of 5%.  All other
properties are irrelevant for prebuffing Enchant.  The archer sorceress will
want up to five facets total -- two in a Volcanic helm, two in a Volcanic
orb, and one in an Enchant Ormus armor.

-------------------
 5.2.13. Item List
-------------------
For those who did not care to wade through the commentary and other details
of each item listed above, below are compact lists of the ideal items the
archer sorceress should use.  Recommended socket choices are in parenthesis
beside the item name.

-- DEMON MACHINE BATTLE SETUP --
Helm....:  "2/20/2 + resists" rare circlet or Kira's Guardian
Armor...:  Skin of the Vipermagi (Scintillating Jewel of Fervor)
Weapon#1:  Demon Machine (Nef or Eth rune)
Weapon#2:  Call to Arms or Death's Fathom (cold Rainbow Facet)
Shield#2:  Lidless Wall or Spirit
Gloves..:  Magefist
Belt....:  Razortail
Boots...:  Sandstorm Trek
Amulet..:  Mara's Kaleidoscope
Ring#1..:  Raven Frost
Ring#2..:  The Stone of Jordan

With only Vipermagi and Magefist, the sorceress only has 10 fps Teleport.
She needs 13% more faster cast to get 9 fps Teleport.

-- HARMONY BATTLE SETUP --
Helm....:  Kira's Guardian (Scintillating Jewel of Fervor)
Armor...:  Skin of the Vipermagi (Scintillating Jewel of Fervor)
Weapon#1:  Harmony
Weapon#2:  Call to Arms or Death's Fathom (cold Rainbow Facet)
Shield#2:  Lidless Wall or Spirit
Gloves..:  Magefist or Chance Guards
Belt....:  Arachnid Mesh
Boots...:  Sandstorm Trek
Amulet..:  Mara's Kaleidoscope
Ring#1..:  Raven Frost
Ring#2..:  The Stone of Jordan

-- PREBUFF SETUP --
Helm....:  Volcanic circlet (2x fire Rainbow Facet)
Armor...:  Ormus' Robes w/ +3 Enchant (fire Rainbow Facet)
Weapon..:  Volcanic orb w/ +3 Enchant, +3 Fire Mastery (2x fire Facet)
Shield..:  Spirit
Gloves..:  Magefist
Belt....:  Arachnid Mesh
Boots...:  n/a
Amulet..:  Volcanic amulet
Rings...:  Stones of Jordan or Bul-Kathos' Wedding Bands

The most the sorceress can get from perfect equipment, Battle Command, and
skill shrine is level 57 Enchant, level 54 Fire Mastery, and +25% fire
damage from Rainbow Facets.  The fire damage from Enchant at maximum power
is over 6000.

A list of low budget alternatives can be found later under "How to Play".

===================
 5.3. Bow Analysis
===================
When looking for a bow suitable for a runeword, the player should keep in
mind that Enchant will provide much of the damage, and the bow should fire
as quickly as possible.  At the same time, the bow should also have
respectable base damage because the sorceress will encounter bosses immune
to fire (Enchant) and cold (Frozen Orb), and she will need physical damage
to hurt them.  One popular example of such a boss is The Countess in Hell.
----------------+----------------+--------------+-----+-------+-------
                |     Damage     | Requirements |     |  Max  |Repair
   Weapon       | Min Max | AVG  | STR DEX |LVL |Speed|Sockets| Cost*
----------------+---------+------+---------+----+-----+-------+-------
 Spider Bow     |  23  50 | 36.5 |  64 143 | 41 |   5 |   3   | ????
 Blade Bow      |  21  41 | 31   |  76 119 | 45 | -10 |   4   | 6001
 Shadow Bow     |  15  59 | 37   |  52 188 | 47 |   0 |   5   | 6534
 Great Bow      |  12  52 | 32   | 121 107 | 51 | -10 |   4   | 5550
 Diamond Bow    |  33  40 | 36.5 |  89 132 | 54 |   0 |   5   | 6408
 Crusader Bow   |  15  63 | 39   |  97 121 | 57 |  10 |   6   | 5595
 Ward Bow       |  20  53 | 36.5 |  72 146 | 60 |   0 |   5   | 5213
 Hydra Bow      |  10  68 | 39   | 134 167 | 63 |  10 |   6   | 5754
----------------+---------+------+---------+----+-----+-------+-------
 Chu-Ko-Nu      |  14  32 | 23   |  80  95 | 25 | -60 |   5   | 4397
 Demon Crossbow |  26  40 | 33   | 141  98 | 63 | -60 |   5   | 6564
----------------+---------+------+---------+----+-----+-------+-------
* Repair cost assumes normal quality Harmony bow with perfect stats.

The sorceress should place runewords in either -10 speed bows or -60 speed
crossbows.  The only possible exception to this is Faith, because its
Fanaticism aura makes any bow fast.  (On the other hand, Faith is not the
best weapon for the archer sorceress.)

-- BOWS --
Spider Bow:  With equal or less damage than the slightly faster 0 speed bows
and a maximum of three sockets, the Spider Bow is an inferior choice.
Enough said.

Blade/Great Bow:  Great Bow has more average damage than a Blade Bow, making
it a superior choice if the character has the strength for it.  The strength
requirement for a Great Bow is high, higher than what is needed for all
other equipment that doesn't have the name Windforce, Stormshield, Spirit,
or Crown of Ages.  If Great Bow's high strength requirement is a turnoff,
Blade Bow remains to be a solid choice, even if it is slightly inferior to a
Great Bow.

Shadow/Diamond/Ward Bow:  The Shadow Bow has the highest average damage
of the three bows.  However, for the archer sorceress, the dexterity
requirement of 188 is too high.  With the Shadow Bow removed as an option,
the Diamond Bow and Ward Bow are the two options left.  Both Diamond Bow and
Ward Bow have the same average damage.  Between the two, Diamond Bow has
less requirements than the Ward Bow except for strength.  However, since the
archer sorceress needs 90-ish strength for upgraded Vipermagi and some of
the better boots in the game, the strength requirement for either bow is not
a problem to qualify for.  Therefore, the Diamond bow is the best of the
three 0 speed bows for the sorceress.

Crusader/Hydra Bow:  Crusader Bow has the same average damage as a
Hydra Bow, yet Crusader Bow has lower requirements and is easier to find,
making it a superior choice.  In any case, both of these bows are slow and
should never be used, with the possible exception of Faith.

-- CROSSBOWS --
If the sorceress cannot get enough increased attack speed to shoot bows at
12 fps or faster, she should consider the use of a crossbow.  The fastest
crossbows attack 12 fps with no increased attack speed, and they only need
+8% more IAS to attack at 11 fps, the fastest attack speed possible with a
crossbow.  The two fastest crossbows are the Chu-Ko-Nu and Demon Crossbow.
Demon Crossbow, with its increased damage and requirements, is the elite
version of the Chu-Ko-Nu.  If the sorceress has the stats to use a Demon
Crossbow, she should use it.  If not, Chu-Ko-Nu is damaging enough to be a
viable choice.


============================================================================
  6. Mercenary
============================================================================

The mercenary is the archer sorceress's right-hand man and heavy hitter.
Out of all the choices available, the most effective mercenary by far is
the Act 2 Town Guard.  The qualities that make him the best choice include
his aura, access to the best weapon runewords, and aggressive behavior to
confront enemies and tank for the sorceress.  His only weakness is
Iron Maiden, which will destroy him as soon as he touches an enemy.

The aura he uses depends on the type of merc and difficulty he was hired in.

  Normal/Hell auras:
    Combat    = Prayer (slowly regenerates life)
    Defensive = Defiance (increases defense)
    Offensive = Blessed Aim (increases attack rating)

  Nightmare auras:
    Combat    = Thorns (reflects damage taken)
    Defensive = Holy Freeze (chills and slows enemy)
    Offensive = Might (increases damage)

The archer sorceress has two effective choices:

HOLY FREEZE:  Most monsters near the merc are slowed down to a crawl, even
cold immunes.  Act bosses and their clones, plus a few other select monsters
are immune to the slow effect.  While not as effective as Might, Holy Freeze
is great for the online, hardcore player who is paranoid over lag spikes
that may allow enemies the time to kill an unprotected sorceress.

MIGHT:  Boosts merc's damage to obscene levels, and he can kill monsters
faster than any other merc.  The aura also increases the sorceress's damage
when she attacks with her bow.  If the sorceress uses Harmony, the Valkyrie
and Revives hit harder too.  Might is the most effective aura by far.

================
 Merc Equipment
================
As with the sorceress, equipment is very important to the mercenary.
Since the mercenary's primary job is to tank for the sorceress, items that
help the merc stay alive are most important.  For offense, the merc needs a
powerful high damage weapon to not only kill enemies quickly, but also to
leech as much life back as possible.  Of course, the merc will need an item
with life stealing to provide leech in the first place.  For defense, high
defense is good for reducing the chances the merc gets hit.  However,
damage reduction is better at resisting physical damage.  Against poison
and elemental attacks, the merc needs max resistances to protect him from
getting fried, especially against bosses.

------
 HELM
------
Since most of the best weapons for the act 2 mercenary lack life leech, the
helm will need to provide all of his leeching needs.  The best helm for this
purpose is Vampire Gaze, which gives not only much needed leech, but also
damage reduction, which is great protection against high physical damage.
However, Vampire Gaze is not an easy find, even though Nightmare Mephisto
can drop one.  As an alternate, Tal Rasha's mask is nearly as good,
providing life and resistance instead of damage reduction, and it drops
more frequently than Gaze.

Vampire Gaze (unique Grim Helm)
STR:  58
LEVEL:  41
  Adds 6-22 cold damage  (cold length:  4 seconds)
  6-8% Mana stolen per hit
  6-8% Life stolen per hit
  +100% Enhanced Defense
  15% Slower Stamina Drain
  Damage Reduced by 15-20%
  Magic Damage Reduced by 10-15

Tal Rasha's Horadric Crest (set Death Mask)
STR:  55
LEVEL:  66
  10% Mana stolen per hit
  10% Life stolen per hit
  +45 Defense
  +60 to Life
  +30 to Mana
  All Resistances +15

For those who favor offense more than defense, Andariel's Visage is very
powerful with skills, IAS, and life leech.

Andariel's Visage (unique Demonhead)  *LADDER ONLY*
STR:  102
LEVEL:  83
  15% Chance to cast level 15 Poison Nova when struck
  +2 to All Skills
  +20% Increased Attack Speed
  8-10% Life stolen per hit
  +100-150% Enhanced Defense
  +25-30 to Strength
  +10% to Maximum Poison Resist
  Fire Resist -30%
  Poison Resist +70%
  Level 3 Venom (20 Charges)

-------
 ARMOR
-------
The most common form of damage is physical, and armor that protects the merc
from it is highly desirable.  While high defense is good, damage reduction
is even better.  Shaftstop has the highest amount of damage reduction in the
game, and it adds life.  Shaftstop is found as Mesh Armor, which is an
exceptional item and doesn't have the best defense.  However, if upgraded to
Boneweave, its defense rises to a nice high number.

Shaftstop (unique Mesh Armor -> Boneweave)
STR:  92 -> 158
LEVEL:  38 -> 54
  +180-220% Enhanced Defense
  +250 Defense vs. Missile
  +60 to Life
  Damage Reduced by 30%

Another useful armor that is relatively cheap and not too hard to find is
Duriel's Shell.  Although it lacks damage reduction, it has a variety of
other useful properties including Cannot Be Frozen.  Cold attacks slowing
down the merc are not only annoying, but also dangerous since that
translates into less damage and leech over time.  Like Shaftstop,
Duriel's Shell is an exceptional armor, and it needs an upgrade to
increase its defense.

Duriel's Shell (unique Cuirass -> Great Hauberk)
STR:  65 -> 118
LEVEL:  41 -> 63
  +160-200% Enhanced Defense
  +1-123 Defense (Based on Character Level)
  +15 to Strength
  +1-99 to Life (Based on Character Level)
  Cold Resist +50%
  Lightning Resist +20%
  Fire Resist +20%
  Poison Resist +20%
  Cannot Be Frozen

Rich players who care less about defense and want the merc to deal damage,
damage, and more damage will like the runeword Fortitude, which features
300% enhanced damage plus a variety of defensive properties.

Fortitude (runeword:  El Sol Dol Lo)  *REALM ONLY*
STR:  70+
LEVEL:  59+
  20% Chance to cast level 15 Chilling Armor when struck
  25% Faster Cast Rate
  300% Enhanced Damage
  200% Enhanced Defense
  +15 Defense
  +1-(99-148) to Life (Based on Character Level)
  Replenish Life +7
  +5 to Maximum Lightning Resist
  All Resistances +25-30
  Damage Reduced by 7
  12% Damage Taken Goes To Mana
  +1 to Light Radius

If the sorceress is looking for gold and items, consider equipping Wealth on
the merc.  Gold and magic find on the merc stacks with the sorceress's when
the merc scores a kill, and he kills plenty for the archer sorceress.

Wealth (runeword:  Lem Ko Tir)
LEVEL:  43+
  +10 to Dexterity
  +2 to Mana after each kill
  300% Extra Gold from Monsters
  100% Better Chance of Getting Magic Items

--------
 WEAPON
--------
There are several excellent options for the mercenary.  If a runeword is
chosen, plug the runes in an ethereal elite weapon to create a very powerful
weapon.

The most powerful offensive weapon by far is Infinity, and the reason for
Infinity's power is its level 12 Conviction aura.  Conviction causes the
defense and resistances of every enemy affected to drop like a rock.  The
sorceress and her allies will have a very easy time hitting Convicted
enemies.  With resistances sunk, enemies will take more damage and die
quickly from the sorceress's Frozen Orb and/or the fiery might of her
Enchanted army.

Infinity (runeword:  Ber Mal Ber Ist -- polearm)  *REALM ONLY*
LEVEL:  63
  50% Chance to cast level 20 Chain Lightning when you Kill an Enemy
  Level 12 Conviction Aura When Equipped
  +35% Faster Run/Walk
  +255-325% Enhanced Damage
  -45-55% to Enemy Lightning Resistance
  40% Chance of Crushing Blow
  Prevent Monster Heal
  0-49 to Vitality (Based on Character Level)
  30% Better Chance of Getting Magic Items
  Level 21 Cyclone Armor (30 Charges)
    --------------------------
     Level 12 Conviction
    --------------------------
     Radius:  13.3 yards
     Enemy Defense:  -83%
     Enemy Resistances:  -85%
    --------------------------

Unfortunately, Infinity requires two Ber runes to make, something many
players will never see.  These players want a cheap but effective
alternative.  The good news is Insight and Obedience are two runewords
that are overpowered for the runes they require.

For runes no higher than Sol, Insight offers damage in the Cruel range and
Meditation aura, the latter of which regenerates mana much faster than max
Warmth.  With an Insight merc, the sorceress will never need to worry about
mana ever again.

Insight (runeword:  Ral Tir Tal Sol -- polearm, staff)  *REALM ONLY*
LEVEL:  27+
  Level 12-17 Meditation Aura When Equipped
  +35% Faster Cast Rate
  +200-260% Enhanced Damage
  +9 to Minimum Damage
  180-250% Bonus to Attack Rating
  Adds 5-30 fire damage
  +75 poison damage over 5 seconds
  +1-6 to Critical Strike
  +5 to all Attributes
  +2 to Mana after each Kill
  23% Better Chance of Getting Magic Items

The other runeword, Obedience, simply offers extremely high damage.  What
sets Obedience apart from the competition is the highest rune needed for
Obedience is Fal, while other runewords that feature 350% or more enhanced
damage require runes Vex or higher.  As if the damage was not enough,
Obedience has several more useful properties, including resistance,
crushing blow, and fire resistance drain.

Obedience (runeword:  Hel Ko Thul Eth Fal -- polearm)  *REALM ONLY*
LEVEL:  41+
  30% Chance to cast level 21 Enchant when you kill an enemy
  +40% Faster Hit Recovery
  +370% Enhanced Damage
  -25% Target Defense
  Adds 3-14 cold damage
  -25% to Enemy Fire Resistance
  40% Chance of Crushing Blow
  +200-300 Defense
  +10 to Strength
  +10 to Dexterity
  All Resistances +20-30
  Requirements -20%

For the rich and poor, runewords offer powerful offensive weapons that are
the best for killing enemies as quickly as possible.  What they don't do
is cripple enemies with irresistable slowing effects, making things safer.
For those who want a powerful weapon that can slow enemies down, the
two best options are an upgraded Kelpie Snare and The Reaper's Toll.
The Kelpie Snare features slows targets by 75%, while The Reaper's Toll
features high leech and Decrepify proc.

Kelpie Snare (unique Fuscina -> Stygian Pike)
STR:  77 -> 168
DEX:  25 -> 97
LEVEL:  33 -> 56
  +140-180% Enhanced Damage
  Adds 30-50 damage
  Slows Target by 75%
  +10 to Strength
  1-123 to Life (Based on Character Level)
  Fire Resist +50%

The Reaper's Toll (unique Thresher)  *LADDER ONLY*
STR:  114
DEX:  89
LEVEL:  75
  33% Chance to cast level 1 Decrepify on striking
  +190-240% Enhanced Damage
  Ignore Target's Defense
  Adds 4-44 cold damage
  11-15% Life stolen per hit
  33% Deadly Strike
  Requirements -25%


============================================================================
  7. Army of Harmony
============================================================================

Harmony's greatest strength is the ability to raise an army with the
Valkyrie oskill and Revive charges.  Combined with high level Enchant,
the archer sorceress can use the army with devastating effectiveness.

===============
 7.1. Valkyrie
===============
Even though the Valkyrie is not as sturdy as a mercenary or most revived
hell monsters, she remains to be a powerful minion the archer sorceress will
rely on to tank and kill monsters.  Available from the Harmony bow as an
oskill, the Valkyrie is free and renewable.  As long as Harmony is held, the
sorceress has no reason not to have a Valkyrie out on the battlefield at all
times.

-- SKILL SPECS --
-----------------------------------------------------
Skill Name:  Valkyrie

-- In-game Description --
"Summons a powerful Valkyrie ally."
-----------------------------------------------------
 Casting Delay:  6 sec.
------+----------------------------------------------
 slvl | Life  Damage  Attack  Defense  Mana  Resists
------+----------------------------------------------
   1  |  440     0%      40       0%    25       2
   2  |  528    25%      80      10%    26       4
   3  |  616    50%     120      20%    27       6
   4  |  704    75%     160      30%    28       8
   5  |  792   100%     200      40%    29      10
   6  |  880   125%     240      50%    30      12
   7  |  968   150%     280      60%    31      14
   8  | 1056   175%     320      70%    32      16
   9  | 1144   200%     360      80%    33      18
  10  | 1232   225%     400      90%    34      20
  11  | 1320   250%     440     100%    35      22
  12  | 1408   275%     480     110%    36      24
  13  | 1496   300%     520     120%    37      26
  14  | 1584   325%     560     130%    38      28
  15  | 1672   350%     600     140%    39      30
  16  | 1760   375%     640     150%    40      32
  17  | 1848   400%     680     160%    41      34
  18  | 1936   425%     720     170%    42      36
  19  | 2024   450%     760     180%    43      38
  20  | 2112   475%     800     190%    44      40
------+----------------------------------------------

LIFE:  The base life of a valkyrie varies from 400 to 480.  440 is the
average, which is number shown for a level 1 Valkyrie.  Higher levels
increase her life by a percentage, much like the effects of Battle Orders
and Oak Sage.  The significance of this is that items and skills that
increase life by a percentage have that percentage added to the life
percentage from the Valkyrie skill.  The life percentage granted by the
Valkyrie skill is the formula:  +(Valkyrie skill level * 20 - 20)%.

DAMAGE:  The valkyrie has a strength score equal to 25 per skill level.  The
damage percentage reflects this, except the number displayed is 25 less than
her strength.  Actually, the display is wrong.  To get the true damage
percentage the valkyrie receives, add 25 to the displayed number.

ATTACK RATING:  The valkyrie adds 40 per skill level to her attack rating.
This does not include her innate attack rating or any bonuses from
dexterity.  The Valkyrie has a dexterity score equal to 12 per skill level.

DEFENSE:  The valkyrie has a base defense rating of 250, 300, or 350
depending on difficulty, plus bonuses from dexterity and armor.  The
percentage from the skill increases her defense in a manner similar to
Shout or Defiance.  If the valkyrie receives a defense boost from Shout
or Defiance (or loses defense from Conviction), the bonus is added to the
percentage given by the Valkyrie skill.

RESISTANCE:  The valkyrie has fire, lightning, cold, and poison resistances
equal to 2 per skill level.  Her random equipment can add even more.

-- BASE STATS --
The Valkyrie skill displays impressive looking percentage numbers.  A good
question at this point is what are the actual numbers that are modified by
the percentile bonuses?  Assuming no equipment, the following shows the
valkyrie's actual base stats from monstats.txt.
-------------------------------
 Regeneration:  12
-------+-----------------------
       | Normal  N'Mare   Hell
-------+-----------------------
 Delay |     6       6       6
 AC    |   141     152     164
 AR    |   250     300     350
 Dmg1  |  9-24   13-35   16-41
 Dmg2  | 18-37   26-53   31-62
-------+-----------------------

REGENERATION:  A value of 12 means the valkyrie takes about 10 seconds to
regenerate her health from empty to full, provided she is not poisoned.

DELAY:  AI delay between actions; think of it as reaction time.  With a
value of 6, the Valkyrie takes a 0.24 second break after each attack before
she decides on her next action.

AC:  Short for Defense Rating.

AR:  Short for Attack Rating.

DMG1 and DMG2:  The damage an unarmed valkyrie can do.
(I don't know which of the two the game uses.)

-- EQUIPMENT --
Each Valkyrie has her own items, which are randomly spawned when she is
created.  The quality of her equipment is based on the skill level of
Valkyrie.  At level 1, she is equipped with merely Full Plate Mail and a
Spear.  Higher levels provide more items then, if the skill level is high
enough, get replaced by their exceptional or elite versions.
------+---------------------------------------------
 slvl | Item Upgrade         Stats          Quality
------+--------------------+--------------+---------
   1  | Full Plate Mail    | AC: 150-161  | rare
   1  | Spear              | Dmg: 3-15    | rare
   2  | Gauntlets          | AC: 12-15    | magic
   4  | Greaves            | AC: 12-15    | magic
   5  | Plated Belt        | AC: 8-11     | magic
   7  | Chaos Armor        | AC: 315-342  | rare
   8  | Lance              | Dmg: 27-114  | rare
  10  | War Gauntlets      | AC: 43-53    | magic
  11  | War Boots          | AC: 43-53    | magic
  12  | War Belt           | AC: 41-52    | magic
  13  | Amulet             | --           | magic
  14  | Circlet            | AC: 20-30    | magic
  16  | Sacred Armor       | AC: 487-600  | rare
  17  | War Pike           | Dmg: 33-178  | rare
  19  | Crusader Gauntlets | AC: 59-68    | rare
  21  | Myrmidon Greaves   | AC: 62-71    | rare
  23  | Colossus Girdle    | AC: 61-71    | rare
  25  | Amulet             | --           | rare
  27  | Tiara              | AC: 40-50    | rare
------+--------------------+--------------+---------
In addition to items spawned, the affixes available also vary with the
Valkyrie skill level.  The item level of her equipment is the formula:
(Valkyrie skill level * 3 + 22).  The most significant affix is the Cruel
prefix for rare weapons, which requires an item level of 56.  The minimum
skill level of Valkyrie that qualifies for the Cruel prefix is level 12,
which results in an item level of 58.  Note that the Cruel prefix is not
guaranteed to spawn on a weapon; only that it requires a high enough item
level to have a chance to spawn at all.

Maximum All Skills
------------------
The highest level Valkyrie a non-Amazon character, wielding Harmony, can get
is level 19.  Harmony provides up to level 6 Valkyrie.  Remaining equipment
slots combined provide up to +10 to All Skills, which brings the total
to 16.  Temporary boosts from Battle Command and a skill shrine add 3 more,
bringing the grand total to 19.

Although increasing skill levels always improve the Valkyrie, there are two
major cutoff points:  levels 8 and 12.  At level 8, the valkyrie's spear is
upgraded to a lance, which slows down attack speed but greatly increases the
damage a valkyrie can do.  At level 12, the Cruel prefix can spawn on the
valkyrie's weapon.

==============
 7.2. Revives
==============
In Normal and most of Nightmare, revives are not necessary because
Frozen Orb can single-handedly wipe out nearly everything, and the merc and
valkyrie are enough to tank for the sorceress and kill the few monsters that
are impervious to cold.  It is in Hell that the sorceress may want revives
for more tanking and/or killing power.

The Revive Skill
----------------
In-game Description:
"Returns a monster to life to fight at your side."

When cast on a corpse, Revive brings a monster back to life for a limited
time.  During the revive's new lease on life, it will fight for the caster
by using the same attacks it once used against the caster.  With triple of
their base life, revives are durable tanks.  As stated earlier, revive does
not last not forever.  If not killed in three minutes, the revive will
perish anyway, and if the caster moves too far away from the revive, it will
disappear outright.

When the caster uses teleport, all minions teleport with the caster.  Since
the sorceress can learn Teleport, she should have no trouble keeping her
revives alive for the full three minute duration.

The number of revives the caster can retain at one time is equal to the
level of Revive.  Harmony provides level 20 Revive charges.  This means
the wielder of Harmony can retain an army of revives numbering up to twenty
strong.

Not every monster can be revived.  Chilled or frozen monsters that shatter
when killed leave no corpse behind.  Monsters that are killed by someone
wearing an item with "Slain Monsters Rest In Peace" cannot be revived or
otherwise used by a corpse skill.  Boss monsters of any kind cannot be
revived.  In addition, some monster species are impossible to revive,
and they include the following:  sand leapers, oblivion knights, suicide
minions, putrid defilers, and minions of destruction (Lister's pack).

The Price for Power
-------------------
Although the potential damage twenty Enchanted monsters can do is enormous,
Revive charges from Harmony cost a lot of gold to recharge.  Recharging
Harmony costs 13742.12 gold per charge, with decimals raised to the next
integer, plus the repair cost of the bow.  Items that reduce vendor prices
will lower the repair cost.  Edge and Gheed's Fortune combined can reduce
prices by up to 30%.  30% off of 343,553 gold, the cost of 25 charges, is
103,065 gold saved.  That is a lot of gold!

Even with discounts, Revive should be used wisely and as seldom as possible.
If the sorceress, her mercenary, and valkyrie can defeat enemies safely,
then Revives should not be used.  In scenarios where a horde of powerful
monsters can overwhelm the sorceress's personal team, raising and enchanting
a small group of revives consisting of two to five monsters can help even
the odds.  When preparing for an epic battle against an act boss or the
Ancients, raising and enchanting a large army of fifteen or even twenty
revives is a good way to stack the fight in favor of the sorceress.  with
such a large army, the revives will gang up on the boss and dish out a lot
of fire damage while tanking for the sorceress and her merc.  Using such a
large army on nearly anything else is overkill since Revive is not cheap to
use.

Enchanting the Revived
----------------------
Enchant boosts all of the monsters' melee attacks.  Some missile attacks are
powered-up by Enchant, but many are not.  Below is a table displaying the
missile attacks that are fired-up by Enchant.
-----------------+-------------+----------+-----------+--------
 Monster Species | Missile     | Auto-Hit | Blockable | Pierce
-----------------+-------------+----------+-----------+--------
 Quill Rat       | Quill       |     No   |    Yes    |    No
 Rogue Archer    | Arrow       |     No   |    Yes    |    No
 Skeleton Archer | Arrow       |     No   |    Yes    |    No
 Skeleton Mage   | Magic Bolts |    Yes   |     No    |    No
 Afflicted       | Plasma Ball |    Yes   |     No    |    No
 Slinger         | Javelin     |     No   |    Yes    |    No
 Fetish          | Blowgun     |     No   |    Yes    |    No
 Gloam           | Lightning   |    Yes   |     No    |   Yes
 Demon Imp       | Fire Bolt   |    Yes   |     No    |    No
 Succubus        | Blood Star  |    Yes   |    Yes    |    No
 Claw Viper      | Bone Spear  |    Yes   |    Yes    |   Yes
 Salamander      | Fire Bolt   |    Yes   |    Yes    |   Yes
 Tomb Viper      | Poison Bolt |    Yes   |    Yes    |    No
-----------------+-------------+----------+-----------+--------
Notes about some of the monsters with enchantable missile attacks below.

SKELETON MAGE:  Fire bolts, charged bolts, ice bolts, and poison bolts are
all powered-up by Enchant.  However, this benefit applies only to Revived
monsters.  Necromages created by the Raise Skeletal Mage skill do NOT have
their shots fired-up by Enchant.

SLINGER:  Slingers can carry either javelins or potions.  Enchant works
only on the javelins.  Potions do not get the damage bonus from Enchant.
Also, the guest Slingers in Act 5 throw javelins that can only hit player
characters and pass through everything else harmlessly, much like how doll
explosions hurt only the players.  Avoid reviving Act 5 Slingers at all
costs!  The javelins thrown by the Slingers from Act 2 can hit anything.
Reviving Act 2 javelin Slingers is okay.

GLOAM:  Yes, believe it or not, Enchant adds its fire damage to all the
souls' lightning bolts.  The result is a powerful, piercing lightning bolt
that causes mostly fire damage to all enemies in its path.  A group of about
six or seven revived and enchanted souls are usually enough to wipe out any
horde of monsters not immune to fire in seconds.

TOMB VIPER:  The Tomb Vipers' poison shot spawns a trail of poison gas
clouds similar to the Amazon's Poison Javelin.  Unlike Poison Javelin,
the clouds inflict high physical damage PER FRAME to any enemy that moves
through the clouds.  Normally this is bad because it can kill players and
mercenaries in a fraction of a second.  Now for the fun part; when the
sorceress enchants a revived Tomb Viper, all the fire damage from Enchant
is added to the damage the poison clouds can cause.  The result is poison
clouds that cause thousands of fire damage per frame.  Any non-boss monster
not immune to fire that moves though these enchanted clouds dies almost
instantly even in an eight player game.  This is pure cheese, and any
powergamer will exploit this with glee (and laugh maniacally -- MWAHAHA).

Who to Revive?
--------------
When looking for monsters to revive, raise aggressive monsters with quick
attacks capable of delivering the fire damage from Enchant.  Melee attackers
are useful for tanking while ranged attackers with enchantable missiles are
useful for blanketing the screen in a hail of missile fire.

Avoid reviving ranged attackers who stay back and launch missiles that
Enchant cannot powerup.  Examples of such monsters include fallen shamans,
potion slingers, unravelers, vampires, and cantors.  Monsters that generally
approach an enemy for battle in melee while flinging the occasional
non-enchantable missile along the way should be raised only if tanks are
needed now and no better attackers can be found.  Examples of such monsters
include council members, abyss knights, venom lords, and death maulers.

Honorable mentions of various melee monster species to revive:

BLOOD LORD:  These buff minotaurs are generally the most feared melee
monster.  They are strong, fast, and have deceptively long reach.

DARK LANCER:  As guest monsters in Act 5, lancers are blindingly fast,
and their attacks have long reach.

SCARAB:  Similar to lancers, minus the extra reach.

ABOMINABLE:  Cousins of the act 1 gargantuan beasts, these snowmen possess
attacks that stun on contact.  A group of them can disable entire enemy
mobs.

BLUNDERBORE:  The attacks from these big and fat mutants have 25% chance of
crushing blow in Hell.  They can also Smite, which auto-hits and stuns on
contact.


============================================================================
  8. How to Play
============================================================================

NORMAL (clvl 1-29)
------------------
Frozen Orb and all of the powerful endgame bows are not available this early
in the game.  Since the sorceress must save most of her skill points for
Enchant and Frozen Orb, starting out will be tougher than later in the game
until about Act 3 Hell.  The sorceress must make do with weapons and low
level, underpowered skills.  With low damage skills, Static Field will be
the sorceress's best friend.  Use it to weaken enemies, then when their life
is low, use Ice Blast, Fire Ball, Glacial Spike, or weapon attacks to finish
them off.  Using Ice Blast or Glacial Spike to freeze enemies first before
using Static Field is a good way to reduce the sorceress's risk of taking
damage.  Of course, level 1 Static Field does not have enough range without
putting the sorceress at risk of taking severe damage from boss monsters.
What can the player do without placing several points into Static Field for
long and safe enough range?  When shopping at Akara or Drognan, look for a
staff with +3 to Static Field.  If you find one, buy it if possible, and
keep it handy on the switch.  The sorceress will need it when it is time to
fight big scary bosses like Duriel.

Tip:  If the sorceress is going to fight Andariel alone, use Blaze to
destroy her.  Find or buy a staff with Blaze to grant the skill.  Cast
Blaze and let Andariel follow the sorceress to her doom.

All this spellcasting drains mana quickly.  Stock up on mana potions and
drink up when necessary.  If the potions run out, go back to town to buy
more.  Yes, frequent potion chugging and town running is no fun, but stay
strong -- it is only temporary.

Hire a merc and keep him (or her) alive and well equipped.  The merc will
rake in the kills as the sorceress statics monsters.  In Act I, only the
rogue is available, but she is better than nothing.  Once in Act II, dump
the rogue for a town guard at the first opportunity.  The town guard can
tank and do much of the killing.  He provides the perfect cover for the
sorceress trying to use Static Field safely.  Do not let the merc fall
behind in levels.  If this happens, simply rehire the merc at a higher
level.

By level 29, skill distribution should be the following:
----------------------+----------------------+----------------------
   Fire Skills        |   Lightning Skills   |   Cold Skills
----------------------+----------------------+----------------------
 Fire Bolt .......  1 | Static Field ....  1 | Ice Bolt ........  1
 Warmth ..........  1 | Telekinesis .....  1 | Frozen Armor ....  1
 Fire Ball .......  1 | Teleport ........  1 | Frost Nova ......  1
 Enchant ......... 12 |                      | Ice Blast .......  1
                      |                      | Glacial Spike ...  1
                      |                      | Blizzard ........  1
----------------------+----------------------+----------------------
   Total Points Spent:  24                       Unused:  8
--------------------------------------------------------------------

NORMAL (clvl 30-45)
-------------------
With Frozen Orb available, the sorceress can devastate the rest of Normal
with ease.  The sorceress can easily level up to 45 just by clearing the
Worldstone Keep levels, including Throne of Destruction, game after game.
With each levelup, add each new skill point to Frozen Orb to increase its
power.  By level 45, Frozen Orb should be at slvl 16, assuming no skill
boosting items.

By level 45, skill distribution should be the following:
----------------------+----------------------+----------------------
   Fire Skills        |   Lightning Skills   |   Cold Skills
----------------------+----------------------+----------------------
 Fire Bolt .......  1 | Static Field ....  1 | Ice Bolt ........  1
 Warmth ..........  1 | Telekinesis .....  1 | Frozen Armor ....  1
 Fire Ball .......  1 | Teleport ........  1 | Frost Nova ......  1
 Enchant ......... 18 |                      | Ice Blast .......  1
 Fire Mastery ....  1 |                      | Glacial Spike ...  1
                      |                      | Blizzard ........  1
                      |                      | Frozen Orb ...... 16
                      |                      | Cold Mastery ....  1
----------------------+----------------------+----------------------
   Total Points Spent:  48
--------------------------------------------------------------------

NIGHTMARE (clvl 45-75)
----------------------
High level Frozen Orb will clean house throughout all of Nightmare.
The sorceress should max Frozen Orb as soon as possible.  Once done, the
sorceress should develop Enchant, Warmth, and Fire Mastery in that order one
at a time.  The sorceress can easily level up to level 75 in Worldstone Keep
experience runs.

If the sorceress lacks the item power to survive in Hell, item farming runs
are in order.  Countess is a good source of runes up to Io (though she can
drop up to Ko).  Andariel and Mephisto are good bosses to kill for
low to mid level set and unique items such as Kuko Shakaku, String of Ears,
Rockstopper, and Skin of the Vipermagi.  Nightmare Mephisto can drop Demon
Machine, the best low budget endgame bow.

Equipment a poor man's sorceress should strive for:
  Helm....:  Rockstopper
  Armor...:  Skin of the Vipermagi, Goldskin, or Smoke
  Weapon#1:  Kuko Shakaku, Demon Machine, Harmony, or Witchwild String
  Weapon#2:  Spirit, Spectral Shard, or The Oculus
  Shield#2:  Lidless Wall, Sigon's Guard, or Whinstan's Guard
  Gloves..:  Magefist or Trang-Oul's Claws
  Boots...:  Hotspur, Waterwalk, or any other boots with resistance
  Belt....:  Razortail, Nightsmoke, String of Ears, or crafted caster belt
  Amulet..:  anything with resistance.
  Ring#1..:  Raven Frost
  Ring#2..:  Dwarf Star or anything with resistance

-- For would-be Harmony users: --
For those planning for the sorceress to use Harmony in a Chu-Ko-Nu or
Blade Bow, those bows can be found in Act 5 Worldstone Keep.  Just keep
killing monsters until a bow drops.  Use the cube or Larzuk to add sockets
if necessary.  Those who want a Great Bow or Demon Crossbow will need to
wait until Hell to find one.

As for the runes, the only one that may not be found by now is Ko.  The only
monster that drops runes reliably is the Countess, but odds of finding runes
above Thul or Sol are rather low per run, and farming the Countess for runes
is tedious work.  The Hellforge can drop one, but the odds are 1 in 11.
If luck is not on your side and Ko rune cannot be found by the end of
Nightmare, and if trading for Ko is not an option, your best bet is to wait
until Hell where the Hell Countess can be farmed for runes up to Ist.
In the meantime, look for a bow with exploding arrows such as Kuko Shakaku
and use it to blast enemies immune to cold.
---------------------------------

By level 75, skill distribution should be the following:
----------------------+----------------------+----------------------
   Fire Skills        |   Lightning Skills   |   Cold Skills
----------------------+----------------------+----------------------
 Fire Bolt .......  1 | Static Field ....  1 | Ice Bolt ........  1
 Warmth .......... 20 | Telekinesis .....  1 | Frozen Armor ....  1
 Fire Ball .......  1 | Teleport ........  1 | Frost Nova ......  1
 Enchant ......... 20 |                      | Ice Blast .......  1
 Fire Mastery .... 10 |                      | Glacial Spike ...  1
                      |                      | Blizzard ........  1
                      |                      | Frozen Orb ...... 20
                      |                      | Cold Mastery ....  1
----------------------+----------------------+----------------------
   Total Points Spent:  82
--------------------------------------------------------------------

HELL (clvl 75+)
---------------
Hell is brutal to unprepared players.  The greatest challenge in Hell is
stacking enough resistance so the sorceress does not die instantly in a
single hit from elemental attacks.  If the sorceress can do that, surviving
in Hell is not too difficult.

So how does the archer sorceress fight once she gets her bow and most of her
skills finished?  Playing the archer sorceress is a two step process.

1) Prebuff
For any Enchantress, prebuffing skills is essential.  Before the sorceress
steps out of town, she needs to raise the skill levels of Enchant and
Fire Mastery as high as possible, changing equipment if necessary.  Once the
sorceress is ready, she casts Enchant on herself, her mercenary, and all
other friendly players and their mercenaries.  Barring hacks, the sorceress
can Enchant another player only if one or both players are out of town;
otherwise, the sorceress will try to initiate a trade.  Once the sorceress
finishes enchanting everyone, she puts all her prebuffing equipment away
then equips her battle gear again.  High level Enchant lasts a long time.
Level 20 Enchant lasts for ten minutes.  Level 45 Enchant lasts for twenty
minutes.

2) Fight
The sorceress uses one or more of the following three skills to destroy
enemies:  Frozen Orb, Static Field, or Normal Attack with her bow.
Occasionally, the sorceress uses Ice Blast or Glacial Spike in tandem with
the above when enemies need to be frozen.

Against any monster vulnerable to cold, the attack of choice to use is
Frozen Orb.  A good hit from Frozen Orb usually causes more damage than the
sorceress can do with most Enchanted bows.  (Only exploding and piercing
arrows from the Demon Machine and Razortail combo can beat Frozen Orb in
killing speed when fighting large crowds.)  In addition to damage, Frozen
Orb chills and slows those hit by it.  If the enemy takes multiple orbs to
destroy, casting Static Field two or three times after the first Orb can
reduce enemy life to about one-half.

Against monsters immune to cold, but vulnerable to lightning, use Static
Field to reduce their life down to half as quickly as possible.  Once done,
the sorceress will use normal attack to fire arrows at the monsters.  If the
monster is immune to both cold and lightning, the sorceress has no choice
but to shoot it.

Against mixed groups with some immune to cold but the rest are not, use
Frozen Orb to destroy those vulnerable to cold first.  Once only the cold
immune monsters remain, use Static Field then shoot arrows at them to finish
them off.

Monsters immune to fire and cold usually take a long time to kill.  Aside
from the Pit Lords in the Furnace of Pain level, only unique boss monsters,
such as The Countess, can have both fire and cold immunities.  When the
sorceress encounters a group of monsters led by a fire and cold immune boss,
save the boss for last, and destroy the other monsters first.

Special strategy for The Secret Cow Level:
The sorceress will encounter horde after horde of tough Hell Bovines.
While Frozen Orb is effective against a small group of enemies, it is
a slow killer against the legion of cows the sorceress is up against.
What the sorceress needs is exploding and piercing arrows offered by the
Demon Machine and Razortail combo.  With 99% pierce, each bolt shot at huge
mobs will cause numerous powerful explosions that will quickly blow a crowd
apart, or at least kill much faster than Frozen Orb.  The more enemies that
are hit, the more effective each bolt is.


============================================================================
   9. Credits
============================================================================

Thanks to the following:
* Blizzard for the Diablo games.
* PhrozenHeart for the DiabloII mod site Phrozen Keep.

DiabloII Links:
* http://www.battle.net/diablo2exp
A.k.a. Arreat Summit, this is the official site for D2: LoD.

* http://phrozenkeep.it-point.com
The Phrozen Keep is the place to go if you want to learn how mods work in
DiabloII.

Below are more links to DiabloII sites worth browsing:
* http://diablo2.ingame.de
* http://www.diabloii.net
* http://www.lurkerlounge.com/diablo2
* http://www.theamazonbasin.com/d2


============================================================================
Copyright 2006 Patrick Martin
============================================================================