EMPIRE EARTH FAQ
----------------
MADE BY: DANIEL WEIR (d_weir_efc@yahoo.co.uk)
Thanks to www.EmpireEarth.com for some of the information that I used 
and thanks to Sierra for making such a great RTS game.

 
AIRCRAFT
-------- 

Boeing Chinook
--------------
Built: 1950's
Wingspan: N/A
Max Speed: N/A
Max Range: N/A
Unit Type:  Aircraft
Epoch:  Atomic
Description:  The Boeing CH-47 "Chinook" is a twin-turbine, tandem-
rotor transport helicopter approximately 100 feet in length from rotor 
tip to rotor tip. It has a maximum payload of about 25,000 pounds and 
can accommodate over 3-dozen troops. From its development in the late 
1950's, it has undergone several updates and is expected to remain in 
use well into the 21st Century.
  

F-117A Nighthawk
----------------
Built: June, 1981 
Wingspan: 43 feet, 4 inches
Max Speed: Mach 1
Max Range: 1,100 miles
Unit Type:  Aircraft
Epoch:  Atomic
Description:  After tests in the 1970's demonstrated the feasibility of 
stealth technology, Lockheed's famed "Skunk Works" division was awarded 
the contract to produce stealth fighters in 1978. The result was the F-
117A "Nighthawk," which was first flown in 1981 and achieved 
operational readiness in 1983. 

The F-177A was the first combat-ready aircraft built with so-called 
"stealth" technology. In addition to its use of radar-absorbing 
materials, the unique shape of the F-117A - with its many carefully-
angled flat surfaces - reflects incoming radar energy in harmless 
directions. Additionally, all armaments are housed internally to 
further reduce the fighter's radar signature. So as to lessen its 
vulnerability to heat-seeking missiles, the F-117A is not equipped with 
afterburner engines. Although this limits the Nighthawk to subsonic 
speeds, the plane's stealthy characteristics more than make up for the 
trade-off. 

The F-117A made its combat debut in Panama in 1989, and went on to 
perform spectacularly during the Gulf War. The roughly 40 Nighthawks 
that took part in Operation Desert Storm flew more than 1,200 combat 
sorties and delivered 2,000 tons of ordnance. Not a single F-117A was 
lost in the war - in fact, not one was even fired upon. Stealth 
Fighters also took part in the NATO-led air campaign over Yugoslavia in 
1999. One F-117A was lost during the campaign, but the pilot was 
rescued unharmed.
 

Vought F4U-1 Corsair
--------------------
Built: 1940
Wingspan: 41 feet
Max Speed: 417mph
Max Range: 1,015 miles
Unit Type:  Aircraft
Epoch:  Atomic
Description:  The F4U Corsair was used extensively by the US Navy and 
the US Marines in the Pacific Theater during WWII. Though designed to 
be a carrier-based fighter/bomber, in practice the Corsair proved to be 
difficult to land on a carrier due to its poor forward visibility, 
common low-speed stalls, and tendency to bounce on the runway. Early 
production models were all restricted to land-based use until these 
problems were addressed. 

The most distinctive feature of the F4U were its "inverted gull wings," 
which resemble a "W" when seen head-on. The wing design was adopted to 
accommodate the plane's powerful Pratt & Whitney engine, which required 
a large propeller to convert all of the engine's more than 2,000 horse 
power into forward thrust. The landing gear attached to the lowest 
portion of each wing, thus providing the ground clearance needed for 
the propeller while avoiding the need for long, more-fragile landing 
gear. Additional benefits to the wing design included reduced air drag 
and a lower clearance when the wings were folded up, which made the 
Corsair easier to store on a carrier.

The Corsair was known to the Japanese as "Whistling Death" due to the 
sound it made in a dive. Overall, the Corsair is credited with downing 
more than 2,000 enemy aircraft while only about 500 Corsairs were lost 
to enemy fire. The plane also saw service during the Korean War. By 
1952, when production of the Corsair was finally halted, more than 
12,500 planes had been built. Some remained in active use in South 
American armed forces into the early 1960's.
  

Heinkel HE-111
--------------
Built: 1935
Wingspan: 72 feet, 2 inches
Max Speed: 250mph
Max Range: 1,200 miles
Unit Type:  Aircraft
Epoch:  Atomic
Description:  Germany developed the Heinkel He 111 in the mid-1930s 
with two purposes in mind. It was ostensibly to be used as a civil 
airliner and mail carrier, thus circumventing the limitations placed on 
Germany's rearmament after WWI. But it was always meant to function as 
a medium bomber as well. In addition to bombs, some He 111s were armed 
with torpedoes and late models were even converted to launch V-1 "Buzz 
Bombs" after the V-1 launch facilities in Germany had been either 
destroyed or captured. The He 111 was first used in combat in 1936 
during the Spanish Civil War. Heinkel bombers became part of the 
infamous "Condor Legion," a special part of the Luftwaffe sent by 
Germany to aid General Franco's Nationalist forces. The bomber 
performed well, able to carry a large payload while remaining fast 
enough to evade most enemy fighters of the time. In fact, early in its 
career, the He 111 was often flown without a fighter escort. During the 
Battle of Britain (1940) in WWII, however, the He 111 began to show 
signs of deficiency. The British Spitfire and Hurricane fighters took 
their toll on the lightly armed bombers, especially during daytime 
raids. The Luftwaffe quickly realized that fighter escorts for the He 
111 had become necessary. Germany continued to produce the He 111 until 
1944, due mostly to the fact that it had no new bomber designs to 
replace it. By then, the He 111's two-engine design, comparatively 
small payload and low speed, and light armaments and armor had rendered 
it all but obsolete. The Germans built a total of over 7,300 He 111s, 
some of which were used by Spain (with new engines) until the 1960's. 
Spain even built its own version of the bomber called the CASA 2111.
 

Lockheed P-38 Lightning
-----------------------
Built: 1939
Wingspan: 52 feet
Max Speed: 415mph
Max Range: 2,600 miles
Unit Type:  Aircraft
Epoch:  Atomic
Description:  The first truly modern aircraft for the US Army Air Force 
in WWII, the P-38 "Lightning" saw action in both the European and 
Pacific theaters. The P-38 was noteworthy for many reasons. Its two-
engine, twin-tailboom design was a departure from the traditional 
single-prop fighters of the time. It was the first modern fighter to be 
made largely from stainless steel and to use a tricycle-style landing 
gear. It was also the first fighter to exceed speeds of 400 mph. 
Historically, the P-38 was the first USAAF fighter to shoot down a 
German aircraft, the first fighter to escort bombers all the way to 
Berlin, and it destroyed more Japanese aircraft than any other American 
fighter. It was also the only US fighter to be produced throughout 
America's involvement in the war, from Pearl Harbor to VJ Day - though 
it only appeared in numbers after 1942. In total, just over 10,000 P-
38's were built. The P-38 was such an advanced aircraft for its time 
that it could approach the speed of sound in terminal velocity dives. 
Unfortunately, the designers and pilots of the Lightning were not yet 
experienced with the stresses such speeds could put on a plane... or a 
person. As a result, there were several fatal crashes early in the P-
38's career when pilots tried and failed to pull out of such dives. 
This fact earned the P-38 the reputation of being dangerous to fly. 
Only later, when the so-called sound barrier was studied in more 
detail, did scientists realize that all aircraft had difficulties at 
such speeds. For the P-38, the problem was traced to a shock wave that 
formed over the wings and prevented the plane's control surfaces from 
operating properly. The addition of a small electric motor, which could 
alter the wings' shape and, thus, the flow of air over them, mostly 
corrected the problem in later models. 

Historic Note:  German pilots nicknamed the P38 Lightning the "Fork 
Tail Devil" due to its devastating fire power and speed.
  

Sikorsky SH-3 Sea King
----------------------
Built: 1959
Wingspan: 62 feet
Max Speed: 166mph
Max Range: 2,600 miles
Unit Type:  Aircraft
Epoch:  Atomic
Description:  In the 1950's, the US Navy was looking to add to its 
ranks an all-weather Anti-Submarine Warfare (ASW) helicopter that was 
versatile enough to be used in other roles. They contracted with 
Sikorsky Aircraft and the result, in 1959, was the SH-3 Sea King. 
Production models became available in 1961. The Sea King's crew 
consists of two pilots and two sonar operators, and it carries 
torpedoes and depth charges. It can operate from land or the deck of a 
support ship, ready to search out and destroy enemy submarines. Some 
production models were outfitted for mine-countermeasures, logistical 
operations, search and rescue missions, or even the emergency 
evacuation and transportation of VIPs in Washington, including the 
President of the US. During the 1990's, the Sea King was gradually 
replaced in ASW operations by the SH-60 Sea Hawk. The remaining Sea 
Kings were reconfigured into search and rescue helicopters and many are 
still in use in the US, Canada, and other countries.
 

AH-64 Apache
------------
First Flight: 1975 
Max Speed: 176 mph (level flight) 
Rotor Diameter: 48 ft 
Overall Length: 58 ft 
Max Range: about 400 miles (w/o external fuel tanks) 
Basic Armament: 30 mm cannon; 16 Hellfire missiles or 76 70 mm rockets 
or a combination of both 
Gross Weight: 15,000 lbs 
Crew: 2 

Description:  Near the end of the Vietnam War, the US Army was in need 
of a new attack helicopter to replace the AH-1G HueyCobra. McDonnell 
Douglas (now part of Boeing) produced a prototype - the YAH-64 - in 
1975 and was awarded the development contract in 1976. Production of 
the AH-64A Apache began in 1983. Over 900 AH-64A Apaches were delivered 
to both the US and international customers by 1997 before production 
switched over to the updated AH-64D and the Apache Longbow. 

Sophisticated weapons, navigation and target acquisition systems, and 
night vision technology made the Apache the most advanced, combat-
tested attack helicopter of the 1990's. It was primarily designed for 
anti-tank operations, but was effective against other ground vehicles 
and troop formations as well.  The AH-64A flew its first combat 
missions in 1989 during the US action in Panama.  In 1991, Apache 
helicopters played a major role in Operation Desert Strom, where they 
are credited with destroying or disabling more than 500 tanks plus 
hundreds of other vehicles.  With updated equipment, including the 
addition of the Longbow fire control radar, the Apache will remain the 
most advanced attack helicopter well into the new millennium.
 

B-2 Stealth Bomber
------------------
First Flight: July, 1989 
Wingspan: 172 feet 
Max Speed: High subsonic 
Max Range: Over 6,000 nautical miles; 10,000 nm with one mid-air 
refueling 
Gross Weight: 336,000 lbs., normal take-off weight 
Crew: 2 

Description:  The B-2 "Spirit" is a strategic, long-range heavy bomber 
that was unveiled to the public in 1988. Its primary - though by no 
means only - role is to penetrate deep into enemy territory to strike 
specific targets with a variety of air-to-surface weapons. 

The B-2 is best known for it low-observability or "stealth" 
characteristics. To achieve its tiny radar signature, which is roughly 
the size of a bird's signature, the B-2 was designed with no right 
angles. All its exposed surfaces are curved and covered with special 
paint to help scatter radar signals. The plane is also constructed of 
graphite instead of metal to help absorb radar emissions. Additionally, 
the B-2 cools its exhaust to reduce the threat presented by heat-
seeking missiles and the bomber's overall design allows it to operate 
more quietly than conventional aircraft. 

For navigation and targeting, the stealth bomber relies on the Global 
Positioning System (GPS), a network of a dozen orbiting satellites that 
can pinpoint a location anywhere on the earth in any kind of weather. 
Using the GPS, the B-2 "Spirit" can strike to within 20 feet of its 
assigned target. Moreover, the Spirit's refueled range allows it to 
travel any place on earth. 

The B-2 program began in the late 1970's, but the ideas for both 
stealth aircraft and so-called "flying wings" had been around for more 
than 35 years prior to that. The YB-49 bomber, designed by Jack 
Northrop in the 1940's, had a flying wing design, but though a working 
prototype was built, the plane never went into production. With the 
advent of computer "fly-by-wire" technology and new construction 
materials, the B-2 became a reality. Originally, 132 aircraft were 
ordered from the contractor, Northrop Grumman. But factors such as cost 
(each plane costs about 1.3 billion US dollars) and the end of the Cold 
War led the US Government to reduce the order to 21. 

Today, all operational B-2 bombers are stationed at Whiteman AFB in 
Missouri. The B-2 made its combat debut over Yugoslavia in the March, 
1999, NATO-led air campaign. Afterwards, Pentagon officials and 
military experts testified to Congress that the plane performed 
extremely well.
 

Albatros D.V
------------
First Flight: 1917 
Wingspan: 29 ft. 8 in. 
Max Speed: 116 mph 
Max Range: About 1,000 miles 
Basic Armament: 2 Spandau light machine guns 
Gross Weight: 2060 lbs 
Crew: 1 

Description:  The Albatros D-series was a WWI German fighter named 
after the company that produced them. The first Albatros, the D.I, used 
plywood to cover the fuselage at a time when many airplanes were 
covered with stretched fabric. Plywood greatly increased the rigidity 
of the Albatros as compared to other contemporary aircraft. The D.I 
also put the propeller in front of the plane rather than behind. This 
"tractor" design proved more efficient than the "pusher" designs being 
used by Britain and was instrumental in reestablishing German air 
superiority in 1917. The pusher design was soon thereafter abandoned by 
all aircraft-producing nations. Design changes on subsequent models of 
the Albatros improved stability, armament, and visibility. However, the 
wings on all models before the D.Va variant were prone to crack in 
flight, especially under the stresses of a steep dive. This design 
defect caused numerous fatal crashes. Even Manfred von Richtofen, the 
infamous Red Baron, had the lower wing of his D.III crack in flight, 
though he managed to land safely. The D.V and D.Va variant were the 
last versions of the Albatros produced during the war. Overall, Germany 
produced more than 3,000 of the D-series fighters. 
 

F-96 "Talon" Joint Strike Fighter
---------------------------------
First Flight: 2031 
Wingspan: 35 feet 
Max Speed: Mach 2.65 (at high altitude) 
Max Range: 2,000 nautical miles; unlimited with air refueling 
Basic Armament: Various interchangeable air-to-air and air-to-ground 
weapons; no fixed weapons 
Weight: 35,800 lbs (max take-off) 
Crew: 1 pilot 

Description:  The F-96 "Talon" was the first generation of new joint 
strike fighters designed to meet the special needs of air combat in the 
21st Century. Development of the F-96 began in 2024 as it became clear 
to the US Air Force that proven Post-Cold War air combat methods and 
weaponry were beginning to change. To maintain supremacy in this new 
era, a fighter with a powerful, versatile, and yet simple 
pilot/aircraft interface was needed. After several design revisions, 
the first prototype Talon took off in 2031. Full production began two 
years later. 

As soon as the F-96 was battle-ready, it was superior to anything else 
then in the air. Constructed of advanced composite materials, the 
strongest and lightest yet developed, the F-96 weighed in at just under 
20,000 pounds when empty. The powerful yet fuel efficient Pratt & 
Whitney engine provided enough thrust to push the plane to Mach 2.65 at 
altitudes greater then 40,000 feet. The materials and the plane's 
curved surfaces also made the F-96 virtually invisible to radar, 
through new tracking technologies intended to replace radar were 
already well into development at that time. To counter these 
anticipated threats, the Talon sported a suite of state-of-the-art 
electronics packages. 

A next-generation avionics system went into the F-96. With it, the 
Talon could track 100 separate targets, evaluate the threat posed by 
each, and feed the information to the pilot by both voice and an 
advanced heads-up display (HUD). The plane could also take many 
defensive actions by itself, such as dispensing chaff and transmitting 
a variety of electronic counter measures (ECM) to confuse incoming 
missiles and jam ground tracking systems. 

Most noteworthy was the inclusion of a technologically advanced 
pilot/aircraft interface, which had been developed over the previous 
30+ years. Pilots underwent an intensive 3-month special training 
program, in addition to traditional instruction, to learn to control 
many of the plane's systems and functions via biofeedback. Once 
trained, pilots could literally "think" to the plane what they wanted 
it to do. For redundancy purposes, these functions were also accessible 
via controls on the stick in the original production model. But the 
system proved sound and later versions removed the unnecessary stick 
controls. The F-96 Talon was a highly successful aircraft and, with 
updates, remained in active service for over 40 years.

BUILDINGS
---------

Capitol
-------
Epoch:  All
Description:  As the seat of government and successor to the simpler 
Town Center, the Capitol is the heart of a civilization. Capitols 
instill a high sense of morale to those in their presence and even 
compel citizens to work harder for the good of society. Defensive and 
economic benefits make Capitols a valuable investment in Empire Earth. 
    
House
-----
Epoch:  Middle
Description: Houses that are built around capitols increase the morale 
effect of the capitol even further. They do not hold your population 
and cannot increase it. They are good when placed around guard towers 
and docks as they give them an extra defense.

Hospital
--------
Epoch:  Industrial
Description:  The hospital is where healing takes place.  Healing, at 
first, was a matter for spiritual leaders and sacred sites. Early 
hospitals were essentially places where a patient might receive divine 
help. In Greece and elsewhere, for example, a ritual known as 
incubation was used in which illness was said to be cured by sleeping 
in a holy place. Bathing in supposedly curative waters was also thought 
to be beneficial and this practice may have been the origin of modern 
health spas. Later Greek doctors - Hippocrates being the most famous - 
were instrumental in pushing the science of medicine forward. Roman 
hospitals, based largely on Greek medicine, were first established 
around 100 BC to treat injured and ill soldiers. The rise of 
Christianity helped to transform hospitals into the care facilities we 
know today. In the 6th Century AD, the Hotel-Dieu of Lyon opened. It 
had a large hall lined with beds and emphasized treating the patient, 
not just the ailment. Monastic infirmaries in Europe and elsewhere 
cared for monks and outsiders alike. At the end of the Middle Ages, 
civil authorities increasingly began to take on the responsibilities of 
healthcare. By the turn of the 16th Century, England alone reportedly 
had more than 200 secular hospitals to care for its people. 
 

Archery Range
-------------
Epoch:  Middle
Description:  At the archery range players can train archery units. The 
archery range changes to tank factory in the Atomic Age. The use of the 
bow goes back at least 30,000 years, as clear depictions of bow-
wielding hunters have been found in cave paintings from that time. Bows 
evolved into several distinct varieties, including the composite bow, 
the crossbow, and the long bow, all of which had their advantages and 
disadvantages in battle. Crossbows were better at close range and 
required less skill to use, while the longbow, though a difficult 
weapon to master, could fire light arrows 500 yards. Some archers - the 
Mongols of the 13th Century, for instance - even took to horse back, 
which provided them greater speed though diminished their aim while 
riding. To perform their best, archers, perhaps more than any other 
early soldier, needed training and practice. Some archers, such as 
English longbow men, trained from early age to become proficient with 
their weapon. Target shooting and drilling at an archery range helped 
to get archers into battle-ready condition. Archery ranges also 
provided a convenient storage facility for arrows and other equipment. 


Munitions Factory
-----------------
Epoch:  Atomic
Description:  At the munitions factory shells are made for high powered 
artillery weapons and other kinds of ammunition are also produced here. 
Modern day conflicts have involved the use of heavy artillery.  A 
munitions factory is where the shells for the artillery pieces are 
made. In the atomic age these factories were constantly being bombarded 
with all kinds of offense.  This was due to the fact that each side 
knew these factories produced the deadly weapons used in killing their 
soldiers.  During World War II daily bombing raids were used by the 
Allies to try and crush the German war machine.  British bombers would 
bomb German munitions factory during night and the Americans would bomb 
them during the day. 
    

Naval Yard
----------
Epoch:  Atomic
Description:  The naval yard is where ships are produced, repaired, and 
resupplied. Today's navies have naval yards where they build, repair, 
and supply their arsenal.  Most naval yards include docks, dry docks, 
and storage facilities.  They are the heart and soul of any atomic age 
navy.  These are usually prime targets for any army to destroy. 
 

Tank Factory
------------
Epoch:  Atomic
Description:  The tank factory is where mobile artillery weapons known 
as tanks are made.  This is an upgrade from the archery range. 

Tanks are used by just about every army today.  Their armor hauled 
exteriors, mobility, and high fire power have made them a menace to the 
infantryman.  The tank began to appear on battle fields during World 
War I.  At first they were slow cumbersome vehicles but in the years to 
come they became more advanced.  During World War II nothing was more 
feared than the German Panzer tank. 
    

Dock
----
Epoch:  Atomic
Description:  Docks are where ships are moored near land. 
The dock as always been an important part of any civilization.  It 
allows for deep water ships to be moored next to land.  This makes it 
easier for ships to be loaded with passengers, cargo, or weaponry.  In 
Empire Earth the dock goes through improvements through the ages.  It 
first becomes available in the first epoch.  During the first epoch it 
is the place where ships are built.   
    

Cannon Factory
--------------
Epoch:  Industrial
Description:  The cannon factory is where cannons are made during the 
industrial age. During the industrial age new gun powder weapons showed 
up on battle front.  These new weapons were known as cannons.  Usually 
they were cast in molds in special foundries.  A simple name for these 
foundries is a cannon factory. 
    

Temple
------
Epoch:  Paleolithic
Description:  The is where priests pray to their gods and heal units. 
Ever since people thought up religion they needed a place to gather and 
worship their god or gods.  That was the temple.  Later on the temple 
becomes the church. 
   

Siege Workshop
--------------
Epoch:  Bronze
Description:  The siege workshop is where siege weapons are 
constructed. Early high powered artillery weapons were known as siege 
weapons.  They were called this because they were used to siege walled 
cities, castles, and forts.  The siege workshop later becomes the 
cannon factory. 
  

Mech Factory
------------
Epoch:  Late Information Age, Nano Age
Description:  Automated mechanized weapons (or Mechs) were introduced 
in the late 21st Century primarily to keep human beings out of harms 
way. For many years, few but the most devoted Tech Sergeants much cared 
if a Mech came back from a dangerous mission or not. The precursors to 
Mechs were small robots - remotely operated - which were used for 
reconnaissance and disposing of unexploded ordnance. Later, larger 
machines were lightly armed and sent into hostile areas to gather 
intelligence for their operators. The first truly autonomous Mechs 
appeared in the second half of the 21st Century once neural nets and 
processing power became sufficiently advanced to provide machines with 
rudimentary intelligence. In succeeding decades, continued advances in 
computers, materials, propulsion, and weapon systems lead to an 
explosion of Mech designs. Anti-infantry Mechs were created 
specifically to kill human soldiers. Airborne Mechs provided air 
support and recon. A small, stealthy Mech codenamed "Poseidon" was 
invented to capture other Mechs by introducing an invasive program into 
the target. As a result, later Mech designs incorporated anti-virus 
countermeasures in an effort to fend off such attacks. By the turn of 
the 22nd Century Mechs were standard equipment in all modern armies and 
Mech production facilities were common around the world. In addition to 
research & development and the actual production of Mechs, these 
facilities literally trained Mechs to fight using techniques not unlike 
those used to train humans. Over time, many people came to think of 
Mechs as sentient entities rather than disposable military hardware. 

LAND UNITS
----------

Citizen
-------
Description:  From its ancient Greek origins, the concept of 
citizenship has evolved over time. Yet one fact is true now as then: 
every civilization owes its very existence to the tireless efforts of 
its citizens. In Empire Earth, Citizens gather natural resources, 
construct and repair buildings, and transform Settlements into Town 
Centers and Capitols. 
 

Knight
------
Description:  Mounted Knights were strong, well trained, and despotes 
their heavy armor, fast. Foot solders, unless organized into cohesive 
groups were at the mercy of charging knights. The advent of pikes, and 
later firearms ultimately ended the knight's battlefield supremacy. 
Knights make short work of swordsman in Empire Earth. 
 
    
Bronze Cannon
-------------
Description:  Cannon were often categorized by the weight of the 
cannonball they fired. This, a 12-pounder fired a 12-pound cannonball. 
Different kinds of shot, including explosive rounds or grapeshot, could 
be used depending on the target. The Bronze Cannon in Empire Earth is a 
12-pounder, effective against massed infantry formations. 


Arquebus
--------   
Description:  The development of the trigger-activated matchlock and 
shoulder-braced gunstock culminated in the arquebus, the most advanced 
small arm of the 15th Century. Thought their range and accuracy were 
inferior to the archers of their day, Arquebusiers started the steady 
march to modern warfare. The Arquebus is the earliest in the line of 
Empire Earth's gun infantry.  


A7V Sturmpanzerwagen
--------------------
Built: 1917
Weight: 30 tons
Max Speed: 15kph
Max Range: 80km
Unit Type:  Vehicle
Epoch:  Atomic
Description:  On November, 1917, 474 British tanks achieved a major 
breakthrough against the Germans at the Battle of Cambrai. Though the 
Germans eventually drove the British back, tanks had demonstrated their 
potential in battle. Following this British victory, the Germans 
recognized there was a growing gap on the battlefield. Though the 
German War Ministry continued to express confidence in their troops' 
ability to deal with the new English weapon, they secretly gave the go 
ahead to contractors to develop a tank for Germany. The result, in late 
1917, was the A7V Sturmpanzerwagen. The A7V designation was used to 
maintain secrecy; in German, it stood for "War Department General 
Division 7 Traffic Section." It was well armored and outfitted with one 
forward-facing 5.7 cm cannon and six Maxim MG08 machine guns, which 
covered the sides and rear of the tank. Only about 20 A7Vs were built 
due to material shortages during the war, not to mention the overall 
low priority given to the project. The new German tanks saw their first 
action at St. Quentin in March, 1918. Five A7Vs were set to take part 
in the offensive, but three had mechanical problems before the battle. 
The two remaining A7Vs, along with a few captured British Mark IV 
tanks, carried the day. A month later, the first tank versus tank 
battle took place at Villers-Bretonneux. The A7Vs fought well against 
the British Mark IV's, but this was largely due the their much thicker 
armor. Overall, the Mark IV was a better tank and the British crews had 
more combat experience. Several Mark IVs were destroyed or 
incapacitated during the battle, but many more A7Vs broke down or were 
captured. The A7V was prone to breakdowns and suffered from a number of 
other problem s, including: low ground clearance, poor trench-crossing 
ability, poor climbing ability, and underpowered engines. Between the 
front cannon and the first side-mounted machine guns was a gap in the 
A7V's field of fire. Drivers of the A7V would drive in a zigzag pattern 
to keep enemies from exploiting this weakness.
 

M4 Sherman
----------
Built: 1941
Weight: 30 tons
Max Speed: 38kph
Max Range: 160km
Unit Type:  Vehicle
Epoch:  Atomic
Description:  The M4 "Sherman" medium-tank was the main American battle 
tank of World War II. It was also used by Britain, Russia, and other 
Allies. The M4 began production in 1941 and they were still in use at 
the end of the war. While in command of the 3rd Army, General George 
Patton used Sherman tanks to great effect during his 1944 dash across 
Europe. Although the Sherman was less powerful than its German 
counterparts (though later versions were faster and equipped with a 
larger cannon), it made up for its shortcomings by being available in 
great numbers. By converting automobile factories to manufacture tanks, 
the US pushed the production of Shermans up to 2,000 per month. Over 
49,000 Sherman tanks were built during the war - more than all the 
tanks produced by Germany over the same time period. The Sherman was 
also a very reliable tank and rarely broke down in combat. 

 
Leopard 2 Main Battle Tank 
--------------------------
Built: 1979
Weight: 30 tons
Max Speed: 45 mph
Max Range: About 350 miles 
Weapons Armament: 120 mm main gun, two 7.62 mm machine guns 
Crew: 4 
Unit Type: Vehicle 
Description: The Leopard 2 program began back in the 1960s. The US and 
West Germany were jointly developing a new main battle tank, known as 
the MBT/KPz-70 project. The agreement between the two countries 
stipulated that no separate national tank program would exist in either 
country during the joint project, though Germany was already developing 
the Leopard 1. When the Leopard 1 entered service in 1965, a contract 
was awarded in Germany to experiment with bringing the Leopard 1 up to 
the standard drafted for the MBT/KPz-70. When the US-German program was 
ended in the late 60s without a prototype, the Germans decided to 
continue with their own upgrade project. (The Americans went on to 
build the M1.) 
A new main gun, engine, multi-layer armor, and many other improvements 
went into the design of the Leopard 2. An improved fire control system 
and gun stabilizers allowed the main gun to fire while the tank was in 
motion. Water-tight construction let the Leopard 2 wade to a depth of 
1.2 meters (about 4 feet) without any special preparation, but with 
snorkels and other gear added the tank could be fully submerged. 
Maintenance needs were kept to a minimum - even a complete engine 
replacement would take only 30 minutes. The first Leopard 2 tanks were 
delivered in 1979, and many other countries, including Canada, 
Switzerland, Spain, and the Netherlands, purchased the Leopard 2. 
Modernized models are still being produced today. 
 
 
A-17 "SkyWatcher" 
-----------------
Built: 2017-2029 
Weight: 8,800 lbs
Max Speed: 50 mph (level ground)
Max Range: 325 miles 
Weapons Armament: Three missile tubes; STARK guided missiles 
Crew: 2 
Description: The self-propelled AA-17, known in the field as the 
"SkyWatcher," was among the last anti-air missile defense systems to be 
built before the advent of high-energy weapons. Armed with long-range 
STARK (Surface-To-Air Retribution rocKet) guided missiles, the AA-17 
was highly effective in its anti-air role. The STARK guided missile was 
originally designed for anti-aircraft cruisers, but was successfully 
adapted for use with the AA-17. The STARK's acronymic name was adopted 
in honor of the USS Stark, which had been tragically attacked by Iraqi 
aircraft in 1987, resulting in the deaths of 37 US sailors. 
The SkyWatcher's three-tracked design gave it remarkable stability and 
allowed it to cross rough terrain with ease. Its superior off-road 
performance and operational radius meant the SkyWatcher could be 
deployed to forward installations, field bases, and other remote 
strategic locations. State-of-the-art active and passive target 
acquisition systems allowed the AA-17 to find and track multiple 
targets simultaneously while keeping its own emitted signals to a 
minimum. The AA-17 was constructed from radar-absorbing composite 
materials, borrowed from the aerospace industry, which further reduced 
its vulnerability. These stealthy features, coupled with its mobility, 
made the AA-17 highly effective at evading air-to-ground retaliation. 
The SkyWatcher also featured an innovative modular design, allowing 
outdated components to be easily replaced with newer ones and making 
field improvements to the system a simple matter. 
 
    
M16 Antiaircraft Half-Track 
---------------------------
Built: 1942-1943 
Weight: 19,800 lbs
Max Speed: 45 mph
Max Range: 215 miles 
Weapons Armament: Four .50 caliber machine guns 
Crew: 4 
Description:  The M16 half-track was a lightly armored antiaircraft 
vehicle that could fire more than 400 rounds per minute from its quad-
mounted .50 caliber machine guns. Its fire rate, along with the guns' 
360-degree turn radius, quick turn rate, and 7200 yard range, made the 
M16 a formidable antiaircraft weapon. The M16 was built on the chassis 
of the M3 personnel carrier and performed well both on and off road. 
M16s were used primarily for protecting infantry and tank columns from 
strafing enemy fighters. They saw action in both the Pacific and 
European theaters during WWII and in the Korean War.
 

Trebuchet
---------
Description:  First built in Asia, the ultimate siege engine of the 
Middle Ages was the trebuchet. Trebuchets used a counterweight to 
generate a force that could hurl a 300 pound projectile over 300 
hundred yards. Some of these machines were enormous, with 
counterweights in excess of 10 tons. Once properly aimed they could 
make short work of any wall. There is evidence that some trebuchets 
were fitted with wheels for mobility. But modern experiments have shown 
that the wheels also provided an extra benefit - they helped to control 
the tremendous recoil of the weapon.
 
    
Siege Tower
-----------
Description:  Siege towers are mobile wooden structures deigned to 
protect warriors as they are transported up to, and over, and enemy's 
walls. Some in antiquity were so enormous that thousands of men were 
required to move them. Use Siege Towers in Empire Earth to storm an 
enemy's walls. 
 

Bison Main Battle Tank
----------------------
Built: 2105-2112
Weight: 54 Tons
Max Speed: 62 mph (level ground)
Operating Radius: Unlimited
Armament: 2 laser canons (primary), two 7.62 mm machine guns 
(secondary)
Armor: Focused Energy Dissipaters (FEDs) over conventional armor 
Crew: 2 or 3 
Description: By the dawn of the 22nd Century, unmanned weapon systems 
were getting increasingly smarter and more sophisticated. But the cost 
of developing and deploying an army of intelligent machines was beyond 
the budgets of many nations. Additionally, some military circles still 
put their confidence in the adaptability, if not outright superiority, 
of humans on the battlefield. There was therefore a market for cheap 
yet effective modern weapons that were designed to be operated by human 
soldiers. 
One of the most successful human-operated weapons of this time period 
was the Bison Main Battle Tank. The Bison, developed by Armaments 
International, Inc. to appeal this specific arms market, traced its 
roots all the way back to the American M1A1. After the US had 
discontinued production of its last version of the M1 in 2032, 
Armaments International, just recently formed at that time, purchased 
the outdated tanks and began their own modification program. The Bison 
was actually designed around the modified chassis of the M1's last 
production model. 
The Bison, like most weapon systems of the era, was powered by 
inexpensive yet powerful fusion batteries - tiny self-contained fusion 
power plants that could survive in tact even if the tank itself were 
utterly destroyed. The batteries allowed the tank to run almost 
indefinitely without refueling. Separate reactors powered the tanks two 
main guns. Due to significant recharge times between shots, the 
designers adopted the dual main gun configuration to provide an 
acceptable rate of fire. 
Modernization of the weapons and other key systems allowed the crew of 
the Bison to be reduced to two: a driver and a gunner. A tank commander 
could ride in the tank if necessary, but he or she usually directed the 
tank via a secure aud/vid link from a centralized tactical command 
center, which accommodated all the tank commanders in a battalion. This 
configuration put one less person per tank at risk while simultaneously 
increasing battle effectiveness through improved coordination of 
forces. 
 

Specialized Mechs
-----------------
Description: Machine intelligence continued to be refined throughout 
the late 21st and 22nd Centuries. Mechs became smarter, and the 
responsibilities with which they were entrusted increased accordingly. 
Large numbers were constructed as the Mech revolution reached its 
stride. 
But not all Mechs were mass produced in factories, destined to fill out 
the ranks of one army or another like so many pawns. Some were 
specially created to fill distinct roles on the battlefield, supporting 
or augmenting the more-standard troops. And a few were designed and 
built to be one of a kind - unique, individual entities who came to 
possess their own personalities, opinions... and passions. 
    

Laser Infantry
--------------
Description:  Laser Infantry formed the core of all national armies in 
the mid-twenty-first century. Though their mobility, versatility, and 
firepower made them ideal for many combat situations, these armies were 
the last to rely so heavily on human combatants. In Empire Earth, Laser 
Infantry are the last in the upgrade line that started with the 
primitive arquebus. 
    

Raptor
------
Description:  Developed in the 2120s, the Raptor is armed with a long-
range pulse cannon, which, in addition to explosive damage, creates an 
electrically-charged field that reduces a target's will to fight. 
Though completely autonomous, the Raptor requires close-range defensive 
support. In Empire Earth use the Raptor for strategic bombardment of 
enemy troop positions. 

SEA UNITS
---------

War Raft
--------
Description:  Tens of thousands of years ago, seaworthy watercraft 
carried ancient peoples to remote islands. When necessary, there early 
rafts could be used to fight off on the open water. War Rafts in Empire 
Earth are proficient at sinking rival fishing boats.
 

Agincourt
---------
Launched: 1862
Displacement: 10,800 tons (fully loaded)
Max Speed: 14.8 knots
Length: 407 feet
Unit Type:  Naval
Epoch:  Industrial
Description:  The Agincourt was a steam-powered British battleship that 
was among the last warships built with sails, which were used to 
supplement the steam engines on long voyages. Her four 9-inch and 
twenty-four 7-inch rifled guns were arranged in a long, armored battery 
- one of the last times such a gun configuration was used as rotating 
gun turrets were about to come into widespread use. Originally fitted 
with muzzle-loading guns, she was converted to breach-loading weapons 
later in the 1860's. The Agincourt survived well into the 20th Century, 
and was finally broken up in 1960.
 
    
Bismark
-------
Launched: Feb., 1939
Displacement: Approx. 51,000 tons (fully loaded)
Max Speed: 30 knots
Length: 823' 6"
Complement: 2,065
Unit Type:  Naval
Epoch:  Atomic
Description:  The sinking of the German battleship Bismarck is one of 
the best known naval stories of the war in the Atlantic. Sent by the 
Germans to harass allied shipping in the North Atlantic, it was spotted 
off the coat of Norway by a British plane on May 18, 1941. The British 
immediately dispatched ships to intercept the Bismarck, including the 
H.M.S. Prince of Wales and, the pride of the Royal Navy, the H.M.S. 
Hood. The British force caught up to Bismarck near Iceland on May 24. 
In the ensuing battle, the Prince of Wales sustained heavy damage and 
the Hood was sunk with a loss of 1,416 men - all but 3 of her entire 
compliment. The Bismarck escaped with only light damage.
More British ships arrived on the scene, including the aircraft carrier 
Victorious. After another skirmish, in which British torpedo bombers 
scored one hit that killed a crew member but did minimal damage, the 
Bismarck again slipped away. The British lost contact with the German 
battleship on May 25.
The Bismarck was not spotted again until the next day. Naval groups 
from the West and North set off in pursuit while more British warships 
approached from the South. Late on May 26, repeated attacks by torpedo 
bombers finally scored two hits on Bismarck, one hitting in the rear 
and jamming the rudder. As a result, the Bismarck lost maneuverability 
and sailed uncontrollably toward the British fleet. The next morning, 
the British closed in.
The battleships Rodney and King George V opened fire at 0847 hours. The 
Bismarck fired back, but, unable to maneuver, was an easy target. 
Within half-an-hour, the Bismarck had suffered multiple direct hits 
that had destroyed several turrets, taken out the fire control center, 
and killed most of the senior officers. The British warships continued 
to pound the Bismarck, which fired its last ineffective salvo at 0931. 
With the once mighty battleship now little more than a floating hulk, 
the surviving crew set scuttling charges. The British cruiser 
Dorsetshire moved in and fired several torpedoes, which exploded at 
about 1030. The Bismarck finally capsized and sank at about 1040 hours 
on May 27, 1941. Only 115 sailors of a crew of over 2,000 survived.
In June, 1989, an expedition discovered the wreck of the Bismarck 600 
miles off the coast of France in 15,000 feet of water.
 
    
Enterprise
----------
Launched: Sept., 1960
Displacement: Approx. 93,000 tons (fully loaded)
Max Speed: 30+ knots
Length: Over 1,100 feet
Area of Flight Deck: 4.4+ Acres
Complement: Navy: Over 3,300; Air Wing: Over 2,500; Total: Over 5,800
Unit Type:  Naval
Epoch:  Atomic
Description:  Many ships have proudly carried the Enterprise name, 
which can be traced back to a British supply sloop that was captured 
during the American Revolution. The seventh Enterprise (CV-6) was the 
first aircraft carrier to bear the name and is famous for its role at 
the battle of Midway and other naval engagements in the Pacific Theater 
during World War II.
The eighth U.S.S. Enterprise (CVN-65) was the first nuclear powered 
aircraft carrier. Like its predecessor, it has had a distinguished 
career. In February, 1962, the carrier acted as a tracking station for 
the flight of Friendship 7, the United States' first orbital space 
flight piloted by Lieutenant Colonel John Glenn. In October, 1962, the 
Enterprise participated in the naval blockade of Cuba during the Cuban 
Missile Crisis. The Big E made six deployments to Southeast Asia from 
1965 to 1972, becoming the first nuclear powered ship to engage in 
combat. She was also the first carrier to deploy the F-14A "Tomcat" 
and, in 1975, assisted with the evacuation of Saigon.
The Enterprise has undergone several refits, the most extensive of 
which concluded in 1994. She is expected to remain in service well into 
the 21st Century.
 

Henry Grace a Dieu
------------------
Launched: June, 1514
Displacement: Approx. 1,000 tons
Armament: Over 150 bronze and iron guns
Complement: 600-800 sailors and soldiers
Unit Type:  Naval
Epoch:  Imperial
Descriptions:  Commissioned by and named after Henry VIII, the Henry 
Grace a Dieu was the largest warship in the world when she was launched 
in 1514. Records of her career are spotty, but she was involved in 
several skirmishes with the French, which she survived. In 1553, she 
accidentally caught fire and sank while mooring at Woolwich.
 

Leviathan
---------
Launched: 2048
Displacement: Approx. 40,000 tons (normal)
Max Speed: 37 knots (cruising), 41 knots (short burst) 
Length: 656' 2" 
Complement: 486 
Unit Type: Naval
Descriptions: Rounding out the mid-21st Century redesign of NATO's 
naval forces was the reincarnation of one of the previous century's 
greatest warships: the battleship. Use of the battleship had declined 
following WWII as aircraft carriers became the weapon of choice for the 
world's navies. Despite a brief resurgence in the use of battleships by 
the US at the end of the 20th Century, no new battleship designs had 
been produced for 100 years until NATO's "Leviathan" program began in 
2041. Destroyers had filled multiple offshore roles for over 40 years, 
while aircraft carriers and long-range aircraft had provided the means 
for aerial bombardment. NATO wanted to compliment these existing sea-
based combat capabilities with a well-protected and highly mobile 
vessel armed with the latest high-energy weaponry, which would give it 
both fantastic range and unprecedented firepower. The Leviathan Class 
Battleship was the result. Its main guns were capable of firing a 
contained plasma charge a distance of over 100 km (more than 60 miles). 
The Leviathan's powerful laser canons consumed colossal amounts of 
energy. Each of its four turrets had a dedicated fusion reactor, in 
addition to the main reactor needed to run the ship. The reactors were 
cross-connected to provide redundancy, allowing the guns to operate at 
lower power should one of the reactors go offline. Additionally, the 
reactors could be chained together to produce bursts of varying 
intensity. Though theoretically capable of producing a single energy 
burst of essentially unlimited power (given enough charging time), care 
had to be taken to keep charges below a certain safety threshold. If 
containment of a massive charge ever broke down it would cause a 
devastating onboard explosion, possibly resulting in the loss of the 
ship and its crew. 
One of the most remarkable achievements of the Leviathan program was 
the reduction of the crew size compared to earlier battleships. World 
War II era battleships routinely went to sea with well over 2,000 
crewmen. The Leviathan, with its automated systems and low maintenance 
requirements, needed fewer than 500. The reduction in necessary crew 
space, in addition to the miniaturization that many standard shipboard 
systems and components had undergone over the previous half-century, 
resulted in a vessel only 200 meters in length displacing 36,000 metric 
tons. (Battleships this size had been at sea as far back as WWI.) This 
gave the Leviathan a huge power-to-weight ratio and therefore 
exceptional speed for a ship of its stature. It also provided the extra 
benefit of presenting a smaller target to enemies. 
The Leviathan was first used in combat in 2051 supporting a NATO action 
to eliminate a clandestine terrorist installation discovered in 
northern Africa. 
 

Nematocyst Class Destroyer
--------------------------
Launched: 2039
Displacement: Approx. 8,500 tons (fully loaded)
Max Speed: Approx. 37 knots 
Length: 464' 6" 
Complement: 78 
Unit Type: Naval
Descriptions: By the third decade of 21st Century, the nature of 
warfare was changing. The development of high-energy weaponry was in 
full swing and deployment of the first combat-ready lasers was close at 
hand. At sea, fleet modernization was badly needed to both prepare for 
and take advantage of this new class of weapons. 
The expanded NATO alliance began programs to redesign all the major 
categories of naval warships, starting with the destroyer. Every 
charter member contributed parts and/or systems to the project, with 
final assembly of the prototype vessel taking place in the UK. In April 
2039, the first Nematocyst Class Destroyer was launched with great 
fanfare. The name referred to its ability to deliver a lethal sting to 
its targets. The Nematocyst's sea trials were nearly flawless and full 
production of the destroyer began soon thereafter in both Great Britain 
and the US. 
The Nematocyst borrowed many proven design concepts from the DD 21 
Zumwalt Class Destroyer, developed by the US 30 years earlier. 
Communications, navigation, and the automation of basic shipboard 
functions were adapted from the previous design with some significant 
enhancements. Numerous stealth features were also incorporated, 
including minimized radar, acoustic, heat, and magnetic signatures. The 
biggest changes were made to the weapons, armor, and power system. 
High-energy lasers replaced surface projectile and missile armaments. A 
first-generation miniaturized fusion reactor provided the power needed 
to charge the weapons and run the ship. The reactor also allowed the 
Nematocyst to remain at sea indefinitely, coming into port only to 
replenish supplies and exchange crew members. Continuing the 21st 
Century trend of minimizing the complements of naval warships, the 
Nematocyst carried a crew of only 78 men and women. Ample living and 
work space helped to maximize quality of life while the vessel was at 
sea. 
Like its predecessors, the Nematocyst Destroyer played a multi-mission 
role: protecting larger ships and battle groups, supporting troop 
landings and deployments, and patrolling for hostile submarines. Over 
350 Nematocyst Class Destroyers were produced from 2039 to 2057. Almost 
all of the ships performed beyond expectations, with service lives in 
excess of 35 years. 
 
    
Trireme
-------
Launched: 5th Century BC
Displacement: Approx. 40 tons
Max Speed: 7+ knots 
Length: 120 feet 
Complement: Approx 200 plus a contingent of foot soldiers 
Unit Type: Naval
Descriptions: Light yet sturdy and highly maneuverable, triremes ruled 
the Mediterranean for most of the 5th Century BC. They were used 
extensively by the navies of Persia, Phoenicia, and the Greek city-
states. Triremes had a square sail on a single mast, but the sail and 
mast were stowed during battle in favor of the oars. Three rows of oars 
on each side of the ship were manned by many as 170 oarsmen, depending 
on the size of the vessel. 
At the Battle of Salamis in 480 BC, the Greek Commander Themistocles 
lured a much larger Persian fleet under King Xerxes into the straits 
near the island of Salamis. The outnumbered Greek triremes proved much 
more maneuverable than the Persian Galleys in the narrow straits. 
Through ramming and boarding tactics, the Greeks manages to sink about 
300 Persian ships while losing only about 40 triremes. The remainder of 
the Persian fleet dispersed, delaying Xerxes planned invasion and 
giving the Greeks time to prepare their defenses. This victory signaled 
the beginning of the dominance of triremes, which lasted until the end 
of the Peloponnesian War in 404 BC. 
 

U.S.S Warrington DD-843
-----------------------
Launched: Sept.1945
Displacement: Approx. 3,500 tons (fully loaded)
Max Speed: 35 knots 
Length: 390' 6" 
Complement: 22 Officers, 345 Enlisted 
Unit Type: Naval
Descriptions: The Warrington (DD-843) was a Gearing Class Destroyer, 
commissioned just after the end of WWII. It was the third US warship 
given the name Warrington. Outfitted with surface guns, anti-aircraft 
guns, torpedoes, and depth charges, the Warrington was a versatile and 
formidable vessel capable of taking on many assignments. 
She went through an extensive refit in 1961-62 and became a guided 
missile destroyer used primarily in an anti-submarine role. The 
Warrington was deployed during the Cuban Missile Crisis, where it fired 
a warning shot to stop a Russian ship heading for Cuba. She was also on 
hand after the atomic sub USS Thresher was tragically lost with all 
hands in 1963. When on duty during the Vietnam War in 1972, the 
Warrington struck a mine in the Tonkin Gulf under somewhat suspicious 
circumstances. The ship was decommissioned and sold to Taiwan for 
scrapping in 1973.
 

WW2 U-Boat
----------
Launched: 1936
Displacement: 753 tons (surface), 857 tons (submerged)
Max Speed: 17.9 knots (surface), 8 knots (submerged)
Complement: 44-48
Length: 220 feet
Max Depth: Approx. 720 feet
Unit Type:  Naval
Descriptions:  German submarines or "U-boats" took a heavy toll on 
Allied shipping in both World War I and World War II. A number of 
designs were put into production to fill various roles. The Type VIIB 
U-boat was a very successful attack-sub during World War II. The VIIB 
carried more fuel and was a bit faster than its predecessor, the Type 
VIIA, and also had a second rudder for better maneuverability. Like the 
VIIA, the VIIB was armed with four torpedo tubes in the bow and one 
aft, but it carried three additional torpedoes for a total of 14. 
Twenty-four VIIB U-boats were built from 1936 to 1940, when the 
slightly larger VIIC went into production. U-48, the most successful U-
boat of the war, was a Type VIIB. Commissioned in April ,1939, she sank 
52 ships and damaged 4 more for total loss of more than 300,000 tons of 
shipping. U-48 was scuttled in May, 1945, as part of Operation 
Regenbogen to keep the German fleet from falling into the hands of the 
Allies at the end of the war.