Unofficial Half-Life FAQ
v11.27.1999
By: HQH
E-mail: HQH51
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[TABLE OF CONTENTS]
[1] INTRODUCTION
    [1.1] About
    [1.2] Accuracy
    [1.3] Contact
    [1.4] Credits
    [1.5] Foreword
    [1.6] Notices
        [1.6.1] Disclaimer
        [1.6.2] Distribution
        [1.6.3] Trademark/Copyright
[2] FAQ: HALF-LIFE
    [2.1] General
        [2.1.1] Audio Music
        [2.1.2] CD Key Location
        [2.1.3] CD Related
        [2.1.4] Configuration
        [2.1.5] Console
        [2.1.6] Content Control
        [2.1.7] Cuts From Game
        [2.1.8] Definition Of Half-Life
        [2.1.9] Frames Per Second
        [2.1.10] Game Engine
        [2.1.11] Game of the Year Edition
        [2.1.12] Graffiti/Spray paint
        [2.1.13] Half-Life Demo
        [2.1.14] Half-Life For Mac
        [2.1.15] Half-Life Game Launchers
        [2.1.16] HL.exe/HLDS.exe
        [2.1.17] How Many Levels/Maps
        [2.1.18] Linux Version
        [2.1.19] Location Damages
        [2.1.20] Playing/Recording Demo
        [2.1.21] Requirements
        [2.1.22] Running Custom Levels
        [2.1.23] Screen Shots
        [2.1.24] Symmetric Multiprocessing (SMP)
        [2.1.25] Weapons
            [2.1.25.1] About
            [2.1.25.2] Descriptions
            [2.1.25.3] Gauss Jump/Fall
            [2.1.25.4] Secondary
            [2.1.25.5] Underwater Usage
            [2.1.25.6] Weapon Calling
        [2.1.26] What's My Half-Life Version
        [2.1.27] When Installing
        [2.1.28] Whole New Game
    [2.2] Multi-Player
        [2.2.1] Bots
        [2.2.2] General
            [2.2.2.1] Beginners Information
            [2.2.2.2] Cheats
            [2.2.2.3] Getting Started
            [2.2.2.4] Map Cycles
            [2.2.2.5] Models/Skins
            [2.2.2.6] Observer Mode
            [2.2.2.7] Orange Bar
            [2.2.2.8] Talk While Playing
            [2.2.2.9] WON.Net
        [2.2.3] Hosting Server
            [2.2.3.1] About
            [2.2.3.2] Half-Life Primary Server
            [2.2.3.3] Kick Players Off
            [2.2.3.4] LAN and Internet players
            [2.2.3.5] Linux
            [2.2.3.6] Tracking Statistics
        [2.2.4] Lag/Latency/Ping
            [2.2.4.1] General
            [2.2.4.2] Yahn's Explanation I: Latency Vs. Ping
            [2.2.4.3] Yahn's Explanation II: Why HL/TFC Slow?
            [2.2.4.4] Yahn's Explanation III: Laggers Creating Lag?
        [2.2.5] Modes
            [2.2.5.1] Co-op
            [2.2.5.2] Deathmatch
            [2.2.5.3] Teamplay
            [2.2.5.4] Team Fortress Classic
        [2.2.6] Options
            [2.2.6.1] Internet
            [2.2.6.2] LAN
            [2.2.6.3] Modem To Modem
            [2.2.6.4] Serial
        [2.2.7] Proxy
            [2.2.7.1] Wingate
            [2.2.7.2] Winroute
        [2.2.8] Team Fortress Classic
            [2.2.8.1] Classes
            [2.2.8.2] Maps
            [2.2.8.3] FAQ
        [2.2.9] Testing Multi-Player Maps Offline
    [2.3] Single-Player
        [2.3.1] 3rd Person View
        [2.3.2] Autosave
        [2.3.3] Barneys
        [2.3.4] Cheats
            [2.3.4.1] How To Skip Level
        [2.3.5] Fun Things To Do
        [2.3.6] High Jump
        [2.3.7] Learn How To Play
        [2.3.8] Long Jump
        [2.3.9] Man In Blue/G-Man
        [2.3.10] Preserving Saved Files
        [2.3.11] Saved Games
        [2.3.12] Walkthrough
        [2.3.13] Who You Play As
[3] HALF-LIFE ADD-ONS
    [3.1] Commercial
        [3.1.1] Opposing Force
        [3.1.2] Team Fortress II
    [3.2] Modifications
        [3.2.1] Action Half-Life
        [3.2.2] Classic Capture The Flag
        [3.2.3] Cold Ice
        [3.2.4] Counter-Strike
        [3.2.5] DMPlus
        [3.2.6] Firepower
        [3.2.7] Jailbreak
        [3.2.8] Kenders That Kill
        [3.2.9] Lambda Arena
        [3.2.10] Oz
        [3.2.11] Rocket Crowbar
        [3.2.12] Sven Co-op
        [3.2.13] Science and Industry
        [3.2.14] Team Fortress Classic
    [3.3] Total Conversions
[4] HALF-LIFE EDITING
    [4.1] CFG Files
    [4.2] Creating Custom Levels
    [4.3] Crosshairs
    [4.4] Pak Files
    [4.5] SDK
    [4.6] Worldcraft
        [4.6.1] General
        [4.6.2] Installing
        [4.6.3] Mailing List
        [4.6.4] Tutorials
        [4.6.5] WC Editing FAQ
[5] HALF-LIFE OFFICIAL RELEASES
    [5.1] Extras
        [5.1.1] Maps
        [5.1.2] Models
        [5.1.3] Multi-Player Modes
        [5.1.4] Valve Multiplayer Package
    [5.2] Patches
        [5.2.1] v1.0.0.6
        [5.2.2] v1.0.0.8
        [5.2.3] v1.0.0.9
        [5.2.4] v1.0.1.0
        [5.2.5] v1.0.1.3
[6] TROUBLESHOOTING
    [6.1] Before Getting Started
        [6.1.1] Readme.txt
        [6.1.2] Scan/Defrag
        [6.1.3] Update Files
    [6.2] Bugs/Errors
        [6.2.1] Icons Being Moved
        [6.2.2] Installing/Running Game
            [6.2.2.1] Bad Surface Extents
            [6.2.2.2] Can not find 'vids:cvid'decompressor
            [6.2.2.3] Cbuf_AddText: Overflow
            [6.2.2.4] CD Key
            [6.2.2.5] Could not exec 3dfx/opengl/joystick.cfg
            [6.2.2.6] Crosshair Messes Up
            [6.2.2.7] Dial Up Connection
            [6.2.2.8] Doesn't Support Raster Operations
            [6.2.2.9] Gfx/shell/btns_main.bmp
            [6.2.2.10] Got A Velocity Too Low On Gib
            [6.2.2.11] Invalid page fault in module HW.DLL
            [6.2.2.12] Kb_keys.lst not found
            [6.2.2.13] MCI File Playback:### MMSYSTEM ##
            [6.2.2.14] Overflow 350 Temporary Ents
            [6.2.2.15] SZ_GetSpace
            [6.2.2.16] Unable To Validate CD
            [6.2.2.17] Your HL Executable Has Been Modified
            [6.2.2.18] Your HL Installation Corrupted/Outdated
            [6.2.2.19] Z_Malloc: Failed On Allocation Of xxx Bytes
        [6.2.3] LAN
        [6.2.4] Multi-Player Mode
            [6.2.4.1] .hpk has a bogus # of directory entries
            [6.2.4.2] Attempting to connect to Won
            [6.2.4.3] Bad Protocol
            [6.2.4.4] Can't Swim In Water Using Jump Key
            [6.2.4.5] Client.dll
            [6.2.4.6] Custom file missing wad3 id
            [6.2.4.7] File Mechwine Not On Server
            [6.2.4.8] Host_Error:CL_Parseserver Message
            [6.2.4.9] Pldecal.wad
            [6.2.4.10] Stuck On Elevator
            [6.2.4.11] Stuck On Ladder
            [6.2.4.12] Using Decal ### Without A Name
            [6.2.4.13] Warning: U_Remove on full update
            [6.2.4.14] Wonau_w95.dll/Woncr_w95.dll
            [6.2.4.15] Wsaenotsock
        [6.2.5] Patch/Update Half-Life
            [6.2.5.1] Corrupted Installation Detected
            [6.2.5.2] Not a valid previous version
            [6.2.5.3] Your HL Is v1.0.x.x And You Have v1.0.x.x
        [6.2.6] Single-Player Mode
            [6.2.6.1] Barney Dies
            [6.2.6.2] Stuck/Die On Elevator
            [6.2.6.3] Uninstalling
            [6.2.6.4] Zoom
        [6.2.7] Timedemo
            [6.2.7.1]  Demo Protocol Outdated
    [6.3] CD Key
        [6.3.1] CD Key In Use
        [6.3.2] Editing
        [6.3.3] Lost CD Key
    [6.4] Copying Half-Life On CD-R/RW
    [6.5] Direct X
    [6.6] PC Hardware
        [6.6.1] CD-ROM
            [6.6.1.1] Audio Music
        [6.6.2] Controller/Joystick
        [6.6.3] CPU
            [6.6.3.1] 3DNow!
            [6.6.3.2] MMX
            [6.6.3.3] SSE
        [6.6.4] Modem
            [6.6.4.1] WinModem
        [6.6.5] Sound
            [6.6.5.1] A3D
            [6.6.5.2] Audio Music
            [6.6.5.3] EAX
            [6.6.5.4] Losing Sound During Gameplay
            [6.6.5.5] Repeating Sound Loops
            [6.6.5.6] Sound Blaster Cards
            [6.6.5.7] Stuttering
        [6.6.6] Video
            [6.6.6.1] 3dfx
            [6.6.6.2] 3DWarning
            [6.6.6.3] Blue Water
            [6.6.6.4] D3D
            [6.6.6.5] Decals
            [6.6.6.6] Matrox
            [6.6.6.7] Multiple 3D Cards
            [6.6.6.8] Open GL
            [6.6.6.9] Screen Not Aligned
            [6.6.6.10] Slow Menu
            [6.6.6.11] Nvidia
            [6.6.6.12] Video Tearing
            [6.6.6.13] Video Too Dark
            [6.6.6.14] Visual Enhancements
    [6.7] Virus
[7] PERFORMANCE TIPS
    [7.1] Enhance Sound Effects
    [7.2] Half-Life Tweaks
        [7.2.1] Autoexec.cfg
        [7.2.2] Multi-Player
        [7.2.3] Parameters
    [7.3] PC Tweaks
        [7.3.1] Bandwidth
        [7.3.2] Windows 9x
            [7.3.2.1] Defrag
            [7.3.2.2] ScanDisk
            [7.3.2.3] Turn Them Off
            [7.3.2.4] Virtual Memory
    [7.4] Updates
        [7.4.1] Drivers
        [7.4.2] Half-Life
        [7.4.3] PC
[8] INTERNET RESOURCES
    [8.1] Forums
    [8.2] Utilities
    [8.3] Web Sites
[9] HISTORY

CHAPTER [1]: INTRODUCTION
 
[1.1]: About
Welcome to v11.27.1999 of the Unofficial Half-Life FAQ. v11.27.1999 is the 
fourteenth revision. 'Unofficial' means that
this FAQ is not supported by Valve nor Sierra. FAQ stands for: (F)requently 
(A)sked (Q)uestions.
 
Revision classification works something like this: it goes by the date. Plain 
easy and simple. Forget about v1.xxx to v2.xx. Those are just a hassle to keep 
up. I rather use the date as the version of the document. Date versions are 
easier to keep up with, because it's easy to tell when it was released and from 
what date it was.
 
This is how it's laid out: v.<day>.<month>.<year>. Isn't that easy? The version 
denotes the date, in which tells you that every information in this FAQ document 
is as accurate as possible, up to that date, which is the version.
 
This HLFAQ is and shall be updated regularly on a regular basis on my terms of 
when it should be updated. The only time that this HLFAQ would be necessary to 
be updated, would be when a patch for Half-Life would come out. Always expect 
the HLFAQ to be updated a few days after the patch is released. I need a few 
days after the patch is released because I want to gather as much information or 
if there are anything needed to be said about the patch.
 
This FAQ was done from resources of the U.S. (English) version of Half-Life and 
Windows 98. Some parts of this HLFAQ would vary in platforms and countries. 
Beware for those of you that do not live in the U.S.A. Some parts may not apply 
to your country, nor do I not note about it. Proud to be made in the U.S.A.
 
Any following updates to this HLFAQ can be access at: 
http://members.xoom.com/HQH51/ Please always check to see if there's an updated 
version of this HLFAQ as I tend to add more solutions and information about 
Half-Life.
 
[1.2]: Accuracy
I'm trying to be correct and accurate as possible. Please don't hold me for 
accuracy, because everybody has to make some mistakes sometime in their lives. 
If you have any information, or any further information on what is in here, then 
please provide them to me and I'll be sure to place them where they should be 
and for accurate future reference. 
 
If you find any instructions wrong or solutions that are incorrect, then please 
let me know. I pulled these solutions that were found on the internet and other 
resources, so don't hold me for accuracy. These solutions are provided as is.
 
Also remember that every information found in this HLFAQ is as accurate when the 
FAQ was published. So anything found after the HLFAQ's release would not mean 
error in the HLFAQ. The HLFAQ just needs to be updated.
 
[1.3]: Contact
If you have any relevant information to contribute, then please provide me with 
the best grammar, and understanding English so that I could place them where 
they should be and for accurate future reference. Any submitted information will 
be under review and be kept as my own property. Please only send legitimate 
answers. I don't want rumors or false solutions in this HLFAQ. Only valid and 
correct solutions to the problems.
 
If you have any questions related to Half-Life and its solutions from this 
HLFAQ, I would be sure to answer any, if I can, with my knowledge in certain 
parts that is, what is limited to my experiences with the game and its solutions 
given. But please try what solutions are given in this HLFAQ first before coming 
to me. Don't be surprised if I say that the solution is in the HLFAQ. So, read 
this HLFAQ before asking any help from me.
 
 I do not do the following, but not limited to:
-give walkthroughs/help with single player mode, because it's been a long time 
since I played it
-give any CD-Keys, so go buy the game
-make any mods/levels for you, so learn how by your own
-send Half-Life to you, so go buy the game
-answer any mods, like TFC, etc... questions, so visit their mod site and bug 
the authors
-answer Opposing Force questions, as I do not have the add-on pack
 
Also, I would not give out "direct" acknowledgements or credits to solutions 
given. Please read section 1.4 to find out why. Even if you say 'give me 
credits' in any message sent to me, I will not give you direct credits. Don't 
bother doing this. 
 
Last but not least, any comments/suggestions for the author is acceptable 
(hopefully not a lot of flames/threats). No SPAM please. Also, messages have to 
be in English for me to understand of course. Anything other than English will 
be trashed.
 
My e-mail addresses are:
HQH51@aol.com (primary; use this prior to secondary e-mail address)
HQH51@hotmail.com (secondary; if primary address no longer available)
You could also reach me at this newsgroup: alt.games.half-life
For e-mailing me, it is wise to email to both of my accounts to make sure that I 
may get your e-mail.
 
[1.4]: Credits
Credits go to most of the people on alt.games.half-life and many other different 
sources on the internet. Also, a big credit goes to Valve for creating a kick 
ass game for PC and Sierra On-Line for publishing it. And last but not least, 
anybody who contributed to this FAQ.
 
You see, I can't really give "direct" credits to people who gave me solutions or 
help me out on the HLFAQ. Because I'm taking precautions not putting down names, 
because if I do, there will be people who would send in solutions already, when 
someone else already gave me the solution, and when I do publish the HLFAQ, they 
would wonder why they aren't getting the credits that they deserve. So that's 
why the above says it all about giving out credits.
 
All I want for me is credit on gathering all these information and putting it in 
the HLFAQ. That's it. I don't want to claim most solutions found in this HLFAQ, 
because most of them aren't mine. 
[1.5]: Foreword
Please read through the whole HLFAQ if possible. You might not know until you 
try something on accident and fix things that make Half-Life all better. You'll 
never know until you find out. This HLFAQ is on its fourteenth revision. Also I 
might add that around this time, it's Half-Life one year anniversary. An add-on 
pack is also released - Opposing Force.
 
[1.6]: Notices
Just a few words of notices.
 
[1.6.1]: Disclaimer
The purpose of this FAQ is to aid the public regarding questions about Half-
Life, by Valve. In no way should this promote suicidal, killing others, killing 
in any other fashion, or result to violence.
 
I, the author, claims no responsibility what so ever, if anything from this 
HLFAQ corrupts, damages, screws up, faulted with, created errors, or do anything 
else that harms your computer, creating data lost, or anything with you or with 
the world for all I care, I claim no responsibility!
 
[1.6.2]: Distribution
I. Sending copies
    A. The copies are exact and complete
    B. The copies give credit to the author
    C. The copies are in the original form
II. Distributing this work
    A. Remains original from work and should not be edited
    B. Does not charge a fee for copying or distribution
III. Distributed form includes the author's notes and information
    A. The distributed form is not in any magazine or within software 
(permission may be obtained from author)
 
If you have any questions about distributing this HLFAQ of any kind, don't wait 
on it - contact me. We'll discuss it. 
 
[1.6.3]: Trademark/Copyright
Half-Life:
(c) 1998 Sierra On-Line, Inc. or Valve L.L.C. All rights reserved. (r) and/or 
(tm) designate trademarks of, or licensed to Sierra On-Line, Inc., Bellevue, WA 
98007. This product contains software technology licensed from id Software, Inc. 
("id Technology"). id Technology (c) 1996-1998 id Software, Inc. All rights 
reserved.
 
FAQ:
Me, myself, and I, the author of this FAQ!

CHAPTER [2]: FAQ: HALF-LIFE
If this HLFAQ doesn't provide you the solution you're looking for, you may try 
at these websites:
Won.net's Trouble Shooting Guide
Sierra's Tech Support Knowledge Database
PC Game's Half-Life FAQ
 
[2.1]: General
Half-Life was released around Thanksgiving of 1998. It was named game of the 
year. The game is great, especially the single player mode.
 
[2.1.1]: Audio Music
Half-Life has some cool sound tracks on the CD. Sound tracks are playable from 
track 2 through track 28. Most of them are just background sound FXs, but there 
are some that are techno like music. Audio tracks 15 and 25 are one of the best 
ones. Try those tracks. You'll love them. 
 
[2.1.2]: CD Key Location
If you're looking for the CD Key for Half-Life, the CD Key is on the back of 
your Half-Life's jewel CD case. It's a 13 digit
number in this format: xxxx-xxxxx-xxxx. It runs down the side vertically. The CD 
Key is printed on a King Quest advertisement. For foreign countries, some are on 
a sticker. If you find that you do not have the CD Key anywhere found on the 
jewel CD case, return the game back immediately and get yourself a new copy and 
this time, you should get one with a CD Key included.
 
[2.1.3]: CD Related
How many CDs does Half-Life come in?
-Was rumored to be two, but only one CD. Valve compressed the files so that it 
can fit all under one CD. 
 
Is there any pirate protection?
-Yes, there are two kinds: CD check and CD Key.
 
How much space does the game takes up?
-Full installation; about 366 MB on FAT32 or 460 MB on FAT16. There are no other 
alternatives. If you don't have at least 500 MB of free space, then you're 
doomed and "Shit Out-of Luck" (SOL). I say 500 MB free space, because take the 
save games into account, which the save games are over 1 MB per each saved games 
and add-on maps in the near future for downloads. See what I mean?
 
What's installed on my HDD?
-Everything except for the music sound tracks.
 
Is there any options to cut down the installation? It takes up too much space!
-No. No options are given. Full installation is the only option. But you can 
remove some of the movie files that are useless (well, sort of) in the Half-Life 
folder. Dig deep in all of the folders in Half-Life and look for any files that 
has an extension of .avi or .mpg. Those are the movie files. There should be 
about four of those movies taking up a lot of space. Delete them.
 
Can I share the game with my fellow friends?
-Yes and no. Yes: You can if you want to. No: If you do, and if your friend 
tries out the multiplayer part of the game, then you're SOL,because you can't 
play because your friend just stole your entire internet access identification 
for Half-Life.
 
Once I install the game, do I need the CD to play?
-Yes, it checks the CD if it's there, and if you're gonna play audio music from 
the CD (not sound effects), then you need the CD. The only time that you do not 
need the CD is playing multiplayer mode.
 
Does multiplayer mode require the CD?
-No, you can play without the CD. No patches required to do so.
 
Is there background music for Half-Life?
-Yes there is, but only at certain times. It doesn't play background music in 
loops. Certain spots can only call on the background music, and it won't loop. 
So, you will only get to hear it once, and it'll all go quiet again.
 
[2.1.4]: Configuration
To configure Half-Life, launch Half-Life-> Configurations-> Controls. If you 
edit a file called config.cfg (v1.0.0.9+), then do not do it anymore. Half-Life 
regenerates that file every time Half-Life is executed. You will lose everything 
changed in that file. See section 4.1 for further details.
 
[2.1.5]: Console
To be able to use the console in Half-Life in single player mode, you must do 
one of the following:  
1. Start Menu-> Run-> type in: <x>:\<hl dir>\Hl.exe -console
    x=HDD
    hl dir=Where Half-Life's directory resides in
2. Create a shortcut of Hl.exe, then-> (right click on the created shortcut) 
Properties-> Shortcut tab-> Target box-> put in " -console" after hl.exe. 
Example: hl.exe -console 
3. Update the game to at least v1.0.0.9 and the console option will be listed in 
the main menu. 
4. Update the game to at least v1.0.0.9 and go to Start Menu-> Programs-> 
Sierra-> Half-Life-> Half-Life Console. 
 
After enabling the console, you could access the console throughout the game by 
pressing the [~] key (near the [Esc] key). In a multiplayer game, the console is 
already accessible. Just hit the [~] key and it should bring down the console. 
For some foreign country keyboards, try the [`] key, next to the [1] and [Esc] 
key.
 
To get more information on the console, visit: 
http://halflife.pcgame.com/console.htm  
 
To assign another key to access the console, issue this command in the console: 
bind "<key>" toggleconsole 
 
[2.1.6]: Content Control
Are there people out there that feel that your kids shouldn't be influenced by 
all these blood and guts or if you feel that some of the aspects of Half-Life 
may not be appropriate, then do the following to reduce the violent visuals in 
Half-Life: Launch Half-Life-> Configuration-> Content Control-> Check the box 
'Active content control' and put in a password. Make sure you know the password, 
or you may need to uninstall the game to remove the content control.
 
[2.1.7]: Cuts From Game
When Half-Life was released, some of the models and weapons that were found in 
reviews on the internet didn't make it. They were cut at the final version, but 
still embedded in the game, but not all the way finished. Here's a quick look at 
some of what was cut out from the game: http://www.contaminated.net/half-
life/lifeforms3.shtm
 
[2.1.8]: Definition Of Half-Life
Half-Life can be defined as: the time required for half of a sample of 
radioactive atoms to decay. For an example: The radioactive isotope Iodine 
([mass]131/[atomic #]53) of 1 gram, has a half-life of 8.07 days period. So, 
starting off with 1 gram, there is no half-life (0 day). After one half-life 
period (8.07 days), Iodine is now only .5 gram. After two half-life periods 
(16.14 days), Iodine is now only .25 gram. This process keeps repeating on and 
on... The time increases as the mass of the radioactive isotope shrinks. Half-
life of radioactive ranges from seconds to many years. All radioactive samples 
have different half-lives. 
 
[2.1.9]: Frames Per Second
There are a few ways to get frames per second (fps):
1. During mid game, type the following in the console:
    developer 1
    host_speeds 1
This should provide real-time fps during game play.
2. Use the -gamegauge parameter. Check it out in section 7.2.3 Parameters. It 
will tell you how to use it.
3. Record a demo or get one, then within the console, type the following: gg 
<demo's name>
You do not need to type the demo's name with the three letter extension. Just 
the file name, that's it. Check out section 2.1.20 to know how to record your 
own demo. You may not need to type in cl_gg 1. Also, when running gg (Game 
Gauge), Half-Life will dump a file call fps.txt in the \Half-Life\Valve\ 
directory. Open that up and it'll tell you your fps records.
4. During mid game, type this in the console: timerefresh. Although to me, this 
is very unrealistic number, can't be trusted.
5. Record a demo or get a demo, then type this within the console: timedemo 
<demo's name>
Do not type the demo's name with the three letter extension. Just the file name, 
that's it. Check out section 2.1.20 to know how to record your own demo. 
 
[2.1.10]: Game Engine
Valve originally licensed the source for Quake from id Software and they began 
working on that code around October of 1996. Between that time and the time they 
finished Half-Life in October of 1998, they modified/removed/created something 
like 70% of the code.
 
[2.1.11] Game of the Year Edition
The only difference with the original version of Half-Life and the Game of the 
Year Edtion of Half-Life is the program's version, a redesigned box, the TFC 
mod,Edition and the inclusion of Worldcraft v2.1 beta. The program version of 
GotYE is at v1.0.0.9, while the original program version is at v1.0.0.5. The 
only reason to buy this game is for people who haven't bought the game and save 
time downloading a 20 MB patch (you have to do so on the original version, 
because it's at v1.0.0.5). The GotYE is patched up to v1.0.0.9, but it doesn't 
stop there. You will be required to download other patches if you want to play 
multiplayer that is. The current version of Half-Life is at v1.0.1.3.
 
Note that some versions of Game of the Year maybe at v1.0.1.1. To check what 
version you have currently with Half-Life, see section 2.1.26.
 
[2.1.12]: Graffiti/Spray paint
Is it true?
-Yes it is.
 
How many times can I spray paint?
-Once per life in multiplayer, then every frag that you get, you can spray paint 
again. Also can be spray painted more than once if the server sets the 
decalfrequency from its defaulted 30 seconds value. Defaulted every 30 seconds, 
you can spray paint again after ever 30 seconds. For single player mode, it's 
how much decalfrequency is set to. To check this out, type this in the console: 
decalfrequency and whatever number goes after the command is the numbers of 
seconds to delay for the next spray paint action to be available.
Example: decalfrequency 1
This means that you can spray paint after every 1 second.
 
Can I make my own graffiti?
-Yes, please refer to the readme.txt for instructions.
 
I see people with cool graffities. Can I use their graffities?
-Yes it can. There's a decal ripper that at: 
http://www.planetquake.com/dl/dl.asp?half-life/decal-model/drip.zip
 
Sometimes I spray paint and the image is reversed or flipped upside-down.
-The reasons is how the textures of the wall/floor/ceiling are arranged and 
aligned in the game. You got to put up with it. Nothing can be done. 
 
Can I change the time on how long I can spray paint again?
-For single player, just drop down the console and type this in: decalfrequency 
xx
Where xx = how many seconds delay do you want it to be before you can spray 
paint again. Example: decalfrequency 1 This means that you can spray paint after 
every 1 second. For multiplayer, the server can only set how much decalfrequency 
can be.
 
[2.1.13]: Half-Life Demo
There is currently a demo released for Half-Life. The only demo that there is of 
Half-Life is Half-Life: Uplink. You can get the demo at the following places: 
http://www.planethalflife.com/dl/dl.asp?planethalflife/hluplink.exe 
ftp://ftp.sierra.com/pub/demos/pc/hluplink.exe 
ftp://ftp.pcgamer.com/demos/hluplink.exe 
 
Please be aware that the demo is about 48.5 MB (about 50,872,079 bytes), and 
would consume a lot of time downloading. It is also easy to get the demo 
corrupted, so be prepared to re-download it again if it's necessary. The demo 
needs less than 100 MB to be used when installed (about 89.1 MB on FAT32). 
 
The demo is done by PCGamer and Valve, and it takes place after Half-Life's main 
settings (the retail game that is).  Cheats can only be fully usable if you use 
the lite (down below) version. For the demo version, there are some cheats that 
you can use like getting the weapons that only appear in the version, like the 
MP5, etc. 
 
If you're looking for a walkthrough for this demo, here's a link to a 
walkthrough for this demo: 
http://home.earthlink.net/~thrawn1/Uplink_walk_thru.htm  
 
If you have the full retail version of Half-Life, and want to play the new 
levels from the Half-Life: Uplink, then here's a 3.7 MB
download instead of the 48.5 MB (lite version). Note: you must have the full 
version or it won't run. Here's the link:
ftp://ftp.game1.com/pub/randy/misc/uplink_lite.exe 
 
Here's the storyline for this demo:
Set 48 hours after the containment failure at the Black Mesa Lab, Half-Life: 
Uplink finds Gordon Freeman attempting to manually adjust the uplink tower so he 
and some scientists can reach the lower level of the compound. Along the way, he 
faces all sorts of horrors... 
 
[2.1.14]: Half-Life For Mac
Bad news. After the announcement of a Macintosh version of Half-Life being 
developed, the Mac version of Half-Life has been canceled. Read the original 
announcement:
 
From: Gabe Newell

There's been a lot of speculation about Half-Life for the Macintosh - its 
feature set, its compatibility with the PC version, and so on. Andrew Meggs at 
Logicware has been doing a good job on the port, and it's mostly done. At this 
point we've spent a bunch of money on the Mac product and have spent a lot of 
time thinking about what we need to do to make sure Macintosh users are happy 
with it when it ships.

Which is why we are canceling the Macintosh version of Half-Life.

When we started Mac Half-Life, there was a lot of optimism about the opportunity 
for Macintosh games. As someone who worked on Macintosh software starting in 
1983 before the 128K Mac had shipped, it was pretty exciting to think that there 
was going to be a resurgence in the Mac gaming market.

However, as we got closer to shipping the product and reality set in, it was 
increasingly obvious that in order for us to break even on the Mac version, much 
less be profitable, we were going to have to cut some corners. OK - I guess we 
won't have Team Fortress Classic available at shipment. Maybe people will accept 
it if we update them with TFC later. OK - I guess I understand why we don't have 
an automatic update facility. Maybe people will accept that they have to 
manually update. OK - I guess I understand why we might carve out a separate 
multiplayer space for Mac users from PC users because of the on-going 
interoperability issues. Maybe that won't be the disaster I think it will be.

But the more I thought about it, the more I felt that this was nonsense. Our 
existing Half-Life customers are really happy with us. They were happy with the 
original game, they were happy when we released TFC, they were happy with our 
on-going investment in Half-Life, and there's even more coming for them in the 
next couple of months. They are happy because we do our best for them, and 
that's what they expect from us in the future. Given the realities of the Mac 
gaming market, our Mac customers were always going to be mad at us. They were 
always going to be second-class customers where we couldn't invest to the same 
degree in the Mac version as we did elsewhere. I don't want to be in that 
business. I would much rather we just eat the money we've spent so far than take 
money from Mac customers and short-change them.

It's disappointing to me on a personal basis that we won't ship Half-Life for 
the Mac. Everyone here, and I'm sure the people at Logicware are disappointed. 
The Mac gamers who were looking forward to Half-Life are undoubtedly 
disappointed as well. However that's a lot less disappointment than what would 
have happened if we had tried to get Mac gamers to accept second-class treatment 
on an on-going basis.

Gabe
 
 
Here's the original announcement of Mac version of Half-Life being developed:
Macintosh Half-Life Press Release
SIERRA STUDIOS TO DELIVER BEST-SELLING HALF-LIFE TO THE MAC
BELLEVUE, WA (April 23, 1999) -- Sierra Studios(tm) announced today their hit 
game Half- Life will be available for Macintosh gamers this fall. Originally 
developed by Valve Software, the Macintosh version of the game will be developed 
by Southern California-based Logicware, recognized for Macintosh gaming 
development and well-known for working with some of the top computer game 
publishers in the industry. "The PC version has sold nearly one million units 
worldwide - bringing Half-Life to the Mac is a natural next step, especially 
since there is such unwavering devotion in the Macintosh gaming community," said 
Jim Veevaert, director of marketing for Sierra Studios. "We are excited to be 
working with a company like Logicware that has such a strong reputation in the 
Mac gaming market." Half-Life combines the visceral action of legendary action 
games like Quake with great storytelling in the tradition of Stephen King. Named 
Game of the Year by 40 publications worldwide, it is by far one of the most 
popular first-person action thriller games on the market. More information can 
be found at www.gameoftheyear.com. 
 
 Logicware was formed in 1995 to create fun, cutting edge games for computers 
and console systems. Founded and run by entertainment industry veterans, 
Logicware has developed a multitude of original titles and conversions on a 
variety of platforms. In late 1997, Logicware began publishing games for the Mac 
OS. Logicware is now one of the premiere game publishers for the Macintosh 
market. Logicware is located east of Los Angeles in Covina, California. Sierra 
On-Line, Inc. is one of the original developers and largest worldwide publishers 
of interactive entertainment and productivity software. Sierra is comprised of 
five brands: Sierra Attractions(tm), SierraHome(tm), Sierra Sports(tm), Sierra 
Studios(tm), and Dynamix(tm), a Sierra Company. Sierra is a division of Havas 
Interactive, whose holdings also include Knowledge Adventure(r), Blizzard 
Entertainment(r) and WON.net(tm). 
 
[2.1.15]: Half-Life Game Launchers
Here are some game launchers that are offered for Half-Life. Some of these game 
launchers contain more special options than others. These are all sorts of 
launchers. Be sure to visit all of them to know what they are. Here they are:
http://halflife.gameplex.net/hlfe/ 
http://prax.halflifehq.com/ 
http://www.contaminated.net/hlsad/ 
http://www.planethalflife.com/degraz/ 
http://www.planethalflife.com/hlgl/ 
http://www.planethalflife.com/hlhelper/ 
 
[2.1.16]: HL.exe/HLDS.exe
HL.EXE = Half-Life main game program that you use to play the game.
HLDS.EXE = (H)alf (L)ife (D)edicated (S)erver for multiplayer hosting program 
only. 
 
[2.1.17]: How Many Levels/Maps
Straight off from the CD:
-96 maps for single player mode
-8 maps for multiplayer mode
-7 maps for hazard course mode
Single player levels (17 of them in order):
1. Anomalous Materials
2. Unforeseen Consequences
3. Office Complex
4. We've Got Hostile
5. Blast Pit
6. Power Up
7. On A Rail
8. Apprehension
9. Residue Processing
10. Questionable Ethics
11. Surface Tension
12. Forget About Freeman
13. Lambda Core
14. Xen
15. Gonarch's Lair
16. Interloper
17. Nihilanth
 
[2.1.18] Linux Version
There is only a Linux version of the server side of Half-Life. No clients have 
been available. To check out the server side program for Linux, visit section 
2.2.3.5 for further details.
 
[2.1.19]: Location Damages
Half-Life offers location damage. Head shots counts more and damages more than 
any other body parts. It would take less shots to kill if shot in the head. 
Shoot anywhere else, it would take more to kill. Location damage are: head, 
arms, legs, and chest. Head shot beats the chest shot beats the arms and legs 
shots. So aim for the head to take more damage! Head shot counts three times as 
much. Everything else to the body is one times the damage. Location damage is 
provided in single player and multiplayer mode. So take advantage of the 
location damage. 
 
[2.1.20]: Playing/Recording Demo
To record a demo, type this in the console: record <filename>. The filename part 
is anything you wish to call the demo as. It is best to have it under 8 
characters. To play the demo, type this in the console: timedemo <filename>
 
If there's a custom made timedemo that you want to use, then put the timedemo 
under the \Half-Life\Valve\ folder and then do the above to play the timedemo. 
If you are using the timedemo to tell how much fps your computer is pumping out, 
visit section 2.1.9.
 
For any other mods that the timedemo was recorded in, that's where you find it. 
Say, you recorded a timedemo from TFC. The timedemo of the TFC session can be 
found under \Half-Life\TFC\.
 
Any timedemo found on the internet or where ever available, only the timedemo 
that was recorded under Half-Life can only be played back under that original 
version. Say I recorded a timedemo under v1.0.0.6 for Half-Life. Only v1.0.0.6 
can play back that timedemo only. No other version of Half-Life can play them 
back.
 
Any timedemo that was recorded on a analog connection or any connection that has 
very high latency on the internet, there will be apparent skips/jumps when 
played back. People with very low latency should be able to record fine.
 
With v1.0.0.8 patch, the timedemo option is corrupted and can't be used. Upon 
running the timedemo, at the end of the timedemo, Half-Life would crash, and 
dump you back out on the desktop, and perhaps a GPF (General Protection Fault) 
error message. So be warned, timedemo won't work with v1.0.0.8 only . Other 
versions would work, but not with v1.0.0.8. Getting the latest patch, v1.0.0.9 
or higher, the timedemo should work.
 
With v1.0.1.0 patch, the option to play back single player timedemo is not 
available and will return an error stating that the map is different from the 
server.
 
[2.1.21]: Requirements
Minimum:
~~~~~~~~
Windows(r) 95, Windows 98 or Windows NT 4.0
Pentium 133+, 24 MB RAM
SVGA, high color (16-bit)
2x CD-ROM drive
Windows-compatible sound card
Mouse, keyboard
 
Preferred:
~~~~~~~~~~
Pentium 166+
32 MB RAM
3D accelerator card (Open GL or Direct3D)
 
Multiplayer:
~~~~~~~~~~~~
32-bit Internet Service Provider (ISP)
28.8+ modem or LAN
 
[2.1.22]: Running Custom Levels
To run custom made user maps like single player made levels, do the following:
1. Place the .bsp file(s) into <HDD>:\<Half-Life's directory>\Valve\Maps\
    Example: C:\Sierra\Half-Life\Valve\Maps\
2. Get into Half-Life's console and type this in: map <level's name>
    Example: map boot_camp
    OR
    Edit your HL parameter to be like this: hl.exe +map <level's name>
    Example: hl.exe +map crossfire
    Note: leave out the .bsp file extension, it's unnecessary.
Note: the maps used in the examples are multiplayer maps. Just use the actual 
names of the single player maps. Note 2: when playing the single player made 
levels, beware that you may not get the HEV/HUD on your screen. You may actually 
need to find the HEV suit somewhere in the level somewhere. But there are levels 
made that you may not use the HEV/get HUD.
 
[2.1.23]: Screen Shots
To take screen shots during mid game in Half-Life, all you need to do is hit the 
key [F5]. However, you can take unlimited screen shots depending how much free 
space you have where Half-Life is installed. There are pictures that take around 
300 KB to a few MBs or so depending on what Half-Life was rendered in. Software 
mode provides small file size pictures while Open GL/D3D are big file sized 
pictures. You can find the pictures dumped under \Half-Life\ folder.
 
[2.1.24] Symmetric Multiprocessing (SMP)
For those people who runs SMP, Half-Life does not take any advantages. Half-Life 
was not coded to take in any SMP instructions.
 
[2.1.25]: Weapons
Here are some information on the weapons in Half-Life. By the way, there are 
reloading action, so there's some realistic to reloading ammunition into these 
weapons. If you happen to switch to a different gun when it's out of shells, and 
you come back to the weapon again, you got to reload it.
 
[2.1.25.1]: About
How many weapons are given in the game?
-14 weapons to choose from, to be exact.
What are the weapons?
-357 Magnum
-9mm hand gun
-Crossbow
-Crowbar
-Egon (gluon gun)
-Gauss (tau cannon)
-Hand grenade
-Hornet gun
-MP5
-RPG
-Satchel
-Shotgun
-Snark
-Tripmine
 
[2.1.25.2]: Descriptions
-357 Magnum: One powerful revolver hand gun
-9mm Hand gun: Basic pistol
-Crossbow: Bows and arrows, felt tipped explosives (multiplayer only)
-Crowbar: What it sounds like and says
-Egon (gluon gun): Bluish hosing lightning gun
-Gauss (tau cannon): Yellow radiation shard shooter - could 'rocket jump', acts 
like a rail gun and could shoot through walls
-Hand grenade: What it sounds like and says
-Hornet gun: Shoots out hornets
-MP5: A sub machinegun with grenade (M203) launching capabilities
-RPG: (R)ocket (P)ropelled (G)renade launcher with laser guided assistance
-Satchel: Just like a pipe bomb, and could be detonate anytime
-Shotgun: Pump action shotgun, also a double shotgun, two in one style
-Snark: A small creature that attacks living creatures
-Tripmine: A laser trip mine
 
[2.1.25.3]: Gauss Jump/Fall
Gauss jump is a term that is given to how the Gauss gun can be used. Just like 
the 'rocket jump' from Quake x series, Gauss jump is actually the same thing, 
except that it's not done by a rocket launcher, but the Gauss gun instead.
 
All you have to do, is grab the Gauss gun, charge up the gun by holding down the 
alternative fire (secondary fire) key down, letting the gun charge up to 9 
cells, look at the floor, and release the payload and up you go! The difference 
with Gauss gun, is that you don't really need to jump at all, like the rocket 
jump in Quake x series to get even higher elevations.
 
The Gauss jump can only be used in multiplayer. Beware, the Gauss jump does not 
give you damage, like the rocket jump does in Quake x series does. But the only 
damage that you're going to get from this Gauss jump is, when you fall down from 
that great heights that you just achieved.
 
Gauss fall just means charge up the gauss gun via secondary fire and when you're 
about to fall and hit the ground hard and lose life, you would fire into the 
ground, giving you an air break and fall down safely and lose no health.
 
[2.1.25.4]: Secondary
Here are some secondary firing using these weapons:
-357 Magnum: zooms in (only in multiplayer)
-9mm Hand gun: rapid fire
-Crossbow: zooms in
-Gauss: charge up to 9 cells and fires in straight beam
-Hornet gun: rapid non-heat seeking style
-MP5: grenade (M203) launcher
-RPG: laser guide assistance
-Satchel: lay down another satchel
-Shotgun: double barrel shotgun style
 
[2.1.25.5]: Underwater Usage
Here are some weapons that work under water:
-9mm hand gun
-Crossbow
-Crowbar
-Hand grenade
-Hornet gun
-RPG
-Satchel
-Tripmine
 
[2.1.25.6]: Weapon Calling
Weapons are divided into five sections. They are bound to the numbers from 1-5 
on the keyboard. The five sections are as followed:
1: Crowbar
2: Pistol; 357 Magnum
3: MP5; Shotgun; Crossbow
4: RPG; Gauss; Egon; Hornet gun
5: Hand grenade; Satchel; Trip mine; Snark
To access the weapons, press the number x amount of times to cycle through the 
collection of weapons to select what you want. For an example: If you want to 
get the 357 magnum, press the number 2 twice to access the 357 magnum.
 
[2.1.26]: What's My Half-Life Version
Here are some ways to check what Half-Life version you are running:
1. Go to where HL.exe exists (default at C:\Sierra\Half-Life\). Right click on 
the HL.exe and select Properties. Select the Version tab. In the Item name box, 
select the Product version. It will then display the version number to the right 
box under Value.
2. Go into the console of Half-Life and type in: version
3. In the console up in the right hand corner, it will tell the version of the 
game.
4. In the main menu down in the lower right hand corner, it will tell the 
version of the game's version. (v1.0.1.3+) 
Note: If you bought the original Half-Life, the version is at v1.0.0.5. If you 
bought Half-Life: Game of the Year, the version is at either v1.0.0.9 or 
v1.0.1.1.
 
[2.1.27]: When Installing
Check out section 6.2.2 for information on installing Half-Life.
 
[2.1.28]: Whole New Game
The game could be played over again by extracting out a file called skill.cfg 
from the pak0.pak. Get the editor that would extract this file at: 
http://www.planetquake.com/qped/. Getting this file would allow you to change 
the damage and the health of all the weapons and enemies in the whole game.
 
[2.2]: Multi-Player
Here are some multiplayer information.
 
[2.2.1]: Bots
Bots, shorten from robots, are AI (artificial intelligence) controlled by the 
computer. These are virtual opponents that you can play against in multiplayer 
mode offline (not being on the Internet). This means that you can play 
multiplayer mode without being on the Internet, since you now have virtual 
players to play against. For now, currently, the bots available are only known 
to work for deathmatch. No mods (like TFC, Counter-Strike, etc...) have bots 
yet.
 
There are currently some bots. Here are the site to get these bots:
http://www.contaminated.net/phineas/ - The Phineas bot
http://www.telefragged.com/thefatal/jumblow.shtml  - The Jumbot bot
 
To check out on the developers of bots, check out these sites:
http://www.botepidemic.com/bots/halflife.shtml 
http://www.contaminated.net/hlbc/ 
 
[2.2.2]: General
Here are some general information about multiplayer mode for Half-Life.
 
[2.2.2.1]: Beginners Information
It is advised that you venture through Half-Life multiplayer menu and set up 
your configurations. Also, using the Quick Start for Internet Games can be 
useful for the first few times before you advance to using the in game server 
browser.
 
[2.2.2.2]: Cheats
You can cheat in multiplayer mode, granted that you're hosting your own server. 
You need to enter in sv_cheats 1 before starting the game, or switch maps to 
take the cheats into affect. You can use the regular cheat codes for single 
player mode in multiplayer mode. The only codes that won't work would be the god 
mode and noclip mode.
 
[2.2.2.3]: Getting Started
To get started for multiplayer mode, it is advised that you go through the Half-
Life multiplayer menus and set up your configurations. Also, create a cfg that 
has some multiplayer tweaks for online. See section 7.2.2 for multiplayer 
tweaks.
 
[2.2.2.4]: Map Cycles
There is a file called mapcycle.txt in your \Half-Life\Valve\ directory. 
Whenever hosting, edit this file and put in whatever maps you want it to rotate 
after a certain limit of the level to end going to the next map.
 
[2.2.2.5]: Models/Skins
Bundled with Half-Life, Half-Life offers you five choices to pick which models 
should represent you in multiplayer: Scientist, HGrunt, Helmet, Gordon, or Gina. 
The default is on Gordon or Helmet. To pick others, make sure you hit 
previous/next to see what you like to pick.
 
A model is like a human being. A skin is like the clothes for the human being. 
Models are edited and change its polygons around. A skin is just like some 
clothes for the models. So try not to confuse the two. A model is a few hundred 
KBs big, and the skins a few KBs.
 
If you downloaded models, and use them in multiplayer, then youneed to know 
this: if other people have the model that you have and currently using, then 
they can see you. If the opponents don't have the model that you got, then they 
see you as some other kind of model, replaced by the five originals if they 
don't got the model that you're using.
 
To manually install models/skins, create a directory named after the model/skin 
under \Half-Life\Valve\Player\
 
To know how to make skins, then go to http://www.contaminated.net/wavelength/ 
 
To view the models from a program instead of doing a test run in a LAN game, go 
here and get the program:
http://www.swissquake.ch/chumbalum-soft/hlmv/index.html.
 
If you want to learn how to create models, go to 
http://www.planethalflife.com/coldfusion/tutorials/intro.htm 
By the way, you'll be required to have some 3D program, especially 3D Studio Max 
(More than $3000). But if you don't have 3D Studio Max, then you can get 
Milkshape 3D at: http://www.swissquake.ch/chumbalum-soft/ 
 
[2.2.2.6]: Observer Mode
The only way to be in observer mode is to have the server to set the command 
"mp_forcerespawn 0" (no quotes, and it's a zero). If the command is set to 0, 
then all you need to do to get into observer is to die. After dying, don't press 
anything. You will then be shifted to an observer view. There's no way to move 
throughout the map, so you're stuck in one spot to view action.
 
[2.2.2.7] Orange Bar
That orange bar that you see under your health when first time logging into the 
server to play means that you're downloading other people's decals. You can 
disable by going to section 7.2.2 and check it out.
 
[2.2.2.8]: Talk While Playing
Here are two great programs to use during gameplay:
1. Roger Wilco: http://www.resounding.com 
2. BattleCom: http://www.shadowfactor.com 
 
These two programs add new strategies to online gaming. This allows you and your 
buddies talk while playing, transmitting voice and hear the warnings faster than 
typing the warning messages out. Provided that you have a blazing fast 
connection, then it's worth the download to try out these programs. A warning 
for those who have less than a 56k modem: don't even think about getting it. 
Sending the voice takes away at least 1KB of your uploading bandwidth. Now when 
playing and talking, expect to lag like hell if there are more than 2 people on 
the server. These programs should be used on high bandwidth connections. But 
like I said, this is a warning for you low bandwidths people who want to try 
this thing out.
 
[2.2.2.9] WON.Net
People have mistakenly to have thought that when they get connected to the 
internet and launch Half-Life, and when they log onto a server, they think that 
they're actually playing on WON.Net's server. This is very false. When you try 
to connect to the server, you only log onto WON.Net's authentication server so 
that your CD Key can be checked. After it's authenticated, you are then 
disconnected from WON.Net's authentication server and then onto your real server 
that you wish to be on. Read section 2.2.4.2 for further details on the 
explanation.
 
[2.2.3]: Hosting Server
Here are some words about hosting a server.
 
[2.2.3.1] About
Please keep in mind that for folks out there that have less than an ISDN who 
decides to host and knows nothing about bandwidth and serving a server should 
not host. Most people out there who thinks a 56k modem can handle more than 1-2 
clients is wanting a slap in the face. Please don't try to run a server with a 
56k modem, except that you just want to host it between you and your friend, 
then that's fine. But if you decide to host with a 56k modem running a server 
with 2+ clients on your server, on the internet, then don't even think about it. 
Let those who have higher bandwidth do it. 56k modem doesn't have the bandwidth 
on what it got to require to hold more than 2 clients. If you do decide to host 
with your 56k modem and wonder why your client(s) have such a high latency and 
you have such low latency, then you really need a slap. I'm sorry to say, but 
you would really need a slap. 
 
A minimum ideal spec of a PC server would be the following: 
CPU: Pentium II
RAM: 64MB of RAM 
Bandwidth: ISDN speed or higher 
The above is just for minimal serving server, like for 2-4 players. Any higher, 
and the requirements for a good server with many clients will shoot straight up.
 
Whenever hosting a server, like on the internet, beware that your server and 
your IP address will be broadcast all over the world in seconds. Yes, this is 
true. Your server will be enlisted in Half-Life's own built in server browser. 
Anybody can join in at will.
 
The only way to keep the server private between your friends, you would have to 
make a password for the server. You'll see the password option when you're going 
to host, if you do it in the Half-Life menu. They will have to enter the 
password and it'll be limited to you and your friends. Make sure your friend 
knows the password, because when they do connect to your server, Half-Life will 
prompt them with the password box and needs the password to connect to your 
server.
 
When hosting, all you need to know, is your own IP address. You can get your IP 
address by going to Start Menu-> Run. Type in: winipcfg. From there, it'll give 
you your IP address. Now, write down that number and give it to your friends.
 
After giving the IP address to your friends, all they have to do now is just 
drop down their console, type in:
connect xxxxxxxxx
Where xxxxxxxxx = your IP address
You wouldn't need to worry about the port number, like 27015 or whatever after 
your IP address. Half-Life should take care of that. Your friends should connect 
after typing in connect xxxxxxxxx.
 
A good site to get some more information about hosting a server is at: 
http://www.contaminated.net/server/ . This site has commands and tips to make 
your life easier hosting a Half-Life server. 
Http://halflife.pcgame.com/console/server.htm is a site that has a list of 
server commands. Also, here's a site for FAQ Server: 
http://www.contaminated.net/server/archives/faq1.html
 
If you're running HLDS.exe (Half Life Dedicated Server program), and you want to 
play on your own server, you need to add this command to HL.exe: -port 27016
This will allow you to connect to your own dedicated server. If you don't use 
this parameter command, then you will not be able to connect to your own 
dedicated server. This command changes what the dedicated server listens on what 
port. Default is 27015.
 
One easy way to run a server is go to this site: http://hlman.stomped.com/. This 
site provides a program for you to use and to configure the server easier. If 
people are having problems connecting to your server, try adding "sv_validate 0" 
(no quotes) to \Sierra\Half-Life\valve\server.cfg and add "setmaster none" to 
your \Sierra\Half-Life\valve\autoexec.cfg. You can now log on to the server 
without validation.
 
If you host a Half-Life server, like say at work, and you go home and play on 
your work's server, you can also set aadministration password for the remote 
server. At the work's Half-Life server, type: rcon_password "<desired password>" 
and at home on your computer type:rcon_password "<the desired password>". If you 
want to change something, like the map, all you have to do is type: rcon 
"<command>" to change the settings for your server. Example: rcon map datacore
 
[2.2.3.2] Half-Life Primary Server
There's a free serving program for people who would like to make a Half-Life 
server without buying the game. This is only the server side and not playable. 
The downloadable file link is: http://ftp.won.net/pub/half-
life/hlserver4013.exe. Get that program. It is v4.0.1.3 (the latest, Valve 
decided to change the first digit to not confuse with client patch, instead of 
1, it's now going to be a 4). Beware, this is only a server side program (you 
can't play) and the program is very big when downloading. The program is about 
87,111,918 Bytes (85,070 KB or 83 MB).
 
There's a mailing list for people interested in discussion about Half-Life/TFC 
dedicated server issues, for Win32. To join the list, mail 
majordomo@lists.caitiff.com with "subscribe hlds" in the body. If you have 
install questions or problems, email the mailing list: hlds@lists.caitiff.com.
 
[2.2.3.3] Kick Players Off
If you have some corrupted people making an ass out of themselves, and you don't 
like them on the server, you can do the following things to get rid of them:
1. Kick them off your server: To do this, pull down the console, and type kick 
<user name>. Ex: kick Jack
2. If they come back repeatedly on your server and abuse the server, you can ban 
those S.O.B.s by the following: bring down the console, and type status. Write 
down the username's IP address. Now, still in the console, type in addip 0 <IP 
address>. Addip is the command to invoke banning a certain IP address. Following 
the command addip is the number zero. Zero means banned permanently from the 
server. Change the number (the number is in minutes) other than zero to let the 
person come back on for a certain amount of minutes you specified. <IP address> 
is the IP address that you wrote down when you typed in status in the console. 
Input the IP address that you want to banish that person off your server. After 
issuing the addip command, confirm the banning of an IP address by typing in the 
console listip. After this, kick the player off once more and then that would be 
the last that you would ever see that jerk on your server.
 
If you have a player using the ~ or ` anywhere in the name, then there's another 
way to kick them off instead trying to hit the ~ or ` key and end up pulling 
down the console. Do the following:
1. Bring down the console and type in: status
2. Scroll up/down the console and find the appropriate player that you want to 
kick off via their id #.
3. After finding the player, type this into the console: banid 0 <id #> kick
Banid is the usuage of using id to ban, the 0 is for how many minutes they can 
join back in, which is never, <id # is from the status>, and kick is the command 
to kick them off while you ban them.
 
[2.2.3.4] LAN and Internet players
If you want to host a server over the internet and want your LAN to play on the 
server with you, do the following things from the console:
sv_lan 0 (to allow internet opponents to join)
sv_lan 1 (to allow LAN opponents to join)
Note: if you put sv_lan to 0 (zero), then only the internet people can join the 
game. If any LAN players want to join in the game, then you need to set it to 
sv_lan 1. But if you do set it to sv_lan 1, then no internet players can join 
until you put it to 0 (zero).
 
[2.2.3.5] Linux
For those who runs a Linux OS, and would like to run a Half-Life server side 
only (not playable, exactly like Half-Life Primary Server, but just for Linux), 
then you're in luck. The link to the Linux version is: 
http://ftp.won.net/pub/half-life/linux1010b.tar.gz. There's a mailing list for 
people interested in discussion about Half-Life/TFC dedicated server issues, for 
Linux. To join the list, mail majordomo@lists.caitiff.com with "subscribe hlds" 
in the body. If you have install questions or problems, email the mailing list: 
hlds@lists.caitiff.com. There's a GUI program to control Linux HLDS. You can 
check it out at http://linuxhlds.halflife.org/. 
 
If you want to run at least two or more HLDS, go to 
http://www.fileplanet.com/index.asp?section=209&file=29184 and download the file 
and check it out.
 
[2.2.3.6]: Tracking Statistics
There are programs out there that would track your server with frag statistics 
and other goodies and log them to the file/web for view of player frags and 
other goodies depending on the program being used. Here are a few programs to 
check out: http://aeons.gametown.de/AEstats/ (Linux only)
http://www.uwm.edu/~zachkarp/halfStats (Linux only)
http://vector.remotepoint.com 
http://www.davisn8.freeserve.co.uk/
There is also a program that came with Half-Life v1.0.1.3, that can track TFC 
statistics. Review the TFC manual for this option.
 
[2.2.4]: Lag/Latency/Ping
Here are some information about lag/latency/ping.
 
[2.2.4.1]: General
Latency, which is measured in milliseconds on average packets sent, and a single 
packet message sent to the server and back is called ping. It is best to keep 
this ping/latency low if possible. You do not want a high number.
 
Lag is created from two things: your computer components and the internet. The 
faster your computer, the lower the latency. The faster and bette quality of 
your internet connection, the lower the latency. Get the point?
 
It might not be your hardware or connection device holding you behind and 
creating lag, but it could be your ISP. Poor ISP is the leading cause of high 
latency. If you're one of the people who uses major ISPs, like AOL, tough luck. 
You're gonna need it, because their routers and connections are terrible. Major 
ISPs are not made for gaming, but for fancy on-line surfing on the web types 
(like AOL). Ditch your ISP and go for local ones. Local ones should cost less 
than the major ISPs and offer more quality data transfer and less lag!
 
To kill lag as much as possible, check out section 7. Get your computer up to 
speed as much as possible with those tips. 
 
People with pings less than 150ms are usually referred to as 'Low Ping Bastard' 
(LPB), usually use high quality connections, like digital connections such as 
ISDN, cable modems, T1s, etc... People with pings higher than 150ms are usually 
referred to as 'High Ping Bastard' (HPB) or 'High Ping Warrior' (HPW), usually 
use analog modems. Playable range can be considerable from anywhere of 0ms to 
400ms. Any higher than the playable range, you're lagging like hell.
 
Sometimes, people call each other 'campers'. Campers are people who sitsin a 
respawn area of any kind - either weapons or the places where people respawn 
once they die, and get a 'cheap' kill with one good blow from a good weapon to 
get a quick frag. Frag is a term to use for 'kills'. So that means that if you 
kill someone, then that means that you just got one frag. You could see your 
latency during a multiplayer game by pressing the [Tab] key (defaulted key to 
produce a chart showing who is playing, the latency, the frags, and the deaths). 
If you got another key assigned for the multiplayer result chart, then press 
that key.
 
If you want to try and improve your latency, visit section 7.2 to check out what 
you can do.
 
[2.2.4.2]: Yahn's Explanation I: Latency Vs. Ping
Yahn from Valve wrote entitled 'Latency vs. Ping':
"The way Half-Life determines the 'latency' value shown in its scoreboard is 
different than what users generally call 'ping'. The word latency is a 
deliberate decision to emphasize that the value shown is a better representation 
of actual network play than a mere ping. How is ping calculated and how is 
latency different.
 
Ping is a simple round trip time for a message from one computer to another. It 
is independent of whether the machine is playing a game etc. It generally is a 
best case communication round-trip time.
 
In Half-Life, the server tracks round trip times for packets that it sends to 
the client. The problem that arises is that the client, if it is not running at 
a high framerate, can have the message sitting in its network queue for a 
significant amount of time. For instance, a client that is chugging along at 10 
fps ( yuck! ) is using about 100 milliseconds to process each frame. The 
scenario goes like this, on average, you can assume that a message arrives some 
time during that 100 ms. window. If you assume it can arrive anywhere in that 
time frame, it's quite possible that the client has already read messages from 
the network for that frame. If so, then you have to wait 100 ms. until the next 
time the message queue is read. Then the client must act on the messages. 
Finally, the client sends its next movement command to the server. When the 
server receives this movement command, it looks at when it sent out the message 
that the movement command corresponds to and computes the latency based on that 
round trip time. If the server is not running at a high frame rate, or even it 
it's running at 40 fps or so, then it's message queue can lead to inflation of 
the round trip time as the client's reply sits in that message queue. These 
numbers are somewhat exaggerated, but you see the point. The server computes the 
ping over the last 64 messages it received from the client ( ignoring dropped 
packets ). If the client sees any kind of transient network backlog, or low 
framerate, it can really skew the overall average latency that is reported.
 
So the road to better latency values involves trying to improve your framerate 
as much as possible, as well as playing on servers that are running at decent 
tic rates. ( Such things as video mode, max number of decals, and other settings 
can have a huge impact on framerate ).
 
This brings up another misconception about benchmarking HL performance. In HL, 
the timedemo and playdemo commands do not work the same way as in other 
Quake/Quake2 engine games. In particular, demos always try to play back in the 
same amount of time it took to record them. Thus a demo that is 10 seconds long 
and has 240 frames will always play back in roughly 10 seconds. It could be that 
less frames are rendered on a slow playback machine. But, at most, 240 frames 
will be rendered ( in this example ). The bottom line is not to use HL demos for 
any benchmarking. Much better is to use "timerefresh" in a known spot ( or 
several of them ) to get an idea of your framerate. Or to run with host_speeds 
set to 1 -- which prints out the current frames per second to the notification 
area at the top of the screen. These provide a useable benchmark.
 
Finally, some folks are wondering about how the HL front-end determines network 
speed ( number of green or red dots ). In particular, there is a misconception 
that those numbers somehow reflect the round-trip message time between the 
WON.net master server and the particular server listed. This is simply not the 
case. The protocol works like this. A quick connection is made to the WON.net 
master server by your machine to request a raw list of IP addresses for all 
currently running servers. Once you get this list, you don't talk to WON.net 
anymore. Instead, your machine then contacts each server it has an IP address 
for. The time you send out a message to that server is marked and when you get a 
response is also marked. The difference in time is used to determine the network 
speed. It's really that simple.
 
In 1.0.0.8, however, we try to get a more accurate number by sending ten simple 
'ping' requests to each server and waiting for responses to each one. We count 
the number of responses received, and each of the round trip times for any 
responses. These numbers are averaged to arrive at a more accurate round trip 
time. But these numbers do not reflect the framerate dependencies that I 
describe above for the 'in-game' experience. If you run hl.exe with -
numericping, then the green dots are replaced with two numbers, the round trip 
time in milliseconds and the percentage of packets that did not generate a 
response to the 'ping' request. In v1.0.0.8, we added a way for server operators 
to broadcast certain information about the quality of their servers. We don't do 
this by default, as some server operators might not want such information 
exposed to users. But if the server operator runs the server and sets the cvar 
'sv_type' to 1, then when the server is queried by the HL front-end, GameSpy, 
PingTool, or some other server querying program, then the value of sv_type 
returned will include the type of operating system being used by the server ( 
e.g., Win32 or Linux -- note, the Linux server has not been released yet ), the 
CPU MHz of the server ( e.g., 450 ), and whether the server is a listen server ( 
'hl.exe' ) or a dedicated server ( 'hlds.exe' ). Of course, the best experiences 
occur on dedicated server running at high speed using Linux. The only 
information we don't have at our disposal is the servers bandwidth ( e.g., T1, 
etc. )."
 
[2.2.4.3]: Yahn's Explanation II: Why HL/TFC Slow?
Yahn from Valve wrote this to counter someone's question of why HL/TFC is slow 
and network code is crap:
"A thing to remember about higher pings in general is that for most users TFC 
runs at a lower framerate than QW ever did. We have a lot of cool technology in 
there fighting for CPU bandwidth (our animation system and higher polygon count 
models, 16 bit color, realtime DSP of the sound information, more complex/time 
consuming game .dll code, overlayed client.dll HUD elements). All of these 
things lower framerate a bit compared to the somewhat older and definitely 
simpler technology displayed in QW. If your framerate (or the server's) is 
lower, then there is more "dead" time where the network layer has received 
messages but the machine cannot process them because it is off doing something 
else like rendering a frame. This leads to increased "ping" values, as you 
mention. 

The other thing to remember that can cause poor net performance is bandwidth 
usage. We've made some significant steps in this direction, but we still want to 
improve (i.e., lower) our bandwidth usage even more. In fact, we want to lower 
bandwidth usage quite drastically. The reason why is that if a client on a modem 
is receiving too much data for their connection, they start to fall behind on 
the relentless flow of data coming in. They quickly get more and more backlogged 
and eventually they get flooded out (1000+ ping, e.g.). This is especially 
prevalent in the following conditions: 

Client framerate too high: In the current TFC release, each frame the client 
renders results in a request for the server to send an update packet. This is 
exactly the same networking model as QW. However, today's machines are so much 
faster than the ones around when QW rolled out the door that it's quite 
conceivable to request too much data from the server (especially when there are 
a lot of players in your PVS or there is a lot of entity traffic in the area). 
You can mitigate this by capping your framerate at a reasonable number (e.g., 
fps_lan or fps_modem 20 or 30). In addition, you must have the proper rate 
setting for your machine. It's okay to choke a lot of packets at times, but it's 
never okay to flood yourself out by not having the rate setting right for your 
connection. This is an area where we are making a lot of changes in future 
technology to eliminate the need for framerate capping and to smooth out the 
server to client update stream. 

Rate setting incorrect. We have code in the engine and client to meter the 
amount of data being sent over the wire to avoid the backlogged "ping of death" 
condition above. Currently, however, this relies on a user's ability to choose / 
tweak the correct rate setting. We've considered schemes to automatically adapt 
the rate setting based on packet loss and choked packets (among other 
parameters), but coming up with a solution that works in all cases is tricky. 
Again, we are doing a lot of research into these issues right now. 

Pushlatency set to the wrong value. This really only goes to the perception of 
lag on your movements, but generally you'll want to fully compensate for your 
latency by keeping this value substantially negative (e.g., -1000). Note that if 
pushlatency is set to higher than your latency in the negative, we just ignore 
the part that goes past your actual latency, so you don't have to try to "tune" 
this number that carefully if you want full prediction of movements. Just set it 
far enough negative and you won't have to worry about it. The whole set it to 
"minus one half of your latency" guideline is a bit too esoteric for me, you 
might as well use prediction to it's fullest and set it to minus some big number 
and let prediction predict all of your movements up to the current time. 

Bandwith usage: Half-Life's entity system is just way more complicated than QW's 
ever was. Remember, most of the entity system in Half-Life was initially 
instituted to support single player Half-Life. Of course, in the single player 
game there was zero latency and no bandwidth constraint. For any of our future 
games having a heavy multiplayer component, this system has some problems. We 
will be spending a lot of time investing in technology that lowers the bandwidth 
needed to replicate entity state information and interesting visual effects over 
the network. The fruits of this research should show up in our products soon. 

Prediction: Predicting things on the client requires a reasonable balance 
between how much game-specific code and state information you want to have on 
the client and a few other considerations. In the future, we are going to want 
to be able to predict things on the client fairly robustly. As I mentioned 
earlier, we're looking into opening up player physics to MOD authors so that the 
client and server can do the right thing and allow prediction to work better 
than it has in the past. This will translate into much smoother player movement 
in our games."
 
[2.2.4.4]: Yahn's Explanation III: Laggers Creating Lag?
I asked this question to Yahn: "There are some people that stated that if 
someone with high latency on a server is playing, it lags other clients as well. 
Is this true on TCP/IP? IPX/SPX is known for this... But TCP/IP? Bunch of LPBs 
(low ping b@st@rds) complain about this every time someone with high latency 
joins in on the server. This is yet one of those myths/facts that is needed to 
be cleared up on the internet. I don't know the answer, but it would help if you 
explained it." and he replied with the following:
 
"I'm pretty skeptical that there is any veracity to this. The only thing that 
makes sense is that the additional player increases the CPU load on the server 
because that guy is now a physical object interacting with the world. However, 
one player shouldn't make much of a difference, so that seems a bit unlikely. As 
far as the UDP/IP layer goes, there should be no difference. The new player 
appears to the server just like any one else connected does. So I think it's 
just a misperception (possibly intentional), but if someone can quantify it with 
a repeatable case, I'd be highly interested. Barring that, I think this also 
could be low-ping folks trying to keep the "easy kill" high-pingers off their 
machines (of course, there are a lot of high-ping players who can still play 
extremely effectively against the low-pingers)."
 
[2.2.5]: Modes
Here are some Half-Life multiplayer modes.
 
[2.2.5.1]: Co-op
I am sorry to say that Half-Life does not support Co-op, even though it had the 
co-op command. But there's a way around it, although it is not hassle free and 
have a few bugs: http://planethalflife.com/aftershock/coop/.
 
[2.2.5.2]: Deathmatch
Deathmatch is what it sounds like - free for all (basically). The objective is 
to go around and stay alive and start killing. You want to die less and kill 
more.
 
[2.2.5.3]: Teamplay
After the v1.0.0.8 patch release for Half-Life, Team Play is introduced. 
Teamplay is almost like deathmatch, although you play as a team. How this work 
is, teams are determined by what models you choose. Say you be a scientist. 
Doesn't matter what color you are, but whoever else on the server that plays on 
the Teamplay server, that is a scientist, would be on your team. And not matter 
how much rounds you dump into your team mate, he/she probably won't die, unless 
the server sets mp_friendlyfire to 1. How the score goes, works like this: of 
all that is on your teammate, which would be all the scientists, would all 
combine their scores and yours, to a total of a team consists of scientists. It 
would show 'Scientists' and then the combinations of all your frags, deaths, and 
the average latency of your entire team.
 
The fastest way to switch teams is to pull down the console and type this in: 
model <model's name>. Where <model's name> would be the models provided with 
Half-Life like Gordon, Gina, Scientist, Helmet, or HGrunt. Make sure you type in 
the correct name of the models/skins, or you just created a misspelled team name 
and defaulted your skin to any of the five original models and you would be the 
only one on that team.
 
Also for team play, you can talk to your own teams, without the other people on 
different teams see what is intended for your own team members. Defaulted is the 
'u' key, enabling you to talk only with your team members. If you bind the 'u' 
key to some other function, then type this in the console: bind x 
"messagemode2". Where x is the key that you wanted to be pressed to access the 
talk-to-team-member mode. Also, make sure you have the quotes around the 
messagemode2.
 
Additional teamplay options, teamplay lets you drop weapons to your teammate. To 
do this, bind a key to "drop". Example: bind x "drop". Where x = any key. This 
cool option drops your current weapon that you have in your hands. Say you have 
a MP5 in your hands. You execute the drop command. You would then drop your MP5 
and all the associate ammo for the weapon. The dropped item would then appear as 
a green cylinder pack just like the regular ones in the deathmatch mode when you 
kill people and out ejects the green cylinder pack. This option is best used 
with your teammate when they don't have ammo/weapon.
 
So to recap all that is Teamplay, just pick a model and that's how you either 
change teams or create a team. Beware, that you're playing Teamplay mode, and 
sometimes, you can't kill your teammate, hence don't be saying, "someone's 
cheating, and I can't kill him/her!"
 
[2.2.5.4]: Team Fortress Classic
Team Fortress Classic (TFC) is Valve's new add-on for Half-Life that combines 
the thrilling first-person multiplayer gameplay of the original Team Fortress 
with Half-Life's leading edge technology. In Team Fortress Classic, you play one 
of nine roles or classes, such as Medic, Soldier, or Engineer, and then join 
your teammates online or over a LAN to battle against enemy teams. Each class 
has unique weapons, items, abilities, and style of play. Check out section 2.2.8 
for more information.
 
[2.2.6]: Options
Here are some options provided for Half-Life multiplayer connections.
 
[2.2.6.1]: Internet
To play on the internet, first of all, you need to connect to the internet 
somehow. After that, you need to get the latest patch for Half-Life, which is 
v1.0.1.3 so that it can allow you to play, or you won't be able to play because 
most of the servers are v1.0.1.3. For beginners, launch Half-Life-> Multiplayer-
> Internet Games.
 
[2.2.6.2]: LAN
After the v1.0.0.8 patch release, Half-Life now supports these two protocols 
that can be used for LAN games: IPX and TCP/IP. To play TCP/IP, each PC would 
need to be assigned unique different IP address, with the same subnet mask. A 
max of 5 users can use the same CD Key in LAN mode (not playing on the 
internet). If you're new to LAN, then please visit this site to know what to do 
about LAN games: http://www.lanparty.com. If you're having problems with LAN, 
check out section 6.2.3 for some solutions to try. For any beginners, visit the 
above link to know how to set up a LAN game first.
 
[2.2.6.3]: Modem To Modem
With 2 PCs with modem calling each other over phone lines, go here: 
http://www.zipworld.com.au/~otser/modem.htm. This is a guide for Quake games, 
but it is still the same technique to use modem to modem games.
 
[2.2.6.4]: Serial
With 2 PCs with a null modem/serial cable, go here: 
http://ukq2ng.quake2.co.uk/pages/serial.html.
 
[2.2.7]: Proxy
Here are some information about proxies, with the usage of Wingate and Winroute. 
When v1.0.1.0 patch was released (Mar 27, 1999) for Half-Life, Valve and WON.net 
decided to change the authentication server port 7001 to 7002. Make sure the 
port is changed or it won't work.
 
[2.2.7.1]: Wingate
Wingate can be used to try and play through proxies/firewalls. You can get it 
at: http://www.wingate.net. Detailed proxy setup for Half-Life:
http://people.ne.mediaone.net/lmhansen/Games/HalfLife/ 
http://lmhansen.tzo.com/HalfLife/proxy1.html 
 
For Wingate 2.1d and 3.0 (you can get 2.1d from the above URLs):
Half-Life Auth Server: TCP 7002 -> half-life.east.won.net:7002
Half-Life WON Server: TCP 6003 -> half-life.east.won.net:6003
Half-life Server Master: UDP 27010 -> half-life.east.won.net:27010
Half-Life Game Server1: UDP xxx -> ip.address.of.game.server:270xx
Half-Life Game Server2: UDP 27015 -> another.game.server:27015
Then connect to the game using the console: Connect wingate:27015
 
Also for Wingate 3.0:
Editing the file called hosts located in the C:\windows directory and put in the 
IP of your Wingate machine followed by the
half-life.east/won.net. like this:
-- Hosts --
<your.pc.ip.address> half-life.east.won.net
- or -
<your.pc.ip.address> half-life.west.won.net
 
[2.2.7.2]: Winroute
Here's a web site that will tell you how to set up the game with WinRoute: 
http://members.tripod.com/taniswolf/. The site to get WinRoute is: 
http://www.winroute.com.
 
[2.2.8]: Team Fortress Classic
You can get Team Fortress Classic with patch v1.0.0.9 or higher for Half-Life. 
Half-Life v1.0.0.9 or higher includes the TFC mod. Below are some information on 
TFC.
 
[2.2.8.1]: Classes
Here are brief details. You can get further details by accessing the TFC manual. 
Here are the nine classes listed with information:
 
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
#1: SCOUT Details:
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
WEAPONS:
#1 Crowbar
#2 Shotgun
#4 Nailgun
GRENADES:
Primary: Concussion
Secondary: Caltrop
SPECIAL SKILL:
Display Flag Status.
 
Further info: This is mainly for offense. Use this guy to go and get flags/keys. 
The scout has great speed, and the fastest out of all the classes, so that's his 
main advantage.
 
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
#2: SNIPER Details:
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
WEAPONS:
#1 Crowbar
#2 Sniper Rifle
#3 Auto Rifle
#4 Nailgun
GRENADE:
Primary: Hand Grenade
SPECIAL SKILL:
Toggle Rifle Zoom
Further info: This is mainly for defense. Use this guy to snipe out easy targets 
in the open battlefield. If you hold down the primary fire key while using the 
sniper rifle, your rifle would charge up, and your laser would brighten up a 
lot, indicating the fully charged rifle. Charge it up for more power in the 
killing rifle bullet for more damage.
 
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
#3: SOLDIER Details:
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
WEAPONS:
#1 Crowbar
#2 Shotgun
#3 Super Shotgun
#5 Rocket Launcher
GRENADES:
Primary: Hand Grenade
Secondary: Nail Grenade
SPECIAL SKILL:
Reload
 
Further notes: This guy can be on offense or defense position. Average all 
around, but slow. You can rocket jump with the soldier. Just make sure you have 
enough life so you don't kill yourself in the process.
 
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
#4: DEMOLITION MAN Details:
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
WEAPONS:
#1 Crowbar
#2 Shotgun
#4 Grenade Launcher
#5 Pipebomb Launcher
GRENADES:
Primary: Hand Grenade
Secondary: MIRV Grenade
SPECIAL SKILL:
Detonate Pipebombs
OTHER:
Set Detpack : +det5,+det20,+det50
 
Further notes: This guy can be on offense or defense position. Use pipebombs to 
set traps, or go berserk with the grenade launcher. The grenade launcher are 
blue grenades, and the pipebomb launcher are yellowish/green grenades. Max of 8 
pipebombs permitted at one time.
 
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
#5: MEDIC Details:
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
WEAPONS:
#1 Medikit/BioWeapon
#2 Shotgun
#3 Super Shotgun
#5 Super Nailgun
GRENADES:
Primary: Hand Grenade
Secondary: Concussion Grenade
SPECIAL SKILL:
Select Medikit
 
Further notes: This guy is mainly for defense. The medic is used to heal wounds 
of your injured teammates. Also can regenerate health in a few seconds, gaining 
2% each. Can also heal itself when poisoned, so no need to call for another 
medic to cure. It is fun when using the medikit and run at the opposing side and 
try to heal them. Instead of healing the opposing side, you actually infect them 
with poison. They will die very slowly, health decreases slowly. The infected 
can run around, and if touch by any other person would get infected.
 
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
#6: HEAVY WEAPONS GUY Details:
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
WEAPONS:
#1 Crowbar
#2 Shotgun
#3 Super Shotgun
#5 Assault Cannon
GRENADES:
Primary: Hand Grenade
Secondary: MIRV Grenade
SPECIAL SKILL:
Select Assault Cannon
 
Further notes: This guy is mainly for defense. Here's a great tip: don't fire 
too long, or you'll get, um... Find out for yourself if you're that curious. 
Moves very slowly, when firing the assault cannon.
 
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
#7: PYRO Details:
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
WEAPONS:
#1 Crowbar
#2 Shotgun
#4 Flamethrower
#5 Incendiary Cannon
GRENADES:
Primary: Hand Grenade
Secondary: Napalm Grenade
SPECIAL SKILL:
Select Flamethrower
 
Further notes: This guy can be on offense or defense position. If you torched 
the opponent, the opponent will still be on fire for a few seconds.
 
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
#8: SPY Details:
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
WEAPONS:
#1 Knife
#2 Tranquilizer Gun
#3 Super Shotgun
#4 Nailgun
GRENADES:
Primary: Hand Grenade
Secondary: Hallucinogenic Grenade
SPECIAL SKILL:
Open Disguise menu
 
Further notes: This guy is mainly used for offense. The funniest class that I 
enjoy using. You can disguise yourself as the other team and run around acting 
like you're on their side. Although you can be detected, just by the opponents 
laying the cursor and try to I.D. you, they would know. If you are being 
I.D.'ed, it will report the opponent's name and so they'll know it's a spy. By 
the way, when tricking someone to be on their team, and they accept the 
knowledge, when they turn their back on you, pull out that knife and knife them 
in the back! Back stabber.
 
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
#9: ENGINEER Details:
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
WEAPONS:
#1 Spanner
#2 RailGun
#3 Super Shotgun
GRENADES:
Primary: Hand Grenade
Secondary: EMP Grenade
SPECIAL SKILL:
Open Build menu
 
Further notes: This guy can be on offense and defense. The engineer can build a 
sentry gun, higher up the sentry gun's level, and just walk off and attack.
 
[2.2.8.2]: Maps
Here are the six official released maps for TFC:
 
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
2 Fortresses - Capture The Flag
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Map file name: 2fort.bsp
OBJECTIVE: Enter the enemy Base and make your way to where their Flag resides in 
the Basement. Grab it and bring it back to your Battlements. Place it on the 
raised square to Capture it.
SCORING: 10 points per Capture.
OTHER NOTES: Flag carriers drop the Flag when they die. Dropped flags return to 
their Base after 60 seconds.
 
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Canalzone 2 - Territorial Control
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Map file name: cz2.bsp
OBJECTIVE: Take Flags from your Base and place them on the Command Points 
situated throughout the map. Use the map in your base to see who owns each 
territory.
SCORING: 1 point for every 30 seconds you hold a Command Point.
OTHER NOTES: Flag carriers move at half-speed.
 
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Hunted - Assassination/Escort
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Map file name: hunted.bsp
OBJECTIVE: The Hunted must reach the truck alive. The Assassins need to kill The 
Hunted. The Bodyguards need to protect The Hunted.
SCORING: If The Hunted dies, the Assassins get 25 points. If The Hunted reaches 
the truck, he and the Bodyguards get 50 points.
OTHER NOTES: Whenever The Hunted dies or makes it to the truck, all players are 
moved back to their starting positions.
 
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Push - Football
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Map file name: push.bsp
OBJECTIVE: Grab the ball from the warehouse in the center of the field. Run it 
into the ENEMY base and place it on the raised square to score a goal.
SCORING: 10 points per goal.
OTHER NOTES: Ball carriers drop the ball when they die. Dropped balls stay where 
they are. All players are reset whenever a goal is scored.
 
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
The Rock - Capture The Flag Variant
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Map file name: rock2.bsp
OBJECTIVE: Steal the Keycard from the enemy Warden's office. Take it across to 
the other side of the enemy Base and hit the switch to release the Gas. Don't 
bring the Keycard back to your own Base.
SCORING: 15 points to each Gas Release.
OTHER NOTES: To survive the Gas, get a protective suit from behind the marked 
doors, or hide under the water.
 
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
The Well - Capture The Flag
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Map file name: well.bsp
OBJECTIVE: Enter the enemy Base and make your way to where their Flag resides in 
the Tower. Grab it and bring it back to the base of your Tower. Place it on the 
raised square to Capture it. The flag will then return to the enemy Base.
SCORING: 10 points per Capture.
OTHER NOTES: Flag carriers drop the Flag when they die. Dropped flags return to 
their Base after 60 seconds.
 
[2.2.8.3]: FAQ
If this FAQ doesn't answer any questions, then visit 
http://www.halflifehq.com/independent/tfc/Official.html for another FAQ for TFC.
 
On August 24th, there were presents all over the server(s) that I've joined in 
on. What gives?
-It's Team Fortress's anniversary.
 
I finally got the TFC patch. When I go into the multiplayer options, I don't see 
any models to choose from. What gives?
-You don't choose your model in the multiplayer options. You actually make your 
choice inside the game when playing. You'll be able to choose from nine classes 
in the middle of the game. So just join a game and a menu will be presented to 
you to choose a class upon entering the game.
 
I'm playing and then suddenly I see someone using my online name. Tell them to 
stop using my name!
-That may not be the case. They're maybe spies. Spies may use your name to try 
and disguise on your team. For example, you're the only engineer on your team. 
If the spy picks to disguise as an engineer, then the spy will take your name. 
But if there are several engineers on your team, then Half-Life will randomly 
pick one from your team of engineers. If there are no engineer classes on your 
team, then Half-Life randomly picks a name from your team. Go ahead, see if 
anyone else is using your name! Pull down the scoreboard and see if there's 
anyone besides you with your name.
 
How can I detect a spy?
-Well, there's a lot of ways, but here are two ways:
1. A scout comes near the spy and it will reveal that the spy who tried to fool 
your team by disguising as your teammate will return as a normal spy and the spy 
will be revealed who's true team the spy is on.
2. Pull out your shotgun and shoot at the person. If the person is on your team, 
then your teammate won't bleed. If you see the person bleeding when upon 
shooting, start chasing after that opponent! He's a spy!
 
I'm slowly losing life, and I see a gas mask on my HUD. What do I do?
-You are being poisoned by the bioweapon of the opposing team's medic. What you 
can do is call a medic on your team to come and heal your poison.
 
How come when I play TFC, the other team seems to have an advantage like hurting 
me more, etc...?
-Because of these two variables:
tfc_balance_scores 1 (enable score balancing)
tfc_balance_teams 1 (enable team balancing)
If set to one, then the losing team gets a boost to catch up and try to match 
the other team's score. It's just trying to balance out and help out the losing 
team to make it a fair game.
 
I can't hear footsteps in the game! How come?
-The option is defaulted off on the server side. So it's the server host that 
would need to change it to on to enable the footsteps.
 
In the Hunted mod of TFC, I see the president play as an assassin/bodyguard. Is 
this cheating?
-This is just a bug/glitch in TFC. However, it can also mean that someone cheat, 
but not as always.
 
How do I build a sentry/dispenser?
-Press the "special" key to access the menu. From there, you can build what it 
lists.
 
How do you put ammo in the sentry gun?
-Put out your spanner (wrench looking weapon) and hit your sentry gun with it. 
It will then give you a menu.
 
How do I fix my sentry gun?
-Use your spanner or wrench looking weapon, and hit the sentry gun. A menu would 
provide you with an option to fix your sentry gun.
 
Is it possible to rocket jump?
-Yes, it is possible to rocket jump. Pick the soldier class, look down, fire the 
rocket while jumping, and you should jump very high.
 
What are the classes?
-Check out section 2.2.8.1 for more information.
 
When using the demolition man, how come I can't set the detpack (C4) for more 
than 5 seconds, even though it says that it can set up to 50 seconds?
-You need to bind a key. Here's the examples with 3 timings given:
bind <key> "+det5" (5 seconds)
bind <key> "+det20" (20 seconds)
bind <key> "+det50" (50 seconds)
 
On The Hunted map, why can't there be more Assassins?
-The map limited it to a maximum of 5 assassins.
 
What are the objectives of the maps?
-Each map have their own distinctive objectives. Check out section 2.2.8.2 for 
more information.
 
Is there a way to execute my autoexec.cfg/x.cfg files under TFC?
-Yes, place your autoexec.cfg/x.cfg under \Half-Life\Valve\TFC\
directory and do what you usually do how to enable your cfg file.
 
Is there other information about TFC?
-There are some in this FAQ, so scroll down further. Also, read the TFC manual 
that came with v1.0.0.9+ patch. Upon installing v1.0.0.9+ patch, you did check 
the box that says to put a link on your desktop for the TFC manual did you? It's 
also in the Start Menu under Sierra program group. Another great site with great 
expanded information is: http://www.planethalflife/modcentral/tfc/tfc.htm. It's 
ModCentral's Guide to TFC. Check it out if you got the time.
 
[2.2.9]: Testing Multi-Player Maps Offline
To play multiplayer maps, there are three ways:
1. Get into Half-Life's console and type this in: map <level's name>
Example: map boot_camp
Note: you might need to issue the command "deathmatch 1" (no quotes) prior the 
map command
2. Edit your HL parameter to be like this: hl.exe +map <level's name>
Example: hl.exe +map crossfire +deathmatch 1
3. Go through the Half-Life Multiplayer Menu and selecting the map would be the 
easiest way, but the slowest way.
 
[2.3]: Single-Player
Half-Life offers three modes to play in:
Easy: Monsters are weak and are easy to kill.
Normal: Monsters are strong and are easy to kill.
Difficult: Monsters are strong and are difficult to kill.
 
[2.3.1]: 3rd Person View
The game lets you play like Tomb Raider style, where you get to see yourself in 
action. Bring down the console and type in this: "thirdperson" or "chase_active 
1" (no quotes).
 
To change position of seeing your character, type this in the console:
cam_idealyaw 0      (see the model from behind)
cam_idealyaw 180  (see the model from the front)
cam_idealdist 64    (sets the preferred distance from the player model for the 
chase cam)
cam_idealpitch 0    (sets the preferred pitch for the chase cam)
chase_back 100     (sets the preferred cam distance from the player when backing 
up)
chase_right 0       (sets the preferred offset to the side for the chase cam)
chase_up 16        (sets the preferred offset up for the chase cam)
 
To disable the 3rd person view, type in this: "firstperson" or "chase_active 0" 
(no quotes).
 
Be careful when you play 3rd person view. Here are the reasons
why you should play 3rd person view if you:
1. Don't mind about not seeing the HUD. (health, armor, ammo)
2. Don't mind about not being able to aim correctly. Basically, no crosshair.
3. Don't mind about not being able to hear what the HEV announces.
4. Don't mind seeing where you get hit. (red signs)
 
Note: You can't use 3rd person view in multiplayer. You can only use it if the 
server sets sv_cheats to 1, then you can use it.
 
[2.3.2]: Autosave
This is a built in feature of the levels that you play in Half-Life. Nothing can 
be done about it. It requires to edit the levels, which is never going to be 
done. Live with it. No patch will disable this feature. Maybe annoying feature, 
but that's how it is.
 
[2.3.3]: Barneys
In the single player mode, you get to use the Barney(s) to assist your goals and 
mow down enemies. Some people wonder how many can be used at one time to assist 
with your goals. Well, the answer is unlimited. But the problem with more than 
two is that if you happen to pass a doorway or a tight corridor or something 
narrow space, then some of the Barney(s) will get stuck and freeze up. Then you 
have to talk them one by one to get them through.
 
If you are wondering where they get the name Barney from, it's from a show 
called Andy Griffen Show. Barney is a cop in that show, so they just took that 
name and plug it into the nameless security guard and now known as Barney.
 
[2.3.4]: Cheats
To be able to cheat in Half-Life, you must run the game with this command: -
console. Add this command after HL.exe. You could do the following things to 
achieve it:
1. Start Menu-> Run-> type in: <x>:\<hl dir>\Hl.exe -console
    x=HDD
    hl dir=Where Half-Life's directory resides in
2. Create a shortcut of Hl.exe-> (right click) Properties-> Shortcut tab-> 
Target box-> put in -console after hl.exe
3. Half-Life to be at least v1.0.0.9 and the console option will appear in the 
main menu.
 
After enabling the console, you could access the console throughout the game by 
pressing the [~] key (near the [Esc] key). After that, to be able to start 
cheating, bring down the console and type this in: sv_cheats 1. Now, pass one 
loading point of the game, and the cheating option should be enabled. You can 
reload a saved game to access temporary cheats, but not all cheats will be 
enabled. Some cheats will work if a level isn't loaded. Other cheats will not 
work until you pass a loading point of a level and it will be enabled (like 
impulse 101). You must pass a loading point to enable it.
 
To cheat, bring down the console by pressing the [~] key, type in the following 
things and press enter afterwards):
god (type in god again to turn off god mode)
noclip (type in noclip again to turn off noclip mode)
impulse 101 (this gives almost everything)
/give item_antidote
/give item_battery
/give item_healthkit
/give item_longjump
/give item_sodacan
/give item_suit
/give ammo_357
/give ammo_9mmclip
/give ammo_buckshot
/give ammo_crossbow
/give ammo_egonclip
/give ammo_gaussclip
/give ammo_mp5clip
/give ammo_mp5grenades
/give ammo_rpgclip
/give weapon_357
/give weapon_9mmhandgun
/give weapon_crossbow
/give weapon_crowbar
/give weapon_egon
/give weapon_gauss
/give weapon_handgrenade
/give weapon_hornetgun
/give weapon_mp5
/give weapon_rpg
/give weapon_satchel
/give weapon_shotgun
/give weapon_snark
/give weapon_tripmine
map xxxx
xxxx=
c0a0 c0a0a c0a0b c0a0c c0a0d c0a0e
c1a0 c1a0a c1a0b c1a0c c1a0d c1a0e
c1a1 c1a1a c1a1b c1a1c c1a1d c1a1f
c1a2 c1a2a c1a2b c1a2c c1a2d
c1a3 c1a3a c1a3b c1a3c c1a3d
c1a4 c1a4b c1a4d c1a4e c1a4f c1a4g c1a4i c1a4j c1a4k
c2a1 c2a1a c2a1b
c2a2 c2a2a c2a2b1 c2a2b2 c2a2c c2a2d c2a2e c2a2f c2a2g c2a2h
c2a3 c2a3a c2a3b c2a3c c2a3d c2a3e
c2a4 c2a4a c2a4b c2a4c c2a4d c2a4e c2a4f c2a4g
c2a5 c2a5a c2a5b c2a5c c2a5d c2a5e c2a5f c2a5g c2a5w c2a5x
c3a1 c3a1a c3a1b
c3a2 c3a2a c3a2b c3a2c c3a2d c3a2e c3a2f
c4a1 c4a1a c4a1b c4a1c c4a1d c4a1e c4a1f
c4a2 c4a2a c4a2b c4a3
c5a1
 
[2.3.4.1]: How To Skip Level
To do a level skip, you must do the following: 
1. Enable the console.
2. Enable the cheat codes by "sv_cheats 1".
3. Do a quicksave where you're currently at if you haven't done so.
4. Do a quickload. Now, the important part here is to pay attention to what the 
console displays. Look for the following context: cxax. Where x could be any 
numbers. The cxax is the name of the level that you maybe on. There would be a 
few of these displayed in the console, so pick one of them, and enter a number 
higher than it is. For an example: you see c1a0 in the console. If you want to 
skip the current map, you need to then type in the console: map c1a1. To know if 
the map is available, look in section 2.3.4 (above this section) to see if 
there's a valid map. If not, go onto the next higher one.
 
[2.3.5]: Fun Things To Do
Here are some fun things to do on your first day at the job (Anomalous Materials 
level in the beginning of the game):
-To the left of the main entrance (the lobby where the reception desk is), there 
is a deactivated computer console. You can see partial edge of the computer 
console on top of a shelving area next to the collection of TV screens. Go to it 
and activate it.
-At the reception desk where the guard is at the main entrance, go to the back 
side of the desk and there should be a button near the guard's keyboard. Press 
it.
-In the scientist lounge room area (where there's two soda machines are and a 
scientist sitting at a table and another roaming within the place trying to get 
a soda), go to the microwave and press the button for less than 10 times (you'll 
hear an increase high pitched sound FX each time you press the button).
-In the room (near the MIB talking to a scientist) that has three scientists 
(one at the drawing board, one at a laptop, and one just walking around). To the 
left of the entrance door, there's a light switch. Press the switch.
 
[2.3.6]: High Jump
To do a high jump, simply jump. While jumping, press the crouch key, and from 
this, it would make your character tuck their legs in while jumping in mid air. 
This would enable you to jump on crates that you can't get on if you do a 
regular jump. If this can't help you, see section 2.3.7 for details.
 
[2.3.7]: Learn How To Play
Half-Life offers a tutorial mode for players who wants to get use to Half-Life's 
offerings, or for people who just bought their first FPS ((F)irst (P)erson 
(S)hooting) game. You go through almost everything that you got to know before 
playing the game. From Half-Life Main Menu, click on Hazard Course and you're on 
the way to learn how to do some cool stuff and learn a couple of movements of 
Half-Life's offerings, especially the long jump move that everybody gets 
confused of.
 
[2.3.8]: Long Jump
To do a long jump, you must move forward. While moving forward, simply press the 
crouch key, and then press the jump key right after crouching, and that should 
launch you very far. To get a better learning of this, see section 2.3.7 for 
details.
 
[2.3.9]: Man In Blue/G-Man
 
Here comes the MIB... It's that MIB! I see him! Well, for you all who wonder who 
he is, or what is he, from the past, shooting him, trying to kill him with 
anyway possible, but seems to be immune to all attacks, you will soon find out. 
Beat the game, and you should find out who he is and why you see him through out 
the game.
 
He is also called "G-Man". You can also play as the G-Man model under 
multiplayer. Go to this site: 
http://www.planethalflife.com/dl/dl.asp?planethalflife/HLMPC.zip and download 
the Valve Multiplayer Package and there are additional multiplayer things with 
this package.
 
As I wonder, one day in social studies class, there was a video shown and what 
caught my attention was a word mentioned "G-Men". As I thought about it, it 
actually does fit in somewhat. G-Men were government agents - working in 
conjunction of the FBI and to crack down crimes. I don't know where the crime 
fits in, but it sure makes a lot of sense where the word G-Man came from and how 
it surely describes the MIB as some government agent. Wow, it sure showed that I 
did learn something in school.
 
There is something weird about his briefcase. If you cheated, and use the 
'noclip' command, go into his brief case and be confused what you see in the 
briefcase. It is recommended that you do this at the end of the game just for 
the hell of it.
 
[2.3.10]: Preserving Saved Files
When reinstalling/removing Half-Life, all you need to keep the saved files is to 
copy the directory \Half-Life\Valve\Save\ and put it somewhere safe. After 
reinstalling Half-Life, put that directory back and you should have all your 
saved games back safely and be able to play where you last left off.
 
[2.3.11] Saved Games
There are three saving techniques for Half-Life:
1. Autosave: automatically saves between each important events during the level
2. Quicksave: pressing the defaulted [F6] for quick save; [F7] for quickload.
3. Manualsave: going through the menus and access the save menu.
 
Note: When updating Half-Life (patching), there is no worry about incompatible 
versions. The saved games will work under any current version of Half-Life.
 
[2.3.12]: Walkthrough
http://pcgame.svwh.net/randy/fullwalkthru.htm 
http://www.gamespot.com/features/halflife_gg/ 
http://www.gameguides.com/guides/halflife/ 
http://www.won.net/guides/prima/halflife/
 
[2.3.13]: Who You Play As
You play as Gordon Freeman, a new employee at Black Mesa in New Mexico. More 
details are given at the beginning of the single player mode introduction of the 
train ride to work. By the way, you're late for work.

CHAPTER [3]: HALF-LIFE ADD-ONS
 
[3.1]: Commercial
Here are some commercial products to be released for Half-Life related.
 
[3.1.1]: Opposing Force
Half-Life just got word that it will have an add-on: Opposing Force. Visit 
http://www.opposingforce.net to find more about Opposing Force. Opposing Force 
gone gold on November 10, 1999, and then released on Friday, Novermber 19, 1999. 
Here's a link to an Opposing Force FAQ: http://sol.wctownhall.com/OpFor/. When 
getting Opposing Force, it is required that you have the retail version of Half-
Life, at least v1.0.0.9.
 
[3.1.2]: Team Fortress II
Team Fortress II was going to be an add-on for Half-Life. But, the creators 
decided to change the add-on part and make it a stand-alone product, which it is 
a new game to be installed on the HDD. You are going to pay this product at a 
full game retail price, just like Half-Life.  The official name of the product 
is Team Fortress II: Brotherhood of Arms. Here are some links for TF2:
http://www.tf2.com 
http://www.planetfortress.com 
http://www.fortress2.com
 
[3.2]: Modifications
Below, I listed the mods currently available for download, even if it's in beta. 
Go to http://www.planethalflife.com/modcentral/ to get more info on other mods 
that are not listed below. You can also use the 'Custom Game' option from Half-
Life's main menu to see other mods available for download.
 
[3.2.1]: Action Half-Life
http://ahl.telefragged.com/
 
[3.2.2]: Classic Capture The Flag
http://www.planethalflife.com/aftershock/cctf/
 
[3.2.3]: Cold Ice
http://www.planethalflife.com/coldice/
 
[3.2.4]: Counter-Strike
http://www.counter-strike.net/
 
[3.2.5]: DMPlus
http://www.planethalflife.com/dmplus/
 
[3.2.6]: Firepower
http://members.aol.com/FPower01/
 
[3.2.7]: Jailbreak
http://contaminated.net/jailbreak/
 
[3.2.8]: Kenders That Kill
http://www.converted2.com/ktk/main.shtml
 
[3.2.9]: Lambda Arena
http://www.planethalflife.com/la/
 
[3.2.10]: Oz
http://www.planethalflife.com/aftershock/oz/
 
[3.2.11]: Rocket Crowbar
http://www.geocities.com/Pipeline/Ramp/1901/
 
[3.2.12]: Sven Co-op
http://www.contaminated.net/aftershock/coop/
 
[3.2.13]: Science and Industry
http://www.contaminated.net/si/
 
[3.2.14]: Team Fortress Classic
Valve decided to release TFC, for Half-Life, which is ported from Quake to Half-
Life. The release date was 4/6/99. Check section 2.2.8 for more information on 
TFC. Here's a link to check out TFC officially: 
http://www.sierrastudios.com/games/tfclassic/.
 
[3.3]: Total Conversions
Here's a list to total conversions being made: 
http://www.contaminated.net/wavelength/tclist.htm.

CHAPTER [4]: HALF-LIFE EDITING
General editing information can be found at 
http://www.planethalflife.com/wavelength/.
 
[4.1]: CFG Files
Autoexec.cfg is an automatic start up configuration file for Half-Life. You can 
create this file easily, by creating a blank text file, and rename it, giving it 
the last three file extensions ".cfg", hence the file "autoexec.cfg". This file 
is very useful if you keep on typing in the commands that you often use. Putting 
those commands that you use every time you play Half-Life, it would 
automatically execute the command(s) into Half-Life's configuration and you 
should never touch that command again, unless you want to change the current 
value of the command. Any commands that can be used within the console of Half-
Life can be placed in this autoexec.cfg. To get autoexec.cfg to execute itself 
regularly upon Half-Life's start up, place the autoexec.cfg into the directory 
\Half-Life\Valve\. But to make sure that it works, execute it upon every change 
you make to the autoexec.cfg to ensure that the commands are accepted. Bring 
down the console and type in: exec autoexec.cfg.
 
For those who edit the config.cfg, do not edit it any further, because what you 
just put in there will not be used. Half-Life regenerates that file every time 
Half-Life is executed. Put it in a self name cfg file or in the autoexec.cfg so 
that it can be executed when Half-Life starts automatically. That's why 
sometimes you wonder why those commands that you just put in the config.cfg 
don't work.
 
To make it easy on you, here's a link to create an autoexec.cfg, or actually 
commands to be put into the autoexec.cfg: 
http://www.voodooextreme.com/tweak3d/autoexec/halflife/. Remember, autoexec.cfg 
is a based text file, and is also needed to be created from scratch. Just create 
a blank text file, like autoexec.txt, then placing commands in the text file, 
and then rename it to autoexec.cfg.
 
Any other <name>.cfg can be executed by just entering this in the console:
exec <name>.cfg
That should execute a custom made cfg. Make sure that the custom cfg is where it 
should be, like for examples:
For regular Half-Life DM and Teamplay, put the cfg in \Half-Life\Valve\
For Half-Life TFC, put the cfg in \Half-Life\TFC\
 
When creating any cfg, make sure to put a carriage return (an empty line) at the 
end of the file. Error symptoms are Barneys (security guards) dying without any 
indication of harmful effects done to them.
 
When installing the game, only D3D.cfg exists, but opengl.cfg does not. D3D.cfg 
could be found in \Half-Life\Valve\hw\ directory. You have to create opengl.cfg 
manually and place it in \Half-Life\Valve\hw\.
 
To know what are the best commands to put in your D3D.cfg/Opengl.cfg, please 
refer to:
Shockwave: http://www.voodooextreme.com/reverend/flash/Main.html
Regular: http://www.voodooextreme.com/reverend/Main.html
It has a lot of command explanations that helps you decide if the gl_x commands 
are worth using.
 
[4.2]: Creating Custom Levels
Worldcraft is the only necessary program to create custom made levels for Half-
Life. See section 4.6 for more on Worldcraft. There are also other programs than 
Worldcraft that can create custom levels for Half-Life. Here are a three of 
them:
QERadiant: http://halflife.qeradiant.com/
Qoole: http://www.qoole.com/
Quark: http://www.planetquake.com/quark/ 
 
[4.3]: Crosshairs
You can edit the color of the crosshairs in Half-Life or even how they look. 
Visit this site to find out how: http://members.aol.com/rjdriver/bullseye.htm.
 
[4.4]: Pak Files
To view all the goodies that Half-Life uses, like the models and sound FXs to 
the maps that are used in the game, just go to:
http://www.planetquake.com/qped/ and download the QpedII program. This is a pak 
viewer and it could extract files from the pak0.pak that came with Half-Life. 
Another pak viewer is Pak Explorer, at http://quakestuff.telefragged.com/. By 
using any of these two programs, you can also extract anything found in the 
pak0.pak.
 
[4.5]: SDK
Stands for (S)oftware (D)eveloper's (K)it. You can download the SDK at 
http://ftp.won.net/pub/half-life/sdk/. There are two flavors to download - the 
standard (largest file, around 13MB) or minimal (smaller than the standard, 
about 11MB). To get started on programming the mod that you intended, here's a 
couple of links with some tutorials to help you: http://hlpp.cjb.net/ and 
http://www.planethalflife.com/wavelength/.
 
[4.6]: Worldcraft
Here are some Worldcraft topics. I am not going to cover Worldcraft specifically 
in this HLFAQ. There's a WCFAQ already, so read that instead. Below are some 
general broad topics brought up for Worldcraft that I can handle. More 
technical/complex information about Worldcraft should be read in the WCFAQ. Two 
links are given in section 4.6.5.
 
[4.6.1]: General
Is Worldcraft included with Half-Life?
-Yes.
 
Where could it be found?
-Only on Half-Life CD, which should be at the root directory of your CD-ROM 
drive. The file name is wc20full.exe.
 
Is Worldcraft shareware or full version?
-Full version.
 
What version is Worldcraft?
-v2.0 beta from Half-Life CD. It is now up to v2.1 beta.
 
Where can I get Worldcraft news?
-http://halflife.gamedesign.net 
 
What is the link to WC v2.1 beta upgrade?
-http://halflife.gamedesign.net/resources/wc21_info.shtml 
 
Can Worldcraft that came with Half-Life be used to build other game levels, say 
like Quake, etc...?
-Almost impossible. The only Worldcraft that is compatible with other games, you 
need to use the old Worldcraft v1.6.
 
Can Worldcraft create TFC maps?
-Yes. Go get the WC v2.1 beta and you should have the option to do so.
 
Does Worldcraft offer any manuals and/or technical help?
-No manuals included with the editor and/or technical help. It is because this 
editor is in a beta stage. But it does offer a basic tutorial. It is under Help 
menu.
 
How to install Worldcraft so that I could avoid any mishaps?
-Check out section 4.6.2.
 
How to set up Worldcraft?
-http://halflife.gamedesign.net/resources/worldcraft2_setup.shtml 
 
Can Worldcraft open up the maps/levels that Valve did?
-Well, sort of. But this requires several steps to achieve this goal. First, you 
need to get a program that can open up .pak format. You can get one by going to 
section 4.2 and get QpedII. Then after getting that, open up the pak0.pak from 
\Half-Life\Valve\ and go under Map directory of the pak0.pak. You will then see 
*.bsp. Extract what map/level you want and export it. After exporting, you need 
to get a program called WinBSPC, which converts .bsp formats to .map format, 
which Worldcraft would understand. WinBSPC can be found at: 
http://www.botepidemic.com/gladiator/download.shtml. Go to that page and scroll 
down to "WinBSPC". Download the appropriate file. Use WinBSPC to convert the 
.bsp format to .map format, and then open up the .map format with Worldcraft, 
and there you go, you have successfully ripped one of Valve's map/level.
 
[4.6.2]: Installing
When some people installed Worldcraft, some of the textures and other things 
were corrupted when using WC. To fix this, try installing WC without any 
spacing, and in the same hard drive as Half-Life. When WC installs, it included 
a space. Removing the extra space would fix the corruption (i.e.: Program 
Files). To avoid any mishaps, follow the installation guides found at: 
http://www.contaminated.net/wavelength/levels/resources/setupwc.html
http://halflife.gamedesign.net/resources/worldcraft2_setup.shtml
 
[4.6.3] Mailing List
This is for those who wants to join on a mailing list about Worldcraft 2.x 
announcements:
"Something many people request is to be emailed when something new is happening 
with Worldcraft. This is pretty hard to do without a mailing list. So, now, 
there is a mailing list. :) To subscribe, send mail to: 
listadmin@valvesoftware.com and in the first line of the email, put the line: 
subscribe wc_announce Don't worry about the email's subject line, and don't put 
anything else in the message body. A little while after sending that, you should 
be emailed asking for confirmation to be added to the list. Reply to that email 
with the confirmation number, and you're finished. This is strictly an 
annoucement mailing list - you will not be able to post to it. When any new 
information is available about the status of Worldcraft 2.x, I will post it to 
the mailing list."
 
Well, not much of a mailing list, but it's good for those who are into 
Worldcraft announcements and so forth.
 
[4.6.4]: Tutorials
Here are some that could be found here:
http://www.gamecraft.com
http://www.planetquake.com/worldcraft/
http://www.contaminated.net/wavelength/
http://halflife.gamedesign.net/
 
[4.6.5]: WC Editing FAQ
If you have questions about editing or running Worldcraft, then here's a couple 
of links that you don't want to miss:
http://halflife.gamedesign.net/resources/faq.shtml
http://www.gamedesign.net/half-life/half-life_faq.shtml

CHAPTER [5]: HALF-LIFE OFFICIAL RELEASES
A listing of official releases from Valve and only from Valve.
 
[5.1]: Extras
Here are some things to consider checking them out as they're from Valve only.
 
[5.1.1]: Maps
1. Crossfire (v1.0.0.8+ patch update)
2. Double Cross 
(http://www.planethalflife.com/dl/dl.asp?planethalflife/doublecross.zip)
3. Frenzy (v1.0.0.8+ patch update)
4. Rust Mill 
(http://www.planethalflife.com/dl/dl.asp?planethalflife/rustmill.zip)
5. Team9 (Valve Multiplayer Package)
 
[5.1.2]: Models
1. Barney (v1.0.0.8+ patch update)
2. Cannibal (Valve Multiplayer Package)
3. G-Man (Valve Multiplayer Package)
4. Recon (Valve Multiplayer Package)
5. Robot (v1.0.0.8+ patch update)
6. Santa Claus (http://halflife.gameplex.net/hlinc/files/santa.zip)
7. Skeleton (Valve Multiplayer Package)
8. Too Much Coffee Man (ftp://ftp.pcgamer.com/tmcm.exe)
9. Zombie (v1.0.0.8+ patch update)
 
[5.1.3]: Multi-Player Modes
There are currently three multi-player modes that you can choose from in Half-
Life that comes standard to Half-Life patches:
1. Deathmatch: Plain killing
2. Teamplay: Plain killing, but with teams (v1.0.0.8+)
3. Team Fortress Classic: Objectives with teams (v1.0.0.9+)
 
[5.1.4]: Valve Multiplayer Package
http://www.planethalflife.com/dl/dl.asp?planethalflife/HLMPC.zip
The contents are:
1. G-Man multiplayer model - the infamous guy with a briefcase. Ted Backman, 
modeler.
2. Recon grunt multiplayer model - the human military commander. Ted Backman, 
modeler.
3. Cannibal multiplayer model - a humorous comic book character from Chuck 
Jones' twisted childhood.
4. Skeleton multiplayer model - low visibility, low contrast model. Hard to play 
against. Steve Theodore/Chuck Jones, modeler.
5. New decals - collection of multiplayer decals including flags, political 
parties, barnyard animals and other images from, yes, you guessed it, Chuck 
Jones' twisted childhood.
6. Team9.bsp - a new team map intended for 4 on 4 competition. Developed by Doug 
Wood, who did the Bounce map. 
 
[5.2]: Patches
Here's the list of the current patches released for Half-Life, and containing 
the list that it fixes for each of the patches. You can get the latest patch by 
running the Sierra Utilities and select the AutoUpdate option. The current 
version of Half-Life right now is v1.0.1.3. It is always a good idea to run 
Sierra's AutoUpdate utility to get the latest Half-Life version. 
 
When using the AutoUpdate feature, the patches that are downloaded for Half-Life 
are stored under \Half-Life\~SIGSpat\. Just rename the files to exe extension 
and you can store it somewhere else to reuse it at a later time. 
 
You can manually download patches for Half-Life. Here are the official places 
that you can get them:
US versions only:
ftp://ftp.sierra.com/pub/patches/pc/ (west coast of US)
ftp://ftp2.sierra.com/pub/patches/pc/ (east coast of US)
 
All foreign/US versions only:
http://ftp.won.net/pub/half-life/ (via FTP)
Note: for the foreign version, select the appropriate folder for your country's 
version. 
http://www.won.net/channels/action/half-life/downloads.html  (website links) 
 
[5.2.1]: v1.0.0.6
Date released: ??, 1998
Update v1.0.0.6 addresses:
1. Disabled the music track check in CD Authentication. One problem that some 
people faced was that they have CD-ROM drives that either can't play the music 
tracks or they have disabled CD audio on that device. We've disabled the portion 
of the CD authentication that checked for the music tracks since it was tripping 
up legitimate customers. Of course they still won't hear the music until they 
get their CD audio fixed, but they would have that with any game that uses CD 
music.
2. Adjusted the default configuration for multiplayer to be more appropriate for 
people with lower speed modems or with high ping/bad packet loss.
3. The default rate for LAN games is now set to 9999. Previously the LAN rate 
was being set to the be the same as the Internet rate.
4. Removed the WON authentication attempts for LAN games. LAN games are limited 
to a single Class B address range.
5. Fixed an uninstall issue that may affect custom locations.
6. Fixed an A3D underwater sound bug.
 
[5.2.2]: v1.0.0.8
Date released: January 13, 1999
Update v1.0.0.8 addresses:
1. Improved multiplayer performance through bandwidth optimizations and better 
prediction. Modem users will see less apparent lag as a result.
2. Added support for IPX based LANs.
3. Added teamplay option for multiplayer games.
4. Added option to limit total number of decals you can see in multiplayer. Try 
setting 'r_decals 500' if you're experiencing slowdowns after long periods of 
game play.
5. Joysticks can now be used to move at the same time a mouse is used to look.
6. The server ping can now be shown as a numeric value instead of green dots. 
Use the "-numericping" command line option when launching hl.exe.
7. Improved ladder performance in multiplayer.
8. Added EAX 4 speaker support.
9. Fixed bug that allowed bypassing of ammo reloading.
10. Fixed bug where train sounds and rocket sounds would play repeatedly in 
multiplayer games.
11. Increased number of regional multiplayer servers.
12. Increased accuracy of ping calculations in the Internet Games menu.
13. More accurate latency score in game for other players.
14. Fixed bug preventing climbing ladders when playing with a joystick.
15. Added 3 new player models (Security guard, military robot, zombie) and 2 
multiplay maps (frenzy.bsp, crossfire.bsp). 
 
[5.2.3]: v1.0.0.9
Date released: April 7, 1999
Update v1.0.0.9 addresses:
1. This update will install Team Fortress Classic. Launch Half-Life as normal 
and click on the 'Custom Game' button. Click on the 'Activate' button to load 
Team Fortress Classic as the currently selected game.
2. Launcher now supports downloading of custom modifications for Half-Life. 
Clicking on the custom game button will bring up a list of the current games on 
the Half-Life modification sever.
3. Launcher now shows if a server is a dedicated, listen, or Linux server.
4. Launcher detects if servers are running the same version of Half-Life as you.
5. Support for pinging multiple master servers added.
6. Sorting options are now more robust in the launcher.
7. Server passwords are checked before game engine is started.
8. Dedicated server logging added.
9. Dedicated server will now echo all client talking to the dedicated server 
console.
10. Open GL multitexturing optimized.
11. Open GL decal usage optimized.
12. Single player game will no longer open up a Dial-Up connection box for 
Internet Explorer 4.0 users.
13. Fixed 'Used Decal # without a name problem.
14. Decal downloading streamlined.
15. Fixed timedemo/demo playback problems.
 
[5.2.4]: v1.0.1.0
Date released: May 27, 1999
Update v1.0.1.0 addresses:
1. Dedicated server is now a console application, making remote administration 
easier.
2. Server browser downloads server information based on bandwidth.
3. Reduced data sent on server updates, making updates faster.
4. Dedicated server optimized.
5. Team Fortress game code optimized.
6. Invalid authentication after attempting to join a full server bug fixed.
7. Empty sever list on low-bandwidth connection fixed.
8. Water prediction code optimized.
9. DNS lookup on LAN servers fixed.
10. Latency values are more accurate in launcher.
 
[5.2.5] v1.0.1.3
Date released: August 18, 1999
Update v1.0.1.3 addresses:
1. Mod browser now supports .zip file compression.
2. TF Stats included with this update. This will take server log files and 
create a webpage with the results of the match. Refer to 
\halflife\tfc\TFStats.htm for instructions.
3. Server now allows banning by userid. Refer to TFCServer.htm located in your 
\halflife\tfc\manual folder.
4. Updated TFC manual with information on running a TFC server.
5. Fixed problem where too many packets were being sent at signon that was 
causing problems for cable modem users.
6. Team 4 can now score on 4 player TFC maps.
7. Fixed soldier's nail grenades in TFC.
8. Demo Playback fixed.
9. Userinfo overrun fixed.
10. Spies feigning in doorways will no longer drop all clients on server.
11. Grenades will no longer detonate if you change teams.
12. Dedicated server no longer requires hw.dll for authentication.
13. Dedicated server will heartbeat with +map in the command line.

CHAPTER [6]: TROUBLESHOOTING
 
[6.1]: Before Getting Started
Here are some suggested ideas to take into consideration.
 
[6.1.1]: Readme.txt
Why is it that almost some percentage of people who buy software or any other 
products don't read the freaking 'readme.txt'??? This file here, is your 
solution friend and could solve most of the complaints that are produced! Please 
take an advantage and go and read the 'readme.txt' file located at the base of 
Half-Life directory.
 
[6.1.2]: Scan/Defrag
It is recommended that you use ScanDisk to scan for HDD errors and use Disk 
Defragmenter to defragment your HDD. Visit section 7.3.2.1 for defragmentation 
information, and section 7.3.2.2 for ScanDisk information. 
 
[6.1.3]: Update Files
It is best to have the most updated drivers for your components of your 
computer.
-Video Card
-Sound Card
-OS (Win9x/WinNT patches)
-CD-ROM
-Mouse
 
The patches/drivers can solve problems that are currently present on your 
system. It can also boost performance and fix glitches. Another thing to take 
into consideration, are the updates on Half-Life itself. Currently from the 
release of this HLFAQ, Half-Life is already up to v1.0.1.3. 
 
To get updates on Half-Life, see section 5.2 for further details about getting 
updates/patches for Half-Life. Please note that when you install patches, get 
the correct ones if you download them from sites, other than using the Sierra 
Utilities. Make sure you get the correct one. v1.0.0.5 is the CD release 
version. If you want to know prior getting the patches and what the patches 
offer, please go to section 5.2. 
 
[6.2]: Bugs/Errors
There's an unofficial bug list out on the internet. If you want to see a list of 
bugs of Half-Life, then the URL is: http://www.halflife.org/bugs/. My advise is 
to update all your drivers and see if any of the solutions found in this HLFAQ 
would help you out before searching in that bugs list. To me, that bugs list 
don't tell much. Also, that bug list has been discontinued and getting old. Not 
much useful now.
 
[6.2.1]: Icons Being Moved
Go get a program called WinTidy95 from www.pcmag.com or www.winmag.com and all 
your problems will be solved. Stops desktop icons from getting screwed up and 
moved on the desktop.
 
[6.2.2]: Installing/Running Game
When you get ready to install Half-Life, please keep in mind about these things:
-Make sure you have at least 366 MB (FAT32) to 460 MB (FAT16) of HDD space to 
install the game. After that, make sure you have at least another good 40 MB to 
80 MB of HDD space for Virtual Memory (Win9x handles it, unless you specify).
-Get the latest version of Half-Life to get rid of some bugs. The latest version 
when this HLFAQ was released is v1.0.1.3.
-Get the latest drivers for your video card. Most problems are caused because of 
old drivers not being updated. Sierra will give you a html form listing video 
card manufactures. Please use it to update your video card drivers. You get the 
list of manufactures after installing Half-Life and also gives an option in the 
game menu. Getting reference drivers are the way to go. Forget getting the 
manufacture that made the video card. Go to the chipset's manufacture. They 
would probably offer more stable drivers. Reference drivers are mostly newer 
than the one from your video card's manufacture.
-Get the latest drivers for your sound card.
-Close down all other programs that runs in the background except for Explorer 
and Systray. This should be a must do priority.
-Before installing, scan your HDD/memory for any viruses. CIH virus is the 
common virus that disables Half-Life to be played. See section 6.7 for tips on 
getting rid of viruses.
-Put your background color depth to 16-bit hi color mode. You can try 32-bit hi 
color mode later, but you need at least v1.0.0.9 patch though. 16-bit hi color 
mode is the minimum. So switch whatever mode to 16-bit mode to see if Half-Life 
can run. After that, you can go from 16-bit to 32-bit color modes. To enable 32-
bit color mode, see section 7.2.3 and look for the parameter "-32bbp". There 
will be an explanation about it.
-"Your Half-Life installation has become corrupt or out of date" error message: 
check section 6.2.2.18.
 
If there are problems installing the game, try these few suggestions:
Go to My Computer-> (right click) Properties-> Manager Device-> CD-ROM-> <your 
CD-ROM's name>-> Properties
1. Uncheck if it's checked on the box DMA. If it is uncheck, then check the box 
for DMA. Now accept the change and reboot.
2. If suggestion #1 does not work, then uncheck the box Sync Data. If it's 
uncheck, then check the box. Now accept the change and reboot.
3. Mix up the combinations of these two and see if it works for the last resort.
4. If those suggestions doesn't work, take it over to a friend's house or 
someone with a computer and install it on their computer and see if it works. If 
it does, then you have a corrupted CD-ROM drive.
5. If taking over to a friend's house doesn't work, return the defective product 
and get a new one.
 
It's usually due to DMA or/and Sync Data that causes the errors or problems for 
installing Half-Life or running the CD.
 
After installing Half-Life, and you can't play the game, please look up these 
sections to fix the problem:
-Section 6.7: Virus
-Section 6: Troubleshooting
-Section 6.2.2.7: Dial Up Connection
-"Your Half-Life Executable has been modified. Please check your system for 
viruses and then re-install Half-Life" error message: check out section 
6.2.2.17.
-"Your Half-Life installation is corrupted or out of date" error message: check 
out section 6.2.2.18.
-If you get the black "Loading" screen, you may need to update your video card 
drivers.
 
If you get some General Fault errors, then it can be what you run in the 
background, so close down all programs that may interrupt installation. Also, 
another thing that would lead to GF errors would be your CD-ROM drivers. Hunt 
down new drivers for it and update it to see if you can get to install it.
 
[6.2.2.1]: Bad Surface Extents
If you get this error, try lowering/changing your resolution. If it doesn't 
work, try reinstalling the game.
 
[6.2.2.2]: Can not find 'vids:cvid'decompressor
You get this error when Half-Life starts up. It's because it's trying to play 
the two introduction videos for Half-Life. Not much of an importance, but to fix 
it, you can download the latest Windows Media Player 6.1+. Not only you get a 
great player, but your video codecs are up to date and the latest.
 
[6.2.2.3] Cbuf_AddText: Overflow
Using the parameter -zone xxxx should fix this problem. Go to section 7.2.3 to 
learn more about it and how to use it if necessary.
 
[6.2.2.4]: CD Key
Before first when playing, Half-Life requires you to input the CD key for Half-
Life. The CD key is located on the back of your Half-Life CD case. You should be 
given like this: xxxx-xxxxx-xxxx Where x=corresponding and respective numbers 
found on the back of the CD case.
 
If it tells you that you have an invalid CD key, try it again. If it still does 
it, try putting in the - character in between the numbers. If all fails, then 
you probably have a key that is probably created by error when distributing. All 
I could say is bring it back to the store and trade in another copy. Check out 
section 6.3 for further CD Key solutions.
 
[6.2.2.5] Could not exec 3dfx/opengl/joystick.cfg
Do not worry about these missing cfg files. They were not available when you 
installed the game. You are actually to create one if you need to. Other than 
that, it is unnecessary and should be ignored.
 
If you decide to create one of the cfg files, put them under \Half-Life\Hw\ 
directory. Be sure to check out section 4.1 to know what to do about the cfg 
files.
 
[6.2.2.6]: Crosshair Messes Up
There were problems reported that when getting some patches, like the 3DNow! or 
the Open GL/Mini drivers screws up the crosshair in the game. To fix this, try 
this command from the console:
gl_flipmatrix 1
 
[6.2.2.7]: Dial Up Connection
This bug blocks Half-Life from running. If you have your speakers on, you would 
here a Windows 'ping' sound, which Half-Life would crash and the game only shows 
a black screen. This bug, tries to connect you to the internet, when not needed. 
If you alt-tab, you would see the DUN trying to connect you to the internet. To 
disable this bug, go to Start Menu-> Run. Type this in:
<HDD>:\<HL Dir>\hl.exe -noip
HDD=Hard Drive HL is on
HL Dir=HL's directory
 
Another way to try and disable this bug, is load up Internet Explorer 4.0-> 
View-> Internet Options-> Connections tab. Now, find the option where it asks 
you for 'Connection'. It should list two radio button choices:
-Connect to the Internet using a modem
-Connect to the Internet using a local area network
What you want to choose, is the 'connect to the internet using a local area 
network'. Choose it, click OK.
 
For Internet Explorer 5.0, load it up-> Tools-> Internet Options-> Connections 
tab. Select the "Never dial a connection". You can also go through the "Use the 
Connection Wizard to connect your computer to the Internet" and click the Setup 
button. After launching it, select that you want to connect through LAN (third 
radio button choice).
 
[6.2.2.8] Doesn't Support Raster Operations
If you get the error "Your video card does not support the necessary raster 
operations...", Then try this solution: On the Desktop (right click)-> 
Properties-> Settings tab-> Advanced...-> Performance tab. In the Performance 
tab, slide the pointer left to decrease the usage of your video card. It may 
enable you to play the game and not crash. Slide it even more if it doesn't 
work. Keep on sliding it down more until you get to none, which would be your 
last chance of getting it to work.
 
If that does not fix the problem, then the problem maybe your video card 
drivers. See if you could update your video card drivers and see if it works.
 
If all fails, then you're doomed to getting this game to work correctly.
 
[6.2.2.9]: Gfx/shell/btns_main.bmp
This error: Could not open bitmap file 'gfx/shell/btns_main.bmp' is produced by 
when installing the game. The only way to fix this is to free a lot of space on 
your HDD!!! What it means is that, the game is trying to inflate a file called 
pak0.pak that is compressed on the CD, to 295,809 KB, in which it's almost about 
300 MB needed. So, free your HDD space, giving the file some room to fit on your 
HDD. Remember, the whole game needs at least 366-460 MB to be installed onto the 
HDD. 500 MB is recommended for saved games. 366 MB (FAT32) is the minimum free 
space on your target HDD to be installed to.
 
If you don't have 460+ MB free on your HDD, delete files that are not in use. If 
this can't be accomplished, then you can't install the game and play it. Reason 
number two is that pak0.pak was never or was not completely installed. Check to 
see if it's completely there under \Half-Life\Valve\ folder. Remember, the 
pak0.pak must be there and be around 295,809 KB or else you need to re-install 
the game again. If re-installing still gives you a corrupt pak0.pak, check below 
for reason number five.
 
Reason number three is that this error comes up would mean something is 
accessing the pak0.pak. I ran into this problem when I had QpedII opening up 
pak0.pak and Half-Life running. It wouldn't permit QpedII editing pak0.pak or 
exploring it if Half-Life is going to be running. Close anything that could have 
access to this pak0.pak file and it wouldn't give you this error anymore.
 
Reason number four could be that there can be a bad or loose IDE cable. This can 
be possible. Also, uninstall and reinstall Direct X 6 can also help try to solve 
this solution.
 
Reason number five could be your CD-ROM/DVD drive. Sometimes, this error happens 
a lot because of the CD-ROM/DVD drives suck or defective. Check out section 
6.2.2.
 
[6.2.2.10]: Got A Velocity Too Low On Gib
You only get this message when a gib may fall through infinite space in the 
level. Just ignore this or if you just can't stand reading the error, don't use 
the developer mode (-dev or developer 1) and turn it off by removing -dev or 
input developer 0.
 
[6.2.2.11] Invalid page fault in module HW.DLL
If you get this error, there is currently no exact solution at all. The only 
suggestions that I can give you is to:
1. Install the latest version of Half-Life
2. Update all of your hardware drivers, like video card, sound card, etc...
3. It's because you installed other softwares, for instance, if you have 
Internet Explorer 5.0, it maybe the cause for it. Some reported that if upon 
removal of IE5.0, then they don't get the error any more.
 
The problem lies in the OS, softwares, and drivers currently loaded on your PC. 
That is all I can say about this error. If you get this error while playing 
single player, then I suggest you skip that level (level warp) and go on to the 
next one. But you need to do the cheat codes though. I am sorry, but it's the 
only way if you want to continue of the problem persists.
 
If you get this when playing multiplayer mode, and it suddenly crashes and gives 
you that error, I don't know what to tell you but try again whatever you tried 
to do if necessary.
 
[6.2.2.12] Kb_keys.lst not found
Error: kb_keys.lst not found. This error usually comes after this error: Could 
not open bitmap file 'gfx/shell/btns_main.bmp'. This usually means that the 
pak0.pak is not all there. There maybe an installation problem. Reinstall the 
game. Check out section 6.2.2.9 for the solution.
 
Another thing that can trigger this error is the removal or modifying the 
pak0.pak. This will then require you to reinstall the game.
 
[6.2.2.13]: MCI File Playback:### MMSYSTEM ##
If you get any error like "MCI File Playback:### MMSYSTEM ## Unable to play file 
on specified device, file may be corrupt or in incorrect format", then you may 
not have the correct video compression codec driver. To fix this, you should go 
to http://developer.intel.com/ial/indeo/video/driver.htm. Get v5.1 Codec from 
Intel.
 
Another fix is to visit this site: 
http://support.microsoft.com/support/kb/articles/q178/3/07.asp
Another fix is to visit this site: http://members.xoom.com/tdp/mmsystem296.htm
 
Other than that, it's just that the video codec file types are screwed up/edited 
in the registry. So don't worry if you can't view the two intro movies. It's not 
special anyhow. So this error isn't holding you back on playing Half-Life 
anyhow.
 
[6.2.2.14]: Overflow 350 Temporary Ents
If you get this error, it just means that there are too much entities rendered 
in current screen. Just ignore this or if you just can't stand reading the 
error, don't use the developer mode (-dev or developer 1) and turn it off by 
removing -dev or input developer 0.
 
[6.2.2.15]: SZ_GetSpace
This error happens when you're running Half-Life, over stuffing a <x>.cfg file. 
This happens because the <x>.cfg is too big. Shrink the size down as far as you 
can. You can try to avoid this by adding -zone xxxx after hlds.exe or hl.exe. 
For example, Start Menu-> Run. Type in: C:\SIERRA\Half-Life\hl.exe -zone 1024
It means that it would give about extra 1 KB memory into the cfg's.
 
[6.2.2.16]: Unable To Validate CD
Sometimes, this error would come up, saying that you need the CD. It's pretty 
much straight forward: put the original legit Half-Life CD in and let it satisfy 
the checking. There are a couple of reasons that this error comes up:
1. You have a warez game
2. You don't have the CD
3. You created a screwed up CD-R/RW backup of the game
4. It checks for the music tracks on your Half-Life CD, but your PC's CD-ROM 
drive somehow doesn't get the operation or acknowledge that it's there
5. You have more than one CD-ROM drive
 
To fix problem one, simply buy the game. To fix problem two, either get the CD 
back from someone you lend to, find the CD, or buy the game if you're pirating 
the software. To fix problem three, please refer to the section about "Burning 
Half-Life On CD-R/RW". To fix problem four, get and install v1.0.0.6 patch or 
later. It disables the audio music track authentication check and should allow 
you to play. To fix problem five, just make sure you put the CD in your primary 
CD-ROM drive or disable your second CD-ROM drive. 
 
[6.2.2.17]: Your HL Executable Has Been Modified
As soon as you run Half-Life (or the Half-Life dedicated server HLDS.exe), Half-
Life checks itself to determine if the Half-Life executable you are running has 
been damaged or altered in any way. The most likely causes of such damage are:
1. computer viruses (very common)
2. corrupt portions of a user's hard disk drive (rare)
 
For number 1, visit section 6.7 will show you how to proceed. For number 2, just 
run ScanDisk to check errors on your HDD. You may need to reinstall Half-Life.
 
[6.2.2.18]: Your HL Installation Corrupted/Outdated
There are two reasons why for this to happen:
1. Virus (very common)
2. Half-Life version needs to be updated (sometimes common)
 
To take care of reason 1, see section 6.7 to know how to take care of it. To 
take care of reason 2, you just need to download the latest Half-Life patch. You 
may get this error if you tried to update your Half-Life. If so, then that means 
that you got a virus. Check out section 6.7. 
 
[6.2.2.19] Z_Malloc: Failed On Allocation Of xxx Bytes
To fix this error, use the -zone xxxx parameter. Check out section 7.2.3 on how 
to use the parameter. The cause of this error maybe caused by oversized cfg 
files. Cut down the size and you might eliminate the problem.
 
[6.2.3]: LAN
There are some people out there that reported some problems running a LAN game 
of Half-Life. Try these solutions below.
1. When trying LAN hosting, but you get a black screen, [Alt]+[Tab] and you 
would probably see the DUN box. Close it down. That's your problem right there.
2. Problem is that when running LAN, the console stops at IPX protocol. The 
solution is to disable DNS configuration. To do so, go to Start Menu-> Settings-
> Control Panel-> Network-> TCP/IP Dial-UP Adapter-> Properties-> DNS 
Configuration-> Disable DNS. Make sure you write down your DNS if there is one.
3. Try hitting the Esc key.
4. Make sure that Internet Explorer sets itself to connect to the internet via 
LAN. To do so, launch IE4-> View-> Internet Options-> Connection tab-> Connect 
to the Internet using a local area network
5. Problem is WON Authentication. Go here and get a small utility (27 KB):
http://www.planetfortress.com/downloads/mirror.asp?tfc/wontool.zip 
All this program do is adjust the file hosts.sam in the \Windows\ directory. If 
you know what to edit, then do it. Make sure it has "127.0.0.1 localhost" (no 
quotes) and nothing else.
6. Could not get IPX socket name. IPX disable. Reason: WSAENOTSOCK. If you get 
this error, try and see if you could use solution number 2 above and see if it 
works. You also need to enable IPX/SPX from the Network via Control Panel. 
 
If you're running a LAN and have multiple computers sharing one IP address, and 
want to connect to the internet to play, considering that you have working 
separate CD Keys, then try this solution: Create Half-Life shortcut to give 
Half-Life a parameter of this: -port 270xx
Example:
Computer 1: hl.exe -port 27025
Computer 2: hl.exe -port 27035
Computer 3: hl.exe -port 27045
This should work, considering how servers do it, but no guarantees.
 
[6.2.4]: Multi-Player Mode
Here are some known fixes for errors/bugs in MP mode.
 
[6.2.4.1]: .hpk has a bogus # of directory entries
If you have this problem, all you need to do is delete a file called custom.hpk. 
It can be found under \Sierra\Half-Life\Valve\ directory.
 
[6.2.4.2] Attempting to connect to Won
When upon joining on a server, and it hangs on the command 'Attempting to 
connect to Won', then that means that WON.Net's authenticating server must be 
down. Check back in a little while and see if you can try play. Another thing to 
try is to restart your computer in case of a bad connection with your PC on the 
internet.
 
[6.2.4.3]: Bad Protocol
When trying to connect to any server, and happens to give you this message, "bad 
protocol", that means that you have a different Half-Life version than the 
server that you're trying to connect. Either the server is hosting with an 
outdated Half-Life version, or you don't have the latest Half-Life version. Just 
run Sierra's Utilities-> AutoUpdate to get the latest Half-Life version. 
 
[6.2.4.4]: Can't Swim In Water Using Jump Key
If you are having trouble swimming up when you are standing on the ground 
underwater, try setting fps_lan to a number less than it is currently set to at 
the console. To check what is set to, type this in the console: fps_lan.
 
[6.2.4.5]: Client.dll
If you get an error saying that you're running a different client.dll, then 
here's the solution: All you need to do is uninstall Half-Life, and then go and 
delete the remaining folder of Half-Life, even though nothing seems to be in 
them. Once deleting the folder(s) associated with Half-Life, then reinstall the 
game and it should work fine. 
 
Another quick fix is to copy the client.dll from \Sierra\Half-
life\valve\cl_dlls\ and paste it in \Sierra\Half-life\tfc\cl_dlls and that 
should work. If not, then do the long way solution above instead. 
 
[6.2.4.6] Custom file missing wad3 id
To fix this problem, delete the custom.hpk file found under any of \Half-Life\ 
directory, like for example, there's one under \Half-Life\Valve\. This should 
fix the error.
 
[6.2.4.7]: File Mechwine Not On Server
It is an error in Crossfire. It basically means that in the level, Half Life 
couldn't find the file "mechwine.wav". It's an ambient sound contained in the 
pack file (pak0.pak). Just ignore this error. It won't cause any problems.
 
[6.2.4.8] Host_Error:CL_Parseserver Message
Error: Host_Error:CL_Parseserver Message:Bad server message. Here are two 
solutions that I can come up with and possibly an explanation:
1. Quit out of Half-Life; restart Half-Life back up again and try to log on the 
server.
2. Reboot or shutdown and restart the PC. then see if you can connect to the 
server. 
 
I can't really point in a general lead, but this error usually ends up on the 
server side. Some times it can be the client's fault. Something maybe wrong with 
Half-Life when loaded up. This error happened to me quite a few times, 
especially if the server is running the map Doublecross. But also, if I restart 
Half-Life or reboot my PC, then I can finally bypass that error. This is one 
strange error. 
 
[6.2.4.9] Pldecal.wad
Don't worry about too much of this file. If it can't write to it, then it's 
okay. This file only holds the decals (spray paints) that may have been 
downloaded, or tried to download decals and write to the file, but you disabled 
downloading the decals.
 
[6.2.4.10]: Stuck On Elevator
There were some people who reported that when going up the elevator, it gets 
stuck and rubber bands you around. The solution to this bug is simply: Duck. 
Crawl way from it. It should work. I know it, because I got stuck a few times, 
and ducking would solve the problem. For future warnings, don't stand close to 
the edges of the elevator. Stand in the middle if possible so that this problem 
will not occur.
 
[6.2.4.11]: Stuck On Ladder
If you are getting stuck on the top of the ladder in a multiplayer game, make 
sure that the server you are on does not have the variable sv_airaccelerate set 
to zero. Any value other than zero will work properly.
 
[6.2.4.12]: Using Decal ### Without A Name
Getting v1.0.0.9 or higher patch should fix this problem. But if the patch 
fails, then all you need to do is delete every thing in this folder: 
\Sierra\Half-Life\Logo\ and that should get rid of the error. If you made a 
custom decal for yourself, make sure you don't delete it and leave it in the 
folder.
 
If you recorded a demo during a deathmatch online, then I suggest that you allow 
your computer to download the custom decals from the opponents on that server or 
you would probably get this error. So leave the download of decals on to try and 
avoid this error. If you get this error when trying to playback the recorded 
demo, I don't know what to say, but that demo is worthless and nothing can be 
done about it.
 
[6.2.4.13]: Warning: U_Remove on full update
This message is given because you lagged big time (major data loss). You can 
also try another solution, that may work. Use this command: cl_nodelta 1. It 
worked for some people, so give it a try. But be warned: it can add additional 
lag, because I've tried it before, and it makes lag worse than before. But if it 
cures this problem, then be my guest on using it.
 
The only way to cure this annoying problem is to have a clear connection to the 
internet as possible. You only get this error when you lag. This can contribute 
by having call waiting. Disable call waiting if you can. I hate it when someone 
tries to call, because it would lag and the connection would most likely be out 
of sync and it probably disconnect from the internet or takes a moment to re-
sync with the game. 
 
Anything else that causes interruption to your internet session can cause this 
too. Line noise, background popups, downloads, whatever, can cause it. 
 
[6.2.4.14]: Wonau_w95.dll/Woncr_w95.dll
Error: A required .DLL file, WONAU_W95.DLL was not found! You get this error 
because when installing the patch, the file names were truncated and renamed 
them as DOS filenames. You'll find those two files (if one is missing, the other 
is bound to be the same) in your \Sierra\Half-Life\ folder. It is named 
wonau_~1.dll. Rename it to wonau_w95.dll. The second one that is woncr_~1.dll 
Rename that to woncr_w95.dll. It should now be fixed.
 
[6.2.4.15] Wsaenotsock
Error: could not get IPX Socket name. IPX disabled. Reason: Wsaenotsock. If you 
get this error, it means that IPX/SPX is diabled. Enable it through the Network 
from Control Panel and/or remove the -noipx parameter from HL.exe if you put it 
there. There's nothing wrong with this error unless you want to use IPX to play 
on LAN servers that don't want to use TCP/IP.
 
[6.2.5]: Patch/Update Half-Life
The only problem with patches that I notice are that either you downloaded them 
and perhaps tried to resume/got disconnect and tried to resume it will end up 
corrupting them (highly possible). So you're gonna need to download the patches 
non-stop without interruptions. HL patches are highly sensitive to the CRCs and 
easily corrupt.
 
Also, there was a wide spread problem with patch v1.0.1.0, stating that you 
tried to apply the v1.0.1.0 patch over v1.0.0.6, in which you really have 
v1.0.0.9. Check out section 6.2.5.3 for the instructions how to take care of 
this problem.
 
[6.2.5.1] Corrupted Installation Detected
It maybe:
1. The patch that you just downloaded is corrupted. Go and re-download it again.
2. Your Half-Life game is corrupted. Scan for a virus first (make sure you're 
using a good virus detector to really make sure that you don't have a virus on 
your PC.). If no virus are found, uninstall the game, delete the remaining 
folders that couldn't be removed from the un-installation program, and reboot. 
Then re-install it.
 
[6.2.5.2] Not a valid previous version
You may get this error because you downloaded the wrong patch (wrong version for 
your game's version). You need to know first and check to see that you are 
getting the correct update patch for your version. Be sure to get the right 
patch, like for the US game or for foreign game versions. There are separate 
patches for different languages.
 
[6.2.5.3]: Your HL is v1.0.x.x and you have v1.0.x.x
If you happen to run across this kind of scenario; this started to spread with 
v1.0.1.0 patch: I've downloaded a patch for my outdated Half-Life, which is at 
v1.0.x.x and the patch I got is v1.0.x.x. It reports that my Half-Life version 
is even lower than it is, and I know that I got the correct patch for my current 
version of Half-Life. When it updates, it says that the patch is incorrect to 
update your Half-Life version. I know that I got the correct patch for my Half-
Life version. Well, here's the solution:
1. Locate the file named sierra.inf
2. Open it up and scroll down until you run into something like this:
; Version is the version of the application. This is also used by
; EREG to identify the product
Version=1.0.0.5
PatchVersion=1.0.x.x
3. Change PatchVersion=1.0.x.x to whatever your current patched version of Half-
Life is at. Replace the x's with the actual numbers of your current Half-Life 
version.
 
Another good solution, is to download the full update file to Half-Life. Take 
for example - get the patch 10051013.exe. This will update your Half-Life CD 
version to the latest version which would be v1.0.1.3. This would mean hours of 
download (on a slow connection of course). It is suggested to try the above 
solution first before getting the full patch.
 
[6.2.6]: Single-Player Mode
Single-player mode bugs/errors that are widely known are listed below. 
 
[6.2.6.1]: Barney Dies
No, not the purple dinosaur. I'm talking about NPC, you know, the security 
guards that help you during the game. Sometimes, they just die straight out 
(don't confuse this with the scripting of some Barneys dying because they're 
suppose to). Well, this is a bug. To fix this bug, make sure to put a carriage 
return (an empty line) at the end of the opengl.cfg/d3d.cfg/x.cfg file(s). Error 
symptoms are Barneys (security guards) dying without any indication of harmful 
effects done to them. 
 
[6.2.6.2]: Stuck/Die On Elevator
Just like the level We've Got Hostile, sometimes in the game, you would just get 
stuck for no reason at all and perhaps lose life slowly. The only cure that 
would be reasonable to try is to duck and then crawl. So just duck, and go 
forward while crouching! It should free you from the sticky bug. Next time, just 
stand in the middle of the elevator platform and avoid standing near the edges 
of the elevator platform.
 
[6.2.6.3]: Uninstalling
There's a little malfunction with Half-Life's uninstall program with the out of 
the box version (the one straight from the CD without any patches). If you 
attempt to uninstall, it would wipe out all and everything that is contained in 
the parameters of Half-Life. Say you installed Half-Life like this: 
C:\games\Half-Life\ If you do, and you uninstall, then it would wipe out Half-
Life and also the directory of \games\. So, if I were you, I'd keep Half-Life 
simple in it's own directory, or patch the game up to at least v1.0.0.6 to 
remove the little mishap with the un-installation program.
 
[6.2.6.4]: Zoom
This cheap-zoom-in feature can be used with almost any weapons in the game. All 
you have to do, is put out a crossbow. Now, hit the secondary fire mode. This 
would zoom in. Now, hit 'F6' for quicksave, and then do a quickload 'F7', and 
this should bring you to a zoom in bug feature. Now, just switch to any weapon 
and you'll stay in that zoom bug almost forever, although using any other 
weapons, the movement is a little jerky. To undo this bug, just switch back to 
the crossbow, and hit the secondary fire mode and this should zoom out.
 
[6.2.7]: Timedemo
Any known errors about timedemos for Half-Life. To be sure that timedemos can be 
ran, know what version it was compiled under which Half-Life version, as it 
can't run on any other version of Half-Life than the one that was created from.
 
[6.2.7.1]: Demo Protocol Outdated
If you get this error, it is because you ran the timedemo on the wrong version 
of Half-Life. By that, it means that say the timedemo was created on v1.0.0.5 of 
Half-Life. You can only run the timedemo at v1.0.0.5 only. You can not run on 
any other version of Half-Life. Find another timedemo for your current Half-Life 
version.
 
[6.3]: CD Key
Some information about CD Key below. If you can't find the CD-Key, visit section 
2.1.2.
 
[6.3.1]: CD Key In Use
If you bought a legit Half-Life game, and it happens that someone is using your 
CD Key, then you need to contact Sierra so that they can terminate the current 
CD Key and re-issue you a new one. Go to one of Sierra's web site with the 
appropriate country and send them an e-mail about the problem. Here are the 
sites:
Internet USA: http://www.sierra.com (support@sierra.com)
Internet United Kingdom: http://www.sierra-online.co.uk
Internet France: http://www.sierra.fr
Internet Germany: http://www.sierra.de
From those internet sites, go there and go under Tech Support.
 
[6.3.2]: Editing CD Key
If you're one of those people who installed the Half-Life warez game, or 
borrowed your friend's CD, and then went out and bought your own, and now want 
to use your own CD Key, then here's a way to remove your old CD Key: Start Menu-
> Run. Type in regedit. Go to this registry key: 
HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\Valve\Half-Life\Settings. Look for the header KEY. 
Delete this registry data, and then run Half-Life again, and it'll ask you for 
the CD Key again. 
 
There seems another place for the CD Key than the above. Here's the second 
location to check: HKEY_CURRENT_USER\.default\Software\Valve\Half-Life\Settings. 
Again, look for the header KEY. Delete this registry data and run Half-Life.
 
[6.3.3]: Lost CD Key
There are three thing you can do:
1. Exchange the game for another from where you got it from.
2. Send the game to the following address and once they get it, they will send 
you another copy (U.S. residents only):
Sierra On-Line Exchanges/Returns
4100 West 190th Street
Torrance, CA 90504
3. Make a photo copy of the back of the CD case, Top of the CD itself and a copy 
of the sales receipt and fax it to 1-425-644-7697 with the subject ATTN: Tech 
support Adventure. Once they get it, they will send you a code (U.S. residents 
only).
 
If you have any further questions just reply to this e-mail or feel free to 
contact them at support@sierra.com (US only). You can also find further 
information at:
Internet USA: http://www.sierra.com
Internet United Kingdom: http://www.sierra-online.co.uk
Internet France: http://www.sierra.fr
Internet Germany: http://www.sierra.de
 
From those internet sites, go there and go under Tech Support. Little bit edited 
from a Sierra Technical Support e-mail to fit readers, so it doesn't sound like 
it's meant to someone else. No other information was left out that is considered 
important. Everything here is what needed. Note that parts are only for US 
residents only. Please visit the correct web site link to get the correct email 
address for Sierra's support.
 
[6.4]: Copying Half-Life On CD-R/RW
I've seen people complaining that they can't do copies of Half-Life on CD-R/RW 
discs. Let me say this: yes, it can be done, but there's one problem: foreign 
Half-Life games, like German, French, etc. are bigger in format size. That's the 
bad news. You'll need to find some CD-R/RW that could hold a little bit more 
than 650 MB to duplicate Half-Life entirely. For the United States version, 
making duplicates of the game should be no problem.
 
In order to burn exact duplicates of Half-Life, you need to burn the game by 
"tracks"-some what format like what audio CD music go by. On the United States 
version, I can confirm that there are 28 tracks that are needed to copy in order 
to have the full exact duplicate of the original master legit copy of Half-Life. 
Why can I confirm it? Because I already made a duplicate back up copy for my own 
personal use. It took about an hour and a few minutes to duplicate the game 
(using a 2x writer, HP 7200i+ CD-RW). For the foreign Half-Life game, I can't, 
because I don't have any version of it. I don't know how big, but some said that 
the CD contained a little bit more extra. So you're gonna have to find a bigger 
CD-R/RW disc to duplicate Half-Life.
 
I used the Adaptec's Copy CDs program. I don't know about any other programs, 
because I don't know any and all I know is that this program did the trick for 
me. Just find any program out there or get any program that would allow you to 
duplicate CDs by tracks or perhaps mirror the whole CD. For CDs that are much 
larger than the typical 650MB CD (for foreign copies of Half-Life), just copy 
the data part of the game. Leave out the audio tracks. That will save a lot of 
space. But you will need to patch the game up to at least v1.0.0.6 to work. But 
you will have no audio CD if you do it like this. Be warned: I haven't tested 
this yet.
 
By the way, after copying Half-Life, and testing to see if the CD-R/RW copy 
works, and you get an error that says that the CD is invalid, or Half-Life 
requires CD, all you need to do is patch your Half-Life game up to at least to 
v1.0.0.6 to get rid of the audio authentication crap. I don't know what's left 
off when burning Half-Life, but anyway, that's how you fix the problem.
 
[6.5]: Direct X
The latest, Microsoft release Direct X 6.1. DX 6.0 is on the Half-Life CD. You 
can get the latest version of Direct X via: http://www.microsoft.com/directx/. 
If you have any trouble with Direct X x.x, then you can remove Direct X x.x by 
getting a program at: http://www.ebrink.com/dxun/Direct.htm.
 
[6.6]: PC Hardware
Here are some PC hardware troubleshooting solutions and some information. Make 
sure that you read these sections carefully. Some solutions are placed where the 
subject fits, but can fit in some other places. So be careful on reading some of 
these solutions.
 
[6.6.1]: CD-ROM
Having at least a 2x CD-ROM drive is good enough, because the only use of the 
CD-ROM is playing music during the game, which it doesn't need to be like 24x or 
so. Also, updating your CD-ROM drivers would generally help. Go to your CD-ROM 
manufacture's web site and download any new released drivers for your CD-ROM 
drives. If there are problems installing the game, try these few suggestions:
Go to My Computer-> (right click) Properties-> Manager Device-> CD-ROM-> <your 
CD-ROM's name>-> Properties
1. Uncheck if it's checked on the box DMA. If it is uncheck, then check the box 
for DMA. Now accept the change and reboot.
2. If suggestion #1 does not work, then uncheck the box Sync Data. If it's 
uncheck, then check the box. Now accept the change and reboot.
3. Mix up the combinations of these two and see if it works for the last resort.
4. If those suggestions doesn't work, take it over to a friend's house or 
someone with a computer and install it on their computer and see if it works. If 
it does, then you have a corrupted CD-ROM drive.
5. If taking over to a friend's house doesn't work, return the defective product 
and get a new one.
 
[6.6.1.1]: Audio Music
If for some reason, you don't hear music, then it's:
1. CD music cable
2. CD music is off
3. CD music volume is off
 
To fix problem one, you need to open up your PC and check to see if the CD-ROM 
drive has a digital cable running to your sound card from your CD-ROM drive. To 
fix problem two, try this: Start Menu-> Settings-> Control Panel-> Multimedia-> 
CD Music tab. From here, make sure you select your CD-ROM drive that would play 
the audio music and make sure you check the box at the bottom so that it could 
play digital music, and make sure the volume slider is all the to right so that 
the volume is to the highest.
 
For problem three, you can check the volume just like above, or also from the 
Volume Control, where you see the yellow horn near your clock in the task bar. 
Load it up and see if your CD audio volume is up high. If you don't have Volume 
Control, then go and grab your Windows 9x CD-ROM, stick it into your drive, Go 
to Start Menu-> Settings-> Control Panel-> Add/Remove Programs-> Windows Setup-> 
Multimedia-> Volume Control (check it)-> Apply.
 
If nothing works, see if your CD-ROM could play the music from Half-Life CD. Use 
MS's Media Player or any audio CD player and see if you could play any sound 
tracks from 2 through 28. If you can't play any, then your CD-ROM don't support 
the music.
 
[6.6.2]: Controller/Joystick
There are some information referring to some controllers in the readme.txt. 
Please read the readme.txt for some information. For the best result, upgrade 
your controller's drivers to the latest date available.
 
When using a joystick and you encounter a crosshair problem, try the following: 
Start Menu-> Settings-> Control Panel. Select the Advanced
tab in Game Controllers. For the "Port Driver", make sure that "Poll with 
interrupts enabled" is not checked.
 
[6.6.3]: CPU
Half-Life should support most of the CPUs out there today. Half-Life officially 
supports MMX and unofficial 3DNow! CPU instructions. No word yet on SSE 
instructions.
 
[6.6.3.1]: 3DNow!
There is a patch out there, that enables support of AMD's 3DNow! instructions 
for only the K-6-2 processors. The link are:
http://www.amd.com/products/cpg/k623d/drivers.html (3dfx)
http://www.3dnow.net/ (3dfx and Rendition)
Please be aware that the 3DNow! drivers can only work with Rendition or Voodoo2 
video cards. These are not official 3DNow! patch for Half-Life.
 
After downloading/unzipping, copy the file 3dfxglam.dll into \Half-Life\gldvr\ 
and go to section 6.6.6.8 and follow those instructions on how to use this 
3DNow! driver. It's the same procedure on how to install the driver just as that 
section talks about Open GL driver. Just replace opengl32.dll with 3dfxglam.dll. 
After following those instructions, make sure that you do select the 3DNow! 
drivers from the video menu. This instruction is only for 3dfx Voodoo2 cards. 
 
For the Rendition, download it at the second link and follow the readme.txt. It 
provides instructions in there for 3dfx and Rendition.
 
If you get the blue screen of death, and the error message is FXMEMMAP.VXD 
related, then here's the solution: In the QuakeII 3DNow! package, there's a file 
called fxmemap.vxd. Copy that file and place it under \Windows\System\. It may 
be older, but it may fix your error. Please back up the original before copying 
the older version if so. This file can only be found in the first link of the 
3DNow! patch.
 
Note: if you use these hacked drivers, be warned that your crosshair may go 
corrupt and be out of order on your HUD screen. To fix the problem with your 
crosshair location, bring down the console and type this in: gl_flipmatrix 1.
 
[6.6.3.2]: MMX
Half-Life may not enable MMX support. To enable MMX support, type this in the 
console: r_mmx 1.
 
[6.6.3.3]: SSE
The only use of SSE instructions may be found in Direct X 6.1 and perhaps your 
video card drivers. So download those to have maximum performance out of your 
Pentium III.
 
[6.6.4]: Modem
Always update your modem drivers to the latest. Having a 14.4 modem to play this 
game is not recommended. You will lag when there's a lot of people on the server 
that you would play. 28.8 is minimum, but a 56k non-window modem is recommended 
to get best performance.
 
[6.6.4.1]: WinModem
Winmodem is not the best choice for online gaming. In fact, they just plain out 
suck. The reason is that Winmodem relies on the CPU to do most of it's job. 
That's a major no-no, and a small performance hit to your overall PC speed. 
Avoid getting a Winmodem at all cost. Don't care if it's a low price. Get cheap 
stuff, suffer cheap stuff's consequences. Go and buy a regular modem, and make 
sure it's not a Winmodem.
 
[6.6.5]: Sound
There are some information referring to some sound stuff in the readme.txt. 
Please read the readme.txt for some information. For the best result, upgrade 
your sound card's drivers to the latest date available. Half-Life takes 
advantages of the following two major APIs: Creative's Environmental Audio (EAX) 
or Aureal's A3D (A3D).
 
[6.6.5.1]: A3D
Half-Life supports A3D Vortex 1 & 2 chipset. Get the v2.xx A3D drivers in order 
for A3D to function correctly with Half-Life or else your A3D enhancements will 
not exist. If using your A3D sound card sounds crappy, like low noise, and some 
bad environmental noise mixes, then try these values into the console:
s_distance 18
s_2dvolume 0.88
s_verbwet 0.15
s_min_distance 8
s_refgain 0.34
 
If turning on A3D, and you get a big performance hit, losing some fps, then use 
this command: s_geometry 0. You may lose some of the positional sounds, but not 
much quality hit, but at least it should give back some fps for faster 
performances. Make sure you have at least v1.0.0.8+ for Half-Life. Also download 
the latest sound card drivers for your A3D sound card. Always install the 
reference drivers if your sound card manufacture hasn't updated their drivers. 
You can get the latest drivers at http://www.a3d.com/html/download/drivers/ Once 
you downloaded the latest drivers, delete the a3dapi.dll file in the Half-Life 
directory, only the copy in \windows\system\ is needed. The one in Half-Life's 
directory is kind of old. 
 
[6.6.5.2]: Audio Music
If for some reason, you don't hear music, then it's:
1. CD music not enabled in the game
2. CD music is off
3. CD music volume is off
 
To fix problem one, go through the configuration and into audio and check the 
box Play CD Music. To fix problem two, try this: Start Menu-> Settings-> Control 
Panel-> Multimedia-> CD Music tab. From here, make sure you select your CD-ROM 
drive that would play the audio music and make sure you check the box at the 
bottom so that it could play digital music, and make sure the volume slider is 
all the to right so that the volume is to the highest.
 
For problem three, you can check the volume just like above, or also from the 
Volume Control, where you see the yellow horn near your clock in the task bar. 
Load it up and see if your CD audio volume is up high. If you don't have Volume 
Control, then go and grab your Windows 9x CD-ROM, stick it into your drive, Go 
to Start Menu-> Settings-> Control Panel-> Add/Remove Programs-> Windows Setup-> 
Multimedia-> Volume Control (check it)-> Apply.
 
If nothing works, see if your CD-ROM could play the music from Half-Life CD. Use 
MS's Media Player or any audio CD player and see if you could play any sound 
tracks from 2 through 28. If you can't play any, then your CD-ROM don't support 
the music.
 
[6.6.5.3]: EAX
4 speakers 360 degrees sound is supported after v1.0.0.8 patch. You will need to 
get the v1.0.0.8 patch or higher to enable full 360 degrees of sound with 4 
speaker support. If not, you would only get 180 degrees 2 speaker support (you 
can hear from the rear, but will sound the same as your 2 front speakers would), 
which would suck.
 
[6.6.5.4]: Losing Sound During Gameplay
If you lose sound during gameplay, then you can try this quick fix to see if you 
can get it back: Hit Esc key during gameplay. Then hit Resume Game option once 
in the menu. If your PC is nice enough, it might give you sound back. Works for 
many people who loses sound if they Alt-Tab out of the game. If that doesn't 
work, then you might need to terminate your current game and load it back up. 
Update your sound card drivers is highly advised if there are any.
 
[6.6.5.5]: Repeating Sound Loops
If for some reason, the sound FXs loop and replays through the whole event, say 
the explosion sound FX gets looped and played again and again and again, making 
your ears hurt and have to restart Half-Life, then I got the cure for you. To 
stop the looping sound FX, type this in the console: stopsound. That should stop 
any sound FX that is currently played. Everything else should go back to normal 
after it's executed.
 
[6.6.5.6]: Sound Blaster Cards
If you have a SoundBlaster sound card, you will find that the sound skips and 
sounds horrible. To try and solve this problem, right click on "My Computer" 
icon. Select "properties". Click the "+" sign next to the "Sound, video and 
games controllers" listing. Double click the <your Sound Blaster sound card's 
sound interface to produce sound FX>. Click the "Settings" tab. Make sure the 
"Allow Full-Duplex operation" check box is checked. Click "OK". Reboot.
 
Another thing to try is bring down the console. Type this in: snd_noextraupdate 
1. This fixes the Sound Blaster 64 AWE, letting the users to leave it on high 
sound quality. I don't know if it'll work on other Sound Blaster x cards, but 
give it a try. If it still stutter, make sure you try out section 6.6.5.7 
section in this HLFAQ. Also, fiddle around with the checking the boxes in the 
settings of your sound card interface stuff. Take a look around. If you have 
Sound Blaster Live!, it is recommended that you should update your SBL! drivers.
 
[6.6.5.7]: Stuttering
Try these solutions and see if they could cure your stuttering problems with the 
game:
1. Bring up the console and type this in: _snd_mixahead x.xxx
Where xx.xxx=any number, like 0.145. Try different numbers if it doesn't work. 
Fiddle with the number until it improves.
2. From the Start Menu-> Run, type in this:
<x>:\<HL dir>\hl.exe -wavonly
x=HDD; HL dir=HL's directory
3. Bring up the console and type this in: snd_noextraupdate 1
 
[6.6.6]: Video
There are some information referring to some video stuff in the readme.txt. 
Please read the readme.txt for some information. For the best result, update 
your video card's drivers to the latest drivers available. Half-Life takes 
advantages of the following two major APIs: Open GL or Direct 3D. Half-Life 
could also be run under software mode, but it does not take advantage of 3D 
accelerator cards. Just uses a lot of CPU MHz power to render the game.
 
If you happen to run Half-Life, and it would just crash, then try this solution: 
On the Desktop (right click)-> Properties-> Settings tab-> Advanced...-> 
Performance tab In the Performance tab, slide the pointer left to decrease the 
usage of your video card. It may enable you to play the game and not crash. Keep 
on sliding it more left if you still got problems until you reach none. After 
reaching none, and you see no improvements, then you're SOL.
 
[6.6.6.1]: 3dfx
Half-Life supports 3dfx cards by Open GL via Mini GL. Please also update your 
3dfx video card drivers. You could get both drivers for your 3dfx cards at 
http://www.3dfx.com. You will be greeted by a choose your location page. After 
choosing the appropriate location, pick the link Drivers on the next page. Then 
choose the appropriate video card that you have and get the drivers. Remember to 
get the drivers for your video card and Mini GL (they are two different set of 
drivers).
 
Whatever you do, when you run Half-Life, go through the menu first so that you 
can pick how Half-Life can be run under which hardware acceleration. When you 
get to the Video options menu, pick what drivers should be used under Open GL, 
do not pick 'default'. It's slow. Pick the other choice given, which would be 
3dfx Mini Driver. Note: you must update your Mini GL drivers if necessary. See 
the above paragraph for the information. If you try to run the game without 
updating the Mini GL driver, you will get a black screen and may say 'Loading', 
and it won't go further. This means that the Mini GL that you have is out dated 
on your PC. Go and get the latest Mini GL.
 
If you have a Voodoo1 and get this error: 'Expected VXD version V1.2, got V1.1', 
then that means that you need to update your Voodoo1 drivers. They are outdated 
on your machine. Go grab the latest at http://www.3dfx.com. If you get this 
error: "Mutual exclusion prohibits this", then this means that there are two 
programs try to use the Voodoo2 card at the same time. Do Ctrl+Alt+Del to see if 
any program that can be using your Voodoo2 card. Also try getting the latest 
reference drivers for your Voodoo2 at http://www.3dfx.com might help solve the 
problem. It maybe sometimes be the drivers' fault for that error.
 
Some people have been experiencing problems with their gamma settings with 3dfx 
cards and the v1.0.1.0 patch. The gamma settings for your 3dfx card with 
v1.0.1.0 patch are decided by the 3dfx control panel installed with your card's 
drivers. This was a change to allow users of some 3dfx hardware to set their 
gamma to a higher setting than was allowed in the Half-Life game, as the game 
was too dark. To allow your gamma settings on 3dfx hardware to be decided by the 
Half-Life game, run Half-Life with this command line parameter: -3dfxgamma 
 
If you have a Voodoo2 card, and want to squeeze extra speed out of it, you would 
want to overclock it. To find out how, go to: 
http://www.tweak3d.net/tweak/v2oc/.
 
[6.6.6.2]: 3DWarning
For the first time when running Half-Life, and decide to choose the hardware 
mode, like D3D or Open GL, a warning message comes up. If it keeps coming up, 
then you could disable it. Follow these instructions: Start Menu-> Run. Type 
regedit and hit OK. Go to this registry setting: HKEY_USERS-> .DEFAULT-> 
SOFTWARE-> Valve-> Half-Life-> Settings. Change the 3DWarning key: Right click 
on 3DWarning-> Modify. Change the 0 (zero) into a 1. After all this, press OK. 
Now it shouldn't give you any more hassle about the 3D Warning crap. Make sure 
you don't screw up in the registry. If you do, then you're doomed and you have 
to reinstall Windows and everything else you got on your computer.
 
[6.6.6.3]: Blue Water
If you finally encounter water, and you jump in, and all the sudden, it goes all 
blue, then you've got a problem. The problem is this: it's your video card or 
video card drivers. You need to get updated video card drivers and see if that 
could cure the glitch with rendering underwater scenes. If getting an updated 
driver won't fix your blues, then you can use a quick workaround -switch to 
software mode, get where you need to go and get out of the water, and then 
switch back to your original hardware rendering style. This blue water mostly 
happens with D3D hardware rendering.
 
[6.6.6.4]: D3D
Direct3D Input sometimes seems lagged. If your input seems to lag behind the 
visual display on occasion, type this in the console: gl_d3dflip 1.
 
If you use D3D as your hardware rendering for Half-Life, and you see textures as 
'grayed out', only black boxes, etc, then there maybe a big problem. The problem 
is that your video card, perhaps your video card drivers too, are either too old 
or can't handle D3D. The first thing you could do is to update your video card 
drivers. This may solve the problem. If updating your video card drivers won't 
help, then that only means that your video card can not handle D3D rendering 
(a.k.a. your video card sucks). Only one solution exists for this kind of 
problem: dump the current video card and go buy one that can do it. 3dfx's 
Voodoo x and nVidia's TNTx/GeForce video cards are good ones to go on.
 
[6.6.6.5]: Decals
Some video cards out there, have problems creating/placing decals (blood, bullet 
holes, etc...). Some could only view from a specific angle, some disappears if 
close, reappears if far way. To fix this problem, type this in the console: 
gl_polyoffset xx
Where xx=any number, fiddle around with the numbers until you get it right. Try 
these values: 0.1,-0.1, 1, -1, 20, or -20. .001 fixes i740 video cards, 20 fixes 
TNT video cards.
 
[6.6.6.6]: Matrox
If you can't see underwater other than in software mode, then you need to get 
the latest patch for your video card. Go to http://www.matrox.com and get the 
latest patch/drivers for your video card and it should correct your mishap with 
underwater adventures. Try the beta drivers to see if they work.
 
[6.6.6.7]: Multiple 3D Cards
Go to http://www.3dfiles.com/utility/ and go under Multiple Video Cards section. 
Click the link and it should give you multiple programs to choose from to let 
you switch from 3D cards, like the TNT/Voodoo x for an example.
 
[6.6.6.8]: Open GL
Please visit your video card manufacturer's web site and see if your video card 
supports it. If it does, find your video card drivers for Open GL, may also be 
called ICD. After getting any essential Open GL files from your manufacturer's 
web site, install them to enable Open GL support for your video card.
 
Some video cards just install supporting drivers and use their own Open GL 
coding, Installable Client Drivers (ICD). For instance, 3dfx's Open GL file is 
called 3dfxogl.dll (this file can be renamed as opengl32.dll). But you can use a 
generic Open GL called opengl32.dll, should be about 753,808 bytes big (about 
736 to 737 KB). It can be found under C:\Windows and C:\Windows\System\. If you 
don't have the generic Open GL file, then here's the link to get it: 
ftp://ftp.microsoft.com/softlib/mslfiles/opengl95.exe.
 
PCs older than Win95 OSR 2 should get that file linked above to fix the Open GL 
and upgrade the file. Get this file, because it's a fix. This is v1.1 of Open 
GL. Some video cards rely on this generic Open GL driver. In order to use the 
generic Open GL driver, you must install your video card drivers that supports 
Open GL first. There are some video card manufactures that support Open GL by 
just updating your video card drivers and then just download a file for Open GL, 
which would usually be opengl32.dll. This for sure was done by ATI for their 
Rage Pro (started for GLQuake). If you are given the file opengl32.dll, it is 
needed to be placed it where Half-Life would detect it and so that you could 
play using hardware rendering. Copy the opengl32.dll into C:\SIERRA\Half-
Life\gldrv\ (assuming that's the installation default directory).
 
After copying the opengl32.dll, you need to edit a file to make Half-Life see 
the file. The file should be drvmap.txt within C:\SIERRA\Half-Life\gldrv\ the 
same directory. Open it up with a text editor. Now, it should have something 
like this:
Default Default
3dfxgl.dll 3dfx Mini Driver
 
Now, to make Half-Life see the opengl32.dll file, type this in:
opengl32.dll Open GL
 
So it should look like this within the file:
Default Default
3dfxgl.dll 3dfx Mini Driver
opengl32.dll Open GL
^^^^^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^
File's name and name to see listed in the game. Now, save the file and Half-Life 
should let you run Open GL. So, start up Half-Life, and go to Configuration-> 
Video Mode selection. Now, select Open GL. To the left, it should give you a box 
listing several choices. The box is left on Default if it's not messed with. 
Now, click the down button arrow and choose Open GL, or whatever you named it 
back in the drvmap.txt. Hint: It's not going to be the choices Default or 3dfx 
Mini Driver. It should be what you named it in the drvmap.txt. Now run the game 
and it should be accelerated in Open GL.
 
[6.6.6.9]: Screen Not Aligned
Whenever you play, and you start up the game, the viewing area screen slides 
like an inch off from the regular windows setting, and you need to re-adjust the 
screen. Well, it may have to do with your refresh rate. People with two video 
cards, like a primary 2D card and a 3D card, would likely to see this problem. 
It is because two of the video cards are using the same refresh rate. To try and 
fix this problem, you need to assign one of the video card a different refresh 
rate.
 
[6.6.6.10] Slow Menu
If the in game menu slows down so much, try this solution: Start Menu-> Run-> 
Type in regedit-> Find the key CPUMHZ under: 
HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\Valve\Half-Life\Settings\. Open up the CPUMHZ key and 
edit the value from 0 (zero) to 1. That should make the menu fly by quicker. 
Reverse the number if it ends up doing the opposite.
 
[6.6.6.11]: Nvidia
Please get the reference drivers (Detonator) for your TNT boards. The URL is: 
http://www.nvidia.com/Products.nsf/htmlmedia/software_drivers.html so that the 
game would work at its best for your Open GL hardware rendering.
 
There's a site out there that have TNT tweaks, especially for Half-Life: 
http://www.voodooextreme.com/tweak3d/tweak/rivatnt/.
 
When switching between Open GL and D3D with a TNT card, decals may not display 
correctly. To fix this, type this in the console: gl_polyoffset 4.
 
If you are having unreadable text when using TNT, then do the following: Right 
click Desktop-> Properties-> Riva TNT-> Additional Properties-> Direct3D. Set 
auto-mipmap to trilinear, mipmap detail to best image quality. Then go to 
advanced and enable fog table emulation.
 
For the TNT2, it is advised to use the reference drivers off of Nvidia's web 
site. Check it out at http://www.nvidia.com and download the latest drivers for 
your TNT2. Note: TNT2 can use TNT drivers (some of them).
 
[6.6.6.12]: Video Tearing
When running the game under hardware rendering, sometimes, there are tearing and 
lines cut from here to there. There are several reasons why:
1. Fast refresh rate
2. V-Sync enabled
3. Old non-up-to-date video drivers
4. The game itself
To fix problem one, lower the refresh rate, by right click on Desktop-> 
Properties. To solved problem two, disable V-Sync. To solve problem three, get 
updated drivers from your video manufacturer's web site. To fix problem four, 
enter this in the console (only if you're running D3D or Open GL hardware 
acceleration mode): gl_keeptjunctions 1.
 
[6.6.6.13]: Video Too Dark
If the video settings are too dark and you can't see anything, then you can try 
and up the brightness on your monitor's settings. If that doesn't help, then try 
these two commands in the console:
gamma #
brightness #
# = any number from 0 through whatever. 0 = dark, 5 = 5x brighter, etc... Do not 
try double digits/triple digits until you tried up to 9 and still say it's 
dark...
 
If you have a 3dfx card and updated Half-Life v1.0.1.0 or higher, then there's a 
command that will let you follow how gamma is set up from your video card 
properties found when right click on desktop. The command is a parameter to be 
used with Half-Life. It's -3dfxgamma. Go to section 7.2.3 to check out the 
information about the usage of the parameter.
 
[6.6.6.14]: Visual Enhancements
Anthony "Reverend" Tan, devoted some of his time to create a good guide, of 
telling what variables are good for your PC and to enjoy the game to be used 
with Half-Life. Better known as 'tweaks', which are to find the best 
configurations and to take advantages of their usage to make the game a better 
way to play it than before. Based on Voodoo2 results. It'll work with other 
video cards, but results will vary. HALF-LIFE Visuals Tweak Guide at:
Shockwave: http://www.voodooextreme.com/reverend/flash/Main.html
Regular: http://www.voodooextreme.com/reverend/Main.html
 
[6.7]: Virus
This one word makes the computer go nuts! Okay, I've seen a few problems. Some 
of the problems, like can't upgrade to v1.0.0.8 or can't run game because 
hlds.exe is incorrect version, etc... This is a result of a virus on your 
computer. Yes. There is a virus on your computer. Don't doubt me. But if your 
current virus scanner don't see any virus whatsoever, you should get one that is 
the latest. You can get a good virus checker at: http://www.avp.com. Here's a 
quicker and faster way to get rid of the WinCIH virus if you know you got this 
one: http://www.pspl.com/download/cleancih.htm. Go there and it will have 
instructions on how to use the cleancih.exe to clean out all the WinCIH viruses.
 
Please be aware, that this is the main cause of why it gives you that message 
that hlds.exe is corrupted or incorrect version, etc. The virus that you may be 
looking for is the WinCIH virus. It alters program files and changes the file 
not to resemble itself anymore. The programs will continue to work, but it is 
best to remove this WinCIH virus ASAP. This CIH virus can be cleaned. Other than 
that, there can be other viruses that can affect Half-Life. Here's a short 
information on the WinCIH virus: There are three variants (1.2, 1.3 and 1.4) of 
Win95.CIH virus. These variants can be identified from the text string present 
in the virus code. The variants 1.2 and 1.4 are reported to be in the wild and 
spreading. Win95.CIH.1.2 and 1.3 do the damage on 26th of April only and 
Win95.CIH.1.4 does it on the 26th every month. Win95.CIH.1.4 is also the most 
frequently reported variant.

[7]: PERFORMANCE TIPS
 
[7.1]: Enhance Sound Effects
Okay, this isn't none of those hidden stuff that Microsoft slapped into their OS 
or is this trick new. It's been there forever, so it's not new. You can try to 
get 3D sound by going to Start Menu-> Programs-> Accessories-> Entertainment-> 
Volume Control-> Advanced. Under Advanced Controls for Volume Control, go under 
the 'Other controls' and it should have a box and have an option for "3D Effect 
Enable". Check this box and get ready to be amazed like I did. Some other sound 
cards have different options, but be sure to check it out what it got to offer.
 
If you don't have Volume Control, then go and grab your Windows 9x CD-ROM, stick 
it into your drive, Go to Start Menu-> Settings-> Control Panel-> Add/Remove 
Programs-> Windows Setup-> Multimedia-> Volume Control (check it)-> Apply. Some 
sound cards may give you this option, so it's all up to your sound card. If you 
don't see the 3D Effect Enable option, then that means that your sound card 
can't do 3D effects, or somewhat.
 
[7.2]: Half-Life Tweaks
Here are some Half-Life tweaks to try out. Here's a link for Half-Life tweaks: 
http://www.tweak3d.net/tweak/hl/. Try that link out if anything below doesn't 
make sense.
 
[7.2.1]: Autoexec.cfg
It is recommended that you should create a cfg file, let it be autoexec.cfg so 
that it can load some of tweaking commands or anything for Half-Life. This would 
save your butt from typing repeated commands that you always want to use when 
playing Half-Life. Take a look at section 4.1. There's also an automated 
autoexec creator for people who needs some visual to help them make an 
autoexec.cfg. Here's the link: http://www.tweak3d.net/autoexec/halflife/.
 
[7.2.2]: Multi-Player
Here are some tips and tweaks to get some improvements out of MP online:
To see what's your lag, in a graph format, access the console (follow section 
2.1.5, to find out how to get it). Now, type this in the console: r_netgraph 1. 
Green represents lag. The higher the green lines go, it shows how long data 
packets get to your PC. You actually want short green lines. Red represents data 
lost/data dropped. You do not want red lines. If you get too much of these, 
you'll see opponents skipping around. Yellow represents too much data for your 
connection. You need to raise your rate xxxx to see if you can eliminate the 
yellow lines. Other than that, you have a limited bandwidth connection. Blue 
means corrupted data. To turn off the net graph, type in this: r_netgraph 0. 
  
R_netgraph has other settings too. If you use r_netgraph 2 or 3, it displays 
more in depth information about your network stats. Here is what Yahn has to say 
about it: "r_netgraph 3 allows you to monitor bandwidth usage over the server to 
client channel. I wouldn't worry about r_netgraph 2, as r_netgraph 3 has all of 
the additional information in it. Here's how it works: The green hashes up the 
side of the HUD represent 50 bytes each of data each. As the graph moves from 
right to left, each vertical column represents a message from the server that 
the client received (or dropped, or was choked, or was invalid). The way to read 
the part above the white divider is as follows: the yellow chunk is player data, 
the purple is entity data (non-player entities), the blue is temporary entities 
info, and the green is sounds. The full message size is indicated with a little 
gray dot. For our future games (and possibly for future updates to Half-Life / 
TFC multiplayer), we expect to see substantial decreases in the yellow and 
purple parts and we believe we can almost completely eliminate the blue and 
green lines. To see why this is important, fire up a game of HLDM, turn on 
netgraph 3 and fire the shotgun with the alternate fire key (i.e., fire both 
barrels). Look at the netgraph when you do this, there's a lot of data (~100 
bytes) created to get all of the shotgun effects over to the client (sound, 
bullet decals, shell ejections, muzzleflash, punching the clients view, etc.). 
This data flow is not an issue in single player, but a big issue in multiplayer. 
We're investing a lot of research into technologies that will save us bandwidth 
in this area. What this will translate to is a much better play experience on a 
28.8 or 56K modem (less lag, etc.), something that we think is critical to the 
continued on-line success of Half-Life / TFC, and any of our future titles." 
 
To mess around with your bandwidth connection, access the console. Now type this 
in the console: rate xxxx. Where xxxx=any four digit number, prefer around 2600-
4800 for analog modem users, and 4800+ for higher/quality/digital connections 
like ISDNs, T1s, etc. 2600=28.8 modem, 4800=56k modem. If the rate is set lower 
than your connection is at, say if you have a 56k modem, it is unwise to put 
rate at 2600. You got twice the 28.8 modem connection, so put rate as 4800. If 
you do set the rate lower, then that means that there's a possibility that 
you're going to get yellow lines in the netgraph. To reduce yellow lines, raise 
the rate xxxx higher than it is. Just think as the digits as number of 
characters (or bytes) per second your connection can handle. If your rate is set 
higher than 5000, then you will then need to switch over to using the command 
fps_lan xx instead.
 
To add more to the rate xxxx command, there's a command to try and stop "ice 
skating" across the whole level because the result of lag. Bring down the 
console, and type this in: pushlatency -xxx. Where -xxx=any digit number, prefer 
1/10th of your rate xxxx. Example: in game rate 4800. Put the -xxx to 480. So 
this is what the command would look like this in the console: pushlatency -480. 
Others insist on a negative number half of your latency while in game. You can 
try that too, but I didn't see good results when I went under -480. But it 
depends on you, so you decide which is the best. 
 
To limit how much data would be sent to you, there's a command to limit how much 
should be sent. The command in console is: fps_modem xx. Where xx=any double 
digit number, designed for how much fps you should get to have a good game. Put 
it to 20 or something. Remember, whatever number you put, that's how much fps 
you are going to get. And that's the limit fps you're going to see. If you put 
10 for the fps_modem, then you're going to get maximum of 10 fps for the 
duration of your game play. Don't be stupid and assign the number like 100. If 
you do, don't be surprised if your ping jumps up (for some reason, if I jack 
this number very high, nothing happens, but it's a warning that it might 
happen). The lower the number, the lower the lag. 
 
Another thing that is very good, is to disable pretty looking graffities. Yes, 
I'm talking about the ones that you have to download, especially when you just 
enter the game, and then find out that you are downloading other people's 
decals, which lagged and bogged your connection down. To disable this annoying 
feature, then type this into the console: r_decals 0. But, if you want to see 
some decals, it's best to set r_decals to a low number. I have mine set to 
r_decals 256, meaning that the game will only allow a maximum of 256 decals to 
be present in the game at the whole time. If decals reach the max, then they 
will clear from the memory and would just keep cycling through and through. Kind 
of like if you run out of memory, then it will remove the first decal and let 
the latest decal appear - kind of like chronological order. You must have at 
least v1.0.0.8 to do this if you want to set a limit on decals. 
 
The last and best thing to stop lag, especially just connecting to the server is 
use this command: cl_download_ingame "0". This disables all decal downloads. 
It's that little orange bar that is under your health, that downloads decals, 
which is annoying and lags you to death if you're just joining the game, or 
someone who just joined the game. If you want to try and tweak your connection 
quality, please take a visit to section 7.3.1 for Bandwidth. This would be the 
last thing to do before you go crazy.
 
[7.2.3]: Parameters
How to use these parameters are easy. To do this, for example: Start Menu-> Run.
Type in: C:\Sierra\Half-Life\hl.exe -<command>
Example: C:\Sierra\Half-Life\hl.exe -noip
 
Here are the current available parameters/flags to use:
-32bpp
This enables 32-bit true color mode rendering of the game. You must have 
v1.0.0.9+ patch for Half-Life in order to do this. Also make sure that gl_dither 
is set to 0 (zero) (example: gl_dither 0).
 
-3dfxgamma
This allows your gamma settings on 3dfx hardware to be decided by the Half-Life 
game.
 
-console
This enables the usage of the console, where commands can be used and to tweak 
some commands that can alter the game to be more efficient or degrade to he||. 
This also skips the two short movie introductions.
 
-d3d
This enables Direct3D hardware rendering mode. This command is only available 
from v1.0.0.9+ patches.
 
-dev
This is "developer" mode. It just prints out a lot of developer debug messages. 
Not recommended to use it, because it eats up some CPU power to display those 
commands when you don't really need to see it. So don't use this command unless 
you want to troubleshoot Half-Life.
 
-full
This runs Half-Life in full screen mode.
 
-game <game's name>
This is to enable Half-Life to play modification games other than to go through 
the menu to select them. This is a shortcut. An example to this command would be 
TFC. So it'll look like this: -game tfc. Don't bother doing this if you're 
playing the normal Half-Life game.
 
-gamegauge <demo name>
This runs the demo in Game Gauge mode. This is a benchmark utility that runs a 
demo as fast as possible and stores the framerate in a file called fps.txt in 
the Half-Life directory. Where <demo name> is the demo that you used to record 
during a gamin session or downloaded off he internet. When typing in the <demo 
name> part, leave out the three letter extension.
 
-gl
This enables Open GL hardware rendering mode. Use the -gldrv command too if 
using this command.
 
-gldrv <driver name>
This selects the Open GL driver. The two choices are "Default", "3dfxgl.dll" and 
any other driver(s) listed in the drvmap.txt.
 
-heapsize x
Where x is how much RAM you got in KB. Say you got 32 MB of RAM. Replace x with 
16384. Don't be foolish and replace the x with more than what you got in RAM. 
People with more than 64 MB of RAM sometimes feel that it's not using the RAM 
being supplied. Well, they're right. This command invokes to show Half-Life all 
the RAM that you have and it can be used. The reason with half of the RAM you 
got, because Windows would already used half your RAM for it's OS. Putting it to 
32768 wouldn't do anything.
 
-nointro
This is to skip the two avi's in the beginning.
 
-noip
This is useful when you get that D.U.N. box to go away and to give you no IP 
address. Remove this command whenever playing on the internet. If not, then you 
will fail to connect to any servers.
 
-noipx
This is only to remove that annoying IPX error crap whenever starting up Half-
Life all the time. Put this in and you don't have to see the IPX error any more. 
This just disables IPX network protocol.
 
-numericping
This is very useful and great. Instead of the in game Half-Life server browser's 
green dots used, it will then instead be replaced by numbers of latency, as in 
pings. Only available in v1.0.0.8 or later versions of Half-Life.
 
-particles <number>
This is useful for those who build levels for Half-Life. This is useful to 
search for leaks in the maps. The <number> is to set aside some buffer space.
 
-port 27016
Use this with HL.exe. This allows you to play on your own server after running 
HLDS.exe. This assigns HL.exe port 27016, so that it won't conflict with 
HLDS.exe's port 27016 (defaulted). Use this whenever you want to play on your 
own dedicated server.
 
-soft
This enables Half-Life to be rendered in software mode.
 
-startwindowed
This enables Half-Life to start in a window mode, instead of fullscreen.
 
-toconsole
When this is used, upon launching Half-Life, it would bring you to the console 
the first thing, no intro movies or the menu, just the console.
 
-w <#>
This sets the video mode display width. Where <#> is the width in pixels of 
desired video mode display.
 
-wavonly
This disables Direct Sound and plays SFX in wav files. A fix for some sound 
cards that have stuttering problems. Also removes that annoying "no directsound 
driver" error message when loading up Half-Life. Use this command if you get 
that error message, besides, you don't have directsound drivers, so just use 
this command. Beware: there's a bug with this command. It will cause the 
resolution to be locked at 320 by 240 on start up on the games. You will need to 
change the resolution in the menu every time upon launching Half-Life.
 
-win
This enables Half-Life to start in a window mode, instead of fullscreen.
 
-zone <###>
This allocates more memory to scripting files, like autoexec.cfg and so forth. 
Replace <###> with any number, preferred the number that the error gives when 
scripts are too big.
 
[7.3]: PC Tweaks
Here are some tips/tricks on how to speed up your PC before you go out and spend 
a fortune to upgrade to get more speed out of your PC.
 
[7.3.1]: Bandwidth
Here's a good link to a site that have some good internet tweaks and information 
for you:
http://www.voodooextreme.com/3Fingers/stuff/nettweak.htm. Visit it, and it 
should get you going about internet tweaks to make your connection 
better/faster, although not guaranteed. But it's worth a try. Even though this 
web page is meant for cable modem tweaks, it can also be used for other high 
bandwidth connections. Here are some sites:
http://home.tampabay.rr.com/philip1/cable.htm
http://www.speedguide.net/Cable_modems/
Be warned when trying those tweaks above. Some people reported good downloading 
speeds, but Half-Life became choppy. Make sure you back-up your registry before 
trying any of those tweaks.
 
Here are some web pages that has some modem tweaks that you can try out:
http://www.tweak3d.net/tweak/modem/
http://www.spy.net/%7Edustin/modem/
http://home.inreach.com/echevarr/pingpage.htm
 
[7.3.2]: Windows 9x
Here are some quick PC performances at the last moment to speed things up before 
you go insane. For even more tweaks, visit these site:
http://www.pcvelocity.com/apps/tweaks/win9x/tweaks.shtml
http://www.tweak3d.net
 
[7.3.2.1]: Defrag
Defrag is going to be your favorite word. If you don't know what this word 
means, take a dictionary and look up the word 'defragment'. But if you can't 
find the word, look for 'fragment' and take the opposite of that word and you 
should find out what I mean. To get to the point, do the following: Start Menu-> 
Programs-> Accessories-> System Tools-> Disk Defragmenter This would rearrange 
files to a big piece so that the files aren't spread everywhere on the HDD, 
shortening the HDD's life span. Make sure you do 'full defragmentation' if you 
decide to go into Options. If you have two HDD, then go to the section 7.3.2.4 
to find out a tip.
 
[7.3.2.2]: ScanDisk
Before doing anything else, first let's clean off any errors on your HDD before 
doing other things. You need to clean off errors before doing anything else 
because the errors would still exist after you do anything else. So, let's use 
ScanDisk, found at: Start Menu-> Programs-> Accessories-> System Tools-> 
ScanDisk. After loading ScanDisk, make sure you select the option 'Standard' 
under 'Type of Test'. Also, make sure you check every HDD listed in the box. 
Now, click the button 'Advanced...' and enable the following recommended 
options:
1. Display Summary: Always
2. Log File: No Log
3. Cross-Linked Files: Delete
4. Lost File Fragments: Free
5. Check Files For: Invalid File Names, Invalid Dates And Times, and Duplicate 
Names.
 
Run ScanDisk with those options enabled and fix any errors that are given. 
Always delete cross-linked files, always free up lost file fragments, and always 
fix invalid things. Most of these errors are useless to bring them back, so do 
what's best for your HDD(s).
 
[7.3.2.3]: Turn Them Off
In no way should any other programs run in the background when playing any 
games. It is ridiculous, unless you want it to and take up valuable resources 
and speed away from the game. You want everything dedicated to your game and 
only your game. So shut down everything in the background, even your desktop 
wallpaper - yes, those take up memory. Put the background to none should do the 
trick. To shut down anything that runs in the background, give it the three 
finger salute: [Ctrl]+[Alt]+[Del]. Close everything except Explorer and Systray.
 
[7.3.2.4]: Virtual Memory
Virtual Memory is the next in line if your RAM fails to hold the information. 
This is kind of a bad thing. Virtual Mem. is slow, because it is cached on your 
HDD. But another bad thing is that Microsoft programmed it to resize it whenever 
it thinks it needs more room.
 
To take care of your Virtual Mem., create a solid file for it to use. Do the 
following: My Computer-> (right click) Properties-> Performance tab-> Virtual 
Memory-> Let me specify my own virtual memory settings.
 
For the Hard disk, if you have two, select where the swap file should be. To 
make this decision easier, put it on the HDD that  is not the one running your 
game. If you have one, you have no choice, but to leave it as C drive. For the 
Minimum and Maximum variable, put it as the same number for both. It depends on 
how much free space you have on the HDD that you're putting the swap file on. 
Putting 200 MB worth and dedicated to VM would be nice. Do it if you can. If you 
can't, 80 to 100 should do it. A minimum of 40 would do it, but it might spring 
up an error message saying that there are none left for VM, so put at least 80 
MB of VM.
 
For you people that have more than one HDD, defrag the HDD that would be the 
source of the VM swap file. To do this, change your swap file to the other HDD. 
This would clear any obstacles stopping the speeding access of the VM swap file.
 
[7.4]: Updates
Some update suggestions.
 
[7.4.1]: Drivers
It is always wise to update old and outdated drivers with the newest and latest 
drivers if possible. It is always a solution if something doesn't work. Drivers 
do fix glitches and may speed up the hardware(s) associated with the drivers, 
especially video cards. That's where you see drivers affect the most.
 
[7.4.2]: Half-Life
It's always wise to update Half-Life. It's recommended that you update Half-Life 
to at least v1.0.0.8 if you're just only playing single-player mode. For those 
who plays on the internet, then that that would mean that you are required to 
get the latest patch, which is v1.0.1.3.
 
[7.4.3]: PC
Well, this is all opinion right here. It's the deciding factor for games to run 
better and smoother if you got the budget to do so. Upgrading your computer is a 
nice thing, with new hardware to run the latest games. If you have a low budget, 
consider a RAM update, and then a video card update, considering if you have at 
least a Pentium MMX that is.
 
To me, a decent video card, like a Voodoo or TNT card would do fine. Having at 
least 64 MB of RAM should also be a must. For the CPU, it should be more than a 
Pentium 200 MMX to get some juice out of the game. It's not recommended to have 
A3D sound card to accelerate sound FXs, because it takes some % of CPU power to 
give you good sound FXs. So turn the  off or avoid getting them, if you have a 
low end PC. Now, if you have a monster speeding PC, then that's another story.

[8]: INTERNET RESOURCES
 
[8.1]: Forums
alt.games.half-life
-newsgroup for Half-Life
 
alt.games.half-life.editing
-newsgroup for Half-Life editing related
 
alt.games.half-life.tfclassic
-newsgroup for Half-Life: Team Fortress Classic
 
alt.binaries.games.half-life
-newsgroup for Half-Life binary files
 
http://forums.planethalflife.com/
-forum for planethalflife web site
 
http://marcus.sierra.com/forums/half/
-official Half-Life forum from Sierra
 
[8.2]: Utilities
http://www.egnus.com
-EGN: Game ping/list program
 
http://www.gamespy.com
-GameSpy: Game ping/list program
 
http://www.icq.com
-ICQ: A message/pager/chat program, used to keep in touch with friends
 
http://www.pingtool.com
-PingTool: Pinging program
 
[8.3]: Web Sites
Here are some of the websites that you can start off looking for Half-Life 
information. Not all sites are listed:
http://decyber.solgames.com/halflife
-dedicated to Half-Life maps
 
http://halflife.gamedesign.net
-dedicated to building Half-Life maps
 
http://halflife.gamegurus.net/map/tutorials
-Half-Life tutorials for creating maps
 
http://halflife.gameplex.net
-dedicated to Half-Life
 
http://halflife.pcgame.com
-Once as I.AM.Half-Life site
 
http://www.contaminated.net
-dedicated to Half-Life, site a.k.a. www.planethalflife.com
 
http://www.contaminated.net/coldfusion
-models for Half-Life multiplayer
 
http://www.contaminated.net/radium
-dedicated to SP and MP maps for Half-Life
 
http://www.contaminated.net/repository
-spray painting (graffities)
 
http://www.halflife.org
-dedicated to Half-Life with up-to-date news
 
http://www.halflife.net
-dedicated to Half-Life
 
http://www.planetfortress.com/radium
-dedicated to Team Fortress Classic maps
 
http://www.sierrastudios.com/games/half-life
-official Half-Life site

CHAPTER [9]: HISTORY
 
v.11.27.1999 - Fourteenth version released.
v9.4.1999 - Thirteenth version released. Once text based, now HTML.
v8.22.1999 - Twelfth version released.
v6.1.1999 - Eleventh version released.
v5.9.1999 - Tenth version released
v4.24.1999 - Ninth version released.
v4.10.1999 - Eighth version released.
v2.27.1999 - Seventh version released.
v2.1.1999 - Sixth version released.
v1.23.1999 - Fifth version released.
v1.16.1999 - Fourth version released.
v1.9.1999 - Third version released.
v1.1.1999 - Second version released.
v12.22.1998 - First version released.

(c) 1998, 1999 and beyond, HQH. All rights reserved.