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    Weapons Guide by Scottie theNerd

    Version: 1.01 | Updated: 09/17/06 | Printable Version | Search Guide | Bookmark Guide

    ===============================================================================
    =                                                                             =
    =                    MEDAL OF HONOR ALLIED ASSAULT: SPEARHEAD                 =
    =                               ------------------                            =
    =                                 Weapons Guide                               =
    =                                        ~                                    =
    =            Written by Scottie_theNerd (scottie_thenerd@yahoo.com)           =
    =                           Copyright © 2005 Scott Lee                        =
    =                                                                             =
    ===============================================================================
    
    
    *******************************************************************************
    				LEGAL DISCLAIMER
    *******************************************************************************
    
    This guide is written by Scott Lee, who also goes under the names of David
    Nguyen and Scottie_theNerd. Should this FAQ be hosted on any site other than
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    Distributing this guide without prior permission is a direct violation of
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    To gain permission, ask nicely via an email to scottie_thenerd@yahoo.com. This
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    Anything resembling spam will be promptly removed.
    
    
    ===============================================================================
    				Version History
    ===============================================================================
    
    -v1.01 (Apr 20 2005)			-Accidentally left out Smoke Grenades
    					 They've been added now
    
    -v1.00 (Apr 17 2005)			-First version complete
    
    
    ---------
    Contents
    ---------
    
    1.0 - Introduction
      1.1 - Weapon Handling and Recoil
      1.2 - Ammunition
      1.3 - Spearhead Additions
      1.4 - Player Teams and Models
    
    2.0 - Pistols
      2.1 - Colt .45
      2.2 - Walther P-38
      2.3 - Webley Revolver
      2.4 - Nagant Revolver
      2.5 - General Pistol Tactics
    
    3.0 - Rifles
      3.1 - M1 Garand
      3.2 - Kar98k
      3.3 - Springfield '03
      3.4 - G43
      3.5 - Lee-Enfield
      3.6 - Mosin-Nagant
      3.7 - SVT40
      3.8 - General Rifle Tactics
    
    4.0 - Submachine Guns
      4.1 - Thompson
      4.2 - MP40
      4.3 - Sten Mk.II
      4.4 - PPSh SMG
      4.5 - General Submachine Gun Tactics
    
    5.0 - Machine Guns
      5.1 - BAR
      5.2 - Stg44
      5.3 - General Machine Gun Tactics
    
    6.0 - Grenades
      6.1 - M2 Frag Grenade
      6.2 - Stielhandgranate
      6.3 - Mills Grenade
      6.4 - F1 Grenade
      6.5 - Smoke Grenade
      6.5 - General Grenade Tactics
    
    7.0 - Heavy Weapons
      7.1 - Winchester Shotgun
      7.2 - Bazooka
      7.3 - Panzerschreck
      7.4 - Gewehrgranate
    
    8.0 - Other Weapons
      8.1 - MG42
      8.2 - PzB 41
      8.3 - AA Flak gun
      8.4 - Flak 88
      8.5 - Nebelwerfer
      8.6 - T34
    
    
    *~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*
     1.0 - INTRODUCTION
    *~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*
    
    The expansion to the classic Medal of Honor Allied Assault, Spearhead retains 
    much of the original gameplay mechanics with some drastic additions in terms of 
    weapons and tweaking damage.
    
    Playing as Sgt. Jack Barnes of the 101st Airborne, players are flown through 
    the skies of Normandy as they parachute down to engage in battle the night 
    before D-Day, fighting a gruelling battle at Bastogne and engage in espionage 
    in Berlin with the Russians. While the plot is a bit questionable (ie. What 
    were the British doing in the 101st drop zones? What was a 101st paratrooper 
    doign in Berlin with Russians?), the game opened up different locations of 
    battle and, as mentioned above, introduced a plethora of new weapons.
    
    Using this multi-front approach, Spearhead allows players to choose different 
    weapons within teams based on their player model. As such, players can select 
    between Russian, British and American weapons in multiplayer, as well as the 
    obligatory German weapons.
    
    Also changed are hit animations, hit boxes and damage levels. Rifles are now 
    given great justice in their power and precision, and new, larger maps greatly 
    improve the practicality of using such a firearm. The addition of an inbuilt 
    "realism" mode also helps even the playing field.
    
    The purpose of this guide is to introduce a historical background on the 
    weapons of Spearhead, as well as provide notes and observations on how these 
    weapons handle in the game itself. Through this understanding, one's playing 
    experience will be greatly improved.
    
    
    ===============================================================================
     1.1 - Weapon Handling and Recoil
    ===============================================================================
    
    Unlike previous first-person shooters, Allied Assault accurately models weapons 
    by implementing certain features into the game. While iron sights cannot be 
    used, every weapon features a crosshair to indicate the approximate hit 
    location.
    
    Every weapon also has a certain "cone of fire" extending from the weapon. At 
    close ranges, bullets will have a very small hit pattern. At longer ranges, the 
    bullet spread is drastically higher. The amount of spread varies between 
    between weapons: rifles are almost pinpoint accurate to infinite ranges, while 
    pistols will be quite erratic beyond 20 metres or so.
    
    Also implemented is "recoil", the kickback caused by firing the weapon. Allied 
    Assault simulates this by shaking the screen; the amount of shaking determined 
    by the type of weapon fired. Machine guns will have a lot more recoil, while 
    pistols will be quite stable.
    
    With these factors in mind, it is important to consider the type of weapon used 
    for any situation, given the range of firefights, the accuracy of the weapon 
    and the amount of recoil it presents.
    
    
    ===============================================================================
     1.2 - Ammunition
    ===============================================================================
    
    As with Allied Assault, ammunition is compatible with other weapons of that 
    category. For example, a player holding a Thompson can pick up ammo from an 
    MP40 and use it as SMG ammunition. Likewise, there is no distinction between 
    BAR and STG44 ammunition. The collection of ammunition is purely based on the 
    type of weapon, and not the actual ammunition fired.
    
    
    ===============================================================================
     1.3 - Spearhead Additions
    ===============================================================================
    
    The following weapons have been added to Spearhead:
    - Webley revolver
    - Nagant revolver
    - Lee-Enfield
    - Sten Mk.II
    - Mills Grenade
    - Mosin-Nagant
    - SVT40
    - PPSh SMG
    - F1 Grenade
    - G43
    - Smoke Grenade
    - Gewehrgranate
    - AA Flak gun
    - Flak 88
    - Nebelwerfer
    
    Most firearms now have a melee attack, carried out by pressing the secondary 
    fire button (default: right mouse button).
    
    
    ===============================================================================
     1.4 - Player Teams and Models
    ===============================================================================
    
    Unlike Allied Assault, Spearhead allows some flexibility in choosing specific 
    nations rather than a general Allied/Axis matchup. While matches are still 
    Allied vs Axis, Allied players can pick from a range of player models, which 
    are categorised by country (British, American and Russian). Picking an American 
    model, for example, will allow them to pick American weapons. Likewise, picking 
    a Russian model will allow access to the Russian weapon set.
    
    The Germans, being the only available team on the Axis, are stuck with their 
    German weapons regardless of player model.
    
    This should be noted and used effectively if there is a weapon you prefer 
    using.
    
    
    *~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*
     2.0 - PISTOLS
    *~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*
    
    Originally derived from incredibly shortened rifles, pistols grew from 
    flintlock sidearms to revolver technology to semi-automatic, magazine-fed 
    weapons, and ultimately to full-automatic mini-submachine guns. Light, easily 
    concealable and accurate at short ranges, the pistol makes an excellent 
    undercover weapon, and is most commonly used as a backup weapon for armed 
    forces.
    
    Allied Assault features three pistols, including one only available for single 
    player.
    
    
    ===============================================================================
     2.1 - Colt .45
    ===============================================================================
    
    Name:                    	M1911A1 Colt Automatic Pistol
    Country of origin:       	USA
    Available for:			American
    Calibre:                 	.45 ACP
    Magazine capacity:       	7 rounds
    Firing mechanism:        	Single-action, recoil-operated
    Weight:				1.08kg
    
    -----------------------
     Historical Background
    -----------------------
    
    Designed by John Browning in 1900 and based off a previous civilian design, the
    Colt M1911A1 was adopted by the US Army in 1911 after winning competitive
    shooting trials in 1907. Various refinements were made after experience in the
    First World War. When fired, the pistol recoils, allowing the barrel to move
    downwards and back, ejecting the spent case and loading the next bullet. The
    Colt also features a manual catch and external hammer, as well as a safety grip
    that prevents the gun being fired unless held properly.
    
    Initially, M1911A1's were not issued as a standard sidearm to American troops, 
    and was given only to officers. However, many non-commissioned soldiers 
    acquired their own M1911A1's, and they were later issued as a standard weapon 
    for all troops.
    
    The M1911A1 has remained the standard sidearm of the US Army until late in the
    20th Century without any modifications; it needs none. A solid weapon and one
    of the finest pistols ever made, the M1911A1 packs a fierce punch and was a
    trusty companion for the American soldier.
    
    
    -----------------
     Spearhead notes
    -----------------
    
    The American sidearm, the Colt .45 is automatically available in most single 
    player missions, and is given to all Allied players in multiplayer. The Colt 
    .45 is accurate at close ranges, and feels very solid to fire. However, actual 
    damage isn't much different from the German counterpart.
    
    The Colt .45 should mainly be used as a backup weapon, especially when the 
    primary weapon requires reloading. Accuracy is incredibly sporadic at longer 
    ranges.
    
    
    ===============================================================================
     2.2 - Walther P-38
    ===============================================================================
    
    Name:                    	Walther Pistole 1938
    Country of origin:       	Germany
    Available for:			German
    Calibre:                 	9 x 19mm Parabellum
    Magazine capacity:       	8 rounds
    Firing mechanism:        	Double-action, recoil-operated
    Weight:				0.8kg
    
    -----------------------
     Historical Background
    -----------------------
    
    Prior to the Second World War, the standard German pistol was Pistole-08, 
    better known as the Luger. While comfortable to fire, it was too difficult to 
    manufacture, and as such was considered inappropriate for mass production. When 
    Hitler rose to power and began the massive redevelopment of the German armed 
    forces, Walther designed the P-38 to replace the aging Luger and provide the 
    German army with an easily produced handgun.
    
    The P-38 was an advanced weapon for its time. It was the first weapon to 
    feature a short, top-open slide, and had plastic hand grips, which made the 
    weapon substantially lighter than contemporary handguns. The P-38 was accurate, 
    comfortable to carry and fire, and very reliable.
    
    After the war, the P-38 was modified with an aluminium frame instead of steel, 
    and became the P-1, the standard handgun of the Bundeswehr, the West German 
    Army. A later modification, with a shorter barrel, was adopted by the police as 
    the P-4.
    
    
    -----------------
     Spearhead notes
    -----------------
    
    The P-38 is available as a standard sidearm to Axis forces in multiplayer, as 
    well as the Bastogne single player mission. The P-38 handles similarly to the 
    Colt .45, and damage difference is negligible.
    
    
    ===============================================================================
     2.3 - Webley Revolver
    ===============================================================================
    
    Name:				Webley revolver, .38, Mark IV
    Country of origin:		Great Britain
    Available for:			British
    Calibre:			.38in
    Magazine capacity:		6 rounds
    Firing mechanism:		Double-action, revolver
    Weight:				0.995kg
    
    -----------------------
     Historical Background
    -----------------------
    
    Designed by famed firearms developer Webley & Son Co., the Webley revolver was 
    among the first revolvers to feature the 'top-break' hinge, allowing the frame 
    to be released and the chamber to be reloaded quickly.
    
    When the chamber is broken, the ejector rod is automatically activated, 
    removing all bullets from the chambers, allowing individual rounds to be 
    inserted. The original .455 Webley models used "half-moon" clips of three 
    rounds each, requiring the firer to insert two clips to fully reload the 
    weapon.
    
    The military version used by Britain in the Second World War was the Webley Mk 
    IV .38 revolver, which was more or less a step down from the previous .455 
    calibre revolver, and used six-round speedloaders instead of half-moon clips. 
    The Webley remained in service with the British troops until the end of the 
    war, although it was supplemented by another revolver, the Enfield No. 2 Mk 1, 
    as well as the American Colt M1911A1.
    
    
    =================
     Spearhead notes
    =================
    
    The Webley revolver is first given to Sgt. Barnes in the first campaign when he 
    meets up with the British paratroopers, and is available as the standard 
    sidearm to all British player models in Multiplayer.
    
    The Webley has more hitting power, but only has 6 rounds in its magazine. 
    Furthermore, players can only reload the revolver one round at a time, making 
    it a pain to reload. Note that you can stop a reload by pressing the fire 
    button, snapping the frame back in place and allowing to fire again with a 
    semi-filled magazine.
    
    Overall, the Webley has a very solid feel to it, and is a good alternative to 
    the Colt .45.
    
    
    ===============================================================================
     2.4 - Nagant Revolver
    ===============================================================================
    
    Name:				M1895 Nagant revolver
    Country of origin:		Belgium
    Available for:			Russian
    Calibre:			7.62mm Nagant
    Magazine capacity:		7 rounds
    Firing mechanism:		Double-action, revolver
    Weight:				0.75kg (unloaded)
    
    -----------------------
     Historical Background
    -----------------------
    
    The M1895 Nagant revolver was designed in Belgium by the Emile and Leon Nagant 
    in the 1880's. The design itself wasn't anything peculiar or revolutionary: it 
    was a simple double-action revolver firing a 7.62mm bullet. This allowed the 
    magazine to hold 7 rounds instead of the 6 rounds of other contemporary 
    revolvers.
    
    The M1895 Nagant was mainly manufactured and issued to the Russian army, and 
    was extremely popular amongst conscripts. However, the design was obsolete even 
    as it was adopted, and it was replaced by the Tokarev TT33 in 1930. However, it 
    was still manufactured and issued to troops, especially since the uneducated 
    conscript soldiers of the Red Army were more fond of the simplistic revolver 
    instead of the complicated TT33.
    
    The Nagant revolver had one oddity: it had a completely gas-sealed cylinder, 
    allowing a silencer to be used. In fact, Russian special force troops and recon 
    teams were reported to have used the "Bramit" silencer on their Nagant 
    revolvers.
    
    Despite its relatively weak power, the Nagant remained in the good favor of the 
    Russian troops.
    
    
    -----------------
     Spearhead notes
    -----------------
    
    The Nagant revolver is introduced as the sidearm to Russian troops in 
    Multiplayer, and is also given in the single player campaign.
    
    Like the British Webley revolver, the Nagant feels quite solid and powerful, 
    but is incredibly slow to reload. However, the 7-round magazine makes it 
    comparable to the Colt .45, despite needing to reloading individual bullets.
    
    
    ===============================================================================
     2.5 - General Pistol Tactics
    ===============================================================================
    
    Due to the pistols' lack of power, accuracy and ammunition capacity, it is 
    always recommended to use a different weapon instead. Pistols are also the 
    lightest weapons, so if you want to get from A to B faster without compromising 
    the lack of defense due to holstering your weapon, a pistol is quite practical. 
    Some snipers hold their pistols instead of their sniper rifles while on the 
    move.
    
    A standard tactic is to switch to the pistol during a weapon reload. Pulling 
    out the pistol is generally faster than reloading a weapon, and allows you to 
    quickly finish off a wounded opponent.
    
    In Spearhead, the pistol still retains the ability to bash an opponent. 
    However, as most weapons are now able to engage in melee combat, the pistol 
    loses its hand-to-hand combat advantage and is now merely a backup weapon. The 
    pistol is also favoured as a weapon by snipers on the move, as their main rifle 
    is too awkward to run with.
    
    *SUMMARISED:
    -Short range only
    -Only use as a backup weapon
    -Fast draw, fast run speed, inaccurate at long range
    
    
    *~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*
     3.0 - RIFLES
    *~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*
    
    The standard weapon of every army in WWII, rifles have a long history. Being
    one of the first developments of firearms, the rifled gun allowed a projectile
    to be fired further and with more accuracy. As time progressed, the rifle was
    improved with repeating functions, box magazines and semi-automatic fire. At
    the time of WWII, only the American army had a semi-automatic rifle as their
    standard weapon. The others continued to use their old rifles from WWI, tried
    and true, and they remained in use throughout WWII even after other weapons had
    been developed.
    
    Before the development of assault carbines such as the M4A1, rifles were 
    primarily intended for long-range engagements, as weapon length and recoil were
    difficult to manage in cramped combat environments.
    
    Spearhead expands Allied Assault's arsenal by adding new rifles for the British 
    and Russian teams. As both rifles and sniper rifles are under the same tab in 
    Spearhead, they will both be included in this section.
    
    
    ===============================================================================
     3.1 - M1 Garand
    ===============================================================================
    
    Name:                     	M1 Garand
    Country of origin:        	USA
    Available for:            	American
    Calibre:                  	.30-06 (7.62 x 63mm)
    Magazine capacity:       	8 rounds
    Firing mechanism:        	Semi-automatic, gas-operated
    Weight:				4.32kg
    
    -----------------------
     Historical Background
    -----------------------
    
    After the First World War, America realised the need to provide an automatic
    weapon as a standard weapon for their troops. The M1903 Springfield, despite
    its power, accuracy and reliability, did not provide a large volume of fire.
    This was the requirement under which John C. Garand designed the Garand rifle.
    Operated by a gas piston underneath the barrel, which rotated the bolt after
    each shot, the Garand was able to fire as fast as the soldier could pull the
    trigger. The only flaw in the design came with the fact that the Garand could
    only be loaded with a full clip, preventing the firer from topping up.
    
    Also as a result of en-bloc clip, the rifle made a characteristic "ping" sound 
    when the final round in a clip was fired. Japanese soldiers used this to time 
    their charges, and later the Chinese and North Koreans did the same in the 
    Korean War.
    
    Officially adopted by the American army in 1932, America started the war as the
    only country with a semi-automatic weapon as a standard-issue weapon. Despite
    a shortage in M1 Garands, the weapon was issued to all frontline riflemen,
    proving to be an effective weapon by providing fast and accurate fire, giving 
    Americans the firepower advantage over German riflemen. Indeed, the M1 Garand 
    is one of the best combat rifles ever designed, and remained in use in the 
    Korean and Vietnam Wars in both its original and its M1C/M1D sharpshooter 
    variants.
    
    
    -----------------
     Spearhead notes
    -----------------
    
    The Garand is only available in the first mission of the American campaign, as 
    well as selectable as the rifle for American players.
    
    Due to the increased power of rifles in Spearhead, the Garand's value is 
    suddenly tripled. The Garand has the unprecedented advantages of being able to 
    kill with one shot to the head or two the chest, and being semi-automatic, it 
    is more than capable of firing three lethal rounds in the time it takes a bolt-
    action rifle to fire one. This alone makes the Garand very deadly, and in fact 
    is often considered to be a cheap weapon amongst riflemen.
    
    The Garand cannot be reloaded in mid-clip. It can only be reloaded when the 
    ammunition in the clip is used up. If there are one or two loose rounds 
    remaining, it might be a good idea to waste them before engaging in another 
    firefight.
    
    
    ===============================================================================
     3.2 - Kar98k
    ===============================================================================
    
    Name:                     	Mauser Karabiner 1898 Kurz
    Country of origin:        	Germany
    Available for:            	German
    Calibre:                  	7.92 x 57mm Mauser
    Magazine capacity:        	5 rounds
    Firing mechanism:        	Bolt-action
    Weight:				3.92kg
    
    -----------------------
     Historical Background
    -----------------------
    
    The Mauser company has a strong and successful history, known especially for
    several weapons: the C/96 Military Model pistol, which fired a 7.93mm round,
    numerous rifles including the Kar98k, and undoubtedly the best machine gun
    of the war: the MG42.
    
    Mauser's success began with the German adoption of a Mauser rifle in 1871,
    which eventually culminated in the Gewehr 98. The Gewehr 98 proved to be the
    most powerful yet safest bolt-action rifle of its time, and was used for
    civilian purposes such as sport. One of its features was the inclusion of a
    fully internal magazine, which held 5 rounds and was contained perfectly in the
    wooden furniture, making it comfortable to sling. This later proved to be
    quite restrictive due to the low amount of ammunition, but was welcome
    nonetheless. The Gewehr 98 was also manufactured from the finest materials with
    precision gunmaking techniques, setting it apart from other weapons of its
    kind. It was during this time that military enthusiasts did away with the
    separate long rifles and carbines and used a medium-length rifle for all units.
    This led to the shorter Karabiner 98 model, and it was gradually refined to
    the standard-issue Kar98k model. Due to its exceptional accuracy, many Kar98k's
    were issued with scopes as a standard sniper's weapon.
    
    The Kar98k's power and accuracy came from the locking mechanism. It consisted
    of three locking lugs: two at the front of the bolt and one at the rear,
    giving maximum power. The catch was that the bolt-action was somewhat awkward,
    requiring a 90 degree rotation utilising the firer's right arm. Due to this
    action, the Kar98k could not match the fast rate of fire of the Lee-Enfield,
    which only required the use of the firer's wrist. Despite this, the Kar98k
    proved to be extremely reliable and remained the standard infantry weapon of
    the German army, especially with the shortage of Stg44's.
    
    
    -----------------
     Spearhead notes
    -----------------
    
    While Spearhead has both a regular Kar98k rifle and a scoped Kar98k, 
    technically they are both the same weapon, and as such they are both listed 
    under this entry.
    
    The Scoped Kar98k is available in several single player missions, and is 
    selectable as a sniper weapon in Multiplayer. The secondary fire button brings 
    up the scope reticule, which consists of two black lines coming in from the 
    sides, and one line coming up from the bottom with a sharp tip. The tip of the 
    middle line indicates the point of impact. The Scoped Kar98k can be fired with 
    perfect accuracy while unscoped, but is a bit more cumbersome to use. Note that 
    the Scoped Kar98k fires faster than its American counterpart, the Springfield 
    '03. Also, the Scoped Kar98k reloads one round at a time.
    
    The non-scoped Kar98k is selectable in Multiplayer in the rifle set. The Kar98k 
    is faster to run with, easier to swing around and can kill in 2-3 hits. 
    However, it is a bolt-action rifle, and has a much slower rate of fire. This 
    makes it unsuitable for close combat. The Kar98k reloads using a 5-round 
    charger.
    
    Note that the sniper set is, by default, replaced by the Gewehr 43. However, 
    some servers disallow the G43 and retain the scoped Kar98k as the sniper 
    weapon. The Kar98k is more powerful than the G43, and feels more solid than the 
    semi-automatic weapon.
    
    
    ===============================================================================
     3.3 - Springfield '03
    ===============================================================================
    
    Name:                     	M1903A4 Springfield
    Country of origin:              USA
    Available for:                  American, British
    Calibre:                        .30-06 (7.62 x 63mm)
    Magazine capacity:              5 rounds
    Firing mechanism:               Bolt-action
    Weight:				3.94kg
    
    -----------------------
     Historical Background
    -----------------------
    
    In the 1890's, the US Army was looking into several rifle designs for adoption.
    Among them, the Mauser caught their eye, and soon they purchased licenses to
    copy certain parts of the Mauser. In 1900, the first Springfield rifle was
    developed. However, this weapon proved to be unsatisfactory, and it was
    re-designed along with its bullet. Chambered for the .30 round developed in
    1906 (hence, .30-06), the Springfield modified several features of the Mauser
    design, including a two-piece bolt and improved rear-sights. The Springfield
    was the standard-issue rifle of the American Army in WWI.
    
    The Springfield underwent some refinements and modifications, including the
    Pederson Device, which converted the Springfield into a light automatic weapon
    firing a special round, intended to allow a charging soldier to continue to
    suppress enemy positions out of machine gun range. However, the war ended
    before it could be used, so all converted Springfields were scrapped. The
    M1903A3 was introduced in 1942, designed for mass-production and supplied units
    before the M1 Garand was finally shipped to all units, which was somewhat later
    in the Pacific theatre.
    
    The M1903A4 was the sniper variant of the Springfield, featuring permanent
    blocks to attach a telescopic sight and had the iron sights removed, giving a
    curious "naked" look. The standard weapon for snipers, the Springfield was
    incredibly accurate and reliable.
    
    
    -----------------
     Spearhead notes
    -----------------
    
    The American counterpart (and now also the British) to the Scoped Kar98k, the 
    Springfield '03 is available in many single player missions, and is selectable 
    as the sniper set in Multiplayer. Like the Scoped Kar98k, the Springfield is 
    best used for long range precision fire, but can also be fired at short range 
    in an emergency.
    
    The scope can be brought up by using the secondary fire button. The scope 
    consists of a generic thin black crosshair. While easier to use than the German 
    T-crosshair, the Springfield crosshair can obstruct vision of a target.
    
    Note that the Springfield, despite doing the same damage as the Scoped Kar98k, 
    fires at a slightly slower rate.
    
    
    ===============================================================================
     3.4 - G43
    ===============================================================================
    
    Name:				Gewehr 43
    Country of origin:		Germany
    Available for:			German
    Calibre:			7.92 x 57mm Mauser
    Magazine capacity:		10 rounds
    Firing mechanism:		Semi-automatic, gas-operated
    Weight:				4.33kg
    
    -----------------------
     Historical Background
    -----------------------
    
    Armed with bolt-action Kar98k rifles and the fearsome MG34 and MG42, the German 
    army had little need for semi-automatic rifles, and as such the concept did not 
    attract much interest. In 1941, two famed designers, Walther and Mauser, 
    submitted separate designs for self-loading rifle, designated the Gewehr 41(W) 
    and Gewehr 41(M) respectively. Both were quite similar in appearance and 
    operation, and featured a propietary "Bang-type" gas piston system, which ended 
    up causing immense trouble in operation. As a result, the weapon was 
    unsuccessful.
    
    In 1943, the G-41 was combined with the successful gas system used in the 
    Soviet SVT-40, resulting in a highly workable weapon and designated as the 
    Gewehr 43. In 1944, the G43 was redesignated as the Karabiner 43, although no 
    changes were made to the weapon itself.
    
    The G43 was often issued as a specialist sharpshooter weapon, and could 
    accomodate an optical sight. However, as with many other German weapons 
    manufactured late in the war, the finish was rough and quality was lacklustre, 
    and there are reports of malfunctions and even magazines falling out.
    
    
    -----------------
     Spearhead notes
    -----------------
    
    The G43 is a new addition to Spearhead. The weapon can be found off the body of
    a German sniper in the first American campaign mission, and is selectable by 
    default as the German sniper kit. Note that some servers disable the G43, and 
    so the scoped Kar98k is used instead.
    
    As a sniper rifle, the G43 is very flexible. The scope is easy to use, and as a 
    semi-automatic weapon, it has a decent chance of close-quarters self-defense, 
    and can also fire off quick follow-up shots. This allows the player to put out 
    more lead than the Springfield, and as much as the SVT40. However, it is very 
    important to note that the G43 does not fire as fast as the Garand. Despite 
    being semi-automatic, there is a delay of a second or so between shots, so you 
    cannot unload the 10-round magazine in a few seconds.
    
    Also, for balance purposes, the G43 is weaker than the Springfield and Kar98k. 
    It can still kill with one hit to the head, but requires at least 2 torso shots 
    to kill. It also feels less solid than the bolt-action rifles.
    
    
    ===============================================================================
     3.5 - Lee-Enfield
    ===============================================================================
    
    Name:                      	No. 4 Rifle, Lee-Enfield
    Country of origin:         	Great Britain
    Available for:             	British
    Calibre:                   	.303 British
    Magazine capacity:        	10 rounds
    Firing mechanism:         	Bolt-action
    Weight:				4.11kg
    
    -----------------------
     Historical Background
    -----------------------
    
    Designed by James Paris Lee and manufactured at the Royal Small Arms Factory at
    Enfield, the Lee-Enfield rifle was the standard infantry weapon from 1895 to
    1957. The design was based off the Lee-Metford rifle, but was configured to
    fire smokeless powder. The SMLE (Short Magazine, Lee-Enfield) was the most
    common model, which was later simplified to form the Number 4 rifle. 
    
    Due to the British army's doctrine on musketry, accurate shooting was stressed 
    in British training, and the Lee-Enfield rifle provided both the accuracy and 
    the necessary rate of fire. One of the tests was the "Mad Minute", in which the
    firer had to put 15 rounds into a target at 300 yards, and many could achieve
    25 hits. Although slightly on the heavy side, the Lee-Enfield was a reliable
    weapon and loved by the troops. 
    
    Several variations were designed, including the Jungle Carbine, which featured 
    a shorter length, flash-hider and rubber recoil pad in the butt. However, it 
    was a beast to fire and had excessive recoil and blast, making it unpopular 
    with the troops. In contrast, the most accurate Lee-Enfield rifles were 
    modified to become sniper rifles, becoming renown in the field of sniping.
    
    The unique feature of the Lee-Enfield was the setup of its firing mechanism.
    The Lee-Enfield had its locking lugs at the rear of the bolt, differing from
    the conventional setup of locking lugs at the front and rear. Although experts
    questioned the accuracy of this mechanism, firing tests and experience proved
    them wrong, and the ability to fire 30-aimed shots a minute more than made up
    for that doubt.
    
    
    -----------------
     Spearhead notes
    -----------------
    
    The Lee-Enfield is available as the British rifle kit, and also in the British 
    campaign in single player. Like the other bolt-action rifles, the Lee-Enfield 
    is capable of killing in one hit to the torso or head.
    
    The advantage of the Lee-Enfield over the other bolt-action rifles is that it 
    has a magazine capacity of 10 rounds, which means that it can fire for twice as 
    long as the Mosin-Nagant or Kar98k, allowing a greater margin of error and 
    increasing kill potential. The downside is that the reload time is twice as 
    long, as you will always insert two 5-round stripper clips regardless of your 
    current ammunition level.
    
    
    ===============================================================================
     3.6 - Mosin-Nagant
    ===============================================================================
    
    Name:                      	Mosin-Nagant M1891/38
    Country of origin:         	Russia
    Available for:             	Russian
    Calibre:                  	7.62 x 54mm R
    Magazine capacity:         	5 rounds
    Firing mechanism:          	Bolt-action
    Weight:				3.45kg
    
    -----------------------
     Historical Background
    -----------------------
    
    Designed by the Russian S.I. Mosin and the Belgian Emil Nagant, the
    Mosin-Nagant was developed to bypass costly patents and licenses by creating a
    new weapon rather than borrow from already existing parts. The result was a
    three-part cylinder bolt and a locking latch in the magazine compartment,
    holding down the second and lower rounds. Although quite complex, these
    features helped increase the robustness and reliability of the Mosin-Nagant,
    especially with the Russian rimmed 7.62mm round, which would certainly have
    jammed it if wasn't for the locking latch. Although crude compared to other
    rifles, the Mosin-Nagant was exceptionally reliable, otherwise the Russians
    would not have kept it.
    
    As time passed, the Mosin-Nagant was refined and perfected. Changes include the
    switch to a 'short' rifle, reconfiguring the sights due to a change in the
    Russian measurement system and the inclusion of a folding bayonet. On a similar
    note, early models were configured with a bayonet in mind, with sights tuned
    to compensate for its imbalanced when attached. Due to its exceptional
    accuracy, the Mosin-Nagant was the preferred sniper's weapon and was issued
    with a scope.
    
    The Mosin-Nagant remained in Russian service from 1891 to 1945, and was used by
    Eastern Bloc countries throughout more recent conflicts such as the Vietnam
    War. Simple to operate and incredibly reliable, the Mosin-Nagant was preferred 
    by Soviet troops over more complex rifles such as the SVT40.
    
    
    -----------------
     Spearhead notes
    -----------------
    
    The Russian equivalent to the German Kar98k, there isn't anything particularly 
    different between this rifle and the Kar98k itself. Both are 5-shot bolt-action 
    rifles that can kill in one hit to the head or torso. Since the Allies don't 
    have a direct Kar98k equivalent (the Garand being semi-automatic, and the Lee-
    Enfield having a 10-round magazine), the Mosin-Nagant is a copy of the Kar98k.
    
    
    ===============================================================================
     3.7 - SVT40
    ===============================================================================
    
    Name:				Samozaryadnaya Vintovka Tokareva 1940
    Country of origin:		Russia
    Available for:			Russian
    Calibre:			7.62 x 54mm R
    Magazine capacity:		10 rounds
    Firing mechanism:		Semi-automatic, gas-operated
    Weight:				3.85kg
    
    -----------------------
     Historical Background
    -----------------------
    
    While not the first Russian semi-automatic rifle (previous rifles include the 
    Siminov AVS-36 and the Federov Avtomat, the latter being the first select-fire 
    rifle in the 1920s), the SVT-40 was an improved version of the previous SVT-38, 
    and was a good-quality weapon all around.
    
    Using 10-round steel magazines, the SVT-40 had a rather simple design. In 
    contrast, its barrel extension is quite complicated. Featuring a muzzle break, 
    the front iron sight and a 5-position gas regulator, the extension could be 
    used to adjust gas settings according to different fighting conditions. The 
    SVT-40 could be reloaded by replacing the magazine, or by using 5-round 
    stripper clips used by the Mosin-Nagant.
    
    The actual performance of the SVT-40 varied greatly. The Red Army itself was 
    not fond of the SVT-40, mainly because of the low education levels of the 
    conscript troops. Experience showed that conscripts were generally unable to 
    set the gas regulator to the correct position, resulting in poor performance 
    and damaging the rifle. In contrast to this, the Russian Marine Infantry, 
    consisting of well-trained volunteers, used the SVT-40 to great success. 
    Furthermore, the Germans saw the SVT-40 as a superior weapon and often re-
    issued captured weapons to their own troops, and based their G43 design on the 
    successful SVT-40 gas system.
    
    The SVT-40 was replaced by the SKS carbine after the war, but remained in issue 
    in Eastern Bloc countries. A rare modification, the AVT-40, was also developed 
    and featured full-automatic fire.
    
    The SVT-40 was also issued with optical sights as a specialist sniper weapon, 
    although it never displaced the Mosin-Nagant as the preferred weapon for 
    snipers.
    
    -----------------
     Spearhead notes
    -----------------
    
    While the Americans and British share the same sniper rifle, the Russians get a 
    one-up with their own semi-automatic rifle to take on the German G43. The SVT40 
    is indeed quite powerful; and can kill with a single shot to the head or torso, 
    and has a scope to boot. Unfortunately, this great power has one huge 
    disadvantage: the SVT40 has a LOT of recoil.
    
    Literally speaking, by firing the weapon, your gun will be pointing at the sky 
    for a few seconds before you recover your aim. Like the G43, there is a slight 
    delay between shots despite being semi-automatic.
    
    Also note that there is a frequent sound glitch that plays several SVT40 shots 
    in a row even though it has only fired one round.
    
    
    ===============================================================================
     3.8 - General Rifle Tactics
    ===============================================================================
    
    Spearhead's rifles have experience a major overhaul from Allied Assault. Rifles 
    are no longer novelty weapons that kill in less time than a submachine gun. 
    Now, rifles are one-shot kill weapons that are accurate and lethal in the hands 
    of an experienced marksmen.
    
    Rifles are one of the lightest weapons in the game (not including sniper 
    rifles). This allows a typical rifleman to be very mobile, intercepting and 
    picking off enemy players at all ranges. Alternatively, because the rifles have 
    near-pinpoint accuracy, riflemen can adopt the same technique as snipers and 
    fire from covered, stationary positions, relocating often to avoid being 
    discovered. The simple one-hit kill ability is more than enough to make up for 
    its relatively slow speed (other than the overpowered Garand).
    
    For rifles in general, it is best to lead the target and let the target run 
    into your crosshair instead of trying to get a bead of the enemy. Only manually 
    aim at the target if they are stationary. Otherwise, pick a point in their path 
    and wait until they run into it, then fire. As a precision weapon, you also 
    need to take into account your ping on the server, as a ping of 100 will take 
    longer to fire and register compared to a ping of 30. For SMG's, you can still 
    spam with high ping. With rifles, you can't afford that margin of error. If 
    your ping is above 150, you probably don't want to use a rifle at all.
    
    For close-in defense, it is recommended that you switch to your pistol, as it 
    is faster to fire and more appropriate for close combat. Of course, the Garand 
    can handle itself, and the G43 and SVT40 are reasonable for the same task. 
    Still, avoid close quarters as much as possible, and maintain combat distances 
    to medium and long range. The exception to the pistol tactic is if you are 
    following a certain code of honor found amongst riflemen, and in that you 
    should use only your rifle.
    
    Usually, a single shot to the torso is enough to take out a target. A headshot 
    is, when feasible, preferable, but don't push yourself too hard if it's too 
    hard to hit. Scoped rifles obviously have a certain advantage when it comes to 
    determining the point of impact, so make good use of the scope if you have one.
    
    
    *SUMMARISED
    -One shot, one kill
    -Usually very slow to fire
    -Very light to run with
    -Incredibly accurate
    -Let the target run into your sights before firing
    
    
    *~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*
     4.0 - SUBMACHINE GUNS
    *~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*
    
    The premise of the submachine gun came from the need to equipment regular 
    infantry soldiers with a weapon capable of outputting a large amount of 
    firepower. The light machine gun made this possible, but it was impractical to 
    equip every soldier with it. The solution was to create an automatic weapon 
    firing pistol ammunition, and this spawned the submachine gun.
    
    Early models, such as the Thompson and MP18, were manufactured with traditional 
    methods, including wooden furniture. Later in the war, cheaper, mass-produced 
    models were designed, including the PPS-43, Sten and MP40. While crude and 
    often disliked, these weapons equipped many squad members, and whole Russian 
    Guards units were equipped with them.
    
    Modern submachine guns are now made out of modern plastics, and come in various 
    shapes and sizes, varying from the rifle-style MP5 to the incredibly small, 
    automatic pistol-shaped Mini-Uzis.
    
    Spearhead adds two additional weapons to the Allied arsenal: the Sten Mk.II and 
    the PPSh SMG, as well as Allied Assault's MP40 and Thompson.
    
    
    ===============================================================================
     4.1 - Thompson
    ===============================================================================
    
    Name:                       	M1A1 Thompson
    Country of origin:          	USA
    Available for:              	Allies
    Calibre:                    	.45 ACP
    Magazine capacity:          	30 rounds
    Firing mechanism:           	Selective-fire, delayed-blowback operated
    Rate of fire:			700 rounds per minute
    Weight:				4.78kg
    
    -----------------------
     Historical Background
    -----------------------
    
    Developed by General John T. Thompson during the First World War, the Thompson
    was intended as a 'trench broom' to sweep German trenches. The war ended before
    it was perfected, so it was produced and sold to various countries before being
    adopted by the US Army. The Thompson was a completely new weapon, finely
    machined and manufactured to the highest standards. Its main feature was the
    Blish delayed-blowback system, which consisted of a wedge closing the breech
    while chamber pressure was high, but opened after the bullet left the barrel,
    allowing the bolt to recoil, eject the spent case and load the next round. On
    top of this, the Thompson featured a Cutts compensator, which reduced the gun's
    tendency to rise when fired on full automatic, and a wooden pistol fore-grip.
    Designated the M1928, the Thompson was common in US and British forces, being
    issued 20- and 30-round box magazines as well as a 50-round drum which was
    later phased out due to the loud noise it made when on the move.
    
    During this time, the Thompson was popular among American police units as well 
    as crime organisations, being the favoured weapon of many hit-and-runs.
    
    The M1928 Thompson was a complicated weapon to manufacture and was very
    expensive. To simplify production, the Cutts compensator was discarded, the
    wooden-foregrip was replaced with a conventional fore-end stock, the separate
    firing pin was fixed to the bolt and the Blish system was replaced with a
    conventional delayed blowback system. The latter caused some grief, since the
    Blish system was what made the Thompson a unique weapon, but this was resolved
    after threats of independent production. This model became the M1 Thompson, and
    remained in favour with troops even after cheaper weapons such as the M3 Grease
    Gun came into service. A final modification came in the form of the M1A1, which 
    replaced the firing pin and hammer with a firing pin machined into the bolt 
    face.
    
    Although slightly on the heavy side, the Thompson was the most reliable weapon
    of its type, and remained in service until the Vietnam War.
    
    
    -----------------
     Spearhead notes
    -----------------
    
    The Thompson is available in the American campaign, and selectable in the SMG 
    kit for American player models. The weapon itself has a fast rate of fire, and 
    its 30-round magazine can keep it going for a reasonable period. However, avoid 
    firing in extended bursts, as it will chew through the magazine within seconds.
    
    While going all out in close range is pretty much the standard tactic, go for 
    shorter bursts for long-distance targets. Even better: rather than try to snipe 
    a target at long range, simply do not engage with a submachine gun, and instead 
    try a different approach to the target.
    
    The Thompson's damage is not wholly impressive. The main source of kills will 
    come from the ability to hit a target multiple times in a short period.
    
    Note that the Thompson in Allied Assault fires in full-automatic only.
    
    
    ===============================================================================
     4.2 - MP40
    ===============================================================================
    
    Name:                        	Maschinenpistole 1940
    Country of origin:           	Germany
    Available for:               	German
    Calibre:                     	9 x 19mm Parabellum
    Magazine capacity:           	32 rounds
    Firing mechanism:            	Full-automatic, blowback-operated
    Rate of fire:			500 rounds per minute
    Weight:				4.7kg
    
    -----------------------
     Historical Background
    -----------------------
    
    Prior to the Second World War, the German Army began re-arming its war machine.
    After observing events in the Spanish Civil War, the German Army approached
    designer Berthold Giepel to design a submachine gun. Giepel submitted a
    pre-made prototype in 1938, which was accepted into service as the Maschinen
    Pistole 38, or MP38. However, it was still manufactured using traditional
    methods, so it was improved and designated the MP40, using more steel stampings
    and welding to facilitate mass-production and incorporating several safety
    features.
    
    The MP40 was a revolutionary weapon for its time. It was the first weapon to
    use all-metal construction as well as featuring a folding metal stock. It also
    featured a small 'lip' under the muzzle, allowing it to be fired from a vehicle
    without it jerking back. It was incredibly light, and more importantly it was
    cheap and easy to manufacture. Firing up to 500 rounds per minute, the MP40 was
    an extremely effective weapon and issued to officers and assault units.
    
    Although crude in appearance compared to traditional weapons such as the
    Thompson, the MP40 was distinctive in its appearance and become the trademark
    image of the Wehrmacht soldier.
    
    
    -----------------
     Spearhead notes
    -----------------
    
    While having a slower rate of fire than the American Thompson, and with a much 
    more erratic spray pattern, the MP40 is surprisingly good for squeezing off 
    one- or two-round bursts at long distance targets, making the MP40 slightly 
    better at long-range engagements than the Thompson.
    
    The MP40 has 2 more rounds in the magazine than the Thompson, but it has 
    negligible impact on actual performance.
    
    
    ===============================================================================
     4.3 - Sten Mk.II
    ===============================================================================
    
    Name:                        	Sten Mark V
    Country of origin:           	Great Britain
    Available for:               	British
    Calibre:                     	9 x 19mm Parabellum
    Magazine capacity:           	32 rounds
    Firing mechanism:            	Full-automatic, blowback-operated
    Rate of fire:			450 rounds per minute
    Weight:				3.18kg without magazine
    
    ------------------------
     Historical Information
    ------------------------
    
    In 1940, Britain suffered a shortage of weapons, and with the only submachine
    guns available being the US Thompson and the rushed Lanchester (which was a
    copy of the German MP28), the British Army needed a cheaper weapon in larger
    quantities. To solve this dilemma, the Sten was introduced and adopted. Taking
    its name from the first letter of its designers' surnames, Major R.V. Shepherd
    and Mr. H.J. Turpin, and the first two letters of the Enfield factory, the Sten
    consisted of a heavy bolt and spring in a tubular metal sleeve with the barrel
    screwed on. This caused great grief amongst traditional gunmakers due to the
    extremely crude look of the weapon. 
    
    The Mark I had a wooden stock, but this was soon discarded and the weapon was 
    simplified to form the most common model, the Mark II. It was found that the 
    manufacture of the parts was so simple that the British Army contracted smaller 
    manufacturers and even large garages to make the smaller parts of the weapon, 
    then gather them into a main factory to be assembled.
    
    Firing 550 rounds per minute, the Sten was an ugly gun and was never liked by
    the troops. Although its construction protected it from dirt and mud, the MP40-
    based magazine caused immense trouble, having a reputation for jamming at
    awkward moments (the MP40 suffered from this problem as well). Various versions
    were simplified and tried out, culminating in the luxurious Mark V, which had
    wooden furniture, a forward pistol grip and bayonet socket. Produced after the
    demand was satisfied and equipping the British paratroopers at Arnhem, the
    Mark V would have been a good weapon had it not been for its unreliable
    magazine.
    
    Although unpopular, it did the job, and was an effective weapon in winning the
    war considering its circumstances, and due to its portability it was a
    a favourite amongst the French Resistance.
    
    Many Sten Mk II's were also manufactured with an integral silencer for 
    clandestine operations, and remained in use in the Vietnam War by special force 
    units.
    
    
    -----------------
     Spearhead notes
    -----------------
    
    The Sten is a new addition to Spearhead, being available in the British 
    campaign and for the British team in Multiplayer. The Sten has a 32-round 
    magazine, and is fully automatic.
    
    The Sten provides a balanced mix between the Thompson and the MP40. It fires as 
    quickly as the Thompson, but has a more erratic spray pattern, and also more 
    inaccurate. Regardless, the Sten is a very good weapon, and is arguably better 
    at close range combat than the Thompson due to its recoil bringing in a greater 
    hit probability.
    
    A note about the weapon name: Spearhead officially lists the Sten as the Sten 
    Mk.II. This would tie in with the British campaign, which takes place on June 
    6th 1944, during which time the Sten Mk.II would be issued as standard. 
    However, the weapon model features the wooden pistol grip and wooden shoulder 
    stock of the Mk.V; while the actual Sten Mk.II only has a steel tubular stock. 
    Therefore, it can only be assumed that the weapon is the Mark V, not the Mark 
    II.
    
    
    ===============================================================================
     4.4 - PPSh SMG
    ===============================================================================
    
    Name:                         	Pistolet Pulemet Shpagin 1941
    Country of origin:            	Russia
    Available for:                	Russian
    Calibre:                      	7.62 x 25mm TT
    Magazine capacity:            	71 rounds (47 rounds in Spearhead)
    Firing mechanism:             	Selective-fire, blowback-operated
    Rate of fire:			900 rounds per minute
    Weight:				5.45kg (3.63kg without magazine)
    
    -----------------------
     Historical Background
    -----------------------
    
    After the German advance in 1941, the Russians lost a massive amount of
    materials and weapons. To replace these losses, a new weapon had to be
    designed, cheap and easy to manufacture to practically re-arm the entire Red
    Army. For this purpose, the PPSh-41 was developed. Taking its name from the 
    Russian designation for a submachine gun, 'Pistolet Pulemet', and the name of
    the designer, Georgii Shpagin, the PPSh-41 was a simplified version of the
    previous PPD submachine gun, using stamped parts as much as possible. The
    PPSh-41 used a simple blowback operation, and the stamped metal jacket was
    extended over the muzzle to act as a fairly effective compensator, reducing the
    tendency for the barrel to rise when firing on full-automatic. Using the
    distinctive 71-round drum, later models were also issued with a curved 35-round
    box clip, and had the selectable semi-automatic mode removed.
    
    The PPSh-41 proved its worth, and soon become the standard weapon of the Red
    Army, often with whole units being equipped with only the PPSh-41. After the 
    war, PPSh-41's were sold to Eastern Bloc nations and remained in use through 
    the Vietnam War.
    
    
    -----------------
     Spearhead notes
    -----------------
    
    The PPSh SMG is the new submachine gun for the Russians in Multiplayer, and is 
    also available in the final campaign in single player. The main difference 
    between the PPSh and the other SMGs is that fact that the PPSh has the largest 
    magazine: 47 rounds, easily topping the 32-round magazines of the Sten and 
    MP40, and the 30-round magazine of the Thompson.
    
    On top of that, the PPSh has the slowest rate of fire (nowhere near the 900rpm 
    its real-life counterpart has), and does not feature a 71-round magazine (for 
    obvious balance purposes). However, this means that the PPSh is very 
    controllable and accurate, allowing for extended bursts. Many players find this 
    ability to be very useful, as it allows them to kill more efficiently.
    
    Note that the Spearhead version of the PPSh can only fire in full automatic.
    
    
    ===============================================================================
     4.5 - General Submachine Gun Tactics
    ===============================================================================
    
    The submachine gun, in Spearhead as in real life, is primarily intended for 
    close quarters combat. While damage does not decline over distance, 
    submachine guns quickly lose effectiveness over long ranges due to the greater 
    loss in accuracy, resulting in a much larger spray pattern.
    
    Of course, that isn't to say that a distant target cannot be killed with a 
    submachine gun. By firing in short bursts or squeezing off single rounds, 
    especially when aiming at the torso, the submachine gun can hit distant 
    targets, and the recoil can bring the weapon up to score a headshot.
    
    At medium ranges, fire in longer, 4-5 round bursts. Strafe your opponent to 
    make it harder to be hit, while maintaining your crosshair over the enemy's 
    torso and firing when the target runs across your cross hair. "Walk" the shots 
    up to the target's head, as indicated by the hit puffs rising from the weapon's 
    recoil.
    
    At close ranges, just spray and pray. There's a lot of luck involved, and 
    tactics will not ultimately determine the outcome of the skirmish.
    
    Most importantly, know when to engage a target and when not to. The submachine 
    gun is simply not suited for long-distance firefights, especially if the enemy 
    has a machine gun or sniper rifle. It is better to break off contact and attack 
    from a different approach to swing the battleground back onto your terms; that 
    is, close combat.
    
    *SUMMARISED:
    -Best suited for close quarters combat
    -Fire in bursts at medium-long ranges
    -Spray and pray at close ranges
    -Good firepower, reasonable ammunition capacity
    
    
    *~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*
     5.0 - MACHINE GUNS
    *~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*
    
    By definition, a machine gun is a weapon design to output a massive amount of 
    firepower to suppress enemy positions. Technically speaking, the two machine 
    guns in the game aren't machine guns. However, in Allied Assault they are 
    heavier, more powerful alternatives to the submachine guns, and so they are 
    lumped into the machine gun category.
    
    Spearhead, despite adding more weapons, does not add any new heavy weapons for 
    either team.
    
    
    ===============================================================================
     5.1 - BAR
    ===============================================================================
    
    Name:                          	M1918A2 Browning Automatic Rifle
    Country of origin:             	USA
    Available for:                 	American, British, Russian
    Calibre:                       	.30-06 (7.62 x 63mm)
    Magazine capacity:             	20 rounds
    Firing mechanism:              	Full-automatic, gas-operated
    Rate of fire:			450 or 650 rounds per minute, selectable
    Weight:				8.8kg with empty magazine
    
    -----------------------
     Historical Background
    -----------------------
    
    Designed in 1915-16 by John M. Browning, who also developed the M1911 Colt 
    pistol and .30 and .50 cal machine guns, the Browning Automatic Rifle filled 
    the role of 'squad automatic weapon'. Although intended as an assault weapon, 
    the BAR proved to be an effective support weapon and was adopted by the 
    Belgian, Polish and Swedish armies. The BAR underwent some modifications, 
    including changing the position of the bipod, and later models had a variable 
    fire option, changing from 550 rounds per minute to faster rates of fire.
    
    A typical squad had one BAR gunner, and later in the war the number was 
    increased to two per squad. BAR gunners usually had an assistant to carry more 
    ammunition, and because of the importance of the BAR's steady firepower, it was 
    often entrusted to the most reliable soldier. Many men preferred to use the BAR 
    without its bipod to save weight.
    
    Despite its effectiveness, the BAR was never as good as the designer hoped. It
    was way too heavy to be an effective rifle. The weight alone made it a pain to
    shoulder, and the vibration from firing made it impossible to maintain a steady
    aim. On the other hand, it was too light to be an effective light machine gun.
    It was unstead on its bipod, its 20-round magazine meant it had to be reloaded
    frequently, the bottom-mounted magazine made it difficult to reload from a
    prone position, and the barrel couldn't be changed when it overheated.
    
    Despite these shortcomings, the BAR remained a solid weapon and was kept in
    service for over 50 years in various armies, while leftovers were sold to other
    nations.
    
    
    -----------------
     Spearhead notes
    -----------------
    
    Available as the Allied machine gun, the BAR is a solid, accurate and hard-
    hitting weapon. The Allied Assault version only fires in the slow-automatic 
    mode (ie. it does not have a select-fire feature), and hence is substantially 
    slower than the Stg44 and submachine guns.
    
    The BAR is heavy, a bit slow to reload, and its 20-round magazine can be 
    exhausted quite quickly despite its slow rate of fire. However, it is amazingly 
    accurate at longer ranges, and is more suited for medium-long range combat 
    rather than close ranges.
    
    Fire the weapon in short bursts at long ranges to prevent the recoil from 
    getting out of hand. At close ranges it doesn't really matter, but the 
    significant recoil can be manipulated to score lethal headshots.
    
    
    ===============================================================================
     5.2 - Stg44
    ===============================================================================
    
    Name:                          	Sturmgewehr 44
    Country of origin:             	Germany
    Available for:                 	German
    Calibre:                       	7.92 x 33mm Kurz
    Magazine capacity:             	30 rounds
    Firing mechanism:              	Selective-fire, gas-operated
    Rate of fire:			500 rounds per minute
    Weight:				5.22kg
    
    -----------------------
     Historical Background
    -----------------------
    
    In the 1930's, German military authorities questioned the purpose of the
    standard infantry rifle. It was realised that even the earliest rifles were
    capable of firing a bullet to distances over 1000m. It was almost impossible
    for a soldier to see that far, let alone aim and hit something at that
    distance. This realisation set off the possibility of using a shorter
    cartridge, reducing effective range, but at the same time reducing weight,
    allowing the soldier to carry more ammunition. In 1940, the Maschinen Karabiner
    42 was developed as a prototype weapon and tested on the Russian Front. It was
    an effective weapon according to the principles behind it, and many features
    were taken from it and incorporated into the new rifle in development. The
    developers eagerly requested Hitler's permission to produce the weapon. Hitler
    proved stubborn, and using the very beliefs that the principles proved wrong,
    Hitler criticised the ineffective range of the new cartridge and denied
    permission for the weapon to be produced.
    
    This caused a problem for the designers. They had already equipped their
    factories to mass-produce the weapon, and in fact had already started making
    them. Without Hitler's permission, they continued to manufacture the weapon
    and issued it to troops as the "MP44", disguised as a submachine gun. This in
    turn please Hitler due to exceptional submachine gun production figures. That
    was until Hitler held a meeting with his generals, who requested more of the
    "new rifles". After a brief period of anger, the Fuhrer finally accepted the
    rifle and named it the "Sturmgewehr", the "Assault Rifle".
    
    Despite this official acceptance, production never caught up with demand. Being
    made out of steel-stampings and plastics, the Sturmgewehr 44 was a
    revolutionary weapon, the first of a class of weapons that are now standard in
    today's armies.
    
    
    -----------------
     Spearhead notes
    -----------------
    
    The Stg44 isn't just a souped-up version of the MP40. It's almost a perfect 
    weapon in itself. And so it should be, an entire single player mission is 
    dedicated to capturing a specimen for investigation (and to tear through 
    countless Germans).
    
    The weapon has a fast rate of fire, reasonably low recoil, very high damage, 
    respectable accuracy AND has a 30-round magazine. The Stg44 can be used in 
    short burst for long range fire and suppression, and longer bursts for close 
    range combat and assault purposes. The Stg44 is THE assault rifle, and is an 
    outstanding combination of all weapons.
    
    Of course, the weapon itself isn't invincible. Submachine guns are lighter and 
    fire faster, while rifles and the BAR outmatch it in accuracy. Despite all 
    this, the Stg44 is a formidable weapon and certainly a match for any weapon at 
    any range.
    
    Note that the Allied Assault version of the Stg44 does not feature select-fire. 
    It can only fire in full-automatic.
    
    
    ===============================================================================
     5.3 - General Machine Gun Tactics
    ===============================================================================
    
    Typically speaking, the BAR and Stg44 should mainly be used for medium-range 
    work. At this range, both weapons will not be crippled by the fast and frantic 
    submachine gun, nor are they at a range disadvantage against rifles. This is 
    their optimum range.
    
    Of course, both can be used at shorter and longer ranges. The Stg44 is more 
    suitable for close ranges, while the BAR is more effective at longer ranges. 
    Being able to master these weapons at any range can create a very efficient 
    killing machine.
    
    Unfortunately, the weight factor plays a heavy part. One of the main 
    dissuasions against machine guns is the slow running speed, compared to the 
    much lighter submachine guns, which are practically toned down versions of the 
    machine guns.
    
    Unlike submachine guns and rifles, machine guns can engage targets at 
    practically any range with a certain level of effectiveness. As such, do not be 
    afraid to take on enemies at really long or really short distances, even if the 
    odds are against you. Controlled, accurate fire is what the machine guns do 
    best.
    
    *SUMMARISED:
    -Good for all ranges
    -Best at medium range
    -Full-automatic, excellent for assaults
    -Accurate, powerful
    -Heavier than most weapons
    
    
    *~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*
     6.0 - GRENADES
    *~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*
    
    History doesn't extend so far back for grenades, but the concept itself has 
    been around for a while. Ever since the development of portable explosives, 
    devices have been used to throw or otherwise launch an explosive to reasonable 
    distances. Originally, such devices might have involved gunpowder wrapped in 
    some sort of packaging, and afterwards sticks of dynamite. The modern grenade 
    appeared in the 20th century in different forms, and have kept similar trends 
    in design. Grenades were also used for other purposes, such as smoke screens or 
    specific destruction of equipment.
    
    Allied Assault features one grenade for each team. Grenades do splash damage, 
    and are definitely a tactically useful weapon. Spearhead adds new grenades for 
    the British and Russian teams, although they are more or less similar to the 
    American frag grenade.
    
    
    ===============================================================================
     6.1 - M2 Frag Grenade
    ===============================================================================
    
    Name:				Mark II Fragmentation Grenade
    Country of origin:		USA
    Available for:			American
    
    -----------------------
     Historical Background
    -----------------------
    
    When the United States entered the First World War, it became apparent that 
    they lacked a standard-issue hand grenade. Basing their designs off the 
    existing British Mills Bomb and the French F-1 grenade, the Mk I grenade was 
    developed.
    
    The Mk I grenade featured a serrated surface, with 40 segments divided into 8 
    columns and five rows, which sprayed shrapnel in all directions upon 
    detonation. The grenade also featured a complicated safety mechanism to ensure 
    that the thrower did not harm himself before the grenade was thrown.
    
    This safety mechanism was the ultimate cause to the failure of the Mk I 
    grenade. The throw had to remove the split pin, then turn the safety lever 
    before throwing the grenade. Consequently, when trialed in combat, a fair 
    proportioned of grenades were not properly armed. Commanders immediately 
    demanded that the grenade be put out of service.
    
    The Mark II grenade was then designed. It used the same charge and 
    configuration as the Mark I, but featured a shorter safety lever, resembling 
    the Mills grenade. The thrower could hold the grenade as long as he wanted to, 
    provided he kept the lever closed. As soon as the lever is released, the five 
    second fuse kicked in. These grenades were initially painted bright yellow, the 
    official color of ordnance, but was repainted in olive drab due to the 
    impracticality of carrying a bright yellow grenade in combat.
    
    Nicknamed the "Pineapple" due to its shape, the Mk II had a tendency to break 
    up into large chunks upon detonation, resulting in uneven fragmentation 
    patterns. It was used until the Vietnam War in the 1960's, supplementing the 
    M26 grenade. After the War they were phased out of combat.
    
    
    -----------------
     Spearhead notes
    -----------------
    
    Issued to all American soldiers, the Frag grenade is similar to its German 
    counterpart. The Frag grenade has a shorter throwing distance, but a larger 
    blast radius. Damage is very high, and any enemies caught in the center of the 
    blast is practically guaranteed death.
    
    
    ===============================================================================
     6.2 - Stielhandgranate
    ===============================================================================
    
    Name:				Stielhandgranate 24
    Country of origin:		Germany
    Available for:			German
    
    -----------------------
     Historical Background
    -----------------------
    
    Nicknamed the "Potato Masher" due to its curious shape, this German stick 
    grenade became a typical image of the Wehrmact soldier. The Stielhandgranate 
    featured a small explosive "head" attached to a long wooden handle. The handle 
    allowed the thrower to throw the grenade much further than an ordinary grenade. 
    To arm the grenade, the thrower had to unscrew the cap off the base and pull 
    it, which started the 4-5 second fuse.
    
    Despite its distance advantage, the Stielhandgranate was not as effective as 
    other grenades. The main reason was because it relied more in explosive damage 
    rather than fragmentation. The rather erratic fuse also meant that it was 
    difficult to cook properly, resulting in grenades being thrown back or even 
    blowing up in the thrower's hand.
    
    Despite popular belief, the Stielhandgranate was not the only grenade used by 
    the German army. The Germans also used an "Egg" grenade which resembled 
    contemporary grenades and was much smaller.
    
    
    -----------------
     Spearhead notes
    -----------------
    
    The German counterpart to the American Frag grenade, the Stielhandgranate can 
    be thrown further, but has a smaller blast radius.
    
    
    ===============================================================================
     6.3 - Mills Grenade
    ===============================================================================
    
    Name:				No. 36M Mark I Fragmentation Grenade
    Country of origin:		Great Britain
    Available for:			British
    
    -----------------------
     Historical Background
    -----------------------
    
    Designed by the famous William Mills, the No. 36 grenade was based off the 
    previous No. 5 grenade, which featured an attached rod to be used as a rifle 
    grenade. The No. 36 grenade removed the rod and used a detachable base plate 
    for use as a rifle grenade.
    
    Instead of a serrated surface, the Mills Bomb (the name retained from the No. 5 
    grenade) featured deep grooves along its surface, allowing for large fragments 
    to be dispersed on detonation. Originally the Mills Bomb had a 7 second fuse, 
    but this was reduced to 4 seconds after experienced proved that 7 seconds was 
    too long for a hand-thrown grenade, but was retained for use as a rifle 
    grenade.
    
    Like many other fragmentation grenades of its time, the No. 36 had a rather 
    erratic fragmentation pattern. However, its blast radius was so large and 
    powerful that the thrower had to immediately find cover to prevent self-injury. 
    In fact, the grenade could be considered "overkill" in enclosed spaces.
    
    The No. 36 grenade was modified to be waterproof later in the war, and was re-
    designated the No. 36M.
    
    
    -----------------
     Spearhead notes
    -----------------
    
    The Mills Bomb is available by default to all British troops, and obviously is 
    given out at the beginning of the British campaign.
    
    There is negligible difference between the American M2 grenade and the Mills 
    Bomb.
    
    
    ===============================================================================
     6.4 - F1 Grenade
    ===============================================================================
    
    Name:				Fugasnaya-1 Fragmenation Grenade
    Country of origin:		Russia
    Available for:			Russian
    
    -----------------------
     Historical Background
    -----------------------
    
    The F1 Grenade ("Fugasnaya" means "high explosive") was produced in the 1930's 
    and equipped the Red Army, alongside other grenades such as the RGD-33. The F1 
    Grenade itself has a fairly typical design, with a serrated body and top-
    mounted fuse, with pin attached to the side of the fuse. The F1 Grenade could 
    be thrown up to 100 metres away, and had a blast radius of 20-30 metres. The 
    grenade itself was lighter and more powerful than American, British or Russian 
    grenades.
    
    Early models were painted yellow-green, but WWII models were painted in dark-
    olive. It is also worth noting that the grenade case was often pitted and of 
    poor quality, typical of the manufacturing methods used by the Russians, but 
    they were nonetheless very effective.
    
    The F1 Grenade was slightly odd in that the safety pin ring is located opposite 
    to the grenades of other countries. While most grenades are held with the lever 
    facing the palm of the hand, the F1 Grenade has the lever under the fingers.
    
    The F1 Grenade continued to be manufactured after the war and throughout the 
    Cold War.
    
    
    -----------------
     Spearhead notes
    -----------------
    
    The F1 Grenade is available to Russian troops by default. As with the Mills 
    grenade, the F1 Grenade has no noticeable differences to the American M2 
    Grenade.
    
    
    ===============================================================================
     6.5 - Smoke Grenade
    ===============================================================================
    
    Name:				M18 Colored Smoke Grenade
    Country of origin:		USA
    Available for:			All
    
    -----------------------
     Historical Background
    -----------------------
    
    An American signalling device, the M18 smoke grenade was used to designate 
    targets, and also assist pilots in identifying wind direction. M18 smoke 
    grenades were available in yellow, green, red and violet colors. The canister 
    itself was cylindrical in shape, with the respective color shown at the top end 
    of the grenade. Smoke lasted between 50-90 seconds.
    
    
    -----------------
     Spearhead notes
    -----------------
    
    The Smoke Grenade is issued to all players in Multiplayer. The main purpose of 
    the Smoke Grenade is to provide a smoke screen, not to mark targets as the real 
    life counterpart was used for.
    
    Some servers use a Mustard Gas mod, which damages any player running through 
    the smoke.
    
    
    ===============================================================================
     6.6 - General Grenade Tactics
    ===============================================================================
    
    One of the easiest, hardest hitting weapons to use, the grenade offers a 
    medium-range solution to clearing out rooms and flushing out enemies. Distance 
    is determined by the angle the grenade is thrown at. With experience, grenades 
    can be lobbed precisly behind obstacles and through windows.
    
    The tactical use of the grenade will minimise risk before storming a 
    strongpoint or a suspected enemy location. If you think an enemy might be 
    inside the next room, lob a grenade in. After the grenade explodes, rush in 
    with a weapon and finish the target off. If the grenade doesn't kill them, they 
    will be heavily wounded and will be at a significant disadvantage against you.
    
    Grenades are also excellent for taking out massed concentrations of enemies. 
    However, if friendly fire is on, be careful of where you lob grenades: more 
    likely than not, your own teammates will be right next to the enemy units.
    
    You can hold the grenade longer by holding the fire button down. If grenade 
    cooking is enabled, the grenade will "tick" for every second you hold it. After 
    five or so seconds, the grenade will explode, regardless of whether you have 
    thrown it or not. You can use this to your advantage by cooking your grenades 
    long enough so that the enemy will not be able to escape in time (or throw the 
    grenade back at you in single player). However, take extreme caution, as you 
    may not be able to get out of its blast radius if you hold on for too long.
    
    *SUMMARISED:
    -Short-medium range use
    -Explosive blast radius
    -Can be lobbed into rooms and windows
    -Can be cooked
    
    
    *~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*
     7.0 - HEAVY WEAPONS
    *~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*
    
    Allied Assault seems to have lobbed every other weapon into its own category: 
    Heavy Weapons. This category contains the Shotgun, the Bazooka and the 
    Panzerschreck. Each weapon will have their own background.
    
    Spearhead adds one heavy weapon: the Gewehrgranate, as explained below.
    
    
    ===============================================================================
     7.1 - Winchester Shotgun
    ===============================================================================
    
    Name:				Winchester M1897 Shotgun
    Country of origin:		USA
    Available for:			All
    Calibre:			12 gauge
    Magazine capacity:		6 rounds (including one in chamber)
    Firing mechanism:		Pump-action
    Weight:				3.15kg
    
    -----------------------
     Historical Background
    -----------------------
    
    Another design by the famed John M. Browning, the Winchester M1897 was 
    developed to dominate the conditions found in the First World War. During the 
    American Civil War, shotguns were used to some success, and were employed 
    sporadically throughout military history. The Americans in the First World War 
    realised the suitable combat environment for shotguns in the narrow trenches of 
    the Western Front, and by designing a rapid-fire shotgun and issuing it to 
    frontline troops, devastating impacts were made.
    
    The M97 Winchester shotgun was lighter than the contemporary Springfield M1903 
    rifle and had a much shorter barrel, allowing it to be easily carried and swung 
    around. The 12 gauge shotgun shells, at such close ranges, tore through enemy 
    soldiers. There are reports of Germans attacking American lines, running into a 
    torrent of shotgun pellets and quickly being turned into a pile of carcasses. 
    Because of how devastating the Winchester shotgun was, the Germans demanded 
    that such a weapon be banned under the rules of war.
    
    A special heat shield grip was used in trenches to prevent the weapon from 
    being damage during and between shots. Five rounds were stored in the tubular 
    magazine under the barrel, with one round in the chamber itself. Some shotguns 
    had a special bayonet adapter, which could attach a standard-issue bayonet.
    
    The M97 was used by all military arms at some point or another, and was 
    employed in smaller numbers in the Second World War. As newer and better 
    shotguns were developed, the Winchester began to be phased out, but still saw 
    use in Korea and Vietnam.
    
    
    -----------------
     Spearhead notes
    -----------------
    
    Close range monster.
    
    That's the only way to describe the Shotgun. Available for the Allied team, the 
    shotgun is reasonably lightweight. Accuracy is pitiful at long range, but at 
    close range, this thing KILLS. Point blank shots will definitely kill in one 
    hit, and medium range hits will usually cripple enemies down to 10% of their 
    health or so. The closer the target, the more shotgun pellets hit, and hence 
    the more damage.
    
    The shotgun reloads one shell at a time, and can take some time to reload to 
    full capacity. However, reloading speed for individual shells is quite fast, 
    and you can instantly fire during reload to send more shells desperately at 
    enemies. A common tactic is to continue firing until the magazine is empty, 
    load a single round, then fire again. The speed difference between a regular 
    pump action and a reload is marginal. Even at long range, pellets will still 
    continue to chip down at health until they engage in close range.
    
    Naturally, the best scenario to use the Shotgun is at close range. However, the 
    absolute dominance of this weapon leads to many complaints, and in many ways 
    the Shotgun is "overpowered".
    
    
    ===============================================================================
     7.2 - Bazooka
    ===============================================================================
    
    Name:				M9A1 "Bazooka"
    Country of origin:		USA
    Available for:			American, British, Russian
    Calibre:			2.36in (60mm) rocket
    Magazine capacity:		1 round
    Firing mechanism:		Electric-ignited, rocket-fired
    Weight:				6.5kg (unloaded)
    
    -----------------------
     Historical Background
    -----------------------
    
    To combat the armored threat that Germany was known to possess, the Americans 
    began developing close-range countermeasures for infantry. The idea at the time 
    was a .60 cal anti-tank rifle, following the trend set by other nations with 
    their anti-tank rifles.
    
    At the same time, the "shaped-charge" principle was developed. The principle, 
    otherwise known as the hollow-charged principle, consisted of an explosive 
    molded into a conical shape and placed within a copper cone. The igniter was 
    located at the base of the cone, and the resulting explosion forced a burst of 
    intensely hot particles through the cone at incredibly high speeds, capable of 
    forcing through thick steel plates and effectively piercing them. While not yet 
    developed as a weapon, the US Army saw the potential in this system and 
    procured many of these warheads.
    
    The actual development of the weapon came from US Army Captain Leslie Skinner 
    and Navy Lieutenant Edward Uhl. Known for his experiments with mortars and 
    rockets, Skinner modified a mortar tube and used a rocket propellant for the 
    shaped-charged warheads. With this design complete, Skinner used the model as 
    part of a demonstration of anti-tank weapons.
    
    This rocket launcher was only a sideshow to the hyped anti-tank rifles. 
    However, while the anti-tank rifles had mediocre performance, Skinner's rocket 
    launcher obliterated every target it was used against. Accurate at short 
    ranges, and successfully blowing the turret right off a Sherman, the rocket 
    launcher shocked and impressed Army officials, and the weapon was adopted on 
    the spot as the M1 Rocket Launcher, and was mass produced afterwards. Troops 
    nicknamed the weapon the "Bazooka", after its physical resemblance to the 
    Bazooka sound instrument invented by Bob Burns.
    
    The M1 Bazooka used electric ignition to fire the rocket (loaded from the 
    rear), powered by batteries stored in the wooden shoulder stock, and also had a 
    wooden fore-grip. The tube itself was one-piece, and the warheads were attached 
    to a fin-stablised rocket. The weapon had to be switched "on" to be fired, and 
    its status was indicated by an on/off lamp on the shoulder stock. The M1A1 
    model did away with the on/off system, removed the wooden fore-grip and 
    introduced a disc-shaped mesh shield to protect the firer from the backblast. 
    The latter proved to be cumbersome and ineffective, and was not used by troops, 
    instead being replaced with an iron funnel.
    
    The M9A1 model was a major overhaul. The one-piece tube was replaced with a 
    two-piece tube, which could be split for easier transportation, and the wooden 
    grip and stock were replaced with iron ones. The batteries were proven to be 
    unreliable and were replaced with a small generator. The iron muzzle funnel 
    used in the M1A1 was standardised as part of the M9A1, and the iron sights were 
    replaced with optical sights. The M9A1 was produced during and after 1944.
    
    One final version of the Bazooka appeared towards the end of the war and used 
    afterwards. The M20 "Super Bazooka" made several refinements to the M9A1 model 
    and fired a 3.5in rocket, easily multiplying damage by up to three times, and 
    could literally obliterate a T-34 tank.
    
    Bazooka teams usually consisted of a gunner, who aimed and fired the rocket, 
    and a loader/assistant, who loaded the weapon and observed the shot.
    
    
    -----------------
     Spearhead notes
    -----------------
    
    Monster.
    
    That's the only way to describe the Bazooka. While the Shotgun dominates at 
    close range, the Bazooka dominates everywhere. 90% of the time, any target 
    caught in its blast radius will die. The blast radius is just as large as 
    grenades, and it is MUCH easier to use. Just a simple point-and-click action.
    
    Thankfully, there are SOME disadvantages. The Bazooka is painfully slow to walk 
    around with, making you a very easy target. Rockets have a nasty tendency to 
    spiral out of control at longer ranges, a rocketeer can only carry several 
    rockets, and reload time is very, very slow. Still, for a weapon that can take 
    out 2-3 enemies per shot, the advantages far outweight the disadvantages.
    
    It is generally accepted that the Bazooka is a cheap weapon and should not be 
    used. New players are drawn to the Bazooka for obvious reasons, and are not 
    afraid to kill themselves by firing a rocket a close range if they know they 
    can take out another enemy.
    
    
    ===============================================================================
     7.3 - Panzerschreck
    ===============================================================================
    
    Name:				Raketenpanzerbüchse 54 "Panzerschreck"
    Country of origin:		Germany
    Available for:			German
    Calibre:			3.46in (8.8cm) rocket
    Magazine capacity:		1 round
    Firing mechanism:		Electric-ignited, rocket-fired
    Weight:				7.46kg
    
    -----------------------
     Historical Background
    -----------------------
    
    During the North Africa campaign, the German army discovered an amazing 
    American weapon: the "Bazooka", a rocket launcher firing fin-stablised shaped-
    charge warheads, and capable of devastating tanks. Realising the potential for 
    this weapon, and acknowledging that it was superior to any infantry anti-tank 
    weapon they had, the Bazooka was copied and improved, forming the 
    Raketenpanzerbüchse 43, "Rocket Tank Rifle".
    
    Popularly known as the Panzerschreck, "Tank Terror", and Ofenrohr, "Stove 
    Pipe", among the troops, the weapon was essentially the same as the M9A1 
    Bazooka. The Panzerschreck used a metal shoulder stock and fired rockets using 
    an electric ignition system. However, to improve the performance of the 
    Panzerschreck, the Germans opted for the 8.8cm rocket as the projectile, rather 
    than the smaller 6.0cm rocket used in the Bazooka, resulting in a far superior 
    weapon.
    
    The trigger assembly had two triggers: one trigger cocked the magnetic ignition 
    system, and the second trigger pushed the magnetic rod through a coil, 
    generating the electric current necessary to fire the rocket. The rocket itself 
    was stablised in flight by a steel ring at the rear, similar to aircraft bombs. 
    The rockets were available in summer and winter version, each with different 
    propellent loadings for different thermal conditions.
    
    One of the flaws of the Panzerschreck was that the rocket propellent continued 
    to burn for a few seconds after launch, putting the firer at risk of being 
    burnt. Initially, firers wore gloves and a mask, but the later 
    Raketenpanzerbüchse 54 rectified the problem by installing a metal blast shield 
    at the front of the trigger assembly.
    
    Like the American Bazooka teams, the Panzerschreck was best used in a two-man 
    team with a gunner and a loader. Early teams had little success due to 
    overconfidence in the Panzerschreck's design, resulting in engagements of up to 
    1000m, despite the Panzerschreck only being effective to 150m or so. It took 
    some time for the Panzerschreck's abilities to be gauged and realised, 
    surpassing the Panzerfaust.
    
    
    -----------------
     Spearhead notes
    -----------------
    
    The Axis counterpart to the Allied Bazooka, the Panzerschreck is identical in 
    every respect. The rockets kill in one hit, have a large blast radius, tends to 
    be inaccurate, has slow reload, etc.
    
    And, like the Bazooka, the Panzerschreck is horrendously overpowered, and is 
    looked down upon by other players.
    
    The only difference between the Panzerschreck and Bazooka of some significance 
    is that the Panzerschreck has a front shield, which does nothing to stop 
    bullets, but does a good job at hindering vision.
    
    
    ===============================================================================
     7.3 - Gewehrgranate
    ===============================================================================
    
    Name:				Mauser Karabiner 98 Kurz
    				Gewehrpanzergranate 61
    Country of origin:		Germany
    Available for:			German
    Calibre:			61mm (fired from 7.92mm cartridge)
    Weight:				0.52kg
    
    
    -----------------------
     Historical Background
    -----------------------
    
    One of the interesting, yet overlooked developments in WWII was the use of 
    rifle grenades. Many nations developed devices to be attached onto the end of 
    their standard-issue rifles, which allowed them to launch grenades further than 
    a soldier could throw them.
    
    The Germans used their Kar98k rifle as their main rifle-grenade launcher. A 
    special short, rifled barrel extension was attached to the muzzle of the rifle. 
    This device was known as the Gewehrgranatgerät ("rifle-grenade device"), 
    otherwise known as the Schiessbecher ("firing cup"). The rifle grenade was then 
    attached to the end of this device, from which it could be launched by firing a 
    special blank cartridge. The grenade could be aimed using a slightly 
    complicated side-mounted sight, with aids for up to 300m.
    
    The rifle grenades were usually high explosive, but several designs were 
    developed to penetrate armor. These rifle grenades carried shaped-charge 
    warheads (similar to the Bazooka and Panzerschreck rockets). The latest of this 
    line was the Gewehrpanzergranate 61 ("rifle tank grenade"), which had a 200g 
    warhead and could penetrate 125mm of armor. However, these were produced in 
    very small numbers, as the war began to end and production slowed down.
    
    While primarily used with the Kar98k, rifle grenades were also used with the 
    G43, FG42 and Stg44.
    
    
    -----------------
     Spearhead notes
    -----------------
    
    The Gewehrgranate replaces the Shotgun on the German side, and is nicknamed the 
    "pop gun" due to its appearance and performance. The weapon is basically a 
    Kar98k with a rifle grenade extension. It fires rifle rounds and does the same 
    damage as the Kar98k, and hence can pull off one-shot precision kills.
    
    The "bang" of this weapon comes from the attachable grenades. By using 
    alternate fire (right click by default), the player attaches a rifle grenade to 
    the end of the rifle. The next shot will then fire the grenade, resulting in a 
    huge blast and killing anyone caught within it, making it an ideal first-strike 
    weapon. The grenade can also be fired into windows, and because it detonates on 
    impact, is perfect for clearing strongpoints.
    
    However, there are limitations to the Gewehrgranate. The rifle is very light to 
    run around with, but when the grenade is attached, movement speed drops 
    drastically. The rifle grenade is also very short-ranged, and it requires quite 
    a bit of experience to trajectorise properly. There is also no way to remove 
    the grenade once attached, so it must be fire. Furthermore, since the secondary 
    fire button is used to attach grenades, the Gewehrgranate cannot be used to 
    bash with.
    
    Despite these disadvantages, the Gewehrgranate is still incredibly useful, and 
    perhaps even overpowered. While a tactically useful weapon, it is not looked 
    highly upon by veteran players.
    
    
    *~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*
     8.0 - OTHER WEAPONS
    *~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*
    
    Below are various weapons found throughout the game, but don't fall into the 
    above categories.
    
    ===============================================================================
     8.1 - MG42
    ===============================================================================
    
    Name:                           Maschinengewehr 1942
    Country of origin:              Germany
    Available for:                  All (fixed locations)
    Calibre:                        7.92 x 57mm Mauser
    Magazine capacity:              250-round linkable belts
    Firing mechanism:               Full-automatic, recoil-operated
    Rate of fire:			1200 rounds per minute
    Weight:				11.5kg on bipod
    
    -----------------------
     Historical Background
    -----------------------
    
    In the 1930's, the German Army required a machine gun to rearm its forces.
    After a few unsatisfactory adoptions, the Mauser company came up with a
    revolutionary design: the MG34. It incorporated several new features: the
    "straight-line" principle, where the butt is part of the barrel line, reducing
    the tendency to rise when firing on full-automatic, the use of 50-round belts
    that could be linked to form longer belts, and even the use of a double-drum
    magazine. A fast, accurate weapon, the MG-34 was a good weapon.
    
    Too good, perhaps. It used the same manufacturing techniques as traditionally-
    made weapons, being very time- and labor-consuming. To rectify this problem,
    changes were made to the MG34, using as much metal stampings and pressings as
    possible, making it easier to produce the weapon while maintaining reliability.
    This was achieved and designated the MG42, as well as notching the rate of fire
    over 1200 rounds per minute. At this level, it is impossible for the human ear 
    to pick out individual rounds being fired, only hearing a "brrp" sound that was
    feared by anyone on the receiving end. This extremely high rate of fire tended 
    to overheat the barrel, which could easily be changed in a few seconds. 
    
    The MG42 was a General Purpose Machine Gun, being used as a light machine gun 
    as well as a heavy machine gun mounted on a tripod. Interestingly, many 
    infantry tactics were centered around the MG42. This was fair, since the
    MG42 provided more firepower than an entire squad. The MG squad was handpicked
    and consisted of seasoned veterans. The most decorated soldier carried and
    fired the MG42, while the second best soldier fed the MG42 and replaced the
    barrel. The two least experienced soldiers, usually new conscripts, did nothing
    but carry ammunition. The rest of the crew covered all possible approaches to
    the MG42. The MG42 itself was exempt from a 'stand fast' order, relocating to
    a better, pre-planned position to resume firing. This order of battle was
    extremely effective. The squad may be crippled, but as long as the MG42 was
    still operational, the remainder could put up more firepower than any Allied
    squad.
    
    Although the original MG42 has been phased out, many of its features are used
    in modern machine guns like the M60. As a testament to its revolutionary
    design though, the MG42 is still in use by the German Army as the MG3,
    rechambered for the 7.62mm NATO round.
    
    
    -----------------
     Spearhead notes
    -----------------
    
    MG42's are found sporadically throughout single player, and in several 
    multiplayer maps. The single player emplacements are pretty good for taking out 
    large numbers of Germans swarming you.
    
    In multiplayer, however, MG42 positions are poorly located. More often than 
    not, an MG42 will be sitting in the middle of nowhere, pointing at a position 
    not even worth firing at. Even worse, your player model will be in a half-
    standing, half-crouching position, making you hopeless immobile and vulnerable 
    to any attack. MG42's are bullet magnets; they are never worth manning in 
    multiplayer.
    
    MG42's have unlimited ammunition and no overheating. They are, however, very 
    inaccurate, benefitting mainly from the incredible firepower it can deliver.
    
    
    ===============================================================================
     8.2 - PzB 41
    ===============================================================================
    
    Name:				Panzerbüchse 1941
    Country of origin:		Germany
    Calibre:			20mm
    Magazine capacity:		Unlimited in game
    Firing mechanism:		Semi-automatic, recoil-operated
    Weight:				44kg
    
    -----------------------
     Historical Background
    -----------------------
    
    The trend at the start of the Second World War was to equip infantry with 
    large-calibre rifles to take out tanks. While this was sound in theory, the 
    concept was quickly rendered obsolete with improvements in tank armor.
    
    The Germans started their anti-tank rifle designs with the 1918 T-Gewehr, a 
    bolt-action 13mm rifle. During the re-armament in the prelude to the Second 
    World War, the PzB series of AT rifles were developed. The first, the PzB 38, 
    used a high-velocity 7.92mm round with a steel armor-piercing core, with a 
    small (and evidently ineffective) capsule of nerve gas to knock out the crew of 
    the tank.
    
    As with most early war designs, the PzB 38 was too complicated, and it was 
    trimmed down to simplify production and became the PzB 39.
    
    In 1939, the PzB 41 was put into development. The PzB 41 was more like a cannon 
    than a rifle, and fired 20mm rounds, probably to take on heavier tanks as they 
    appeared later in the war. The PzB 41 was a self-loading weapon with a 5- or 
    10-round box magazine on its left side. Because of its weight, it was primarily 
    used in vehicles like half-tracks. However, it was proven to be ineffective 
    against improving armor.
    
    As with most other AT rifles, the PzB was phased out with the advent of shaped-
    charged projectiles and weapons such as the Panzerschreck and Panzerfaust.
    
    
    -----------------
     Spearhead notes
    -----------------
    
    The PzB 41 is used during the Halftrack mission. The weapon fires explosive 
    rounds, and as it is your only weapon, you'll need to use it to take out 
    infantry, tanks and other halftracks. However, it isn't very effective, and it 
    requires many rounds to take out a tank. Aim for the turret for more damage.
    
    Note that while the PzB 41 is semi-automatic, you can hold down the fire button 
    and it will continue to fire. Also, despite having an ammunition count, it will 
    instantaneously reload once it depletes, so you can continue to fire 
    indefinitely.
    
    
    ===============================================================================
     8.3 - AA Flak Gun
    ===============================================================================
    
    Name:				2cm Flak 38 "Flakvierling"
    Country of origin:		Germany
    Available for:			Single-Player only (Kharkov)
    Calibre:			20mm
    Magazine capacity:		4 x 20 rounds
    
    -----------------------
     Historical Background
    -----------------------
    
    With four barrels, a practical firing rate of over 800 rounds per minute and 
    featuring a compact frame design including flip-up seats and raisable stands, 
    the Flakvierling was the best anti-aircraft gun the Germans had.
    
    The Flakvierling was a capable of firing in semi-automatic and full-automatic, 
    and its barrels could quickly be replaced to prevent overheating and wear and 
    tear. It could fire both armor-piercing/high explosive shells, as well as 
    conventional HE shells.
    
    The Flakvierling could elevate from -10 degrees to +100 degrees, was capable of 
    traversing 360 degrees and had separate sights for air and ground targets.
    
    
    -----------------
     Spearhead notes
    -----------------
    
    The AA Flak gun is found several times throughout single player; the first 
    encounter being the initial drop into Normandy. While the gun is designed to 
    shoot down planes, you will be using them against infantry and tanks. Most of 
    these guns will be pointing towards the sky, so you'll need to pull the sights 
    down to ground level before you can hit anything. A single round can take out 
    an infantry, and you'll be firing with four barrels, so this weapon and throw 
    out a LOT of firepower. To take out tanks, keep pounding the slow moving beast 
    until it blows up. Aim for the turret for faster results.
    
    Note that the Flak gun has a warm-up time. You must hold the fire button for 
    several seconds before the gun starts firing. This is indicated by the "whrrr" 
    sound, and the weapon icon glowing red. You can them fire as long as you want, 
    but as soon as you stop firing, you need to warm it up again.
    
    
    ===============================================================================
     8.4 - Flak 88
    ===============================================================================
    
    Name:                           8.8cm Flak 36
    Country of origin:		Germany
    Available for:			All
    Calibre:			8.8cm (88mm)
    
    -----------------------
     Historical Background
    -----------------------
    
    One of the most feared weapons in the German arsenal, the Flak 88 was the bane 
    of the armored vehicle. Capable of knocking out practically any tank in 
    existence during WWII, the Flak 88 was a formidable multi-purpose weapon used 
    both as standalone artillery and as primary armament for tanks.
    
    The name "Flak" is derived from "Fliegerabwehrkanone", meaning "anti-aircraft 
    gun". Originally designed for a calibre of 75mm, the Flak was intended to 
    combat the problems faced by anti-aircraft artillery, namely the lack of 
    altitude and difficulty in hitting fast-moving targets. This was achieved by 
    increasing the muzzle velocity of the cannons to extend their range, and to 
    improve their rate of fire.
    
    After overcoming the military speedbump of the Versailles Treaty, the Germans 
    quickly accelerated development of their new weapon. The first prototypes for 
    the new 88mm calibre were produced, and after testing and approval were 
    designed the Flak 18, also known as the Flak 88/L56, derived from the barrel 
    length of 56 calibres. The Flak 18 featured a "semi-automatic" loading system, 
    allowing spent cases to be ejected and new shells loaded with a single handle, 
    increasing the rate of fire to 20 rounds a minute. The Flak 18 was used in the 
    Spanish Civil War and proved to be best anti-aircraft weapon.
    
    The Flak 36 model improved on the Flak 18 by using a three-piece barrel that 
    could be easily replaced from exposure and wear, and featured a heavy crucifix-
    shaped base that could easily be deployed from its carriage, allowing the Flak 
    to commence firing after a very quick interval; essential to the German 
    blitzkrieg strategy.
    
    During the North Africa campaign, Field Marshal Erwin Rommel realised that he 
    was short of anti-tank guns, which in any case proved to be ineffective against 
    Allied armor. To supplement his batteries, Rommel borrowed Flak 88's from other 
    batteries and used them to repel the British advance. The 88mm shells 
    devastated their tanks, and from then onwards the Flak 88 was used as a dual-
    purpose gun, with time-delayed fuses for anti-air and high-explosive shells for 
    anti-tank and anti-infantry.
    
    Despite the terrifying effectiveness of the Flak 88, it was a relatively 
    uncommon gun. It's heavy base made transportation and mobility difficult, and 
    most of the time its firepower was decisive only in ambush scenarios rather 
    than pitched battles.
    
    
    -----------------
     Spearhead notes
    -----------------
    
    The Flak 88 is found several times in single player. You will most likely need 
    to blow them up with explosives, but occasionally you can use them to knock out 
    tanks.
    
    The Flak 88 has a simple point-and-click firing procedure. It can take out 
    infantry in one hit. Tanks go down with two hits to the chassis or one to the 
    turret, and often you won't have time to go for a third shot.
    
    The reload time is painfully slow, so make those shots count.
    
    
    ===============================================================================
     8.5 - Nebelwerfer
    ===============================================================================
    
    Name:				Nebelwerfer 1941
    Country of origin:		Germany
    Calibre:			15cm
    Magazine capacity:		6 rockets
    Firing mechanism:		Electric-ignition, rocket-fired
    
    -----------------------
     Historical Background
    -----------------------
    
    The Nebelwerfer was developed by the Germans as an easily transportable rocket 
    launching platform. The name "Nebelwerfer" literally means "smoke thrower", 
    which the Nebelwerfer was, but it mainly launched 15cm high explosive rockets. 
    The name was also used as a cover-up during its design.
    
    The Nebelwerfer is mounted on a wheeled platform and has six rocket tubes. Each 
    tube was electrically ignited, and rockets were launched from opposite tubes 
    (that is, the fire order would go from one side to the other consecutively 
    rather than sequentially).
    
    The rockets could be fired up to 7km away and had the explosive equivalent of a 
    105mm artillery shell, making the Nebelwerfer devastating against targets, 
    especially with six fired in quick succession, and more often with entire 
    Nebelwerfer batteries pounding a single area.
    
    Because of the noise made by the Nebelwerfer, Allied soldiers nicknamed it the 
    "Screaming Mimi".
    
    
    -----------------
     Spearhead notes
    -----------------
    
    The Nebelwerfer is encountered in the first Bastogne mission. You will need to 
    assault the Nebelwerfer position and neutralise it by eliminating its crew. Try 
    to approach it from the most covered position possible, but don't be too 
    concerned, as you won't be taking much damage from it.
    
    You then need to use the Nebelwerfer against a counterattack. You can fire each 
    rocket very quickly, and the splash damage will take out most infantry on 
    contact. It can also be used to take out halftracks and tanks, if necessary.
    
    Usually, you will need to destroy them by placing an explosive on its side.
    
    
    ===============================================================================
     8.6 - T34
    ===============================================================================
    
    Name:				T-34 Medium Tank
    Country of origin:		Russia
    Main armament:			85mm (76.2mm in original T-34 versions)
    Secondary armament:		7.62mm DTM bow MG
    				7.62mm DTM coaxial MG
    Crew:				5
    
    
    -----------------------
     Historical Background
    -----------------------
    
    Developed in 1936 to replace the unsuccessful BT series of vehicles, the T-34 
    contained innovative features such as sloped armor and water-cooled diesel 
    engines, improving armor protection, speed and operating distance. The design 
    itself was simplistic, allowing mass production. Earlier models were armed with 
    the 76mm cannon. However, experience against the German Panther and Tiger tanks 
    proved the cannon to be insufficient, and so the upgraded T-34/85 tanks were 
    armed with an 85mm cannon.
    
    An interesting flaw the original T-34 was a turret overhang. Germans found that 
    the overhang acted as a shot trap, and a well-placed Teller mine could disable 
    the turret completely. This flaw was subsequently fixed in the T-34/85 models.
    
    Another interesting note is that because of the large numbers of T-34 tanks and 
    shortages in trained crew members in the early stages of the war, tanks that 
    were freshly rolled off the manufacturing line were sometimes manned by the men 
    and women who just built them.
    
    While not as technologically advanced as the German tanks, the T-34's sheer 
    numbers made up for the technological gap, and many German commanders praised 
    the T-34 as one of the finest tanks ever made. After the war, the T-34 found 
    its way to many Eastern Bloc countries.
    
    
    -----------------
     Spearhead notes
    -----------------
    
    The T34 is available in the final Russian mission. You are required to drive 
    the tank through the streets of Berlin. The two main threats against you are 
    Panzerschreck-armed infantry and other tanks.
    
    To counter these threats, the T34 has two weapons. The primary weapon is the 
    85mm gun. It takes several rounds to kill a German tank, so be quick on the 
    trigger and move your tank behind cover while you are loading. The second 
    weapon is the DTM machine gun mounted on the turret, which you can switch to 
    and fire at infantry. The weapon has unlimited ammunition, but is quite 
    inaccurate.
    
    Note that you can restore your tank's "health" by picking up "health barrels". 
    A little silly, but I guess they ran out of feasible ideas for healing a tank.
    
    Also a bit silly is how Sgt. Barnes is able to control a five-crew tank by 
    himself. He must be pedalling the tank with his feet.
    
    
    ===============================================================================
    END OF FILE
    Copyright © 2005 David "Scott Lee" Nguyen
    ===============================================================================