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    FAQ/Walkthrough by Dammit9x

    Version: 1.1 | Updated: 11/04/06 | Printable Version | Search Guide | Bookmark Guide

    Caesar II FAQ/Guide (DOS)
    Novewmber 4, 2006 v1.1
    dammit9x at hotmail dot com
    
    Copyright 2006
    
        This document may be not be reproduced under any circumstances except for 
    personal, private use. It may not be placed on any web site or otherwise 
    distributed publicly without advance written permission. Use of this guide on 
    any unauthorized web site or as a part of any public display is strictly 
    prohibited and a violation of copyright.
    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    
    
    ***************************************
    TABLE OF CONTENTS
    
    I. HOW TO PLAY
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. KEYBOARD SHORTCUTS
      3. CITY, PROVINCE, FORUM VIEWS
      4. MONEY
      5. OBJECTIVES
      6. GAME MODE AND DIFFICULTY LEVEL
    
    II. DEVELOPING HOUSING
      1. HOUSING EVOLUTION
      2. CITY BUILDINGS
      3. LAND VALUES
      4. POPULATION REQUIREMENTS
    
    III. DEVELOPING INDUSTRY
      1. SUPPLY
      2. PROVINCE BUILDINGS
      3. DEMAND & DISTRIBUTION
      4. MANAGING EMPLOYMENT
      5. MANAGING PLEBS
    
    IV. GUIDE TO DEFENSE
      1. CITY SECURITY
      2. PROVINCE SECURITY
      3. COHORT MANAGEMENT
    
    V. DEALING WITH CAESAR
      1. FAVOR
      2. GIFTS
      3. TRIBUTE
      4. TAXES
      5. REQUESTS
    
    VI. CITY BUILDING STRATEGY
      1. DEVELOPMENT PRIORITIES
      2. PRECEPTS OF URBAN PLANNING
      3. BUILD NO INTERSECTIONS
      4. COUPLING LOOPS
      5. ACCOMODATING LARGE HOUSES
      6. PUSHING THE LIMITS OF INDUSTRY
      7. MEETING THE OBJECTIVES
    
    VII. GUIDE TO PROVINCES
      1. EXPLANATION
      2. LIST OF PROVINCES
    
    CLOSING
    ***************************************
    
    
    I. HOW TO PLAY
    
      1. INTRODUCTION
      Well, Caesar IV is out, Caesar III is over eight years old, and this game is 
    over 11 years old. Caesar/Impressions fans who cut their teeth on Caesar III 
    will find gameplay very familiar and enjoyable.
    
      Caesar II is a city-building strategy. The player advances from province to 
    province, building cities, nurturing them to prosperity, and defending them 
    from attack. The ultimate goal is to become the next Caesar.
    
      This guide is written for the Windows/DOS game Caesar II, Version 1.0 - 
    September 14, 1995. Most or all of the guide applies to the Mac version or the 
    patched version. This guide does not substitute for the manual; Beginning 
    players are advised to read the manual or play the tutorial. Most of the 
    information was obtained empirically, with a small part from the manual. 
    
      2. KEYBOARD SHORTCUTS
    F1       View City
    F2 or F  View Forum
    F3       View Province
    F4       Load game
    F5       Save game
    < and >  Rotate view
    + and -  Zoom in and out
    1-3      Set zoom level
    C        Display population and employment rate
    A        Toggle fast/normal time (double tap to move forward in time slightly)
    Y or N   Answer yes or no
    SPACE    Cancel building construction (press before releasing left mouse button)
    
      3. CITY, PROVINCE, FORUM VIEWS
      There are three views in Caesar II. Housing, businesses and services are 
    built and maintained on the city level. Resource production and trade routes, 
    as well as barbarians, your cohorts, and army combat, are managed on the 
    province level. Finally, the Forum is where you can get reports from and issue 
    commands to your governerial advisors.
      Right-click on any object in the City or Province views to query it. This 
    will give you information on the land value and services available in a 
    location, the state of a dwelling's evolution or the productivity of a 
    business, or allow you to hear the what walkers have to say.
      Time passes normally on the City and Province levels, except when paused, but 
    it is always paused on the Forum level. Most updates occur monthly, at the 
    beginning of the month. Examples include the number available plebs, the amount 
    of goods in a warehouse, and the state of a business. Two exceptions are the 
    evolution of dwellings and the population of the city, which change in the 
    middle of the month.
    
      4. MONEY
      Money (Denarii) is needed for almost everything in Caesar II. To succeed you 
    will need to understand how money is stored, how it is spent, how it is gained, 
    and how it is wasted. There are two locations for storing money: city funds and 
    personal savings.
      City funds are needed to pay construction costs, pay monthly fees for heavy 
    infantry, mercenaries and plebs, and pay tribute to Caesar at the end of the 
    year. Your monthly salary, which can be freely set up to 1000 Dn. by the 
    Personal advisor in the Forum, also comes out of the city funds. When beginning 
    a new province you are given a certain amount of money in the city funds that 
    depends on the difficulty level and your progress through the game. You will 
    need to maintain city funds by bringing in residential and industry taxes. 
    Failure to pay tribute to Rome three years in a row will result in game over.
      City funds are at risk of being stolen by your own citizens. This can be 
    avoided by building worship structures that are under internal or external 
    security (or both) to act as bank vaults. Larger structures can store more 
    funds. Proper temple management can prevent all robberies.
      When leaving a province the city funds are left behind, but personal savings 
    are retained. Personal savings have two purposes: donate them to the city funds 
    or give them as a gift to Caesar to improve his favor toward you. In later 
    provinces donations will be necessary to get the economy up and running, or to 
    get it running sooner.
      Like city funds, your savings can also be stolen -- in the form of taxes paid 
    to Caesar. Taxes cannot be avoided but they can be predicted and minimized.
      The following table summarizes the differences between city and personal 
    funds, and shows the interplay between them:
    
    Money location       Transfer by             Spend on             Lose by
    City funds           Donating to city        Current province     Robberies
    Personal savings     Setting your salary     Future provinces     Caesar's tax
    
      5. OBJECTIVES
      There are four aspects of your province that must be adequately developed 
    before you can advance; A minimum rating for each must be met, as well as a 
    minimum average of all four. To see your current ratings and goals, visit the 
    Oracle in the forum. You can get advice by clicking on the columns.
    
    Empire: Conquer barbarian tribes to convert them to Roman towns; connect the 
    main city and Roman towns with roads. Connect to border towns. Build ports to 
    harbor ships from neighboring provinces, and connect the ports as well. 
    Maintain adequate favor with the emperor.
    
    Peace: Prevent riots from occurring, and prevent barbarians from entering the 
    city. Prevent property damage caused by rioters or barbarians. Defeat any 
    barbarian force with your cohorts. Peace will rise 2 points for every year of 
    non-destruction, and 3 points for any enemy force defeated by your cohorts.
    
    Prosperity: Increase city population. Develop housing and collect housing tax. 
    Develop industry and collect industry tax. Achieve a profit each fiscal year.
    
    Culture: Build a) worship structures, b) entertainment structures, and c) land 
    value structures (sanitation, education, and amenities). All of these 
    structures must lie within the infuence of forums in order to count towards 
    Culture. Culture may be held back by a low city population.
    
      6. GAME MODE AND DIFFICULTY LEVEL
      Before beginning a game it is necessary to choose whether to play the full 
    campaign or just the city. The city-only mode is open ended, with no goals to 
    meet, no barbarian threats, no trade or resource management, and no advancement 
    to other provinces. This is useful for orientation and experimentation, but as 
    it has no real objective, there is not much to discuss.
      Next decide on the difficulty level. Higher difficulties require more 
    promotions to finish the game, yield less money at the start of each province, 
    require higher goals to be met for promotion, and may have other effects.
    
    Difficulty   Promotions   Starting money    Req. goals
    Novice                5            20000      -1 level
    Easy                  7            15000      -1 level
    Normal               10            12000       default
    Hard                 15             7000      +1 level
    Impossible           20             5000      +1 level
    
    The starting money is reduced by 250 on each successive province.
    
    The goals increase with rank. The following are for normal difficulty.
    Rank       Individual    Average
    Citizen           20%        30%
    Decurion          25         35
    Apparitor         30         40
    Magistrate        35         45
    Quaestor          40         50
    Procurator        45         55
    Aedile            50         60
    Praetor           55         65
    Proconsul         60         70
    Consul            65         74
    
    
    II. DEVELOPING HOUSING
      1. HOUSING EVOLUTION
      Housing is where your citizens live. In order for people to move to the city 
    you must first set up housing. Starting at the most basic dwelling, One Hut, 
    housing may advance through 32 grades of affluence depending on land value and 
    available services. All structures (see section II.2) and the housing units 
    themselves affect land value to a certain radius. Each successive grade of 
    housing requires higher land value. Some grades also require services provided 
    by other structures, with the highest grades requiring all possible services. A 
    unit of housing can evolve at a maximum rate of one grade per month if provided 
    with all its needs and wants.
     The highest levels of housing pay massive amounts in taxes, which can far 
    exceed the revenues acquired from industry. Ensuring that houses pay their 
    taxes is not difficult because they need forum access to evolve, unlike in 
    Caesar III. Taxes should not be raised about 7-8%, or unrest and spontaneous 
    devaluation of land values may result.
    
    Housing development requirements
    Grade            Size    Occu-     Pop.  Req. land  Required service
                             pancy   density   value
    One hut             1        2       2       0      
    Two huts            1        4       4       2      
    Three huts          1        6       6       4      Primitive water
    Communal hut        1        8       8       6      
    Large communal hut  1       10      10       8      Forum
    Primitive house     1       12      12      10      
    Simple house        1        6       6      12      
    Small house         1        7       7      14      Market
    Average house       1        8       8      16      Advanced water
    Improved house      1        9       9      18      Bath house
    Large house         1       12      12      20      Entertainment 1
    Grand house         1       16      16      22      
    Primitive insula    1       20      20      24      Single security
    Simple insula       1       24      24      26      Entertainment 2
    Small insula        1       28      28      28      Entertainment 3
    Average insula      1       32      32      30      Hospital**
    Improved insula     1       36      36      32      Entertainment 4
    Large insula        1       42      42      34      Grammaticus
    Grand insula        1       48      48      36      
    Imperial insula     1       54      54      38      Entertainment 5
    Simple domus        1       20      20      40      
    Small domus         1       25      25      42      Double security
    Average domus       1       30      30      44      Entertainment 6
    Improved domus      1       35      35      46      Rhetor, Library**
    Large domus         1       40      40      48      Entertainment 7
    Grand domus         1       45      45      50      
    Simple villa        2      100      25      54      
    Small villa         2      120      30      54      
    Improved villa      2      150      38      56      Entertainment 8
    Grand villa         2      200      50      58      
    Small palace        3      300      33      60      Entertainment 9
    Large palace        3      500      56      64      
    
    ** Each grade after Average Insula requires successively more Hospital access. 
    Likewise with Improved Domus and Library access. The coverage requirement 
    reaches 100% at Large palace.
    
      2. CITY BUILDINGS
    Other than housing, there are three types of buildings:
    
    Road-independent structures: Those that function with or without road 
    access. Whether they affect housing depends only on the distance from the 
    building to the house.
    
    Walker-producing structures: Those that send walkers out onto adjacent 
    roads. The building's influence is spread by a radius of 3 from every road tile 
    the walker traverses, and lingers for some time. The walker goes in a random 
    direction when he encounters an intersection. Additionally, the building's 
    service spreads for 3 tiles from the building itself.
    
    Forum-dependent structures: Those that require forum access in order to 
    work. When passed by a forum walker this building provides its service to the 
    whole city, but can only serve a limited number of citizens. If the service of 
    all the structures is not sufficient for the population of the city, every 
    dwelling in the city will have coverage of less than 100%.
    
      Concerning size, the single numbers given refer to an NxN square. As for 
    radius, the numbers given are the number of tiles past the edge of the 
    structure to which the effect extends. The radius draws out a square, not a 
    circle. There are two numbers for land value: the first is the bonus to land 
    value and the second is the radius to which that bonus extends.
    
    Road-independent structures
    Structure         Cost   Size    Land    Service  Citizens   Notes
                                    value     radius  employed
      WATER
    Natural sources      0      1       0          3         0   Simple water
    Well                20      1       0          2         0   Simple water
    Reservoir (1)       50      1       0                    0   Advanced water
    1st, 2nd in series                           3,6
    3rd in series                                2,5
    4th in series                                1,4
    Fountain            15      1     2;2          6         0   Advanced water
      SANITATION
    Bath house          30      2                           20
    1st grade                         3;3          5
    2nd grade                         4;3          6
    3rd grade                         5;3          7
    4th grade                         6;3          8
      ENTERTAINMENT (2)
    Theater            300      2     3;2      5,7,9        25   Type A
    Odeum              500      2     3;4     7,9,11        30   Type A
    Arena              700      3     4;3      5,7,9        50   Type B
    Coliseum          1000      3     4;5     7,9,11        60   Type B
    Circus            1500    --see (3)--     6,8,10        80   Type C
    Circus Maximus    2500    --see (3)--    8,10,12        96   Type C
      EDUCATION
    Grammaticus        250      2     3;2          6        30
    Rhetor             500      3     4;4          8        80
      SECURITY (4)
    Wall                20      1       0        n/a         0   External security
    Tower (5)           75      1       0        n/a         0   External security
    Gateway              5      1     2;1        n/a         0   External security
      WORSHIP
    Shrine              80      1                n/a        10
    1st grade                         5;2
    2nd grade                         6;2                        Req. pop. 500
    3rd grade                         7;3                        Req. pop. 2000
    4th grade                         8;3                        Req. pop. 5000
    Temple             200      2                n/a        20
    1st grade                         6;2
    2nd grade                         7;3                        Req. pop. 1000
    3rd grade                         8;3                        Req. pop. 4000
    4th grade                         9;4                        Req. pop. 10000
    Basilica           600      3                n/a        30
    1st grade                         7;3 
    2nd grade                         8;3                        Req. pop. 1500
    3rd grade                         9;4                        Req. pop. 6000
    4th grade                        10;4                        Req. pop. 15000
      AMENITIES
    Gardens              3      1     2;2        n/a         0
    Plaza (4)           12      1     4;1        n/a         0
    
    Walker-producing structures
    Structure         Cost   Size    Land   Distance  Citizens
                                    value     walked  employed
      FORUMS (6)
    Aventine           100      2                 36        40
    1st grade                         2;2
    2nd grade                         3;2
    3rd grade                         4;2
    4th grade                         5;3
    Janiculan          400      3                 36        80
    1st grade                         3;2
    2nd grade                         4;2
    3rd grade                         5;3
    4th grade                         6;3
    Palatine          1500      4                 36       120
    1st grade                         3;2
    2nd grade                         4;3
    3rd grade                         5;3
    4th grade                         6;4
      SECURITY (4)
    Praefecture        100      1     3;2         40        25   Internal security
    Barracks           400      3     3;2         70        30   Internal security
      INDUSTRY
    Market              40      2     2;1         28        20
    Business            80      3     2;1         28        60
    
    Forum-dependent structures
    Structure         Cost   Size    Land   Citizens  Citizens
                                    value     served  employed
    Hospital           500      3     4;3       1000        80
    Library           1000      3     4;4       1200        60
    
    (1) Reservoirs provide two services, hence two numbers: pipe access and water 
    access. Pipe access is required for fountains and baths to work. The service 
    radius depends on how far down the chain the reservoir is. Wells and natural 
    sources provide primite water; reservoirs and fountains provide advanced water.
    
    (2) Entertainment structures provide varying amounts of service depending on 
    distance. The three numbers are the distances for 3, 2 and 1 points of 
    entertainment, respectively. Each location can recieve up to 3 points of each 
    entertainment type. Entertainment points are NOT additive -- for example if a 
    location gets 2 points from one theater and 1 point from another theater, it 
    will only have 2 points of type A entertainment.
    
    (3) The Circus and Circus Maximus are unusual in shape and land value effect. 
    The drawings below illustrate:
            
    4 4 4 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 4 4 4        5 5 5 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 5 5 5
    4 4 4 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 4 4 4        5 5 5 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 5 5 5
    4 4 4 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 4 4 4        5 5 5 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 5 5 5
    4 4 4 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 4 4 4        5 5 5 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 5 5 5
    4 4 4 8 - - - - - - 8 4 4 4        5 5 5 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 5 5 5
    4 4 4 8 | Circus  | 8 4 4 4        5 5 5 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 5 5 5
    4 4 4 8 - - - - - - 8 4 4 4        5 5 5 5 0 0 - - - - - - - - 0 0 5 5 5 5
    4 4 4 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 4 4 4        5 5 5 5 0 0 |   Circus    | 0 0 5 5 5 5
    4 4 4 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 4 4 4        5 5 5 5 0 0 |   Maximus   | 0 0 5 5 5 5
    4 4 4 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 4 4 4        5 5 5 5 0 0 - - - - - - - - 0 0 5 5 5 5
    4 4 4 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 4 4 4        5 5 5 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 5 5 5
                                       5 5 5 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 5 5 5
                                       5 5 5 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 5 5 5
                                       5 5 5 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 5 5 5
                 '0' stands for 10 ->  5 5 5 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 5 5 5
                                       5 5 5 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 5 5 5
    
    (4) An area must be fully enclosed by some combination of walls, towers, gates 
    and river for about a year before it is considered covered by external security.
    A location must be passed by a prefecture or barracks walker to be covered by 
    internal security.
    
    (5) Towers may be built on clear land or on an already built wall. Plazas may 
    only be built on clear land, and not on top of road.
    
    (6) All walker-producing buildings except the higher forums send out a walker 
    once every four months. The wait period is three months for the Janiculan forum 
    and two for the Palatine forum.
    
      3. LAND VALUES
      Other structures beside housing are affected by land value and evolve 
    accordingly: fountains, baths, forums and worship buildings. Except in the case 
    of fountains, these evolutions cause the structures to raise nearby land values 
    further. There are population requirements that must be met before advanced 
    forums can be built and before worship buildings can evolve.
    
    Structure      Req. land value
    2nd grade      17
    3rd grade      33
    4th grade      49
    
      Some structures, even while raising land values, also put upper limits on 
    them. These limits apply to any structure sensitive to land value, not just 
    housing. This will have a major impact on your city design, especially with 
    regard to placement of businesses; if housing is placed too close to these 
    buildings it will limit their evolution.
    
    Structure     Radius   Land value limit
    Business      1        10
                  2        16
                  3,4      26
    Barracks      3        24
    Wall/Tower    2        26
    Gate          2        30
    Praefecture   2        34
    Market        2        40
    
      4. POPULATION REQUIREMENTS
      Some structures require a population milestone to be passed to become 
    available. Once the requirement has been met it is still possible to build them 
    if the population drops below the milestone. (Advanced worship structures do not
    work this way; they will devolve if the population drops.)
    
    Structure          Required population
    Janiculan Forum     400
    Odeum               800
    Library            1200
    Palatine Forum     1800
    Coliseum           2400
    Circus Maximus     4800
    
    
    III. DEVELOPING INDUSTRY
      Unlike in Caesar III, goods are not required to develop housing, only 
    services and land value. Therefore, it is possible to build a great city 
    without any commerce. However, there are two very good reasons to build up 
    industry: It provides tax revenue, and it employs citizens. To successfully 
    develop business it is necessary to understand the concepts of supply, demand 
    and distribution as they apply to Caesar II.
    
      1. SUPPLY
      Each of the up to eight goods available in each province has one of three 
    sources: Local production, land import, and sea import. Local production 
    requires a farm, mine, or quarry (250 Dn) with road access, at least one 
    warehouse (150 Dn), a work camp (100 Dn) and up to 30 plebs for labor (~4-7 
    Dn/month). Land import requires road access to a border town, a trading post 
    (500 Dn) and at least one warehouse (150 Dn). Sea import requires road access 
    to a port (1000 Dn), and at least one warehouse (150 Dn). The port must be 
    placed in the path of the trading vessels in order for trade to occur. 
    
    The rate of supply is different for each source:
    
      Production of local resources depends on the staffing of the work camp 
    adjacent to the production site. The rate of work camp filling is limited to 
    one third per month, and it takes several months to reach full production. A 
    fully staffed source will produce up to 4 units per month, with the actual rate 
    varying monthly in a random way. The overall rate depends on the province. 
    Earlier provinces put out nearly 3 a month, while the hardest provinces have 
    extremely bad productivity, less than 1 per month.
      The staffing of every camp in the province will be the number of plebs 
    assigned, divided by 30 times the number of work camps: Divide by three and 
    round down to determine the staffing in thirds. You cannot control the staffing 
    of individual camps. Thus it is your interest to build work camps only when and 
    where needed. It is possible to build more than one work camp per source, but 
    this offers no advantage. However, sources are sometimes close enough that you 
    can staff more than one with a single camp.
    
      The rate of land imports depends on the distance of the trading post from the 
    border town:
    
    Distance    Import rate
        1           3.0
        2           3.0
        3           2.8
        4           2.8
        5           2.4
        6           2.4
        7           1.7
        8           1.7
        9           0.9
       10           0.9
       11           0.3
       12           0.3
    
      These figures are for comparison only; the actual rate will rise and fall. 
    The border town must develop with a road connection for 2-8 months before it is 
    ready to commence trade. Once a trading post has been designated as the trade 
    point, no other trading post will import from the same neighboring province.
    
      The rate of sea imports depends on how efficiently the trade ships are 
    processed. Each ship carries 15 units of goods, which is the full capacity of a 
    warehouse. When a ship lands at port it drops its cargo, rests at the port for 
    some time, then heads straight toward the exit point of its trade route, 
    without continuing its path. Once it leaves the province, it will return after 
    a fixed amount of time.
      Thus the most important factor is the placement of the port. Allowing the 
    ship to dock earlier in its journey will shorten the turnaround time. Each sea 
    trade partner sends out two groups of ships that follow different routes, both 
    of which can be serviced. The rate can be improved further by placing a 
    shipyard adjacent to the port. This reduces the time spent in port, and thus 
    the round trip, by one month. Unlike work camps and warehouses, shipyards can 
    be built almost anywhere; however they do no good unless adjacent to the port. 
    Thus, the overall import rate may vary greatly: rates over 3 units/month to 
    less than 1 unit/month have been observed. As with land imports, the port may 
    need to lie idle for months before ships will stop at it.
      Clearly, ship paths need to be studied carefully before constructing ports 
    and shipyards. This is best done at the beginning of the province assignment, 
    before building anything. Watch ship movement from month to month and note the 
    optimal place for a port, leaving enough room for a road, a shipyard, and at 
    least two warehouses. It is sometimes possible to place a shipyard that serves 
    more than one port, and it is sometimes possible to place a port that serves 
    more than one trade vessel. Be sure to test the port to ensure the ships will 
    take. Then reload your save game and proceed at your own pace.
    
      2. PROVINCE BUILDINGS
      Farms, mines, quarries, trading posts, border towns, and ports must be 
    connected by road to the main city in order to work. The connecting road must 
    not have any gates; gates are equivalent to breaks in the road. In the case of 
    border towns and ports, they may need to be connected for the better part of a 
    year before they become active. Work camps, warehouses, shipyards, and the edge 
    of the map do not need road access and gain nothing from it. Those buildings 
    need only be adjacent (radius 1) to their parent buildings; for this, diagonal 
    connection is acceptable.
    
    Structure     Cost   Size   Requires
    Road            20      1
    Wall            50      1
    Fort           500      1
    Trading Post   500      2   Border town, road connection
    Farm           250      2   Meadow, road connection
    Mine           250      2   Rocky area, road connection
    Quarry         250      2   Rocky area, road connection
    Warehouse      150      1   Farm, Mine or Quarry
    Work camp      100      1   Farm, Mine or Quarry
    Shipyard       400      2   Port
    Port          1000      2   Shore, road connection
    
      3. DEMAND & DISTRIBUTION
      Up to eight types of business shops can be built in each province. These work 
    by taking raw materials from the province, processing them in the city, and 
    selling the product to citizens. The productivity of the workshop can be 
    determined from the number of barrels it contains, from 0-7. For maximum 
    productivity the business must have adequate supply of materials, adequate 
    access to workers and adequate access to a market. Additionally there must be 
    adequate demand for the product in the province.
      If raw materials are available somewhere in the province, they are transported
    instantly and invisibly to the workshop as needed. Materials must be stored in 
    a warehouse to be usable; they cannot be taken directly from the source. 
    Businesses prefer warehouses closer to the city and will take supplies from 
    those warehouses first. A working business processes one unit per month, or 
    none if it has no workers. In other words, the number of barrels seen in the 
    workshop is unconnected with the rate of resource consumption.
      The road walker sent out by the business must pass by housing to get workers. 
    Without workers, the business will not be able to produce. As time goes by after
    the walker passes housing, the business loses workers and will complain about it
    if queried. This is unavoidable with most road layouts, but provided that the 
    walker doesn't spend too much time away from housing it shouldn't affect 
    productivity too much. Similarly, the business walker must also pass by markets 
    to achieve maximum productivity. Without markets the business will still work 
    but will be limited in productivity. However, since housing needs markets to 
    develop anyway, getting the business walkers to pass markets should not be a 
    problem.
      The final consideration is the demand for the goods being produced. If demand 
    for the product is not high enough, the business will run at less than optimal 
    productivity. Demand can be increased by opening up trade routes, by connecting 
    to Roman towns in the province, and by increasing the city population. The 
    industrial tax rate also has an effect on demand; lower taxes increase demand, 
    although this may defeat the purpose of cultivating industry: generating tax 
    revenue. At the upper limit, taxes should not be set above 7-8%
      It is important to understand that the city does not buy imports or sell 
    exports as in Caesar III; the city collects taxes on goods sold, and the 
    productivity of businesses indicates the rate at which goods are being sold. 
    Always make sure that your businesses are paying their taxes by keeping them 
    covered by forum walkers.
    
      4. MANAGING EMPLOYMENT
      The population of the city and the employment rate can be monitored month to 
    month with the census (C key) or the Finance Advisor in the Forum. Keeping the 
    ideal amount of citizens employed will be a challenge, especially during the 
    early growth stages of the city. There are four components to the workforce:
    
      Essential services: These are jobs that need to be filled to maintain and 
    develop housing levels. The forum workers needed for the forum that will serve a
    Communal Hut would fall into this example. As housing evolves and more services 
    are required, the proportion of workers needed to fulfill essential services 
    will increase.
      Industry: These workers fill out the workshops that produce goods. Since 
    goods are not required to develop the city, it is possible to omit the 
    industrial sector. However, since industry is such a good employer and also 
    produces revenue, you will want to develop this sooner or later. There are 
    limits to how many can be employed by industry, which depend on the 
    availability of materials, the demand for product, and suitable building space 
    in the city. The practical upper limit is about 50% industrial employment. 
    Industry is the first to suffer in the event of a worker shortage.
      Conscription: Conscripted citizens are transferred into army service. Not 
    only does this strengthen your cohorts, but it also provides a no-effort buffer 
    against unemployment. Conscripted citizens are considered employed even before 
    their training is complete. If set too high it will lead to unrest, however. 
    Typically fledgling cities have a worker shortage, so eliminating conscription 
    when beginning a province is advised. Conscription is freely set from 0% to 50%.
      Culture padding: Later provinces will have culture ratings that are 
    unattainable by building essential services and non-employing amenities alone. 
    The city will require large numbers of extra entertainment and worship 
    structures to raise Culture. These buildings are significant employers and, if 
    the highest levels of culture are desired, will take up all the extra workers 
    that might have been unemployed or conscripted.
    
      If unemployment is too high, unrest will arise. If not enough workers are 
    available, industrial productivity suffers across the board. City services seem 
    unaffected, though. The ideal level of employment is somewhere between 90-99%. 
    (If the population is below 50, the employment rate will always be 100%.)
    
      5. MANAGING PLEBS
      Plebs are required to do all the maintenance work in your province. They are 
    also required for working your farms, mines and quarries. And in emergencies, 
    they can be pressed into army service. They are made available by investing in 
    the pleb fund, through your Pleb Advisor in the Forum.
    
    Work                Required plebs
    Construction work   20, always
    Fire prevention     1 per 8 tiles of buildings (excluding roads, walls, water, 
                                                                   baths, amenities)
    City roads          1 per 8 city Road/Plaza/Gateway units
    City water          2 per Fountain, 2 per Baths
    City walls          1 per 8 city Wall units (excluding towers)
    Provincial work     30 per Work camp
    Army duty           None (assign as desired)
    
      Failure to assign the required plebs to work will result in various problems: 
    roads and walls crumble, water service breaks intermittently, and production of 
    goods is reduced. Perhaps the most serious problem is the outbreak of fires if 
    not enough plebs are on fire duty; however, this is also the least likely 
    problem to occur. In the event that there are not enough plebs to cover all the 
    work, it's usually best to skimp on fire prevention for that one month, unless 
    the shortfall is very large (>25%) in which case you should reevaluate the pace 
    of your construction work.
    
      The final number of plebs you get for your money decreases as you invest more 
    money. It varies from about 7 plebs per Dn. down to 4 plebs per Dn. in the 
    range of 10-100 Dn., the range encountered in normal gameplay.
    
      The number of plebs available increases gradually each month until it reaches 
    its steady state. The greater the difference in number between the currently 
    available plebs and the final plebs, the more you gain each month.
    
      It's important to remember that plebs are not residents of your city. They do 
    not count towards your population, do not pay taxes, and do not affect the 
    employment or unemployment of your citizens.
    
    
    IV. GUIDE TO DEFENSE
      1. CITY SECURITY
      There are two threats to peace and order in the city: rioters and invaders. 
    Both riots and invasions proceed by destroying property indiscriminately until 
    they are violently suppressed. Walkers sent out by prefectures or barracks and 
    sentries produced by wall towers will kill any threat they see.
      Rioting is caused by unrest, which can be viewed in the city overlays. The 
    higher the unrest, the greater chance that rioting will break out. Flare-ups of 
    unrest are difficult to predict, but the causes of unrest are clear: High 
    unemployment, high conscription, high taxes and low housing development all 
    contribute. 
      If invaders reach the city, they disappear from the province view and appear 
    on the city map in greatly reduced numbers and strength. If the province 
    defenses are not strong enough it may be necessary to bring the fight to the 
    city level, since proper city defenses should eliminate them easily.
       Properly managing a province will always prevent violence in the city, and 
    violence in the city should always be avoided because it will result in a 
    penalty to the Peace rating. Since, housing development requires both internal 
    and external security coverage. This means that you should be prepared to deal 
    with threats even if they aren't expected just by providing services to your 
    housing.
    
      2. PROVINCE SECURITY
      There are two threats to peace and order in the province: uprisings and 
    invaders. These armies seek to either retake your Roman towns or invade the 
    main city, and will destroy any other province structures they encounter. In 
    addition to causing economic damage, enemies also reduce the Peace rating for 
    each piece of property destroyed and each successful city or town invasion. The 
    incidence of barbarian events seems to be random, but there is a grace period of
    a few years at the beginning of the assignment when they won't occur.
      When the province mission is begun, there is always at least one town on the 
    map controlled by natives. Ultimately you will want to convert these to Roman 
    towns in order to improve commerce and the Empire rating, but the natives can 
    only be brought over by the force of your cohorts. To successfully attack these 
    towns it helps to know their strength. This is determined by querying:
    
    Town strength    Defending force
    Weak Tribe       150 Light infantry
    Local Tribe      300 Light infantry
    Strong Tribe     450 Light infantry
    Powerful Tribe   600 Light infantry
    
      Left unmolested, these tribal towns occasionally send out uprisings to attack 
    the main city. The strength of the uprising is about half that of the defending 
    force and is made up of an assortment of troops. The race of the uprising army 
    depends on the current province. (See section VII.)
      Invaders are armies from neighboring provinces. There are two kinds: 
    "barbarians," which attack the main city, and "raiders," which attack Roman 
    towns. The type is indicated in the cutscene that announces the invasion. Any 
    Roman town invaded by raiders reverts to a tribal town and the raiding force 
    disappears. Only enemy-controlled provinces send invaders; provinces that have 
    already been made Roman pose no threat. The race of the enemy army is the 
    native race of the province of origin. "Local Waters" and "Trade Routes" are not
    considered Roman and do send attackers. Their barbarian races are:
    
    Local Waters          Numidians
    Trade Route (Silk)    Arabs
    Trade Route (Ivory)   Mauri
    Trade Route (Spice)   Huns
    
      Invaders may enter the province from any point on their border. It is not 
    always near the trade entry point.
      There are two mechanisms of defense: Cohorts and walls. Cohorts are the 
    divisions of your army. Walls are fortifications that delay the progress of 
    enemy armies for several months, giving time for your army to engage them or 
    build up more strength.
      There are two strategies for walls that can be used singly or together: 
    Building walls far out, near the edge of a hostile province, and building walls 
    close in around strategic assets. Walls can be complemented by mountains and 
    hills, which are impassable. Neither friendly nor hostile armies can pass 
    through walls, but your cohorts can go through gates or forts built in to the 
    wall. Enemy armies are not very smart about moving around walls and tend 
    to overlook the holes that are necessary to maintain economic connections.
      Ensure that your forces are strong enough to eliminate the army before 
    engaging, because the enemy will not stop attacking until it is wiped out. To 
    command cohorts, select one with the selection tool and click the movement 
    button, then click on where the army should move. If the distance is large, the 
    path will require multiple waypoints. Try to use roads, or build roads on the 
    path because armies move at double speed over roads. Enemies also benefit from 
    roads, so consider deleting them from under their feet if more time is needed. 
      It is possible to maneuver cohorts all the way onto the shore or the edge of 
    the map, locations that cannot be built on. However, it is not always necessary 
    to command the cohort on top of the enemy because a cohort will pursue and 
    engage nearby enemies automatically, provided the cohort readiness is high 
    enough. When the enemy is engaged, you are given the choice to lead the battle 
    personally in real-time strategy mode, or leave the computer to calculate the 
    winner of the battle from the size and morale of the armies.
    
      3. COHORT MANAGEMENT
      Successful defense will require preparing cohorts strong enough to counter 
    threats and moving the army into position to engage the enemy. There are four 
    types of soldiers: Heavy infantry are professionals paid for by a fund set 
    aside with the Centurion advisor in the Forum. The actual cost of soldiers 
    depends on the province. Light infantry are conscripts drafted from the city 
    population; the conscription rate is also set with the Centurion. Slingers are 
    plebs converted to low quality missile soldiers. Finally, auxiliaries are local 
    mercenaries the type of which depends on the province; for those provinces that 
    have auxiliaries, only 400 are available in total.
    
    Soldier type      Monthly maintenance cost     Training rate
    Heavy infantry    5 Dn. for 60-100 soldiers    20 per month per active cohort
    Light infantry    None                         40 per month per active cohort
    Slingers          1 pleb for 1 soldier         80 per month per active cohort
    Auxiliaries       20 Dn. for 50 soldiers       All ready in 1 month
    
      Heavy infantry are far more cost effective than slingers or auxiliaries both 
    in numbers and effectiveness, but the difficulty is in the slow training rate. 
    Because of this, slingers and auxiliaries should only be used in emergencies. 
    Typically the only suitable duty from which plebs can be pulled is provincial 
    work, so expect this to have an impact on the trade economy. Light infantry 
    should be increased in times of unemployment and reduced otherwise. This leaves 
    heavy infantry as the only type that you have real control over. Avoid 
    resorting to expensive measures by building up heavy infantry gradually to 
    be ready for barbarian threats. Note that barracks are not necessary for 
    training any type of soldier.
      The Centurion gives an overview of readiness and morale for each cohort. 
    Morale affects the performance of the troops in battle. It is raised by winning 
    battles and lowered by losing or retreating from battles. Readiness is a 
    function of the number of troops in the cohort; if readiness is high enough the 
    cohort will move and engage nearby enemies independently, though this can 
    always be ordered manually.
      In reviewing each cohort, it is possible to raise or lower the priority of 
    each fort, to control number of troops sent to each one when trained. Forts are 
    Normal by default, each getting equal numbers, but the troop allocation can be 
    doubled, halved, or cut off altogether. This allows you to, for example, better 
    fortify a higher risk region of province. Changing a fort's priority does not 
    move any troops already assigned to the fort; only new troops are affected.
    
    Fort priority     Number of troops assigned
    Major             Double normal amount
    Normal            No. of troops divided by no. of forts, by default
    Minor             Half normal amount
    Demobilized       None
    
      The final consideration is the number of cohort forts to build in the 
    province. The sole reason for building more than one is to shorten the time 
    needed for troops to reach a target; the longer the threatened border, the more 
    forts required. The maximum is 10, though you will never need or want this 
    many. More forts means more troop assignment micromanagement, and leads to 
    higher overhead to maintain multiple forts at sufficient readiness.
      Therefore the ideal number of forts is one, placed such that its troops can 
    quickly reach the most likely areas to be threatened. Judicious placement of 
    walls and roads can help in this regard. However, depending on the number of 
    hostile neighbors and the overall length of threatened border, it still may be 
    necessary to build one or two additional forts.
    
    
    V. DEALING WITH CAESAR
      1. FAVOR
      Caesar will impose himself in your affairs in three ways: by demanding yearly 
    tribute, by taxing your personal savings, and by making resource requests of 
    your province. At least one of these actions, in addition to the Empire rating, 
    is affected by the imperial favor, that is, Caesar's opinion of you. Favor 
    starts at a neutral level and decreases slightly every year. It can be raised by
    sending personal gifts or by meeting Caesar's special requests. It is reduced by
    failure to pay tribute, failure to deliver requests, and sending gifts that are 
    too small. Caesar's favor is determined from the words of the Imperial advisor 
    in the Forum:
    
    "Dangerously bad, sir."
    "Bleak, very bleak, sir."
    "He's not happy, sir."
    "You're out of favor, sir."
    "It has been better, sir."
    "He's indifferent to you."
    "There's interest in you."
    "He's very pleased."
    "He mentions you often."
    "He talks of no one else!"
    "He regards you as family!"
    
      2. GIFTS
      Giving gifts is one of the few ways to improve imperial favor; however, 
    deciding how much to give is not easy. The effect of giving a certain amount of 
    money depends on the average of all prior gifts given, and possibly other 
    factors. Giving less than the average is always bad. When Caesar recieves a 
    gift, his approval can be determined from his reply:
    
    "Normally, bribes are worth more than the pleb who delivers them.
                                               You insult me with such paltry sums!"
    "Thanks for the kind gift.
                I shall be sure to use it to purchase a grape at the next festival."
    "Your gift has been received. Thank you."
    "Your thoughtfulness is much appreciated. Long life."
    "I so enjoy these correspondences. My gratitude for your favors to the Empire."
    "Your generosity touches me. Rome needs more leaders like yourself."
    "Gifts such as these are more than I could hope for. The Empire thanks you!"
    
    Try for the third or fourth reaction. If too little is given, Caesar will be 
    displeased. If too much is sent the average gift amount will be raised more 
    than necessary and make future gift giving more costly. Experiment with 
    different amounts (after saving) to determine the optimum amount. Caesar's 
    favor and the average gift amount is preserved between provinces; they are not 
    reset to defaults. Therefore, poor dealings with Caesar early in the game can 
    cause problems later. The best strategy to keep both under control is to give 
    infrequent, small gifts to keep favor around or slightly above neutral.
    
      3. TRIBUTE
      Every 2-6 years, Caesar either raises or lowers your yearly tribute. At least 
    two factors determine this: A larger amount of funds in the treasury increases 
    tribute, and a higher imperial lowers tribute. The tribute can be manipulated by
    sending a gift at some time before the end of the year in order to raise favor. 
    Paying tribute is not difficult if the city is being managed properly because 
    the amount is small compared to other costs. Therefore, inability to pay 
    tribute is a sign to Caesar of serious trouble; three years of nonpayment will 
    result in your removal. This can be avoided by simply staying out of debt. As 
    long as the city is not in debt at the end of the year and a small amount of 
    tax revenue is coming in, there will be enough money to pay it.
    
      4. TAXES
      Caesar taxes a portion of your personal savings after the first year of 
    governing, and every 5-6 years thereafter. The tax-bracket depends on the 
    amount in your savings at the end of the year.
    
    Notice                                                    Savings    Tax
    (no tax)                                                   0-2999     0%
    "For this year's Imperial tax, I have decided to be     3000-4999    10%
    lenient on you."
    "I hope this year's imperial tax is to your liking.     5000-7999    19%
    It certainly is to mine!"
    "This year's Imperial tax befits a Governor as              8000+    26%
    successful  and wealthy  as yourself."
    
    The only way to avoid taxes is to pour the money out of savings and into the 
    city funds. If the city is not yet developed and the savings amount is not very 
    large, this may be less costly than paying taxes. For example, if there is 30000
    Dn. in savings and at least that much needs to be spent on construction, you 
    should donate at least 27001 of it to avoid paying up to 7800 in tax. The lost 
    savings can be reaccumulated over several years when the city becomes 
    profitable. On the other hand, if there is 100000 Dn. in savings it will take 
    too long to recover all of it; it would be better to pay taxes on the part of it
    that is not needed and keep the rest. In short, donate all the money you intend 
    to spend before the end of the first year, and prepare adequate money storage to
    avoid robberies.
    
      5. REQUESTS
      Ten years after beginning an assignment, and every 10 years thereafter, Caesar
    requests a quantity of raw materials from your province. (Though he will not 
    make requests if you have not begun to develop industry.) He never asks for 
    goods that must be imported, only locally producible goods. The specific type 
    and quantity (5-10) are determined randomly at the time of the request, so you 
    can reload to before the end of the year to try for a more convenient request. 
    You cannot stockpile and send the items at liesure; you must choose the amount 
    to send and send them immediately. Meeting Caesar's demand will result in a 
    moderate increase in favor. It is unknown if exceeding the demand results in 
    extra favor. If you fail to fully meet the request you are given another 
    opportunity the following year. 
    
      If you finish all the assignments Caesar gives you, and become the next 
    Caesar, you can continue playing as Caesar. In this case, the favor is always 
    maximum and you will never be bothered by tribute, taxes or requests.
    
    
    VI. CITY BUILDING STRATEGY
      1. DEVELOPMENT PRIORITIES
      Should housing or industry be developed first? Ideally both, but this approach
    presents several problems: 
    - The minimum investment to get a business running can be costly, depending on 
    the source of the materials.
    - Local production of materials (the cheapest and fastest source) requires large
    numbers of plebs, which are in short supply in the beginning months of a 
    province assignment. This is made worse by the needs of fire prevention, road, 
    water service and wall maintenance that a fast growing city needs.
    - Demand for business goods is low when the population is small and there are 
    few Empire connections.
    - Business workshops require a large population for workers.
    - Rapidly developing housing causes the supply of workers to fluctuate due to 
    the periodic drops in population density as houses evolve. This can wreak havoc 
    on the staffing of businesses.
    
      Thus it is apparent that business without housing is unfeasible. But due to 
    unemployment concerns, housing without business is undesirable. Therefore there 
    are two ways to develop that incorporate both.
    A) Evolve housing as quickly as possible, adding businesses gradually to keep 
    unemployment within an acceptable range.
    B) Evolve housing to an optimal point that provides a large population for a 
    small investment, and develop industry as quickly as possible.
    
      Method A pays out more in tax revenue and makes the city profitable sooner, 
    but it is the most costly approach; even with a small neighborhood of ~1000 
    citizens it will cost more than any available starting funds to develop top 
    level housing as well as a few businesses. Method B is more moderate; it pays 
    less in tax but requires smaller investment. The method applied should depend 
    on the money available; method A works if a large injection of money from 
    personal funds is provided whereas method B is preferable if the only money is 
    what Caesar has provided.
    
      2. PRECEPTS OF URBAN PLANNING
      There are countless ways to actually lay out a city. Rather than adhering to 
    specific tiled plans, it is better to plan a city based on several key 
    principles and then adapt to the requirements at hand.
    - The city should be designed around the houses, not around any expensive or 
    important-looking structure, because housing is what makes or breaks a city.
    - There is no reason why the entire population can't live in the highest level 
    of housing. Unlike in Caesar III there are no patrician levels of housing 
    occupied by nonworkers. All citizens want and need work in Caesar II. Top level 
    housing is by no means necessary, however.
    - The city doesn't need to be interconnected; the only road connections 
    necessary are those between houses and walker services, and between businesses 
    and houses. This means that the city can be broken up into completely separate 
    neighborhood-like divisions.
    - The same neighborhood building plan can be reused over and over, or mixed 
    with larger or smaller layouts.
    - The city land is randomly generated at the start of the province. Its only 
    feature is a river that enters one side and exits another. If the river doesn't 
    cover enough land or takes up too much space, reload to before the promotion and
    try again.
    - Unlike roads, aqueducts and walls cannot branch. In other words, they cannot 
    have 3- or 4-way intersections with themselves. There must be at least 1 tile of
    space between aqueduct tracts and between wall sections. Roads, aqueducts and 
    walls may all intersect one another, however.
    - Attempting to expand a walled-in area or merge separate walled-in areas (by 
    breaking the wall and building new wall) will cause all external security to be 
    lost. The only way to avoid losing external security coverage is to move the 
    wall out 1 tile at a time. Therefore, it is best to make the walled-in area big 
    enough on the first try. It is possible to wall in the entire parcel of land, if
    that much space is desired.
    - It is not necessary to give worship and entertainment structures road and 
    forum access. The buildings still function but they contribute nothing to 
    Culture. Unsecured worship buildings may be robbed, however.
    - Building a neighborhood without planning where all the essential service 
    structures will be invariably leads to problems that will hurt its growth. 
    Always draw up your plan first.
    
      3. BUILD NO INTERSECTIONS
      Walkers move in a random direction when they reach a fork in the road. Given 
    enough crossings, a walker will eventually neglect to travel a certain path for 
    long enough that some houses will be deprived of service. This leads to unstable
    housing. One approach to this problem is to build more walker producing 
    buildings. A better solution is to build roads with no intersections. Without 
    intersections, the walker has no chance of missing any housing in his path. The 
    two ways to do this are closed loops and unclosed stretches of road, the latter 
    of which is equivalent to a closed loop with width 1. In other words, it is 
    neither necessary nor desirable to have the entire city unified by a single road
    network.
      Even without intersections, part of the road may not get sufficient coverage 
    because walkers travel a limited distance before disappearing. Therefore, the 
    perimeter of the loop or length of the road section should match the distance 
    traveled by the walkers. If the path is too long, the walker may not reach all 
    the way around; if the path is too short, less coverage is being provided for 
    the same money. Since the shortest distance walked is 28 tiles (markets and 
    businesses) the ideal loop path for these buildings is 28 tiles. This is 
    available in useful shapes such as 6x6, 5x7, 4x8 and 3x9 rectangles. (Interior 
    area given.) It is also effective to make a loop with double size and double 
    services placed on opposite sides of the loop.
    
      4. COUPLING LOOPS
      Population density generally increases as housing evolves; at the same time 
    the number of support structures increases. Therefore the ratio of housing 
    space to non-housing space grows smaller and reaches a minimum at the highest 
    development levels. This presents a problem for business buildings, which take 
    up lot of space and require good housing coverage. A single loop isn't going to 
    have enough space for all the houses, support services and businesses.
      By building houses on the exterior of one loop and placing another loop 
    against those houses, walkers from either loop may access the houses. This makes
    more space available to build walker-producing buildings, useful for 
    accomodating bulky businesses. It is possible to daisy chain multiple loops in 
    this way, to branch loops, or to lay out loop modules in a gridlike way. It 
    works as long as every loop touches houses on the outside. Of course, this 
    technique can be used in any city; it doesn't require highly evolved houses.
    
    Examples (NOT drawn to scale)
    
    Simple          ......H......
    coupling        .    .H.    .
                    .    .H.    .
                    ......H......
    
    
    Daisy           ......        ......
    chain           .    .H......H.    .
                    .    .H.    .H.    .
                    ......H.    .H......
                           ......
    
    
    Branched        ...... ......
    with a double   .    . .    .
    size loop       .    . .    .
                    ...... ......
                        HHHHH
                    .............
                    .           .
                    .           .
                    .............
    
    
    Pseudogrid             ......
    of loops        ......H.    .H......
                    .    .H.    .H.    .
                    .    . ...... .    .
                    ......        ......
                      HH            HH
                    ......        ......
                    .    .H......H.    .
                    .    .H.    .H.    .
                    ...... .    . ......
                           ......
    
      5. ACCOMODATING LARGE HOUSES
      When planning neighborhoods that will have size 2 or size 3 houses, it is 
    important to control how the houses expand from smaller size to larger size so 
    that all the houses have enough room to grow. If this is ignored the houses on 
    the edge of the block may be crowded into a space too small to expand.
    
    Example (drawn to scale)
    
    Step 1:  H H H H H H H H
             H H H H H H H H
    
    Step 2:  H ||||||H
             H |__||__||__|H
    
      Botched expansion can be corrected by demolishing the large houses, giving the
    small ones a chance to expand. Then you will need to build new houses in the 
    gaps, and let them develop. This takes a lot of time and is disruptive to 
    population levels.
    
    Step 3:  H     ||    H
             H     |__|    H
    
    Step 4:  ||  ||  ||
             |__|  |__|  |__|
    
    Step 5:  ||H     H ||
             |__|H     H |__|
    
    Step 6:  ||||||||
             |__||__||__||__|
    
      Control can be maintained from the beginning by forcing houses to expand from 
    the outside inward, one by one. Interior houses are prevented from expanding by 
    placing non-housing filler within the housing block then removing them once the 
    exterior houses have expanded. Inexpensive structures for this purpose are road 
    or plaza pieces and wells. The holes cannot be left blank because houses will 
    expand into clear land or gardens. 
    
    Example (drawn to scale)
    
    Step 1:  H H H H H H H H
             H H . H . . H H
    
    Step 2:  ||H H H H ||
             |__|  H . . |__|
    
    Step 3:  ||||H H ||
             |__||__|    |__|
    
    Step 4:  ||||||||
             |__||__||__||__|
    
    
      6. PUSHING THE LIMITS OF INDUSTRY
      While the potential growth of any city is limited only by the available 
    building space, and the population can be brought well over 10000, employing all
    those citizens is made difficult by the limited quantity of raw materials 
    available. Ordinarily, farms can only be built on meadow and mines or quarries 
    on can only be built on rocky area. Industry is maxed out when all are built 
    over and producing.
      This restriction can be overcome with the following cheat: Select the farm/
    mine/quarry tool and press and hold the left mouse button wherever you want it 
    built. Without releasing the left button, click the right button. The structure 
    will be built for the normal cost. This cheat can be further exploited by 
    building two or more close enough together that they share the same work camp. 
    You cannot choose the type of farm/mine/quarry with this cheat. A mine or quarry
    will be one of the types that are normally available in the province, but in the
    case of a farm it will always be a wheat farm, even in provinces that have no 
    way of getting wheat. In this case, wheat businesses will be made available for 
    construction to process the goods.
      Industrial productivity is ultimately limited by the demand for goods. 
    However, this cheat will go a long way toward employing citizens and increasing 
    tax revenue.
    
      7. MEETING THE OBJECTIVES
      The Empire rating is the easiest and first to develop because imperial 
    connections will be needed to grow industry. All it takes is some money to build
    provincial roads and structures. The only way to fail at achieving 100% is to 
    fall too low in favor, something that is easily corrected with gifts.
      The most important factor for Prosperity is to maintain a profit; the profit 
    doesn't have to be large, as long as the funds at the beginning of the year are 
    greater than the year before. Don't worry about this until all or most of the 
    construction has been completed. Prosperity may be held back by low population. 
    Plan a big city from the beginning if high Prosperity is required, and always 
    develop housing as high as possible given the building plan.
      Peace is the slowest (in game time) to develop. Prevent riots by keeping 
    housing happy, dealing with unemployment month to month, and being reasonable 
    with taxes and conscription. Be ready for external threats and don't let 
    enemies wreck anything. If something is about to be destroyed in the city or 
    province, use the demolish tool to get rid of it and avoid taking a hit to 
    Peace. Ironically, Peace will develop faster in provinces with more war 
    (hostile neighbors and tribal towns) as long as the cohorts put down the 
    threats immediately; this is due to the 3 point bonus for conquering enemy 
    armies.
      Culture requires a large number of expensive structures that will tie up a 
    large segment of the population for employment. If there is a high Culture 
    requirement be sure to leave enough building space and employees for this 
    purpose. This can be done after profitable industry and housing has been 
    established. An easy way to get Culture points is to make all roads plazas 
    instead of ordinary roads. Culture is limited by low population, and it is also 
    easier to develop with larger populations, because there will be more people 
    left over after the required employees are used for industry and essential 
    services. It is possible to build roadworks with no housing, only a forum and 
    culture buildings. This technique is useful if there is no more space left for 
    construction in your layouts and more Culture is desired.
    
    
    VII. GUIDE TO PROVINCES
      1. EXPLANATION
      The following section gives the game's description and the economic and 
    military overview for each of the provinces. The number of meadows and rocky 
    areas is listed, along with what goods can be produced locally. The four trade 
    partners and importable goods are listed in order of north, east, south, and 
    west, as is done by the trade advisor. "L" is for land and "S" is for sea. The 
    towns are listed in order of barbarian strength. The number of heavy infantry 
    hired for 5 Dn. per month is given, along with the auxiliaries available and 
    the type of natives present.
    
      2. LIST OF PROVINCES
    
    Campania
      Thanks to our recent campaigns, the people of this province have been 
    "Romanized." They should be placid and welcoming.
    
    Meadows                 5  Cattle
    Mines/Quarries          4  Lead, Copper, Stone
    Illyricum               S  Cattle
    Achaea                  S  Clay
    Sicilia                 S  Iron
    Latium                  L  Grapes
    
    Towns            Roman, Roman, Roman, Weak
    Heavy infantry   100
    Auxiliaries      None
    Natives          Lucanians
    
    
    Cisalpine Gaul
      This province is fairly quiet, but beware the occasional incursions of the 
    Goths to the north.
    
    Meadows                 6  Wheat
    Mines/Quarries          4  Iron, Copper, Sand
    Germania Superior       L  Wool
    Illyricum               L  Cattle
    Latium                  L  Grapes
    Gallia Narbonensis      S  Cattle
    
    Towns            Roman, Roman, Roman, Weak
    Heavy infantry   100
    Auxiliaries      None
    Natives          Etruscans
    
    
    Corsica and Sardinia
      Your mission is to manage the small island of Sardinia, to the west of Rome. 
    One of the outlying villages has not been tamed, so rule with caution.
    
    Meadows                 4  Wheat, Grapes
    Mines/Quarries          3  Lead, Stone
    Gallia Narbonensis      S  Cattle
    Latium                  S  Grapes
    Sicilia                 S  Iron
    Trade Route             S  Ivory
    
    Towns            Roman, Roman, Roman, Local
    Heavy infantry   95
    Auxiliaries      None
    Natives          Corsicans
    
    
    Illyricum
      Mineral resources are not plentiful here, but the people recognize our right 
    to rule more than most of these barbarian lands.
    
    Meadows                 5  Cattle, Wool
    Mines/Quarries          2  Lead, Stone
    Cisalpine Gaul          L  Sand
    Macedonia               L  Copper
    Trade Route             S  Silk
    Latium                  S  Grapes
    
    Towns            Roman, Roman, Weak, Local
    Heavy infantry   85
    Auxiliaries      Gauls (Swordsmen)
    Natives          Dalmatians
    
    
    Sicilia
      There is a slight barbarian presence in this province, but it is a prime 
    trading area with access to the spice routes.
    
    Meadows                 4  Wheat, Grapes
    Mines/Quarries          4  Iron, Marble
    Corsica and Sardinia    S  Wheat
    Campania                S  Copper
    Trade Route             S  Silk
    Carthage                S  Wheat
    
    Towns            Roman, Roman, Roman, Local
    Heavy infantry   90
    Auxiliaries      None
    Natives          Sicilians
    
    
    Pannonia
      The people here are strong, but seem willing to join the Empire. Beware 
    invasions from the north.
    
    Meadows                 4  Cattle, Wool
    Mines/Quarries          4  Iron, Clay
    Noricum Exterior        L  Wheat
    Dacia                   L  Lead
    Illyricum               L  Cattle
    Cisalpine Gaul          L  Sand
    
    Towns            Roman, Weak, Local, Strong
    Heavy infantry   85
    Auxiliaries      Armenians (Horse archers)
    Natives          Pannoniae
    
    
    Dacia
      The soil is quite fertile here, but the barbarian population is significant. 
    Expect trouble.
    
    Meadows                 6  Wheat, Wool
    Mines/Quarries          2  Lead, Sand
    Pannonia Exterior       L  Wool
    Thracia                 L  Copper
    Macedonia               L  Copper
    Illyricum               L  Cattle
    
    Towns            Roman, Weak, Local, Strong
    Heavy infantry   75
    Auxiliaries      Gauls (Spearsmen)
    Natives          Scordiscans
    
    
    Macedonia
      This province is suited for cattle and wheat. Beware the Greeks to the south.
    
    Meadows                 4  Wheat, Cattle
    Mines/Quarries          4  Copper, Stone
    Illyricum               L  Cattle
    Caria                   S  Marble
    Achaea                  L  Clay
    Campania                S  Copper
    
    Towns            Roman, Roman, Local, Strong
    Heavy infantry   80
    Auxiliaries      Gauls (Swordsmen)
    Natives          Macedonians
    
    
    Carthage
      This region's once-great cities have been razed. Rebuild this province to 
    even greater splendor, but beware a fierce and unruly populace.
    
    Meadows                 4  Wheat
    Mines/Quarries          4  Iron, Copper, Sand
    Sicilia                 S  Iron
    Africa Proconsularis    L  Sand
    Trade Route             L  Ivory
    Mauretania              L  Wheat
    
    Towns            Roman, Roman, Weak, Weak
    Heavy infantry   70
    Auxiliaries      None
    Natives          Carthaginians
    
    
    Africa Proconsularis
      Minerals are less prevalent here, and unrest is likely to be a problem. 
    Exercise caution when governing here.
    
    Meadows                 4  Cattle
    Mines/Quarries          2  Copper, Sand, Marble
    Sicilia                 S  Iron
    Cyrenaica               S  Gems
    Trade Route             L  Ivory
    Carthage                L  Wheat
    
    Towns            Roman, Weak, Local, Strong
    Heavy infantry   75
    Auxiliaries      Gauls (Swordsmen)
    Natives          Blemmyes
    
    
    Gallia Narbonensis
      This province contains a village of those rebellious Gauls; however, they 
    should be fairly peaceable for their lot.
    
    Meadows                 4  Grapes, Cattle
    Mines/Quarries          4  Iron, Marble
    Aquitania               L  Grapes
    Cisalpine Gaul          L  Sand
    Local Waters            S  Fish
    Hispania Tarraconensis  L  Clay
    
    Towns            Roman, Roman, Roman, Local
    Heavy infantry   90
    Auxiliaries      None
    Natives          Gauls
    
    
    Belgica
      There is a significant barbarian presence in these lands, but they seem more 
    passive than most. The true threat must lie farther north.
    
    Meadows                 5  Wheat, Cattle
    Mines/Quarries          3  Lead, Clay
    Britannia               S  Iron
    Germania Superior       L  Wool
    Cisalpine Gaul          L  Sand
    Gallia Lugdunensis      L  Cattle
    
    Towns            Roman, Roman, Local, Powerful
    Heavy infantry   80
    Auxiliaries      Macedonians (Pikemen)
    Natives          Belgae
    
    
    Germania Superior
      This northern province contains a large barbarian population, but its 
    resources seem worth the danger.
    
    Meadows                 5  Wheat, Wool
    Mines/Quarries          4  Lead, Clay
    Germania Inferior       L  Wheat
    Pannonia                L  Cattle
    Cisalpine Gaul          L  Sand
    Belgica                 L  Lead
    
    Towns            Roman, Weak, Weak, Strong, Strong
    Heavy infantry   75
    Auxiliaries      Armenians (Horse archers)
    Natives          Chatti
    
    
    Achaea
      The Greeks' constant squabbling have made it easy for us to conquer them. 
    However, that same contentious behaviour will make them difficult for you to 
    rule.
    
    Meadows                 4  Grapes
    Mines/Quarries          4  Lead, Iron, Clay
    Macedonia               L  Copper
    Trade Route             S  Silk
    Creta                   S  Marble
    Campania                S  Copper
    
    Towns            Roman, Roman, Strong, Strong
    Heavy infantry   70
    Auxiliaries      Gauls (Swordsmen)
    Natives          Greeks
    
    
    Germania Inferior
      Farmland seems plentiful here, but the barbarians are also plentiful and 
    unwilling to join the Empire.
    
    Meadows                 6  Wheat, Cattle
    Mines/Quarries          1  Iron, Sand
    Local Waters            S  Fish
    Germania Superior       L  Wool
    Belgica                 L  Lead
    Britannia               S  Iron
    
    Towns            Roman, Strong, Strong, Strong
    Heavy infantry   70
    Auxiliaries      Armenians (Horse archers)
    Natives          Frisians
    
    
    Gallia Lugdunensis
      The further north we expand, the fiercer the Gauls become. However, this 
    region features some of the richest farmland the Empire has ever seen.
    
    Meadows                 6  Cattle, Wool
    Mines/Quarries          2  Iron, Clay
    Britannia               S  Iron
    Belgica                 L  Lead
    Aquitania               L  Grapes
    Hispania Tarraconensis  S  Clay
    
    Towns            Roman, Roman, Local, Strong
    Heavy infantry   75
    Auxiliaries      Mauri (Bowmen)
    Natives          Gauls
    
    
    Britannia
      This remote and rather rustic island offers some worthwhile exports, but will 
    have to remain well-defended to keep its rebellious populous at bay.
    
    Meadows                 4  Wheat, Cattle
    Mines/Quarries          5  Iron, Clay
    Caledonia               L  Cattle
    Belgica                 S  Lead
    Gallia Lugdunensis      S  Cattle
    Hibernia                S  Wool
    
    Towns            Weak, Weak, Strong, Powerful
    Heavy infantry   70
    Auxiliaries      Mauri (Bowmen)
    Natives          Britons
    
    
    Thracia
      This culture seems ripe for assimilation into our Empire, but the threat of 
    attack from the north looms over it.
    
    Meadows                 4  Grapes, Cattle
    Mines/Quarries          4  Copper, Clay
    Dacia Exterior          L  Lead
    Caria                   S  Marble
    Trade Route             S  Silk
    Macedonia               L  Copper
    
    Towns            Roman, Weak, Local, Strong
    Heavy infantry   85
    Auxiliaries      Gauls (Swordsmen)
    Natives          Thracians
    
    
    Cyrenaica
      This region is rich in gems and other minerals, but among the mountains lie 
    many dangerous nomadic tribes.
    
    Meadows                 2  Cattle
    Mines/Quarries          5  Gems, Clay, Marble
    Creta                   S  Marble
    Aegyptus                S  Wheat
    Trade Route             L  Ivory
    Africa Proconsularis    L  Sand
    
    Towns            Weak, Weak, Local, Strong
    Heavy infantry   80
    Auxiliaries      Gauls (Spearsmen)
    Natives          Blemmyes
    
    
    Aquitania
      The Gauls may have an important presence here, but they are more -- civilized 
    -- than most of their kind. Resources are plentiful here.
    
    Meadows                 5  Grapes
    Mines/Quarries          4  Lead, Copper, Stone
    Gallia Lugdunensis      L  Cattle
    Gallia Narbonensis      L  Cattle
    Hispania Tarraconensis  L  Clay
    Local Waters            S  Fish
    
    Towns            Roman, Roman, Weak, Local
    Heavy infantry   85
    Auxiliaries      Macedonians (Pikemen)
    Natives          Gauls
    
    
    Lusitania
        Surveyors report the soil here to be rich with ores and gems, and the seas a
    prime source of fish.
    
    Meadows                 5  Wool
    Mines/Quarries          4  Gems, Copper, Stone
    Britannia               S  Iron
    Hispania Tarraconensis  L  Clay
    Baetica                 L  Grapes
    Local Waters            S  Fish
    
    Towns            Roman, Roman, Weak, Local
    Heavy infantry   80
    Auxiliaries      Egyptians (Swordsmen)
    Natives          Celtiberians
    
    
    Baetica
      This province allows enemies to reach the Empire from the south. Taming it 
    would limit their incursions, but the people here seem displeased with our 
    presence.
    
    Meadows                 5  Grapes, Cattle
    Mines/Quarries          4  Lead, Marble
    Hispania Tarraconensis  L  Clay
    Mauretania              S  Wheat
    Trade Route             S  Silk
    Lusitania               L  Wool
    
    Towns            Roman, Roman, Weak, Local
    Heavy infantry   75
    Auxiliaries      Egyptians (Swordsmen)
    Natives          Celtiberians
    
    
    Mauretania
      As a southern province, this area would give us access to the ivory and spice 
    trading routes.
    
    Meadows                 4  Wheat
    Mines/Quarries          4  Iron, Copper, Marble
    Baetica                 S  Grapes
    Carthage                L  Wheat
    Trade Route             L  Silk
    Trade Route             L  Ivory
    
    Towns            Roman, Roman, Local, Local
    Heavy infantry   80
    Auxiliaries      Egyptians (Spearsmen)
    Natives          Mauri
    
    
    Caria
      This region looks promising, but the further east we expand, the more 
    powerful our enemies seem to become.
    
    Meadows                 3  Cattle
    Mines/Quarries          4  Iron, Marble, Stone
    Thracia                 S  Copper
    Lycia and Pamphylia     L  Wheat
    Cyprus                  S  Grapes
    Achaea                  S  Clay
    
    Towns            Roman, Roman, Local, Strong
    Heavy infantry   80
    Auxiliaries      Chatti (Spearsmen)
    Natives          Seleucids
    
    
    Creta
      This island is small, yet rich in farmland and minerals. However, the 
    populace may be troublesome.
    
    Meadows                 4  Grapes, Cattle
    Mines/Quarries          4  Iron, Marble
    Achaea                  S  Clay
    Caria                   S  Marbles
    Cyrenaica               S  Gems
    Trade Route             S  Silk
    
    Towns            Roman, Roman, Local, Strong
    Heavy infantry   75
    Auxiliaries      Gauls (Spearsmen)
    Natives          Cretans
    
    
    Aegyptus
      With the capacity for wheat farming in this province, this may be the 
    Empire's new bread basket. However, its inhabitants are less than welcoming.
    
    Meadows                 4  Wheat
    Mines/Quarries          3  Lead, Sand, Marble
    Lycia and Pamphylia     S  Wheat
    Judea                   L  Copper
    Trade Route             S  Ivory
    Cyrenaica               L  Gems
    
    Towns            Roman, Local, Strong, Strong
    Heavy infantry   70
    Auxiliaries      Gauls (Spearsmen)
    Natives          Egyptians
    
    
    Lycia and Pamphylia
      This province contains some villages that may cause some trouble, but overall 
    it seems fairly quiet.
    
    Meadows                 4  Wheat
    Mines/Quarries          4  Lead, Stone, Clay
    Bithynia and Pontus     L  Grapes
    Cappadocia              L  Iron
    Aegyptus                S  Wheat
    Caria                   L  Marble
    
    Towns            Roman, Roman, Strong, Powerful
    Heavy infantry   85
    Auxiliaries      Chatti (Swordsmen)
    Natives          Cilicians
    
    
    Cappadocia
      The people here are prone to rebellion, and have settled in many of the 
    outlying towns. You must pacify the province, if you hope to keep peace in your 
    city.
    
    Meadows                 4  Cattle, Wheat
    Mines/Quarries          4  Iron, Marble
    Bithynia and Pontus     S  Grapes
    Armenia                 L  Grapes
    Syria                   L  Sand
    Lycia and Pamphylia     L  Wheat
    
    Towns            Roman, Weak, Strong, Powerful
    Heavy infantry   70
    Auxiliaries      Blemmyes (Bowmen)
    Natives          Galatians
    
    
    Cyprus
      Resources are scarce on this small island, and the people look to be 
    difficult to manage. Maintain vigilance.
    
    Meadows                 4  Grapes, Cattle
    Mines/Quarries          2  Copper, Clay
    Lycia and Pamphylia     S  Wheat
    Syria                   S  Sand
    Aegyptus                S  Wheat
    Trade Route             S  Silk
    
    Towns            Roman, Weak, Weak, Strong
    Heavy infantry   70
    Auxiliaries      Gauls (Swordsmen)
    Natives          Cypriots
    
    Germania Exterior
      We've beaten back those upstart barbarians, and these lands are bereft of 
    minerals. Perhaps it's best to leave sleeping dogs lie?
    
    Meadows                 4  Wheat
    Mines/Quarries          1  Lead, Iron, Clay
    Caledonia               S  Cattle
    Local Waters            S  Fish
    Noricum Exterior        L  Wheat
    Britannia               S  Iron
    
    Towns            Weak, Weak, Local, Strong
    Heavy infantry   65
    Auxiliaries      Armenians (Horse archers)
    Natives          Saxons
    
    
    Noricum Exterior
      Many barbarians have resettled in this area, thanks to our recent campaigns. 
    Expanding into these lands would only give them a chance at revenge -- in my 
    humble opinion.
    
    Meadows                 3  Wheat, Wool
    Mines/Quarries          4  Iron, Stone
    Germania Exterior       L  Lead
    Pannonia Exterior       L  Wool
    Germania Superior       L  Wool
    Germania Inferior       L  Wheat
    
    Towns            Weak, Strong, Powerful, Powerful
    Heavy infantry   60
    Auxiliaries      Armenians (Horse archers)
    Natives          Alamanni
    
    
    Pannonia Exterior
      Aside from imported silks, is there anything to be gained from this province 
    but bloodshed?
    
    Meadows                 3  Wheat, Wool
    Mines/Quarries          4  Lead, Clay
    Trade Route             L  Spices
    Dacia Exterior          L  Lead
    Dacia                   L  Lead
    Noricum Exterior        L  Wheat
    
    Towns            Strong, Powerful, Powerful, Powerful
    Heavy infantry   65
    Auxiliaries      Armenians (Horse archers)
    Natives          Vandals
    
    
    Dacia Exterior
      Our scouts in Dacia indicate that this area would be extremely difficult to 
    tame, though its silk trade and fishing waters are tempting.
    
    Meadows                 3  Wheat, Wool
    Mines/Quarries          5  Lead, Stone
    Trade Route             L  Spices
    Local Waters            S  Fish
    Thracia                 L  Copper
    Dacia                   L  Lead
    
    Towns            Local, Strong, Powerful, Powerful
    Heavy infantry   60
    Auxiliaries      Egyptians (Swordsmen)
    Natives          Visigoths
    
    Information on the following provinces is missing:
    Judea
    Syria
    Caledonia
    Hibernia
    Asia Exterior
    The three provinces at the east border of the map
    
    
    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    CLOSING
    
        This document is my own work. Any questions, comments, corrections or 
    complaints should be addressed to the address below, with clear indication in 
    the subject line that the email is concerning this FAQ. 
    
    dammit9x at hotmail dot com