Caesar II FAQ/Guide (DOS)
Novewmber 4, 2006 v1.1
dammit9x at hotmail dot com

Copyright 2006

    This document may be not be reproduced under any circumstances except for 
personal, private use. It may not be placed on any web site or otherwise 
distributed publicly without advance written permission. Use of this guide on 
any unauthorized web site or as a part of any public display is strictly 
prohibited and a violation of copyright.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------


***************************************
TABLE OF CONTENTS

I. HOW TO PLAY
  1. INTRODUCTION
  2. KEYBOARD SHORTCUTS
  3. CITY, PROVINCE, FORUM VIEWS
  4. MONEY
  5. OBJECTIVES
  6. GAME MODE AND DIFFICULTY LEVEL

II. DEVELOPING HOUSING
  1. HOUSING EVOLUTION
  2. CITY BUILDINGS
  3. LAND VALUES
  4. POPULATION REQUIREMENTS

III. DEVELOPING INDUSTRY
  1. SUPPLY
  2. PROVINCE BUILDINGS
  3. DEMAND & DISTRIBUTION
  4. MANAGING EMPLOYMENT
  5. MANAGING PLEBS

IV. GUIDE TO DEFENSE
  1. CITY SECURITY
  2. PROVINCE SECURITY
  3. COHORT MANAGEMENT

V. DEALING WITH CAESAR
  1. FAVOR
  2. GIFTS
  3. TRIBUTE
  4. TAXES
  5. REQUESTS

VI. CITY BUILDING STRATEGY
  1. DEVELOPMENT PRIORITIES
  2. PRECEPTS OF URBAN PLANNING
  3. BUILD NO INTERSECTIONS
  4. COUPLING LOOPS
  5. ACCOMODATING LARGE HOUSES
  6. PUSHING THE LIMITS OF INDUSTRY
  7. MEETING THE OBJECTIVES

VII. GUIDE TO PROVINCES
  1. EXPLANATION
  2. LIST OF PROVINCES

CLOSING
***************************************


I. HOW TO PLAY

  1. INTRODUCTION
  Well, Caesar IV is out, Caesar III is over eight years old, and this game is 
over 11 years old. Caesar/Impressions fans who cut their teeth on Caesar III 
will find gameplay very familiar and enjoyable.

  Caesar II is a city-building strategy. The player advances from province to 
province, building cities, nurturing them to prosperity, and defending them 
from attack. The ultimate goal is to become the next Caesar.

  This guide is written for the Windows/DOS game Caesar II, Version 1.0 - 
September 14, 1995. Most or all of the guide applies to the Mac version or the 
patched version. This guide does not substitute for the manual; Beginning 
players are advised to read the manual or play the tutorial. Most of the 
information was obtained empirically, with a small part from the manual. 

  2. KEYBOARD SHORTCUTS
F1       View City
F2 or F  View Forum
F3       View Province
F4       Load game
F5       Save game
< and >  Rotate view
+ and -  Zoom in and out
1-3      Set zoom level
C        Display population and employment rate
A        Toggle fast/normal time (double tap to move forward in time slightly)
Y or N   Answer yes or no
SPACE    Cancel building construction (press before releasing left mouse button)

  3. CITY, PROVINCE, FORUM VIEWS
  There are three views in Caesar II. Housing, businesses and services are 
built and maintained on the city level. Resource production and trade routes, 
as well as barbarians, your cohorts, and army combat, are managed on the 
province level. Finally, the Forum is where you can get reports from and issue 
commands to your governerial advisors.
  Right-click on any object in the City or Province views to query it. This 
will give you information on the land value and services available in a 
location, the state of a dwelling's evolution or the productivity of a 
business, or allow you to hear the what walkers have to say.
  Time passes normally on the City and Province levels, except when paused, but 
it is always paused on the Forum level. Most updates occur monthly, at the 
beginning of the month. Examples include the number available plebs, the amount 
of goods in a warehouse, and the state of a business. Two exceptions are the 
evolution of dwellings and the population of the city, which change in the 
middle of the month.

  4. MONEY
  Money (Denarii) is needed for almost everything in Caesar II. To succeed you 
will need to understand how money is stored, how it is spent, how it is gained, 
and how it is wasted. There are two locations for storing money: city funds and 
personal savings.
  City funds are needed to pay construction costs, pay monthly fees for heavy 
infantry, mercenaries and plebs, and pay tribute to Caesar at the end of the 
year. Your monthly salary, which can be freely set up to 1000 Dn. by the 
Personal advisor in the Forum, also comes out of the city funds. When beginning 
a new province you are given a certain amount of money in the city funds that 
depends on the difficulty level and your progress through the game. You will 
need to maintain city funds by bringing in residential and industry taxes. 
Failure to pay tribute to Rome three years in a row will result in game over.
  City funds are at risk of being stolen by your own citizens. This can be 
avoided by building worship structures that are under internal or external 
security (or both) to act as bank vaults. Larger structures can store more 
funds. Proper temple management can prevent all robberies.
  When leaving a province the city funds are left behind, but personal savings 
are retained. Personal savings have two purposes: donate them to the city funds 
or give them as a gift to Caesar to improve his favor toward you. In later 
provinces donations will be necessary to get the economy up and running, or to 
get it running sooner.
  Like city funds, your savings can also be stolen -- in the form of taxes paid 
to Caesar. Taxes cannot be avoided but they can be predicted and minimized.
  The following table summarizes the differences between city and personal 
funds, and shows the interplay between them:

Money location       Transfer by             Spend on             Lose by
City funds           Donating to city        Current province     Robberies
Personal savings     Setting your salary     Future provinces     Caesar's tax

  5. OBJECTIVES
  There are four aspects of your province that must be adequately developed 
before you can advance; A minimum rating for each must be met, as well as a 
minimum average of all four. To see your current ratings and goals, visit the 
Oracle in the forum. You can get advice by clicking on the columns.

Empire: Conquer barbarian tribes to convert them to Roman towns; connect the 
main city and Roman towns with roads. Connect to border towns. Build ports to 
harbor ships from neighboring provinces, and connect the ports as well. 
Maintain adequate favor with the emperor.

Peace: Prevent riots from occurring, and prevent barbarians from entering the 
city. Prevent property damage caused by rioters or barbarians. Defeat any 
barbarian force with your cohorts. Peace will rise 2 points for every year of 
non-destruction, and 3 points for any enemy force defeated by your cohorts.

Prosperity: Increase city population. Develop housing and collect housing tax. 
Develop industry and collect industry tax. Achieve a profit each fiscal year.

Culture: Build a) worship structures, b) entertainment structures, and c) land 
value structures (sanitation, education, and amenities). All of these 
structures must lie within the infuence of forums in order to count towards 
Culture. Culture may be held back by a low city population.

  6. GAME MODE AND DIFFICULTY LEVEL
  Before beginning a game it is necessary to choose whether to play the full 
campaign or just the city. The city-only mode is open ended, with no goals to 
meet, no barbarian threats, no trade or resource management, and no advancement 
to other provinces. This is useful for orientation and experimentation, but as 
it has no real objective, there is not much to discuss.
  Next decide on the difficulty level. Higher difficulties require more 
promotions to finish the game, yield less money at the start of each province, 
require higher goals to be met for promotion, and may have other effects.

Difficulty   Promotions   Starting money    Req. goals
Novice                5            20000      -1 level
Easy                  7            15000      -1 level
Normal               10            12000       default
Hard                 15             7000      +1 level
Impossible           20             5000      +1 level

The starting money is reduced by 250 on each successive province.

The goals increase with rank. The following are for normal difficulty.
Rank       Individual    Average
Citizen           20%        30%
Decurion          25         35
Apparitor         30         40
Magistrate        35         45
Quaestor          40         50
Procurator        45         55
Aedile            50         60
Praetor           55         65
Proconsul         60         70
Consul            65         74


II. DEVELOPING HOUSING
  1. HOUSING EVOLUTION
  Housing is where your citizens live. In order for people to move to the city 
you must first set up housing. Starting at the most basic dwelling, One Hut, 
housing may advance through 32 grades of affluence depending on land value and 
available services. All structures (see section II.2) and the housing units 
themselves affect land value to a certain radius. Each successive grade of 
housing requires higher land value. Some grades also require services provided 
by other structures, with the highest grades requiring all possible services. A 
unit of housing can evolve at a maximum rate of one grade per month if provided 
with all its needs and wants.
 The highest levels of housing pay massive amounts in taxes, which can far 
exceed the revenues acquired from industry. Ensuring that houses pay their 
taxes is not difficult because they need forum access to evolve, unlike in 
Caesar III. Taxes should not be raised about 7-8%, or unrest and spontaneous 
devaluation of land values may result.

Housing development requirements
Grade            Size    Occu-     Pop.  Req. land  Required service
                         pancy   density   value
One hut             1        2       2       0      
Two huts            1        4       4       2      
Three huts          1        6       6       4      Primitive water
Communal hut        1        8       8       6      
Large communal hut  1       10      10       8      Forum
Primitive house     1       12      12      10      
Simple house        1        6       6      12      
Small house         1        7       7      14      Market
Average house       1        8       8      16      Advanced water
Improved house      1        9       9      18      Bath house
Large house         1       12      12      20      Entertainment 1
Grand house         1       16      16      22      
Primitive insula    1       20      20      24      Single security
Simple insula       1       24      24      26      Entertainment 2
Small insula        1       28      28      28      Entertainment 3
Average insula      1       32      32      30      Hospital**
Improved insula     1       36      36      32      Entertainment 4
Large insula        1       42      42      34      Grammaticus
Grand insula        1       48      48      36      
Imperial insula     1       54      54      38      Entertainment 5
Simple domus        1       20      20      40      
Small domus         1       25      25      42      Double security
Average domus       1       30      30      44      Entertainment 6
Improved domus      1       35      35      46      Rhetor, Library**
Large domus         1       40      40      48      Entertainment 7
Grand domus         1       45      45      50      
Simple villa        2      100      25      54      
Small villa         2      120      30      54      
Improved villa      2      150      38      56      Entertainment 8
Grand villa         2      200      50      58      
Small palace        3      300      33      60      Entertainment 9
Large palace        3      500      56      64      

** Each grade after Average Insula requires successively more Hospital access. 
Likewise with Improved Domus and Library access. The coverage requirement 
reaches 100% at Large palace.

  2. CITY BUILDINGS
Other than housing, there are three types of buildings:

Road-independent structures: Those that function with or without road 
access. Whether they affect housing depends only on the distance from the 
building to the house.

Walker-producing structures: Those that send walkers out onto adjacent 
roads. The building's influence is spread by a radius of 3 from every road tile 
the walker traverses, and lingers for some time. The walker goes in a random 
direction when he encounters an intersection. Additionally, the building's 
service spreads for 3 tiles from the building itself.

Forum-dependent structures: Those that require forum access in order to 
work. When passed by a forum walker this building provides its service to the 
whole city, but can only serve a limited number of citizens. If the service of 
all the structures is not sufficient for the population of the city, every 
dwelling in the city will have coverage of less than 100%.

  Concerning size, the single numbers given refer to an NxN square. As for 
radius, the numbers given are the number of tiles past the edge of the 
structure to which the effect extends. The radius draws out a square, not a 
circle. There are two numbers for land value: the first is the bonus to land 
value and the second is the radius to which that bonus extends.

Road-independent structures
Structure         Cost   Size    Land    Service  Citizens   Notes
                                value     radius  employed
  WATER
Natural sources      0      1       0          3         0   Simple water
Well                20      1       0          2         0   Simple water
Reservoir (1)       50      1       0                    0   Advanced water
1st, 2nd in series                           3,6
3rd in series                                2,5
4th in series                                1,4
Fountain            15      1     2;2          6         0   Advanced water
  SANITATION
Bath house          30      2                           20
1st grade                         3;3          5
2nd grade                         4;3          6
3rd grade                         5;3          7
4th grade                         6;3          8
  ENTERTAINMENT (2)
Theater            300      2     3;2      5,7,9        25   Type A
Odeum              500      2     3;4     7,9,11        30   Type A
Arena              700      3     4;3      5,7,9        50   Type B
Coliseum          1000      3     4;5     7,9,11        60   Type B
Circus            1500    --see (3)--     6,8,10        80   Type C
Circus Maximus    2500    --see (3)--    8,10,12        96   Type C
  EDUCATION
Grammaticus        250      2     3;2          6        30
Rhetor             500      3     4;4          8        80
  SECURITY (4)
Wall                20      1       0        n/a         0   External security
Tower (5)           75      1       0        n/a         0   External security
Gateway              5      1     2;1        n/a         0   External security
  WORSHIP
Shrine              80      1                n/a        10
1st grade                         5;2
2nd grade                         6;2                        Req. pop. 500
3rd grade                         7;3                        Req. pop. 2000
4th grade                         8;3                        Req. pop. 5000
Temple             200      2                n/a        20
1st grade                         6;2
2nd grade                         7;3                        Req. pop. 1000
3rd grade                         8;3                        Req. pop. 4000
4th grade                         9;4                        Req. pop. 10000
Basilica           600      3                n/a        30
1st grade                         7;3 
2nd grade                         8;3                        Req. pop. 1500
3rd grade                         9;4                        Req. pop. 6000
4th grade                        10;4                        Req. pop. 15000
  AMENITIES
Gardens              3      1     2;2        n/a         0
Plaza (4)           12      1     4;1        n/a         0

Walker-producing structures
Structure         Cost   Size    Land   Distance  Citizens
                                value     walked  employed
  FORUMS (6)
Aventine           100      2                 36        40
1st grade                         2;2
2nd grade                         3;2
3rd grade                         4;2
4th grade                         5;3
Janiculan          400      3                 36        80
1st grade                         3;2
2nd grade                         4;2
3rd grade                         5;3
4th grade                         6;3
Palatine          1500      4                 36       120
1st grade                         3;2
2nd grade                         4;3
3rd grade                         5;3
4th grade                         6;4
  SECURITY (4)
Praefecture        100      1     3;2         40        25   Internal security
Barracks           400      3     3;2         70        30   Internal security
  INDUSTRY
Market              40      2     2;1         28        20
Business            80      3     2;1         28        60

Forum-dependent structures
Structure         Cost   Size    Land   Citizens  Citizens
                                value     served  employed
Hospital           500      3     4;3       1000        80
Library           1000      3     4;4       1200        60

(1) Reservoirs provide two services, hence two numbers: pipe access and water 
access. Pipe access is required for fountains and baths to work. The service 
radius depends on how far down the chain the reservoir is. Wells and natural 
sources provide primite water; reservoirs and fountains provide advanced water.

(2) Entertainment structures provide varying amounts of service depending on 
distance. The three numbers are the distances for 3, 2 and 1 points of 
entertainment, respectively. Each location can recieve up to 3 points of each 
entertainment type. Entertainment points are NOT additive -- for example if a 
location gets 2 points from one theater and 1 point from another theater, it 
will only have 2 points of type A entertainment.

(3) The Circus and Circus Maximus are unusual in shape and land value effect. 
The drawings below illustrate:
        
4 4 4 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 4 4 4        5 5 5 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 5 5 5
4 4 4 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 4 4 4        5 5 5 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 5 5 5
4 4 4 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 4 4 4        5 5 5 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 5 5 5
4 4 4 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 4 4 4        5 5 5 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 5 5 5
4 4 4 8 - - - - - - 8 4 4 4        5 5 5 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 5 5 5
4 4 4 8 | Circus  | 8 4 4 4        5 5 5 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 5 5 5
4 4 4 8 - - - - - - 8 4 4 4        5 5 5 5 0 0 - - - - - - - - 0 0 5 5 5 5
4 4 4 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 4 4 4        5 5 5 5 0 0 |   Circus    | 0 0 5 5 5 5
4 4 4 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 4 4 4        5 5 5 5 0 0 |   Maximus   | 0 0 5 5 5 5
4 4 4 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 4 4 4        5 5 5 5 0 0 - - - - - - - - 0 0 5 5 5 5
4 4 4 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 4 4 4        5 5 5 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 5 5 5
                                   5 5 5 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 5 5 5
                                   5 5 5 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 5 5 5
                                   5 5 5 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 5 5 5
             '0' stands for 10 ->  5 5 5 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 5 5 5
                                   5 5 5 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 5 5 5

(4) An area must be fully enclosed by some combination of walls, towers, gates 
and river for about a year before it is considered covered by external security.
A location must be passed by a prefecture or barracks walker to be covered by 
internal security.

(5) Towers may be built on clear land or on an already built wall. Plazas may 
only be built on clear land, and not on top of road.

(6) All walker-producing buildings except the higher forums send out a walker 
once every four months. The wait period is three months for the Janiculan forum 
and two for the Palatine forum.

  3. LAND VALUES
  Other structures beside housing are affected by land value and evolve 
accordingly: fountains, baths, forums and worship buildings. Except in the case 
of fountains, these evolutions cause the structures to raise nearby land values 
further. There are population requirements that must be met before advanced 
forums can be built and before worship buildings can evolve.

Structure      Req. land value
2nd grade      17
3rd grade      33
4th grade      49

  Some structures, even while raising land values, also put upper limits on 
them. These limits apply to any structure sensitive to land value, not just 
housing. This will have a major impact on your city design, especially with 
regard to placement of businesses; if housing is placed too close to these 
buildings it will limit their evolution.

Structure     Radius   Land value limit
Business      1        10
              2        16
              3,4      26
Barracks      3        24
Wall/Tower    2        26
Gate          2        30
Praefecture   2        34
Market        2        40

  4. POPULATION REQUIREMENTS
  Some structures require a population milestone to be passed to become 
available. Once the requirement has been met it is still possible to build them 
if the population drops below the milestone. (Advanced worship structures do not
work this way; they will devolve if the population drops.)

Structure          Required population
Janiculan Forum     400
Odeum               800
Library            1200
Palatine Forum     1800
Coliseum           2400
Circus Maximus     4800


III. DEVELOPING INDUSTRY
  Unlike in Caesar III, goods are not required to develop housing, only 
services and land value. Therefore, it is possible to build a great city 
without any commerce. However, there are two very good reasons to build up 
industry: It provides tax revenue, and it employs citizens. To successfully 
develop business it is necessary to understand the concepts of supply, demand 
and distribution as they apply to Caesar II.

  1. SUPPLY
  Each of the up to eight goods available in each province has one of three 
sources: Local production, land import, and sea import. Local production 
requires a farm, mine, or quarry (250 Dn) with road access, at least one 
warehouse (150 Dn), a work camp (100 Dn) and up to 30 plebs for labor (~4-7 
Dn/month). Land import requires road access to a border town, a trading post 
(500 Dn) and at least one warehouse (150 Dn). Sea import requires road access 
to a port (1000 Dn), and at least one warehouse (150 Dn). The port must be 
placed in the path of the trading vessels in order for trade to occur. 

The rate of supply is different for each source:

  Production of local resources depends on the staffing of the work camp 
adjacent to the production site. The rate of work camp filling is limited to 
one third per month, and it takes several months to reach full production. A 
fully staffed source will produce up to 4 units per month, with the actual rate 
varying monthly in a random way. The overall rate depends on the province. 
Earlier provinces put out nearly 3 a month, while the hardest provinces have 
extremely bad productivity, less than 1 per month.
  The staffing of every camp in the province will be the number of plebs 
assigned, divided by 30 times the number of work camps: Divide by three and 
round down to determine the staffing in thirds. You cannot control the staffing 
of individual camps. Thus it is your interest to build work camps only when and 
where needed. It is possible to build more than one work camp per source, but 
this offers no advantage. However, sources are sometimes close enough that you 
can staff more than one with a single camp.

  The rate of land imports depends on the distance of the trading post from the 
border town:

Distance    Import rate
    1           3.0
    2           3.0
    3           2.8
    4           2.8
    5           2.4
    6           2.4
    7           1.7
    8           1.7
    9           0.9
   10           0.9
   11           0.3
   12           0.3

  These figures are for comparison only; the actual rate will rise and fall. 
The border town must develop with a road connection for 2-8 months before it is 
ready to commence trade. Once a trading post has been designated as the trade 
point, no other trading post will import from the same neighboring province.

  The rate of sea imports depends on how efficiently the trade ships are 
processed. Each ship carries 15 units of goods, which is the full capacity of a 
warehouse. When a ship lands at port it drops its cargo, rests at the port for 
some time, then heads straight toward the exit point of its trade route, 
without continuing its path. Once it leaves the province, it will return after 
a fixed amount of time.
  Thus the most important factor is the placement of the port. Allowing the 
ship to dock earlier in its journey will shorten the turnaround time. Each sea 
trade partner sends out two groups of ships that follow different routes, both 
of which can be serviced. The rate can be improved further by placing a 
shipyard adjacent to the port. This reduces the time spent in port, and thus 
the round trip, by one month. Unlike work camps and warehouses, shipyards can 
be built almost anywhere; however they do no good unless adjacent to the port. 
Thus, the overall import rate may vary greatly: rates over 3 units/month to 
less than 1 unit/month have been observed. As with land imports, the port may 
need to lie idle for months before ships will stop at it.
  Clearly, ship paths need to be studied carefully before constructing ports 
and shipyards. This is best done at the beginning of the province assignment, 
before building anything. Watch ship movement from month to month and note the 
optimal place for a port, leaving enough room for a road, a shipyard, and at 
least two warehouses. It is sometimes possible to place a shipyard that serves 
more than one port, and it is sometimes possible to place a port that serves 
more than one trade vessel. Be sure to test the port to ensure the ships will 
take. Then reload your save game and proceed at your own pace.

  2. PROVINCE BUILDINGS
  Farms, mines, quarries, trading posts, border towns, and ports must be 
connected by road to the main city in order to work. The connecting road must 
not have any gates; gates are equivalent to breaks in the road. In the case of 
border towns and ports, they may need to be connected for the better part of a 
year before they become active. Work camps, warehouses, shipyards, and the edge 
of the map do not need road access and gain nothing from it. Those buildings 
need only be adjacent (radius 1) to their parent buildings; for this, diagonal 
connection is acceptable.

Structure     Cost   Size   Requires
Road            20      1
Wall            50      1
Fort           500      1
Trading Post   500      2   Border town, road connection
Farm           250      2   Meadow, road connection
Mine           250      2   Rocky area, road connection
Quarry         250      2   Rocky area, road connection
Warehouse      150      1   Farm, Mine or Quarry
Work camp      100      1   Farm, Mine or Quarry
Shipyard       400      2   Port
Port          1000      2   Shore, road connection

  3. DEMAND & DISTRIBUTION
  Up to eight types of business shops can be built in each province. These work 
by taking raw materials from the province, processing them in the city, and 
selling the product to citizens. The productivity of the workshop can be 
determined from the number of barrels it contains, from 0-7. For maximum 
productivity the business must have adequate supply of materials, adequate 
access to workers and adequate access to a market. Additionally there must be 
adequate demand for the product in the province.
  If raw materials are available somewhere in the province, they are transported
instantly and invisibly to the workshop as needed. Materials must be stored in 
a warehouse to be usable; they cannot be taken directly from the source. 
Businesses prefer warehouses closer to the city and will take supplies from 
those warehouses first. A working business processes one unit per month, or 
none if it has no workers. In other words, the number of barrels seen in the 
workshop is unconnected with the rate of resource consumption.
  The road walker sent out by the business must pass by housing to get workers. 
Without workers, the business will not be able to produce. As time goes by after
the walker passes housing, the business loses workers and will complain about it
if queried. This is unavoidable with most road layouts, but provided that the 
walker doesn't spend too much time away from housing it shouldn't affect 
productivity too much. Similarly, the business walker must also pass by markets 
to achieve maximum productivity. Without markets the business will still work 
but will be limited in productivity. However, since housing needs markets to 
develop anyway, getting the business walkers to pass markets should not be a 
problem.
  The final consideration is the demand for the goods being produced. If demand 
for the product is not high enough, the business will run at less than optimal 
productivity. Demand can be increased by opening up trade routes, by connecting 
to Roman towns in the province, and by increasing the city population. The 
industrial tax rate also has an effect on demand; lower taxes increase demand, 
although this may defeat the purpose of cultivating industry: generating tax 
revenue. At the upper limit, taxes should not be set above 7-8%
  It is important to understand that the city does not buy imports or sell 
exports as in Caesar III; the city collects taxes on goods sold, and the 
productivity of businesses indicates the rate at which goods are being sold. 
Always make sure that your businesses are paying their taxes by keeping them 
covered by forum walkers.

  4. MANAGING EMPLOYMENT
  The population of the city and the employment rate can be monitored month to 
month with the census (C key) or the Finance Advisor in the Forum. Keeping the 
ideal amount of citizens employed will be a challenge, especially during the 
early growth stages of the city. There are four components to the workforce:

  Essential services: These are jobs that need to be filled to maintain and 
develop housing levels. The forum workers needed for the forum that will serve a
Communal Hut would fall into this example. As housing evolves and more services 
are required, the proportion of workers needed to fulfill essential services 
will increase.
  Industry: These workers fill out the workshops that produce goods. Since 
goods are not required to develop the city, it is possible to omit the 
industrial sector. However, since industry is such a good employer and also 
produces revenue, you will want to develop this sooner or later. There are 
limits to how many can be employed by industry, which depend on the 
availability of materials, the demand for product, and suitable building space 
in the city. The practical upper limit is about 50% industrial employment. 
Industry is the first to suffer in the event of a worker shortage.
  Conscription: Conscripted citizens are transferred into army service. Not 
only does this strengthen your cohorts, but it also provides a no-effort buffer 
against unemployment. Conscripted citizens are considered employed even before 
their training is complete. If set too high it will lead to unrest, however. 
Typically fledgling cities have a worker shortage, so eliminating conscription 
when beginning a province is advised. Conscription is freely set from 0% to 50%.
  Culture padding: Later provinces will have culture ratings that are 
unattainable by building essential services and non-employing amenities alone. 
The city will require large numbers of extra entertainment and worship 
structures to raise Culture. These buildings are significant employers and, if 
the highest levels of culture are desired, will take up all the extra workers 
that might have been unemployed or conscripted.

  If unemployment is too high, unrest will arise. If not enough workers are 
available, industrial productivity suffers across the board. City services seem 
unaffected, though. The ideal level of employment is somewhere between 90-99%. 
(If the population is below 50, the employment rate will always be 100%.)

  5. MANAGING PLEBS
  Plebs are required to do all the maintenance work in your province. They are 
also required for working your farms, mines and quarries. And in emergencies, 
they can be pressed into army service. They are made available by investing in 
the pleb fund, through your Pleb Advisor in the Forum.

Work                Required plebs
Construction work   20, always
Fire prevention     1 per 8 tiles of buildings (excluding roads, walls, water, 
                                                               baths, amenities)
City roads          1 per 8 city Road/Plaza/Gateway units
City water          2 per Fountain, 2 per Baths
City walls          1 per 8 city Wall units (excluding towers)
Provincial work     30 per Work camp
Army duty           None (assign as desired)

  Failure to assign the required plebs to work will result in various problems: 
roads and walls crumble, water service breaks intermittently, and production of 
goods is reduced. Perhaps the most serious problem is the outbreak of fires if 
not enough plebs are on fire duty; however, this is also the least likely 
problem to occur. In the event that there are not enough plebs to cover all the 
work, it's usually best to skimp on fire prevention for that one month, unless 
the shortfall is very large (>25%) in which case you should reevaluate the pace 
of your construction work.

  The final number of plebs you get for your money decreases as you invest more 
money. It varies from about 7 plebs per Dn. down to 4 plebs per Dn. in the 
range of 10-100 Dn., the range encountered in normal gameplay.

  The number of plebs available increases gradually each month until it reaches 
its steady state. The greater the difference in number between the currently 
available plebs and the final plebs, the more you gain each month.

  It's important to remember that plebs are not residents of your city. They do 
not count towards your population, do not pay taxes, and do not affect the 
employment or unemployment of your citizens.


IV. GUIDE TO DEFENSE
  1. CITY SECURITY
  There are two threats to peace and order in the city: rioters and invaders. 
Both riots and invasions proceed by destroying property indiscriminately until 
they are violently suppressed. Walkers sent out by prefectures or barracks and 
sentries produced by wall towers will kill any threat they see.
  Rioting is caused by unrest, which can be viewed in the city overlays. The 
higher the unrest, the greater chance that rioting will break out. Flare-ups of 
unrest are difficult to predict, but the causes of unrest are clear: High 
unemployment, high conscription, high taxes and low housing development all 
contribute. 
  If invaders reach the city, they disappear from the province view and appear 
on the city map in greatly reduced numbers and strength. If the province 
defenses are not strong enough it may be necessary to bring the fight to the 
city level, since proper city defenses should eliminate them easily.
   Properly managing a province will always prevent violence in the city, and 
violence in the city should always be avoided because it will result in a 
penalty to the Peace rating. Since, housing development requires both internal 
and external security coverage. This means that you should be prepared to deal 
with threats even if they aren't expected just by providing services to your 
housing.

  2. PROVINCE SECURITY
  There are two threats to peace and order in the province: uprisings and 
invaders. These armies seek to either retake your Roman towns or invade the 
main city, and will destroy any other province structures they encounter. In 
addition to causing economic damage, enemies also reduce the Peace rating for 
each piece of property destroyed and each successful city or town invasion. The 
incidence of barbarian events seems to be random, but there is a grace period of
a few years at the beginning of the assignment when they won't occur.
  When the province mission is begun, there is always at least one town on the 
map controlled by natives. Ultimately you will want to convert these to Roman 
towns in order to improve commerce and the Empire rating, but the natives can 
only be brought over by the force of your cohorts. To successfully attack these 
towns it helps to know their strength. This is determined by querying:

Town strength    Defending force
Weak Tribe       150 Light infantry
Local Tribe      300 Light infantry
Strong Tribe     450 Light infantry
Powerful Tribe   600 Light infantry

  Left unmolested, these tribal towns occasionally send out uprisings to attack 
the main city. The strength of the uprising is about half that of the defending 
force and is made up of an assortment of troops. The race of the uprising army 
depends on the current province. (See section VII.)
  Invaders are armies from neighboring provinces. There are two kinds: 
"barbarians," which attack the main city, and "raiders," which attack Roman 
towns. The type is indicated in the cutscene that announces the invasion. Any 
Roman town invaded by raiders reverts to a tribal town and the raiding force 
disappears. Only enemy-controlled provinces send invaders; provinces that have 
already been made Roman pose no threat. The race of the enemy army is the 
native race of the province of origin. "Local Waters" and "Trade Routes" are not
considered Roman and do send attackers. Their barbarian races are:

Local Waters          Numidians
Trade Route (Silk)    Arabs
Trade Route (Ivory)   Mauri
Trade Route (Spice)   Huns

  Invaders may enter the province from any point on their border. It is not 
always near the trade entry point.
  There are two mechanisms of defense: Cohorts and walls. Cohorts are the 
divisions of your army. Walls are fortifications that delay the progress of 
enemy armies for several months, giving time for your army to engage them or 
build up more strength.
  There are two strategies for walls that can be used singly or together: 
Building walls far out, near the edge of a hostile province, and building walls 
close in around strategic assets. Walls can be complemented by mountains and 
hills, which are impassable. Neither friendly nor hostile armies can pass 
through walls, but your cohorts can go through gates or forts built in to the 
wall. Enemy armies are not very smart about moving around walls and tend 
to overlook the holes that are necessary to maintain economic connections.
  Ensure that your forces are strong enough to eliminate the army before 
engaging, because the enemy will not stop attacking until it is wiped out. To 
command cohorts, select one with the selection tool and click the movement 
button, then click on where the army should move. If the distance is large, the 
path will require multiple waypoints. Try to use roads, or build roads on the 
path because armies move at double speed over roads. Enemies also benefit from 
roads, so consider deleting them from under their feet if more time is needed. 
  It is possible to maneuver cohorts all the way onto the shore or the edge of 
the map, locations that cannot be built on. However, it is not always necessary 
to command the cohort on top of the enemy because a cohort will pursue and 
engage nearby enemies automatically, provided the cohort readiness is high 
enough. When the enemy is engaged, you are given the choice to lead the battle 
personally in real-time strategy mode, or leave the computer to calculate the 
winner of the battle from the size and morale of the armies.

  3. COHORT MANAGEMENT
  Successful defense will require preparing cohorts strong enough to counter 
threats and moving the army into position to engage the enemy. There are four 
types of soldiers: Heavy infantry are professionals paid for by a fund set 
aside with the Centurion advisor in the Forum. The actual cost of soldiers 
depends on the province. Light infantry are conscripts drafted from the city 
population; the conscription rate is also set with the Centurion. Slingers are 
plebs converted to low quality missile soldiers. Finally, auxiliaries are local 
mercenaries the type of which depends on the province; for those provinces that 
have auxiliaries, only 400 are available in total.

Soldier type      Monthly maintenance cost     Training rate
Heavy infantry    5 Dn. for 60-100 soldiers    20 per month per active cohort
Light infantry    None                         40 per month per active cohort
Slingers          1 pleb for 1 soldier         80 per month per active cohort
Auxiliaries       20 Dn. for 50 soldiers       All ready in 1 month

  Heavy infantry are far more cost effective than slingers or auxiliaries both 
in numbers and effectiveness, but the difficulty is in the slow training rate. 
Because of this, slingers and auxiliaries should only be used in emergencies. 
Typically the only suitable duty from which plebs can be pulled is provincial 
work, so expect this to have an impact on the trade economy. Light infantry 
should be increased in times of unemployment and reduced otherwise. This leaves 
heavy infantry as the only type that you have real control over. Avoid 
resorting to expensive measures by building up heavy infantry gradually to 
be ready for barbarian threats. Note that barracks are not necessary for 
training any type of soldier.
  The Centurion gives an overview of readiness and morale for each cohort. 
Morale affects the performance of the troops in battle. It is raised by winning 
battles and lowered by losing or retreating from battles. Readiness is a 
function of the number of troops in the cohort; if readiness is high enough the 
cohort will move and engage nearby enemies independently, though this can 
always be ordered manually.
  In reviewing each cohort, it is possible to raise or lower the priority of 
each fort, to control number of troops sent to each one when trained. Forts are 
Normal by default, each getting equal numbers, but the troop allocation can be 
doubled, halved, or cut off altogether. This allows you to, for example, better 
fortify a higher risk region of province. Changing a fort's priority does not 
move any troops already assigned to the fort; only new troops are affected.

Fort priority     Number of troops assigned
Major             Double normal amount
Normal            No. of troops divided by no. of forts, by default
Minor             Half normal amount
Demobilized       None

  The final consideration is the number of cohort forts to build in the 
province. The sole reason for building more than one is to shorten the time 
needed for troops to reach a target; the longer the threatened border, the more 
forts required. The maximum is 10, though you will never need or want this 
many. More forts means more troop assignment micromanagement, and leads to 
higher overhead to maintain multiple forts at sufficient readiness.
  Therefore the ideal number of forts is one, placed such that its troops can 
quickly reach the most likely areas to be threatened. Judicious placement of 
walls and roads can help in this regard. However, depending on the number of 
hostile neighbors and the overall length of threatened border, it still may be 
necessary to build one or two additional forts.


V. DEALING WITH CAESAR
  1. FAVOR
  Caesar will impose himself in your affairs in three ways: by demanding yearly 
tribute, by taxing your personal savings, and by making resource requests of 
your province. At least one of these actions, in addition to the Empire rating, 
is affected by the imperial favor, that is, Caesar's opinion of you. Favor 
starts at a neutral level and decreases slightly every year. It can be raised by
sending personal gifts or by meeting Caesar's special requests. It is reduced by
failure to pay tribute, failure to deliver requests, and sending gifts that are 
too small. Caesar's favor is determined from the words of the Imperial advisor 
in the Forum:

"Dangerously bad, sir."
"Bleak, very bleak, sir."
"He's not happy, sir."
"You're out of favor, sir."
"It has been better, sir."
"He's indifferent to you."
"There's interest in you."
"He's very pleased."
"He mentions you often."
"He talks of no one else!"
"He regards you as family!"

  2. GIFTS
  Giving gifts is one of the few ways to improve imperial favor; however, 
deciding how much to give is not easy. The effect of giving a certain amount of 
money depends on the average of all prior gifts given, and possibly other 
factors. Giving less than the average is always bad. When Caesar recieves a 
gift, his approval can be determined from his reply:

"Normally, bribes are worth more than the pleb who delivers them.
                                           You insult me with such paltry sums!"
"Thanks for the kind gift.
            I shall be sure to use it to purchase a grape at the next festival."
"Your gift has been received. Thank you."
"Your thoughtfulness is much appreciated. Long life."
"I so enjoy these correspondences. My gratitude for your favors to the Empire."
"Your generosity touches me. Rome needs more leaders like yourself."
"Gifts such as these are more than I could hope for. The Empire thanks you!"

Try for the third or fourth reaction. If too little is given, Caesar will be 
displeased. If too much is sent the average gift amount will be raised more 
than necessary and make future gift giving more costly. Experiment with 
different amounts (after saving) to determine the optimum amount. Caesar's 
favor and the average gift amount is preserved between provinces; they are not 
reset to defaults. Therefore, poor dealings with Caesar early in the game can 
cause problems later. The best strategy to keep both under control is to give 
infrequent, small gifts to keep favor around or slightly above neutral.

  3. TRIBUTE
  Every 2-6 years, Caesar either raises or lowers your yearly tribute. At least 
two factors determine this: A larger amount of funds in the treasury increases 
tribute, and a higher imperial lowers tribute. The tribute can be manipulated by
sending a gift at some time before the end of the year in order to raise favor. 
Paying tribute is not difficult if the city is being managed properly because 
the amount is small compared to other costs. Therefore, inability to pay 
tribute is a sign to Caesar of serious trouble; three years of nonpayment will 
result in your removal. This can be avoided by simply staying out of debt. As 
long as the city is not in debt at the end of the year and a small amount of 
tax revenue is coming in, there will be enough money to pay it.

  4. TAXES
  Caesar taxes a portion of your personal savings after the first year of 
governing, and every 5-6 years thereafter. The tax-bracket depends on the 
amount in your savings at the end of the year.

Notice                                                    Savings    Tax
(no tax)                                                   0-2999     0%
"For this year's Imperial tax, I have decided to be     3000-4999    10%
lenient on you."
"I hope this year's imperial tax is to your liking.     5000-7999    19%
It certainly is to mine!"
"This year's Imperial tax befits a Governor as              8000+    26%
successful  and wealthy  as yourself."

The only way to avoid taxes is to pour the money out of savings and into the 
city funds. If the city is not yet developed and the savings amount is not very 
large, this may be less costly than paying taxes. For example, if there is 30000
Dn. in savings and at least that much needs to be spent on construction, you 
should donate at least 27001 of it to avoid paying up to 7800 in tax. The lost 
savings can be reaccumulated over several years when the city becomes 
profitable. On the other hand, if there is 100000 Dn. in savings it will take 
too long to recover all of it; it would be better to pay taxes on the part of it
that is not needed and keep the rest. In short, donate all the money you intend 
to spend before the end of the first year, and prepare adequate money storage to
avoid robberies.

  5. REQUESTS
  Ten years after beginning an assignment, and every 10 years thereafter, Caesar
requests a quantity of raw materials from your province. (Though he will not 
make requests if you have not begun to develop industry.) He never asks for 
goods that must be imported, only locally producible goods. The specific type 
and quantity (5-10) are determined randomly at the time of the request, so you 
can reload to before the end of the year to try for a more convenient request. 
You cannot stockpile and send the items at liesure; you must choose the amount 
to send and send them immediately. Meeting Caesar's demand will result in a 
moderate increase in favor. It is unknown if exceeding the demand results in 
extra favor. If you fail to fully meet the request you are given another 
opportunity the following year. 

  If you finish all the assignments Caesar gives you, and become the next 
Caesar, you can continue playing as Caesar. In this case, the favor is always 
maximum and you will never be bothered by tribute, taxes or requests.


VI. CITY BUILDING STRATEGY
  1. DEVELOPMENT PRIORITIES
  Should housing or industry be developed first? Ideally both, but this approach
presents several problems: 
- The minimum investment to get a business running can be costly, depending on 
the source of the materials.
- Local production of materials (the cheapest and fastest source) requires large
numbers of plebs, which are in short supply in the beginning months of a 
province assignment. This is made worse by the needs of fire prevention, road, 
water service and wall maintenance that a fast growing city needs.
- Demand for business goods is low when the population is small and there are 
few Empire connections.
- Business workshops require a large population for workers.
- Rapidly developing housing causes the supply of workers to fluctuate due to 
the periodic drops in population density as houses evolve. This can wreak havoc 
on the staffing of businesses.

  Thus it is apparent that business without housing is unfeasible. But due to 
unemployment concerns, housing without business is undesirable. Therefore there 
are two ways to develop that incorporate both.
A) Evolve housing as quickly as possible, adding businesses gradually to keep 
unemployment within an acceptable range.
B) Evolve housing to an optimal point that provides a large population for a 
small investment, and develop industry as quickly as possible.

  Method A pays out more in tax revenue and makes the city profitable sooner, 
but it is the most costly approach; even with a small neighborhood of ~1000 
citizens it will cost more than any available starting funds to develop top 
level housing as well as a few businesses. Method B is more moderate; it pays 
less in tax but requires smaller investment. The method applied should depend 
on the money available; method A works if a large injection of money from 
personal funds is provided whereas method B is preferable if the only money is 
what Caesar has provided.

  2. PRECEPTS OF URBAN PLANNING
  There are countless ways to actually lay out a city. Rather than adhering to 
specific tiled plans, it is better to plan a city based on several key 
principles and then adapt to the requirements at hand.
- The city should be designed around the houses, not around any expensive or 
important-looking structure, because housing is what makes or breaks a city.
- There is no reason why the entire population can't live in the highest level 
of housing. Unlike in Caesar III there are no patrician levels of housing 
occupied by nonworkers. All citizens want and need work in Caesar II. Top level 
housing is by no means necessary, however.
- The city doesn't need to be interconnected; the only road connections 
necessary are those between houses and walker services, and between businesses 
and houses. This means that the city can be broken up into completely separate 
neighborhood-like divisions.
- The same neighborhood building plan can be reused over and over, or mixed 
with larger or smaller layouts.
- The city land is randomly generated at the start of the province. Its only 
feature is a river that enters one side and exits another. If the river doesn't 
cover enough land or takes up too much space, reload to before the promotion and
try again.
- Unlike roads, aqueducts and walls cannot branch. In other words, they cannot 
have 3- or 4-way intersections with themselves. There must be at least 1 tile of
space between aqueduct tracts and between wall sections. Roads, aqueducts and 
walls may all intersect one another, however.
- Attempting to expand a walled-in area or merge separate walled-in areas (by 
breaking the wall and building new wall) will cause all external security to be 
lost. The only way to avoid losing external security coverage is to move the 
wall out 1 tile at a time. Therefore, it is best to make the walled-in area big 
enough on the first try. It is possible to wall in the entire parcel of land, if
that much space is desired.
- It is not necessary to give worship and entertainment structures road and 
forum access. The buildings still function but they contribute nothing to 
Culture. Unsecured worship buildings may be robbed, however.
- Building a neighborhood without planning where all the essential service 
structures will be invariably leads to problems that will hurt its growth. 
Always draw up your plan first.

  3. BUILD NO INTERSECTIONS
  Walkers move in a random direction when they reach a fork in the road. Given 
enough crossings, a walker will eventually neglect to travel a certain path for 
long enough that some houses will be deprived of service. This leads to unstable
housing. One approach to this problem is to build more walker producing 
buildings. A better solution is to build roads with no intersections. Without 
intersections, the walker has no chance of missing any housing in his path. The 
two ways to do this are closed loops and unclosed stretches of road, the latter 
of which is equivalent to a closed loop with width 1. In other words, it is 
neither necessary nor desirable to have the entire city unified by a single road
network.
  Even without intersections, part of the road may not get sufficient coverage 
because walkers travel a limited distance before disappearing. Therefore, the 
perimeter of the loop or length of the road section should match the distance 
traveled by the walkers. If the path is too long, the walker may not reach all 
the way around; if the path is too short, less coverage is being provided for 
the same money. Since the shortest distance walked is 28 tiles (markets and 
businesses) the ideal loop path for these buildings is 28 tiles. This is 
available in useful shapes such as 6x6, 5x7, 4x8 and 3x9 rectangles. (Interior 
area given.) It is also effective to make a loop with double size and double 
services placed on opposite sides of the loop.

  4. COUPLING LOOPS
  Population density generally increases as housing evolves; at the same time 
the number of support structures increases. Therefore the ratio of housing 
space to non-housing space grows smaller and reaches a minimum at the highest 
development levels. This presents a problem for business buildings, which take 
up lot of space and require good housing coverage. A single loop isn't going to 
have enough space for all the houses, support services and businesses.
  By building houses on the exterior of one loop and placing another loop 
against those houses, walkers from either loop may access the houses. This makes
more space available to build walker-producing buildings, useful for 
accomodating bulky businesses. It is possible to daisy chain multiple loops in 
this way, to branch loops, or to lay out loop modules in a gridlike way. It 
works as long as every loop touches houses on the outside. Of course, this 
technique can be used in any city; it doesn't require highly evolved houses.

Examples (NOT drawn to scale)

Simple          ......H......
coupling        .    .H.    .
                .    .H.    .
                ......H......


Daisy           ......        ......
chain           .    .H......H.    .
                .    .H.    .H.    .
                ......H.    .H......
                       ......


Branched        ...... ......
with a double   .    . .    .
size loop       .    . .    .
                ...... ......
                    HHHHH
                .............
                .           .
                .           .
                .............


Pseudogrid             ......
of loops        ......H.    .H......
                .    .H.    .H.    .
                .    . ...... .    .
                ......        ......
                  HH            HH
                ......        ......
                .    .H......H.    .
                .    .H.    .H.    .
                ...... .    . ......
                       ......

  5. ACCOMODATING LARGE HOUSES
  When planning neighborhoods that will have size 2 or size 3 houses, it is 
important to control how the houses expand from smaller size to larger size so 
that all the houses have enough room to grow. If this is ignored the houses on 
the edge of the block may be crowded into a space too small to expand.

Example (drawn to scale)

Step 1:  H H H H H H H H
         H H H H H H H H

Step 2:  H ||||||H
         H |__||__||__|H

  Botched expansion can be corrected by demolishing the large houses, giving the
small ones a chance to expand. Then you will need to build new houses in the 
gaps, and let them develop. This takes a lot of time and is disruptive to 
population levels.

Step 3:  H     ||    H
         H     |__|    H

Step 4:  ||  ||  ||
         |__|  |__|  |__|

Step 5:  ||H     H ||
         |__|H     H |__|

Step 6:  ||||||||
         |__||__||__||__|

  Control can be maintained from the beginning by forcing houses to expand from 
the outside inward, one by one. Interior houses are prevented from expanding by 
placing non-housing filler within the housing block then removing them once the 
exterior houses have expanded. Inexpensive structures for this purpose are road 
or plaza pieces and wells. The holes cannot be left blank because houses will 
expand into clear land or gardens. 

Example (drawn to scale)

Step 1:  H H H H H H H H
         H H . H . . H H

Step 2:  ||H H H H ||
         |__|  H . . |__|

Step 3:  ||||H H ||
         |__||__|    |__|

Step 4:  ||||||||
         |__||__||__||__|


  6. PUSHING THE LIMITS OF INDUSTRY
  While the potential growth of any city is limited only by the available 
building space, and the population can be brought well over 10000, employing all
those citizens is made difficult by the limited quantity of raw materials 
available. Ordinarily, farms can only be built on meadow and mines or quarries 
on can only be built on rocky area. Industry is maxed out when all are built 
over and producing.
  This restriction can be overcome with the following cheat: Select the farm/
mine/quarry tool and press and hold the left mouse button wherever you want it 
built. Without releasing the left button, click the right button. The structure 
will be built for the normal cost. This cheat can be further exploited by 
building two or more close enough together that they share the same work camp. 
You cannot choose the type of farm/mine/quarry with this cheat. A mine or quarry
will be one of the types that are normally available in the province, but in the
case of a farm it will always be a wheat farm, even in provinces that have no 
way of getting wheat. In this case, wheat businesses will be made available for 
construction to process the goods.
  Industrial productivity is ultimately limited by the demand for goods. 
However, this cheat will go a long way toward employing citizens and increasing 
tax revenue.

  7. MEETING THE OBJECTIVES
  The Empire rating is the easiest and first to develop because imperial 
connections will be needed to grow industry. All it takes is some money to build
provincial roads and structures. The only way to fail at achieving 100% is to 
fall too low in favor, something that is easily corrected with gifts.
  The most important factor for Prosperity is to maintain a profit; the profit 
doesn't have to be large, as long as the funds at the beginning of the year are 
greater than the year before. Don't worry about this until all or most of the 
construction has been completed. Prosperity may be held back by low population. 
Plan a big city from the beginning if high Prosperity is required, and always 
develop housing as high as possible given the building plan.
  Peace is the slowest (in game time) to develop. Prevent riots by keeping 
housing happy, dealing with unemployment month to month, and being reasonable 
with taxes and conscription. Be ready for external threats and don't let 
enemies wreck anything. If something is about to be destroyed in the city or 
province, use the demolish tool to get rid of it and avoid taking a hit to 
Peace. Ironically, Peace will develop faster in provinces with more war 
(hostile neighbors and tribal towns) as long as the cohorts put down the 
threats immediately; this is due to the 3 point bonus for conquering enemy 
armies.
  Culture requires a large number of expensive structures that will tie up a 
large segment of the population for employment. If there is a high Culture 
requirement be sure to leave enough building space and employees for this 
purpose. This can be done after profitable industry and housing has been 
established. An easy way to get Culture points is to make all roads plazas 
instead of ordinary roads. Culture is limited by low population, and it is also 
easier to develop with larger populations, because there will be more people 
left over after the required employees are used for industry and essential 
services. It is possible to build roadworks with no housing, only a forum and 
culture buildings. This technique is useful if there is no more space left for 
construction in your layouts and more Culture is desired.


VII. GUIDE TO PROVINCES
  1. EXPLANATION
  The following section gives the game's description and the economic and 
military overview for each of the provinces. The number of meadows and rocky 
areas is listed, along with what goods can be produced locally. The four trade 
partners and importable goods are listed in order of north, east, south, and 
west, as is done by the trade advisor. "L" is for land and "S" is for sea. The 
towns are listed in order of barbarian strength. The number of heavy infantry 
hired for 5 Dn. per month is given, along with the auxiliaries available and 
the type of natives present.

  2. LIST OF PROVINCES

Campania
  Thanks to our recent campaigns, the people of this province have been 
"Romanized." They should be placid and welcoming.

Meadows                 5  Cattle
Mines/Quarries          4  Lead, Copper, Stone
Illyricum               S  Cattle
Achaea                  S  Clay
Sicilia                 S  Iron
Latium                  L  Grapes

Towns            Roman, Roman, Roman, Weak
Heavy infantry   100
Auxiliaries      None
Natives          Lucanians


Cisalpine Gaul
  This province is fairly quiet, but beware the occasional incursions of the 
Goths to the north.

Meadows                 6  Wheat
Mines/Quarries          4  Iron, Copper, Sand
Germania Superior       L  Wool
Illyricum               L  Cattle
Latium                  L  Grapes
Gallia Narbonensis      S  Cattle

Towns            Roman, Roman, Roman, Weak
Heavy infantry   100
Auxiliaries      None
Natives          Etruscans


Corsica and Sardinia
  Your mission is to manage the small island of Sardinia, to the west of Rome. 
One of the outlying villages has not been tamed, so rule with caution.

Meadows                 4  Wheat, Grapes
Mines/Quarries          3  Lead, Stone
Gallia Narbonensis      S  Cattle
Latium                  S  Grapes
Sicilia                 S  Iron
Trade Route             S  Ivory

Towns            Roman, Roman, Roman, Local
Heavy infantry   95
Auxiliaries      None
Natives          Corsicans


Illyricum
  Mineral resources are not plentiful here, but the people recognize our right 
to rule more than most of these barbarian lands.

Meadows                 5  Cattle, Wool
Mines/Quarries          2  Lead, Stone
Cisalpine Gaul          L  Sand
Macedonia               L  Copper
Trade Route             S  Silk
Latium                  S  Grapes

Towns            Roman, Roman, Weak, Local
Heavy infantry   85
Auxiliaries      Gauls (Swordsmen)
Natives          Dalmatians


Sicilia
  There is a slight barbarian presence in this province, but it is a prime 
trading area with access to the spice routes.

Meadows                 4  Wheat, Grapes
Mines/Quarries          4  Iron, Marble
Corsica and Sardinia    S  Wheat
Campania                S  Copper
Trade Route             S  Silk
Carthage                S  Wheat

Towns            Roman, Roman, Roman, Local
Heavy infantry   90
Auxiliaries      None
Natives          Sicilians


Pannonia
  The people here are strong, but seem willing to join the Empire. Beware 
invasions from the north.

Meadows                 4  Cattle, Wool
Mines/Quarries          4  Iron, Clay
Noricum Exterior        L  Wheat
Dacia                   L  Lead
Illyricum               L  Cattle
Cisalpine Gaul          L  Sand

Towns            Roman, Weak, Local, Strong
Heavy infantry   85
Auxiliaries      Armenians (Horse archers)
Natives          Pannoniae


Dacia
  The soil is quite fertile here, but the barbarian population is significant. 
Expect trouble.

Meadows                 6  Wheat, Wool
Mines/Quarries          2  Lead, Sand
Pannonia Exterior       L  Wool
Thracia                 L  Copper
Macedonia               L  Copper
Illyricum               L  Cattle

Towns            Roman, Weak, Local, Strong
Heavy infantry   75
Auxiliaries      Gauls (Spearsmen)
Natives          Scordiscans


Macedonia
  This province is suited for cattle and wheat. Beware the Greeks to the south.

Meadows                 4  Wheat, Cattle
Mines/Quarries          4  Copper, Stone
Illyricum               L  Cattle
Caria                   S  Marble
Achaea                  L  Clay
Campania                S  Copper

Towns            Roman, Roman, Local, Strong
Heavy infantry   80
Auxiliaries      Gauls (Swordsmen)
Natives          Macedonians


Carthage
  This region's once-great cities have been razed. Rebuild this province to 
even greater splendor, but beware a fierce and unruly populace.

Meadows                 4  Wheat
Mines/Quarries          4  Iron, Copper, Sand
Sicilia                 S  Iron
Africa Proconsularis    L  Sand
Trade Route             L  Ivory
Mauretania              L  Wheat

Towns            Roman, Roman, Weak, Weak
Heavy infantry   70
Auxiliaries      None
Natives          Carthaginians


Africa Proconsularis
  Minerals are less prevalent here, and unrest is likely to be a problem. 
Exercise caution when governing here.

Meadows                 4  Cattle
Mines/Quarries          2  Copper, Sand, Marble
Sicilia                 S  Iron
Cyrenaica               S  Gems
Trade Route             L  Ivory
Carthage                L  Wheat

Towns            Roman, Weak, Local, Strong
Heavy infantry   75
Auxiliaries      Gauls (Swordsmen)
Natives          Blemmyes


Gallia Narbonensis
  This province contains a village of those rebellious Gauls; however, they 
should be fairly peaceable for their lot.

Meadows                 4  Grapes, Cattle
Mines/Quarries          4  Iron, Marble
Aquitania               L  Grapes
Cisalpine Gaul          L  Sand
Local Waters            S  Fish
Hispania Tarraconensis  L  Clay

Towns            Roman, Roman, Roman, Local
Heavy infantry   90
Auxiliaries      None
Natives          Gauls


Belgica
  There is a significant barbarian presence in these lands, but they seem more 
passive than most. The true threat must lie farther north.

Meadows                 5  Wheat, Cattle
Mines/Quarries          3  Lead, Clay
Britannia               S  Iron
Germania Superior       L  Wool
Cisalpine Gaul          L  Sand
Gallia Lugdunensis      L  Cattle

Towns            Roman, Roman, Local, Powerful
Heavy infantry   80
Auxiliaries      Macedonians (Pikemen)
Natives          Belgae


Germania Superior
  This northern province contains a large barbarian population, but its 
resources seem worth the danger.

Meadows                 5  Wheat, Wool
Mines/Quarries          4  Lead, Clay
Germania Inferior       L  Wheat
Pannonia                L  Cattle
Cisalpine Gaul          L  Sand
Belgica                 L  Lead

Towns            Roman, Weak, Weak, Strong, Strong
Heavy infantry   75
Auxiliaries      Armenians (Horse archers)
Natives          Chatti


Achaea
  The Greeks' constant squabbling have made it easy for us to conquer them. 
However, that same contentious behaviour will make them difficult for you to 
rule.

Meadows                 4  Grapes
Mines/Quarries          4  Lead, Iron, Clay
Macedonia               L  Copper
Trade Route             S  Silk
Creta                   S  Marble
Campania                S  Copper

Towns            Roman, Roman, Strong, Strong
Heavy infantry   70
Auxiliaries      Gauls (Swordsmen)
Natives          Greeks


Germania Inferior
  Farmland seems plentiful here, but the barbarians are also plentiful and 
unwilling to join the Empire.

Meadows                 6  Wheat, Cattle
Mines/Quarries          1  Iron, Sand
Local Waters            S  Fish
Germania Superior       L  Wool
Belgica                 L  Lead
Britannia               S  Iron

Towns            Roman, Strong, Strong, Strong
Heavy infantry   70
Auxiliaries      Armenians (Horse archers)
Natives          Frisians


Gallia Lugdunensis
  The further north we expand, the fiercer the Gauls become. However, this 
region features some of the richest farmland the Empire has ever seen.

Meadows                 6  Cattle, Wool
Mines/Quarries          2  Iron, Clay
Britannia               S  Iron
Belgica                 L  Lead
Aquitania               L  Grapes
Hispania Tarraconensis  S  Clay

Towns            Roman, Roman, Local, Strong
Heavy infantry   75
Auxiliaries      Mauri (Bowmen)
Natives          Gauls


Britannia
  This remote and rather rustic island offers some worthwhile exports, but will 
have to remain well-defended to keep its rebellious populous at bay.

Meadows                 4  Wheat, Cattle
Mines/Quarries          5  Iron, Clay
Caledonia               L  Cattle
Belgica                 S  Lead
Gallia Lugdunensis      S  Cattle
Hibernia                S  Wool

Towns            Weak, Weak, Strong, Powerful
Heavy infantry   70
Auxiliaries      Mauri (Bowmen)
Natives          Britons


Thracia
  This culture seems ripe for assimilation into our Empire, but the threat of 
attack from the north looms over it.

Meadows                 4  Grapes, Cattle
Mines/Quarries          4  Copper, Clay
Dacia Exterior          L  Lead
Caria                   S  Marble
Trade Route             S  Silk
Macedonia               L  Copper

Towns            Roman, Weak, Local, Strong
Heavy infantry   85
Auxiliaries      Gauls (Swordsmen)
Natives          Thracians


Cyrenaica
  This region is rich in gems and other minerals, but among the mountains lie 
many dangerous nomadic tribes.

Meadows                 2  Cattle
Mines/Quarries          5  Gems, Clay, Marble
Creta                   S  Marble
Aegyptus                S  Wheat
Trade Route             L  Ivory
Africa Proconsularis    L  Sand

Towns            Weak, Weak, Local, Strong
Heavy infantry   80
Auxiliaries      Gauls (Spearsmen)
Natives          Blemmyes


Aquitania
  The Gauls may have an important presence here, but they are more -- civilized 
-- than most of their kind. Resources are plentiful here.

Meadows                 5  Grapes
Mines/Quarries          4  Lead, Copper, Stone
Gallia Lugdunensis      L  Cattle
Gallia Narbonensis      L  Cattle
Hispania Tarraconensis  L  Clay
Local Waters            S  Fish

Towns            Roman, Roman, Weak, Local
Heavy infantry   85
Auxiliaries      Macedonians (Pikemen)
Natives          Gauls


Lusitania
    Surveyors report the soil here to be rich with ores and gems, and the seas a
prime source of fish.

Meadows                 5  Wool
Mines/Quarries          4  Gems, Copper, Stone
Britannia               S  Iron
Hispania Tarraconensis  L  Clay
Baetica                 L  Grapes
Local Waters            S  Fish

Towns            Roman, Roman, Weak, Local
Heavy infantry   80
Auxiliaries      Egyptians (Swordsmen)
Natives          Celtiberians


Baetica
  This province allows enemies to reach the Empire from the south. Taming it 
would limit their incursions, but the people here seem displeased with our 
presence.

Meadows                 5  Grapes, Cattle
Mines/Quarries          4  Lead, Marble
Hispania Tarraconensis  L  Clay
Mauretania              S  Wheat
Trade Route             S  Silk
Lusitania               L  Wool

Towns            Roman, Roman, Weak, Local
Heavy infantry   75
Auxiliaries      Egyptians (Swordsmen)
Natives          Celtiberians


Mauretania
  As a southern province, this area would give us access to the ivory and spice 
trading routes.

Meadows                 4  Wheat
Mines/Quarries          4  Iron, Copper, Marble
Baetica                 S  Grapes
Carthage                L  Wheat
Trade Route             L  Silk
Trade Route             L  Ivory

Towns            Roman, Roman, Local, Local
Heavy infantry   80
Auxiliaries      Egyptians (Spearsmen)
Natives          Mauri


Caria
  This region looks promising, but the further east we expand, the more 
powerful our enemies seem to become.

Meadows                 3  Cattle
Mines/Quarries          4  Iron, Marble, Stone
Thracia                 S  Copper
Lycia and Pamphylia     L  Wheat
Cyprus                  S  Grapes
Achaea                  S  Clay

Towns            Roman, Roman, Local, Strong
Heavy infantry   80
Auxiliaries      Chatti (Spearsmen)
Natives          Seleucids


Creta
  This island is small, yet rich in farmland and minerals. However, the 
populace may be troublesome.

Meadows                 4  Grapes, Cattle
Mines/Quarries          4  Iron, Marble
Achaea                  S  Clay
Caria                   S  Marbles
Cyrenaica               S  Gems
Trade Route             S  Silk

Towns            Roman, Roman, Local, Strong
Heavy infantry   75
Auxiliaries      Gauls (Spearsmen)
Natives          Cretans


Aegyptus
  With the capacity for wheat farming in this province, this may be the 
Empire's new bread basket. However, its inhabitants are less than welcoming.

Meadows                 4  Wheat
Mines/Quarries          3  Lead, Sand, Marble
Lycia and Pamphylia     S  Wheat
Judea                   L  Copper
Trade Route             S  Ivory
Cyrenaica               L  Gems

Towns            Roman, Local, Strong, Strong
Heavy infantry   70
Auxiliaries      Gauls (Spearsmen)
Natives          Egyptians


Lycia and Pamphylia
  This province contains some villages that may cause some trouble, but overall 
it seems fairly quiet.

Meadows                 4  Wheat
Mines/Quarries          4  Lead, Stone, Clay
Bithynia and Pontus     L  Grapes
Cappadocia              L  Iron
Aegyptus                S  Wheat
Caria                   L  Marble

Towns            Roman, Roman, Strong, Powerful
Heavy infantry   85
Auxiliaries      Chatti (Swordsmen)
Natives          Cilicians


Cappadocia
  The people here are prone to rebellion, and have settled in many of the 
outlying towns. You must pacify the province, if you hope to keep peace in your 
city.

Meadows                 4  Cattle, Wheat
Mines/Quarries          4  Iron, Marble
Bithynia and Pontus     S  Grapes
Armenia                 L  Grapes
Syria                   L  Sand
Lycia and Pamphylia     L  Wheat

Towns            Roman, Weak, Strong, Powerful
Heavy infantry   70
Auxiliaries      Blemmyes (Bowmen)
Natives          Galatians


Cyprus
  Resources are scarce on this small island, and the people look to be 
difficult to manage. Maintain vigilance.

Meadows                 4  Grapes, Cattle
Mines/Quarries          2  Copper, Clay
Lycia and Pamphylia     S  Wheat
Syria                   S  Sand
Aegyptus                S  Wheat
Trade Route             S  Silk

Towns            Roman, Weak, Weak, Strong
Heavy infantry   70
Auxiliaries      Gauls (Swordsmen)
Natives          Cypriots

Germania Exterior
  We've beaten back those upstart barbarians, and these lands are bereft of 
minerals. Perhaps it's best to leave sleeping dogs lie?

Meadows                 4  Wheat
Mines/Quarries          1  Lead, Iron, Clay
Caledonia               S  Cattle
Local Waters            S  Fish
Noricum Exterior        L  Wheat
Britannia               S  Iron

Towns            Weak, Weak, Local, Strong
Heavy infantry   65
Auxiliaries      Armenians (Horse archers)
Natives          Saxons


Noricum Exterior
  Many barbarians have resettled in this area, thanks to our recent campaigns. 
Expanding into these lands would only give them a chance at revenge -- in my 
humble opinion.

Meadows                 3  Wheat, Wool
Mines/Quarries          4  Iron, Stone
Germania Exterior       L  Lead
Pannonia Exterior       L  Wool
Germania Superior       L  Wool
Germania Inferior       L  Wheat

Towns            Weak, Strong, Powerful, Powerful
Heavy infantry   60
Auxiliaries      Armenians (Horse archers)
Natives          Alamanni


Pannonia Exterior
  Aside from imported silks, is there anything to be gained from this province 
but bloodshed?

Meadows                 3  Wheat, Wool
Mines/Quarries          4  Lead, Clay
Trade Route             L  Spices
Dacia Exterior          L  Lead
Dacia                   L  Lead
Noricum Exterior        L  Wheat

Towns            Strong, Powerful, Powerful, Powerful
Heavy infantry   65
Auxiliaries      Armenians (Horse archers)
Natives          Vandals


Dacia Exterior
  Our scouts in Dacia indicate that this area would be extremely difficult to 
tame, though its silk trade and fishing waters are tempting.

Meadows                 3  Wheat, Wool
Mines/Quarries          5  Lead, Stone
Trade Route             L  Spices
Local Waters            S  Fish
Thracia                 L  Copper
Dacia                   L  Lead

Towns            Local, Strong, Powerful, Powerful
Heavy infantry   60
Auxiliaries      Egyptians (Swordsmen)
Natives          Visigoths

Information on the following provinces is missing:
Judea
Syria
Caledonia
Hibernia
Asia Exterior
The three provinces at the east border of the map


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
CLOSING

    This document is my own work. Any questions, comments, corrections or 
complaints should be addressed to the address below, with clear indication in 
the subject line that the email is concerning this FAQ. 

dammit9x at hotmail dot com