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    FAQ by tonyjames

    Version: 1.3 | Updated: 10/18/04 | Search Guide | Bookmark Guide

    ROME TOTAL WAR FAQ V1.3
    http://www.romewar.com
    
    by: Tony James 
    tony@salehippo.com
    
    
    
    ==================
    TABLE OF CONTENTS
    ==================
    1.0 Authors Note
    
    2.0 Controls
    	2.1 Campaign Map
    	2.2 Battle Map
    	2.3 Control Tips
    
    3.0 Factions
    
    	3.1 Playable Factions
    	3.2 Non Playable Factions
    
    4.0 Quick battle
    
    5.0 Single player campaign
    
    	 5.1 Overview
    		A. Starting a game
    		B. Game modes
    		C. Campaign Map
    		D. Control Panel
    
    	 5.2 Families
    
    	 5.3 Cities
    		A. Early growth
    		B. Money
    		C. Revolts
    		D. Temples
    		E. Walls
    
    	 5.4 Armies
    		A. Creating Armies
    		B. Mercenaries
    		C. Generals
    		D. Gaining experience for armies
    		E. Managing Armies
    		F. Forts and Watchtowers
    
    	 5.5 Battle
    		A. Formations
    		B. Flanks and Rear
    		C. Morale
    		D. Unit strengths
    		E. Fatigue
    		F. Terrain
    		G. After they flee
    		H. Attacking with multiple armies
    		I. Special Abilities
    
    	 5.6 Navies	
    
    	 5.7 Agents	
    		A. Spies
    		B. Assassins
    		C. Diplomats
    
    	 5.8 The Senate
    
    6.0 Multiplayer
    
    7.0 Units
    
    	7.1 Roman
    
    	7.2 Britons 
    
    	7.3 Carthaginians
    
    	7.4 Egyptians 
    
    	7.5 Gauls 
    
    	7.6 Germans
    
    	7.7 Greeks 
    
    	7.8 Parthians 
    
    	7.9 Seleucids 
    
    8.0 Bugs
    
    9.0 Tips/Tricks
    
    10.0 FAQ
    
    11.0 Credits
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    -------------------------------------------
    1.0 Authors Note
    -------------------------------------------
    version 1.3 update
    -fixed some bugs and added some tips
    
    version 1.2 update
    -added the units section with all the units from playable factions
    
    version 1.1 update
    -added more details in the faction description	
    -updated formations with more details 
    -updated overview
    -updated families 
    -updated tips tricks
    -updated senate info
    -updated generals
    -updated attacking with multiple armies
    -updated terrain
    -updated unit strengths
    -updated credits
    -updated Forts and Watchtowers
    
    This FAQ is designed to help beginners of Rome: Total War to get a head start  
    and learn some basics and strategy for the game. I will try to be general
    in order to allow you to adopt strategies for any faction. This faq is only 
    the first versionand I will include many additions in the next release, please
    email me with any
    contributions.
    
    -------------------------------------------
    2.0 Controls
    -------------------------------------------
    
    These are the game controls which you will find in the game manual
    
    [2.1 Campaign Map]
    
    Option menu =	Esc
    Toggle settlement labels = Ctrl+T
    Toggle Character labels = Ctrl+N
    Zoom to Capital = Home
    Stop character walking = Backspace
    AI speed up = Space
    Quick save game = Ctrl+S
    Quick load game = Ctrl+L
    Show help window = F1
    Select all units = Ctrl+A
    
    [2.2 Battle Map]
    
    Option Menu = Esc
    Pause = P
    Toggle unit run = R
    Stop current orders = R
    Toggle special unit ability = F
    Toggle guard mode = D
    Toggle skirmish = S
    Toggle fire at will = A
    Toggle unit formation (tight/loose) = C
    Alternative attack = Alt+right mouse button
    Rotate unit clockwise = ,
    Rotate unit counterclockwise = .
    Increase formation width = =
    Decrease formation width = -
    Set waypoint = Shift + right mouse button
    Show unit destination = Space
    Group selected units = G
    Ungroup selected units = G
    Select all units = Ctrl + A
    Deselect all units = Enter
    Select all artilery units = Ctrl+B
    Select all infantry units = Ctrl+I
    Select all cavalry units = Ctrl+C
    Select all melee units = Ctrl +H
    Select all missile firing units = Ctrl+M
    Send message in multiplayer = T
    Zoom to general =  Home
    Show Help Window = F1
    
    [2.3 Control Tips]
    
    -Running is useful when you want to charge the enemy with cavalry or 
    other units, but it also tires your troops more quickly thank walking. 
    I recommend that you wait until you are close to the enemy force before
    you start charging.
    
    -Skirmish mode is useful for ranged attackers; it keeps them at a distance 
    from the enemy as they attack with their ranged weapon. It is sometimes 
    smart to disable skirmish mode if you have the opportunity to flank the 
    enemy on the sides.
    
    -Tight Formations are better for breaking a hole in the enemy while loose
     formations are better for avoiding arrows when charging
    
    -Formations with greater width are useful when you have greater numbers want
     to surround the enemy
    
    -You must group units in order to be able to use them in a formation, once
     they are grouped and in formation, they will move overall in formation 
    
    -------------------------------------------
    3.0 Factions
    -------------------------------------------
    
    [3.1 Playable Factions]
    
    Roman Factions (Julli, Scipii, Brutii, Senate)- they have strong units of 
    every type and once the Marius Reforms occur; you get new improved units
    which overpower most other units in the game. A benifit about picking the
    roman factions is that you have three allies throughout the game until 
    you decide it is time to take over rome. The combined might of rome can 
    easily overpower any of the other factions.
    
    Julii-This faction starts next to the Gauls, which are no match for your
    Roman armies. Most of the Gaul units are light infantry. Taking over the 
    Gaul cities quickly gives an early boost to your econonmy and overall 
    growth.
    
    Brutii-This is another easy Roman faction to play. You have the Greek 
    and Macedonian phalanxes to face against early in the game. If you
    play to the weaknesses of the phalanx, you will have no problem quickly
    growing your faction. A benifit of choosing the Brutii is the religius
    structures you can build which increase the experience of units trained
    in that city.
    
    Scipii-A somewhat challenging faction to play. You have to deal with 
    volcanic eruptions and your expansion is mainly south towards
    Carthage.
    
    Egyptians-they have good spearman and foot archers as well as chariots 
    which can come in handy. They are also very strong economically and 
    are usually near the top of the faction lists, a very easy nation to 
    play. Conquer the weak Seuclids to the north before they can build 
    a strong army with their superior variety of units. Don't trust anyone
    but keep a small army to protect your border to the west because 
    the neumidians may invade you. Once you start to win in the east 
    start attacking in the west. 
    
    Seleucids-The Seleucids have strong phalanxes and cavalry as well as 
    elephants. Their variety of units is their strength. If you can stop  
    the Egyptians to the South and work on conquering the Parthians to 
    the West, you have a chance of surviving with this challenging 
    faction.
    
    Carthage-This nation has a strong unit selection as well as elephants. 
    This factions strength is in its cavalry and its elephants. Use the 
    cavalry to surprise the enemy from different sides and destroy 
    the Roman legions with your elephants.
    
    Parthians-The Parthians have strong cavalry but weak infantry. Their
    best units are the mounted archers and the cataphracts, which are
    heavily armored cavalry. Use your mobility to your advantage
    in order to win battles.
    
    
    Gauls-The Gauls have strong close attack infantry but weak cavalry. They
    are surrounded by enemies with stronger units and have a tough time 
    growing. The Germans Britons and Julii are all on this factions borders.
    Pontus-light infantry, heavy cavalry, phalanx, and chariots
    
    
    Germans- The Germans have strong axmen but limited cavalry. Most of their
    territory is covered in forests so you must use these to your advantage. 
    Hide armies to ambush passing enemies so you gain a strong advantage in 
    battles.
    
    
    Greeks-The Greeks have hoplite phalanxes and missile units, but limited 
    cavalry. They posess one of the strongest units in the game, the 
    Spartians. The face the Macedonians to the north and the Roman Brutii
    to the west. Your first order of business should be dealing with the
    threat of the Macedonians who are right on your backs.
    
    
    Britons- A strong barbarian faction with strong infantry and 
    chariots. This is probably the strongest of the barbarian nations because
    of its units. This nation can overpower the other barbarian factions
    and will become a strong power later in the game if played intelligently.
    
    
    [3.2 Non Playable Factions]
    
    
    Macedonians-they have hoplites and pike phalanxes. They start out near the
    Greeks.
    
    Armenians-many different types of cavalry but weak infantry
    
    Dacians-many close combat infantry, but weak cavalry
    
    Numidian-light infantry and camel mounted specialists
    
    Scythians-strong cavalry, weak infantry
    
    Spanish-mix of barbarians and organized infantry
    
    Thracians-mix of hoplite phalanxes and barbarians, but limited cavalry
    
    
    -------------------------------------------
    4.0 Quick Battle
    ------------------------------------------
    
    	If you want to get straight into the action, from the single player 
    menu click quick battle, custom battle, or historical battle. In these modes 
    there is no campaign map only a single battle for you to practice your 
    tactics. When you begin either custom battle or quick battle, you will be 
    able to pick the starting amount of money and purchase the units you want 
    to test out on the field. When you are selecting units you can pick any units
    which are available for that faction. You can also choose to spend money to
    upgrade units experience and weapons. It is usually smart to give your units
    at least some experience so they dont flee from battle too early. Also dont 
    forget to recruit a general, this should help the morale of your troops.
    	In the historical battle, you will be given a 
    background story for the battle and will start as one of the factions.
    You can only play certain factions in the historical battles, but there
    should be mods coming out soon which will unlock the other factions.
    Some of these battles are very challenging on the harder modes and 
    can really test your tactics against larger numbers.
    
    
    -------------------------------------------
    5.0 Single Player Campaign
    -------------------------------------------
    
    
    
    [5.1 Overview]
    
    A. Starting a game
    
     	When you first start the game, you should go to single player and 
    click prologue to start a tutorial campaign as the Julli faction. Here you
     will learn all the basics of playing the game. Once you finish the tutorial 
    you can choose to continue or you can quit and start one of the three 
    imperial campaigns. The first time you play, I suggest you leave the advisors
    on, they help you understand many basic concepts about the game. At any time, 
    you can go to options and disable the advisor. The easiest faction to start
    out as in my opinion is the Julii, because their only enemy in the 
    beginning is the Gauls to the north which are easy prey for your strong Roman
    Army. As for the campaign difficulty, you should try medium campaign 
    difficulty and medium battle difficulty if you are fairly new to the Total
     War series. Otherwise put it on hard/hard if you want somewhat of a 
    challenge. I would not recommend very hard for beginners because everything 
    is stacked against you economically and militarily. Once you beat either 
    the short imperial campaign or the full imperial campaign, you will unlock 
    all the different playable factions. Another way to unlock playable factions 
    is to destroy them in campaign mode. You start the game as one of the three 
    Roman factions, the Julli, Brutii or Scipii. If you chose the full campaign, 
    your goal is to conquer Rome and own 50 provinces.
    
    B. Game modes
    
    	The game is presented in two modes, a campaign map and a battle map. 
    Most of your time will be spent in the campaign map, controlling your cities
    armies, fleet, and agents. This mode is represented as a world map where you
    see all your assets from an overhead perspective. Gameplay on the 
    campaign map is turn based. You must perform all the actions you want to 
    perform and are able to perform within one turn. You can perform actions
    with your armies, fleet, and agents as well as govern your cities as you see 
    fit. In this mode you can also perform diplomatic and family actions.
    
    C. Campaign Map
    
    	On the campaign map, you can only see locations where your armies or
    other units have sight range. Settlements are represented as cities with 
    banners representing the ruling faction. The amount which the banner is 
    filled with color represents the strength of the garrison of that city. 
    Cities which you own have a summary beneath the name with symbols giving
    you quick information. Put your mouse over these symbols to find out 
    what they mean. Armies are represented as soldiers with banners. Like 
    cities, the strength of the army is represented by how full the banner is
    with color. Armies with generals have stars representing their command
    ability. Use this to size up enemy armies before attacking. Fleets are 
    represented on the water as ships.
    
    D. Control Panel
    
    	The control panel on the bottom right shows information regarding
    the city or unit you have selected. The coins represent income, the face
    happiness, the  + sign population growth, the unit symbol represents training 
    of units, the tools represent construction, and the gears represent 
    auto-management. The minimap on the bottom gives and overview of the world. 
    You can get information by using the mouse and hovering over cities. You 
    will recieve messages and events on the left through small icons; make sure 
    you review these messages by left clicking them, you can remove them by right
    clicking on the icons. Once you have selected a unit you can also choose the
    next army, fleet, agent, or settlement by clicking the arrows next to its 
    name in the control panel.
    
    
    [5.2 Families]
    
    
    	Your faction starts out with a few family members. All your men 
    and your daughters can marry and have children. Make sure you try to
    choose suitors for your daughters who have high skills or your kids will not 
    be as skilled as you would like. All your generals and governors are family 
    members. The only ways to get family members is through birth, adoption, 
    marriage, and bribery. Each man in your family can build up his skills and 
    retinue according to what he does in his life. Retinues are assistants which 
    affect the family membersí skills. Commanders become stronger commanders with 
    every victory and governors become better leaders through governing. 
    
    	The stars next to commanders represent their command ability and the 
    scrolls next to governors represents their governing ability. Better commanders
    will win more victories and better governors will be able to keep the people 
    happier and get more taxes. Building academies will help governors gain skills 
    much faster, so make sure to build these when they are available. Another 
    thing to remember is that you can transfer retinue between family members
    when they are in the same city by dragging and dropping. Influence is also 
    an important skill that family members can gain. Inlfuence is represented
    by wreaths on the character profile. Cities are better controlled by leaders
    with higher influence and these leaders also attract more retainers. Always
    remember to transfer retinue to younger family members before old generals
    and governors die out. I find that 60 years old is a good time to transfer.
    
    	Your must also have a faction leader. You can determine the faction
    leader and the faction heir in the family tree window. The faction leader
    and heirs get a bonus in influence and mangement.
    
    	There appears to be another way to get family members: Promotion.
    Three times now (all post-Marius) I've sent a small Captain-lead army out to 
    clean up some rebel armies that were cluttering up my provinces.  After winning
    three or four fights in the same turn, a window popped up with the title 
    "Man of the hour".  Basically, my Captain had proven himself worthy on the 
    field of battle and had been promoted to Generalship with full Family rights.  
    It seems to be handled as a special case of adoption. -Chris Clark
    
    
    
    [5.3 Cities]
    
    A. Early growth
    
    	 You start out with a few cities under your control. Each city can be 
    assigned a governor who will make controlling the city much easier. When a 
    city doesnít have a governor or a lot of troops garrison it tends to have 
    riots or revolt, which results in many deaths. To keep publicorder, I 
    recommend training at least a couple of town guard. Peasants are another 
    option, but they wonít provide much assistance in the case of an attack and 
    they cost the same amount in upkeep. Early in the game, you need to grow your 
    population in order to build bigger and better buildings. One way is to reduce 
    taxes, which I donít recommend you do because you need money especially early
    in the game. The best way in my opinion is to enslave the populace of 
    conquered cities, this distributes most of the population of that settlement 
    into your cities which have a governor. Donít forget to build farms
    and other buildings which increase population growth.
    
    B. Money
    
    	To get money quickly, you will need to build roads and ports for 
    trade as well as mines early in the game. You can also stunt the growth of 
    other nations by blockading trade ports with ships and destroying trade 
    buildings with your assassins. If you need money desperately you can 
    exterminate the populace of cities you take over, which has the positive 
    side effect of reducing future revolts for a time. To have a growing 
    economy, you need to make sure you have trade agreements with as many 
    nations as possible. Make as many cities as you can financial powerhouses
    rather than military production cities, since you can always concentrate
    military production in a few cities. Keep on conquering cities because
    keeping an army costs money, a large size force can cost over 50k in 
    upkeep. Dont leave all your cities with auto recruit on, you may get a
    lot of units which you wouldnt want to use in your army.
    
    C. Revolts
    
    	Cities which are far away from your capital tend to revolt a lot, 
    this is because of cultural differences. You can fight this by placing strong 
    governors, holding gladiatorial games in the coliseum, by moving the capital
    closer, by garrisoning troops, or by building structures which
    increase happiness. Part of the game is dealing with an overextended empire. 
    Dont gett discouraged with the fact that your faction is so large that you
    cant micromanage every city.
    
    D. Temples
    
    	You can build temples which have different positive effects on your 
    city. Some temples increase happiness, while other temples such as those of 
    the Brutii allow you to train units which start with battle experience and
    the temples of the Scipii which increase weapon strength. Similar to temples
    are the wonders which you start out with or gain by capturing. These have
    various positive effects such as reducing the cost of religious buildings.
    
    E. Walls
    
    	Upgrading the walls of a city is important for cities which are 
    close to enemy territory. The strength of the cities walls determines how 
    long the enemy must lay siege before the city starves and surrenders. They 
    also provide protection when defending the city in an assault. Buildings
    can also be damaged in an attack, repair them using the building repair
    option in the settlement scroll.
    
    F. Forts and Watchtowers
    	
    	You can build forts to guard a strategic location where you can 
    garrison your units. However, a fort needs to have troops garrisoned or it 
    will fall into disrepair. Watchtowers are useful for extending your view
    past your cities and armies.
    
    
    
    [5.4 Armies]
    
    
    A. Creating Armies
    
    	Armies are what keep your faction strong and growing. When you create 
    an army you need to take a few things into consideration. The generals command 
    strength which is represented by stars in his profile represents how strong 
    the army will be led. This is probably the most important factor in 
    determining the strength of an army. You should mix up your units so you have 
    infantry, ranged attackers and cavalry. Try to focus unit production in a 
    few cities so you can build up those cities more quickly than the rest of 
    your cities to allow you to produce the best units. Make your other cities 
    focus on economic development. If your units start out with experience or
    upgraded weapons. they will be represented on the unit icons as chevrons for 
    experience and shield and weapon for weapon upgrades.
    
    B. Mercenaries
    
    	Good generals will be able to recruit mercenaries on the field to 
    add to his army. This is a good way to keep an assault into enemy territory 
    going without having to go back and get more troops. The downside is that 
    mercenaries are more expensive than standard troops. Mercenaries also cannot
    be retrained in your cities since your city does not usually train these
    types of units.
    
    C. Generals
    
    	Focus on training your generals to gain command stars. A very strong
    general can attack a similar army with a weak general and come out victorious
    with minimal losses. Generals near units raise the morale of these units and 
    they tend to perform better. You can use your diplomats to bribe enemy generals 
    into joining your army. This is expensive but is often worth the cost. Whenever 
    you face a battle, if you think you will be able to fight it manually, do so,
    because you can protect your general better than the AI. Also be wary of
    AI controlled armies helping you in a fight, donít let the AI take control
    of valuable generals. The bottom line is that you canít let your good 
    generals die, they are too valuable. Armies without generals are lead by
    captains, who are regular units who are given temporary command of an 
    army. Captains are not nearly as effective as Generals in leading an army
    but they sometimes rarely be promoted to Generals after a good battle.
    
    
    D. Gaining experience for armies
    
    	Armies gain experience as they fight battles. Their experience is
    represented as chevrons. The chevrons go from bronze, to sliver to gold, with
    each level having three ranks. A more experienced soldier has higher stats
    and is much less likely to flee from battle. Generals can also gain experience
    and command skills through battles and gain the most when they actually 
    participate in the fighting. When your experienced units grow thin, combine 
    them by dragging and dropping them. When you retrain a unit in a city, 
    the new soldiers introduced into the unit lower the average experience of 
    the unit. However,each soldier has its own experience level, it is not 
    determined by the by unit.
    
    E. Managing armies
    
    	Armies come in groups of 20 indivirual units grouped into a larger
    unit. Right click on the army or navy tab to bring up a list of all your 
    armies. From here, right click on a force to get more details. You can transfer
    units from one army to another by selecting an army and right clicking on
    another army, this will bring up an interface which lets you transfer
    armies.
    	When you attack another army on the campaign map, a Battle Deployment
    Scroll will come up which gives an overview of your armies and commanders. 
    If you are strongly outnumbered or face a strong general, consider regrouping
    and coming back with more reinforcements. You have the option of fighting 
    the battle yourself or letting the computer auto resolve the battle. I 
    reccommend that you fight the battle yourself whenever possible because the
    AI is unpredictable.
    
    
    
    [5.5 Battle]
    
    
    A. Formations
    
    	Itís pretty much common sense to come up with a good formation for
    your army but the basic idea in most situations is to have your infantry
    in front, ranged units behind, cavalry protecting the flanks and your general
    right behind the infantry.  Having the general next to your infantry boosts
     their morale. If you have larger numbers than the enemy, itís usually a good
    idea to spread your formation so you can surround the enemy. Here are the
    basic formations you can use once you group
     your units.
    
    
    	1.) Cavalry First Line: This sets your troops up in three lines:
    	    cavalry first, followed by infantry and then missile. This is 
    	    great when facing weak infantry. You can smash them down with
    	    your cavalry and finish them with your infantry.
    
    	2.) Column: The column formation places your troops into single-file
    	    lines, sorted by unit. This is best for defending narrow spaces
    	    such as in a city or on a bridge.
    
    	3.) Single Line: A single line formation stretches your units into a
    	    line without strategic positioning. This is good for quickly
    	    surrounding the enemy, or getting into a quick defensive position
    	    when you are caught off guard. The Sorted Single line is a better
    	    formation in most cases.
    
    	4.) Double Line: Similar to the single line formation, a double line
    	    simply draws your units into two parallel lines without
    	    strategically positioning any of them. This is also good for
    	    quickly surrounding the enemy, but the sorted double line does 
    	    a better job.
    
    	5.) Foot First 3 Line: Foot first formation places your heavy infantry
    	    in the first line, backed up by missile in the second line,
    	    and cavalry in the third. This is effective against cavalry
    	    charges but is vulnerable to skirmishers and archers.
    
    	6.) Missile First Line: Puts your missile troops at the front of the
    	    line, with non-missile infantry in the second line, and cavalry
    	    in the third line. This formation is good when the enemy is far 
    	    away. When the enemy closes in, pull your missle units behind
    	    your infantry to protect them.
    
    	7.) Sorted Single Line: Heavy infantry in the center, with light
    	    infantry and missile troops stretching out of the sides and avalry
    	    is placed at the ends. This formation is great for surrounding the
    	    enemy.
    
    	8.) Sorted Double line: A sorted double line is identical to a sorted
                single line, except your units are two rows deep instead of one.
    	    This works well for surrounding the enemy when you have superior
    	    numbers.
    
    
    B. Flanks and Rear
    
    	The flanks and rear of any army are its most vulnerable points.
    By placing cavalry on the side you can help protect your flanks. When facing
    an enemy, always try to attack its flanks or rear with your army, especially
    your cavalry. A cavalry charge to the rear can devastate any unit and lower
    its morale. When facing an army unit such as Greek hoplite phalanx, you must
    use the slow speed of the enemy to your advantage to flank the opponent. The
    Phalanx is particularly vulnerable anywhere except the front. One tactic that 
    seems to work is to slowly flank the enemy is to form your troops in a slight
    half circle so you can slowly surround your enemy. Never let your infantry
    become isolated, try to keep them in formation in a line so they dont feel
    like they are being surrounded.
    
    
    C. Morale
    
    	The morale of your troops is the most important aspect of a battle.
    If your troops are surrounded they will lose morale and try to escape in a
    rout. Try to prevent this and use this to your advantage by surrounding troops
    whenever possible. Showering arrows on the enemy army lowers its morale
    Also, launching a surprise attack on an unprotected side has the same 
    effect. Having enemy generals near your troops lowers their morale slightly, 
    this is also true of your general and enemy troops. Keep in mind that more 
    experienced troops have higher morale. New troops will most likely rout if 
    your general flees.
    
    	All units on the battlefield know who is winning the battle by
    observing their surroundings. If they see any unit or a general fleeing, 
    they are more likely to flee. Use this to your advantage; if you have
    a unit surrounded and they are routing, let them flee rather than let
    them fight their hardest to get out of their situation. Once other enemy 
    units have seen them, mow them down with your cavalry to show the other 
    army who is the boss.
    
    D. Unit strengths
    
    	Each of the different unit types is vulnerable to another type.
    Cavalry is vulnerable to frontal spear attacks. Light Infantry is 
    vulnerable to cavalry and Heavy infantry is also vulnerable to side 
    attacks from cavalry but is effective in hand to hand combat.  
    Artillery is good offensively against almost any unit but is extremely 
    weak defensively and dies quickly after a head on attack. 
    
    	Elephants are a great unit against infantry and lower the morale 
    of enemy troops. They can be supressed by a large number of ranged units 
    and scare tactics such as incendiary pigs. Your Elephants may also turn 
    and attack your own troops in which case you have the option of using 
    the special ability where your rider executes them.
    
    	Archers are very effective against light troops and mounted 
    archers are a good way to harass enemy troops. Always keep archers 
    them away from the infantry and cavalry. Put them behind your infantry
     when the enemy is close and protect them with your cavalrywhen necessary.
    If you have the opportunity to flank the enemy using archers,make sure 
    you take off skirmish mode and attack, you will catch the enemy
    off guard. When the enemy is far away put the archers in the front to 
    shoot arrows as the enemy approaches then bring them behind.
    
    
    
    E. Fatigue
    
    	Your units will slowly or quickly get fatigued based on their actions.
    Use this to your advantage by forcing attacking armies to march to you and by
    running only when necessary.
    
    F. Terrain
    
    	Use the terrain to your advantage. When fighting near or in a forest,
    lure the enemy and launch surprise attacks. Place one or two units out in the
    open while you hide the rest of your army in the forests. However, remember that
    archers perform poorly near trees. Also, remember that generals are not hidden
    in forests. When you are fighting on a map with a slope, try to control the 
    higher ground and avoid an uphill battle. Units move very slowly when marching
    uphill and attack much less effectively; the opposite is true downhill
     	If you have the option to wait out the battle and the weather doesnít suit 
    your army, wait until the weather changes. Some units are better suited to 
    certain weather condtions than others. Read unit descriptions to find out 
    more details about each units ideal figting conditions.
    	Some terrain such as mountains is impassible to your armies. Try to 
    find an alternate route. Certain choke points such as bridges are important
    strategic locations. Defending a bridge is much easier than defending on an
    open plain. You can also hide your whole army on the campaign map in a 
    wooded area to launch surprise attacks on an enemy army.
    
    
    G. After they flee
    
    	When the enemy starts to flee, continue the battle rather than end it
    so you can use your cavalry and attack dogs to run over the fleeing enemies.
    You can gain more experience for your units this way. Using your general's
    cavalry to run over routing units is a quick way to gain experience and 
    skills for the general.
    
    H. Attacking with multiple armies
    
    	Whenever possible, try to attack with multiple armies by surrounding
    the terrain around the enemy with your forces. When one of your armies is 
    adjacent, the AI is in control of the army and helps in the fight. Any 
    type of reinforcement usually helps win the battle but be wary of the AI 
    poorly managing your valuable Generals and armies.
    
    I. Special Abilities
    
    	These are special skills you can use by selecting the unit and 
    pressing F or clicking the special ability icon during a battle.
    	
    
    Catabrian Circle- This is a formation used by light, missle cavalry. Units
    using this ability gallop in a way that allows archers to reload while 
    archers in front fire, attacking in an organized manner rather than using
    single volleys. This is great for harassing the enemy and lowering his 
    morale.
    
    Flaming Arrows-Archers have this special ability which can light people and
    buildings on fire. Not much of a difference from regular arrows when the 
    overall kills are taken into account.
    
    Phalanx-Spearmen, hoplites, and pikemen can form a phalanx. A phalanx is a 
    strong line of infantry which is based on strength and formation. This 
    formation is strong but slow and vulnerable in the flanks and read.
    
    Rally-This is a special ability generals possess which allows them to try 
    and recall nearby fleeing troops back into the battle.
    
    Testudo-An intresting formation where Roman legionaries lock shields 
    to form an armored shell. The legionaries can then move towards the enemy
    without fear of missle fire. This is effective only against missle attacks,
    and doesnt fare well against melee attacks.
    
    Warcry-Use this ability to give your units a temporary boost to attack
    strength. Activate this when your units are right on top of the enemy.
    
    Wedge-Some types of cavalry can form a wedge which concentrates cavalry
    in the center of the formation resulting in a stronger split in the enemy
    when the formation charges.
    
    Chant-A barbarian ability which increases their own morale while lowering
    the enemies.
    
    Kill Elephant-the rider kills the elephant. Useful when an elephant loses
    control and starts attacking your own troops.
    
    
    
    
    [5.6 Navies]
    
    
    	Your navies play an important part in the game. Early in the game,
    you can use them to fulfill the many blockade missions which the senate will
    undoubtedly throw at you. Early in the game, I recommend that you build a 
    strong navy and attack the small enemy groups of ships you encounter to gain
    experience for your navy. Ships are also extremely useful for transporting
    troops. If you control the seas, you will have a big advantage over other 
    factions which must move troops slowly across land.
    
    
    
    [5.7 Agents]
    
    
    A. Spies
    	Spies are very useful in the game when used intelligently. Use spies
    as mobile watch towers to get warning for an attack before it happens. Put 
    spies in your army to increase its sight radius. Infiltrate enemy cities
    before you attack to get an idea of what is waiting for you so you can 
    prepare accordingly. Also, putting a spy in an enemy city gives a good chance
    that he will be able to open the city gates in the case of an attack.
    Even if you arent planning on attacking a city, putting a spy in it 
    lets you see what is going around in the surrounding areas without risking
    your diplomats. Spies always risk failing a mission and sometimes die in
    the course of a mission. Experienced spies are less likely to fail or die
    during a mission.
    
    
    
    B. Assassins
    
    
    	Use assassins to tip a war in your favor. When you first recruit an
    ssassin, have him kill diplomats and captains of armies to gain experience.
    A strong assassin has a good chance to weaken an army by killing medium ranked
    generals. You can also use him to sabotage buildings in other cities to slow
    down a faction's growth. Assassins, like spies can die during a mission, so
    make sure you train a few.
    
    
    C. Diplomats
    
    	Diplomats are essential to a successful campaign. Immediately after
     starting the game, send out diplomats to every corner of the map to form
    trade agreements with every faction you are not at war with. This will help
    jump start your economy once you have trade buildings. You should also use
    them to form alliance when necessary and bribe enemy generals to join your
    faction. During wartime, keep a couple around to bribe away armies to avoid
    a battle you donít want to fight. You should train diplomats by bribing
    small armies so later you will have diplomats with the negotiating skills
    to make tougher deals with generals and other nations. Diplomats are easy
    targets for assassins, so be cautious with your high level diplomats.
    
    
    
    [5.8  The Senate]
    
    	During the game you will have to deal with the senate. Starting 
    from the beginning, you will be assigned missions from the senate to help 
    guide your campaign. You can choose to follow or not follow these 
    missions. Performing these missions will gain you favor with the senate
    and will help you gain offices, money, and influence. I reccomend that
    you do these missions if they do not overextend your army or force you
    into attacking an enemy you are not prepared to attack. Sometimes these
    missions give you units or money as rewards, which can prove useful 
    early in the game. Another reward that is important is being assigned
    senate postions. Being assigned an office in the senate gives your 
    family members benefits which continue to show througout their entire 
    lifetime.
    	You can view the senates policy on a certain faction by going
    to the senate policy screen and clicking on a faction, this gives you an
    idea of how the senate wants you to treat that faction. On the senate
    floor tab you can view your popularity with the senate and the people. 
    You will need the support of the people to overthrow the senate late in
    the game.
    
    
    
    
    -------------------------------------------
    6.0 Multiplayer
    -------------------------------------------
    
    	If you have gamespy installed you can play online. The competition
    online is a lot tougher than the AI, you need to practice your tactics and
    unit choice. Playing a multiplayer game is much like playing a custom battle
    in single player mode. You can choose to play a historic battle or play a
    custom battle. In the same way as a single player custom battle, players
    choose their units and skills. The players can also choose which team they 
    are on by clicking on the roman numerals on the right of their name.
    
    -------------------------------------------
    7.0 Units
    -------------------------------------------
    Here is the unit information not included in the manual.
    
    [7.1 Roman Units (Julli, Brutii, Scipii, and Senate)]
    
    A. Roman Infantry
    
    
    Peasants 
    
    Peasants are reluctant warriors, but numbers are useful in all armies. 
    Forcing peasants to fight is one way of getting lots of men in the field 
    quickly and cheaply. They have little tactical sense, and even less 
    willingness to fight - they would rather be defending their own homes 
    than be dragged to a battle they neither care about nor understand. If 
    nothing else, they are useful when there's digging to be done! They are, 
    however, experts at reading the land and hiding whenever there is cover. 
    
    Town Watch
    
    The town watch are local workers and peasants given enough training to 
    defend their homes and keep order in the streets. They are no substitute 
    for fully trained Roman legionaries, but then they are not expected to 
    be more than a citizen militia with an interest in keeping the peace 
    (and possibly they might have some fire fighting duties). They do not 
    have much equipment, as the most they are expected to do is stand behind 
    their spears and shields, and then hold position when charged. By and 
    large, this they manage to do. 
    
    Archers
    
    Roman archers are supporting troops for heavier infantry, very much a
    secondary role in Roman warfare. They are missile troops almost 
    exclusively, as their lack of armour and poor hand weapons mean that 
    only a heartless or desperate commander would deliberately order them 
    to fight in hand-to-hand combat. Archery is not really a significant 
    part of the Roman way of warfare, but the need for some missile troops 
    is obvious to Roman commanders, and hence these archers are recruited 
    from among the peasant classes. 
    
    Archer Auxilia 
    
    Archer auxilia are supporting troops for the heavier legionary 
    infantry, an important secondary role in Roman warfare. They are not 
    expected to fight in hand-to-hand combat and are not given 
    the war gear to do so for long; their job is to provide supporting 
    fire and let the legionaries fight the main battle. Because the 
    Roman army is standardised around its heavy infantry legionaries 
    other types of troops are recruited as auxiliaries. Their training 
    is very nearly as vigorous as that of the legionaries and discipline 
    in auxilia units is certainly as harsh and uncompromising. 
    Historically, with the changes introduced by Gaius Marius professional 
    auxiliaries were recruited to serve alongside the now-professional 
    legionaries; a wholesale shake-up of the Roman military machine saw 
    the whole army being put on a full time, service-for-life footing, 
    with auxiliaries being rewarded with Roman citizenship at the end 
    of their military careers.
    
    Velites
    
    Velites are light skirmishing troops who screen the main battle 
    line of an early-pattern Legion as it advances. They are armed 
    with javelins and a stabbing sword, and carry a small round shield 
    but no other protection. It is their task to harass the enemy before 
    the main combat begins. Velites are recruited from younger citizens, 
    who lack the experience (or the money for their own gear) to fight 
    as hastati or other heavy infantry. Roman velites become obsolescent 
    after the Marius Reforms. Historically, Marius put the Roman army on 
    a professional footing, and abandoned all property and age 
    requirements in the process. Roman citizens would no longer go to 
    war as-and-when as a civic duty; they would fight in future as 
    full-time citizen- mercenaries in the Legions. 
    
    Hastati
    
    Hastati are among the younger men in an early Republican Legion, 
    and form the front line in any battle. They are supposed to wear 
    down an enemy and hold him before the next Roman battle line 
    attacks and carries on the fight. They are, as a result, capable 
    troops in their own right. They are armed with two pila that 
    are thrown at the enemy at close range before they close to fight 
    hand-to-hand. They are equipped with a sword, a bronze helmet, a 
    large shield and a breastplate. The pilum (plural, pila) is a cleverly 
    designed spear with a soft iron shaft behind the point; it bends on 
    impact so that it can't be thrown back and if it's stuck in someone 
    or something it is a real hindrance to movement. Historically, 
    hastati spent their own money on their equipment and often couldn't
     afford anything much better. This, along with the age and property 
    requirements, was why they fought as hastati. 
    
    Principes
    
    Principes are older, more reliable soldiers who have seen some 
    service. It is their task to be the second line of a legion and 
    carry on the fight once the hastati are spent. They are supposed to 
    carry on the 'wearing down' fight and exhaust the enemy. They are, as 
    a result, capable soldiers and unafraid of combat. They are armed 
    with two pila that are thrown at the enemy at close range before 
    they close to fight hand-to-hand. They are each equipped with a 
    sword, a bronze helmet, a large shield and chain armour. Historically, 
    principes spent their own money on their equipment and, being older, 
    were in a position to buy better gear than the young hastati. This, 
    along with the age and property requirements, was why they fought as 
    principes. 
    
    Triarii
    
    Triarii are tough heavy spearmen who make up the third and most 
    senior part of a Roman Legion before the military Reforms of Gaius 
    Marius. They carry a long "hoplite-style" spear (the hasta) 
    that is used to thrust, a long shield and a gladius. They are the 
    oldest veteran soldiers, and well armoured Ė hardly surprising, 
    given that they are also drawn from the richest section of society. 
    The triarii are the last available line in early-pattern Republican 
    Legions. "Going to the triarii" is a Roman saying meaning carrying 
    on to the bitter end, and if they are used it's a sign that the 
    moment of decision in a battle has arrived. Historically, triarii 
    spent their own money on their equipment and could afford to buy 
    the best of everything. 
    
    Light Auxilia
    
    Light auxilia are skirmishers who act as a screening force for 
    heavier troops. They also break up enemy formations with showers 
    of javelins that have a longer range than the iron-shafted heavy 
    pila carried by Roman legionaries. These auxilia do not wear armour 
    and so cannot be expected to last long in hand-to-hand combat but 
    they can fight if they must. Their training is very nearly as 
    vigorous as that of the legionaries so they do not tire easily, 
    and discipline in auxilia units is certainly as harsh and 
    uncompromising. 
    
    Auxilia
    
    Auxilia are highly disciplined and tough spearmen who provide 
    support to Roman legionaries in battle. They are defensive infantry, 
    expected to protect the flanks of the heavier legionaries from 
    cavalry and similar threats; their training is at least as harsh 
    as that of the legionaries and produces men with a similar level 
    of discipline and hardiness. These troops need to keep up with 
    other Roman forces, and so cannot be allowed to tire easily. They 
    are recruited from among non-Romans within the Empire, and this is 
    easy because Roman citizenship is far from being universal. 
    Historically, Roman commanders made sure that auxilia were always 
    stationed far away from home so that there was no temptation to 
    acts of rebellion. The changes introduced by Gaius Marius meant 
    that professional auxiliaries were recruited to serve alongside 
    the now-professional legionaries; a wholesale shake-up of the 
    Roman military machine saw the whole army being put on a full 
    time, service-for-life footing, with auxiliaries being rewarded 
    with Roman citizenship at the end of their military careers. 
    
    Early Legionaries
    
    Roman legionaries are tough, professional troops with good armour 
    and superb weapons. Their hallmarks are discipline, obedience and 
    tactical flexibility. When approaching enemy fortifications, for 
    example, they can use the turtle formation, or testudo, overlapping 
    their shields for protection. Every legionary's chainmail armour, 
    the lorica hamata, is of very good quality, as is the rest of his 
    gear: a metal helmet and a large curved shield. They fight with 
    two throwing spears (the pilum, plural pila) and a short stabbing 
    sword, the gladius. Each pilum has a soft iron shaft behind the 
    piercing head that is designed to bend as soon as it hits a target, 
    making it impossible to pull out and throw back. Embedded in a 
    shield a pilum hampers an enemy. Embedded in a man, it usually 
    kills. Once the pila have been thrown, legionaries close and continue 
    fighting with the stabbing gladius.   Historically, these legionaries
    only came to be after the army reforms of Gaius Marius. He abandoned
    property and age requirements for the legions, and made the Roman army
    into a professional force. No longer would a man have to provide his
    own war gear; he would be paid, serve a term of 25 years and then 
    retire with enough land to give him a pension for the remainder of his 
    days. 
    
    Early First Cohort Legionaries
    
    The Roman first cohort consist of well-armed and armoured infantrymen,
    who go into combat carrying the symbol of Roman power, a Legionary 
    Eagle. This is inspirational for other Roman troops. Legionaries are 
    tough, professional troops with good armour and superb weapons. 
    Their hallmarks are discipline, obedience and tactical flexibility. 
    When approaching enemy fortifications, for example, they can use the 
    turtle formation, or testudo, overlapping their shields for protection. 
    Every legionary's chainmail armour, the lorica hamata, is of very good 
    quality, as is the rest of his gear: a metal helmet and a large curved 
    shield. They fight with two throwing spears (the pilum, plural pila) 
    and a short stabbing sword, the gladius. Each pilum has a soft iron 
    shaft behind the piercing head that is designed to bend as soon as it 
    hits a target, making it impossible to pull out and throw back. 
    Embedded in a shield a pilum hampers an enemy. Embedded in a man, 
    it usually kills. Once the pila have been thrown, the first cohort 
    close and continue fighting with the stabbing gladius. Historically, 
    these cohorts came to be after the army reforms of Gaius Marius. He 
    made the Roman army into a professional force. Men served a term of 
    25 years and then retired with enough land to give them pensions 
    for the remainder of their days. The best legionaries in each legion 
    would naturally gravitate through seniority into the first cohort. 
    
    Legionaries
    
    Roman legionaries are tough, professional troops with good armour 
    and superb weapons. Their hallmarks are discipline, obedience and 
    tactical flexibility. When approaching enemy fortifications, for 
    example, they can use the turtle formation, or testudo, overlapping 
    their shields for protection. Every legionary's flexible banded armour, 
    the lorica segmenta, is of very good quality, as is the rest of 
    his gear: a metal helmet and a large curved shield. They fight with 
    two throwing spears (the pilum, plural pila) and a short stabbing 
    sword, the gladius. Each pilum has a soft iron shaft behind the 
    piercing head that is designed to bend as soon as it hits a target, 
    making it impossible to pull out and throw back. Embedded in a shield 
    a pilum hampers an enemy. Embedded in a man, it usually kills. Once the 
    pila have been thrown, legionaries close and continue fighting with the
    stabbing gladius. The lorica segmenta armour was adopted because it 
    was cheaper to make and offered more protection as the earlier chainmail. 
    
    First Cohort Legionaries
    
    The Roman first cohort consists of well-armed and armoured infantrymen,
    who go into combat carrying the symbol of Roman power, a Legionary 
    Eagle. This is inspirational for other Roman troops. Legionaries are
    tough, professional troops with good armour and superb weapons. Their 
    hallmarks are discipline, obedience and tactical flexibility. When 
    approaching enemy fortifications, for example, they can use the turtle 
    formation, or testudo, overlapping their shields for protection. Every 
    legionary's banded metal armour, the lorica segmenta, is of very good 
    quality, as is the rest of his gear: a metal helmet and a large curved 
    shield. They fight with two throwing spears (the pilum, plural pila) 
    and a short stabbing sword, the gladius. Each pilum has a soft iron 
    shaft behind the piercing head that is designed to bend as soon as it 
    hits a target, making it impossible to pull out and throw back. Embedded 
    in a shield a pilum hampers an enemy. Embedded in a man, it usually kills. 
    Once the pila have been thrown, the first cohort close and continue 
    fighting with the stabbing gladius. Historically, the lorica segmenta 
    was slightly easier and cheaper to manufacture than chainmail, an 
    important consideration when Rome had so many troops in the field. 
    
    Praetorian Cohort Legionaries
    
    A Praetorian cohort is made up of elite Legionaries, recruited because
    of their superb soldiering skills and political loyalties. A general can
    rely on this unit. Praetorian training is, as might be expected, both 
    demanding and incredibly thorough. These men are some of the best, 
    toughest, most unflinching soldiers in Rome, and they know it! Their 
    equipment is much the same as other legionaries, but better made. Every 
    praetorian wears banded armour, the lorica segmenta, a metal helmet 
    and carries a large curved shield. They fight with two heavy throwing 
    spears (the pilum, plural pila) and a short stabbing sword, the gladius. 
    Each pilum has a soft iron shaft behind the piercing head that is 
    designed to bend as soon as it hits a target, making it impossible to 
    pull out and throw back. Once the pila have been thrown, praetorians 
    close and continue fighting with the stabbing gladius. They can also 
    use the testudo, or tortoise, to protect themselves from missiles. 
    Historically, the original praetorians were the 'bravest of the brave' 
    chosen to guard the praetorium - the tent of the legate of the legion 
    when in the field. These men came to act as bodyguards for all important 
    generals, before being made into specific formations that were considered 
    useful in politics as well as war. It was Augustus who established the 
    Praetorian Guard as both a bodyguard and for useful intimidation in Rome. 
    It was under the later Emperors that the Praetorians developed a taste 
    for conspiracy and murder. 
    
    Urban Cohort
    
    An urban cohort is made up of elite legionaries, recruited because of 
    their superb soldiering skills and loyalty. These are heavy infantry 
    who, when not performing garrison duties in the vital cities of the 
    empire, fight as heavy infantry - the men who do the real work in a 
    Roman army! Training for any man in an urban cohort is demanding and 
    produces incredibly tough men. The results are the best, toughest, most 
    unflinching soldiers in the Roman world, men who will stop at little to 
    achieve their goals. The urban cohorts are equipped with the same gear 
    as legionaries - it is the men inside the uniform that make them 
    effective - and wear banded armour, the lorica segmenta, metal helmets
    and carry large shields. They fight with two pila (singular, pilum), 
    throwing spears with soft iron shafts that are designed to bend as soon 
    as they hit making them impossible to fling back. They also carry short 
    stabbing swords for close work. Historically, the urban cohorts were a 
    police force for Rome established by Augustus, and were commanded to 
    keep order. Although outnumbered, they were a counterbalance of sorts
    to the power of the Praetorian Guards within the city. Life in 
    the urban cohorts was better than in the 'line' legions, as pay and 
    service conditions were better. Other urban cohorts were established 
    in the larger cities of the Empire in later years, and the prefect in 
    charge of the cohorts often became an important political figure. 
    
    Velite Gladiator
    
    Velite gladiators are more than mere light infantrymen - they are superb
    individual fighters, unmatched by any ordinary warriors. They fight 
    wearing little armour - their lot in life isn't always to live through 
    a fight, but to die in an entertaining manner. The style of the velite is 
    one that uses only a spear and shield combination, relying on natural 
    agility to avoid injury and death. Gladiators are used in battle as a 
    specialised elite, one that cares little for personal safety - the only 
    way to attain freedom is through victory! Gladiators, after all, are 
    part of the damnati: the disgraced, the condemned, and the untouchables 
    in society. There is nowhere else for them to go. 
    
    Samnite Gladiator
    
    Samnite gladiators are more than just soldiers. They are superb individual 
    fighters, unmatched by any ordinary warriors. They fight wearing little 
    armour - their lot in life isn't necessarily to live, but to die in an 
    entertaining manner. Samnites would normally fight as one half of a matched 
    pair, but on a battlefield they form a unit all of their own. They are a 
    specialised elite, one that cares little for personal safety as the only 
    way to attain any reward is through victory! Gladiators, after all, are 
    part of the damnati: the disgraced, the condemned, the untouchables in 
    society. There is nowhere else for them to go in the search for freedom. 
    
    Mirmillo Gladiator
    
    Mirmillo gladiators are superb individual fighters, unmatched by any
    ordinary soldiers. They wear apparently impractical armour, but then 
    it is designed to stop a quick kill in the arena, not necessarily keep them
     alive in a battle. They would normally fight singly as half of a matched 
    pair, against another style of fighter, but on a battlefield they form a
    unit all of their own. They care little for personal safety as they are 
    part of the damnati: the disgraced, the condemned, the untouchables in
    society. They fight; they win; they may gain freedom... eventually.
    
    Roman Arcani 
    
    They are a shadowy part of the Roman army organised in small groups and
    competent in camouflage and deception. The arcani exist almost as a secret
    society whose very name should not be spoken. The armour they wear is
    finely crafted so that while it offers great protection, it will not
    slow or tire the fantastically fit arcani troops. Their face masks mean
    opposing troops may even flee in terror when surprised by a group of these
    blood-thirsty killers! 
    
    
    B. Roman Cavalry
    
    
    Equites
    
    Equites are light cavalrymen armed with spears. In the Roman system of
    war, they are intended to drive off skirmishers and pursue fleeing enemies.
    The word equites means 'horsemen', and they are recruited from among the
    well-off sections of society. They wear little armour and only carry spears
    and shields. As a result, they can charge enemies, but may be cut to pieces
    by a prepared defensive line of spearmen if these were attacked head on.
    Instead, they should be used against the flanks or rear of units, or to
    keep missile troops and skirmishers away from the main Roman heavy
    infantry (who are the real killers of a Roman army). Historically, equites
    were drawn from the equestrian classes - literally the rich people who
    could afford to own horses - and they spent their own money on both horse
    and war gear. 
    
    Cavalry Auxilia
    
    Cavalry auxilia are javelin-armed mounted skirmishers who strike quickly
    and retire with equal and prudent haste. They do not wear armour, but do
    carry shields and swords so that they can fight in their own defence
    should the need arise. They are, however, best used to harass a mass of
    enemy units such as heavy infantry. Such targets cannot hope to catch
    them! They are not ideally suited to fighting other skirmishers, as many
    of their javelins will be wasted against targets that can dodge, but they
    can be very useful in harrying fleeing enemies and driving them from 
    the field. 
    
    Roman Cavalry
    
    Roman cavalry are auxiliary spear-armed medium cavalry who have a
    screening role in a Roman army. They should be used against the flanks or
     rear of units, or to keep missile troops and skirmishers away from the
    main Roman heavy infantry (who are the real killers of a Roman army). 
    They wear little armour and only carry spears and shields. As a result, 
    they can charge enemies, but may be cut to pieces by a prepared defensive
    line of spearmen if these were attacked head on. Historically, Roman 
    cavalry only came into existence after the army reforms of Gaius Marius 
    as a replacement force for the equites. The property qualifications 
    for fighting as cavalry in the army were abandoned and the army made 
    professional. They were organised into 'wings' called alae rather 
    than cohorts. 
    
    Legionary Cavalry
    
    Legionary cavalry are a heavy force of spear-armed cavalry who charge
    home using shock and mass to achieve victory. They are tough, disciplined
    riders - a notable advantage compared to many cavalry units who are
    composed of headstrong and impetuous 'nobility'. They are probably 
    wasted when used to ride down skirmishers and missile troops, but they 
    have the power to be able to smash heavier infantry formations apart, 
    and severely disrupt other cavalry. They must, however, take care when 
    attacking prepared spearmen, and should certainly avoid a frontal charge
    in this case whenever possible. They wear good armour and carry shields;
    their weapons are the spear (lancea) and long sword (spatha), both of 
    which are deadly in the hands of an expert. Historically, Rome's best
    cavalry forces were organised into wings (or alae, singular ala) rather 
    than cohorts, and recruited from among horse-culture minorities within
    Rome's borders. Generally, this meant that cavalry were predominantly 
    non-Italian, the opposite of the legionaries' composition. Romans had 
    developed the art of fighting as infantry, and relied on others to 
    provide what they considered to be the supporting arms such as cavalry. 
    
    Praetorian Cavalry
    
    Praetorian cavalry are an elite within the elite: dedicated bodyguards
    who serve as heavy cavalry. Praetorian training is, as might be expected, 
    demanding and thorough. These men are some of the best, toughest, most 
    unflinching soldiers in Rome - and good cavalrymen to boot! As heavy 
    cavalry, it is their task to smash enemy formations and drive them from
    the field, fighting with their cavalry-pattern swords (longer than the 
    original legionary gladius) once close combat is joined. Historically, 
    the original praetorians were men chosen to guard the tent (the praetorium) 
    of the legion's legate. These men came to act as bodyguards for all 
    important generals, and then became an elite quite separate from the 
    originating legions. It was under the Emperors that the Praetorians 
    developed a taste for conspiracy and murder, eventually even auctioning 
    the Empire to the highest bidder! 
    
    
    
    C. Roman Siege and Others
    
    
    
    Incendiary Pigs
    
    Incendiary pigs are 'one shot' weapons intended to spread panic and
    terror amongst enemies, particularly mounted troops. The pigs are coated 
    in pitch, tar and oil, and herded towards the enemy. At the right moment, 
    the pigs are ignited by their handlers and, not unnaturally, they run 
    away in pain and terror - hopefully towards the enemy. Apart from goring 
    anyone foolish enough to get in their way, the pigs are tremendously 
    disruptive to formations. They are also very frightening for elephants 
    in particular, and this is their main use in warfare. Pigs can only be 
    fired up once during a battle, and few survive for long. 
    
    Wardogs
    
    Wardogs are bred for a savage nature and great size, but then hunting 
    men is only a little more dangerous than hunting wild boar! The beasts 
    are muscular and powerful. Originally bred for hunting large prey, they 
    are now trained to hunt and attack men. Wardogs are usually unleashed 
    on an enemy to break a line and unnerve opponents. Few men are able to 
    stand steadily in the face of a snarling and partially-starved beast. 
    The dogs are trained to bite and hold on, dragging down their human 
    targets, and hamstringing horses. Their handlers are brave, hardy and 
    not easily intimidated: many have fingers, hands or even chunks of 
    limbs missing! 
    
    Ballista
    
    A Ballista is a sinew-powered weapon that looks like an enormous crossbow. 
    It has tremendous range and can skewer files of men with a single bolt!
    While a Ballista might look like a huge crossbow, its working principles
    are rather different. The two arms are pushed through ropes made of tough 
    animal sinew. This naturally elastic material is then twisted, and becomes
    a hugely powerful spring, pulling each arm forwards. The arms are pulled back, 
    creating even more tension, the Ballista is loaded with a missile, and then 
    this is shot at the enemy with considerable force. Providing care is taken 
    to make sure that the two sinew bundles are under the same tension, the 
    Ballista is a very accurate weapon, but because sinew is sensitive to damp
     a Ballista does not work well in wet weather. 
    
    Scorpion
    
    A Roman scorpion is a sinew-powered weapon that looks like a large bow
    layed sideways on a frame. It has a tremendous range and can skewer a man
    with a single shot! While a scorpion might look like a huge bow, its 
    working principles are rather different. The two arms are pushed through 
    ropes made of tough animal sinew which is then twisted, becoming a hugely
    powerful spring, pulling each arm forwards. The arms are pulled back, 
    creating even more tension, the scorpion is loaded with a missile, and
    then this is shot at the enemy with considerable force and accuracy. 
    Providing care is taken to make sure that the two sinew bundles are under 
    the same tension, the scorpion is a very accurate weapon, but because 
    sinew is sensitive to damp a scorpion may not work properly in wet weather. 
    
    Onager
    
    The onager is a catapult jokingly named for the tremendous kick it has
    when fired at the enemy (an "onager" is a wild ass). This war machine is
    powered by a twisted spring of animal sinew ropes, the most elastic 
    substance available. The throwing arm is held in tension by the sinews.
    When pulled back and held by a catch it can fling a boulder with 
    considerable speed and range. This version can be used for reducing stone
    fortifications, but it can also be used on the battlefield for destroying
    enemy artillery and harassing troops (although admittedly by killing 
    some of them outright). The onager can also be used to launch incendiary
    missiles such as firepots, making it a versatile piece of artillery to 
    any commander. 
    
    Heavy Onager
    
    The heavy onager is an enormous catapult built using the same basic
    design as its sibling and capable of smashing down stone fortifications.
    It is powered by a twisted bundle of animal sinew ropes, and is slow
    to wind back and reload. Its missiles are devastating, and it can also
    fire incendiary firepots. Range is no more than the smaller onager and
    this makes the heavy onager susceptible to counter fire. Often, it is
    best employed alongside smaller artillery to deal with enemy fire. 
    
    Repeating Ballista
    
    The repeating ballista is a semi-automatic artillery weapon. As long
    as it is loaded with bolts and cranked it will keep firing. The basic
    design is similar to a ballista: twisted animal sinew ropes provide
    the power. There is an ingenious winding mechanism that draws back
    the arms, drops a bolt into place and then releases a catch - and
    all this happens repeatedly as long as a windlass is turned.
    This makes it a perfect weapon for creating a 'beaten zone' or
    targeting large enemy formations, when speed of fire is more
    important than pinpoint accuracy.
    
     
    
    
    
    [7.2 Briton]
    
    A. Briton Infantry 
    
    Peasants 
    
    Peasants are reluctant warriors, but barbarian peasants are better
    fighters than most: hard lives produce hard men. Numbers are useful
    in all armies, and forcing peasants to fight is one way of getting
    lots of men in the field quickly and cheaply. They have little
    tactical sense, and even less willingness to fight - they would
    rather be defending their own homes than be dragged to a battle
    they neither care about nor understand. They are, however, experts
    at reading the land and hiding when there is cover. 
    
    Slingers 
    A sling is a deceptively simple weapon: a slinger can bring down
    the strongest man with a single shot. These slingers can send a
    hail of bullets towards the enemy, and target their shots for
    maximum damage. After all, they will have been hunting with
    slings since boyhood. Slingers should not be allowed to get
    into melee combat, as their lack of armour and their relative
    lack of equipment - just a knife or short sword and a shield
    - will soon lead to them being cut to pieces. Used to kill
    enemies from a distance, they are superb missile warriors. 
    
    Head Hurlers 
    In battle, head hurlers throw the heads of fallen foes coated
    with quicklime. These missiles are both dangerous and loathsome.
    Head hurlers combine the practical and the macabre in equal
    measure - they collect the heads of fallen enemies and preserve
    these by dipping them in quicklime. The limed heads are used
    as disgusting missiles in battle, flung into enemy ranks at
    surprisingly long range. As missiles the heads are heavy
    enough to cause injuries (and have an undoubted impact on morale)
    but it is the lime that really does the damage, causing nasty burns.
    Head Hurlers also carry swords for use in close combat should this
    be necessary.Head hurlers, however, alsoshow little regard for their
    own danger and are not above rushing into combat without orders. 
    
    Warband 
    Warbands are bound to the service of a strongman or petty village
    head. They are the basic 'unit' to be found in many barbarian
    armies. They fight well, as glory and loot are the road to status,
    but are often difficult to control. They care little for discipline
    and less for restraint, but they can be relied on to fight, and fight
    hard. In warfare it is up to each man to prove his own bravery and
    worth, so the savage charge into the enemy is about as sophisticated
    as they ever want to be! Each man carries a stabbing spear and a
    large shield. 
    
    Swordsmen 
    Swordsmen are steadfast and aggressive warriors, the 'infantry of the
    line' for barbarian warlords. They are not very disciplined at times,
    as their sense of honour and bravery can make them eager to get into any
    fray, but they are uniformly superb swordsmen. They are equipped with
    good swords and large shields. Every warlord worth the name makes sure
    he has a couple of warbands of these hard men under his command. 
    
    
    Chosen Swordsmen 
    Chosen swordsmen are the best fighting individuals in their tribe, and 
    armed with the finest swords available. While superbly skilled and extremely
     tough, they are not naturally inclined to fight as a group. Personal 
    glory and the need to be first amongst the enemy ensure that they are 
    headstrong and ill-disciplined. They are, however, very well equipped 
    with the finest swords that the smiths can make, along with chainmail 
    armour and large shields. They are an intimidating sight for any enemy. 
    
    Woad Warriors 
    Religion and magic are powerful reasons for bravery. Woad warriors are 
    brave fighters - and mad. They disdain armour and most clothing, 
    preferring to paint themselves with intricate and stylised magical 
    designs in woad (a blue dye) to deflect enemy blows and missiles. 
    The patterns created can be elaborate and almost inhuman, and are 
    supposed to be unnerving for enemies unused to such practices. Belief 
    in magic also armours the woad warriors against fear, and makes them 
    savage, dangerous and not-quite-controllable fighters. Woad warriors 
    carry only blades and shields but it is a foolish commander indeed 
    who underestimates their impact in battle! 
    
    Druids 
    Druids are spiritual leaders with practical fighting skills who instill
    confidence in nearby friendly warriors. They have a religious zeal that
    gives them great courage and their mere presence fills nearby believers
    with confidence. Positioned just behind the battle line druids can also
    form a powerful reserve, ready to join the fray at a crucial moment.
    Equipped with sickle-shaped swords and small shields, the mail-clad 
    druids are excellent fighters. Their good war gear is a reflection of 
    their status as teachers, judges, soothsayers and the focal point of 
    religion and magic among their people. As Celtic cultures lack a 
    written form, they are also the memory of the tribe as well, remembering
    all the important facts of tribal history. Historically, the Romans 
    despised and then targeted these men because they practiced particularly
    savage forms of human sacrifice and because of their cultural importance.
    When a tribe's history was wiped out, it became a little easier to bend
    the people to the will of Rome . 
    
    
    
    B. Briton Cavalry 
    
    
    
    Light Chariots 
    
    Light chariots are very fast, very noisy and, when used in large numbers,
    quite intimidating. They combine the swiftness of cavalry with the 
    'staying power' of infantry. The drivers concentrate on ontrolling 
    the chariots, while their passengers fire arrow after arrow into the 
    target. They can also simply charge into an enemy, perform the same 
    scouting duties as cavalry, harass enemies with missiles and may even 
    be worth sacrificing to break a previously unyielding enemy line. They 
    can also be very effective in pursuing fleeing foes. 
    
    Heavy Chariots 
    Heavy chariots are an elite in British armies ridden into battle by
    tribal nobles. They are shock troops, relying on speed and shock to 
    break enemy formations. Every man carries a fine sword, and is equipped 
    with a good mail coat and a shield, while his chariot is pulled by two 
    horses. They perform the same function as heavy cavalry, charging home 
    to cause casualties before wheeling away to launch a fresh attack. Any 
    infantry foolish enough to stand in the way are ridden down, hacked to 
    pieces by the rider! However, like many barbarians they can sometimes 
    let greed for personal honour and glory lead them into attacking without 
    orders. 
    
    Briton Warlords 
    Chariots are a pinnacle of Celtic technology and an effective machine 
    of war. So it's no surprise to see tribal leaders driving them into 
    battle accompanied by groups of bodyguards. It is important that a 
    warlord has a group of hardened warriors around him to go into the 
    thick of battle to prove that he is not only a great leader but also 
    a great warrior. Barbarian warlords hold their positions of trust and 
    command not just through their tactical skill but because they are 
    personally brave and resolute. No warrior willingly follows a coward, 
    and no coward has the right to ask his brothers-in-arms to throw their 
    lives away. 
    
    
    
    [7.3 Carthage]
    
    A. Carthaginian Infantry
    
    
    Peasants 
    
    Peasants are reluctant warriors, but numbers are useful in all armies.
    Forcing peasants to fight is one way of getting lots of men in the field
    quickly and cheaply. They have little tactical sense, and even less 
    willingness to fight - they would rather be defending their own homes 
    rather than be dragged to a battle they neither care about nor understand.
    But if nothing else, they are useful when there's digging to be done! They
    are, however, experts at reading the land and hiding whenever there is cover. 
    
    Skirmishers 
    
    Skirmishers rush forward to pepper an enemy with javelins, and then withdraw
    in good order before a counter-attack can be organised. They are light 
    infantry, equipped with small throwing javelins, a falcata sword, and a 
    small shield resembling the Greek pelte-pattern shield. When the opportunity
    presents itself, they are traditionally recruited from among the Ibero-Celts.
     Regardless of where they are recruited, they are skilful practitioners
    of the skirmishing arts, and very adept at springing tactical ambushes. They
    are not intended to hold a position in a battle line, but to harass and disrupt
    the enemy. 
    
    Slingers 
    
    Slingers are highly skilled missile troops but are at a huge disadvantage
     in hand-to-hand combat, especially against cavalry. They can maintain a 
    sustained and concentrated barrage on enemies and then fall back rapidly 
    to avoid hand-to-hand combat. Slingers carry a shoulder bag with many 
    pieces of lead shot (they can also use stones picked up on the battlefield) 
    and several spare slings including slings of different length for greater 
    or lesser range. Other than a knife and a small shield, they carry no other 
    equipment. 
    
    Town Militia 
    
    Town militia are trained bands of citizens dragged from their homes and 
    shops, given a spear each and some rudimentary training before they are 
    thrown into battle. Their war gear is literally no more than a cheap 
    shield and a spear, so they are defensive troops best used against light 
    cavalry. They should not be expected to stand unsupported against an 
    enemy, and until they have been seasoned by surviving a battle or two 
    they shouldn't be expected to do much more than defend themselves! 
    They are, however, cost effective to raise. 
    
    Iberian Infantry 
    Iberian infantry are fast moving close combat infantry. They may not 
    be the best trained troops, but they are cost effective warriors. 
    They are one of the basic units available to generals in the 
    Carthaginian-influenced world. Every Iberian infantryman carries a 
    shield in addition to his short sword, but his only other protection 
    is a helmet; he relies on speed and agility instead of armour. They 
    are best employed against enemy spearmen and, like other infantry, 
    can be vulnerable to cavalry attacks. 
    
    Libyan Spearmen 
    Libyan spearmen are best when defending against cavalry, but can hold 
    a battle line for a while when required. They are recruited from among 
    the lower orders of Carthaginian society, and given basic training in 
    how to handle their spears and war gear. They are better equipped than, 
    say, militia, as they have light leather armour as well as shields and 
    helmets. Their training also makes them effective in battle, as they are 
    unlikely to cut and run in the same way as a militia unit. 
    
    Bull Warriors 
    
    Among the doughty folk of the Spanish hills the bull warriors are men 
    whose bravery, stamina and skill is unmatched. These elite fighters are 
    shock troops who disregard all danger when cutting their enemies to 
    pieces. Carrying only a sword and shield they do not look much of a 
    threat, a mistaken assessment that enemies rarely get to make twice! 
    This is particularly  true of they manage to ambush enemy forces. 
    They fear no men and their over-eagerness to join a battle can be 
    problematic, but like all foot soldiers, they need to be wary of 
    cavalry. Bull warriors derive their name from the distinctive horned 
    helmets which they wear. 
    
    Sacred Band Infantry 
    
    The Sacred Band is the elite infantry of any Carthaginian army and can 
    be relied upon to do their duty to the end. They are equipped and organised 
    in the same fashion as Greek hoplites, with long spears, large shields, 
    breastplates and helmets, and they can use phalanx tactics. This is a 
    style of warmaking that has proved its worth over the centuries. They 
    are drawn from the social elite of Carthage , men of noble and wealthy 
    birth and their loyalty is exemplary. The original purpose of the Sacred 
    Band was to act as an officer corps for the Carthaginian army 
    and an elite force, and to put Carthage above any local loyalties. 
    Opponents have learned that these men are formidable in battle, a 
    linchpin for the entire Carthaginian army! 
    
    Poeni Infantry 
    
    These heavy spear infantry are drawn from the self-reliant Carthaginian 
    citizenry, and make superior soldiers. Poeni infantry are heavy spearmen, 
    armed with heavy thrusting spears and swords. They are well armoured in 
    chainmail, carry large shields, and are some of the best troops to use 
    as an 'anchor' for a battle line. They can hold off cavalry attacks and 
    fight against other infantry when required. 
    
    Archers 
    Archers are rightly feared for the casualties they can inflict, but 
    they are vulnerable in hand-to-hand combat. They are drawn from the 
    peasant classes of all societies, as these are the people who need 
    to be skilled hunters in order to survive. Learning to use a bow well 
    is something that takes a lifetime and constant practice, and putting 
    food on the table provides good practice. They are best used to weaken 
    enemy formations, or placed in a spot where they can retreat and find 
    protection from other troops.
    
    Numidian Javelinmen 
    
    Numidian javelinmen are fast moving skirmishers trained from infancy 
    in the use of the javelin for hunting. They are recruited from amongst
    nomadic peoples who need their weapon skills to survive in harsh 
    conditions. They are best employed to harry enemies and thin their 
    ranks with volleys of missiles. They should avoid being sucked into 
    hand-to-hand combat, as their knives are more useful in skinning 
    animals than killing men; also, other than a small shield they have 
    no armour. Historically, Numidian justice was extremely harsh on 
    deserters and cowards: crucifixion was a common punishment. 
    
    Desert Infantry 
    
    These hardy folk from the fringes of the Sahara make 
    excellent spearmen, well suited to defending against 
    cavalry. They are tough troops used to eking out an 
    existence in the unforgiving desert periphery. The prospect 
    of a punishing march across great distances to these robust 
    people is almost as familiar to them as the passing of each 
    day. Equipped with spears and large shields of wood and 
    animal hide, battle holds few fears for these people - life 
    in a desert gives people a certain fatalism. They are some 
    of the best fighters available to Numidian commanders, but 
    their lack of formal training is a slight weakness. 
    
    Numidian Legionaries 
    
    Numidian Legionaries are local copies of Roman Legionaries, 
    but lack the truly awesome discipline of the originals. 
    They have had training from Roman advisors, and this makes 
    them the best trained of all Numidian soldiery. They cannot, 
    however, use tactics like the tortoise (or testudo) when 
    approaching enemy formations, but they do fight in the same 
    fashion as the original Legionaries, first throwing heavy 
    spears (pila) at the enemy and then closing for hand-to-
    hand combat. A combination of rugged upbringing and harsh 
    training makes them reliable and slow to tire in combat: a 
    Numidian force can be sure that these men will do their 
    duty. 
    
    
    
    B. Carthaginian Cavalry 
    
      
    Round Shield Cavalry 
    
    Round shield cavalry are medium cavalrymen who are best 
    used to ride down skirmishers and pursue fleeing enemies. 
    They lack the armour protection needed for prolonged melees 
    against heavier opponents and, as they are armed with 
    swords, do not have an initial shock value when they charge 
    home. That said, properly deployed they will give a good 
    account of themselves. 
    
    Long Shield Cavalry 
    
    Long shield cavalry are spear-armed light cavalry, who can 
    be used to break enemy formations, drive off skirmishers 
    and pursue fleeing foes. This makes them a flexible and 
    powerful force for any commander to have under his hand. 
    They can also fight effectively in melee after a charge, as 
    they carry swords of the falcata design. These are 
    cunningly balanced so that the weight is towards the tip of 
    the sword, giving a powerful cutting blow. Against spearmen, 
    however, they can be at a disadvantage. 
    
    General's Cavalry 
    
    This general has a bodyguard of loyal spear-armed cavalry 
    to accompany him onto the field. Armed with spears, these 
    men are shock cavalry, able to deliver a devastating charge 
    attack; they are then well trained enough to fight 
    effectively in continued hand-to-hand combat. Like all 
    general's guards, this unit is best committed to the fight 
    at the point of crisis, when the general's inspirational 
    leadership and the combat power of his men can tip the 
    balance. 
    
    Sacred Band Cavalry 
    
    Sacred Band cavalry are an elite in Carthaginian warfare 
    and society. They fight as heavy cavalry, but with a level 
    of discipline and ťlan that is rarely matched in other 
    nations. They carry spears and wear good armour, so that 
    they can charge home with devastating effect. They are the 
    devoted servants of Astarte, handed over to the temple and 
    state by their patrician families for military duties 
    rather than ritual sacrifice. Historically, the great 
    Carthaginian general Hannibal took units of the Sacred Band 
    over the Alps and into Italy ; even though they got no 
    reinforcements from home, two-thirds of these men were 
    still fighting after 14 years of campaigning. 
    
    Numidian Camel Riders 
    
    These tough desert warriors are 'camel lancers', exploiting 
    the speed of their mounts and the fear effect that camels 
    cause to horses. The kings of Numidia are wise indeed to 
    exploit this pool of skilled fighters. These are also a 
    hardy people, and can put up with many privations thanks to 
    their desert upbringing. They are not the strongest cavalry 
    in the world, but they can surprisingly effective against 
    both infantry and especially other (horse) cavalry. Armed 
    with spears and carrying large shields, they are not at 
    their best in protracted melees, but used as hit-and-run 
    raiders they can be very effective.
    
    Elephants 
    
    Elephants are a terrifying spectacle to opposing troops, 
    well able to smash battle lines and toss men aside like 
    dogs with rats. Standing at just over two metres tall at 
    the shoulder, these particular animals are rather tractable 
    and can be trained for warfare relatively easily. They are 
    fast moving, able to trample and gore enemies seemingly at 
    will when being urged on by their riders. They are a living 
    battering ram aimed at the enemy battle line. When pursuing 
    enemies they can be even more deadly. Each elephant is 
    unarmoured, but many blows simply glance off the tough hide. 
    Only a single rider is carried. 
    
    War Elephants 
    
    War elephants are fierce and terrible beasts, able to 
    trample men and horses into the dirt. Over three metres 
    tall at the shoulder, these are large and bad-tempered 
    animals, and they have been known to run wild with fear and 
    anger in battle. When this happens no one - friend or foe - 
    is safe. For this reason the driver always carries a small 
    mallet and a spike so that he can kill the animal if 
    necessary by driving the spike into the base of the skull. 
    The crew are armed with bows to shoot down into tightly 
    packed enemy formations, but the elephant itself is also a 
    weapon: it can trample and gore men easily, hurling them 
    around like rag dolls. 
    
    Armoured Elephants 
    
    Armoured elephants are the most fearsome creatures to be 
    found on a battlefield. Little can stand before these 
    armoured giants. Each elephant has heavy armour that 
    completely protects it from missiles and hand-held weapons, 
    and the crew are armoured too. The driver uses the elephant 
    itself as a weapon, guiding it as it tramples and gores its 
    way through the opposition. The archers snipe down into 
    enemy formations, weakening opponents before the inevitable 
    clash. Armoured elephants can run amok, causing havoc in 
    the process to anyone nearby. 
    
    Numidian Cavalry 
    
    Numidia produces some of the finest cavalry in all Africa, 
    if not the Western Mediterranean world. Armed with javelins, 
    these mounted skirmishers can be a nightmare for an 
    opponent as it can prove practically impossible to pin them 
    down in combat. Their tactics are to pelt the enemy with 
    deadly volleys of javelins, and then swiftly retreat when 
    charged. If the enemy stand, they are slaughtered with 
    volleys of javelins, and if they run the Numidian cavalry 
    can ride them down! Instinctive riders, the Numidians are 
    famed for not using a saddle or reins, using only a stick 
    to direct their horses. Nevertheless, they manoeuvre with 
    the 'grace of a flock of birds'. Having adapted to the 
    broken expanses of their homelands, Numidian cavalry have 
    great stamina, and they are also experts in their form of 
    the Cantabrian circle attack. 
    
    
    
    
    
    [7.4  Egyptian units]
    
    
    
    A.  Egyptian Infantry 
    
    Peasants 
    Peasants are reluctant warriors, but numbers are useful in 
    all armies. Forcing peasants to fight is one way of getting 
    lots of men in the field quickly and cheaply. They have 
    little tactical sense, and even less willingness to fight - 
    they would rather be defending their own homes than be 
    dragged to a battle they neither care about nor understand. 
    If nothing else, they are useful when there's digging to be 
    done! They are, however, experts at reading the land and 
    hiding whenever there is cover.
    
    Skirmishers 
    Egyptian skirmishers rush forward to pepper an enemy with 
    javelins, and then withdraw in good order before a counter-
    attack can be organised. It is their task to harass and 
    disrupt enemy units as well as screen the main force of the 
    army. They are also adept at staging tactical ambushes. 
    Skirmishers are equipped with a clutch of javelins, a sword 
    and a light shield. They wear no other armour, and rely on 
    speed as the best form of protection. This doesn't work 
    when facing cavalry! Oddly, many Egyptian skirmishers 
    aren't Egyptians at all, but are recruited from among 
    foreign communities. When they can be found, Egyptian 
    generals favour using Thracians for this role as they are 
    particularly bloodthirsty and known to take the heads of 
    fallen enemies as trophies. 
    
    Slingers 
    Slingers are highly skilled missile troops but are at a 
    huge disadvantage in hand-to-hand combat, especially 
    against cavalry. They can maintain a sustained and 
    concentrated barrage on enemies and then fall back rapidly 
    to avoid hand-to-hand combat. Slingers carry a shoulder bag 
    with many pieces of lead shot (they can also use stones 
    picked up on the battlefield) and several spare slings 
    including slings of different length for greater or lesser 
    range. Other than a knife and a small shield, they carry no 
    other equipment. 
    
    Bowmen 
    Bowmen are rightly feared for the casualties they can 
    inflict, but they are vulnerable in hand-to-hand combat. 
    They are drawn from the peasant classes of all societies, 
    as these are the people who need to be skilled hunters in 
    order to survive. Learning to use a bow well is something 
    that takes a lifetime and constant practice, and putting 
    food on the table provides good practice. They are best 
    used to weaken enemy formations, or placed in a spot where 
    they can retreat and find protection from other troops. 
    
    Pharaoh's Bowmen 
    Pharaoh's bowmen are skilled archers, the finest to be 
    found in Egyptian armies. They carry the finest bows 
    available, and have the abilities - honed from an early age 
    - to make the best use of their weaponry, making them a 
    true elite. And with their native toughness and hardy 
    spirit they are truly impressive warriors, and a fine force 
    for any of the Pharaoh's generals to have under his command. 
    Unlike many other archers, these men wear good armour, 
    giving them protection against counter-fire, but they are 
    vulnerable - like any archers - if unsupported when 
    attacked by cavalry. 
    
    Nubian Spearmen 
    These militia-like soldiers can fight in harsh conditions 
    and they are cheap defensive troops for the Pharaoh's 
    armies. Armed with a long, thrusting spear and a large 
    wooden shield, these men are primarily defensive and can 
    hold their own against cavalry. However, they can also be 
    formed into phalanxes and sent against other infantry. 
    Their lack of training and armour means that they should 
    not be used to attack armoured or elite troops. Nubian 
    spearmen were originally recruited in the south, but since 
    it is not uncommon for a Nubian soldier to be rewarded with 
    land for his service, they can be found in every part of 
    the Pharaoh's realms. 
    
    Nile Spearmen 
    These well trained spearmen are the mainstay of many 
    Egyptian armies, thanks to their all-round defensive 
    abilities. They wear light padded armour - hardly 
    surprising given the incredibly hot climate of home - and 
    carry large shields. They do not carry secondary weapons at 
    all, and rely entirely on their spears in combat. This 
    means that they are best employed to hold a defensive 
    position against cavalry, or as a rough phalanx to take on 
    other infantry by 'push of pike' and weight of numbers. 
    These men are better trained than some other Egyptian 
    forces, such as Nubian spearmen, and will hold more often 
    as a result. 
    
    Desert Axemen 
    These superior soldiers are recruited from among desert 
    dwellers, and are equipped with sharp axes and wooden 
    shields by the order of the Pharaoh. It is their job to 
    stand in line of battle and hack into an enemy formation or 
    position. They are very useful against other infantry - 
    including armoured infantry - but they are less able to 
    defend themselves against cavalry attacks. They are hardy 
    folk in the lands at Egypt 's borders and well suited to 
    life as soldiers in the Pharaoh's army; they do not tire 
    easily and shrink from few enemies. 
    
    Pharaoh's Guards 
    The Pharaoh's Guard are the true elite of any Egyptian army, 
    armoured spearmen sworn to defend the Twin Crowns to the 
    death! They may have ceremonial duties, but these are also 
    soldiers for the working day. These are superbly trained 
    and disciplined spearmen, capable of standing against 
    almost any enemy in almost any circumstances. They are 
    trained to form a phalanx making them an effective 
    attacking force as well. Recruited from among the higher 
    ranks of Egyptian society, they have an interest in seeing 
    the state and the Pharaoh's power survive. 
    
     
    B. Egyptian Cavalry
    
    
    
    Desert Cavalry 
    
    Desert cavalry are fast moving horsemen armed with axes for 
    close combat. They are not heavily armoured, but do have 
    shields for protection, giving them good prospects of 
    surviving in melee. They are well suited to hunting down 
    skirmishers and other infantry, but may suffer undue 
    casualties against heavier cavalry forces. These are hardy 
    soldiers, and untiring in combat, as might be expected from 
    recruits taken from desert dwelling people at the margins 
    of Egypt 's lands. 
    
    Nubian Cavalry 
    Nubian cavalry are lightly equipped raiders who are perfect 
    for flanking attacks on an enemy line. They are recruited 
    into the service of the Pharaoh from the upper reaches of 
    the Nile . They are superb horsemen, proud and 
    independently minded. Nubians do not wear armour, but then 
    this is only to be expected among people from such a hot, 
    harsh climate, but they carry good war gear otherwise: a 
    shield, a spear for the initial charge, and a sword so that 
    they can fight effectively in close combat. They can be 
    used to mount rapid charges against enemies, but if asked 
    to charge spearmen they will suffer excessive casualties. 
    They can also be used to pursue fleeing foes and cut down 
    isolated enemy units. 
    
    Nile Cavalry 
    Nile cavalry are mail-armoured spearmen capable of 
    delivering a decisive blow. Although they do not carry 
    shields, they are a useful force for any commander thanks 
    to their training and motivation. These men are recruited 
    from among the elite of Egyptian society. They are given 
    land for their service, the amount depending on rank and 
    length of service. 
    
    Camel Archers 
    These camel-mounted archers are effective skirmishers, 
    especially in deserts. These men are good bowmen and 
    untiring fighters thanks to their harsh upbringing. They 
    can move swiftly, staying away from most infantry and other 
    skirmishers. When attacked by cavalry they are at an 
    advantage should a melee ensue. The very smell of camels 
    can upset horses in battle and a cunning commander can use 
    this to his advantage. 
    
    Chariots 
    Chariots are fearsome devices, and have scythe blades to 
    cut down any infantry foolish enough to stand when charged. 
    The armoured crews carry swords to cut down opponents. 
    Egyptian armies have a long and distinguished history of 
    using chariots in warfare. Their charioteers are also more 
    disciplined and controlled than those of other nations. 
    These are not subtle troops, and their chief power lies in 
    a headlong charge into an enemy formation. Each chariot is 
    pulled by powerful horses, and the deserts are an ideal 
    place for them to be used to full effect. 
    
    Chariot Archers 
    Chariot archers are highly skilled - they can hit targets 
    while their chariots are moving at high speed. The scythes 
    attached to each chariot axle make them even more deadly. 
    They have the speed of cavalry and the staying power of 
    infantry, and this makes them a powerful weapon for any 
    commander; the Egyptians have also had many centuries of 
    experience in using chariots in warfare, particularly on 
    desert battlefields. Each chariot is under the control of a 
    driver, leaving the archers to concentrate on their killing 
    work; all wear high quality armour. 
    
    General's Bodyguard 
    This general has a bodyguard of chariot archers to 
    accompany him onto the field. Armed with bows, these men 
    are able to deliver powerful attacks in any circumstances. 
    Each chariot is pulled by powerful horses, and the deserts 
    are an ideal place for them to be used to full effect. The 
    general can inspire his men by his presence and bring a 
    powerful force quickly to bear on a critical part of the 
    battlefield. Egyptian armies have a long and distinguished 
    history of using chariots in warfare and their charioteers 
    are more disciplined and easily controlled than those of 
    other peoples. 
    
    
    C. Egyptian Siege 
    
    Onagers 
    
    The onager is a catapult jokingly named for the tremendous 
    kick it has when fired at the enemy (an "onager" is a wild 
    ass). This war machine is powered by a twisted spring of 
    animal sinew ropes, the most elastic substance available. 
    The throwing arm is held in tension by the sinews. When 
    pulled back and held by a catch it can fling a boulder with 
    considerable speed and range. This version can be used for 
    reducing stone fortifications, but it can also be used on 
    the battlefield for destroying enemy artillery and 
    harassing troops (although admittedly by killing some of 
    them outright). The onager can also be used to launch 
    incendiary missiles such as firepots, making it a versatile 
    piece of artillery to any commander. 
    
    Heavy Onagers 
    
    The heavy onager is an enormous catapult built using the 
    same basic design as its sibling and capable of smashing 
    down stone fortifications. It is powered by a twisted 
    bundle of animal sinew ropes, and is slow to wind back and 
    reload. Its missiles are devastating, and it can also fire 
    incendiary firepots. Range is no more than the smaller 
    onager and this makes the heavy onager susceptible to 
    counter fire. Often, it is best employed alongside smaller 
    artillery to deal with enemy fire. 
    
     
    
    [7.5 Gaul Units]
    
    A. Gallic Infantry 
    
    Peasants 
    
    Peasants are reluctant warriors, but barbarian peasants are 
    better fighters than most: hard lives produce hard men. 
    Numbers are useful in all armies, and forcing peasants to 
    fight is one way of getting lots of men in the field 
    quickly and cheaply. They have little tactical sense, and 
    even less willingness to fight - they would rather be 
    defending their own homes than be dragged to a battle they 
    neither care about nor understand. They are, however, 
    experts at reading the land and hiding when there is cover. 
    
    Skirmishers 
    Skirmishers are lightly armed troops who should break up 
    and harass enemy formations before the main battle lines 
    meet, and act as a screen for heavier troops. Their skills 
    also make them useful in springing tactical ambushes. Each 
    man is armed with a clutch of throwing spears, a short 
    sword and a small shield, but they do not wear armour 
    preferring speed over protection. Skirmisher warbands are 
    often the tribe's younger warriors. These men have yet to 
    prove themselves as warriors, so are not necessarily tough 
    enough to stand against a seasoned enemy in hand-to-hand 
    fighting. 
    
    Foresters 
    A life spent hunting is an excellent training for war. 
    Personal courage, skill and the readiness to take a life 
    can all be learned during a hunt. Foresters are highly 
    skilled men with both the bow and the spear, their 
    preferred weapons. They also each wear good leather armour. 
    Their hunting skills also stand them in good stead when 
    stalking men instead of animals - these men can hide almost 
    anywhere, taking advantage of every scrap of cover. The 
    ability to spring ambushes as well as fight hand-to-hand 
    makes them a uniquely flexible force for a warlord and one 
    that, unusually, has enough sense to obey all orders. 
    Foresters already know that they are superb hunters and 
    warriors, and do not need to prove their skills to anyone 
    by attacking just because they can! 
    
    Warband 
    Warbands are bound to the service of a strongman or petty 
    village head. They are the basic 'unit' to be found in many 
    barbarian armies. They fight well as glory and loot are the 
    road to status but are often difficult to control. They 
    care little for discipline and less for restraint, but they 
    can be relied on to fight, and fight hard. In warfare it is 
    up to each man to prove his own bravery and worth, so the 
    savage charge into the enemy is about as sophisticated as 
    they ever want to be! Each man carries a stabbing spear and 
    a large shield. 
    
    Swordsmen 
    Swordsmen are steadfast and aggressive warriors, the 
    'infantry of the line' for barbarian warlords. They are not 
    very disciplined at times, as their sense of honour and 
    bravery can make them eager to get into any fray, but they 
    are uniformly superb swordsmen. They are equipped with good 
    swords and large shields. Every warlord worth the name 
    makes sure he has a couple of warbands of these hard men 
    under his command. 
    
    Chosen Swordsmen 
    Chosen swordsmen are the best fighting individuals in their 
    tribe, and armed with the finest swords available. While 
    superbly skilled and extremely tough, they are not 
    naturally inclined to fight as a group. Personal glory and 
    the need to be first amongst the enemy ensure that they are 
    headstrong and ill-disciplined. They are, however, very 
    well equipped with the finest swords that the smiths can 
    make, along with chainmail armour and large shields. They 
    are an intimidating sight for any enemy. 
    
    Naked Fanatics 
    There are warriors among the barbarian ranks whose love of 
    battle is such that they live for little else. Clad only in 
    flimsy loincloths, the fanatics whip themselves into a 
    frenzy by chanting, beating themselves and drinking heavily. 
    In this state they make an unnerving sight on the 
    battlefield! They are best sent into battle en masse, 
    shocking the enemy by a ferocious charge, but they should 
    be kept away from enemy cavalry. They carry just swords and 
    shields and have practically no discipline, but they can 
    cause heavy casualties among most enemies. They fight 
    mostly (if not completely) naked to emphasise their own 
    fierceness and utter lack of fear. Scars and tattoos adorn 
    their skin, and they let their hair grow wild. Only after a 
    kill is their hair cut often with a sword blade while 
    standing over a freshly dead foe. While their reckless 
    courage is not in doubt, they can lack the cohesion and 
    discipline to adapt to setbacks, breaking and running in 
    confusion when subjected to severe pressure. 
    
    Druids 
    Druids are spiritual leaders with practical fighting skills 
    who instil confidence in nearby friendly warriors. They 
    have a religious zeal that gives them great courage and 
    their mere presence fills nearby believers with confidence. 
    Positioned just behind the battle line druids can also form 
    a powerful reserve, ready to join the fray at a crucial 
    moment. Equipped with sickle-shaped swords and small 
    shields, the mail-clad druids are excellent fighters. Their 
    good war gear is a reflection of their status as teachers, 
    judges, soothsayers and the focal point of religion and 
    magic among their people. As Celtic cultures lack a written 
    form, they are also the memory of the tribe as well, 
    remembering all the important facts of tribal history. 
    Historically, the Romans despised and then targeted these 
    men because they practiced particularly savage forms of 
    human sacrifice and because of their cultural importance. 
    When a tribe's history was wiped out, it became a little 
    easier to bend the people to the will of Rome. 
    
    Warhounds 
    
    Warhounds are bred for a savage nature and great size, but 
    then hunting men is only a little more dangerous than 
    hunting wild boar! The beasts are muscular and powerful. 
    Originally bred for hunting large prey, they are now 
    trained to hunt and attack men. Warhounds are usually 
    unleashed on an enemy to break a line and unnerve opponents. 
    Few men are able to stand steadily in the face of a 
    snarling and partially-starved beast. The dogs are trained 
    to bite and hold on, dragging down their human targets, and 
    hamstringing horses. Their handlers are brave, foolhardy 
    and not easily intimidated: many have fingers, hands or 
    even chunks of limbs missing! 
    
    
    
    
    B. Gallic Cavalry 
    
    
    Barbarian Cavalry 
    Barbarian cavalry are lightly armoured and carry spears and 
    shields. They are best used as scouts and in pursuit of 
    fleeing enemies, and ride sturdy, sure-footed ponies with a 
    good turn of speed. Like many barbarian warriors, however, 
    they can lack battle-discipline and be over-keen to enter 
    battle against worthy opponents. Honour and standing come 
    from fighting, and sometimes the urge for glory overwhelms 
    good sense! These men are all good fighters, but find 
    organised, formal warfare goes against the grain. They are 
    unlikely to be very effective against steady infantry 
    unless attacking from an unexpected direction. 
    
    Barbarian Noble Cavalry 
    Noble cavalry are an elite in society as well as war, and 
    fight bravely to justify their status. This can lead them 
    to be headstrong, and difficult to restrain before a fight, 
    as personal glory gained in battle is the only true measure 
    of nobility. Their war gear of spears, shields and good 
    chainmail is the very finest that can be provided. They are 
    best used to break weakened enemy formations, fight against 
    other cavalry and pursue fleeing enemies. While they are 
    brave men and superb horsemen, they lack the cohesion of 
    more 'civilized' cavalry, and may not be as effective in a 
    hand-to-hand fight. Shock and initial impact are their main 
    weapons. 
    
    Warlord's Cavalry 
    A barbarian warlord surrounds himself with fierce warriors 
    as a personal guard. These spear-armed cavalry are an elite 
    reserve for use in a moment of crisis. Every warlord 
    commands by right of personal courage as much as tactical 
    skill, and must prove himself in battle. He and his guards 
    are equipped as cavalry with spears, leather armour and 
    shields so that they can dash to any point on the 
    battlefield. The warlord can inspire his men to greater 
    efforts just by his presence, and also has enough men to be 
    a significant force should the need arise. 
    
    
    [7.6 German Units]
    
    A. German Infantry 
    
    
    
    
    Peasants 
    
    Peasants are reluctant warriors, but barbarian peasants are 
    better fighters than most: hard lives produce hard men. 
    Numbers are useful in all armies, and forcing peasants to 
    fight is one way of getting lots of men in the field 
    quickly and cheaply. They have little tactical sense, and 
    even less willingness to fight - they would rather be 
    defending their own homes than be dragged to a battle they 
    neither care about nor understand. They are, however, 
    experts at reading the land and hiding when there is cover. 
    
    Skirmishers 
    
    Skirmishers are lightly armed troops who should break up 
    and harass enemy formations before the main battle lines 
    meet, and act as a screen for heavier troops. Their skills 
    also make them useful in springing tactical ambushes. Each 
    man is armed with a clutch of throwing spears, a short 
    sword and a small shield, but they do not wear armour 
    preferring speed over protection. Skirmisher warbands are 
    often the tribe's younger warriors. These men have yet to 
    prove themselves as warriors, so are not necessarily tough 
    enough to stand against a seasoned enemy in hand-to-hand 
    fighting.
    
    Chosen Archers 
    
    Chosen archers are highly prized for their superior skills 
    in war. They are the best archers available to barbarian 
    warlords. They are all, as might be expected, excellent 
    bowmen, fleet of foot and expert hunters. They are given 
    the best bows available to their people, and are also 
    equipped with good swords and chainmail armour too. This 
    equipment means that they can do more than just defend 
    themselves in hand-to-hand combat. They can, when required, 
    act as light infantry. Their presence on a battlefield is 
    always useful, as they have the flexibility to be both 
    archers and infantry and do a good job in both tasks. 
    
    Spearmen 
    
    The men of a spear warband are effective against cavalry 
    and most infantry, but lack the discipline of more 
    'civilized' troops. Their spears, however, make them 
    valuable defensive warriors for any warlord. The warband is 
    the basic unit of any barbarian army - a group of tough 
    warriors bound together in the service of a tribal 
    strongman or village headman. Each warrior is protected by 
    a large shield. In common with other Germanic warriors, 
    these men are very clever when concealing themselves in 
    forests. 
    
    Axemen 
    
    Axemen are steadfast and aggressive warriors, the 'infantry 
    of the line' for barbarian warlords. They are not very 
    disciplined at times, as their sense of honour and bravery 
    can make them eager to get into any fray, but they are 
    uniformly superb fighters. They are equipped with good axes 
    and small shields. Every warlord worth the name makes sure 
    he has a couple of warbands of these hard men under his 
    command. 
    
    Chosen Axemen 
    
    Double-handed axes are intimidating weapons, especially in 
    the hands of chosen axemen. These men can hack a hole in 
    almost any enemy battle line. Chosen axemen are an elite 
    among tribal warriors, selected for their physical size, 
    strength, bravery and - some would say - pig-headedness. 
    They are the assault troops of any barbarian army, the men 
    whose only job is to smash any organised resistance and 
    keep on killing until no foes remain. Fear is completely 
    alien to them, as is any concept of mercy to a foe or a 
    weakling among their own kind. They are fantastically 
    strong men - and need to be to wield their enormous double-
    headed axes with any degree of skill and control. The axes 
    are easily capable of cleaving a man down to his breastbone 
    even through armour. Chosen axemen themselves disdain 
    armour as a sign of cowardice. 
    
    Naked Fanatics 
    
    There are warriors among the barbarian ranks whose love of 
    battle is such that they live for little else. Clad only in 
    flimsy loincloths, the fanatics whip themselves into a 
    frenzy by chanting, beating themselves and drinking heavily. 
    In this state they make an unnerving sight on the 
    battlefield! They are best sent into battle en masse, 
    shocking the enemy by a ferocious charge, but they should 
    be kept away from enemy cavalry. They carry just swords and 
    shields and have practically no discipline, but they can 
    cause heavy casualties among most enemies. They fight 
    mostly (if not completely) naked to emphasise their own 
    fierceness and utter lack of fear. Scars and tattoos adorn 
    their skin, and they let their hair grow wild. Only after a 
    kill is their hair cut often with a sword blade while 
    standing over a freshly dead foe. While their reckless 
    courage is not in doubt, they can lack the cohesion and 
    discipline to adapt to setbacks, breaking and running in 
    confusion when subjected to severe pressure. 
    
    Night Raiders 
    
    For most armies, night is a time for withdrawing to camp 
    and roasting a boar or two. For German night raiders, it's 
    the time to paint themselves and set out in search of 
    enemies to slaughter. Lightly armed infantry, the night 
    raiders' value lies in their ability to spread terror. 
    These warriors from the remote depths of the tangled German 
    forests carry just a small shield and an axe, but weapons 
    of iron and steel are only part of their armoury. Before 
    battle, they daub their bodies with black dye, giving them 
    an otherworldly appearance. When the moment is right, they 
    charge - wild-eyed and screaming - at their foes. Any who 
    survive assaults by these maniacal barbarians are convinced 
    they are spirits sent from Hades! 
    
    Berserkers 
    
    Berserkers are extremely ferocious, aggressive, indomitable 
    warriors with no thought for personal safety once the rage 
    of battle comes upon them. They will use chants, strong 
    drink, potions, rituals and even self mutilation to whip 
    themselves into a fighting frenzy. Once the madness is upon 
    them, little can stop them - their blood-crazed dash into 
    the thick of combat is deeply disheartening (at best) to 
    any who stand against them. They may try to cut their 
    enemies to pieces in this state, but will think nothing of 
    trying to gouge, bite, head butt and kick opponents to 
    death as well. They disdain armour as a sign of weakness, 
    along with mercy, common sense and knowing when to stop 
    fighting. They are supremely dangerous foes in close combat. 
    
    Warhounds 
    
    Warhounds are bred for a savage nature and great size, but 
    then hunting men is only a little more dangerous than 
    hunting wild boar! The beasts are muscular and powerful. 
    Originally bred for hunting large prey, they are now 
    trained to hunt and attack men. Warhounds are usually 
    unleashed on an enemy to break a line and unnerve opponents. 
    Few men are able to stand steadily in the face of a 
    snarling and partially-starved beast. The dogs are trained 
    to bite and hold on, dragging down their human targets, and 
    hamstringing horses. Their handlers are brave, foolhardy 
    and not easily intimidated: many have fingers, hands or 
    even chunks of limbs missing! 
    
    
    
    
    B. German Cavalry 
    
      
    
    
    Barbarian Cavalry 
    
    Barbarian cavalry are lightly armoured and carry spears and 
    shields. They are best used as scouts and in pursuit of 
    fleeing enemies, and ride sturdy, sure-footed ponies with a 
    good turn of speed. Like many barbarian warriors, however, 
    they can lack battle-discipline and be over-keen to enter 
    battle against worthy opponents. Honour and standing come 
    from fighting, and sometimes the urge for glory overwhelms 
    good sense! These men are all good fighters, but find 
    organised, formal warfare goes against the grain. They are 
    unlikely to be very effective against steady infantry 
    unless attacking from an unexpected direction. 
    
    Barbarian Noble Cavalry 
    
    Noble cavalry are an elite in society as well as war, and 
    fight bravely to justify their status. This can lead them 
    to be headstrong, and difficult to restrain before a fight, 
    as personal glory gained in battle is the only true measure 
    of nobility. Their war gear of spears, shields and good 
    chainmail is the very finest that can be provided. They are 
    best used to break weakened enemy formations, fight against 
    other cavalry and pursue fleeing enemies. While they are 
    brave men and superb horsemen, they lack the cohesion of 
    more 'civilized' cavalry, and may not be as effective in a 
    hand-to-hand fight. Shock and initial impact are their main 
    weapons. 
    
    Gothic Cavalry 
    
    Gothic cavalry are an aristocratic - if such a word can be 
    applied to barbarians - heavy cavalry elite of the German 
    tribes. Having the wealth to risk a horse in battle 
    requires status, and among barbarians this status is 
    retained by acts of personal bravery. As a result, these 
    men think little or nothing of danger, and are keen to be 
    the first to come to grips with an enemy. They are well 
    armed and well armoured, having spears, heavy mail coats 
    and shields. They are, however, prone to attacking whether 
    or not it makes sense to their warlord - glory and honour 
    are always worth pursuing, after all! They are best 
    employed at what they do best - hitting an enemy hard and 
    repeatedly. Victory over the foe is always glorious, so 
    they will not think less of an order to attack the flank or 
    rear of an enemy unit. 
    
    Warlord's Cavalry 
    
    A barbarian warlord surrounds himself with fierce warriors 
    as a personal guard. These spear-armed cavalry are an elite 
    reserve for use in a moment of crisis. Every warlord 
    commands by right of personal courage as much as tactical 
    skill, and must prove himself in battle. He and his guards 
    are equipped as cavalry with spears, leather armour and 
    shields so that they can dash to any point on the 
    battlefield. The warlord can inspire his men to greater 
    efforts just by his presence, and also has enough men to be 
    a significant force should the need arise. 
    
    
    [7.7 Greek Units]
    
    A. Greek Infantry 
    
    
    
    Peasants 
    
    Peasants are reluctant warriors, but numbers are useful in 
    all armies. Forcing peasants to fight is one way of getting 
    lots of men in the field quickly and cheaply. They have 
    little tactical sense, and even less willingness to fight - 
    they would rather be defending their own homes than be 
    dragged to a battle they neither care about nor understand. 
    If nothing else, they are useful when there's digging to be 
    done! They are, however, experts at reading the land and 
    hiding whenever there is cover. 
    
    Peltasts 
    Greek peltasts advance at speed to pepper an enemy with 
    javelins, and then withdraw in good order before a counter-
    attack can be organised. They are skirmishers and it is 
    their task to harass and disrupt enemy units before the 
    main battle lines clash. They are also adept at staging 
    tactical ambushes. Peltasts are equipped with a clutch of 
    javelins, a sword and a light shield, the pelte, which 
    gives them their name as 'pelte-bearers'. They wear no 
    other armour, and rely on speed as the best form of 
    protection, and this isn't much protection should they be 
    caught by cavalry. 
    
    Archers 
    Archers are rightly feared for the casualties they can 
    inflict, but they are vulnerable in hand-to-hand combat. 
    They are drawn from the peasant classes of all societies, 
    as these are the people who need to be skilled hunters in 
    order to survive. Learning to use a bow well is something 
    that takes a lifetime and constant practice, and putting 
    food on the table provides good practice. They are best 
    used to weaken enemy formations, or placed in a spot where 
    they can retreat and find protection from other troops. 
    
    Militia Hoplites 
    Militia hoplites are levies drawn from cities and thrust 
    into battle with a little training. They fight best as 
    spearmen, and are armed with long spears and each carries 
    the large round hoplon shield which gives them their name. 
    As a type of infantry hoplites have been around for 
    centuries and have changed little in tactics or equipment. 
    These men wear no armour, but then they are drawn from the 
    poorer classes and it is traditional for citizens to 
    provide their own war gear when called into the army. The 
    cities of the Greek world have a long tradition of the 
    people defending their own cities from invaders. They are 
    at their best when used as a solid block of spearmen and 
    can form phalanx to attack the enemy. 
    
    Heavy Peltasts 
    Heavy peltasts are skirmishers, but carry large oval 
    shields into battle. This added protection makes them 
    suitable for standing in the main battle line, as well as 
    for flanking and screening duties. Their javelins are 
    intended to thin the ranks of approaching troops, weakening 
    their morale just before battle is joined. They also carry 
    short swords for when they are asked to engage in close 
    combat. A heavy peltast's shield (the thureos), is made 
    from wood covered in leather. While this confers reasonable 
    protection, when confronted with heavy infantry or 
    practically any form of cavalry, these troops should not be 
    expected to stand for long. Like other peltasts, this unit 
    is well suited to using ambush tactics. 
    
    Hoplites 
    The basis of nearly all military power in Greece once 
    revolved around the hoplite. Operating in phalanxes, or 
    tightly grouped blocks, these men are a powerful force 
    against infantry or cavalry. Hoplite tactics are simple: 
    formations generally approach the opposing army in normal 
    order, and then close ranks into the phalanx so that each 
    soldier is protected by overlapping shields. Then it is 
    simply a matter of closing with the enemy as quickly as 
    possible to decide the battle. Well trained, these troops 
    have great stamina, and are some of the most effective 
    soldiers in the known world. Hoplites generally supply 
    their own equipment, so are not drawn from the poorer 
    sections of society. They wear a hardened leather cuirass 
    breastplate, and carry both a round shield (the hoplon) and 
    a thrusting spear. This spear has a bronze butt-spike to 
    plant in the ground (bronze is not prone to rusting like 
    iron), which doubles as a weapon if the pike shaft breaks. 
    
    Armoured Hoplites 
    Armoured hoplites are an elite among Greek soldiery, 
    carefully selected and given the best training to make them 
    superior spearmen. Each of them is equipped with good body 
    armour, greaves and a helmet and carries a large round 
    shield, the hoplon that gives this kind of soldier the name 
    of Ďhoplite'. Each man is also armed with a formidable 
    thrusting spear called the xyston and a sword. They are 
    usually employed as solid, close-packed groups of men, 
    presenting a wall of spear points to the enemy. In phalanx 
    formation, they use weight of numbers to batter into enemy 
    formations. They are vulnerable to flank and rear attacks, 
    and ideally need some sort of light supporting troops to 
    screen them as they approach the enemy. 
    
    Spartan Hoplites 
    Spartan hoplites are trained from infancy to be nothing but 
    soldiers. They are 'perfect soldiers' and nothing else. All 
    of Spartan life is spent training for war. Weaklings perish 
    soon after birth; youths are taught to thieve and terrorize 
    the slave class to harden them; young men are taught 
    nothing unless it has something to do with the arts of war 
    - even music and dance are there only to help keep step 
    when marching and obeying orders. The result is a man who 
    thinks nothing of danger, expects to win, and creates a 
    sense of dread in his opponents. Spartans fight in the 
    traditional fashion as hoplites, carrying a long thrusting 
    spear and the large round hoplon shield, and as a phalanx: 
    a close-packed mass of men moving as one to crush their 
    enemies. If they have a weakness it is that they are hide-
    bound traditionalists, and the once-mighty state of Sparta 
    has not moved with the times. 
    
    Incendiary Pigs
    
    Incendiary pigs are 'one shot' weapons intended to spread 
    panic and terror amongst enemies, particularly mounted 
    troops. The pigs are coated in pitch, tar and oil, and 
    herded towards the enemy. At the right moment, the pigs are 
    ignited by their handlers and, not unnaturally, they run 
    away in pain and terror - hopefully towards the enemy. 
    Apart from goring anyone foolish enough to get in their way, 
    the pigs are tremendously disruptive to formations. They 
    are also very frightening for elephants in particular, and 
    this is their main use in warfare. Pigs can only be fired 
    up once during a battle, and few survive for long. 
    
      
    
    B. Greek Cavalry 
    
      
    
    
    Militia Cavalry 
    Militia cavalry are javelin-armed mounted skirmishers who 
    can strike quickly and be gone in the time it takes a more 
    ponderous enemy to react. They do not wear armour, but do 
    carry shields and swords so that they can fight in hand-to-
    hand combat should the need arise. They are, however, best 
    used to dash in and harass a mass of enemies, such as heavy 
    infantry who cannot hope to catch them. They are not 
    ideally suited to fighting other skirmishers - many of 
    their javelins will be wasted against targets who can dodge, 
    after all - but they can be very useful in harrying fleeing 
    enemies and driving them from the field. 
    
    Greek Cavalry
    
    Greek cavalry are fast moving horsemen armed with spears 
    for maximum impact in a charge. They are not heavily 
    armoured, and do not have shields for protection, relying 
    instead on the old maxim of 'speed is armour' for 
    protection. As a result, they are best used as a hit-and-
    run force, rather than as soldiers who can indulge in hand-
    to-hand combat. That said, they are excellent for breaking 
    up skirmishers, attacking lighter infantry such as missile 
    troops and pursuing already broken enemies to prevent them 
    rallying and rejoining a battle. 
    
    General's Cavalry 
    This general has a bodyguard of loyal spear-armed cavalry 
    to accompany him onto the field. Armed with spears, these 
    men are shock cavalry, able to deliver a devastating charge 
    attack; they are then well trained enough to fight 
    effectively in continued hand-to-hand combat. Like all 
    general's guards, this unit is best committed to the fight 
    at the point of crisis, when the general's inspirational 
    leadership and the combat power of his men can tip the 
    balance. 
    
    Light Lancers 
    
    Light lancers are fast, lightly equipped cavalrymen who 
    rely on hit-and-run charges where the killing power of 
    their lances are maximised. Although they have cavalry 
    swords for close quarters fighting, a lack of armour means 
    once the melee becomes protracted they are susceptible to 
    enemy counterattacks: slugging it out with heavy forces is 
    not sensible for these soldiers. Rather, these men should 
    operate on the periphery of battles where they can ride 
    down enemy skirmishers and missile troops. They can be 
    thrown into to heart of the fighting if necessary, or when 
    a weakened unit s flank or rear can be attacked. 
    
    C. Greek Siege
    
    
    
    Onagers 
    The onager is a catapult jokingly named for the tremendous 
    kick it has when fired at the enemy (an "onager" is a wild 
    ass). This war machine is powered by a twisted spring of 
    animal sinew ropes, the most elastic substance available. 
    The throwing arm is held in tension by the sinews. When 
    pulled back and held by a catch it can fling a boulder with 
    considerable speed and range. This version can be used for 
    reducing stone fortifications, but it can also be used on 
    the battlefield for destroying enemy artillery and 
    harassing troops (although admittedly by killing them 
    outright). The onager can also be used to launch incendiary 
    missiles such as firepots, making it a versatile piece of 
    artillery to any commander. 
    
    Heavy Onagers 
    
    The heavy onager is an enormous catapult built using the 
    same basic design as its sibling and capable of smashing 
    down stone fortifications. It is powered by a twisted 
    bundle of animal sinew ropes, and is slow to wind back and 
    reload. Its missiles are devastating, and it can also fire 
    incendiary firepots. Range is no more than the smaller 
    onager and this makes the heavy onager susceptible to 
    counter fire. Often, it is best employed alongside smaller 
    artillery to deal with enemy fire. 
    
    Ballistas 
    A Ballista is a sinew-powered weapon that looks like an 
    enormous crossbow. It has tremendous range and can skewer 
    files of men with a single bolt! While a Ballista might 
    look like a huge crossbow, its working principles are 
    rather different. The two arms are pushed through ropes 
    made of tough animal sinew. This naturally elastic material 
    is then twisted, and becomes a hugely powerful spring, 
    pulling each arm forwards. The arms are pulled back, 
    creating even more tension, the Ballista is loaded with a 
    missile, and then this is shot at the enemy with 
    considerable force. Providing care is taken to make sure 
    that the two sinew bundles are under the same tension, the 
    Ballista is a very accurate weapon, but because sinew is 
    sensitive to damp a Ballista does not work well in wet 
    weather. 
    
    
    
    
    [7.8 Parthian Units]
    
    A. Parthian Infantry 
    
    
    
    Peasants 
    
    Peasants are reluctant warriors, but numbers are useful in 
    all armies. Forcing peasants to fight is one way of getting 
    lots of men in the field quickly and cheaply. They have 
    little tactical sense, and even less willingness to fight - 
    they would rather be defending their own homes than be 
    dragged to a battle they neither care about nor understand. 
    But if nothing else, they are useful when there's digging 
    to be done! They are, however, experts at reading the land 
    and hiding whenever there is cover. 
    
    Slingers 
    Slingers are highly skilled missile troops but are at a 
    huge disadvantage in hand-to-hand combat, especially 
    against cavalry. They can maintain a sustained and 
    concentrated barrage on enemies and then fall back rapidly 
    to avoid hand-to-hand combat. Slingers carry a shoulder bag 
    with many pieces of lead shot (they can also use stones 
    picked up on the battlefield) and several spare slings 
    including slings of different length for greater or lesser 
    range. Other than a knife and a small shield, they carry no 
    other equipment. 
    
    Archers 
    Archers are rightly feared for the casualties they can 
    inflict, but they are vulnerable in hand-to-hand combat. 
    They are drawn from the peasant classes of all societies, 
    as these are the people who need to be skilled hunters in 
    order to survive. Learning to use a bow well is something 
    that takes a lifetime and constant practice, and putting 
    food on the table provides good practice. They are best 
    used to weaken enemy formations, or placed in a spot where 
    they can retreat and find protection from other troops. 
    
    Hillmen 
    To outsiders, the hillmen are a wild savage people, but 
    they are also skilled hunters, making them superb ambushers. 
    Although only armed with spears and shields, they are a 
    valuable addition to many forces. Their skills at reading 
    ground allow them to hide where others cannot, and this 
    makes them valuable to commanders with a penchant for 
    tactical ambushes. They are expert raiders and thieves 
    (often taking sheep and goats from their lowland neighbours) 
    and this is, unfortunately, something that makes them 
    occasionally difficult to control. They do not see any need 
    for military formalities! 
    
    Eastern Infantry 
    Eastern infantry are easily recruited militia-spearmen, who 
    are good for defence against less able opponents. They are 
    drawn from among the peasantry and urban poor, given 
    minimal training and sent into battle. They are, however, 
    given large shields. Individually, they are not outstanding 
    warriors, but as a group they have their uses in holding 
    off light cavalry; even medium and heavier troops will be 
    unwilling to charge into a forest of spear points. 
    
    Heavy Spearmen 
    
    Heavy spearmen can be the backbone of an Eastern army and 
    are well able to take on many opponents. Their war gear 
    includes long spears, chainmail and round shields.They can 
    withstand attacks by most cavalry, and the training they 
    have received allows them to form phalanx and carry an 
    attack to an enemy infantry line. Against skirmishers and 
    other missile troops, however, they require some support. 
    These men are recruited from the native population, not 
    from among the Greek stratum of society that exists in all 
    the Successor states, so they do not have the discipline of 
    the 'hoplite ethos' in their training. They are still, 
    however, worthwhile troops. 
    
    Bronze Shields 
    
    Bronze shields are the elite of the army of Pontus, heirs 
    to the world-conquering phalanxes of Alexander! They are 
    lightly armoured and carry a small shield, and each carries 
    an enormously long pike, or sarissa. This 4-5m long spear 
    allows up to five ranks of Bronze Shields to bring their 
    weapons to bear on the enemy, while those further back can 
    protect the front ranks by angling their pikes to deflect 
    missile fire. When deployed as a phalanx they are extremely 
    formidable unless outflanked, attacked from the rear or 
    subjected to intense missile fire. Their superior 
    discipline, training and espirit de corps makes them slow 
    to tire on the battlefield as well. Bronze shields are the 
    successors to the hoplite warrior traditions of Greece and 
    Macedonia; to carry a bronze shield means that you are 
    worthy of honour and that your family has social standing. 
      
    Peltasts 
    
    Eastern peltasts rush forward to pepper an enemy with 
    javelins, and then withdraw in good order before a counter-
    attack can be organised. They are skirmishers and not 
    intended to hold a position in a battle line. Instead, 
    their job is to harass and disrupt enemy units as well as 
    screen the main force of the army. They are also adept - as 
    their abilities would suggest - at staging tactical 
    ambushes. Peltasts are equipped with a clutch of javelins, 
    a sword and a light shield, the pelte, which gives them 
    their name as 'pelte-bearers'. They wear no other armour, 
    and rely on speed as the best form of protection. 
    
    Phalanx Pikemen 
    
    Phalanx pikemen, or phalangites, are well-drilled infantry 
    who fight best as solid mass of men. They are armed with an 
    enormously long pike, or sarissa, often 4-5m in length. 
    This is the weapon that Alexander's armies used, and it has 
    remained popular in all the Successor states that sprang up 
    in his collapsed empire, even though most of the men 
    recruited to fight as pikemen are neither Macedonian nor 
    Greek by descent. It is popular because the first five 
    ranks can present their pikes to the enemy creating a 
    mobile forest of sharpened metal, while those further back 
    hold them at a 45 degree angle to deflect enemy arrows. In 
    phalanx formation these men can advance in a disciplined 
    mass and 'push' against an enemy line, often breaking 
    through in the process as few enemies will stand in the 
    face of so many spear points coming towards them! Indeed, 
    from the front a phalanx can be almost invulnerable. 
    
    Armenian Legionaries 
    
    Armenian legionaries are an attempt to copy the fighting 
    style and skills of the Roman Legions, and give other 
    commanders the war-winning troops of Rome. Although armed 
    and equipped in the manner of Roman legionaries, with iron-
    shafted throwing spears (pila), short swords, chainmail and 
    large shields, these men are not of quite the same quality 
    as the originals. Armenians are hardy folk and do not tire 
    easily. It is true, and they have accepted the iron 
    discipline that legionary training requires, but the 
    quality of that training is not quite up to Roman standards. 
    They are good heavy infantry once seasoned, but poor 
    training means they cannot use the famous tortoise (testudo) 
    formation. That said, they can still give a nasty shock to 
    any enemy - their fighting style of bombarding an enemy 
    with pila and then closing for the kill is just as 
    effective when performed by Armenians as it is when Romans 
    do the job! 
    
    
    
    
    
    B. Parthian Cavalry 
    
      
    
    
    Cataphracts 
    Cataphracts are extremely heavily-armoured cavalry who can 
    turn a battle with one thunderous charge. They are the 
    ultimate in shock cavalry, an armoured battering ram to 
    crash into an enemy position and sweep aside all who stand 
    against them. They are armed with heavy lances for the 
    initial charge and maces for use in close combat. They wear 
    armour that is almost unmatched for weight and protection, 
    and their horses are similarly armoured. On the move they 
    are a wall of metal bearing down on enemies, tipped with 
    razor-sharp spear points. Their armour is their main 
    strength, but it also means that these troops can be quite 
    ponderous and slow moving. That said, sheer weight means 
    that they can often break through (or ride over) an enemy 
    line without too much trouble. 
    
    Persian Cavalry 
    Persian cavalry can fight well with either bow or sword, 
    making them valuable skirmishers and general purpose 
    horsemen. They can trace their lineage back to the tribes 
    of the steppes, and this tradition gives them fine skills 
    with both the horse and the compound bow. They wear mail 
    armour and carry swords so that they can defend themselves 
    at need, or even carry the attack to lighter opponents, but 
    they are primarily fine horse archers, able to ruin 
    formations of solidly-packed enemies. A skilled commander 
    will use these troops in cooperation with heavier 
    cataphracts when he can, softening up an opponent with 
    missiles before delivering an armoured punch, or beating an 
    enemy down before driving them from the field with lighter 
    pursuers. 
    
    Horse Archers 
    Horse archers are a speciality of the East: swift horses 
    and expert marksmen make a deadly combination. They are 
    armed with a powerful bow and a dagger for defence, but 
    they are not armoured and should not be expected to fight 
    other than to escape. Horse archers rely on the maxim that 
    'speed is armour' to keep them out of trouble. Infantry 
    have no hope of catching them, but other cavalry may be 
    able to chase them down. Wise eastern commanders know this, 
    and deploy horse archers with other cavalry to act as a 
    deterrent to over-ambitious pursuit by an enemy. If horse 
    archers have a weakness it is that of all soldiers armed 
    with composite bows: these weapons do not take well to damp 
    or wet weather, as the glues used to construct them become 
    weakened. While this is seldom a problem in their home 
    provinces, it can be in wetter climes. 
    
    Cataphract Camels 
    Cataphract camels are well armoured - camel and rider both 
    - shock cavalry. Their primary purpose is to charge into 
    the enemy, using weight and speed to cause additional 
    disruption. The riders carry lances for the initial charge 
    and long maces to continue fighting once in hand-to-hand 
    combat. Recruited from among desert dwelling peoples these 
    soldiers rely on their heavy armour for protection, and 
    their camels are equally well protected. This heavy armour 
    also means that, while they are slow to get moving, they 
    are almost unstoppable in a full charge. They can be used 
    against infantry like any other cataphracts, but their 
    chief virtue is that the smell of the camels upsets horses, 
    giving them an edge when fighting against cavalry. 
    
    Cappadocian Cavalry 
    
    Cappadocian lancers are excellent horsemen, best suited to 
    charging into and breaking through enemy formations. They 
    are not as headstrong as other elite heavy cavalry and will 
    not charge without orders - war is a serious business that 
    has little room for vainglorious folly. They wear heavy 
    chainmail and carry swords for use in close combat once the 
    initial charge is over and momentum has been lost. While 
    not in quite the same class as the super-heavy cataphracts 
    from nearby Armenia, these men are a powerful force. They 
    should not, however, be expected to charge into prepared 
    spearmen. Cappadocia is a region that is famed for its 
    cavalry, and these men are rightly feared throughout Asia 
    Minor. 
    
    Chariot Archers 
    
    Chariot archers are highly skilled - they can hit targets 
    while their chariots are moving at high speed. The scythes 
    attached to each chariot axle make them even more deadly. 
    They have the speed of cavalry and the staying power of 
    infantry, and this makes them a powerful weapon for any 
    commander. Each chariot is under the control of a driver, 
    leaving the archers to concentrate on their killing work; 
    all wear high quality chainmail armour. 
    
    War Elephants 
    
    War elephants are fierce and terrible beasts, able to 
    trample men and horses into the dirt. Over three metres 
    tall at the shoulder, these are large and bad-tempered 
    animals, and they have been known to run wild with fear and 
    anger in battle. When this happens no one - friend or foe - 
    is safe. For this reason the driver always carries a small 
    mallet and a spike so that he can kill the animal if 
    necessary by driving the spike into the base of the skull. 
    The crew are armed with bows to shoot down into tightly 
    packed enemy formations, but the elephant itself is also a 
    weapon: it can trample and gore men easily, hurling them 
    around like rag dolls. 
    
    General's Cavalry 
    This general has a bodyguard of loyal and heavily armoured 
    cavalry to accompany him onto the field. Armed with lances, 
    these men are superb shock cavalry, able to deliver a 
    devastating and almost unstoppable charge; they are then 
    equipped with maces so that they can fight effectively in 
    continued hand-to-hand combat. Like all general's guards, 
    this unit is best committed to the fight at the point of 
    crisis, when the general's inspirational leadership and the 
    combat power of his men can tip the balance. 
    
    Pontic Light Cavalry 
    
    Pontic light cavalry are javelin-armed mounted skirmishers 
    who can strike quickly and be gone in the time it takes a 
    more ponderous enemy to react. They do not wear armour, but 
    do carry shields and swords so that they can fight in hand-
    to-hand combat should the need arise. They are, however, 
    best used to dash in and harass a mass of enemies such as 
    heavy infantry who cannot hope to catch them. They are not 
    ideally suited to fighting other skirmishers - many of 
    their javelins will be wasted against targets who can dodge, 
    after all - but they can be very useful in harrying fleeing 
    enemies and driving them from the field. 
    
    Cataphract Archers 
    
    Cataphract archers are very heavily armoured, but slow, 
    horse-archers that are almost impervious to attacks and can 
    fight in close combat. They are not as armoured as 
    cataphract lancers, yet most enemy missiles are turned 
    aside quite easily. Mobility and speed have been sacrificed 
    to provide protection. Their composite bows allow them to 
    attack enemies at long range, but they also carry swords so 
    that - if needs be - they can close up and fight hand-to-
    hand. The weight of cataphract archers means that they are 
    'heavier' than most shock cavalry but this is not their 
    primary purpose. Being able to fight in close combat should 
    be seen as a bonus to their primary abilities. 
    
    Pontic Heavy Cavalry 
    
    Pontic heavy cavalry are javelin-armed horsemen who can 
    also fight hand-to-hand - a potent combination in one force! 
    They wear light chainmail armour and carry shields and 
    swords so that they can close with opponents and fight when 
    the situation requires. Their primary means of attack, 
    however, remains the javelins that they carry. They can 
    pepper an enemy with missiles and then have the option of 
    closing to deliver the coup de grace, or they can withdraw 
    and await another opportunity for mischief! They are not 
    ideally suited to fighting other skirmishers - many of 
    their javelins will be wasted against targets who can dodge, 
    after all - but they can be very useful in driving broken 
    enemies from the field. 
    
    Scythed Chariots 
    
    Scythed chariots are fearsome devices, covered in scythe 
    blades to cut down any infantry foolish enough to stand 
    when charged. Metal blades stick out from every axle like 
    malign horns to cut down infantry. They are, however, 
    somewhat uncontrollable: these units are not only so keen 
    to attack the enemy that they will do so without orders, 
    but also can run amok and attack anyone - friend or foe 
    alike - who happens to be nearby. These are not subtle 
    troops, and their chief power lies in a headlong charge 
    into an enemy formation. Each chariot is pulled by powerful 
    horses, and the driver is heavily armoured. 
    
    C. Parthian Siege 
    
    Onagers 
    The onager is a catapult jokingly named for the tremendous 
    kick it has when fired at the enemy (an "onager" is a wild 
    ass). This war machine is powered by a twisted spring of 
    animal sinew ropes, the most elastic substance available. 
    The throwing arm is held in tension by the sinews. When 
    pulled back and held by a catch it can fling a boulder with 
    considerable speed and range. This version can be used for 
    reducing stone fortifications, but it can also be used on 
    the battlefield for destroying enemy artillery and 
    harassing troops (although admittedly by killing them 
    outright). The onager can also be used to launch incendiary 
    missiles such as firepots, making it a versatile piece of 
    artillery to any commander. 
    
      
    
    
    
    
    
    
    [7.9 Seleucid Units]
    
    A. Seleucid Infantry
    
    
    
    Peasants 
    Peasants are reluctant warriors, but numbers are useful in 
    all armies. Forcing peasants to fight is one way of getting 
    lots of men in the field quickly and cheaply. They have 
    little tactical sense, and even less willingness to fight - 
    they would rather be defending their own homes than be 
    dragged to a battle they neither care about nor understand. 
    If nothing else, they are useful when there's digging to be 
    done! They are, however, experts at reading the land and 
    hiding whenever there is cover. 
    
    Peltasts 
    Greek peltasts advance at speed to pepper an enemy with 
    javelins, and then withdraw in good order before a counter-
    attack can be organised. They are skirmishers and it is 
    their task to harass and disrupt enemy units before the 
    main battle lines clash. They are also adept at staging 
    tactical ambushes. Peltasts are equipped with a clutch of 
    javelins, a sword and a light shield, the pelte, which 
    gives them their name as 'pelte-bearers'. They wear no 
    other armour, and rely on speed as the best form of 
    protection, and this isn't much protection should they be 
    caught by cavalry. 
    
    Archers 
    Archers are rightly feared for the casualties they can 
    inflict, but they are vulnerable in hand-to-hand combat. 
    They are drawn from the peasant classes of all societies, 
    as these are the people who need to be skilled hunters in 
    order to survive. Learning to use a bow well is something 
    that takes a lifetime and constant practice, and putting 
    food on the table provides good practice. They are best 
    used to weaken enemy formations, or placed in a spot where 
    they can retreat and find protection from other troops. 
    
    Militia Hoplites 
    Militia hoplites are levies drawn from cities and thrust 
    into battle with a little training. They fight best as 
    spearmen, and are armed with long spears and each carries 
    the large round hoplon shield which gives them their name. 
    As a type of infantry hoplites have been around for 
    centuries and have changed little in tactics or equipment. 
    These men wear no armour, but then they are drawn from the 
    poorer classes and it is traditional for citizens to 
    provide their own war gear when called into the army. The 
    cities of the Greek world have a long tradition of the 
    people defending their own cities from invaders. They are 
    at their best when used as a solid block of spearmen and 
    can form phalanx to attack the enemy. 
    
    Levy Pikemen 
    As war approaches, peasants, farmers and down-at-heel 
    townsfolk can find themselves pressed into service as 
    pikemen by their rulers. Due to their lack of armour they 
    are best used as defensive infantry, absorbing enemy 
    attacks, or screening the flanks of the main line. Equipped 
    with a long pike some 6m in length (the sarissa) many ranks 
    can bring their weapons to bear on an enemy, presenting a 
    bristling array of spearheads to an approaching foe. They 
    also carry swords for use when the enemy breaks through the 
    pike line. Although training is practically non-existent, 
    as inheritors of the hoplite tradition levy pikemen can 
    manoeuvre in a phalanx formation. But with no armour other 
    than the small shields strapped to their left arms, under 
    pressure these levied troops are liable to suffer heavy 
    casualties. 
    
    Phalanx Pikemen 
    Phalanx pikemen (or phalangites) form the backbone of 
    Macedonian and Seleucid battle lines. In phalanx formation 
    these troops can be used to pin the enemy line in place, 
    while mobile forces wheel around the flanks to deliver a 
    decisive blow. The phalangites are drawn from families with 
    decent resources, as these men need to provide leather 
    cuirass armour and a metal helmet for protection. Phalanx 
    pikemen carry a small shield strapped to the left arm, 
    leaving both hands free to brandish a lengthy pike (the 
    sarissa). Gripped in both hands above the head up to five 
    ranks' worth of pikes can be aimed at the enemy. Men in 
    rows further back hold their pikes at a 45 degree angle, 
    creating a shield to ward off enemy arrows. All phalanx 
    pikemen also have short swords. 
    
    Silver Shield Pikemen 
    
    The silver shield pikemen (or argyraspids) are the 
    embodiment of Seleucid martial prowess. They are elite foot 
    soldiers on which many a battle will turn; they are well 
    disciplined and physically fit, so these troops will 
    neither panic nor tire easily. These men use the 6m long 
    pike (sarissa) and carry a small shield coated in silver 
    that gives them their name. To carry the silver shield into 
    battle is the realization of many a Seleucid boy's dream, 
    though only renowned men of higher birth would 
    automatically qualify for such an honour. Once in phalanx 
    formation the silver shield pikemen are an almost immovable 
    object unless attacked from the flanks. If the fighting 
    becomes too intense and cramped, they can use their short 
    swords. 
    
    Silver Shield Legionaries 
    The Seleucid talent for adopting good ideas is given 
    solidity in the shape of these Legionaries who are direct 
    copies of the Roman originals! The Legionary Silver Shields 
    (or argyraspids) are equipped and fight in exactly the same 
    fashion as Roman troops, using throwing spears (the pila, 
    singular pilum) to pepper an enemy before closing to fight 
    with short swords. The armour they wear and the tactics 
    that they use are also modelled closely on the Roman 
    originals too, including use of the tortoise (or testudo) 
    formation to approach enemy fortifications while under fire. 
    The Silver Shields are very good troops indeed, and can be 
    relied on in most battle situations. 
    
     
    
    
    B. Seleucid Cavalry 
     
    
    
    Militia Cavalry 
    
    Militia cavalry are javelin-armed mounted skirmishers who 
    can strike quickly and be gone in the time it takes a more 
    ponderous enemy to react. They do not wear armour, but do 
    carry shields and swords so that they can fight in hand-to-
    hand combat should the need arise. They are, however, best 
    used to dash in and harass a mass of enemies, such as heavy 
    infantry who cannot hope to catch them. They are not 
    ideally suited to fighting other skirmishers - many of 
    their javelins will be wasted against targets who can dodge, 
    after all - but they can be very useful in harrying fleeing 
    enemies and driving them from the field. 
    
    Greek Cavalry 
    
    Greek cavalry are fast moving horsemen armed with spears 
    for maximum impact in a charge. They are not heavily 
    armoured, and do not have shields for protection, relying 
    instead on the old maxim of 'speed is armour' for 
    protection. As a result, they are best used as a hit-and-
    run force, rather than as soldiers who can indulge in hand-
    to-hand combat. That said, they are excellent for breaking 
    up skirmishers, attacking lighter infantry such as missile 
    troops and pursuing already broken enemies to prevent them 
    rallying and rejoining a battle. 
     
    Companion Cavalry 
    Companion Cavalry are a social and military elite, and 
    fight as heavy cavalry using shock and mass to break enemy 
    units. They are the direct heirs to the Companions of 
    Alexander the Great and his father, Philip of Macedon, and 
    they revel in this proud heritage. The Companions ride the 
    best horses and have the finest armour available; each is 
    armed with a good lance and a sword for close combat. As 
    heavy cavalry they can be a decisive arm of battle, and are 
    able to charge down many opponents. They are best used as 
    shock cavalry to break wavering enemy formations, but do 
    need to be careful - as with all cavalry - when attacking 
    spearmen. Bravery is of little use when galloping straight 
    onto a row of gleaming spear points! Traditionally these 
    men would be given land grants after great victories, 
    giving them a personal stake in the battle's outcome. 
      
    General's Cavalry 
    This general has a bodyguard of loyal spear-armed and 
    armoured cavalry to accompany him onto the field. Armed 
    with spears, these men are shock cavalry, able to deliver a 
    devastating charge attack; they are then well trained 
    enough to fight effectively in continued hand-to-hand 
    combat, even though they do not carry shields. Like all 
    general's guards, this unit is best committed to the fight 
    at the point of crisis, when the general's inspirational 
    leadership and the combat power of his men can tip the 
    balance. 
    
    Scythed Chariots 
    Scythed chariots are fearsome devices, covered in scythe 
    blades to cut down any infantry foolish enough to stand 
    when charged. Metal blades stick out from each axle like 
    malign horns to cut down infantry. They are, however, 
    somewhat uncontrollable! These units are not only so keen 
    to attack the enemy that they will do so without orders, 
    but also can run amok and attack anyone - friend or foe 
    alike - who happens to be nearby. These are not subtle 
    troops, and their chief power lies in a headlong charge 
    into an enemy formation. Each chariot is pulled by powerful 
    horses, and the crew is heavily armoured. 
    
    Elephants 
    
    Elephants are a terrifying spectacle to opposing troops, 
    well able to smash battle lines and toss men aside like 
    dogs with rats. Standing at just over two metres tall at 
    the shoulder, these particular animals are rather tractable 
    and can be trained for warfare relatively easily. They are 
    fast moving, able to trample and gore enemies seemingly at 
    will when being urged on by their riders. They are a living 
    battering ram aimed at the enemy battle line. When pursuing 
    enemies they can be even more deadly. Each elephant is 
    unarmoured, but many blows simply glance off the tough hide. 
    Only a single rider is carried. 
    
    War Elephants 
    War elephants are fierce and terrible beasts, able to 
    trample men and horses into the dirt. Over three metres 
    tall at the shoulder, these are large and bad-tempered 
    animals, and they have been known to run wild with fear and 
    anger in battle. When this happens no one - friend or foe - 
    is safe. For this reason the driver always carries a small 
    mallet and a spike so that he can kill the animal if 
    necessary by driving the spike into the base of the skull. 
    The crew are armed with bows to shoot down into tightly 
    packed enemy formations, but the elephant itself is also a 
    weapon: it can trample and gore men easily, hurling them 
    around like rag dolls. 
    
    Armoured Elephants 
    Armoured elephants are the most fearsome creatures to be 
    found on a battlefield. Little can stand before these 
    armoured giants. Each elephant has heavy armour that 
    completely protects it from missiles and hand-held weapons, 
    and the crew are armoured too. The driver uses the elephant 
    itself as a weapon, guiding it as it tramples and gores its 
    way through the opposition. The archers snipe down into 
    enemy formations, weakening opponents before the inevitable 
    clash. Armoured elephants can run amok, causing havoc in 
    the process to anyone nearby. 
    
    Cataphracts 
    Cataphracts are extremely heavily-armoured cavalry who can 
    turn a battle with one thunderous charge. They are the 
    ultimate in shock cavalry, an armoured battering ram to 
    crash into an enemy position and sweep aside all who stand 
    against them. They are armed with heavy lances for the 
    initial charge and maces for use in close combat. They wear 
    armour that is almost unmatched for weight and protection, 
    and their horses are similarly armoured. On the move they 
    are a wall of metal bearing down on enemies, tipped with 
    razor-sharp spear points. Their armour is their main 
    strength, but it also means that these troops can be quite 
    ponderous and slow moving. That said, sheer weight means 
    that they can often break through (or ride over) an enemy 
    line without too much trouble. 
    
    Light Lancers 
    
    Light lancers are fast, lightly equipped cavalrymen who 
    rely on hit-and-run charges where the killing power of 
    their lances are maximised. Although they have cavalry 
    swords for close quarters fighting, a lack of armour means 
    once the melee becomes protracted they are susceptible to 
    enemy counterattacks: slugging it out with heavy forces is 
    not sensible for these soldiers. Rather, these men should 
    operate on the periphery of battles where they can ride 
    down enemy skirmishers and missile troops. They can be 
    thrown into to heart of the fighting if necessary, or when 
    a weakened unit s flank or rear can be attacked. 
    
    C. Seleucid Siege 
    
    Onagers 
    The onager is a catapult jokingly named for the tremendous 
    kick it has when fired at the enemy (an "onager" is a wild 
    ass). This war machine is powered by a twisted spring of 
    animal sinew ropes, the most elastic substance available. 
    The throwing arm is held in tension by the sinews. When 
    pulled back and held by a catch it can fling a boulder with 
    considerable speed and range. This version can be used for 
    reducing stone fortifications, but it can also be used on 
    the battlefield for destroying enemy artillery and 
    harassing troops (although admittedly by killing them 
    outright). The onager can also be used to launch incendiary 
    missiles such as firepots, making it a versatile piece of 
    artillery to any commander. 
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    -------------------------------------------
    8.0 Bugs
    -------------------------------------------
    
    -the old Egypt wasnít in existence during this time
    -Wonders of the world on some games don't affect anything, when they
    should. ETC Trade increase, cheaper buildings.
    -Rare issue were the computer the game is installed on wont work because
    of the PC's hardware and config.
    -Sometimes your troops will not follow a command in battle eg: stand around
    being murdered for a minute or two, very late and delayed reacting 
    from the AI. Some scripting certainly has to be looked at.
    -Some saved replays only record a minute or two of the battle 
    (Happens to all the great battles on LAN you have, and want to look back on)
    -After fresh install , when loading up the game, an error from the .Dat .dll
    etc appear ( Simply just get the name of the file off the CD again)
    -Game locks up sometimes
    -More gameplay options are needed for the casual players (I doubt everyone
    knows what they are doing in the config files of the game, sounds stupid..
    but fair)
    -Crash to desktop well loading saved game
    -Mouse cursor lag on strat map and sometimes in 3D battle
    -Multiplayer crashes to desktop after selecting internet game in the
    multiplayer menu 
    -Player Ships sometimes break apart 
    -Flags on ships sometimes break apart
    -Bad scripting when moving around in Fortifications/Cities 
    -Legions in Testudo formation most times will not move
    -Little to Massive FPS(Frames per second) lost when using Fire 
    Arrows/Missles.
    -Troops cannot attack wardogs, only the men controlling them.
    (You can leave your guys on guard and wait for the wardogs to attack first)
    -Cavalry/Foot soldiers sometimes charge, then stop.
    -Cavalry when chasing a target will run around the target/stop/or completely
    stop around the target.
    -Game Crashes to Desktop (If your new to the Totalwar era, it has all
    happened in Shogun/Medieval)
    -PRESET Formation settings are almost useless due to conflicting AI scripting.
    -Some saved games will crash to desktop after loading up.
    -Sounds, Music and Video in game sometimes will loop or 'lag'
    -Battle Replays crash sometimes.
    -In game Console only allows 1 command , Sorry cheaters!
    -Errors Installing the game
    -Campaign Map turns black/grey every so often
    -Senate missions sometimes screw up
    -Troops sometimes don't move when told too.
    -Missile troops sometimes get stuck just before they are about to throw
    thier Pilums/Spears 
    (bugs reported on twcenter.com forum)
    
    -------------------------------------------
    9.0 Tips/Cheap Tricks
    -------------------------------------------
    -draw a path on the campaign map by holding down the right mouse button
    
    -You can trade Retainers between your generals. Put two generals into the
    same army or town. Right click the general with the retainer you wish to
    transfer. Hold left click on the retainers picture and drag it to the unit
    card of the other general. Then release. Some retainers conflict with
    eachother and wont trade, some wont trade at all
    
    -Recruit mercenaries for 
    your general and you are likely to pick up the mercenary captain retainer
    which gives +1 to command
    
    -take a spy with the plague into an enemy city to infect it
    
    -Plagues can die off if you remove or kill the governer that is infested
    in the city
    
    -A cheap stragery to use early on or just anytime during the game just
    to free up troops is, when your city is under attack and  you have a
    stone wall in place, just leave a couple peasents and a governor in
    that city, have the general sit outside thte gates, and lure the enemy
    near, since you sallied forth right when they attacked they dont have
    seige engines yet, so they will get harassed by your tower defenses,
    and when they come near the gate, they will get burned from your wall
    defenses
    	-submitted by Chewie
    
    -Riot for Cash
    When a city that you controlled goes into Revolt, the Senate will 
    usually give you a mission to retake it to set an example of what 
    happens when you go against Rome.  So, if you take a city that is 
    in Revolt (e.g. I took Tara with just a Captain), move your army 
    out of the city and let it revolt.  The Senate will then give you 
    a mission.  Re-take the city and get your mission reward.  
    (I got 10,000 denarii).  I'm not sure how many times in a row you can
    do this.  Probably quite a few until you run out of population.  Just
    note that after the revolt, the city's army will be much larger because
    the majority of the population gets turned into peasant militia. 
    So you'll need quite the army to re-take it.
    I haven't tried purposefully letting a captured and otherwise sane city
    go into revolt to see what happens, but it might be interesting to try
    as a way of scoring a quick Senate reward. -submitted by Chris Clark
    
    -Immortal Retainers
    Although your spies, diplomats, assassins and family members age, 
    retainers don't.  When you notice that a family member is getting up
    there in years (60+), get a younger relation there and drag-n-drop all
    the retainers you can.  I've passed on some retainers this way over the
    course of a 100+ years.  -submitted by Chris Clark
    
    -put an onager in a city and sally forth when someone attacks, you can
    destroy them without them attacking you
    
    1) To gain commander points for generals, if you are moving multiple armies,
    is that if you are going to attack a city, or army, if you wait, and advance
    the other army to your place, The commander who waits gains extra commander
    points.
    
    2) When attacking a town with wooden walls, build as many battering rams as
    you can, to stretch the defending forces, and avoid huge melees as you try
    to get your troops into the town.
    
    3) If you want to attack a faction that senate wants peace with, (e.g.
    Germania), offer to attack them with a diplomat. The senate will even pay
    you to do this. ( I got tired of marching around a Germaian village). Once
    you have attacked them, the rest of the Roman factions, seem to get pulled
    into the conflict as well.
    
    4) Don't always do what the senate want. I've found as I am building my
    forces, in one area, e.g. Gaul, the senate asks you to attack a Greek city.
    This splits your forces, and even invites defeat. (I've found this out to my
    detriment.) keep your clear goal in mind, attack one faction at a time with
    big armies, whilst maintaining a presence on your other borders.
    
    -contributed by Rob Holgate
    
    -------------------------------------------
    10.0 FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions)
    -------------------------------------------
    -What is a protectorate?
    It is basically a deal where a faction pays you not to attack them
    factions almost almost never accept
    -How do I reduce pollution?
    Well what you have to do is building that increases the polution in the 
    city. Build sewers and bath houses and temples and anything else
    that keeps your city clean. 
    -what is the Cantabrian Circle good for?
    Its good against other ranged troops, but it tires out your horses quickly.
    -How do i defeat elephants?
    Fire arrows work pretty well against elephants
    
    -------------------------------------------
    11.0 Credits
    -------------------------------------------
    
    This may be not be reproduced under any circumstances except for personal,
    private use. It may not be placed on any web site or otherwise distributed
    publicly without advance written permission. Use of this guide on any other
    web site or as a part of any public display is strictly prohibited, and a
    violation of copyright.
    
    Websites authorized to use this faq are posted on
    http://www.romewar.com/authorized.html
    
    
    post any questions and comments at http://www.romewar.com and
    Check out my games site at www.freewaregames.net
    
    thanks to
    Chris Clark Chewie and Rob Holgate for contributions
    
    contact me with contributions and I will add you to the credits
    
    by: Tony James 
    tony@salehippo.com
    email me with any contributions
    

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