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    FAQ/Strategy Guide by Zoogz

    Version: 1.0 | Updated: 02/09/14 | Printable Version | Search This Guide

    Strategy Guide for Civilization V - Brave New World
    
    
    Version 1.0
    
    Written by: Scott "Zoogz" Jamison
    
    Contact: zoogz22 (at) yahoo (dot) com
    Website: www.nabiki.com/mst
    Blog: mstings.blogspot.com
    
    
    Version History:
    
    Version 1.0:  10 February 2014
    First publication of the guide, which currently includes strategies for
    playing Civilization V: Brave New World ruleset (as based on victory
    conditions)
    
    Authorization:
    
    This strategy guide is the property of Scott "Zoogz" Jamison, first written
    in 2014.  Permission is granted to GameFAQs.com for posting this material.
    Permission is not granted to post this work to any other sites nor to make
    alterations without my express written consent.  I reserve the right to
    request this work to be removed from unauthorized locations (e.g. websites,
    printed materials).
    
    _________
    
    Table of Contents:
    
    [Intro] Introduction
    
    [vv1vv] First considerations when starting
    a. Going in with a plan.
    
    [vv2vv] Turns 1-15
    a. What to build/research on turn 1?
    b. Through turn 15 -- evaluating how to build your foundation
    
    [vv3vv] Turns 15-50
    a. What do I research next?
    b. How do I protect myself early on?
    c. Which should I build first - Wonders, workers, settlers, buildings,
    army?
    d. Expanding your empire via (your first couple) cities.
    e. How do I get the yellow stuff... Gold!
    f. Religion
    
    [vv4vv] Turns 50-250
    a. Changing your goals.
    -Remaining with the status quo?
    b. Technology
    -Technology Slingshots (important subset notes)
    -Keeping up technologically
    c. Happy Faces
    d. Culture and the Culture Tree bonuses
    
    [vv5vv] Completing the game
    a. Winning via military (conquering)
    b. Winning via culture (tourism)
    c. Winning via diplomacy
    d. Winning via space race (technology)
    
    [vv6vv] Converting your resources
    
    [Outro] Outro and concluding thoughts
    
    
    __________
    
    
    [Intro]
    Introduction to the strategy guide.
    
    You might ask yourself, why does this strategy guide exist?  A short time
    ago, I finished a game at level 6 (Emperor).  The computer randomly chose
    for me a pangaea map, nine opponents, and gave me the Hunnic civilization. 
    After about five-six hours of gameplay, I managed to guide the Huns to a
    Scientific victory.  This was the optimal solution, as the Americans had
    already built four of their six spaceship parts, and though I had managed
    to get to thirty-four votes (out of forty) for Diplomatic victory as well
    as about fifty turns away from a Cultural victory, the Space Race gave me
    the win on turn 366 -- game year 1946.
    
    I will go into this in more depth below, but this victory is the path that
    the game offered me.  Once I realized that I could build and build without
    anyone bothering me, I kept at it.  I set myself up to grab the Porcelain
    Tower and get to the bottom of the Rationalization track... between that
    and the gold I kept pulling in because no one wanted to fight, I was
    signing research agreements left and right.  Since the majority of my
    military advantage was for the beginning of the game and it was no longer
    the beginning... why play militarily, even if I do have the Huns?
    
    When I play Civilization I play it as pretty much the biggest puzzle game
    around.  I get most enjoyment playing Civilization when I go in blind... I
    don't know what the map will be, nor even the civilization that's picked
    for me.  I find it most challenging and most fun when I have to figure out
    strategies on the fly, especially when the computer players start stomping
    around and making life interesting.  It's the reason that I've kept
    leveling up, all the way from games on level 3 to winning games on level 6.
    I think that playing this way has helped me to figure out strategies.  I'm
    writing this guide to help someone who's currently behind the eight-ball
    and looking online to see if help is around the corner, and either wants to
    figure a way out of it or to try again fresh.
    
    I have played Civ games ever since Civilization I came out in the 90's. I
    am quite a fan of the series and have written reviews for all of the games
    at my blog, mstings.blogspot.com.  I had never really been moved enough to
    write a strategy guide for the game until now.  Civilization V was released
    a while ago, and I have put in (sadly?) some 1200 hours of playing Civ V in
    all three configurations -- original, Gods & Kings, and now Brave New
    World.
    
    The twelve hundred hours of play has also pretty much allowed me to
    practice my tactics and strategies, from games ranging all the way from
    victories to getting chunkified by the Huns or Aztecs by turn 60.  Even
    then, I certainly have not playtested all of the different things that I
    can do within a game... for instance, I still don't have the guts to turn
    the map into a nuclear wasteland, even though there's a save button that I
    can very easily use.  So yes, the "guide to going nuclear" is sadly
    unfinished so far, though I will certainly playtest a couple of times as
    well as invite others to provide ideas.
    
    What this guide won't do is give you lists.  You have the Civilopedia
    and/or other peoples' walkthroughs that can tell you what unit does what,
    which bonuses each Civ has, all of the city-states, etcetera.  I'm
    interested in figuring out ways to not only stay afloat when the computer
    has all the advantages, but to beat them at the end of the game.
    
    I have no shame and I am more than willing to accept ideas and thoughts, or
    even to post your original research while crediting you.  Feel free to send
    any ideas or other playtests to my email [zoogz22 (at) yahoo (dot) com],
    especially if there's a savegame that I can pop open and check out... try
    to keep them unmodded if at all possible.
    
    
    Organizational notes:
    
    
    Organizing this has been difficult at best.  That's because something you
    do in the beginning of the game can have major ramifications for the
    remainder of the game.  The problem is that everything's interconnected...
    gold affects your military, your military affects your ability to gain
    culture, culture affects your happiness meter, your happiness meter affects
    your population, and your population affects everything from science
    through culture through military through gold.
    
    But!  If you have a strategy going, you will need to commit to it
    throughout an entire game even as you reevaluate if you can set up a better
    strategy.  If all I do is to organize this guide chronologically, I'll just
    be dribbling it out in multiple sections without making it very easy to
    find.
    
    My solution to this is to write a bit of a start-up guide to take you
    chronologically through the first age or two so that you have your strategy
    set, a middle-age set of information, and then to review game-long strategy
    information afterward.  I will attempt to cross-reference various issues
    between the two portions of the guide so that there's as little bandwidth
    lost on copied sections.  There will also be a section on reevaluating your
    strategy and changing it mid-game if necessary.
    
    If there is a need/call for it, I can reformat some of the sections to take
    into account victory conditions in the original Civilization V
    configuration, or the Gods and Kings expansion.  The major changes between
    original/Gods & Kings and Brave New World are the cultural victory/tourism,
    the cultural tree, governments and their basis on culture, and religion. 
    Most of the rest of this guide will bear out, but keep in mind that the
    "Cultural" victory condition is completely different in Brave New World
    than it is in Original or Gods & Kings, so that part of the guide will not
    apply. 
    
    I will also be glad to post scenario information into updates of this guide
    if others will provide it, as I have not delved into too many of the
    scenarios except for the "Smoky Skies" and the "Scramble for Africa"
    scenarios exactly once apiece.  
    
    
    ____________________________________________________________
    
    Strategy Guide for Civilization V: Brave New World.
    
    [vv1vv]
    Go in with a plan... before the game even starts
    
    What does your civilization bonus do?  What will it help?
    
    What are your civilization's special units/buildings/tile modifications?
    What will they do?
    
    When will you be able to access your civilization's special abilities?
    
    What level did you choose?
    
    How long will the game be -- short, standard, epic, marathon?
    
    Asking yourself the above questions will hopefully allow you to plot out
    some of the goals that you can hit with your game.  If you start out with a
    civilization with heavy early bonuses, you'll need to figure out if you can
    make those early bonuses work for you.  If you have a target period (such
    as, say, the Chinese with the Chu-Ko-Nu crossbowmen), then you can tailor
    your approach to build out until X age (in example, the Middle Ages) so
    that you've prepared your cities to wage a protracted war.  
    
    One recent for-instance was when I played as the Mongols, who have both the
    Keshik, a mounted bowman with ranged attack as well as a Khan, a great
    general who has five movement points plus the ability to heal adjacent
    units as their special units.  This means that I have a pretty clear path
    to take out any enemy city or even enemy civ around the middle of the game,
    so I need to plan to put in place the basis of this plan... have the horses
    ready, or better yet have the horsemen already built for a quick cash
    upgrade.  If you have an idea of which way your game will go, that will
    allow you to pick both cultural as well as religious bonuses so that they
    will help you the most.
    
    The two things that you intentionally chose above are the level and the
    number of turns.  The level will tell you right off the bat how much
    military you likely have coming after you and how much ability you have in
    building Wonders / keeping up in research... for each level higher, you
    will find more of a challenge.  The number of turns will also determine to
    some extent how much military will play a role in the game... research
    takes longer, gold is less plentiful, production takes longer, but a
    warrior will still move two hexes in a turn... so the only thing that
    doesn't get slowed down is your military.  The warning is that if you
    choose a longer game (epic or marathon), this means that if you also choose
    a higher level the computer's bonuses will be more magnified... kind of how
    2% compound interest computed monthly is less than 2% compound interest
    computed daily.
    
    
    
    [vv2vv]
    Turns 1-15
    
    Topics:
    a. What to build/research on turn 1?
    b. Through turn 15 -- evaluating how to build your foundation
    
    Within the first fifteen turns, you need to look at the map, you need to
    pick your research, and you need to start establishing yourself in the
    world.  Here's a couple ways to help that process along.
    
    a. What to build/research on turn 1?
    
    This deserves its own special section... just because.  What do you see
    first?  Move the warrior even before building your city to reveal maximum
    terrain... there have been times that the autoseed has given me a good
    spot, but a better spot is right around the corner.
    
    I usually make the decision what to do next based on what I find.  If I see
    at least 70% land or if I have been placed in quite a bit of rough terrain
    (hills/forests/jungles), I'll go with building a scout first.  Popping
    ruins can give you a good advantage, as can finding religious city-states,
    good next-city locations, and also your rivals.
    
    If you don't need that level of exploration, then just use your warrior for
    exploration and put up the monument.  Getting the +2 in culture will triple
    your culture generation and make the first three bonuses very quick.
    
    (If you're Spain, there's really no decision here... get that scout out
    quickly, and build a second for good measure.  If you find a natural wonder
    first, you can BUY your first settler far quicker than producing it.)
    
    Turn 1 research for me is almost always Pottery.  Getting a quick granary
    can keep your growth up in the short-run, and Pottery will lead to both
    Sailing and Calendar if needed.
    
    If you intentionally want to play militarily, I would work through Archery
    first.  Spearmen aren't all that much stronger than warriors, and archers
    will allow you to range into others as soon as possible, saving your
    warriors to heal and bide their time for your archers to knock down a city.
    
    
    b. Through turn 15 - evaluating how to build your foundation
    
    
    Questions to consider for this stage in the game: 
    
    Are you in a crossroads or off in a corner?
    
    Hemmed in by city-states, by a mountainous choke-point, or by the ocean?
    
    Wide-open land with lots of luxuries / special resources available allowing
    you to pick multiple locations?
    
    Which civs did you make contact with?
    
    Are there any religious civs you need to watch out for?
    
    There are two major methods to building a civilization.  I prefer the
    descriptions "tall" for a civilization that has a limited number of cities
    -- perhaps seven or less -- but quite a bit of population in each.  I use
    "wide" for a civilization that has a lot of land and quite a few cities,
    eight or more being a good guide.
    
    Two of the first four culture tracks in the game are "Tradition" and
    "Liberty", and they work pretty well to draw a line between tall and wide
    civs.  The tall ones would get a major boost from having half (or more) of
    their cities gain a free Monument and would also get a boost from the +1
    happy per each 2 population in the capital city.  The wide method would get
    more of a happiness bonus from the -5% unhappiness in all cities along with
    +1 per connected city along with the +1 culture per city, along with the +1
    and 5% production bonus for each cities' buildings.  It is absolutely
    possible to mix-and-match the two of them, but just remember that if you
    do, you may not be able to hit the happiness bonus and that could have a
    detrimental effect on your growth mid-game.
    
    Culture and gold are easiest to gain in a tall civ... you need less culture
    for each culture bonus, and gold gains due to you needing fewer buildings
    and fewer roads to serve the same number of people.  Military and tourism
    (!) are easiest to gain in a wide culture.  Military should be fairly
    obvious, as multiple cities gain access to more strategic resources and
    have the ability to build more units overall (as production will be more
    likely to utilize special tiles).  Tourism is easier to gain in a wide
    culture because of the museum/artifact vectors, especially if you can still
    have one or two cities remain as your wonder-building dynamoes.  While
    culture *bonuses* are easier to pop in a smaller civ, overall cultural
    numbers are easier to gain in a wide culture because of your ability to
    build multiple buildings.
    
    Science is... about the same, actually.  There are advantages to a wide
    civ, because whenever you want you can switch multiple cities to research
    and definitely power through one or multiple techs quickly.  However, the
    advantage to a tall civ in science is the ability to sign research
    agreements easier, especially if you're cultivating friendships by not
    creating border friction with others.
    
    By turn fifteen or so, you'll know the type of lands you're starting on
    (e.g. islands, continents, or a pangaea), and you'll likely have an idea of
    some of the other civs.  If you are playing against religious
    civilizations, they might have already formed their pantheons within ten
    turns, fifteen at the outside.  In the beginning of the game, you're most
    likely already waiting on either the monument to be built, or a scout (or
    two), so there's not a whole lot of variance... but then you will be able
    to figure out if you can start out as a builder, or if you need to get
    defending.  If you're surrounded on all sides by enemy Civs, getting
    defense is priority number one, to make sure that you can not only keep the
    other civs out but to be able to exert force if necessary.  If no one is
    immediately apparent, you could either squeeze out that extra settler or
    begin that wonder a bit earlier to reap the benefits of the earlier start.
    
    If your scout was lucky enough to find culture in a ruin, you should have
    already picked a culture bonus by now.  If not, then you should hopefully
    receive one by turn 20.  If you want to grow without worrying about
    military, I would suggest picking the option between Tradition and Liberty
    that you're planning to move your game in.  If you want to invade others
    then by all means go Honor *early*, the earlier the better so that you can
    get all of the culture benefits from killing barbarians.
    
    
    [vv3vv]
    Turns 15-50
    
    Topics:
    a. What do I research next?
    b. How do I protect myself early-on?
    c. Which should I build first - Wonders, workers, settlers, buildings, army?
    d. Expanding your empire via (your first couple) cities.
    e. How do I get the yellow stuff... Gold!
    f. Religion
    
    
    At this point, there's less questions though there's more demands on you.
    
    a. What do I research next?
    
    Research what you need (and can use) immediately.
    
    This is in reference to two contexts.   In the beginning of the game,
    there's just so much that needs doing, such as getting the technologies to
    develop your resources, building certain units (archers/composite
    bowmen/horsemen), exploration (trireme), and Wonders that you need to get
    set up.  It may sound trite, but it's pointless to work on a technology
    that you really don't need.
    
    So what do you do?  Figure out your strategy and plan accordingly.  If you
    want to play culturally, make sure to work on technologies that can grant
    you the Wonders you need, and research towards educational buildings so
    that you can maintain a "first to the Tech, first to build the Wonder"
    method of playing.  If money-based, go after Currency and Guilds for
    markets and Machu Picchu.  If military, remember that getting to Civil
    Service will give you not only Horsemen, but also Pikemen... and that
    Pikemen are stronger than Swordsmen.  Also try to gun for Crossbowmen
    (Machinery), because you can pick up Workshops on the way.
    
    
    b. How do I protect myself?
    
    Defending early on via military:
    
    Keeping up with everyone is absolutely important in this game.  At the
    higher levels, the computer needs less food to grow a point, less
    production to complete units or wonders, and less science to gain a
    technology.  This means you need to find replacements, and fast.
    
    How much military do you need?:
    
    The military part is pretty easy to take care of, considering what happens
    in Civ V (compared to all previous Civ games).  Each city becomes its own
    archer, and can hold out for a few turns depending on the number of units
    and the technology of the units coming after the city.  The best defenders
    for a city happen to be ranged -- ranged defenders do not take damage when
    they attack, and they can be stashed behind a city yet shoot two squares
    forward, making them devilishly hard to get to without deploying mounted
    troops.  Two archers (plus perhaps a warrior to deal with the up-close
    issues) are enough to snuff out 85% of threats to the cities of your
    kingdom.
    
    Barbarians:
    
    In the beginning of the game there are six acceptable reasons for killing
    barbarians.
    
    1. There's a free worker just sitting there.
    2. You were asked by a city-state and will get influence.
    3. You've opened the Honor track and will receive culture.
    4. It's right next to your town and about to stomp your spice plantation to
    dust.
    5. It's astride a caravan route
    6. You're the Germans/Songhai/etc. and you get extra bonuses from
    flattening them.
    
    Otherwise... leave them alone and let them be someone else's problem.
    Letting them roam means that they'll kill enemy civ settlers that the enemy
    civ got greedy with, or take city-state workers that you can liberate later
    and receive bonuses for.  They will work as experience fountains, but only
    for the first two levels... you can get those just with defending your own
    territory.  In this case, the enemy of your enemy (your enemy being the
    other computer Civs) is your friend, and if the other Civs want to build
    cities, don't clear the way for them by taking out their threats.
    
    
    Sniffing out external threats:
    
    As I will discuss below, roads are not for the early-game anymore, which
    means you may have to keep troops close to a city.  This means more
    advanced sniffing is necessary to figure out where the threat may come
    from.  There's ways to figure it out though, and here are a few:
    
    
    -- A enemy civ capital city with no second city thirty to forty turns in.
    A sure sign that military is being built.
    
    -- In the diplomatic screen, hovering over the leader to find out ways that
    your relationship is affected includes "They covet your lands!"  The
    brighter it is, the more of a threat it is.
    
    -- Finding three or more units of theirs on the move, especially if they're
    moving towards you.
    
    -- A warlike civilization with a very early specialized unit (Huns, Aztecs,
    for naval battle - Carthage)
    
    -- Check the Demographics and find out who has the largest military.
    Increased scrutiny on this civ is a must, if they are known to you.
    
    -- An enemy civ that has swallowed up cities and is currently razing them.
    An absolutely sure sign that someone's out to eat up the map and mess
    everyone else up.
    
    -- Notifications that an enemy civ has had their capital taken.  The game
    now tells you who took the capital, as well as who controls the most
    capitals.  They have the military.
    
    -- If you managed to place cities to essentially block another civilization
    from expanding towards empty lands either intentionally or unintentionally.
    If they keep building military, it's to come after you.
    
    Yes, enemy Civs are 95% likely to be coming after you, especially since you
    likely have the fewest military this early in the game.  It may be
    "unfair", but did you sign up for a challenge or a squash?  I find that
    there are times that if I have an interesting start position, I will save
    it at the beginning of the game just in case I want to run a game again,
    and there's no stigma in restarting or recovering from autosaved files.
    
    FYI... it is absolutely possible to get bum rushed and killed, too... if
    you get a mad Hun after you early enough, or a mad Aztec, they can
    absolutely pump out five or six battering rams, or eight to ten jaguar
    warriors, and your game is definitely over.  Just restart and try again,
    knowing full well that if your start was that bad, going again is probably
    the best option.  In a recent playthrough (and unless I completely misread
    the damage indicator), I had a Hunnic battering ram hit my city for -167.
    There's just nothing one can do about that, especially when you see three
    more coming at you.  Just remember that if you do put down the Hunnic/Aztec
    threat, they're not going to have such ridiculously overpowered troops for
    the rest of the game.
    
    I do note that on my other games, the enemy Civ is more likely to come
    after you with their own specialized unit.  It's helpful to know or
    remember what their special units are and to have plenty of troops
    available that their type is weak against... for instance, make sure to get
    pikemen or lancers when the Mongols start trotting out their Keshik
    (cavalry-based archers).  Keeping scouts or other units that can station
    outside an enemy Civ's land to find out what the troop movements are is
    pretty helpful in this situation.
    
    
    Shooting at the correct targets when defending a city:
    
    Without a ground troop to occupy it, a city cannot fall.  You can throw as
    many catapults as you want at it, but it won't go anywhere without a ground
    troop.  So, you know what your likeliest targets are!  The ground troops
    will come first anyway, and if the computer does it in ones or twos, your
    two archers + city + warrior should do a good job of mopping up most of the
    ground troop threat even before the catapults or archers set up.  Even if
    the catapults and archers arrive, keep pounding those ground troops.  Three
    archers + one city will down a warrior in one turn, and depending on the
    bonuses can even get a spearman down too.  Two is minimum, but the computer
    will either waste the troop re-attacking your (hopefully strong) city or
    just retreat to lick their wounds.
    
    Alternatively, if the computer comes after you with quite a few melee
    troops and only a couple of siege units, you will know that it will be far
    more important to get the siege units down first.  The city will deal
    damage to each melee attacker, but if catapults/archers manage to put the
    city too far down then the melee attackers will take it.  So, the moral of
    the city defense story is to go after the troops that are in shorter supply
    first, as the remaining troops will have a weakness that will allow them to 
    be defeated easier.
    
    
    What happens if you get taken?
    
    Well, there's a couple things that you can do.  If it happens to be your
    capital city, the "exit to main menu" button is pretty popular, especially
    if you're at such a high level that you know losing the buildings you spent
    ~60-80 turns to build will submarine you for the rest of the game.
    
    If you had a peripheral city taken, or if you're a determined Darrell who
    wants nothing more than to redeem your capital city so that you can visit
    death, destruction, vengeance, and salting the earth afterward, then
    remember the following:
    
    1. Move troops out of a doomed city.
    
    Anyone left in there when a city is captured is lost forever.  If you have
    a ranged troop in your city, position it so that you can shoot at your city
    immediately afterward.  Position any melee troops right next to the city so
    that you can take it at next convenience
    
    2. Place all ranged/melee troops within range for immediate recapture.
    
    What's nice is that the computer had to send a melee troop in to occupy
    your former town.  So by the same token, you can knock down this melee
    troop while at the same time reconquering your town.  Make sure that when
    you place your troops for the imminent recapture that you do it on the
    opposite side of the town from where you are getting invaded, so you have
    the best opportunity of taking the town back first prior to getting
    attacked.
    
    3. It takes time
    
    If the enemy takes your city, it will be in unrest and unable to "defend"
    itself against you with a ranged attack.  However, if you retake your city,
    it can start shooting back at enemy troops without going through unrest. 
    This is yet another of the challenges of taking cities in Civ, though I
    find it a good strategy as well as historically grounded in fact.  This
    means though that your ranged troops or siege engines can shoot to
    recapture your town with very little fear of getting dropped by *the city*.
    Just make sure that you can take out their ground troops where necessary
    too.
    
    Remember that it holds for the opposite too... if you take an opponent's
    city, it will go through the same unrest and you won't be able to use the
    opponent's city to range-attack until unrest is over.
    
    4. Recapturing gives you wings.
    
    If your town got beat down to only a few points left, if it gets captured
    by the enemy and then recaptured by you the town will receive half of its
    hitpoints back.  It's almost as if the citizenry gets a boost when you give
    them a show of force, so they redouble their efforts.  (Granted, this is a
    second opportunity to knock down buildings, there is that issue...)
    
    
    The aftermath:
    
    If you do manage to take out the enemy civ's troops, immediately threaten
    their lands (safely!).  The enemy Civs often (but not always) panic and
    overreact with troops closer by. If they're currently out of troops you'll
    get a far better deal.  If they have more than one town, you may even pick
    up unexpected territory... just make sure that you're in the green happy-
    wise before puppeting, otherwise weaken them by razing it.  Bonus note...
    even if the city is undefendable, it will give you gold and science plus
    perhaps a religious point or two at the cost of happiness.  If you can
    spare the happiness, take it.  It will also be your new "canary in the coal
    mine" if it is undefendable, as the enemy Civ will try to get that city
    back first being such a juicy target.  You will then know if the enemy civ
    will want to come after your core cities at the cost of increased gold plus
    a couple happy faces.
    
    If you do go with a large military early, just remember that you can get
    other people to pay for it too.  How, you may ask?  Through the bullying of
    city-states.  They'll also hand over workers if you have enough troops on
    the outside of a town.  You need to have a large military to do this, but
    it's a decent two-for-one (worker for the price of military) if you're not
    trying to curry favor.  Heck, you can turn your military into effectively a
    city-state-supported workforce if you're diligent enough, and by
    threatening the non-hostile you could get quests where the hostile actually
    want you to threaten the non-hostile, which will net you money AND a new
    City-State friend.
    
    If you had to sue for peace and came out second-best... well, try again!
    The game does come with an autosave so that you can try to refight the last 
    war.  Not only will it give you practice, but if you're playing at the
    higher levels it will still give you a chance for winning.  When you lose
    production and/or buildings for a long stretch of time it can only hurt you
    going forward.  Of course, you can always just keep marching forward,
    accepting it as a greater challenge too.
    
    
    c. Which should I build first: wonders, workers, settlers, buildings, army?
    
    The best answer I can provide is that losing production is NOT an option.
    
    Wonders:
    
    Don't go after wonders if your empire can't support it.  Trusting one
    archer to defend against a horde of Aztec Jaguars while you finish
    Stonehenge in a desperate attempt to make up for lost religion is pretty
    much a white flag.  The best case scenario is that you're defending your
    cities with a lone archer while getting +5 religion per turn.  The worst
    case scenario is that there's no Stonehenge 'cause there's no city to build
    it in.
    
    Even in a normal situation, losing the production is not ever really a good
    thing.  That's not to say to never build wonders, but to make sure that
    your empire can support the possible lost production.  The replacement gold
    is really crummy when you don't make it, and you could have been building a
    military that could have taken the wonder from the city that builds it
    anyway.
    
    In the upper levels, when you get past Level Four (Prince) and higher, the
    computer goes from being even in production to needing less production to
    finish buildings/projects.  All you have to do to verify this fact is to
    get to the midgame on a King-level game and view a city that you've sent a
    spy to.  The city will only need 90% of the production you need in order to
    finish everything, including wonders.  If you lose 300 production to a
    failed Alhambra, remember that it could have meant a trebuchet plus two
    pikemen to take the city that ended up building it... and the gold that you
    get for the consolation prize is definitely not enough to buy all three
    units.
    
    Oh, and that losing production is not an option?  That goes for wonders
    too.  Extra hint... the secret to military in the game is that military is
    how you take someone else's production.  Not only in taking over cities
    that have built buildings/Wonders, but even in tying up an enemy Civ's time
    and resources into building an army rather than building improvements.  An
    army costs money and does not come with an immediate boost in any resource,
    unlike a building or a Wonder.
    
    
    Settlers:
    
    Additionally, don't build settlers that need to deploy ALONE you can't
    retake through your military... in other words, if you send a settler into
    barbarian-controlled lands alone, don't be surprised if it gets taken. 
    Trying to redeem a settler can be hard if you have no army to start
    redeeming it immediately, and that's quite a few turns of both production
    and NO growth to lose in one go.  If you're reasonably sure that the
    settler won't get taken, then by all means build and send it.  The thought
    to keep in mind though is if you need to creep your settler forward, the
    turns that it'll waste you could have already built the military unit
    anyway.
    
    
    Workers:
    
    While it's less dangerous to do, don't build a worker that you can't
    support with defense as well.  If you have multiple turns of the worker
    hiding in a city and then having to come back out to repair tiles that
    barbarians just rampaged over then you are wasting money, resources, and
    turns that won't be redeemable by the end of the game.
    
    
    Buildings/Military:
    
    Past that, use your current style of play to dictate what you need to do.
    I would suggest always getting scientific buildings up as soon as possible,
    especially on the higher levels, because a scientific building will help
    you build either more buildings or better units down the road.  Past that,
    make sure that you're putting up the buildings that will help your city to
    be as productive as possible for the purpose you built it for (e.g.
    granaries for plains cities, workshops for producing cities, etc.).  Try
    out a few different things to see which works best.
    
    
    d. Expanding your empire via (your first couple) cities.
    
    Choosing sites, managing expectations, natural wonders:
    
    Your capital should ideally be near two luxuries.  I've had games where a
    third was in easy reach, but typically there's no way you're going to start
    with three luxuries encircled by one city.  Typically, city #2 will be next
    to a luxury, and if you're lucky you might find a spot where you can get
    two luxuries as well.  Your first city spot has to be close, chosen pretty
    early and focused upon.
    
    In a good 60% of my games, I've found that my next favored spot for a city
    just will not be there for two reasons.  Either the other civ(s) got to it
    first, or the civ that would have gotten there first has eight warriors and
    five archers to throw at me when I plant my settler.  However, there are
    also games where I had to go to Spot #3 just because the computer
    absolutely jumped all over Spot #2 before I could do anything.
    
    The point?  It's rare if you manage to get Spot #2 and Spot #3 both, and if
    that happens hang on tight.
    
    See, this game isn't exactly a land-grab game anymore.  In Civ IV, as long
    as you had a forward-looking phalanx, keep hopping those settlers forward,
    and you can fill in the cities with phalanxes after you grab the territory.
    In Civ V, you don't start off with happy people in every city you build...
    you have to back it up with both workers to gain the luxury and with
    military to defend it, or your position is lost.
    
    HOWEVER!  There's hope!  Just remember, if the computer stakes out a city
    in a spot you desperately wanted, it's a GOOD THING.  Let the computer
    build it, farm it, etc and then you can swoop in with military to take it
    later.  You want and need ways to maximize your shield count, and even if
    you spend three warriors out of your force of multiple archers/catapults
    and melee units, it's still likely less than you would have had to spend
    with a settler, worker, etc. and it steals the production that the computer
    worked so hard to set up to begin with.
    
    Most natural wonders are imperative to take and can grow to provide +5
    culture in the late-game depending on the World Congress.  Ones that
    provide happy faces (Mt. Kailash, Fountain of Youth, Old Faithful) are most
    important.  Natural wonders that provide religious bonuses (Uluru, Mt.
    Ararat, Mt. Fuji, etc.) are also very important, and can even replace world
    wonders such as Stonehenge.  The only ones that are not worth the time and
    effort are the Grand Mesa (+3 gold and +2 shield, which you can get from
    any developed luxury mine) and the Barringer Crater (+2 Gold / +3 Science,
    which is easily replacable by any Jungle tile with a trading post in a town
    with a University -- +2 Food, +1 Gold, +2 Science before Economics).  Only
    get these as afterthoughts rather than as targets.
    
    City specialization:
    
    So when you have a city, what should you do with it?  High food cities are
    good for getting the specialist buildings, such as the Writers Guild which
    takes population points to be most effective.  Cities with plenty of hills
    do good in building wonders and creating your army.  Cities with lots of
    special squares, by rivers or by oceans are good spots for caravans to
    operate from.  Just make sure to improve as many of the squares around the
    city as possible so that the bonuses for resources are realized.  Cities
    with lots of jungle make for amazing science cities mid-game, to the point
    that waiting on a National College becomes a viable strategy... especially
    since the computer players rarely (if ever) examine your other cities for
    tech-stealing potential.  If you run a high-knowledge city that's not your
    capital, that lowers the tech-stealing potential of your capital city and
    typically the computer players won't figure out that there's a far higher
    potential city elsewhere, which makes defending technologies easier.  And
    since the game gives bonuses for stacking tourist improvements/Wonders into
    one city, it may as well be the one that you've been building Wonders in
    since you started the game, right?
    
    
    Additionally, the game's governors help you to keep your specialization
    going.  If you're trying to grow a city, feel free to leave it at "growth"
    until it gets to the size you want.  If you're trying to obtain science,
    then use the governor to reapportion your citizens to find science.  You
    can certainly micromanage to the point that you're directing individual
    citizens into individual tasks, but it will make your games take even
    longer than they did already... and you get a feel for what real historical
    rulers thought when they were asked what each individual citizen should do
    instead of taking advice from trusted council.  Specializing cities will
    keep you afloat technologically through the lean years, when all of the
    other civs are gaining technologies left-and-right... to be covered in a
    later topic.
    
    Beginning-game city specialization info: 
    
    When building new cities, do not let the computer dictate your
    food/production ratio.  Make sure that you check the city to see what you
    can produce and how quickly.  Setting the city to "production" can make up
    the food you lose via the granary, though it may be more likely that it
    will be much more important to get either defense (an archer) or culture (a
    monument) to consolidate your new gain, grab a resource, etc.
    
    As for the case against food-based growth off the bat:
    Production drops by percentage points in each city with the new Brave New
    World rules when you go underneath zero happiness.  It's better to get the
    production and to make your few citizens work smarter, not to grow out the
    city and make the whole rest of your kingdom suffer.  Building cities and
    adding citizens will create unhappiness, so make sure that when you go to
    claim new land with a city that you can support it via happy faces (+7
    happiness is optimal for creating a new city, as long as you can find a
    path to regain the +7 shortly after creation)
    
    Additionally, there are wonders that are limited by either culture (e.g.
    Forbidden Palace, Porcelain Tower) or by terrain (e.g. Colossus, Machu
    Picchu) that a small city could absolutely build if given the time.  A food
    focus early could defeat this purpose though, especially if you're also
    trying to build the national wonders (e.g. National College, Heroic Epic)
    because food-focused cities rarely build all the buildings you need quickly
    enough to make the national wonders viable.
    
    Resetting specialization back to "Food":
    
    With the above, keep in mind to make sure that you are getting food-based
    growth when additional happy faces present themselves.  Not only is each
    point of population worth +1 science and +1 gold (in cities other than your
    capital) per turn, but the multipliers (e.g. library, public school,
    market, bank, etc.) will make extra citizens much more productive too.
    I've found that the games that I typically have far more challenge with are 
    the games that I failed to have my cities grow themselves out at some
    point, and I have perhaps a third of the population of the largest civ(s).
    It may seem like you're hamstringing your city or cities because of all of
    the lost production when you switch over to a food-focus, but as above once
    your cities grow out to use the majority of your happiness, your entire
    empire will see the benefits of maximised population.
    
    
    e. How do I get the yellow stuff... Gold!
    
    That stuff is HARD to come by early.  There's a ton of things that you
    need, including a military to beat off any foes, roads to keep your
    military mobile enough to fight off other foes, a scout to find other civs,
    and workers to develop your resources.  Not only that, but those pesky
    buildings cost money too.
    
    Taking care of your gold reserves can be almost like gaining another city's
    worth of production.  A settler, for instance, is 500 Gold (on Standard
    length game and King difficulty)... or, it's five or six turns of no city
    growth.  A courthouse is multiple turns of unhappy faces, or about 600
    gold(?, I don't completely recall).  1000 Gold can be worth ten happy faces
    when it's given to mercantile city-states... or, in one of the most
    interesting situations, 1000 gold can help keep an enemy civ who's declared
    war off your back by allying with a city-state and letting the enemy civ
    either get bogged down, picked off, or at least slowed down from invading
    your position.  As a last resort, it can be used for walls/units if things
    get desperate too.  And, most importantly, piles of gold will give you the
    diplomatic victory that you may be searching for.  Where will it all come
    from?
    
    Developing second/third copies of luxuries:
    
    On my best games, I've developed redundant luxury items early.  Just
    starting out, enemy Civs are usually willing to give you top dollar (e.g. 7
    gold per turn) for extra luxuries.  Even if the redundant luxury is in the
    water (yikes!), getting that extra gold that early will allow you to keep
    the science coming while at the same time staying defended, which is
    absolutely necessary.  Just remember that the trade-off for selling your
    luxuries is possibly another new city for the Civ you sell the luxury to,
    as the +4 it will give them is the number that is typically needed for each
    new city.  (This can get them in trouble in the long haul if they can't
    find ways to keep the luxuries flowing in, though.)
    
    
    Roads and alternatives to building roads for workers:
    
    Roads are for closers. [/Glengarry].  Don't get the roads built until the
    city you're building to can support the road... if you're already gaining
    negative gold per turn and your city is four spaces away, you're looking at
    between twelve to sixteen losing turns just to break even again. Developing
    that additional luxury could be worth up to +7, and it will take less time
    than laying a road.  Yes, that means that you may have to stash troops in
    the cities more likely to be invaded and cross your fingers, but hopefully
    you read the invasion early warning signs listed above like a woodsman
    collects deer tracks.
    
    The alternative to building roads if you have an idling worker and little
    cash... do all of the below in descending order.
    
    1. Improve every single special tile you can find first.  These things will
    help your civ grow the fastest.  (Possible exception - jungle bananas, see
    below)
    
    2. Build farms in your outlying cities to grow them quicker.  (Or,
    alternatively, set the focus to "food" in the city screen.)
    
    3. Build enough mines/lumber mills to give your city a production boost
    when it's needed.  Typically, I try to set up at least two more mines or
    three more lumber mills than I would usually need.  This helps for when
    you're trying to rush through units, or a Wonder, and don't have the gold
    to deal with it.
    
    4. Drain marshes -- unless you're the Dutch and can build polders.
    
    5. Take out *unnecessary* forests.
    
    6. Take out *unnecessary* jungles, but only as a last resort -- see below.
    
    
    Jungle benefits:
    
    With jungles, note that when the University comes available, each one is
    worth +2 Science.  Keeping a jungle banana square will net you a +4 Food
    and +2 Science, instead of the possible +5 Food (or +4 food +1 production
    if on a hill).  Five jungle squares with trading posts and an in-town
    University will net +10 food, +13 science (+10 through the University skill
    and +3 due to the University bonus) and +5 gold.  Keeping Jungles is a
    strategy that I follow, especially since you can't replant if you so
    choose.
    
    Jungles are forests are also places that you can defend with troops, though
    it depends on how many ground troops (swords, spears, pikes?) you have
    available to defend and whether or not those areas can be ranged into.
    
    Caravans:
    
    Caravans can only get you limited amounts of gold early on.  The more you
    develop your city, the more gold a caravan will be able to net.  Caravans
    will also provide science, definitely important in the early going too, and
    as you develop the land around the home city for a caravan, the caravan
    will net more money.  Having water nearby will add to the bonuses.  They
    become far more important as the game wears on.
    
    f. Religion
    
    I must admit, to me this is one of the trickiest concepts in the game,
    second only to the culture bonuses.  It's difficult to figure out where
    your game will go in three hundred turns, and there are times that your
    religious bonuses are either unhelpful, or undefendable.  What little I can
    tell you to help you out I have below.
    
    Pantheon:
    
    For your pantheon, the most logical choice is to choose something that will
    net you a faith bonus based on where you're located... for instance, the +1
    for all unforested Tundra squares, or the +1 for all Desert squares.
    There's also a +2(!) for each stone/marble source you have, a +1 faith/+1
    culture for each copper/iron/salt source you have, and a +1 faith/+1
    culture for each gold/silver source you have.  These are definitely the
    easiest to obtain, and if you have enough of a resource it would be best.
    If you have a natural Wonder close, you can get an extra +4 faith from it
    via the "One with Nature" bonus, which would make even the marginally bad
    Natural Wonders listed above reasonable, but only if you can't get more
    faith from another vector.
    
    
    If you're going to be fighting quite a bit, the "God of War" bonus gives
    faith for every battle you win within 4 squares of a city that follows your
    Pantheon.  This is a good bonus if you're on defense quite a bit, but does
    little for offense unless you first prime the city you're going to war
    against.  
    
    There's another bonus that I've found... it's actually a bit of a delay for
    faith, but works really well.  If you choose the "Monument to the Gods",
    you'll get an extra 15% discount to building ancient or classical wonders,
    of which there's more than a few.  (E.g. Stonehenge, Colossus, Pyramids,
    Hanging Gardens, Mausoleum of Halicarnassus, Temple of Artemis, Oracle,
    Parthenon, Statue of Zeus, etc.)  Now, combine that bonus with one that the
    computer almost never takes when it comes time to select religious
    enhancements, which is +2 for every World Wonder.  Better yet, combine the
    +15% pantheon bonus with the +15% Tradition bonus, and if you're really
    lucky combine that with the +15% bonus from obtaining a source of marble.
    It will only take a few turns to get Wonders up with all those bonuses!
    And for later in the game, you now are getting a +2 for all of those
    classical wonders that you were able to build with the bonus(es), not to
    mention the fact that having the wonders gives additional bonuses to Great
    Persons, to underlying statistics, and can generate tourism/culture later
    on depending on what happens in the game.
    
    At any rate, the pantheon bonus is going to be one of the last religious
    bonuses you receive until you get to choosing your Religious Enhancement,
    which comes with the second Great Prophet.  If you choose a pantheon bonus
    that is not religious, you do run the risk of not being able to keep your
    religion... there's only five in the eight-player game, and worse yet only
    seven on the huge maps.  If you choose a pantheon bonus that is not
    religious and you want to keep it, at that point it would be best to build
    a temple or three.
    
    The Piety track of Culture bonuses:
    
    There's now the "Piety" set of culture bonuses, and you will find more than
    a few computer players running down this set of bonuses.  If you're used to
    the old culture from Civ V Original, or the Gods & Kings expansion... it'll
    throw you for a loop, because previously you could not have Piety and
    Rationalization open at the same time.  Now, there's no limits.  I think
    that the game designers realized that while some religions inspire people
    to stay in the dark so that the religion can continue to dominate, other
    religions inspire people to discover new concepts... think of Islam in the
    Middle Ages, with the advances in science, mathematics, and other fields.
    
    However, the problem with the Piety track is that unless you use your
    religion to gain the happy faces, none of the specific policies in the
    track gives you happy faces.  The other three tracks (Tradition, Honor,
    Liberty) all offer ways to get the happy faces, either via 1/2 of the
    population of the capital through the Tradition track or by connecting
    cities via road or by stationing military.  There are two religious tenets
    that provide happy faces, either through the total number of cities or by
    the population of foreign cities (IIRC), but that comes at a cost of some
    of the more excellent religious tenets, either the science track where
    missionaries/prophets can generate science by spreading religion, or via
    the faith provision where you can get +2 faith for each enemy city
    following your religion.
    
    The good news is that you will be guaranteed at least some sort of religion
    by going down the Piety track.  Purchasing units for 20% off will make it
    so that you will have an inquisitor at all times to guard against an enemy
    prophet coming by.  The Reformation beliefs are helpful, especially two...
    one that allows for you to receive tourism for each building you purchase
    with faith, or another that allows you to purchase any Great Person that
    you want with your faith rather than having to go all the way down the
    track.  Both can be useful, though it depends on how much religion you can
    generate.  If smaller amounts, then the tourism bonus would probably be
    best... the buildings you build don't need as much faith as the Great
    Persons.  If you're able to generate gobs of faith points, then getting the
    Great Persons reformation would be most helpful... you can get the Great
    Persons you need to get the tourism points anyway, they'll come with
    culture points too, and you can then fill in any of the empty slots you
    have with the appropriate type of Great Person.  You can even make sure to
    get the themed bonuses this way, especially if you need to generate those
    Great Persons during a certain age -- e.g. Broadway, which requires three
    Great Musicians during the exact same age to get the theming bonus.
    
    The other benefit to the Piety track is to be able to effectively pick a
    second Pantheon belief bonus via the Religious Tolerance policy, where a
    city with a majority religion can receive the Pantheon benefit of the
    second most popular religion.  The Pantheon beliefs aren't exactly the
    best, to be truthful, but in this situation you can not only control which
    one you get, but you can also pick on a per-city basis.  You can have an
    ocean city gain the +1 Production bonus while at the same time have an
    inland city receive the +1 Jungle Culture bonus... so they become more
    effective now that you've been able to choose based on the city.
    
    Religious bonuses can be applied to every method of winning... for those
    people who want to send missionaries to civs that they will soon conquer,
    there's a 20% bonus against enemy civs that follow your faith with the
    "Holy War" enhancement.  Defense can also net you a +20% if your own city
    follows a religion with the "Defender of the Faith" enhancement.
    
    Optimum Religion Bonuses:
    
    Rolling up the whole world under your religion is easiest with the
    Pilgrimage bonus, which generates +2 Faith for each foreign city that
    follows your religion.  Add to that the -30% faith bonus for
    missionaries/inquisitors, and you can pretty much flood the zone.  There's
    an extra -20% faith for all units purchased on the Piety track that will
    make this even more effective.  Make sure to build temples as well as the
    Great Temple for the extra +8 Faith and the extra pressure that the Great
    Temple will exert.
    
    So how necessary is religion to your world domination plans?
    
    It really depends.  I've played games where religion mattered very
    little... where for instance, one computer Civ ran away with the game and
    the other computer Civs just fought over which religion the computer Civ
    kept.  If you are one of the last to pick a religion (or did not pick a
    religion) you can believe that religion will be only an accessory to what
    you're doing.  If you're one of the first, though, you have the opportunity
    to pick traits for a religion that will help you as you go along your path.
    A discussion on changing religions is below in the Turns 50-250 section.
    
    Changing religions:
    
    If you're not crazy about where your religion is taking you, then feel free
    to see if another religion will come by.  You can do this passively, as the
    computer players will send missionaries to your towns.  You can do this
    aggressively, as you can absolutely capture both prophets and missionaries
    too.  You will not have the benefit of owning the holy city and getting the
    nationwide bonuses (e.g. increased religion, additional happy faces, etc.)
    unless you take the holy city.  However, there are town-by-town bonuses
    that some religions will have (e.g. building Cathedrals/Pagodas/Mosques),
    and you can take advantage of their enhancer beliefs too, such as +25%
    strength or the +20% defense/offense for shared religion.  The other bonus
    to this is if you're playing culturally, converting to the religion that
    all the other civs have will give you the additional 25% shared religion
    bonus that one of the civs is probably already reaping.  May as well even
    that score if your religion is lacking in other ways.
    
    Other odd and useful Religious strategies:
    
    You can always block missionaries from either moving through your territory
    or block cities from accepting a missionary via both military and civilian
    units.  As a missionary needs to be next to a city in order to work its
    magic, if it cannot get next to the city then it cannot do so.  It may also
    take attrition damage while waiting for your city to become available.
    Similarly, make sure that if you send a missionary into a city that you do
    so while it still has moves left, or it could also absorb attrition damage.
    
    If you happen to capture a Great Prophet before it can make one conversion,
    you can use the Great Prophet to create a holy site.  Useful if you manage
    to find one that was captured via barbarians, or if you preemptively take a
    Great Prophet that an enemy civ thought to send to your shores.  Be careful
    though, you won't know how many conversions the Great Prophet will have
    left on it until you take it.
    
    All units that you have control of, be they military or civilian, cost
    gold.  If you happen to capture a Prophet or Missionary of another
    religion, you will need to pay for that unit until the day you disband it.
    Feel free to keep it around long enough to be useful, but remember that
    you're paying for it each turn.
    
    
    [vv4vv]
    Turns 50-250
    
    
    Topics:
    
    a. Changing your goals.
    -Remaining with the status quo
    b. Technology
    -Technology Slingshots (important subset notes)
    c. Happy Faces
    d. Culture and the Culture Tree bonuses
    
    
    Through this segment of the game, you're building towards the end game.
    While you may need only one or two of the sets of tips below describing how 
    to win in a certain method, the strategies below will set you up to get to
    the end-game scenarios (here, roughly defined as the "modern age" and
    afterward)
    
    
    a. Changing your goals.
    
    It's around the end of this phase of the game that everything will be
    fairly clear.  You will know how each computer Civ is playing and which
    civilizations are pretty much dead in the water.  It's at this point that
    you will need to know what your civilization can do best and how it will be
    able to win.  You hopefully still have your plan at the beginning of the
    game and followed it as best as possible, but maybe you had something
    change your plan.  Here's a couple things that will help you to reevaluate
    what you're doing and where you can go.
    
    
    Getting blocked into going tall:
    
    It's not uncommon to lose a couple of your favored spots.  The game though
    will only allow cities to be built within four hexes of each other, and so
    if a computer civ plops a city near where you wanted to plop a city, you
    have to make a choice to either build the city but lose a portion of the
    workable environment, or to not build the city at all.  If you find
    yourself getting relegated further and further into a corner, then by all
    means you may want to think about going with a tall empire (few cities)
    compared to a wide empire (many cities).  Another indication that this
    could be a winning strategy is the ability to stay ahead technologically or
    being able to construct multiple Wonders before others are able to do so.
    You need to make sure that exploration is undertaken at some point though,
    even if you have to lose a Scout or two (gasp!) to the effort, because you
    need to make sure you have an accurate picture of all of the city-states in
    the game.
    
    Remember that one of the main things that you want to do if you build a
    wide empire is to not only get access to multiple luxuries, but to also
    gain access to resources ranging from horses/sheep/cattle/deer/wheat/
    bananas/iron/coal/fish/etc.  A wide empire is able to benefit more from
    multiple cities if those multiple cities area working on bases of those
    special items, as it will provide boosts to food/production/etc.  If you
    can't get to those squares, give some thought to not expanding outward.
    
    
    Unexpectedly finding enough territory to go wide:
    
    Conversely, if you're finding that your nearest competition is quite a few
    hexes away, then check out your land!  Figure out if it's feasible/helpful
    to build the extra city or two.  Figure out what the land will give you
    ALONG with the luxury or resources that you're currently salivating over...
    if you're building a third production city, is it necessary or should you
    reposition your settler to pull in more grassland?  Can you find a second
    jungle city where your science output will dwarf everyone else?  After turn
    150 or so, any new cities that you build may need to be specialized... you
    will have to make sure that they're planned out so that they're effective.
    So figure out the role that each new city would fill if you keep filling in
    the map with your territory.
    
    
    Growth through colonization:
    
    Additionally, around this time figure out how likely or unlikely it will be
    for you to target a colonization expansion approach.  If you have even one
    oceanside city, build three or four triremes and have two settlers at the
    ready.  Then target the heck out of "Astronomy" as a tech.  If you get
    there first, you have the pick of the lands that were out of reach to the
    others as long as you can find them first.  (If you're Spain, you get
    handfuls of gold for finding these places first to boot).  If you go with
    this method, make sure as well that you have at least one if not two
    workers to send with your two settlers, and can get units to defend your
    cities sufficiently.
    
    
    Military decisions:
    
    Defending territory and obtaining new territory implies two very different
    military levels.  Depending on your setup, you can defend territory all the
    way down to the second-to-last or even the last-place military size.
    Keeping large amounts of troops should ideally only occur if you are going
    to play militarily.  Keeping them as a deterrent will work to a point, but
    you will be missing out on opportunities if you do, especially with your
    gold.  So, make sure that you have enough military for what you want to
    accomplish and no more... remember that the gold that you could be spending
    on one of your troops could be going to a city-state for an alliance or to
    another civ to create a research agreement, two very important ways to
    spend gold that will help you far more in the long run than Archer #5
    idling through fifty turns.
    
    In other words... I have lost games before that I have started to play
    militarily but have forgot to do my troop drawdown afterward.  Don't make
    the same mistake... either use the military or lose it.  As a famous
    philosopher probably once said, if you stick to the middle of the road,
    prepare to get squashed by oncoming traffic.
    
    Caveat: if you're in the crossroads around four other civilizations, feel
    free to keep the military... or better yet, start neutralizing threats.
    Or... give them some of the money you'll be saving from lack of military
    and sign as many agreements as you can, making sure to remain friends so
    that you can continue obtaining research agreements.  Being in the
    crossroads hopefully means that you can maximize your caravan routes
    regardless so that you'd be pulling in more gold than someone who needs
    less military yet can't find as many good trade partners.
    
    
    Reacting (or, proacting) to other civilizations:
    
    It is so important to figure out who your greatest enemy is, so that you
    can develop a plan to neutralize it.  The plan may be as pedestrian as
    fighting a stalemated war to keep the fifty-pound gorilla tied up in
    military production and drain his treasury, or it could be as elaborate as
    specific checkpoints to gain science and filling in the blanks with spies
    to outgain the tech advantage and beat a cultural Civ to their Wonders (or
    artifacts).  Do NOT put off dealing with your greatest enemy... the longer
    that you let them grow by themselves and leave them unchallenged, the more
    of an advantage they will build up against you.  Just figure out the
    pathways that the other civ gives to you, figure out who can benefit most
    from having that civ taken down a peg, move your pieces into place and go
    from there.  Feel free to use some of the strategies below outlined in the
    endgame section for ways to deal with them.
    
    
    -Remaining with the status quo?
    
    Should you keep the game rolling how it is, or should you try to shake
    things up?  This, to some extent, is one of the hardest things to figure
    out in the game.  The Hunnic game I referred to in the introduction is
    the best example that I can give you of a game that needed no shaking
    up... because I was on top.  On the other hand, I subsequently played
    another Emperor game where I was a solid second place throughout... and
    really did nothing to try to figure out a way to become first place.  I
    didn't attempt to outgrow, outgold, outinfluence, or out-anythings.
    Not only that, I put my military away, which had the effect of me paying
    only for deterrence... handsomely.  Rolling with the status quo meant that
    I was happy with the way the game was going... and I was going to end up
    second.
    
    If your goal is the victory and you see yourself in second, third, or even
    fourth place, not going anywhere, you need to do something, anything to
    try to get yourself in first.  The funny thing is that it may not even be
    wholly necessary to target the first-place civilization in order to shake
    up the map.  Here's a couple thoughts that will hopefully see you on top
    of a reshuffled world.
    
    Can you outgain in some way?
    
    This is the safest and most pedestrian way to find out if you don't need
    to go all-in militarily.  My go-to choice is to find out if I can outgain
    (and heavily) in gold.  Outgaining in gold opens up both city-state
    luxuries and food for you, as well as research agreements.  If you can
    some sort of comfortable cushion outgaining in gold on the first-place
    civilization, then you can turn that outgain into an advantage to be
    exploited for the long haul.
    
    A close second-place is to find out if I can outgain food-wise.  The food
    outgain has a couple drawbacks though.  One is that a food outgain is
    constrained by your happiness.  You can only grow out your empire so far
    if you don't have the happiness to support it.  The other is the fact that
    it will take longer to get your food production to translate into an
    advantage compared to the gold advantage... for instance, you can't take
    city-states (and luxuries) away from first place.
    
    The way to find out if you can outgain with food or gold is:
    
    Gold: Check the demographics for your GNP, find out if it is anywhere close
    to first-place.  If you're more than 20%-25% off, then run your crash
    program to upgrade gold.  If after a series of markets/caravans/other you
    still find yourself lacking, check the diplomatic screen and see how many
    city-states are allied with first place.  If there's more than three or
    four, then it's pretty clear that you won't be able to press a gold
    advantage. (It's far easier to keep a city-state's alliance than to have
    to pay for it, and it's a good indicator that first place's gold advantage
    is more extensive than you can overcome in the short-term)
    
    Food: Check the demographics screen to see the "Total Population" figure
    as well as the "Yield per Turn" figure.  It's still possible to come back
    if you're only a third of the size of the leading civ, but you'd better be
    able to at least equal their yield per turn if you want to keep up with
    them food-wise.  But, keep a close eye on your happiness meter, if you're
    already below 5 then you won't get very far.
    
    A technology gap can be made up between the two items above, so even if
    you are a few percentage points behind, find out if these things work.  If
    you are more than seven percentage points behind, it may be time to find
    out if you have a military solution in your future... and you'd better put
    up as many tech buildings as you can get your hands on, and sign as many
    agreements as you can with other Civs.
    
    The warning is that a military solution when you're more than seven points
    behind may mean that the civ that you are attacking has either your level
    of advancement military-wise, or MORE than your level of advancement
    military-wise.  If that is the case, you'd better figure out ways for the
    first-place civ to grind their military against other people before you
    have to start dealing with it.
    
    So, if you can't dope out a way to get your civ to make up whatever gap
    you see, you need to dope out a tactic to get the first-place civ to waste
    their production militarily.  Here are a few ideas.
    
    Target a city-state or two.
    
    You can usually take out two without the other City-States giving you a
    penalty.  The good news is that you can try to choose two that would really
    throw a monkey-wrench into the top Civ's plans... even to the point that
    they're trying to invade you, where you have the advantage in healing lost
    hitpoints and possibly even (hopefully!) picking off their embarked units
    with your navy, or capturing their capital ships with your harassing
    privateers.  The only thing to be careful of is that ALL of the protectors
    of a city-state will be the ones most likely to declare on you, and you do
    obtain a warmonger penalty for taking out a city-state or two.  True
    friends ignore the penalty and stay bronies forever, though.
    
    
    Ally with the first-place Civ to take out civilizations BETWEEN you.
    
    Remember how hard it is to get your troops in position because you have to
    go around another civ?  Well, if you know who first place will be, feel
    free to have them help you take out any obstacles between you.  This means
    that the first-place civilization will be building militarily, and it won't
    even be against you.  It'll be in SERVICE to you, and they'll have their
    production taken away from someone who isn't even you.  And they're
    destroying their own buffer zone, right?
    
    If you manage to take all or most of the cities, then feel free to
    integrate and defend against the time that you will be invading first-place
    (if that is your true goal).  All that extra money, science, and production
    can't hurt either, and you have territory that heals you at double-rate
    (or two-and-a-half rate within cities) as it would have if it were empty.
    
    If the first-place civ ends up taking some, most, or even all of the
    cities... well, you know where the targets are, and now the enemy civ is in
    the process of having to integrate and swallow up all that territory, which
    could result in plenty of unhappy faces.  Additionally, if they took the
    bulk of the territory, the hope is that they also took the bulk of the
    damage to their military.  At this point, find out if you have any allies
    that were just as "appalled" at the first-place civ's warmongering as you
    are.
    
    
    Is there anyone else that needs a butt-whooping?
    
    If first-place is firm friends with their buffer Civ(s), then find out if
    there is ANYONE else that first-place hates.  It's harder to have to split
    up your military, but getting first-place to declare war really is the goal
    here... and you can absolutely satisfy goal #2, which is to hopefully pick
    up territory, and goal #3 which will hopefully be to get the rest of world
    opinion against first-place through their warmongering, as well as goal #4
    hopefully weakening first-place through unhappiness.
    
    
    Declaring war on the buffer civilization anyway:
    
    Note though that if first-place is firm friends with the buffer Civ, you
    can absolutely get both of them to attack you if you declare on the buffer
    Civ.  This may be a good thing or a bad thing, depending on your ability
    to counterattack... but it's food for thought that anytime you can fight
    a *safe* war on your turf is a time that you can grind others' armies to
    dust.  Just be sure to keep in mind how quickly first-place can restock
    so that you're not overextending, but cheer yourself on when first-place
    needs to restock because you're already throwing a monkey wrench in their
    plans of world domination.
    
    
    Ally with second-place, third-place, anyone else to go up against first-
    place:
    
    If you're so deep on the chart that there's not a whole lot you can do,
    then you need the preternatural ability to play gadfly and provoke the
    whole world into war.  Anything you can do to get the top dog(s) fighting
    against each other is absolutely necessary.  What's nice is that oftentimes
    if there are two enemy civs that are close by and also leading in points,
    they will ask for allies against another.
    
    Gauge who is more willing to provoke a fight, for instance... and start
    denouncing the other party.  You can also find out in the World Diplomacy
    screen if one or the other party has already denounced.  If there's a
    denouncment on record, that civ is the one that is at least spoiling for
    a fight, and feel free to denounce on the same civ that was denounced.
    This will get you noticed as a possible friend and war-partner in the
    future.
    
    [If you don't like the status quo, change it.  Lessons for Civ V... lessons
    for life.]
    
    I cannot emphasize enough that getting your rivals embroiled into a war
    will give you the ability to catch up and pass them.  In a recent level
    6 game, I was actually all the way down in fourth out of five.  However,
    when first-place and second-place decided to declare war on each other,
    I'm still fourth-place but I'm first in four areas that will dictate
    victory down the road... food generation, population, technology, and
    GNP.  Without this war, I would still be in fourth place... but now I
    can devote myself to scientific pursuits (e.g. getting Eiffel Tower/
    Broadway) while first/second place duke it out, and I ended up going
    from fourth in population to first in population in only a few turns.
    
    
    b. Technology:
    
    It is SO IMPORTANT that you keep up researching and either gain on the
    leader or become the leader on technology through this area of the game.  I
    cannot tell you how frustrating it is when you're fighting Great War
    Bombers, battleships, and infantry when you only have access to riflemen,
    cavalry, and artillery.  You will do nothing better than a delaying
    action... which has its place, but if you're seven or more technologies
    down, you need to come up with a way to get the research back quickly.  You
    may be able to do so with an opponent that gets all the way to the Atomic
    Age that many technologies up, but it will depend quite a bit on the level
    you're playing... it may just be too late.
    
    With that said, here's a few things to keep in mind about tech in the middle
    ages:
    
    Typically, the computer usually goes into specific tracks, especially to
    pick up currency (to gain Petra) and to get to Civil Service (to gain both
    pikemen and Chichen Itza).  You can use this to beat the computer either to
    the Education track, setting up your research for the long haul, or to pick
    up the lower end of the spectrum (Engineering/Metal Working) so that you
    can boost your shields and your defenses.  Another way to go is one of the
    new bonuses in the Commerce track, which is that Landsknechts are available
    as the second Commerce bonus.  Of course, your defenses will be more than
    set if you pick up Crossbowmen, and getting all your cities in shape to
    start setting up a military to deal with those Civs that go in a different
    direction would be helpful.
    
    Just remember that if you follow the other Civs into the same track, at
    higher levels they'll be likely to get the upgraded soldiers as well as the
    wonders first unless you have a solid plan (e.g. a Great Engineer to help
    finish Wonders, or a ton of catapults/spearmen just waiting for the Civil
    Service tech to become a pikemen/catapult invasion force).  Whenever a new
    tech comes up, have either a plan for what you're going to do with the
    immediate tech or open up the tech screen to figure out a tech that's two
    or three downstream that you can really make hay out of.
    
    If you don't have a clear goal currently, go after the technology that will
    bring you closer to the next-level research facility (university, public
    school, research lab).  It will make the rest of the tech-tree that much
    easier to develop.  Even if you *do* have a clear goal, balance that goal
    against the possibility that you may fall behind somewhat in science
    production.
    
    
    -- Technology slingshots:
    
    When a new technology comes available for you, especially if it is a siege
    technology, you need to capitalize on it as soon as possible for greatest
    benefit.  Having spare money around is extremely important for the upgrade
    possibilities that this provides.  Planning invasions around mass
    technology upgrades will also give your army an edge in defeating an enemy
    sooner... there's nothing more frustrating than ineffective bombardment
    against an enemy city that newer technology could complete far sooner (and
    with less casualties), especially since every turn you spend in enemy
    territory kills your units that much quicker.
    
    For what it's worth, obtaining Flight first will also give you a bit of an
    advantage, especially against foes that are stubbornly resistant to
    shellings from artillery pieces.  Just keep in mind though that new planes
    are prohibitively expensive (recent game on King, each bomber was 980) and
    bombers do take damage when attacking, unlike the siege pieces that are out
    of range.  At this point though, just as Flight comes available, it is
    possible to continue bombardment on a city through six to eight turns with
    one artillery piece to ensure a city cannot heal plus the two planes
    (hopefully with the City bombing bonus) alternately shelling and healing...
    enabling you to take the city with either a cavalry unit or a melee boat at
    the end.
    
    If I were to characterize, on offense it is more important to get your
    siege units upgraded than it is your front-line units (e.g. musketmen,
    riflemen, great war infantry, infantry).  On another recent game, I ran
    into this very situation, where it ended up being cavalry (at 34 strength)
    against infantry (at 70 strength), and the difference was the fact that I
    could aim four artillery units at the infantry and drop it in one turn...
    then go back to shelling the city.  Of course you do not want to find
    yourself in this position too many times, but I also knew that this was the
    one civilization that was more advanced than other civs and I wouldn't be
    having the same problem as my war machine marched on to the next civ.
    
    For archipelago maps or extended sea battles, stock at least three or four
    privateers.  They *CAPTURE SHIPS*!  It's so crucial to be able to not only
    down someone else's ship, but to be able to use it against them.  In a
    recent game against England, who must've sent the better part of fifteen
    Ships of the Line against me, my Privateers managed to capture and keep
    about four or so.  Important because Computer England kept building naval
    units to send against me, while I was free to build both Eiffel Tower and
    Broadway to ruin their cultural victory approach.
    
    Privateers work even better against lower-level ships, triremes and
    galleases get taken very easily.  Why is this part of the technology
    slingshot section?  Taking the computer's galleases can transform your
    all-melee navy into a ranged force with melee escorts.  Better yet, advance
    once from galleases to get frigates.  Advance twice to get battleships.
    Only paying ~650 gold or so per battleship?  For four battleships, 2600
    gold, that's about ten turns or so of good gold generation, and you haven't
    even wasted a single turn of production making them.  Battleships have a 65
    ranged attack and a 3 range, so you've pretty much got an invasion fleet
    with those self-same privateers running sub interference, though you'd
    better get your own subs in the water shortly thereafter.  For those
    playing militarily, privateers are amazing on archipelago/continental maps.
    
    Try to make the privateer take the killing blow on all ships everywhere
    unless your privateer is too short of health.  You can capture bigger and
    better ships with the privateers (example: the previously mentioned Ships
    of the Line), though make sure you don't send your privateers too far
    forward if you want to keep them, and defintely do NOT count on them
    winning ships because it's never a sure thing.
    
    If you can find a barbarian camp that's pumping out ships?  It may as well
    be your own personal shipyard, especially since you get a combat bonus
    against barbarians and more often than not, they're pumping out lower-level
    boats.  If you find any of these places in the polar regions, feel free to
    send a privateer or two to "recruit" a few barbarians into the national
    navy.  Dutch Sea Beggars are especially good for this, since they also come
    with the "Supply" promotion, allowing you to heal +15 outside of friendly
    waters.  (The "Supply" promotion is pretty key for all naval melee units,
    really.)
    
    Technology slingshots also work if you're not playing militarily.  I
    already reviewed colonization above, but to remind you again upgrading
    triremes at the moment you obtain Astronomy will give you a very strong
    reconnaissance force to find everyone throughout the rest of the map. 
    (Note -- if Spain, make sure you're building your Knight+Settler
    Conquistador units as well)
    
    Plus, now that the World Congress is unlocked via finding all civs, if
    you're on a continent or archipelago map with unexplored space and a
    possible Civ lurking, then you could reap the benefit of the caravels even
    further via opening the World Congress in your own capital.  At the very
    least, those same Caravels can find you the Natural Wonders, upping your
    happiness, and perhaps gaining influence with City-States.
    
    The last note with technology slingshots is that if your "special" unit has
    a promotion, such as the American musketman that will move in hills at
    double-speed and battle victories gain Golden Age points, that promotion
    will remain in place if you upgrade the unit.  Therefore, if you build five
    or six musketmen as they come out, they can subsequently be upgraded to
    infantry (or mechanized infantry) who will also have double movement points
    in hills and will contribute points toward golden ages.  This is a very
    helpful/useful way to have a special unit continue to be active long after
    that unit's putative usefulness is over.
    
    Yes, this means that the English can have two-hex gatling guns and the
    Chinese can get two-shot gatling guns in the late-game, based on each civ's
    upgraded replacements for the crossbow.  I don't know if they'll ever
    change this, but I believe that it gives that much more of a challenge and
    is a good part of the game.
    
    The flip-side to this is that when the Mongols upgrade their Keshiks...
    they become just ordinary Cavalry, as any range bonuses become obsolete.  I
    *believe* that health bonuses that are the same (example: March, where the
    unit heals even if it performs an action) will carry over, and I also
    believe that the Keshik's bonuses for creating Great Generals is still
    active upon upgrading too.  (Please feel free to correct/add to this
    section as necessary)
    
    
    --Keeping up Technologically
    
    This demands its own section, if for no other reason than this is one of
    the few places that I will mention espionage in this strategy guide.  For
    me, one of the only ways that I can keep up reasonably well with the tech
    leaders through this section of the game is to immediately station spies
    in enemy civ's capital cities.  Once you first send the spy and the spy
    establishes their espionage in the city, you will hopefully find a city
    that will give you a tech in less than twenty turns.  Putting your spy
    in the capital city of the best civ will give you the best chance to get
    a tech, but be careful of getting found.  You will have lost all the turns
    that it took for your spy to get established, a five-turn spy penalty so
    that you get a new spy back, and then another four or so turns just
    getting the spy back to the city that you had surveilled in the first
    place.
    
    Getting your cities set up with a university soonest is the best strategy
    that I can endorse.  If you're able to dedicate one city towards science
    generation, it would be optimal... but it's not always practical,
    especially on smaller maps.  For those times that you can't get a city
    dedicated to tech, make sure that all your cities have the latest tech
    gear even if they're specialized in other ways (e.g. barracks in one
    city, market/bank in another, etc.)
    
    c. Happy Faces
    
    Happy faces pretty much control the game.  Happier civs do more than
    unhappier civs, just like people in real life.  Happy civs get to have
    golden ages, which increase money and production.  Happy civs also get to
    add more population to the game... and the civ's population goes a very
    long way to telling whether or not they'll win a game.
    
    ---Happy Faces, More Cities, More Population:
    
    It's not exactly a newsflash that the winner a Civ game is the nation that
    has most of the population.  Having most of the population means that you
    are gaining the most science, or the most gold, or the most culture, or the
    most everything.  Having more population means that you can generate Great
    People quicker as well... and cultural Great People benefit both tourism
    and culture (with the Culture discussion below).  
    
    Getting population points for all of these benefits requires the happy
    faces.  If the happiness even dips below 0, all cities in a Civ take an
    immediate -75% in growth rate.  There will be no new population born at
    this point... and you can bet that at the higher levels, none of the other
    civs will have this problem.  (They'll likely be on their way to getting
    another Golden Age and further leaving you in the dust).  If you're not
    growing in this game, you're on the path to not winning.
    
    On top of that, in Brave New World rules, production takes a hit too... you
    lose 2% production per unhappy face, and I believe that you lose 2% of gold
    per unhappy face as well.  So, if you get caught while building your
    colosseum, it may even take you an extra turn to finish it.
    
    Building cities will give you an automatic -4 to your happiness meter, and
    it will also make your culture and Golden Age meters reset to higher
    numbers too.  This isn't a build-and-forget game anymore, and especially in
    the beginning of the game you need to be super-careful where the next
    couple cities go, so that you can continue to be happy and growing.  Also
    keep in mind that cities typically go from 1 to 2 in size extremely
    quickly, and from 2 to 3 in size fairly rapidly too... and typically as
    each point of population equals another unhappy face, planting a city
    without working on happiness (e.g. building Circuses/Colosseums, developing
    luxuries) will result in a -7 unhappiness within a short period of time.
    
    ---Methods for keeping happy:
    
    There are quite a few easy ways to keep happy in the game.  First and
    foremost is to develop all your luxuries as soon as possible.  Each +4 that
    you can gain off of a luxury is four more citizens that could be gaining
    you production.  Closely related to the luxuries are natural wonders, such
    as the Fountain of Youth (+10), Old Faithful (+3), and Mount Kailash (+2),
    though these are pretty rare to run across.  Every natural wonder you
    discover gives you a permanent +1, so exploring a normal-sized map should
    give you a permanent +7/+8 or so depending on the terrain.
    
    Building the happiness buildings is also important, such as Circuses /
    Colosseums.  Circus Maximus is a national wonder, unlockable through
    building Colosseums in all towns, and gives an additional +5 happiness...
    so prioritize Colosseums over circuses when possible.
    
    Trading luxuries is also an option in the beginning of the game, and
    through the game depending on how you play.  There's no guarantee that the
    computer players will have luxuries to provide to you, so stay diligent in
    finding out when they're available!  Luxuries can go one-for-one (e.g. I
    give you my spice for your pearls) with friendly/neutral civs and three-
    for-one with "guarded" civs.  It's actually a good deal to get luxuries for 
    luxuries compared to luxuries for money, because getting +4 citizens will
    give you more production than the 7 gold per turn you get maximum... but on
    the other hand, if you're close to 0 and the luxury is not renewed, going
    negative is definitely not helpful.
    
    Happy faces can come in groups from the Culture tree as well.  The main
    ones that provide happy faces include Tradition, 1/2 of capital
    population... Liberty, for number of cities connected to the capital...
    Honor, for troops stationed in each city... Patronage, which gives a +2 for
    all luxuries provided by a city-state, including copies... Commerce, which
    gives a +2 to all different luxuries you own... Exploration, which gives a
    +1 for all ocean-based improvements (lighthouse, harbor, seaport).  The
    Ideology-based happy faces are Freedom, which is -50% unhappiness for all
    specialists, Order which provides +2 per monument, and Autocracy which
    provides +3 per Courthouse and +1 per defensive building (wall, castle,
    etc.), and all three are entitled to the "National Healthcare" policy of +1
    happy face per national wonder (e.g. palace, National College, etc.)
    
    Note though that you will not be able to access all of the happiness-based
    cultural bonuses.  For instance, to get to the Commerce cultural bonus, you
    have to open the Commerce track and get two additional bonuses.  There is
    nowhere near enough culture in the game to be able to obtain all of the
    happiness bonuses, so you have to pick your culture bonuses carefully.
    
    City-states provide happy faces too.  Be on the lookout for mercantile
    city-states because there is a +3 for just being their friend (30
    influence).  Being a full ally can net you +11, from the friend bonus
    through their "special resource" (typically porcelain or jewelry) AND their
    land-based luxury.  Allying other city states will get you the +4 for
    luxuries as long as it's not a luxury that you currently have.  Try to
    cultivate relationships if at all possible, and allying city-states may not
    even cost any money.  If you do have to pay off a city-state, keep in mind
    that the 1000 it takes for +50 influence may be better served in buying a
    colloseum somewhere, especially if it's the last city before you can build
    the Circus.
    
    Religion can fill some of the gap, especially depending on the bonuses.
    Buildings bought with faith usually give at least +1 happiness, such as the
    mosque and cathedral, and the pagoda will give +2 happiness.  Other powers
    include happiness based on temple/worshipper availability, or the number of
    cities if you created a religion and follow the specific tenet.  
    
    Wonders will provide happy faces, or at least decrease unhappiness.  The
    biggies are Notre Dame, for +10 happiness, and the Eiffel Tower which gives
    you +5.  Later in the game, the CN Tower gives +1 happiness and +1
    population point per city... sometimes they do cancel each other out, but
    depending on the way your cities are built it can give extra happy faces.
    There is also the Taj Mahal, which offers a +4, and Chichen Itza also
    provides a +4.  The Mosque of Djenne gives a +1 happy face (as it functions
    as "a mosque").  Neuschwanstein gives +1 happiness and +1 gold and +2
    culture for all castles in a civ.  Prora gives happy faces for those
    following the Autocracy ideology, +2 base and +1 for every two culture
    bonuses that you've earned.  And building the Forbidden Palace will
    decrease unhappiness by 10%, but requires Patronage to be opened.
    
    Lastly... free additional happy faces can come from the International Games
    World Project, which can be voted on in the World Congress.  The
    International Games can give you a +6 permanent happiness if you finish
    silver and bronze -- which means if you get enough production to get up and
    over a certain number, whereby silver will follow bronze because bronze
    will be earned on the way to silver.
    
    d. Culture
    
    Gotta have it even in the beginning, or else the end game will absolutely
    suck the bag.  There's two ways to go about it... either build it yourself
    or take it from someone else.  Just remember a couple of principles here.
    
    --If someone's building culture nearby you and building it quickly, they
    may have a weak defense.  Getting them to stop building culture could be as
    easy as declaring war and putting a few troops in position to threaten...
    as above, forcing them to build military will be tantamount to wasting
    their production, especially if you defend via ranged units (archers,
    catapults) with the occasional horseman to keep their own ranged units
    honest.
    
    --If someone's building it far away, you're going to have to figure out a
    way to get others around that Civ to declare wars against them, or to find
    out if you can build culture buildings as a defense.  And whatever you do,
    only engage in open border treaties with them when absolutely necessary,
    and trade with them (via caravan) only when absolutely necessary.  Those
    two things will help their tourism bonus overwhelm your culture bonus...
    but their tourism bonus will definitely go down far quicker if they're
    defeated.  Also remember, one of the culture tracks will raise the tourism
    bonus for shared trade routes/open borders/shared religion.  Allowing them
    to buy extra resources can also lead to them getting more happiness and
    therefore additional culture as well, so be careful when dealing with the
    culture hog!
    
    
    Typically, the Civ that is building out culture is able to do so because
    their scientific endeavors are so far advanced.  This is the surest sign
    that this is the Civ that will become your greatest enemy towards the end
    of the game.  If they manage to get some combination of Parthenon, Globe
    Theater, Louvre, or Uffizi, this is pretty much the warning shot across
    your bow.  Dealing with them is outlined more extensively below.
    
    
    The Culture Tree: Early Game
    
    This is the area that I still have problems with myself.  It feels
    sometimes that I don't play this part of the game very effectively... so
    feel free to take all of this with a grain of salt.
    
    Firstly, I tend to stick with either the Tradition or the Liberty values in
    the beginning.  Honor is good for maps with tons of barbarians, and you
    need to have a force in order to collect all that sweet, sweet culture. 
    The Piety track... is somewhat surprisingly replacable without tons of
    extra effort, in my opinion.  At the very least, if you go with the Piety
    track, you need to make sure to take it all the way down to the Reformation
    bonus, because the bonuses on the way to Reformation are pretty chintzy.
    
    At the higher levels, the tradition track and the Republic track allow you
    to get happy faces and maximize production -- either through the food /
    Wonder bonuses with Tradition, or the increased worker / quickbuild of
    settlers setup with Republic.  Both Tradition and Liberty give instant
    culture bonuses by just starting with the track, which makes both rather
    attractive too.
    
    Tradition will do best on fragmented maps (e.g. archipelago), where you
    know full well that your city count will be anywhere up to about eight. 
    Liberty does better at numbers larger than eight, though you have to work
    hard to make sure that your military keeps up with the settlers that you
    are pumping out.  It would be good for continent or pangaea maps.
    
    Honor does have bright spots, typically on the pangaea maps.  Additionally,
    if you are an early militant Civ (such as those Huns or Aztecs we spoke
    about), Honor can help you nab cities early on, forgoing the necessity of
    settlers and even workers entirely -- when I play Civ V, invariably I will
    get a worker along with a city whenever invading as the computer players
    tend to pull their workers back.  Just keep in mind that the only happy
    faces that the Honor track generates now is if you station your troops
    within a city, and that going to war may trigger your unhappy faces if your
    army is not large enough.
    
    The Piety track offers pretty much zero in the way of food, or production,
    or even culture.  You get a gold benefit with temples, and the end of the
    Piety track gives you both a Great Prophet and a reformation bonus.  The
    Piety bonuses track well with Civs with larger numbers of cities.  If
    you're feeling like you might get steamrolled with another civ's religion,
    choosing to open the Piety track (half-price temples/shrines) and choosing
    the Organized Religion bonus (+1 Faith from religious buildings) will stem
    some of the tide, but it won't completely put you in the clear.  By that
    time anyway, you can choose between the next set of unlockable paths, the
    Patronage/Aesthetics/Commerce/Exploration group, which lead to better
    bonuses.
    
    
    The Culture Tree: Mid-Game
    
    Of course, the same decision presents itself in the middle-game, and there
    are far more factors when deciding which of the PACE culture tracks to
    open.
    
    The biggest and brightest line that I can draw is to tell you that the
    Patronage bonuses ARE NOT THE SAME anymore.  In previous Civ V rulesets
    (Vanilla, Gods & Kings) you could open the patronage track, select
    "consulates", and when the resting influence points for all city-states
    reset to +20, you could then offer them protection, which gave you an extra
    ten points and allowed you to "friend" all city-states for free.  No more!
    Offering protection only nets you a +5 for city-states, which makes it
    completely useless as a tactic... protection will NOT make your influence
    drop any slower, and is only really useful if a city-state asks for your
    protection (which rarely happens).  Whichever update comes next needs to
    address this, as they need to have some sort of replacement for breaking
    this portion of the game.
    
    Unless you're a Civ with specific city-state bonuses (Greece, Thailand) or
    if you've got a ton of city-states around you that aren't worth the time
    and effort to kill off, then and only then would the Patronage track be of
    any use.  At least note that the Patronage track helps if you're building
    Wonders and want to put up the Forbidden Palace, though also note that the
    vote benefit that the Forbidden Palace gives you lasts perhaps two World
    Congress votes, depending on how early the World Congress starts.
    
    Aesthetics helps those who are already playing culturally, or who need to
    catch up culturally.  Half-production cultural buildings (monuments,
    amphitheaters, etc.) are really useful, especially if you're putting up
    more and more cities as you go along.
    
    Commerce can help those who weren't able to get to the Caravan wonders
    (Petra, Colossus).  Additionally, this style helps quite a bit if you want
    to field a larger army, or if you already have quite a few luxuries...
    gaining an extra +2 happy faces per luxury if you're already sitting on
    eight or ten can trip a quick Golden Age.  Note that weirdly enough, there
    are science bonuses in the Commerce track (just like, weirdly enough, there
    are cash money bonuses in the Rationalism track) so it's pretty decent and
    well-rounded.
    
    Exploration shines best on an archipelago map, especially one from medium
    to large size.  Getting ships where they need to go is so important, it can
    make or break your war efforts (or defense efforts).  Also, there are happy
    face bonuses, gold bonuses, and production bonuses within the track.
    Hidden Antiquity sites are also very helpful, especially since I've
     unearthed Great Works (not artifacts, but an example would be a Great Work
    of Writing) underneath a hidden antiquity site, and making monuments can
    really help your Culture score out too.
    
    It takes a couple extra turns to get to the Rationalism bonuses.  If your
    Science score needs a boost, then the Rationalism track can certainly help.
    You absolutely have to play in a certain fashion to get the Rationalism
    bonuses to work best for you though; you need to both be friendly to other
    Civs as well as rake in cash to take advantage of the research agreement
    boost.  If you build the Porcelain Tower, there's TWO research agreement
    boosts that won't do you any good unless you sign research agreements.  As
    well, the Rationalism unlock bonus is +10% science when your empire is
    happy.  So... you cannot let your empire get into the unhappy faces, or the
    Rationalism bonus is kaput.  BUT... if you're behind and getting to the
    endgame, give the Rationalism bonuses a chance to see if they'll help you
    draw closer at least.
    
    
    
    The Culture Tree: End-Game
    
    Once you pop up three factories, you can choose your own ideology. There
    are three flavors -- Freedom, Order, and Autocracy.  They track rather
    closely with the Tradition-Liberty-Honor decision that you already looked
    at.  Yes, the Freedom matches best with Tradition, and the Order matches
    best with Liberty.  You'll find out why soon.
    
    Typically, the Freedom track will assist best with small empires, as there
    will be happy face bonuses based on the number of specialists you have as
    well as bonuses for any Great Person improvements.  There's a hidden bonus
    on the Freedom ideology that provides for six free supported units, and
    gives you six Foreign Legions (strength: 42) free.  These six units get a
    20% bonus outside home lands too, like the old French specialized unit.
    They can make a good defense force and an even better offensive unit.  As
    you may note, this path would be best with cities that are >15 because
    those are the cities that have a high food value and can support the
    numerous specialists... also, these are the cities that were more likely to
    have generated the Great Persons with which the improvements were gained.
    
    The Order track does best with large Civs.  The main happy-face bonus here
    is a +2 for all monuments.  If you have a fifteen-city wide Civ, and
    considering monuments are the easiest building to build, that's a +30 in
    happiness.  Pairing the +2 Monument bonus with the +1 per connected city
    bonus (along with the 5% happier bonus), this brings the cost of each
    additional city down to one unhappy face... which is easily overcome with
    luxuries/happiness buildings.  One of the other hidden bonuses with Order
    is a tourism bonus for other civs following Order, and there's a couple
    Science bonuses lurking.  One is the original factories add 25% knowledge
    from the old culture-track setups.  The other is allowing you to finish
    spaceship parts via Great Engineers rather than having to take all that
    time to build them yourself.
    
    The Autocracy track does best if you've been gunning for a Domination
    victory for most of the game.  This track is where you find the +1
    happiness per defensive structure (walls, castles, etc.) that used to hide
    in the Honor track.  Additionally, all courthouses generate an additional
    +3 happiness. Even better, all barracks, armories, and military
    academiesgive you a +2.  If you have only two or three original cities and
    have depended on your military to take other cities, this is the way to go.
    There's also a hidden surprising Tourism bonus in this track, which gives
    you an extra Tourism boost each time an Artist/Musician/Writer is used.
    The Autocracy track also contains the +20% for 50 turns military buff that
    used to be in the original Autocracy track.
    
    ---Keeping your government, taking someone else's government:
    
    Opening one of the ideologies first gives the Civ an extra two Culture
    bonuses on that specific path.  Because of the first-one bonus, you often
    see all three ideologies used in the end-game by different civilizations. 
    However, this is where the culture push matters, in the end-game.  Civs
    that are culturally dominant over another civilization will have their
    government choice imposed on the other civilization too.
    
    What is the penalty?  Why, it's those same happy faces that limit your
    ability to spread all over the map.  Depending on how culturally dominant
    one civ is over another, additional unhappiness is generated, all the way
    from "dissidents" to "complete revolution".  For example, on "dissidents"
    level, you will take an unhappy-face penalty hit of 1 per city or 1 per
    every ten population points, whichever is *greater*.  Worse yet, if you
    happen to be first to adopt an ideology but another Civ who is more
    culturally dominant than you adopts a different ideology, those unhappy
    faces will still appear and possibly derail your whole plan.
    
    Losing your ability to choose your best-fit government is the reason that
    culture and tourism need to be focused on throughout the whole game.  You
    also need to know soonest which enemy Civs are focusing on cultural
    victories, especially since one of the Culture bonuses in the Aesthetics
    side is a +15% tourism conversion bonus for either the shared religion,
    trade route, or open borders conditions.
    
    On a recent game, I was only 8% influential over a Civ, while the Civ in
    turn was 23% influential.  Neither was enough for "familiar" status, but
    this still caused my favored government type to be hit with the dissidents.
     There were two things that submarined me: one was that the enemy Civ went
    cultural, kept building the tourist Wonders and obtained the +15% tourism
    bonus.  The other was, like a fool, I converted their cities to my religion
    early on in the game, so that I could reap the +1 happiness per every two
    cities bonus for my religion.
    
    The options to deal with this include -- money to city-states for luxuries
    to make up the gap, increased tourism/culture to dilute the impact of the
    foreign civilization, voting your specific ideology as the "favored
    government" in the World Congress, or... you guessed it, war to wipe them
    out.  If war is your answer, make sure you're aware that for an immediate
    impact, every single city needs to be wiped out.  If you make peace, then
    you will have to wait for your culture to stabilize against the enemy civ.
    If you manage to take their capital and/or their major culture/tourism
    generating cities, you will have to wait additional turns because then your
    culture will dwarf their own, but everyone still has their same slider bars
    until they don't exist.
    
    This game is SUPER picky about the culture gain/growth.  If anyone anywhere
    near you has a higher percentage, even by a few points, that IS ENOUGH to
    get your civ into a dissidents situation.  In another recent playthrough on
    Emperor level (6), I was only 14% culturally beholden to the nearby
    Iroquois, whereas they were roughly 8% culturally beholden to me.  This was
    enough to give me -12 happiness based on dissidents.  This became a major
    situation because I was sandwiched between two strong militaries and could
    not sacrifice the -12 happy faces in order to ensure that they were
    weakened enough.  So, my major tip here is to make sure to completely
    eliminate any Civs who might be a problem to your ideology going forward,
    or at least weaken them so much that their culture will crater while yours
    will recover in time to invalidate the unhappy faces.
    
    I will admit though, this situation is completely ridiculous and should be
    rectified.  The other half of this is that their tourism number was a grand
    total of 1400, whereas my tourism number to them was 1100.  Big felching
    deal, right?  The "however" though is that the Iroquois in my playthrough
    went up the Aesthetics tree and obtained the +15% tourism bonus.  This
    should not be enough for me to crater my own happiness though, you stupid
    game.  Better to take anyone out that could have the same effect before any
    real damage happens.
    
    If you happen to be in the position of culturally dominant over others,
    then you get to not only choose your government but also make sure that you
    can influence others to choose the same.  The for-instance is that there
    are gold bonuses for trade routes between Freedom civs, or tourism bonuses
    between Order civs.  As well, if someone decides to choose a different
    path, then they will likely have a massively unhappy population, making
    them an easy target for conquest, unable to grow, or even more interesting
    enough... allowing someone to pick off their cities culturally.
    
    Which leads to.... there are such things as culture flips for cities once
    again!  This used to happen in Civ 3 quite a bit, and could in Civ 4
    (IIRC), but was not possible in Civ 5... until now.  Getting below -20
    happiness will start the timer going, and in a set number of turns unless
    the victimized civ gets back above -20 happiness, the Civ who is most
    culturally dominant over that unhappy civ will receive one of the unhappy
    civ's cities.  I have been on both sides of this equation, in receiving
    cities as well as having lost cities this way.  Keep in mind that if you
    desperately want your city back and can't seem to get back to the -20 you
    need, you can park your military around your city that will flip to
    immediately take it back again.  The penalty to this is that you will end
    up at war with the culturally advanced civ, you will lose half your
    population, and  lose a majority of the buildings that you built in the
    city previously.  I like this dynamic as a historically-accurate
    possibility, as getting a city back after a revolt could cause a war with
    another civ, and how many times in history have revolts been speedily
    crushed with only a portion of the persons left.
    
    ---Culture conclusion:
    
    There are quite a few things that you can do with culture even through the
    end of the game.  If you get to specific Wonders (Eiffel Tower, Broadway,
    Great Firewall) and/or specific technologies (e.g. Internet), your tourism
    numbers can shoot up like a skyrocket.  However, playing against someone
    culturally depends on more than just your tourism number, you need to pay
    attention to that culture number throughout the whole game.  Culture exerts
    your will in the end-games, prevents others' tourism from victimizing you,
    and is pretty necessary for a victory.
    
    
    
    vv5vv
    Turns 250-end:
    
    
    Topics:
    a. Winning via military (conquering)
    b. Winning via culture (tourism)
    c. Winning via diplomacy
    d. Winning via space race (technology)
    
    
    There's five victory conditions in Civ V.  The first four are to win either
    militarily via taking everyone else's capitals, diplomatically via gaining
    enough votes in the United Nations, technologically by researching specific
    technologies and building parts of a spacecraft, or culturally via tourism.
     It may sound odd, but the victory conditions can't be combined though they
    can be mixed.  For instance, you have to gain at least 100% of a enemy
    Civ's culture via tourism for ALL of the remaining civs alive, even if they
    don't have their capitals.  However, I have also finished games where I
    completely conquered an enemy Civ, taking it off the tote board where the
    remaining Civs were all culturally conquered, which in a way is a hybrid
    victory between military and culture.  
    
    The fifth victory condition is to run the game out of time.  I must
    admit... I've never had that happen.  I can't quite tell you how to do that
    one, though I'd be more than happy to add contributions from anyone who can
    tell me the best way(s) to do that.
    
    
    Throughout the game I'm focused completely on the victory, but when the
    counter edges up to 250 it's pretty clear the best method(s) to get to
    victory, and what I have to do to try to block others from victory.  Since
    my challenge is whether or not I'll win, as opposed to how many points will
    I garner when I win, I have listed each of the victory conditions below,
    the ways to achieve them, and how to defend against those conditions.
    
    
    a. Playing to conquer, defending against conquering:
    
    
    In order for a Civ to win militarily, they must control all other enemy
    capitals.  Compared to previous games, where you had to literally wipe all
    other cities from the map, this is a far-easier requirement.  I have had to
    chase Civ cities from Arctic to Antarctic in games long past, which turned
    into a slogging mess.
    
    ---Defending against a playing-to-conquer player:
    
    Is the easiest thing in the game, really.  Just make sure you have enough
    military to keep your territory and capital.  You can get cities all the
    way up to 200+ defensive strength through buildings and culture.  Defend
    everything you can with ranged units, best would be through the hand-
    carried range weapons -- e.g. the archer/compound archer/crossbowman
    /gatling gun vector.  These units combine the ability to go offensive
    without taking damage along with the ability to take a hit without dying.
    However, once the pure siege units get to artillery stage, set up three of
    those behind a town in danger to wipe out the better part of a front-line
    unit per turn.
    
    If you know where your invasion vectors are, don't be shy in setting up
    either forts or the Great General special building fortresses.  Fortresses
    can stand tall for a good while with a good front-line defensive unit, and
    can be made effective putting an archer or other sort of ranged unit inside
    too.  I kept the Aztecs off of me (and bottled up!) for an entire game just
    through setting up a fort on a hill directly in front of my town, and
    keeping it manned at all times.  It did lose me one shield per turn
    production through the game, but by the end of the game the Aztecs only
    kept three cities and were completely swayed by my culture regardless.
    
    Playing-to-conquer civs have a rough time with culture, with happiness, and
    with cash flow.  If you see a civ that is bullying other civs around and
    amassing a large empire militarily, make sure that you can equal or beat
    their culture first and foremost.  Past that, you can funnel troops to
    city-states that are embroiled in the current war, especially if it is a
    city-state warring against the big behemoth in another corner of the map.
    I have conquered other computer Civs that end up paying attention to the
     city-state thorn in their side, not seeing the headman's axe swinging to
    their neck.  If you have enough production that you can supply a city-
    state, allying with them and declaring war on a large behemoth can give you
    a country that is in a two-front war that they likely don't want to be in.
    
    Playing-to-conquer civs will also have problems with world opinion, though
    there's a caveat.  The playing-to-conquer civ will sometimes have friends
    that benefit from the conquering civ, and the playing-to-conquer civ can
    sometimes squash world opinion in their direction.  World Congress world
    opinion can be swayed by your money though too, and you can certainly
    weaken a military civ through the World Congress (e.g. standing army tax,
    specific luxury embargoes, World's Fair, culture bonuses for Wonders, etc.)
    
    ---Winning through military:
    
    If you're playing to conquer, you see the weaknesses you will encounter
    above.  You need to neutralize the happiness issue first, foremost, and
    constantly.  Secondly is the money issue, especially when other Civs can
    buy off city-states and make them into thorns for your sides.  Thirdly is
    the World Congress issue, with the same tourist/culture/luxury embargoes
    that can cripple your war effort.  And of course, trying to keep up
    culturally is important, though your military can snuff out the cultural
    threats.  You MUST have the technologies, or know where to get them from as
    well.
    
    Note that playing to conquer actually has a benefit in starting early.
    Waiting for ranks of artillery pieces to strafe the opposition will piss
    off everyone else in the world immediately... but if you catapult an enemy
    civ into submission, especially one that did not have contact with other
    Civs early in the game, then your world opinion will be far higher because
    you will not receive the warmonger penalty.  What's out of sight is out of
    mind for the most part in the beginning of the game.  Though, I did run
    into an issue in one previous game...
    
    As the Ottomans, I conquered a continent which held the Byzantines and
    Venetians.  Both fell before the might of my catapults and swords.  After
    finishing off the Byzantines, I had a challenge on my hands to take down a
    puppeted Venetian city that was well-guarded by hills, and I knew I could
    not take too much damage if I wanted to still take Venice while at the same
    time continue to compete culturally with the rest of the unexplored map.
    While positioning my troops, Venice got alarmed and asked if I was going to
    declare war.  I said "no, of course not!", finished my positioning three
    turns later, and declared war.  I did not take any sort of warmonger hit
    for defeating both Venice and Byzantium... but for the rest of the game I
    took the sneak attack hit to my diplomacy.  So, remain honorable while
    beating up the other members of your continent, or you will have the same
    diplomacy hit.
    
    The sooner that you can direct a continent's worth of cities against other,
    smaller civs, the more effect you will be able to achieve.
    
    Continuing with the "sooner" theme, you have to make sure that if a
    civilization is running away from you technologically that if you're
    planning to go after them with military, you do it as soon as possible.
    The longer you wait, the more technologically backward you will be.  Better
     yet, if you declare on a country and they can get their military at you,
    you'd rather destroy their war machine in your own home territory (where
    they can't heal as quickly and where you can have your cities hit them just
    as hard), so that you can march against their lands and either extract a
    diplomatically-won city or continue pressure and occupy more lands.
    
    Waiting though is logarithmic... typically, technologically advanced civs
    can come after you not only with more advanced units, but can also produce
    them quicker due to production-bonus buildings (e.g. factories, Ironworks,
    etc.) gained through technology.  Waiting an age could then mean that there
    are 33% more troops and they're 33% stronger, instead of one or the other.
    Additionally, civs in peace will feel free to pursue science maximization,
    whereas civs at war will not turn production to "science" and gain
    additional test tubes in that fashion.  It's even okay to declare war,
    wait for them (or threaten them along your/their borders), or even create a
    stalemated war, just to get them on a war footing to weaken them going
    forward.
    
    
    ---International opinion:
    
    Getting into war, especially in the later stages of the game, will mean
    that other civs will like you less.  This will increase the costs of
    luxuries (or decrease the selling prices of your luxuries).  This will also
    mean that the World Congress votes will increasingly be against you, such
    as luxuries that will be banned, or ideologies that aren't yours being
    voted upon.  There's ways to make them like you more... and ways to get
    them so hopping mad that they wash their armies up against your cliffs like
    so many waves.
    
    If you are warlike but also want to keep some friends, the best way to keep
    it civil is to accept when other civilizations ask you to declare war on
    third civs.  This is ideal, because then you have an ally going in as
    well... and the civilization asking you to go to war will not hold it
    against you in the future (that I have found).  There are times that I've
    been asked to go to war and found myself pretty much squishing another civ
    to dust, because EVERYONE has been called in and we've made it a world war.
    Those are ideal, especially if you can win the prize (the enemy capital)
    at the end.  Note though that there's a set number of turns that you have
    to remain at war against another country, you can't ask for peace
    immediately after declaring.
    
    If you want to get the rest of the world pissed off at you quickly... find
    a well-liked, well-protected city state and pound them into submission.  At
    that point, it's all military, all the time for a good ten-twelve turns, if
    not more.  You will take an extreme warmonger hit too... but if you want a
    way to gain quick territory and weaken everyone's army, this is the method.
    
    More territory may come when you completely neuter a civ's army and march
    menacingly towards their lands, as the computer will often (but not always)
    panic and offer cities to placate you.  If gaining nonspecific cities is
    your goal, then invest in cavalry units to keep pressure on these other
    civs and pillage land, and that will make them even more likely to offer
    territory for peace.
    
    This window only lasts for a short time.  The enemy civ who just lost the
    majority of their military is already hard at work building another one.
    Even if it a "sue for peace" situation, make sure that you either threaten
    or sue for peace as soon as possible, before the next military is graduated
    from their equivalent of West Point.
    
    
    b. Playing to win culturally - defending against a cultural loss:
    
    
    Culture is a game-long phenomenon, and if you are trying to play culturally
    you need to start early.  I would counsel that you play most games as if
    you're going to try to dominate culturally, because you can step into a
    cultural victory depending on the late-game circumstances, and making sure
    that you have the culture will lessen another Civ's tourism hold on you.
    
    ---Defending against a cultural Civ
    
    To be honest, this is one of the harder things I can think of in the game.
    A civ that is trying to win culturally is using their production advantage
    over you in the best possible way.  They are researching and gaining techs
    with less Science points than you need, and they are producing buildings
    with less production points than you need.  There are two very good pieces
    of news when defending culturally.
    
    {} You only typically have to defend against one.
    
    If two or more Civs are playing culturally, the Tourism points will not be
    anywhere near the point that you will be in cultural danger.  Spreading out
    the tourism wonders (Parthenon, Louvre, Uffizi, Sistine Chapel) among two,
    three, or even four different Civs will not give them anywhere near enough
    tourism points to mess with your culture.
    
    BUT.... be very careful you know who is who.  If there are more than one
    cultural civs against you, it's well within the game mechanics for one to
    invade another and seize all of the culture.  At this point, it's directed
    against you, and you better have a Plan B going.
    
    {} It's hard to build the culture AND a military
    
    Unless you're WAY up the difficulty chart, the computer will have a hard
    time building both culture and military.  This is your chance to come at
    them sideways, so to speak.  They may think that they're in a battle with
    you to get as much culture as possible.  Declaring war on them has the
    benefit of making them now build military, whether or not you advance into
    their lands or defend your own.  They'll also research militarily, which
    will keep them from the cultural/touristy Wonders.  You'd better advance at
    SOME POINT if you want to force them, though, or they may take the threat
    very casually and either not build military or research military tech.
    
    At this point, you can use the benefit you have in spades... the computer's
    inability to fight very well.  Your production deficit will be made up for
    in spades by your ability to general, your ability to PROTECT YOUR TROOPS,
    and the computer's inability to come after them with a cohesive front.
    
    Typically, playing culturally means that you are going up a different side
    of the technology tree than most other people.  The biggest for-instance is
    that it takes quite a few technologies to earn artillery pieces when you
    could be researching printing press / architecture and gaining the wonders
    available from both.  If you are aware that someone is playing culturally
    and you KNOW full well that they will get those wonders done, go up the
    military side of the tech tree to take those wonders away.
    
    Be careful though, if a nation is rich they can conclude multiple research
    agreements quickly... also, if they are scientific and just building
    culture when it's available because they can, there's no guarantee that you
    will beat them to any specific research.  It could be a planes versus
    artillery piece battle, and in that situation you will lose miserably.
    
    Disregard ALL of the above if you are facing an opponent at King (5) level
    or above.  If one country is building all the culture at that point, then
    they will have a formidable Civ set up to deal with quite a bit.  Best of
    luck dealing with them militarily, the best option is to try to drag as
    many other civs into the battle as possible.
    
    If all else fails...
    
    Go nuclear...I'm assuming.  I've never tried, but to be honest there were a
    couple of times that I should have, as I was losing anyway.  Make sure that
    you have the troops to be able to capture a city AND to hold the territory
    after you go nuclear at least, as I'm not entirely sure a Civ can win if
    they have lost their original capital.  I might update this one, especially
    if I playtest a couple of those previous games mentioned to find out how
    this dynamic works.
    
    
    ---Winning a cultural victory:
    
    When winning a cultural victory, you should have a few things in place:
    
    {} The Aesthetics culture bonuses.
    The +40%, double Theming bonuses, ability to purchase Great Persons with
    faith, and the +25% generation rate will give you quite a leg up on your
    competition.  Similarly, if any of the computer players are playing this
    way, sniff it out as soon as possible and mitigate/neutralize it.
    
    {} Wonders, wonders, wonders
    There's a couple of National wonders that carry theming bonuses, including
    the Hermitage and Oxford University.  Those two together are nowhere near
    enough for you to gain a victory, especially if only one other computer
    player is hogging all of the Tourism wonders.  There's a couple of tactics
    you could attempt if you are having problems getting the tech and
    production in time:
    
     -Send spies to the cultural civ's cities-
    Spies can pull their technology, and if you're behind you'd better at least
    make sure you can get to the technology previous if you need to try to take
    theirs.
    
     -Research agreements-
    This means you have to be nice to other people... I'm guessing that if
    you're having a problem with research, it's because you have a smaller
    empire than others... well, the small non-threatening Civs are the ones
    most likely to have friends too, at least until the long knives start to
    come out.  Start shifting your productions toward gold in at least one city
    so that you can give gifts, or give away extra luxuries, or anything else
    to get others to like you.  After the friending, ask for those research
    agreements as soon as possible.  Multiple research agreements can pop a
    technology or two quickly.
    
     -Rationalism track-
    There's no happy faces down this way anymore, so only do this when
    necessary.  As stated above, make sure your empire is happy to get the full
    benefit of Rationalism policies.
    
     -Great Engineers-
    By setting one of your cities to pure production along with filling the
    Workshop slot, you can generate a Great Engineer... who can rush a project
    to completion in one turn (or to five remaining turns late in the game) in
    any city you wish.  Just make sure that you spy out your competition to
    confirm that THEY'RE not building your same Wonder, there's nothing more
    useless than rushing a Wonder project to have another Civ build it on the
    same turn.
    
    Gardens (next to river/lake) will give you more Great Persons, as will the
    National Epic.
    
    {} Great artists/writers/musicians
    
    In order to win culturally, make sure that you're generating as many of
    these units as possible.  Each is worth a +2 in tourism without any theming
    bonuses, and all three are actually fairly useful even if all of your slots
    are filled... artists pop Golden Ages, writers give you a one-time Culture
    boost that should get you more than halfway to the next Culture bonus, and
    Musicians give you a Tourism boost by sending to another civ (with open
    borders!).  Again, maximise their appearance with gardens and/or the
    National Epic.
    
    {} Build those cultural buildings quickly
    
    Getting the Hermitage should be high on your list of priorities, and the
    other culture buildings give you the slots you need to fill with your Great
    Artists/Writers/Musicians.  The Aesthetics bonus of quick-building cultural
    buildings should help quite a bit as well.
    
    {} Artifacts
    
    When Archaeology is obtained, you can start producing archaeologists and
    sending them abroad.  My typical method is to build the archaeologist, then
    the museum... you can send an archaeologist to foreign lands first to take
    artifacts that other people would get to while "guarding" your own ruins by
    placing units on them.  But, make sure that you have the spots for an
    artifact first!  There's nothing worse than an archaeologist on the back
    edge of nowhere that ends up with a built shrine that no one can use.
    
    So, keep in mind a couple of things... you can pause your archaeologist in
    the course of their excavations by interrupting him, just like you would a
    worker.  Make sure that there's a place for the resulting artifact, and
    then get back to work.  Another thing is that it's not always bad to "gift"
    a cultural landmark to either an enemy Civ or to a city-state.  Gifting
    cultural landmarks to other Civs is a permanent good check-mark in your
    box, and if you are playing against another cultural player it can make the
    Civ you give the landmark to more resistant to cultural takeover.  It can
    also hopefully give you a friend to conduct more research agreements with,
    or to trade with.  City-states will get a +50 (?) or so as a one-time
    influence bonus, which can certainly go most of the way to an alliance.
    Just make sure you're choosing the choice you want, because giving any
    artifacts away like this is a -2 to culture and a -2 to tourism that you
    could be earning.
    
    {} Hotels / National Visitor Center / Airport
    
    Hotels will convert culture obtained via Wonders into Tourism points.  As
    you can imagine, if you've been building nothing but Wonders in a city, a
    Hotel will dramatically raise your Tourism score.  The National Visitor
    Center is a national Wonder that requires a Hotel in every town and will
    raise your Tourism score much higher.  And the Airport will also give you
    an extra 50% Tourism (if I remember the bonus correctly).  The Airport also
    has military implications as an automatic tube for your troops (to go from
    one town with an airport to another town in only one turn) as well as
    expanding space in your town to support more than four aircraft units.
    
    {} Great Firewall / Internet
    
    The Great Firewall is a wonder that can allow you to make up a gap in
    tourism, especially if the game gets as far as The Internet.  Internet is a
    technology that can be researched now, which will double your Tourism score
    permanently.  The Great Firewall will ensure that the Internet bonus is
    invalidated for the Civ that builds it.  As you can probably imagine, if
    the Great Firewall falls into the wrong hands, you'll have a rough time
    earning a Culture Victory over that other Civ.
    
    --Cultural Endgame:
    
    I've noticed, on King level, that when I play *a winning game* culturally
    that I will typically end up winning before Internet.  I don't know how
    that is possible so often except for the fact that I involve my military
    quite a bit, especially to deal with the Civ that's either in first or in
    second place.  If you have pretty much every Tourism wonder, a group of
    computer players that haven't cared about culture at all and one last
    computer player that cared but had all their culture taken from them at the
    point of a gun, the Culture victory actually becomes rather easy and earned
    even before the game counter reaches 2000AD (on Standard turns mode).  I
    have also noted that when I make it this far culturally, there's typically
    not a Civ that can stand with me militarily, nor technologically, nor
    financially either... I can pretty much choose my method of winning.
    
    I also note though that I have a tendency to give up games where I end up
    pretty far back in the dust either culturally or technologically when the
    world ramps up to "Industrial" age.  So, take the above with a grain of
    salt, because I'm certainly not a 100% victor by any means.
    
    --Last notes:
    
    If you are not playing culturally, I would suggest paying at least slight
    attention to the tourism of your civ, and trying to at least match the
    tourism rating of the best enemy Civ.  This will ensure that you will not
    have governmental problems, it should allow you to operate your spies
    easier, and the culture that you will generate should give you quite a few
    bonuses that will make the game easier to win.  Additionally, if you match
    the best tourism Civ, it will ensure that the best tourism Civ will not be
    able to win a Cultural victory, freeing your resources to win in another
    method.
    
    
    c. Playing to win financially -- defending against a financial civ
    
    
    The Diplomatic victory in Civ V requires pretty much every single vote you
    can glom from the city-states in a game.  There's ways to buff your vote
    (build/capture Forbidden Palace, vote for world ideology, vote for world
    religion), but the vast majority of the votes for you will come from the
    city-states.  Almost always, you need to buy the heck out of these votes,
    though there are tips and tricks you can use to help you with your vote.
    
    Of course, there's the first level of this...
    
    --Defending against a Diplomatic victory.
    
    There are a variety of tricks that you can use in order to defend against a
    civ gunning for a diplomatic victory.  First and foremost is your ability
    to ally with other city-states to block their votes going to the enemy Civ
    in the lead.  At some point, the money does run out for the enemy Civs and
    if you can manage to keep a few of the city-states from their hands, that
    will make their victory much more difficult.
    
    If you are having a problem with the sheer financial weight that the enemy
    Civ is putting on those city-states, then you do have an alternative.  Make
    sure you can ally with at least a couple of city-states to block, and then
    declare war on the larger Civ.  You will absolutely have to reposition your
    caravans / cargo ships as they will be taken wholesale by all the other
    city-states who remain allied with the enemy Civ, but declaring war will
    make them "peace-blocked" with the city-states that you just allied with,
    and leave them a few votes short of the goal.  Just remember though,
    they'll likely be in charge of the World Congress and they will start to
    use it politically against you... try to get as many other civs on your
    side as you can, and defend against the city-states(!) that will be sending
    units to your shores/borders.
    
    If you do declare war on the enemy Civ, then take the opportunity to try to
    blockade them.  You may not be able to get all of the caravans/cargo ships
    going to their shores from other Civs, but you can absolutely plunder the
    enemy Civ's trade routes in an attempt to cripple them financially.
    
    The last alternative is to start conquering City-States that are allied
    with the enemy Civ.  I have heard tell that there is a bit of a strategy to
    this.... in that if you have to take four or five of them, you already know
    that your honor will take a massive hit... so bribe some of the other civs
    with the city-states that you take.  All you care about is that their +2
    votes are wiped out... and you don't want to take massive hits to your
    happiness, but you are stuck with city-states because they can't be razed.
    If you give them to other civs, then you can be sure that they will get
    involved if the enemy Civ tries to free the city-state and you'll have
    somebody on your side.  Just make sure that if you start giving away city-
    states that it can be reasonably defended by the third Civ you give it to.
    Also make note of the fact that your influence will take a permanent hit
    for all other city-states if you do this too much, so you'd better go quite
    a distance towards that goal or not at all, because allying (and therefore
    blocking) city-states will cost more gold.
    
    --Winning a diplomatic victory:
    
    The diplomatic victory depends on tons of gold and tons of happiness from
    your city-state friends, as well as your ability to defend them in times of
    trouble.  As a result, the following methods are pretty decent:
    
    {} Always have max caravans/cargo ships
    
    You need to make as much money as possible, which means caravans and cargo
    ships.  On top of that, caravans/cargo ships will give you the ability to
    earn Influence with city-states as they ask periodically to receive trade
    from you, and fulfilling their wish gives you a +40, two-thirds the way to
    allying (or forty further turns of alliance).  Make sure that you have the
    requisite buildings (caravansary, harbor, East India Company) in the towns
    that you base the caravans in, and that those towns are as well-developed
    by workers as possible.
    
    {} Complete the majority of their quests
    
    This means having a decently strong military in the early-going to hunt out
    those barbarians.  Beating up barbarians also nets you gold and there is
    the off-chance that they will have a city-state worker in their camps... if
    you complete a camp-clear and give the civilian worker back to the city-
    state, it's an automatic alliance.
    
    Keeping the decently-strong military is a must, especially since there are
    some civs in the game that prey on city-states... Mongols especially, as
    their natural Civ bonus is +30% strength against city states.  You need to
    be able to either feed military to the city-state being attacked or to be
    able to fight off the Civ with the strong military attacking the weak
    city-state.  
    
    If you're able to do so, there are scientific, faith, and culture-
    collection bonuses for the city-states as well.  They're a free +40 in
    influence for you not having to do anything, though you have to have the
    ability to collect the requisite resource.
    
    {} Free the city-state!
    
    If a city-state is taken, it's not the end of the world... it's actually
    not a bad thing, because at any time during the game you can swoop in and
    liberate the city-state.  On top of that, you not only get zero war-monger
    penalty for the city-state liberation, you get any current war-monger
    penalty erased because of your magnanimous nature in bringing the city-
    state back.  I am almost positive that you get a massively high influence
    bump from the military action, but I can honestly say that I do not
    remember whether or not you receive their votes on all future "leader"
    elections in the World Congress.
    
    [Quick tangent... once upon a time, I was finishing conquest of Austria,
    who had allied and then diplomatically married city-state Sydney.  I went
    after Sydney before going after Vienna, and freed Sydney because I did not
    want to carry the extra unhappy faces from a puppeting.  Immediately,
    Sydney declared war on me.  See, Sydney had been allied with Austria prior
    to my liberation of Sydney due to the marriage function, and I was still at
    war with Austria.  Point being... make sure that you know what the status
    of the city-state was prior to your liberation of said city-state,
    especially if it was obtained via Viennese marriage.]
    
    {} Religion:
    
    There are a couple of religious tenets that you can use to help your
    relationships along with your city-state brethren.  One is to spread your
    religion at double-rate within city-states, and another provides additional
    influence to city-states.  Just keep in mind that as long as you share a
    religion with a city-state that your influence will fall less quickly, by
    about 25%.  Additionally... it doesn't necessarily have to be *your*
    religion, just a religion, so if you find a Civ going hog-wild with the
    converting, just go along for the ride (yet protect yourself against the
    enemy Civ's possible cultural victory).  Additionally, using your city-
    state friends to establish a world religion will give you an extra +2 votes 
    if you follow that world religion.
    
    {} Culture Tree:
    
    There are two tracks that you absolutely need when playing towards a
    diplomatic victory.  The first is the Patronage track, which will magnify
    the bonuses you receive from befriending all of those city-states, and the
    second is Commerce.  You need all that gold to keep being nice to the
    city-states, right?  One of the Commerce bonuses include the ability to
    create Great Merchants, which still can perform trade missions to give you
    gold and influence boosts... or you can just park the Merchant at home as a
    Customshouse to reap additional gold.
    
    I prefer Freedom for a diplomatic victory as an ideology, for a couple
    reasons.  One is that you will get happy faces for cash-based buildings
    (markets, banks, etc.).  Another is the New Deal bonus, giving extra
    abilities to Great Person-improved tiles... because if you've already gone
    down the Patronage track, you should hopefully have received more than a
    couple of Great Persons from your city-state allies.  On top of that, all
    of your cities should get the happy-face bonus from having pretty much
    permanent workers in your banks and stock markets.
    
    {} Wonders:
    
    There are a couple of financial wonders and also an influence wonder, but
    oddly enough this set of wonders is the most dependent on outside factors.  
    Netting Colossus is extremely important in the early-going, as having that
    extra caravan slot as well as the gold that the Colossus generates
    naturally and via the trade route bonus is super-important...... but you
    need to have a city on the ocean in order to build this Wonder.
    
    Obtaining Petra can be helpful, and it is straight up the tree where you
    need to be (it's on Currency) in order to earn more gold.  However, you not
    only need to have a city in desert, but this is a Wonder that other Civs
    typically prioritize because of its ability to turn a terrible desert city
    into a well-producing city.  It nets you an additional Caravan route, so if
    you do not get it, you're not going to be overly affected.
    
    Machu Picchu is also rather helpful, as it will give you an extra 25% gold
    from all of your connected cities to your capital.  Machu Picchu requires a
    mountain nearby though, and there's no guarantee that you can find one...
    it's oftentimes less accessible than Colossus, and I have played games
    where there was pretty much only one legal mountain to build this Wonder
    on, and as a result it was not completed until the 1800s.  Weird, weird.
    
    Popping Golden Ages can help immensely, and having them last 150% of their
    time is rather helpful... so building Chichen Itza can be a good idea for
    this method of victory.  Also, Taj Mahal gives an immediate golden age plus
    happy faces for growth.
    
    Obtaining the Forbidden Palace is extremely helpful as well, because that
    will provide +2 extra votes as long as you hold it... and getting to the
    high number needed for your diplomatic victory means that you need to
    obtain every single vote that you can.
    
    {} Great Persons 
    
    Obviously, the previously mentioned Great Merchant is a big help, both as
    an ongoing source of gold and as a one-time influence boost.  Great Artists
    can also help, as they will enable Golden Ages for large gold boosts and
    you can replace all artist tourism slots with artifacts.
    
    {} Other civs:
    
    Declaring war in a Diplomatic game is not the best of ideas.  Of course, if
    you have a war declared on you there's not much you can do about it, but
    whenever war is about, the caravans and cargo ships are the first to go.  A
    strong enough military should dissuade most civs from going after you...
    but you've got to be smart about it, because military costs gold upon gold,
    and you're trying to funnel it to the city-states, remember?
    
    With all the gold though, make sure to befriend and to conduct research
    agreements.  Getting behind in science can cost you gold on the military
    end, as the military cost is per-unit (if I remember correctly).  As well,
    you can at least use that military to guard your trade routes if necessary
    too.
    
    You do need to keep a lookout for spies.  More and more influence prevents
    spies from coups, but there's always that chance that a successful coup can
    pull a city-state away from you for free.  Station spies in city-states
    that you know another civ is competing for, or in city-states where a few
    extra influence could put you up and over the top of ally status.  (Bonus,
    go on the offensive with your spies in city-state lands... if you lose a
    coup attempt, five turns later you get your replacement)
    
    Feel free to move spies about... what's nice is that there's the
    omnipresent counter for the World Congress, and spies can be useful in
    enemy capitals as diplomats... you can trade for votes and get a good idea
    how an enemy civ will vote.  The more culturally-influential with a Civ you
    are, the quicker your diplomats set up shop.
    
    {} Globalization -- discussed below.
    
    -- Cultural endgame:
    
    The Globalization technology will boost the available votes by the number
    of spies you have working as diplomats in enemy civ capitals. It comes
    right at the end of the game (as with Internet).  And same with Internet,
    you'll have to be ready for either using Globalization to your advantage or
    negating its effects when it comes up.  Having all the gold in the game
    will make production quite easier, especially with the Big Ben wonder, so
    your difficulty in making sure you're militarily and technologically caught
    up should be minimal.  Just remember though, it's not a percentage of votes
    that is necessary for Diplomatic victory, but a number... so even if you
    gain three votes via spies, if another civ gains five and gets up-and-over
    the number necessary, you're still sunk.
    
    -- Last notes:
    
    Greece and Thailand are the biggest profiteers of city-state bonuses and
    will often play diplomatically... but don't get suckered in.  Greece will
    often play militarily first, diplomatically second, and the Thailand
    "Naresuan's Elephant" is deadly in bunches.  Oddly, I don't see the
    computer players often playing diplomatically... so there aren't too many
    instances that you'll have to defend against it.
    
    There are very few other Civs that have natural benefits to playing
    diplomatically.  Portugal, perhaps, due to their "feitoria" bonus has a
    stake in making sure each city-state stays free and independent, and the
    monetary bonuses that the Moroccans receive would help them quite a bit
    towards obtaining/maintaining influence.
    
    If you're making money hand-over-fist and have a bunch of City-States as
    your thralls because you have good religion and/or good culture, then it
    may just be the best option going.
    
    
    d. Playing to win technologically -- defending against a space race loss.
    
    
    Unlike some of the other methods, playing for the space-race win means that
    you're not going to hamstring your other efforts overly much.  The way that
    the tech tree shakes out, you need to get both purely military (e.g.
    dynamite) as well as purely aesthetic (e.g. archaeology) technologies in
    order to gain the technologies for building the Space modules.  The danger
    here is that the major cultural bonus technologies and the major diplomatic
    bonus technologies veer off from the space technologies at the end, so you
    need to defend your culture and defend diplomatically while at the same
    time building your Hamdinger pod. [/MST3k]
    
    --Defending against a space race loss:
    
    The space race is a weird duck because after a while, you can earn
    technology by yourself and it's not dependent on others.  The diplomatic
    victory is dependent on other's ability earn gold and/or deploy spies, and
    the cultural is dependent on obtaining those bonuses... without them, your
    culture numbers will still probably be larger than another civ's.
    
    The other bad news is that a technologically advanced civ probably managed
    to get to many techs first and likely put up at least a few Wonders, so
    they may not be very weak culturally.  You do still have a chance though,
    even if the enemy Civ managed to get four of the six modules done.
    
    The most major weakness for the Space Race provision is that all of the
    parts go to the capital.  Therefore, if the capital is taken, all of the
    parts to the spaceship are also taken.  (I think.)  I do not know if it
    is weak to a nuclear attack, I'm sure that at some point there will be a
    nuclear addendum to all these posts.
    
    At any rate, going after a Civ militarily will tie up the most important
    thing for them, which is production.  If you can't pile up the shields
    necessary for each of the spaceship parts, then you won't be able to gain
    the win.  Just make sure that if you can't win quickly that you draw the
    computer into enough of a stalemate that you can survive many turns this
    way and keep the computer from completing what they need to complete.
    
    If another civ is already on their way to a technological victory, remember
    that there's a shortcut lurking in the Order culture track.  One of the
    third-level bonuses (which takes three first-level plus two second-level
    bonuses to unlock) is the ability to rush spaceship parts with Great
    Engineers.  If you have taken care of your faith through the game, you may
    find yourself with enough to purchase multiple Great Engineers (given the
    correct policy track) and therefore finish multiple spaceship parts.  There
    is a similar shortcut in the Freedom track, where you can use money to pay
    for spaceship parts.  During my most recent playtest (the Hun game referred
    to in the Introduction), purchasing spaceship parts were about ~3000 gold
    per part.
    
    --Winning a space-race victory:
    
    As with all of the other victory types, in order to win a space-race
    victory you need to have a few ducks in a row.  Some of the more specific
    ducks are...
    
    {} Technology gathering
    
    You need to have cities bring in the better part of 100 science per turn
    toward the latter part of the modern era in order to get the science you
    need to get to the space technologies first.  Of course, make sure that you
    load up one of your towns with all of the latest in tech gear, including
    your libraries, universities, public schools, and research labs.  Make sure
    you prioritize those technologies so that you can set up your researchers
    as soon as possible.
    
    {} Getting everyone else's technologies
    
    Send spies to try to clean up the techs on the tech tree that you don't
    need just to make sure you are keeping up, leading to...
    
    {} Don't forget to keep researching militarily
    
    There's nothing worse than trying to fight off riflemen with crossbowmen.
    It's absolutely not worth it.  If you get left in the dust a bit too much
    militarily, prepare to get invaded.
    
    {} But make sure you have friends.
    
    Friends that want to conduct research agreements, at least.  Of course, in
    the discussion above about culture, it applies to the military side as
    well... you don't want civs getting too overly comfortable, or their
    production/food/technology bonuses will shortly overwhelm yours.  Two of
    the Rationalism culture bonuses -- the ability to build the Porcelain Tower
    as well as one of the specific bonuses -- give +50% for research
    agreements, and you don't want to miss out on that.
    
    {} Don't get left behind culturally
    
    If you do, you will lose some ability to choose your final Ideological
    government, and leave yourself open to losing culturally.  Try to at least
    keep up tourism-wise and make sure that you can keep ahead of any civs
    trying to play for a Culture win by rejecting things that you can *keep
    track of*, such as making sure you can reject open-border treaties as well
    as changing religions if at all necessary/possible.
    
    {} Culture bonuses to pursue:
    
    The Rationalism track is a must.  As well, try to get as many happy faces
    as you can, both for keeping the +10% research bonuses as well as continue
    growing, as your citizen count goes a long way towards your science
    gathering.  I would also suggest that a good bonus to pursue would be the
    Patronage bonus.  If you are able to sign up a bunch of city-states to your
    cause, they all donate 25% of their science output to your research.
    Getting this research, especially from about six to eight cities, would be
    almost like getting an extra two cities' worth of science.  Getting the
    occasional great scientist through the great person bonus would also be
    extremely helpful.  As well, this will hopefully help you to implement the
    World Congress policies that you will be looking for, including the
    scientific research bonus and the International Space Station (though, stay
    away from the "visiting scholars" bonus as that will allow the computer to
    catch up to you quicker.)
    
    {} Religion:
    
    The best path to follow here is to obtain the Religious Dialogue power,
    which allows your missionaries to generate science when they spread
    religion to cities with an established religion.  I've seen missionaries
    generate +200 science at times using this power.  Another interesting bonus
    is when you complete the Piety track to gain a Restoration power... the
    Jesuit Education power allows you to build science buildings via faith.
    This can be helpful because you don't have to take a few turns to switch
    your production from science to shields... but the on the other hand,
    through the Commerce track, you can just build the buildings via cash money
    instead.  You may as well stick to the Patronage track.
    
    One key thing that Religion does help with is when you share a religion
    with a city-state, the influence you have over the city-state erodes at
    a 25% less clip.  So using your religion to try to keep them in thrall will
    lead to less money being necessary to keep them friended.
    
    --End game and notes:
    
    It is very possible that the special technologies to upgrade culture
    (Internet) and diplomatic (Globalization) wins will come available to other
    civs before you manage to uncover all the techs you need for the various
    spaceship parts.  This means that you need to be just as concerned
    defending against those as getting your tech win.  Make sure to sniff out
    cultural threats as soon as humanly possible, and if at all possible drag
    other civs against the forty-pound gorilla to make sure that you can score
    the victory.  Keep expanding in the method that you've chosen (through
    growth, or militarily) and don't lose too many opportunities.
    
    
    [vv6vv]
    Converting your resources:
    
    I wanted to get a short blurb together, perhaps as a placeholder, to tell
    you to review all your options!  In a recent game, going into the Atomic
    Era I was about ten techonologies behind the lead Civ who was running away
    with the game.  Noticing that I had a ton of unused Faith, I tried to
    figure out the best method of catching up to the leader.. and realizing
    that I could first convert the faith into Great Merchants, then using the
    Great Merchants to gain huge monetary bonuses via trade missions.. then
    using the money generated from the trade missions to sign quite a few
    research agreements.  I might not catch up anytime soon (if at all), but I
    at least gave myself additional space to *try* to catch up... and to be
    truthful, if I'd done this more than a few turns ago, I would not still be
    seven techs behind.
    
    In another game, I was only staying even with the tech leader... but again
    through faith and a completed Rationalism cultural tree, I built a series
    of Great Scientists that gave me a three-technology edge which I managed to
    carry to the end of a successful game.  Note a pattern with regards to
    technology?
    
    So, be cognizant of the ways that you can convert extra resources that you
    may not be currently using (e.g. faith) into a resource that can help you
    much more going forward (e.g. money).  Additionally, the more creative you
    can be when trying to make these connections, the more likely it is that
    you will find a way to gain what you need without weakening yourself too
    greatly in the long run.
    
    
    
    [Outro]
    Outro and concluding thoughts:
    
    
    As in the intro, to me this is really the ultimate puzzle game, with so
    many moving pieces... it masquerades as a world-building game, but it could
    as easily be Alpha Centauri with completely different, redesigned
    civilizations.  Heck, since they already redid Colonization with the Civ IV
    engine, couldn't they redo Col with Civ V along with redoing Alpha
    Centauri?
    
    At any rate, feel free to discuss, question, or blow raspberries.  So far
    these tactics have done well for me, as I've recently made the move from
    level 5 (king) to level 6 (emperor)... and hopefully I'll continue swimming
    rather than sinking.  Maybe some additional strategies will come from
    this... as above, there are more than a couple places that are unfinished,
    and I may update them once I find out more.  I do have a ~50% or so victory
    rate on Level 6, and I'm trying to learn to keep at it even if the chips
    are down... those are where the epic stories are born.
    
    As above, I am more than happy to receive submissions and revise the
    document with successful ideas, thoughts, or charts.  I will always give
    full credit, because a community of gamers can do far more than just a
    single gamer alone.  I know that there are people far better than I at Civ
    V, and if they're willing to share additional wisdom on what they've
    learned about the game then I am more than willing to learn too.
    
    Changes to this document may include a "frequently asked questions"
    section, much like the previous FAQ that I wrote for Railroad Tycoon III
    also uploaded to GameFAQs.  As you note from the guide above as well as the
    Railroad Tycoon III guide, I am always interested in the nuts and bolts,
    figuring out how parts move against other parts.  There's so many moving
    parts in this game that it's been so absorbing to me, and hopefully reading
    the guide will make the game more interesting for you to play as well.
    
    May the random number leave you with 1HP for your units and zero for your
    foes.
    
    Best of luck!
    
    Scott "Zoogz" Jamison
    10 February 2014