Civilization V Nations and Leaders Guide
Civilization V: Gods & Kings Nations and Leaders Guide
Civilization V: Brave New Word Nations and Leaders Guide

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Version: 4.1
Last update: 12/21/2013

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Table of Contents
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1. Introduction [1xx]
1.1 - What this guide is..[1.1xx]
1.2 - Contact/Contribute [1.2xx]
1.3 - Legal stuffs [1.3xx]
1.4 - Version History [1.4xx]
1.5 - Terms and Buzz Words [1.5xx]
2. The Launch Date Civilizations [2xx]
2.1 - America [2.1xx]
2.2 - Arabia [2.2xx]
2.3 - Aztecs [2.3xx]
2.4 - China [2.4xx]
2.5 - Egypt [2.5xx]
2.6 - England [2.6xx]
2.7 - France [2.7xx]
2.7.1 - Brave New World France [2.7.1xx]
2.7.2 - Pre-Brave New World France [2.7.2xx]
2.8 - Germany [2.8xx]
2.9 - Greece [2.9xx]
2.10 - India [2.10xx]
2.11 - Iroquois [2.11xx]
2.12 - Japan [2.12xx]
2.13 - Ottoman [2.13xx]
2.14 - Persia [2.14xx]
2.15 - Rome [2.15xx]
2.16 - Russia [2.16xx]
2.17 - Siam [2.17xx]
2.18 - Songhai [2.18xx]
3. Non Launch Civilizations [3xx]
3.1 - Babylon [3.1xx]
3.2 - Mongols [3.2xx]
3.3 - Spain [3.3xx]
3.4 - Inca [3.4xx]
3.5 - Polynesia [3.5xx]
3.6 - Danish [3.6xx]
3.7 - Korea [3.7xx]
4. Gods & Kings Expansion Pack [4xx]
4.1 - Austria [4.1xx]
4.2 - Byzantium [4.2xx]
4.3 - Carthage [4.3xx]
4.4 - Celtica [4.4xx]
4.5 - Ethiopia [4.5xx]
4.6 - Huns [4.6xx]
4.7 - Maya [4.7xx]
4.8 - Netherlands [4.8xx]
4.9 - Sweden [4.9xx]
5. Brave New World Expansion Pack [5xx]
5.1 - Assyria [5.1xx]
5.2 - Brazil [5.2xx]
5.3 - Indonesia [5.3xx]
5.4 - Poland [5.4xx]
5.5 - Portugal [5.5xx]
5.6 - Shoshone [5.6xx]
5.7 - Venice [5.7xx]
5.8 - Venice [5.8xx]
5.9 - Zulus [5.9xx]

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1. Introduction [1xx]
====================================================================

This guide is meant to give all information on the various countries
in Civilization V as well as all expansions. This is my first In-Depth 
guide, and this is likely a stepping stone to a more full guide for 
the game. This guide assumes you have a basic knowledge of the mechanisms
of Civilization V as well as all expansions and DLC.

====================================================================
1.1 What this guide is... [1.1xx]
====================================================================

This guide is meant to first give you all the information about each
civilization combo. This guide will explain each unique ability, each
unique unit, etc. Also, there is ongoing work to develop various 
strategies for each civ as well as some subjective rankings that 
probably shouldn't be taken too seriously.

Note: As new official civilizations are added, I will update this 
Guide. I however will not include mod-created civilizations (for 
example, you can download a custom mod which includes the Gaellic 
Empire. This will not be covered in the guide).

Contact me:
email-> p-m-c-b-u-r-n1@g!m!a!i!l.c!0!m

(remove all hyphens and exclamation points)

If I receive any e-mails not relevant to this guide, I will block 
all future e-mails from you.

You do NOT have permission to send me offers, deals, or any sales 
items.

====================================================================
1.2 Contact/Contribute
====================================================================

Much of this guide was written on the Civilization V Boards on 
Gamefaqs.com, and I am forever appreciative of the boards being 
there. You can see me on the boards (username: "Death_By_Smiley"). If
you want to contribute a strategy, a ranking, a correction, or
something I've missed, send me an e-mail at:

email-> p-m-c-b-u-r-n1@g!m!a!i!l.c!0!m

(remove all hyphens and exclamation points)

With "Country Guide" in the subject line. Make sure to include either
your name or screenname. If it's useful, I will post it to the guide
with you receiving credit, and thus a small piece of Civilization 
immortality.

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1.3 Legal Information
====================================================================

Sid Meier's Civilization V is a game developed by Firaxis Studios 
that you should buy. It is awesome and I love it. All credit goes to
them. All information in this guide is for that game. This game is 
Copyright 2010 2K Games and Firaxis. All Copyrights are held by their
rightful owners as well as any Trademarks used. 

Gamefaqs.com/Gamespot was originally the only website I have given 
permission to for posting this guide. Since that time, I have also
posted the guid on Steam. If you wish to post this guide on your website,
please ask me using the e-mail below.

All content in this guide, unless explicitly stated otherwise, has 
been generated by me. You may not copy this guide and claim it as 
your own, regardless whether your motive is profit or otherwise. If 
you would like this guide posted on another site, e-mail me at:

email-> p-m-c-b-u-r-n1@g!m!a!i!l.c!0!m

(remove all hyphens and exclamation points)

This may be not be reproduced under any circumstances except for 
personal, private use. It may not be placed on any web site or 
otherwise distributed publicly without advance written permission.
Use of this guide on any other web site or as a part of any public 
display is strictly prohibited, and a violation of copyright.

(Thank you GFs for the cookie cutter legalese)

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1.4 - Version History [1.4xx]
====================================================================

Version 0.1 (10/20/10)- All basic information on nations up to 
Iroquios (alphabetically)

Version 0.5 (10/21/10)- All basic information about all 18 civs, with
corrections made from Version 0.1

Version 0.5.1 (10/21/10) - Error corrections to Version 0.5

Version 0.7 - Added DLC civilizations (Babylon, Mongols), some more 
corrections.

Version 1.0 (1/23/10)- Added DLC civilizations (Spain, Inca)--Nobody 
told me this had come out :(

Version 1.1 (3/3/11)- Added DLC Civilization Polynesia (which should
be Hawai'i, since that is who the leader represents). Fixed some 
errors with Spain and Inca.

Version 2.0(3/11/11)- Massive update including my personal opinions 
on civilizations that you will disagree with.

Version 2.01(5/3/11)- Added Danish DLC (which release 5/3/11)

Version 2.1(6/18/12)- Updating after a year in preperation for Gods 
and Kings. Fixing some errors or things that were changed with game 
updates. Added Korea.

Version 3.0(6/20/12)- Gods & Kings update. Added all 9 new
civilizations for Gods & Kings.

Version 3.1(5/7/13)- Updating to fix numorous errors and update for
patches. Update from basically a year ago that should have been done
sooner, but I've been crazy busy. Removed numeric ratings until I get
more a chance to play each civ.

Version 3.1.1(6/10/13)- Mainly typo fix.

Version pre-4.0(6/27/13)- Preliminary information about Brave New World
which have not been verified against the game files.

Verion 4.0 (7/12/13)- Post Brave New World with all the early information
I could find with limited play experience.

Version 4.1(12/21/13)- Updating some serious corrections. Also 
address changes that have occurred since my last update.

====================================================================
1.5 - Terms and Buzz Words [1.5xx]
====================================================================

This guide is not written for idiots. It assume you have played 
Civilization V. That said, for those newer to the series, here are 
some buzz words you should know. Also, I use some phrases which may 
not be typical for Civilization.

Early game- Stone Age, Classical Age. This stage of the game is 
characterized by exploration and expansion. If you are playing 
aggressively, trying to "nip in the bud" an opponent by taking out 
their first city quickly isn't uncommon, but it is a risky gambit. 
It requires rapid military development, which limits your exploration 
and expansion to resource heavy areas. During early game, I find 
it better to not worry too much about city-states yet.

Mid game- Late classical period to early industrial. This stage is 
where the game is usually settled, and whoever dominates here likely 
is just cleaning up in the late game. The Mid Game can be played however 
you want. There will still be land to expand, city-state loyalty becomes 
affordable, and the tech tree offers a lot of specialization focus. 
Depending on the map type, Astronomy could be the most important 
technology if you want to expand overseas. It is very important to 
keep your army up to date in the mid game. It's better to delete a 
warrior and get the extra gold per turn than it is to keep one around,
since he won't be useful in combat.

Late game- Modern/Future Era: By late game, exploration is no longer 
a factor. There is likely nowhere to expand, or the expansions are 
too far away to warrant the cost. War is common (especially since you've 
had a whole game for the leaders to learn to hate each other).

Cost-For the purposes of this guide, when I say cost, I am referring
to production cost (Hammers), usually not gold cost.

Maintenence-In Civilization V, maintenence plays a much larger role. 
Units are more expensive to keep in the field, and thus you shouldn't
just spam weaker units. Also, almost all buildings have a cost attached.
These makes specialization even more important, lest you end up in debt
by games end.

Vision/Sight- How far (in hex tiles) a unit can actively see (active
meaning you can see units on the tile, see changes, etc).

Movement- How many hexes a unit can move across their base medium 
(Plain for land units. Seas for naval units)

Combat/Combat Strength - A number representing the effectiveness of 
melee combat (the number affects both attack and defense).

Ranged Attack- An attack performed by ranged units that allows the 
attacker to fire multiple tiles away (measured by the units "range"-
Range =2 means the unit can fire either 1 or 2 hexes away). There is 
no counter attack to a ranged attack. Ranged attacks can be blocked 
by terrain such as hills.

Ranged/Range Combat - A number representing the effectiveness of 
ranged combat attack (not defense).

Strict Military Nation - A phrase I use to refer to a country who
has no unique building and whose abilites are solely military focus.
(Includes: England, Germany, Japan, Ottoman, Mongols, and Denmark). 
If you play as one of those, conquest is likely going to be your best 
option.

Great People Factories - A city whose job is to create Great People 
as quickly as possible. This can be done with wonders, Gardens, etc.

Fun Factor - Some nations are more fun to play than others, even if 
they aren't that good (case in point, Aztec). I try not to take this 
into account when I assign ratings, but I make a point to mention it.

Synergy - SushiSquid, a poster on the Gamefaq boards, pointed out that
a civilization is only as good as it's synergy. For example, Germany
can build a very large amount of ground units, and gets a slight
reduction in the maintence of ground units, and can convert barbarians.
All these abilities reflect having a massive ground army. However,
compare this to the Rome, who has two good unique units, and an
excellent unique ability. However, these two don't feed off one
another. So while a good civilization, you wouldn't say Rome is a
top tier civilization with regards to synergy.

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2. The Launch Date Civilizations [2xx]
====================================================================

18 Civilizations were included with the game at launch. Babylon was 
also included, but only in a special edition. I am putting Babylon 
and all other official civs after this section, in section 3. They 
are organized alphbetically.

Sample Country Guide:

Country: X
Leader: Mr. X
Unique Unit 1: Unit x (replaces unit y) - +4 strength, +1 move (this 
means that the unique unit x has 4 more strength and 1 more movement 
range than unit y), Free PROM (Free PROM details)--This means unit 
starts with the promotion PROM.
Unique Unit 2:
Unique Building:
(It is worth noting no civilization has 2 unique units and a unique 
building).

Unique Ability:

Comments: Any special statement I want to make to clarfiy an ability.

My Take: My take on how I like to use this Civ. I'm not an online 
player, since Online play is mostly focused on Combat. Also, I'm not 
the best CIVer out there, so take with a grain of salt.

Victory Goal: My Take on which victory goal best suits the 
civilization. If you have a good strategy for another goal, let me 
know. (Note, you can win anyway with any Civ, these are just the 
ones I would personally say the Civ is best at.)

====================================================================

IMPORTANT NOTE: All production costs are measured using Standard 
Time. Different times (quick, marathon) have different production 
costs. However, they scale linearally, meaning the proportions of
cost will all be the same.

====================================================================
2.1 - America [2.1xx]
====================================================================

Country: The United States of America
Leader: George Washington
Historical Relevance: Commander in Chief of Colonial Armies during
American Revolution; First President of the United States of America

Unique Unit 1: Minutemen (Replaces Musketman) - Traverses All terrain 
at cost =1. Travels on roads normally. Free (Drill 1) +20% on Rough 
Terrain. Gains Golden Age points when an enemy is defeated.
Unique Unit 2: B17 (replaces Bomber) - Free Evasion (reduce damage 
from intercept by 50%), Free Siege 1 (+33% vs. Cities), +5 Ranged
Combat. 
Unique Building: None

Unique Ability: Manifest Destiny
All land military units have +1 Vision. -50% cost to purchase tiles.

Comments: Note about the Minutemen: there was a design flaw at launch 
where traversing all land, including roads, costs 1 movement, like heli-
copters. This was a confirmed bug with Civilization V. The musketman
should be able to use roads at less than 1 movement, like scouts. 
This has been fixed by patch. A post-BNW patch gave minutemen
the ability to gain Golden Age points.

My Take: A civilization that is underrated, in my opinion.
Sure, it isn't amazing, but I actually think the Minutemen are one
of the better unique units, as is the B17. Getted added vision is
both a great defensive and offensive ability. Being able to buy up
contested land for cheaper has limited usefulness, but can be the
difference between getting a good resource and not getting it.
Sure, it's not a stand out, but I've had good success using it. The
Minutemen gaining the ability to gain Golden Age points is a nice
bonus, though since America doesn't have much Golden Age
Synergy with a conquest/expansion focus, it's not a huge addition.
Being expansive is a lot better in BNW, which helps America a lot.

Victory Goal: Conquest

====================================================================
2.2 - Arabia [2.2xx]
====================================================================

Country: The Arabian Empire
Leader: Harun Al-Rashid
Historical Relevance: 5th Abbasid Caliph (A.D. 786-809)

Unique Unit 1: Camel Archer (replaces Knight) -3 Melee Combat Strength, 
cannot initiate melee attack. Has ranged attack, Strength 21, Range 2.
No penalty for attacking cities.
Unique Unit 2: None
Unique Building: Bazaar (replaces Market)- +1 luxary resource for 
ever improved luxary resource near this city. +2 Gold for each worked 
Oil and Oases.

Unique Ability: Trade Caravans
Caravans have +50% range. Trade routes spread religion twice as
effectively. Oil resources doubled. Keep in mind: longer trade routes
give more money, since your resources are likely not present in far away
civilizations.

Comments: Every single time I turn my head, this civilization gets better.
The trade route bonus is very dramatic, and gives you a dramatic
edge on large maps with large continents.

My Take: The Camel Archer is a very solid unit, since ranged is a tad
overpowered in this game. Getting the extra luxary resource with bazaar
can be fantastic for trade, and allows you to acrue friends and money faster.
Double oil isn't game breaking, since oil units usually comes well after
a game is decided. Some people think Arabia is extremely good. I'm more and
more getting convinced. He is simply the god of money in this game.

Victory Goal: Diplomatic. Richest mother f***er in the game outside of Venice.

====================================================================
2.3 - Aztec [2.3xx]
====================================================================

Country: Aztec
Leader: Montezuma I
Historical Relevance: Atzec leader from 1440 until his death in 1469.
(Note: Montezuma I's grandson Montezuma II was the one who was ruling
when the Spanish dismantled their empire).


Unique Unit 1: Jaguar (replaces Warrior) +33% strength while fighting
in woods or jungle. Heals 25 HP upon defeating an enemy. Double 
Movement rate through woods and jungle.
Unique Unit 2: None
Unique Building: Floating Gardens (replaces Water Mill)- -1 Maintenence,
can be built next to lakes as well as rivers. +15% Food genereated by
city. +2 Food for each lake tile worked by the city.

Unique Ability: Sacrificial Captives
Receive culture for each enemy unit killed proportional to the killed 
unit's strength.

Comments: Floating Gardens +15% bonus is affect by Maritime city-states
and food-boosting buildings like the Granary. [Thanks KJ456]

My Take: The AI plays Montezuma like a mad man ready to kill everything
that dares stand up right on a sunny day. You shouldn't even wait for a 
sunny day. Spam units, find enemies, get culture. Use your early 
culture to focus on Honor, which lets you have stronger military, 
which lets you get more culture. Barbarians? Sacrifice them to the 
sun god. Other civs? Sacrifice them to the moon god. City-States? 
Sacrifice them to Sid Meier. If you aren't at war with someone, you 
are wasting one of the most fun unique abilities in the game. It's 
not as good at culture as, say, France, but it isn't too far behind. 
The key is to invest as much as you can in military abilities in 
culture. Be very aggressive early, especially since the CPU tends 
to cave in front of early aggression. Note that with G&K, the ability was
kind of nerfed by proxy, in that other civs can kill barbarians for culture
via honor Keep your jaguars and upgrade them so they keep their perks.

Victory Goal: Conquest, Culture via Conquest

====================================================================
2.4 - China [2.4xx]
====================================================================

Country: China
Leader: Wu Zetian
Historical Relevance: The only woman to ever become Emperor of China

Unique Unit 1: Chu-Ko-Nu (replaces Crossbowman) -4 Ranged Attack 
Strength, can attack twice during turn.
Unique Unit 2: None
Unique Building: Paper Maker (replaces Library) - +2 Gold. No 
maintenece cost, so really it's plus 3 gold compared to the Library.

Unique Ability: Art of War
Spawn Rate of Great Generals increased +50%. Chinese Great Generals 
provide +30% combat bonus within two squares, compared to +15% of 
normal Great Generals.

Comments: None.

My Take: Use the Honor Tree to get a great general, and do whatever 
you can to build generals quickly. If you can find a good choke point,
I have seen a general assisted Chu-Ko-Nu hold off multiple Industrial
Age units.Chu-Ko-Nu is also good for bombarding cities early on. 
With China, just a few front line units can be supported by Generals 
and Chu-Ko-Nu to destroy everyone else. 

Victory Goal: Conquest

====================================================================
2.5 - Egypt [2.5xx]
====================================================================

Country: Egypt
Leader: Ramesses II
Historical Relevance: Ruled as pharaoh for 60 years, widely considered
the greated pharaoh.

Unique Unit 1: War Chariot (replaces Chariot Archer) +1 movement. No 
horse resource required.
Unique Unit 2: None.
Unique Building: Burial Tomb (replaces Temple) 0 maintenence, +2 Happiness,
If city is capture, x2 gold plundered.

Unique Ability: Monument Builders
+20% Production when buidling Wonders

Comments: None.

My Take: Even with the Bonus to Wonders, it's never recommended to 
be building more than one wonder at a time in the early game. Wonders 
can be very powerful in this game, however, as it lets you customize 
your empire. You can focus on wonders that boost great people, 
military, production, commerce, etc. I would recommend focusing on 
only one or two types of wonders, since specialization is the name 
of the game. Burial Tomb is nice if you go for a high population 
build. The Unique Unit is trash compared to others, in my opinion

Victory Goal: Whichever you build wonders towards.

====================================================================
2.6 - England [2.6xx]
====================================================================

Country: England
Leader: Elizabeth I
Historical Relevance: The Virgin Queen, ruled over one of the most
dynamic periods in European history. Established Church of England.

Unique Unit 1: Longbowman (replaces crossbowman) Free Range (+1 range 
for ranged attack)
Unique Unit 2: Ship of the Line (replaces Frigate) -15 production cost, 
+7 ranged combat strength, +5 melee, +1 sight.
Unique Building: None

Unique Ability: Sun Never Sets
+2 movement to all naval vessels. +1 Spy

Comments: None.

My Take: I'm personally disspointed that Elizabethan England has no 
culture abilities. This strict military nation is damn near 
unbeatable in island style maps. They really boosted the usefullness 
of naval units between Civ IV and Civ V, and no one can compete with 
England's Navy. Still, on continent style maps, the only thing 
England has is Longbowman, which are useful, but not game changing. 
Your best time to attack is the Renaissance, where you will have 
the most benefit. If you can be the first to circumnavigate, you 
will have +3 movement on all other navy. England's biggest weakness 
is that you more or less have to go military, since they have 
no Unique Building and their ability is strictly military. On continent maps,
you can have trouble in the late game.

Victory Goal: Conquest

====================================================================
2.7 - France [2.7xx]
====================================================================

Country: France
Leader: Napolean Bonaparte
Historical Relevance: Overthrew French government, eventually crowning
self Emperor of the First French Empire. 

Author's Note: France was completely overhauled in Brave New World.
Because of this, it's effectively two different civilizations. If you
still aren't playing Brave New World, scroll down to the pre-Brave New
World section.

[2.7.1xx] - Brave New World France

Unique Unit 1: Musketeer (replaces Musketman) - +4 Combat Strength
Unique Unit 2: None.
Unique Building: Chateau - Unique Improvement. Must be built next to
luxury resource. It may not be adjacent to another Chateau. +1 Gold
+2 Culture. Provides +50% defensive bonus to that tile. When flight has
been researched, it increases it's output to +3 Gold, +3 Culture.

Unique Ability - City of Light
Great Work tourism theme bonus doubled in the Capital.

My Take: This can help with culture somewhat, but in my opinion, there
are better culture abilities.

[2.7.2xx] - Pre-Brave New World France

Unique Unit 1: Musketeer (replaces Musketman) +4 combat strength. 
Unique Unit 2: Foreign Legion (replaces Infantry) +20% combat strength 
outside of friendly territory.
Unique Building: None.

Unique Ability: Ancien Regime
+2 Culture per city per turn before discovering Steam Power. After 
Steam Power, you lose all bonus culture per turn. 

Comments: None.

My Take: Musketeer can dominate the late renaissance period. +4 strength
is huge. Foreign Legion will have a huge firepower advantage if you 
are invading. When it comes down to it, at the beginning of the game, 
decided if you are going to focus on culture or military, and stick 
with it. Use your social policies to align towards that. If you focus 
on military, there isn't much a reason to hold off on teching up to 
Steam Power. If you are going culture, expand as fast as possible, 
and use your Musketeers to take weak neighbors. The earlier you expand, 
the better. Basically, military focus France users will want to build up 
(have a small number of cities optimized for rapid production), culture 
focus means you want to build out (get as many cities as possible, 
don't worry about optimizing the cities).

Victory Goal: Cultural, Conquest

====================================================================
2.8 - Germany [2.8xx]
====================================================================

Country: Germany
Leader: Otto van Bismarck
Historical Relevance: Chancelor of German Empire. Unified Germany.

Units Pre-Brave New World:

Unique Unit 1: Landsknecht (replaces Pikeman) -50% production cost.
(-45 hammers on Standard).
Unique Unit 2: Panzer (replaces Tank) +1 movement, +10 strength
Unique Building: None.

Units/Building Brave New World:
Unique Unit 1: Panzer (replaces Tank) +1 movement, +10 strength
Unique Unit 2: None.
Unique Building: Hanse (replaces Bank) - +5% Production for each
trade route between your civlization and city-states (the trade does
not have to originate from the city with the Hanse in it for the bonus).

Unique Ability: Furor Teutonicus
Upon defeating a Barbarian unit inside an encampment, you have a 67%
chance to receive +25 gold and a free unit of the same type. Pay 25% 
less for land unit maintenence.

Comments: Landsknecht costs about half the cost of a pikeman with no 
penalties. They don't exist in BNW

My Take: It was interesting to see Firaxis take away the Landsknecht. That
said, the Hanse is INSANELY good. Easily my favorite new building. Basically,
every city in your civilization that has a Hanse gets +5% production per trade
route with a city-state. Let me repeate that. EVERY CITY. Just...wow. Losing
Landsknecht dramatically changes mid-game strategy (use numbers to
overwhelm vulnerable enemies) to more a long-game approach. Still, the extra
17% chance to convert barbarians ensures your army will not struggle to be big.
Really liking Germany now.

Victory Goal: Conquest

====================================================================
2.9 - Greece [2.9xx]
====================================================================

Country: Greece
Leader: Alexander of Macedonia
Historical Relevance: Alexander the Great. Conquered almost every
civilization he could reach, including Persia, Egypt, and parts of
India.

Unique Unit 1: Hoplite (replaces Spearmen) +2 Combat Strength. 
Unique Unit 2: Companion Calvary (replaces Horsemen) +2 Combat Strength,
+1 Movement, Great Generals 1 (Combat with this unit produces double
Great General points).
Unique Building: None.

Unique Ability: Hellenic League
City-State relations degrade at half the normal rate, and recovers at
double rate when the City-State is angry.

Comments: Great Generals 1 and Great Generals 2 are the same thing, 
but 2 generates at a higher rate. I think only Samurai have 2. 
Hellenic League offsets trepassing penalties. Also, for clarity: gifts
do NOT give double affections points. Recover strictly means when a city
state is mad at you (below nuetral). At launch, Hoplite was more expensive
to produce. Not anymore.

My Take: Greece uses to be broken when calvary units were OP at launch.
Now they are good, but not great. Still, the vast variety of city states
give them a fair amount of options.

Victory Goal: Diplomatic, Cultural, Conquest, Science (in that order)

====================================================================
2.10 - India [2.10xx]
====================================================================

Country: India
Leader: Mahatma Ghandi
Historical Relevance: Led nonviolent independence movement against
British Empire. Widely considered one of the greatest champions of
civil disobedience in history.

Unique Unit 1: War Elephant (replaces Chariot Archer) +14 Production 
Cost, -1 Movement, +2 Melee Combat Strength, +1 Ranged Combat Strength.
No required resource. Doesn't have movement penalties of chariot archer.
Unique Unit 2: None.
Unique Building: Mughall Fort (replaces Castle) -10 Production Cost, 
+2 Culture. After Flight is research, +2 Tourism to city.

Unique Ability: Population Growth
Unhappiness from population is halved. Unhappiness from number of 
cities doubled.

Comments: Any city with population 4 or higher benefits from 
Population Growth due to a net loss of that city's unhappiness. I 
am still researching the Gold Bonus after flight.

My Take: With Ghandi, you're goal should be peaceful victory 
conditions. You should aim for very large cities, trying to turn 
them into Great People factories (this means commiting to wonders 
early on. If managed correctly, Ghandi can very quickly build up 
Science, Commerce, and culture. Keep golden ages going longer with 
Great People sacrifice. I've seen people do really well with Science
victory and Diplomatic Victory (via buying off City-States). Cultural 
victory is doable. Try to avoid war as much as possible, since 
that means you have to focus on cranking out large numbers of units 
instead of Great People builders.

Victory Goal: Science, Cultural

====================================================================
2.11 - Iroquois [2.11xx]
====================================================================

Country: The Iroquois Conferederation
Leader: Hiawatha
Historical Relevance: Chief of the Onondaga tribe, formed the Iroquis
Confederation.

Unique Unit 1: Mohawk Warrior (replaces Swordsman) +33% combat 
strength in forests and jungles. Do not require iron.
Unique Unit 2: None.
Unique Building: Longhouse (replaces Workshop) -20 Production Cost, 
+1 Production per forest tile in city's radius. No +10% production 
for buildings that comes with normal workshop. Gives points towards 
Great Engineers.

Unique Ability: The Great Warpath
Forests and Jungles in friendly territory behave as roads, for 
movement. After the Wheel is researched, woods can also function as
trade routes.

Comments: Trading Posts and Lumbermills leave the forests they are 
built on intact. So you can improve the tiles and use them as roads.

My Take: You are really at the mercy of the map and other players. 
As Iroquois, with proper planning, you can avoid removing forests, 
focusing on Lumbermills rather than Mines for Production, making 
sure to leave paths, etc. However, when it comes to attacking other 
players, those players will usually have removed most forests in 
their lands, removing all benefits you have. Still, this is a 
great civilization for early game aggression, since forests will 
still be around, and that +50% combat with Mohawk Warriors is 
HUGE at that point. The Longhouse is nice, but I would frequently 
rather have that +20% building production. Still, being able to 
get Great Engineers can help you get some good wonders. Also, if
you use lumbermills, it's basically +1 Hammer for that mill.

Victory Goal: Conquest

====================================================================
2.12 - Japan [2.12xx]
====================================================================

Country: Japan
Leader: Oda Nobunaga
Historical Relevance: Daimyo of fuedal Japan, laid groundwork for his
two lieutenants to unify Japan for the first time in a century.

Unique Unit 1: Samurai (replaces Longswordsman) Free Shock 1 (+20% 
combat in open terrain), Great Generals II (Contributes points to
Great General at triple the normal rate)
Unique Unit 2: Zero (replaces Fighter) +33% vs. Fighters. Does not
require an oil resource.
Unique Building: None.

Unique Ability: Bushido
Combat Strength is not affected by the amount of damage a unit has.

Comments: Bushido isn't as overpowered as it seems, in that a normal
unit with 50% health doesn't fight with 50% strength, but somewhat
stronger. +1 Culture from each Fishing Boat. +2 Culture from each Atoll.

My Take: I have found that the best way to go is to tech rush Steel 
and spam Samurai. Once you get a couple Great Generals, Samurai can 
basically take on the entire world. The longer it takes you to get 
the Steel, the less effective you will be. Bushido makes taking 
cities easy, since even damaged units do full damage. Bushido isn't 
as overpowered as you might first suspect, but in the stone age 
when most battles are one on one without support nearby, it's huge.
If you actually get to the point where you have Giant Death Robots, 
and Bushido' GDR is pretty much unbeatable. Since the AI almost 
never uses air units, Zero is pretty much worthless. Even in 
online games, I rarely see someone use air heavily. Even still, your worry
in defense isn't fighters, it's bombers.

Victory Goal: Conquest

====================================================================
2.13 - Ottoman [2.13xx]
====================================================================

Country: The Ottoman Empire
Leader: Suleiman
Historical Relevance: Caliph of Islam, Sultan of Ottoman Empire,
oversaw period of great expansion.

Unique Unit 1: Janissary (replaces Musketman), Heals 50 HP upon 
defeating a Non-Barbarian Enemy, +25% Combat Bonus when initiating 
attack.
Unique Unit 2: Sipahi (replaces Lancer), +1 movement, +1 sight, no 
movement cost to pillage.
Unique Building: None.

Unique Ability: Barbary Corsairs
All naval units have the prize ships promotion (meaning defeated enemies)
may join your side. -33% usual cost for maintenence.

Comments: None.

My Take: At launch, this civilization was pretty bad. It has steadily
gotten better with each major update, and is now a very good invasion 
civilization. Strict military nation. Janissary is a fantastic vanguard unit.
It nonetheless bothers me that this civ has no naval units to pair with
the unique ability. The Sipahi is a fantastic harass unit that can force
the bulk of your enemy's army away from the relative safety of their city's 
attack radius.

Victory Goal: Conquest

====================================================================
2.14 - Persia [2.14xx]
====================================================================

Country: Persia's Achaemenid Dynasty
Leader: King Darius I
Historical Relevance: Considered one of the greater rules of the 
Persian Emptire, ruling from 522 B.C. until his death. Initated 
attempt to conquer Greece, but his son Xerces failed to do so after 
Darius's death.

Unique Unit 1: Immortal (replaces Spearmen), +1 Combat Strength, Heals 
damage at double normal rate.
Unique Unit 2: None.
Unique Building: Satrap's Court (replaces Bank) +2 Happiness, +1 Gold

Unique Ability: Achaemenid Legacy
Golden Ages last +50% more turns. During a golden age, units
receive +1 Move and +10% Combat Bonus

Comments: None.

My Take: A lot of people love Persia. If you can get a few cities to 
be Great Artist factories, you can basically maintain a constant 
golden age, which should be your goal. Persia is countered by Egypt 
well, since Egypt can rush wonders, which Persia needs to make Great 
Artist factories. The Immortal is a good aggressive unit that can 
heal quickly and be back in the fray. Satrap's Court plays perfectly 
intoDarius' Unique Ability, giving you a quick boost to happiness 
when you use it, and it's one of my favorite Unique Buildings. 
Keep in mind, being effective as Persia requires a lot of discipline,
making sure to keep an eye on your Golden Age counter while still 
making sure to have a standing military while balancing wonders. 
Chichen Itza is, I dare say, a must have. In my view, this civ was wrecked
when they changed it so only artists can spark a Golden Age among
Great People.

Victory Goal: Kind of like Egypt, you can go different ways with 
this depending on how your use your Golden Ages. Extra Production 
means you could go culture, military, or science, extra gold is 
nice for diplomacy. I most prefer military, since that +1 movement 
range is useful throughout the entire game.

====================================================================
2.15 - Rome [2.15xx]
====================================================================

Country: The Roman Empire
Leader: Caesar Augustus (also known as Octavius)
Historical Relevance: First Emperor of Rome, brought about Pax Romana
(200 years of Roman Peace).

Unique Unit 1: Ballista (replaces Catapult) +2 Ranged Strength, +1 Melee
Strength
Unique Unit 2: Legion (replaces Swordsman) +3 Combat Strength, can 
construct roads and forts.
Unique Building: None. 


Unique Ability: The Glory of Rome
+25% Production towards buildings if they already exist in the 
Capitol City.

Comments: None.

My Take: Glory of Rome is a great ability for managing a large 
empire. Your goal should be to have a large production powerhouse 
for a capitol. This will allow you to expand quickly without worrying 
about having low production cities. Your goal should be to use your 
expansions primarily for resources. Ballista are a city destroyer 
in the latter early game. Very powerful at what they do. Legion 
being able to build roads can keep your workers focused on 
improvements. Be aggressive in the Classical Age.

Victory Goal: Can go many ways. I personally like Science, 
since getting libraries, universities, and schools in all your 
cities give you a massive science bonus.

====================================================================
2.16 -Russia [2.16xx]
====================================================================

Country: Russia
Leader: Catherine the Great
Historical Relevance: Tsarina of Russia during late 18th Century,
oversaw great expansion of Russia.

Unique Unit 1: Cossack (replaces Calvary) - Receives +33% combat 
bonus when attacking an enemy who is not at full health.
Unique Unit 2: None.
Unique Building: Krepost (replaces Barracks) - Reduces culture cost 
to acquire new land by 25% in the city it is built.

Unique Ability: Siberian Riches
Strategic Resources provide +1 production. Horse, Iron, and Uranium 
plots generate double the output.

Comments: I.e., if a plot of iron typically produces 2 Iron, Russia 
can get 4 iron out of that same plot.

My Take: If you get an unlucky map generation without much iron and 
horses nearby, the ability is useful. However, I typically haven't 
had resource problems, since I usually can't even afford to build 
units for all my resources. Iron and horses are obsolete in the late 
game, but Uranium is a game changer. Having two atomic bombs for 1 
resource can let you wipe out another country's military very quickly,
or destroy it's major cities. Still, as I said, you usually won't 
need the double resources. If you use the Krepost, you can afford to 
spread your cities out a little more to cover more ground. Support 
your Cossacks with anything ranged (even horse archers can help in
the mid game). The goal is to injure the target, even slightly, then
go in for the kill.

Victory Goal: Conquest

====================================================================
2.17 Siam [2.17xx]
====================================================================

Country: Siam (more specifically, the kingdom of Sukhothai)
Leader: Ramkhamhaeng
Historical Relevance: Inherited small kingom of Sukhothai, and
greatly expanded to make it a Southeast Asian power using diplomacy
as well as military might.

Unique Unit 1: Naresuan's Elephant (replaces Knight) +5 Combat 
Strength, -1 Movement, +50% Combat Bonus vs. Mounted Units. No Horse
Requirement.
Unique Unit 2: None.
Unique Building: Wat (replaces University) - +3 Culture.

Unique Ability: Father Governs Children
Food, Culture, and faith received from friendly city-states increased 
by +50%

Comments: None.

My Take: Plays very similar to India. You should build more trading 
posts instead of farms and use the money to befriend maritime and 
cultural city-states. Definitely use the Patronage policy tree. Siam 
does better on spreadout maps since they aren't a military nation. 
You goal should be to have a small number of cities with natural 
chokepoints so you can minimize your army. Keeping your city count 
small makes cultural victory easier to obtain. If you don't think 
you are going to make cultural victory in time, build the United 
Nations, and use your allegiances to try to get a diplomatic 
victory.

Victory Goal: Cultural, Diplomatic as a fallback.

====================================================================
2.18 Songhai [2.18xx]
====================================================================

Country: The Songhai Empire
Leader: Mohammad I Askia
Historical Relevance: Unified and conquered much of CEntral Africa.
Received title of Caliph of West Africa during a pilgrammage to Mecca.

Unique Unit 1: Mandekalu Cavalry (replaces Knight) -10% Production cost.
No penalty when attacking cities (all other calvary have -33%).
Unique Unit 2: None.
Unique Building: Mud Pyramid Mosque (replaces Temple) Zero Maintenence,
+2 culture

Unique Ability: River Warlord
All pillaged cities and encampments provide double the normal gold. All
land units receive free Amphibious and War Canoe promotions. Amphibious
removes all penalties from attack across a river or from the water. War
canoes doubles the defense while embarked and increases the sight of
embarked units.

My Take: I get this civ all the time when I go random, which gets 
annoying. The Songhai spawn bias usually gives you nearby horses. 
It is very important to have a lot of horses, and get Mandekalu
Calvary quickly. Mounted units are overpowered in this game, but 
are usually weak against cities. The Mandakulu Calvary isn't 
penalized. (It used to have an additional bonus, but this was 
patched out). Use this to your advantage and play aggressive. 
The Mud Pyramid Mosque is a great building, since you can get a 
lot of culture for free. It's not enough to make Songhai a Cultural 
contender, but it's great to get some key policies in place. Still 
the ability isn't very worthwhile. The small gold bonuses are nice
for early gold expansion, but isn't extremely helpful in the long 
term. Being able to have your units not immediately die would be nice 
if the CPU ever build Navy, which they rarely do.

Victory Goal: Conquest

====================================================================
====================================================================
3. Non Launch Civilizations [3xx]
====================================================================

All these cilivizations are not in the standard version of the game.
However, you can download these. Note that I am only including 
official Firaxis Civs. User generated civilizations won't be included
for now. They might be added at a later date if a particular Civ gets
very popular.

Note: All of these nations are included in the civilization V Gold
Package available on Steam. If you haven't already bought them, get them
through that. It includes Gods & Kings as well, so a good deal. Additionally,
you can get the "Gold" upgrade for just 20 bucks if you already have
the base game through Steam.

====================================================================
3.1 - Babylon [3.1xx]
====================================================================

Country: The Babylonian Empire
Leader: Nebuchadnezzar II
Availability: At launch for those who purchased deluxe edition, and
for $4.99 as a Downloadable Content available October 25th, 2010.

Unique Unit 1: Bowman (replaces Archer) +2 Melee Combat Strength, +2
Ranged Combat Strength
Unique Unit 2: None.
Unique Building: Walls of Babylon (replaces Walls) +1 City Combat
Strength, -10 Production Cost, city HP+100 (Walls only give +50)

Unique Ability: Ingenuity
Free Great Scientist upon invention of Writing. Produce Great Scientists
at +50% the rate.
Comments: None.

My Take: The only nation whose ability focuses on Science. Both the 
Unique Unit and building are early game, which is unfortunate in my 
mind. But this ability is key. Your goal should be to create farms 
for Great Scientists. Fight for those wonders accordingly. Also, 
in the early game, rather than use free techs, Use your Scientists 
to build Science improvements, since those points will, in the long 
run, help you improve faster than the early techs. G&K nerfed the hell
out of Babylon by making scientists only give a boost to research, not
insta-discover one.

Victory Goal: Science.

====================================================================
3.2 - Mongols [3.2xx]
====================================================================

Country: The Mongolian Empire
Leader: Genghis Kahn
Availability: Free DLC released October 25th, 2010

Unique Unit 1: Keshik (replaces Knight) Ranged Unit (cannot directly 
Melee) with 16 Ranged Combat Strength, 15 Melee Strength, +1 Movement,
Great Generals I (produces Great Generals at double rate), Gain +50% 
experience
Unique Unit 2: Khan (replaces Great General) +3 movement range, heals
adjacent units 15 HP per turn.
Unique Building: None.

Unique Ability: Mongol Terror
+30% combat against City-State units and cities. +1 movement to 
mounted units.

Comments: None

My Take: Strict military nation, don't try to make friends. You want 
to play very aggressively, taking what city-states you can. Once you 
have Keshiks and Khans, form battle teams (usually 3 Keshiks and one 
kahn per team and 2 teams will let you take out quite a bit of enemies). 
You'll want some infantry and siege units for grabbing the stronger cities.
Basically, the only way to defend that rush is for an AI to focus all nearby 
forces on one unit, since they heal quickly. However, given the ranged 
combat, they usually won't get close. A good military nation. You 
really want to spam Keshiks and attack quickly. The longer you wait, 
the worse off you will be. Very easily countered by Pikeman, so Germany
will probably destroy you given half the chance.

Victory Goal: Conquest.

====================================================================
3.3 - Spain [3.3xx]
====================================================================

Country: Spain
Leader: Isabella
Availability: DLC Released December 16th, 2010 (Double Civilization 
and Scenario Pack: Spain and Inca)

Unique Unit 1: Tercio (replaces Musketman) +10 Production Cost, +2 
Strength, +50% versus Mounted. 
Unique Unit 2: Conquistador (replaces Knight): +15 Production Cost
No penalty attack cities (Knight has 33% penalty), +2 Vision Range, 
Embarkation with Defense (x2 defense while embarked). Can found cities
on another landmass.
Unique Building: None

Unique Ability: Seven Cities of Gold
Gold bonus when discovering Natural Wonders (larger bonus when 
Spain is the first to discover a particular Natural Wonder). Culture,
Happiness, and all tile yields (production, food, commerce) are 
doubled on Natural Wonder tiles.

Comments: The Conquistador can only found cities on a different landmass
than the capitol. This consumes the Conquistador.

My Take: A Great Civ to use against mounted rushes because of the 
Tercio. However, the computer usually isn't smart enough to do 
mounted rushes. Oh well. With 2 Unique Units, this is an aggressive 
civilizaton. You definitely want to push during the Renaissance Era
to take most advantage of your units. Still, the ability is terrible.
Just terrible.

Victory Goal: Conquest.

====================================================================
3.4 - Inca [3.4xx]
====================================================================

Country: The Incan Empire
Leader: Pachacuti
Availability: DLC Released December 16th, 2010 (Double Civilization 
and Scenario Pack: Spain and Inca)

Unique Unit 1: Slinger (replaces Archer) -1 Melee Combat Strength,
Can Withdraw to adjacent hex if attacked at melee range. Chance of
withdraw is decreased against "fast enemies" (like horseman).
Unique Unit 2: None
Unique Building: Terrace Farm (tile improvement): +1 Food, +1 Food 
if adjacent to mountain. Can only be built on hills.

Unique Ability: The Great Andean Road
No movement penalty in hills. No maintenence for constructions 
in hills, half maintenence elsewhere.

Comments: The Terrace Farm is not built in cities. It is 
basically a more powerful farm on a hill.

My Take: Both the unique unit and unique building are very...
well...unique. The Slinger being able to withdraw in the early game 
means you likely won't get hit by much, since early game is known for 
wide open combat rather than terrain fighting. Given Incas start bias, 
the Terrace Farm will usually be useful in your capitol and first 
expansion. After that, mountains are rare (though not as rare as 
lakes, making Inca better than Aztec). Low maintenence is very nice.

Victory Goal: Inca will have a bit more money, so maybe Diplomacy.

====================================================================
3.5 - Polynesia [3.5xx]
====================================================================

Country: The Kingdom of Hawai'i (Kamehameha I united Hawai'i. There 
wasn't a Polynesian Empire)
Leader: Kamehameha I (Yep. That's how it is pronounced).
Availability: DLC Released March 3rd, 2011 (Civilization and 
Scenario Pack: Polynesia) (Initial Steam Price $4.99)

Unique Unit 1: Maori Warrior (replaces warrior). Starts with "Haka 
War Dance" promotion (any enemy on an adjacent tile receives -10% 
combat strength). Does not stack.
Unique Unit 2: None
Unique Building: Moai (tile improvement) (+1 Culture) - Requires
Construction.

Unique Ability: Wayfinding
Units can embark and move over oceans immediately. +1 Vision Range 
for embarked units. +10% Combat Strength if within 2 tiles of a Moai.

Comments: Like Inca's Terrace Farm, the Unique "Building" (Moai) is 
actually a unique tile improvement. The bonus from Moais and Maori 
Warriors do not appear to stack.

My Take: If bonuses from Moais and Maori Warriors stacked, you could 
really hold chokepoints well. However, they don't. Wayfinding is a 
really nice ability if you want to expand quickly, meaning you have
and advantage in resources. Unfortunately, the Unique building, 
which would lend itself to culture, is offset by the fact that this 
is an expansionary civilization. Nice early on, but after Astronomy 
is acquired by others, you lose your advantage.

Victory Goal: Culture

====================================================================
3.6 - Denmark [3.6xx]
====================================================================

Country: Denmark
Leader: Harald Bluetooth
Availability: DLC Released May 3rd, 2011 (Civilization and Scenario 
Pack: Denmark - The Vikings) (Initial Steam Price $4.99)

Unique Unit 1: Berserker (replaces Longswordsman) +1 Move, free 
Amphibious (no attack penalty when attacking over a river for from 
the sea.
Unique Unit 2: Norwegian Ski Infrantry (replaces Rifleman) +25% in 
Snow/Tundra/Hills (unless Forest or Jungle is present) and half 
movement cost.
Unique Building: None.

Unique Ability: Viking Fury
Embarked units have +1 move and only 1 movement cost for moving 
from sea to land. Melee units are charged no movement cost for 
pillaging improvements.

Comments: None.

My Take: Another strict military nation. Comparing to other Strict 
Military Nations, these units are a lot more specialized. Vikings 
could do well on Islands maps due to the advantage of attack via sea 
(amphibious assaults). Being able to pillage the s*** out of everyone
is a double edged sword. Yes, it can weaken your opponent, but if
you are trying to capture a city, you are trading a temporary small
benefit for a long term cost (at least, until you get workers in).

Victory Goal: Conquest.

====================================================================
3.7 - Korea [3.7xx]
====================================================================

Country: The Chosaon Dynasty of Korea
Leader: Sejong the Great
Availability: DLC Released August, 11, 2011 (Civilization and Scenario 
Pack: Korea) (Initial Steam Price $4.99)

Unique Unit 1: Turtle Ship (replaces Caravel) - +16 Melee Combat. 
Cannot enter deep ocean tiles. Doesn't have the +1 sight bonus or
withdraw ability of the Caravel.
Unique Unit 2: Hwach'a (replaces Trebuchet)- +12 Ranged combat. No 
Vision Penalty. No Bonus against cities. -1 Melee Combat Strength
Unique Building: None.

Unique Ability: Scholars of the Jade Hall
+2 Science for all Great Person Tile Improvements (including non-
Scientist improvements) and specialists. Receive a research bonus 
towards your current research goal every time a science building or 
Wonder is built in the capital city.

Comments: Doing some quick math, the Hwacha will do roughly 60% damage
to a city of a Trebuchet.

My Take: A small empire with a strong capital city is key. That said
The units are, in my opinion, no better and possibly worse than what 
they replace. The caravel is supposed to be an exploration unit. The
Turtle Ship, therefore, delays expansion so you can have a better
unit to defend the shoreline, which against CPU, is pretty 
unneccessary. The Hwach'a is great against infantry, but you lose a 
seige weapon. Basically, both these units fail to serve the purpose 
of what they replace. I know different isn't always worse, but in 
the case of the Turtle Ship, it's unquestionably a step down. I honestly
don't know why Firaxis though the Turtle ship was a good idea. Yes,
everyone disagress with me, but exploration is key in BNW so you can
find archeological dig sites. So I stand by my point.

Victory Goal: Science.

====================================================================
====================================================================
4. Gods & Kings Expansion Pack [4xx]
====================================================================

Gods & Kings is the first major expansion pack to Civilization V.
It released on June 19,2012 in North America, and June 22, 2012
elsewhere.

This expansion pack adds in 9 civilizations (11 if you count the 
previously released Spain and Mongolia). Gods and Kings will bring
27 new units, 13 new buildings, and nine new wonders in addition to
the 9 new civilizations.

In addition, religion has been implemented. Unlike Civilization IV,
where real-world religions were used, Civilization V has a player
found ther on religion which they can grow and spread.

Espionage, a feature from Civilization IV: Beyond the Sword, has also
returned. Additionally, religious and mercantile city-states will
provide new bonuses.

This major update will also improve the Computer AI, add an early
modern era to expand the timeline, and allow enhanced naval combat
featuring a new Great Admiral unit as well as melee naval units (before
this update, all naval units were strictly ranged).

Below are all the new civilizations and the standard fare of information.

====================================================================
4.1 - Austria [4.1xx]
====================================================================

Country: The Holy Roman Empire (which wasn't Holy, wasn't Roman, and
was barely an Empire).
Leader: Maria Theresa of the Habsburgs

Unique Unit 1: Hussar (replaces Calvary) +1 movement, +1 sight,
+50% bonus to flank (that is, attacking a unit already attacked).
Unique Unit 2: None.
Unique Building: Coffee House (replaces Windmill) - +5% production
in addition to +2 production. +25% great people generation. No +10%
production to buildings. Can be built on hills.

Unique Ability: Diplomatic Marriage
Can spend gold to annex or puppet an allied city-state that has been an
ally for at least 5 turns.

Comments: A coffee house replaces a windmill. No, I don't know why.
I've been to Austria; there were windmills everywhere.

My Take: A great unique unit (though it comes fairly late) and a
useful unique building. Diplomatic Marriage is more of an investment.
Once you puppet or annex a city-state, you still need to build a
courthouse. However, you don't have to deal with espionage anymore, 
nor do you have to continue spending money to buy loyalty. So useful,
but the civ's biggest downfall is a lack of focus. Of course, if you
puppet a city state, they no longer vote separately in a diplomatic
victory.

Victory Goal: With Great People, really anything except diplomacy.

====================================================================
4.2 - Byzantium [4.2xx]
====================================================================

Country: Byzantine Empire
Leader: Theodora

Unique Unit 1: Cataphract (replaces Horseman) - +3 combat. Can use
defensive terrain bonus (Horseman cannot), and only gets penalized
25% against cities (Horseman get 33%). -1 Movement
Unique Unit 2: Dromon (replaces Trimere) - +11 Production. Cannot
melee attack. Range Unit with 10 ranged combat strength and 2 range. 
-2 Direct Combat strength. +50% Strength vs. Naval Units.

Unique Building: None.

Unique Ability: Patriarchate of Constantinople.
Choose one more Belief than normal when you found a religion.

Comments: You'll notice that every civ has a third "bonus" slot for
founders that is reserved for Byzantine. Do they have to really throw
that in everyone else's face?

Also, for clarity: Naval combat is reworked in Gods and Kings. In
vanilla Civ V, the Trimere is a ranged combat unit. But in Gods and
Kings, the Trimere is a direct combat unit. This means that the
Trimere cannot fire on ground units. The Dromon, however, can.

My Take: The Dromon is beastly. The Cataphract is quite good. Getting
a bonus belief, when the beliefs aren't THAT powerful is quite mehh-
worthy, but in the right circumstance, can be game changing. Still, 
because the Dromon gets +50% against naval, even when it is attacked 
by Trimeres, it actually has 12 direct combat strength, meaning it has 
the advantage. I like the idea of religious warfare, if you set your 
belief perks up correctly.

Victory Goal: Conquest with religious focus.

====================================================================
4.3 - Carthage [4.3xx]
====================================================================

Country: Carthage
Leader: Dido

Unique Unit 1: African Forest Elephant (replaces Horseman) +25 Production;
+2 Combat Strength, -1 Movement. -10% Combat Strength to any adjacent
enemy unit. Great Generals 2 (produces Great Generals at, I believe,
triple the usual rate). No horse resource required.
Unique Unit 2: Quinquereme (replaces Trimere) - +3 Combat Strength
Unique Building: None.

Unique Ability: Phoenician Heritage
All coastal cities get a free Harbor. Units may cross Mountains after
first Great General, but they take 50 damage if they end turn on mountain.

Comments: None.

My Take: Free harbor is very nice if you have a coastal capital, or
at least a coastal city connected to your capital. It basically allows
much quicker colonization. I'm not sure mountains are really common
enough to warrant a huge plus to this ability, but it does force
your opponent out of defending just key chokepoints in some instances. 
Unique units aren't exceptional, but aren't terrible either.

Victory Goal: Almost a strict military nation, so I'd say Conquest

====================================================================
4.4 - Celtica [4.4xx]
====================================================================

Country: The Celtric tribes.
Leader: Boudica

Unique Unit 1: Pictish Warrior (replaces Spearman) - +20% Combat
Strength when outside of friendly lands. No movement cost to pillage.
Earns 50% of opponents strength as Faith.
Unique Unit 2: None.
Unique Building: Ceilidh Hall (replaces Opera House) - +3 Happiness.

Unique Ability: Druidic Lore
+1 Faith per city with an adjacent unimproved forest. Bonus increases
to +2 in cites with 3 or more adjacent unimproved forests.

Comments: The faith bonus for kills does not preserve with promotion,
but the pillage and foreign lands bonus do. Still, faith is kind of the
main reason for this unit.

My Take: I'm not a fan of the ability, because it's usefulnees is
short lived. That said, it will all but guaruntee you getting the first
religion. The Pictish Unit has to be in the top 5, if the not the best
unique unit in the game. Great for early rushes, and since you can buy
units with faith, you can use them to build up your army further. Unique
Building is uninspiring, but useful (even though it comes late in the game).
To use optimally, I wouldn't use religous happiness bonuses, since you'll
get quite a bit from the UB.

Victory Goal: Conquest by religious warfare.

====================================================================
4.5 - Ethiopia [4.5xx]
====================================================================

Country: Etheopian Empire
Leader: Haile Selassie

Unique Unit 1: Mehal Sefari (replaces Rifleman) - -25 Production. +30%
Combat Bonus when fighting in Capital. This bonus decreases the further
from the Capital you are. Free Drill 1.
Unique Unit 2: None.
Unique Building: Stele (replaces Monumnet) - +2 Faith.

Unique Ability: Spirit of Adwa
+20% when fighting against civilization with more cities than Ethiopia.

Comments: The Stele is better for faith than a shrine, at the same cost
and still gives the same culture as an obelisk.

My Take: Used to be my favorite Civ from Gods and Kings. If you are 
disciplined and keep a small empire, you can be excellent defensively
while you focus on a goal of culture. With the Stele you are
almost certain to be a religion founder, and you'll be able to generate
2 faith and 2 culture for the same cost as someone else who just gets
either 2 culture OR 1 faith. Keeping a small tight knit empire can really
make your defense strong. One of the best designed civilizations I've seen
in regards to synergy. One major problem though is that culture victory now
encourages expansion to get those precious archeological dig sites. That
really hurt Ethiopia and changed them from very very good to kind of bad.

Victory Goal: Culture.

====================================================================
4.6 - Huns [4.6xx]
====================================================================

Country: The Hun
Leader: Attila the ... uh ... Hun.

Unique Unit 1: Horse Archer (replaces Chariot Archer) - +1 Combat. Free
Accuracy 1. No Rough Terrain Penalty (Chariot Archers use up all movement
on any single rough terrain). No horse resource required.
Unique Unit 2: Battering Ram (replaces Spearman) - + 19 production.
-1 Combat Strength. 33% Penalty when attacked. No defensive terrain Bonus.
-1 Visibility. Can only attack cities. +300% against cities.(That isn't
a typo. +300%). Free Cover 1.
Unique Building: None.

Unique Ability: Scourge of God
Raze Cities at double speed. Borrow City names form other in-game Civs.
Start with Animal Husbandry. +1 Production per pasture.

Comments: The Battering Ram is the most specialized unit of all time.
Promotion causes you to lose basically everything except free Cover 1.
Thus, you only have a short time to take advantage of it.

My Take: Okay, so in early periods, the Battering Ram simply destroys
cities. Now, you have to defend it with warriors, but if you get it to
an enemies city, you win. Period. Still, you lose a pretty important unit 
in spearmen. You can then raze the city quickly to avoid unhappiness. 
Horse Archer isn't excellent. Starting with Animal Husbandry is actually 
useful, since the start bias puts horses nearby frequently. I find it
very strange though that you start with the ability to find horses when
you don't need them for your unique unit. Very low synergy.

Victory Goal: Conquest. Very very quickly.

====================================================================
4.7 - Maya [4.7xx]
====================================================================

Country: The Mayans.
Leader: Pacal

Unique Unit 1: Atlatist (replaces Archer) - -4 Production, available
without researching Archery.
Unique Unit 2: None.
Unique Building: Pyramid (replaces Shrine) - +1 Faith, +2 Science.

Unique Ability: The Long Count
After researching Theology, receive a free Great Person at the end of
every 394 years. (Each type of great person can only be selected once).

Comments: Note: it's 394 Years, NOT 394 Turns. Meaning you'll get the great
people more often early.

My Take: Rush Theology quickly, and you can get a nice early upperhand.
However, because you can't get multiple free Great People of the same
type, a lot of specialization potential is wasted. Once you get towards
modern times, the Unique Ability becomes 2 steps shy of worthless. Once
you leave the ancient era, the unique unit becomes worthless. It would have
been fine if Archery was still a dead-end research branch, but now you need it
for roads. The Pyramid is very nice though.

Victory Goal: Science, with the right religious focus.

====================================================================
4.8 - The Netherlands [4.8xx]
====================================================================

Country: The Netherlands
Leader: William of Orange

Unique Unit 1: Sea Beggar (replaces Privateer) - Free Coastal Raider
II (Additional +20% vs. Cities, addition +33% of damage received as gold).
Free Supply (can heal outside of friendly territory at 15 hp per turn).
Free Prize ships (convert fallen enemies to your side occasionally)
Unique Unit 2: None.
Unique Building: Polder (a unique improvement, NOT a building) - +3
Food improvement. Can only be built on marshes and flood plains.

Unique Ability: Retain 50% of happiness benefit from a Luxary Resource
if you trade away your last copy.

Comments: None.

My Take: At first glance this country looks terrible. But look again.
Okay, it's still really bad. But look once more. The Sea Beggar is pretty
damn good. A total of +40% damage to cities plus raiding 66% of the damage
(since it stacks with Coastal Raider I) and the ability to convert enemies
is pretty cool. Polder would be amazing if it weren't for the fact that
it can only be built on relatively rare tiles (one of which slows movement
speed). The ability is just trash, though. So basically, you have one
really good unit, one below average building, and arguably one of the worst
abilities in the game. In my opinion.

Victory Goal: Diplomacy if I had to pick one.

====================================================================
4.9 - Sweden [4.9xx]
====================================================================

Country: Sweden
Leader: Gustavas Adolphus

Unique Unit 1: Hakkapeliitta (replaces Lancer) - 15% bonus with Great
General in same tile. Great General that starts stack with this unit
gets movement bonus to match this unit.
Unique Unit 2: Carolean (replaces Rifleman) - Free March 1 (Unit heals 
every turn, even if action taken).
Unique Building: None.

Unique Ability: Nobel Prize
Gain 90 influence with a great person gifted to a City State. When
declaring Friendship, gain a 10% boost to Great Person generation.
The friend also receives this boost.

Comments: None.

My Take: Honestly, I'm wholly unimpressed. Gifting Great People
would be nice, except espionage completely prevents holding onto a
City-State's trust. So it's not worth losing the great person. +10%
for friendship is nice, except no one will give it to you late game,
and you actually help your opponents out too. The units are pretty much
garbage (Hakkapeliitta is barely better than vanilla lancer, which is
a weak unit for the period you get it, and free March is nice but FAR
from game changing). Arguably the worst ability in the game. Unit has
decent ability synergry, but you can only get one bonus per great general,
so it's weak sauce.

Victory Goal: Focus your great people generation to science or culture,
and go from there.

====================================================================
====================================================================
5. Brave New World Civilizations [5xx]
====================================================================

Brave New World features massive overhauls to the mechanics of
Civilization V. The culture system has been completely changed. Each
great artists produces an associated great work, which can generate
tourism. International Trade is brought in, which spreads science as
well as commerce.

Trade is now requires a personal hand involved. You can chose who you
trade with to benefit you most, be it city states or civilizations. Trade 
can also be used domestically to move food or production from "wealthy" 
cities to "poor" cities (which is an AMAZING way to build up new cities).
Trading with a more scientifically advanced civilization can bring you 
small science boosts, and trade also spreads religion. If you manage it 
well, you can generate a ton of money off of trade, but you must ensure
you protect your convoys, as they are an on-map unit that can be captured
and killed.

Additionally, once you reach the Modern Era or build 3 factories, you
will select an ideology (Freedom, Order, or Autocracy). This is a one
time decision. Each Ideology comes with a tree made up of Tenets.
From what I can gather, having not played the game yet, the Tenets
appaer to effectively be just like culture decisions. The tenets are
divided into 3 Tiers. The Tier 3 abilities are particularly powerful 
and geared for victory conditions (for example, Order has a tier 3 ability
that gives free courthouses to captured cities and let's you finish
spaceship parts with Great Engineers.

The ideology tree is seperated from the rest of the culture tree. Order,
Freedom, and Autocracy have been removed. The tree has added Exploration
and Aesthetics. Each tree allows you to build a certain World Wonder (for 
example, you can't build the Statue of Zeus until you adopt Honor). 
Different policy trees no longer appear mutually exclusive (Piety can
be adopted alongside Rationalism).

Additionally, a World Congress has been added. The first civilization
to find all the others in the game unlocks the World Congress and
becomes the Host, receiving an additional vote. Several policies can
be enacted to help balance the game. Additionally, there are now
diplomats, which sit in cities like spies, but do not steal techs.
Instead they can inform you of the goings-on of the city (basically,
gives intel like a spy, but without the active hostility generated).
They also play a role in tourism by convincing people to visit your
country.

Of course, it wouldn't be a new civilization expansion without new 
nations. Brave New World features 9 new countries and leaders, and a 
dramatic retooling of France (see section 2.7.1).

====================================================================
5.1 - Assyria [5.1xx]
====================================================================

Country: Assyria
Leader: Ashurbanipal

Unique Unit 1: Siege Tower (replaces Catapault) - +5 Combat. May only
attack cities, and must be at melee range. Free Sapper (+50% bonus vs. 
Cities given to all friendly units within 2 tiles). Free Cover 1 (+33%
Defense against Ranged attacks). +1 Sight (which gives it two more sight
than the Catapult, which is penalized -1 Sight).
Unique Unit 2: None.
Unique Building: Royal Library (replaces Library) - Has a Great Work 
of Writing slot. When this is filled, all units built in the city
receive a bonus 15XP.

Unique Ability: Treasures of Nineveh
Steal an enemy technology when taking a city. Can only be used once
per city. This does not apply if a city is acquired in trade.

Comments: Once you capture a city once, even if it is recaptured or
captured by a different civilization, that city will not give a tech
bonus anymore. Royal Library gives no XP boost if the specialist slot
is unfilled. 

My Take: Sadly, Siege Tower loses Sapper upon promotion. A
greater crime hasn't been perpetrated in video games, but it
makes sense from a balance perspective. You keep the
extra sight and Cover 1 promotions. Royal Library is one of my
absolute favorite UBs. Fun to play with this civ. I basically feel
like a jock kicking a bunch of nerds around. Which, since I was
one of those nerds in high school, is cathartic.

====================================================================
5.2 - Brazil [5.2xx]
====================================================================

Country: Brazil
Leader: Pedro II

Unique Unit 1: Pracinhas - Golden Age points when you defeat an enemy.
Unique Unit 2: None.
Unique Building: Brazilwood Camp - Tile improvement can be built on
jungle tiles. Yields +2 Gold. Additionally, +2 Culture after Acoustics 
researched.

Unique Ability: Carnival
Tourism output doubled and spawn rate of Great Artists, Musicians, and
Writers 50% faster during Golden Ages

Comments: Note that there are three types of Great Artists, but all of
them have increased spawn rates during a Golden Age.

My Take: Just...wow. +100% tourism is just simply insane. With a culture 
bonus In the Unique Improvement. The Pracinhas may not be a great unit in 
its own right, but it is silly fantastic in Brazil hands. This is BNW's 
Ethiopia: A civ that capitalizes on changed mechanics to be a fantastic 
nation. Had a ton of fun making all the other countries wear my blue 
jeans and listen to my rock and roll. Simply a cultural powerhouse.

====================================================================
5.3 - Indonesia [5.3xx]
====================================================================

Country: Indonesia
Leader: Gajuh Mada

Unique Unit 1: Kris Swordsman (replaces Swordsman)- Receives a random 
promotion after its first round of combat. See comments for possible 
promotions.
Unique Unit 2: None.
Unique Building: Candi (replaces Garden) - +2 Faith. Additionall +2 
Faith for each World Religion that has at least 1 follower in the city.

Unique Ability: Spice Islanders
First 3 cities founded on a landmass other than the capital receive two
unique Luxary Resources. These cities cannot be razed, even if captured.

Comments: Candi, like the garden, requires the city to be fresh water
adjacent. Capturing a city won't trigger Spice Islanders. You have to found
it.

Kris Swordsman promotions:

Good (blue) promotions

Ambition: +50% combat when attacking. -20% when defending.
Recruitment: Heals all damage if kills non-barbarian unit.
Heroism: Unit gives combat bonus to nearby units like a Great General.
Invulnerability: +30% Combat Bonus when defending. +20 Hit Points when 
healing.
Restlessness: May attack twice, +1 Movement
Sneak Attack: +50% flank bonus

Bad (red) promotions

Evil Spirits: -10% when attacking. -30% when defending.
Enemy Blade: Takes 20 Damage if Ends Turn in Enemy Territory

My Take: I've never been a fan inconsistency, and there's quite a bit here.
Also, map type dependent, so Pangaea kills your Unique Ability. Continents
can make it hard if they get developed quickly, but could work. You get 
a lot of trade power with your resources, since no one else will be able 
to access them as long as you protect your cities. If you're lucky, 
you'll be in fantastic shape. If you aren't, you'll be in bad shape.

====================================================================
5.4 - Morocco [5.4xx]
====================================================================

Country: Morocco
Leader: Ahmad al-Mansur

Unique Unit 1: Berber Calvary (replaces Calvary) - Free Homeland Guardian
(+25% combat in Moroccan territory). Free Desert Warrior (+50% combat on
desert tiles).
Combat bonus on desert tile. (Unknown if they stack, but I assume so).
Unique Unit 2: 
Unique Building: Kasbah - Unique Tile Impovement. Must be built on desert. 
Provides +1 gold, +1 food, +1 production.

Unique Ability: Gateway to Africa
Receives +3 Gold and +1 culture for each International Trade Route.
The owner of the route receives +2 additional Gold.

Comments: None.

My Take: Kind of underwhelming. The power reminds me of Sweden, but
at least you get a slightly better deal out of it than the other guy.
Unique unit is beastly for home defense (because Morroco gets a desert
bias). Kasbah is great because it lets you settle places your opponents
will try to avoid.

====================================================================
5.5 - Poland [5.5xx]
====================================================================

Country: Poland
Leader: Casimir III

Unique Unit 1: Winged Hussar (replaces Lancer) - If the defender takes
more damaged than the Winged Hussar, it must retreat. If it cannot
retreat, the defending unit takes extra damage. Free Shock 1 (+15%
combat in open terrain). +3 Combat Strength
Unique Unit 2: None.
Unique Building: Ducal Stable - (replaces Stable) +15 XP to mounted
units built in the city. +1 Gold to worked pastures (in addition to
default +1 production). -25% Production Cost (75 hammers on Standard 
vs. 100 hammers for the stable).

Unique Ability: Solidarity - Receive a free social policy at the start
of each new era.

My Take: If I'm understanding the Winged Hussar correctly, it can be
used to "push" enemies, which could be useful for freeing up choke 
points or knocking them off a critical defense tile. The Unique Ability
is simply fantastic. You can really get an upperhand on other people
early, and late game it can help you land some critical abilities dozens
of turns before everyone else.

====================================================================
5.6 - Portugal [5.6xx]
====================================================================

Country: Maria I
Leader: 

Unique Unit 1: Nau - replaces Caravel. +1 Movement. Gets one time 
ability to sell its cargo in foreign lands (effectively a trade mission,
where the further away you are, the more money you get). Also gives
XP.
Unique Unit 2: None.
Unique Building: Feitoria - Unique tile improvement. Can be built inside
the border of city-states. Provides one copy of the Luxary Resource of
that city-state. This copy cannot be traded. Can only be built on a coast
line without a resource. +50% defense bonus. Requires Navigation.

Unique Ability: Mare Clausum
Resource diversity grants twice as much Gold for Portugal in International
Trade Routes.

Comments: Razing a Feitoria will lead to war with Portugal. You cannot
trade the copy of the luxury you get from the Feitoria, but if you are an
ally, you'll get two copies (one to keep from the Feitoria, the other to trade
from the ally bonus).

My Take: Money powerhouse that can compete with Arabia. While I think
Arabia is better, Portugal will ultimately do better on island maps, where
the caravan distance bonus of Arabia is nullified. Pangea maps will favor
Arabia heavily, likewise.

====================================================================
5.7 - Shoshone [5.7xx]
====================================================================

Country: The Shoshone Nation-Tribe
Leader: Pocatello

Unique Unit 1: Pathfinder (replaces Scout) +5 production cost. +4 Combat
Free Native Tongue (choose your 
Unique Unit 2: Comanche Riders (replaces Calvary) - -25 Production Cost
(no decrease in faith cost). Free Full Moon Striker (+1 Movement)
Unique Building: 

Unique Ability: Great Expanse
Each city starts with 8 additional territory. 10% Combat bonus in own territory.

Comments: Each goody hut reward can only be picked once unless you manage to
cycle through the whole list.

My Take: The Pathfinder is an interesting early game unit. The movement bonus
is great, the Native Tongue ability can be feast or famine depending on the
number of nearby Ruins (though it does let you capitalize on the few you
do get). However, you cannot get combat promotions unless you promote to 
Archer (which makes you lose your strength bonus, as it doesn't preserve).
Comanche Rider may not seem overly impressive, but it may be one of the 
better units in the game. Why? Because the +1 Movement preserves with 
promotion. Promote it twice, and you can have +1 Movement on tanks. So two
units with good uses, but not fantastic. But where Shoshone really shines
is in the early game with Great Expanse. With the pathfinder that you start
with, you can find the best places to settle early, and the extra territories
let you grab better land before your opponent even knows they're in a turf war.
I actually really like Shoshone for this.

====================================================================
5.8 - Venice [5.8xx]
====================================================================

Country: Venice
Leader: Enrico Dandolo

Unique Unit 1: Merchant of Venice (replaces Great Merchant) has the 
ability to purchase a city-state (brought in as a Puppet-city). This 
consumes the Merchant.
Unique Unit 2: Great Galleass (replaces Galleass) +10 Production cost
(translates to 10%). +1 Melee Combat, +2 Ranged Combat. You can melee
attack, though I don't see a reason too.
Unique Building: None.

Unique Ability: Serenissima
Cannot gain settlers nor annex cities. Double the normal number of Trade
Routes available. A Merchant of Venice appears after researching Optics.
May purchase in puppeted cities.

Comments: None.

My Take: This is somewhat of a one city challenge country. You can 
conquer cities, but you cannot annex them, only puppet them. Early on
it's hard to get going, but with the start bias putting you on the coast,
you'll be raking in the dough later on. Build lots of trade boosters and make
sure you get the East India Trading company. Either way, I'm a micromanager, 
so no likey. But that doesn't mean it's bad. That said, I think the Great
Galleass is crap.

====================================================================
5.9 - Zulus [5.9xx]
====================================================================

Country: The Zulu Nation
Leader: Shaka

Unique Unit 1: Impi - (replaces Pikeman) Attack twice when attacking. 
First attack is ranged, second is melee. The sprear throw is not
insubstantial. It appears to do roughly 75% of a normal attack. So you're
effectively doing tons of extra damage without any downside.
Unique Unit 2: None.
Unique Building: Ikanda - Barracks - Grants units the ability to learn
several unique upgrades. Only pre-gunpowder melee units can earn 
these promotions.


Buffalo Chest gives +10% in Open Terrain, +10% Defense against all ranged.
Buffalo Horns gives +1 Movement, +25% flanking bonus, and +10% against ranged.
Buffalo Loins +10% combat, +25% flanking bonus, and +10% against ranged.

Unique Ability: Iklwa - 50% melee unit maintenence. All units require 25%
less XP to promote.

Comments: The combat prediction tool does NOT take Spear Throw into account
at this time. In my one playthrough, new units got Buffalo Chest automatically. 
Chest is required to get Horns. Horns required to get loins.

My Take: A strict miltary nation. The Impi + Ikanda is redonkulous, and
may very well be my new favorite unit in the game. Absolutely fantastic
unit. I really enjoyed my playthrough with this nation. Impi rush, especially
if you build a lot of Ikanda's, is amazing.