nMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMo-----------0
 SMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM|  Empire:  |
 XMM@@##@@@#@#@@@@@@@@@@@@@#@@@######$$$$$$$$$$#$$$$####@@@@@@@@|           |
 XMM@##$##############$$BBBBBBBBWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWB$$$##########|   Total   |
 tMM@@@#@@@@@@@######$$$$$$$$BBBWBWWWBBB$$$$$$$$$$##@@@@@@@@@@@@|    War    | 
 1MMM@@@@@@#####$$$$$BB$$###$$BBWWWWWB$$$$######@@@@MM@@M@@@@@@@o-----------o
 1MMM@@####$$$$$BBBWBWQE8668EQB$$########$BWQQWWB$####@@@@@@@@#####$$$$$#@M@. 
 tMM@##$$$BBBBBBWWWWWW0ZoC7tn290W#####B08A2ooSnnnSSSSSz2AZE0Q0EEQ$#$BWB$#@M@. 
 XMM#$WWBBWWWWWWWWWWBB$$W08Itcv7SAbEE8n;iiivcv;;;;ii:.....,ivYY7IW#$BBB$#@M@. 
 7M@#$WQBBBWWWWWWWWWWB$##@@@B97i,..,iv;icAQ$$$BBBBWWQE9o7vi,..:c2B#$$$###@M@. 
 YM@$BWQWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWB$@MM@EY,     .:;z#MMMMMMMMMMMMMM@QIc. ,7A$###$##@@M@. 
 YM@WWWQWWWWBBBBWWWWWWWW$#@#07.      .iYAB@@#########@@MMM@9:.izE######@@@M@. 
 cM#QQQQWBBBB$BBWWWWBBB$#@#E1,       .;1bW#$BBWBWWWWWWB#@MMWv.YEB######@@@MM. 
 ;@$0QQQWWWBBBBBWWBBB$$$@@Bz;.       .v6QB$WWWWWWWWWQQQB$@MWc:tW######@@@MMM. 
 ;@B0QQQWWWWWWWWWBBBB$$#@M0Y,       .,70#$BWWWWWWWBBWQQW$#@$Unb#@@@@@@@@@MMM. 
 vM#QQWWBBBBBBBBBBBBBB$#@@9i       ..i1Q#$WWWWWWW$WQb9Z0$#@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@M@. 
 cM@WWBWB$######$$$BBB$$#Wt.       .:YAQ$WWWWQWW#$ZXc7zE$##@@MMMMMMM@@###@M@. 
 cM@WWBW##W000QB###$WB#$Q2;.       .;nbQWQWQWW$#$b7.:tbW##@@MM@#$#@@M@####M@. 
 cM#WWBW09t;;vYS8Q##BB##8Y,       .:t0$#$$$$###Q2c,.ib@@@@@#QACccYnbW#@###M#. 
 cM@B##bc.      .cA0B#@#2:.      ..vA#@@##@@#QUc. .:tW@@@@@6:      .inW@##M$. 
 cM@$#@0Y,        :CQ@#WX.        ..ic7cv;;;i,.  .,cA$@@@@$Ai        ,X8W#M#. 
 cM@#@@$AtYvi,.    ;Q@B8;          ..:i,....     .in0#@@@@$EnYv;:.    ioQ#M#. 
 YM@@@M@WEE08zY...:t$@b1:         ,c1686UUIztci. .;b@@@@@@@$08EEU1;..,79W#M#. 
 YMM@@@@$QEZ8b9znAb$@#z;.       .iA#@MMMMMMMM#6c..X$M@@@@@M@Wb8bbE92zZQ$$#M#. 
 YM@$#@@@@#WW$##@@@@MBX,       ..YQMM@@@@@MMMM#A;iz@@##$#@@@@#$WB$#####$BW@W. 
 YM@B$#@@MM@@@@@@@#@@E;.       .it0##$$$$##@M@$Z7YA#@#$WWB#@@M@@#####BWQQQ@W. 
 YM@###$#@@@@@##$$$$Wz:       .:YIQ#$$$$###@@#0U1nZ$#BWQQQWWB$##$BBWQQQQ0QM$. 
 XMM@#$B$$$$$$$WB##BZY.       .iS0#######@#@@#$BQ0QBWWWWWQQQQQQQQQQQQ0QWW$M#. 
 XMM@#$B$$BBBBBB$@@Qt:.       .YE#@@@############BWWWWBWQ00E0QQQQQQQQ0QQW$M@. 
 CMM@##$$$$$$$$$#@@Ev.      ..iS$@@@###$$$$BBB$$BWWWB$Q9oz680QQQQQ00000QW$M@. 
 XMM@##$$$$$$$$#@@#A:       .:Y9#@@###$BWBWWWWWWWW$$$0zi.:nZ0QQQQ000Q0QQB$M@. 
 tMM@##$#####$#@@#Q1.      ..vo0#@#$$$BWWWWWWWWB$#$W2;...v9QQQQQQWQWWWWB##M@. 
 CMM@##########@MWU;.     .,;2Q$##$BBBBWWWBBB$#@$EzY,  .izQ$WQWWBB$$$$$#@@M@. 
 CMM@########@@M@A;.     .:v1E#@@##$$$$$$$BBWWWbti.   .;nbWBWB$$#######@@@MM. 
 CMM@######@@@@@E;       .:iY20$@@@@@@@@#$WbSc:.      ,t0$$$B$$########@@MMM. 
 CMM@@##@@##$QIv....i;;;cc;i:,:;YXXX777Yc;i,... ...  .iI#@#$#######@@@@@@MMM. 
 tMM@@@@@#WE6z7i:cn8W$BWW0A1Yiiii;;;iiiiiiiii;ct2I1c;c1E####@@@@@@@@@@@@@@M@. 
 tMM@@@@@#0I2AbW@MMMMMMMMMM@@#W0EZZ9998E0W$#@@@MMM@@$B$#@@@@@@@@@@@@@####@M@. 
 tMM@@@@@@@@@@MMMMMMMM@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@MMMMMMM@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@###BB$#@M@. 
 tMMM@@@@@@M@@@@@###$$$$B$$$$$######@@@@@##########@#@#@#######$$$BBWQWB#@M@. 
 nMMMM@@@@@@@##$BBBWWWWWWWWWWBWBB$$$$$$$$$$########@@@@@@@#######$$$$B$$#@M@. 
 zMMMMMMMMMMM@@@@@###@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@MMMM. 
 0MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM: 

Author: Warfreak
Version: 3.2
Date Started: 5/3/09

NOTE: This Guide will Contain Spoilers. YOU HAVE BEEN WARNED!

REMEMBER, IF YOU LIKE THIS GUIDE, RECOMMEND IT TO OTHER USERS USING THE LINK
ABOVE. 

IF YOU HAVE ANY STRATEGIES NOT LISTED, PLEASE SEND THEM IN. INPUT IS ALWAYS
WELCOME. 

*~~~~~~~~~~~Watch In Awe, Watch In Awe, Aeria Gloris, Aeria Gloris~~~~~~~~~~~*

Warfreak's Top Tip: Use Ctrl+F to quickly navigate this guide.

Table of Contents
 §1 Introduction
    [1.01] Introduction
    [1.02] Version History
    [1.03] Using Steam
    [1.04] Downloadable Content

 §2 Road to Independance
    [2.01] Episode One - The Jamestown Colony
    [2.02] Episode Two - The French and Indian War
    [2.03] Episode Three - American War of Independance
    [2.04] United States - A New Nation

 §3 The Grand Campaign
    [3.01] Great Britain
    [3.02] France
    [3.03] Austria
    [3.04] United Provinces
    [3.05] Spain
    [3.06] Prussia
    [3.07] Sweden
    [3.08] Russia
    [3.09] Poland-Lithuania
    [3.10] Ottoman Empire
    [3.11] Maratha Confederacy

 §4 The Warpaths Campaign (Requires The Warpaths Downloadable Content)
    [4.01] Iroquois Confederacy
    [4.02] Huron-Wyandot
    [4.03] Plains Nations
    [4.04] Pueblo Nations
    [4.05] Cherokee Nations

 §A Appendix
    [A.01] Buildings
    [A.02] Infantry Units
    [A.03] Cavalry Units
    [A.04] Artillery Units
    [A.05] Naval Units
    [A.06] Traits
    [A.07] Followers
    [A.08] Technology
    [A.09] Infrastructure

 §B Strategies
    [B.01] Fighting Infantry
    [B.02] Fighting Cavalry
    [B.03] Fighting Artillery
    [B.04] Assaulting a Fortress
    [B.05] Reader Strategies
    [B.06] Trading Guide
    [B.07] Infrastructure Guide
    [B.08] Naval Battles
    [B.09] MY Fighting Strategy
    [B.10] The Warpath Battle

[A] Contact Information
[B] Credits
[C] Webmaster Information
[D] Copyright Notice

*~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~Now, Let the Guide Begin (o.0)~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~*
[1.01] Introduction

Welcome to my 47th guide, offically the third guide using my new template
which I hope you will find to your liking, well, it is far superior to the
last one. Anyway, this is the first time for both playing the Total War series
as well as writing for it, though I hope my experience in RTS will make up
for that shortfall. Shall we begin now?

One of the reasons I enjoy writing for Total War is that the English used is
British English, which means my spelling is correct in game. For once. 

This guide will cover all of Empire: Total War, including the Special Forces
units, all the special pre-order units, Elite Units of the West DLC and the
Warpaths DLC. 

*~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~*
[1.02] Version History

Version 0.1 [5/3/09]
Basic template complete. Some minor work done. It is rather quick pumping out
a guide, but it is needed to clear out the questions on the message boards.
Completed the first of the two episodes of the Road to Independance, which I
found rather simple, and I am amazed at the amount of work completed on this
update, seeing I have another guide in progress and work was done on that as
well today. 

Version 0.2 [6/3/09]
The Road to Independence is done, a lot of traits and followers are covered,
but more still needs to be done. 

Version 0.3 [7/3/09]
More on buildings, started British Grand Campaign, traits and follows added,
Infrastructure complete. 

Version 0.4 [8/3/09]
Massive Update on Buildings and started on Tech. 

Version 0.5 [9/3/09]
More on Buildings, Tech and Campaign. 

Version 0.6 [10/3/09]
Small update, done some units and buildings. 

Version 0.7 [11/3/09]
Small update, since I'm a bit sick and have limited free time on my hands.

Version 0.8 [12/3/09]
Large update to make up for yesterday, or technically, since this is written
at about 12:11am, its the day before yesterday. 

Version 0.9 [13/3/09]
Black Friday means big update. 

Version 1.0 [14/3/09]
Big update. I mean big. 

Version 1.1 [15/3/09]
Away from PC most of the day, so work is rather limited. 

Version 1.2 [16/3/09]
Eyes droopy, got 4 hours sleep, stupid tea kept me awake with caffeine. 

Version 1.3 [17/3/09]
All technology should be done, buildings mostly done. 

Version 1.4 [18/3/09]
Small update, Wednesday isn't the FAQing day. 

Version 1.5 [28/3/09]
I am indeed alive.

Version 1.6 [29/3/09]
Started on some of the provinces. 

Version 1.7 [5/4/09]
Started on battle strategies.

Version 1.8 [30/4/09]
Killed off provinces, it wasn't necessary. Reader strategies updated, how
to fight cavalry updated as well. Finished Artillery and Fortresses, and 
finished the Francois campaign. 

Version 1.9 [20/8/09]
Well, dead revival, fixed up on the ship section, given the patch overhaul,
addition of new units. 

Version 2.0 [21/8/09]
Completed the US campaign, more units and buildings. 

Version 2.1 [23/8/09]
Completed even more units and buildings. 

Version 2.2 [6/9/09]
More buildings, units and research, since some are nation specific. 

Version 2.3 [8/9/09]
More done on nations, completed the Dutch. DLC units added. 

Version 2.4 [17/9/09]
Massive update, been on this for weeks. Finished Prussia, Sweden and nearly 
all of Russia.

Version 2.5 [21/9/09]
Completed all the factions guides, nearly all the buildings for the Marathas
and only the Infantry and Cavalry units for the Marathas before the guide is
complete. 

Version 2.6 [22/9/09]
Hiya! Complete. Unless the DLC is released soon, I doubt I'll update this
anymore. Otherwise. Complete!!!

Verison 2.7 [7/10/09]
Okay, started on the Warpaths campaign. I've done a general guide for the
Iroquois. That leaves 4 more to go. From there, I need to finish off the
rest of the buildings, all of the technology, which isn't a lot, and all
the units. I've also added in all the DLC units for the Pre-Order and all
non-Native units from the Warpaths DLC and 1.5 patch. 

Version 2.8 [8/10/09]
Started on more of the DLC, I've done most of the generic units, all the units
for the Iroquois, all the buildings are now complete, and I've made a move on
the technology. If all goes good, I should be able to wrap up this guide in
about 2 more updates, so it should be finished on Version 3.0, if everything
goes to plan, which it normally doesn't. 

Version 2.9 [9/10/09]
Okay, due to some problems with Steam, seems like I won't be able to update
this proper till Monday with more units and tech, and the last of the DLC's
campaigns. However, this gives me an opportunity to add in some stuff I have
forgotten about. Basically, that massive patch will take far longer than 
expected. So a positive out of a negative. Update, I finally got it to work.

Version 3.0 [11/10/09]
Completed the Warpaths Campaign. The guide is complete. Again. For the
second time. SECOND! Whether I update this guide in the future will depend
on whether Creative Assembly will release any more DLC. If there is, there
is a chance that I'll update it, if there is not, then this is it. 

Version 3.1 [8/12/09]
The Units of America DLC was released just over 8 hours ago, and I have
completed all of the units for it. Enjoy. 

Version 3.2 [17/2/10]
Completed the Elite Units of the East DLC. I won't be updating this guide
anymore, mainly because in over a week's time, Napoleon: Tota War will be
released, making this game obsolete. 

*~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~*
[1.03] Using Steam

Empire: Total War is one of the first games that require you, when installing
from the DVD/Retail version to use Steam. First of all, you need to make
sure you have an internet connection, otherwise, you are doomed before you 
start. 

Install the game, but you need the Net first. Steam will prompt you to put in
the serial code, and if need be, create an account if you don't already have
one. It will install the game, and after about 20 minutes, it will be done. Go
grab a cookie or run to the shops to get some eyedrops, you'll need it for 
the ownage of Total War.

Now, if you want to play and you don't have the internet access all the time,
such as dial-up users, access Steam and use the My Games tab. Let the game be
updated via Steam, and wait until it gives the 100% Ready sign. Then, you can
launch the game.

Quit, making sure it works, and head to settings, making sure that the "Don't
Save Account Credentials" Button IS NOT ticked. Now, you can go offline, or
when you next use Steam and you are offline, Steam will access your offline
account and Empire: Total War, since it is 100% Ready, will be able to be 
played offline. 

This is a quick summary of this link

https://support.steampowered.com/kb_article.php?ref=3160-AGCB-2555

So if you are still lost, read there. This part is necessary just to make sure
no one has problems with Steam, and everyone can play it. 

However, there will be problem using Steam. Given that you need it to be at
the 100% ready sign to play, the latest patches, which amount to a nice 
total of about 500mb, you will be downloading for a long time if you are 
using a dial-up connection, and still it will take hours on a decent ADSL/
Cable line. 

Also, the download speed will vary, given the time on the day, the speed of
your connection, the speed of the servers, the amount of users, etc, so it
will take some time. This can cause some problems. Therefore, if you wish
to avoid updates, I suggest you always start in offline mode, otherwise, you
will be here for a while.

*~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~*
[1.04] Downloadable Content

The Steam Store is also home to downloadable content, commonly referred to as
DLC, for Empire Total War. For those not familiar with that concept, these
are basically little packages, that you can purchase for a small fee, to 
enhance your gameplay. Here, I'll list down the content that is available on
the Steam Store for Empire Total War.

The first DLC to be released was the Elite Units of the West. It retails for
about $3.50 USD, purchased via the Steam Store. Released late in June, this
DLC pack basically unlocks a fair amount of units for the game. This was 
released at the same time as the Patch 1.3, giving you all those units to 
play with. About 14 new units were released, a variety of infantry and cavalry
units. 

The second DLC released was the Warpath Campaign. This retails around $10 USD,
so it is a tad pricey, but unlocked were new units and the abilty to play the
Warpath Campaign, basically, it is the Grand Campaign, except you only get to
play with the 5 Native tribes, and restricted to the American theatre. 
However, if you ask me, it is well worth every penny. This was released in 
early October, 2009, around the same time as the 1.5 Patch, and just before
the next DLC.

The third DLC was released just after the Warpath Campaign. This DLC is the
Special Forces + Bonus Units DLC. It retails for about $2.50 USD. This DLC
allows players to get units previously available only to owners of the Special
Forces edition of the game. It also unlocks 3 units available due to pre-
order bonuses. However, while it will unlock 9 units for regular customers, 
it will be FREE to all owners of the Special Forces edition, you will get it
the instant you update your game. That is, you get the 3 bonus units for
free. 

If you are asking about the Special Forces edition, it is a special edition
of the game, where you got a different box, and a map, as well as those 
pre-order units, now available as a DLC package. However, what few people 
actually have is the Collectors Edition. This edition contains the Special
Forces box, but it comes in a special Wooden Box, containing a special Total
War Compass and Hip Flask. Of course, there may be some around, but these are
the true collectables. Naturally, I have the Collectors Edition. 

*~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~*
[2.01] Episode One - The Jamestown Colony

"In April 1607, three Virginia Company ships sailed into Chesapeake Bay 
 under the command of Captain Christopher Newport. They made landfall on the
 southernmost peninsula in the bay, naming it Cape Henry in honour of the
 Prince of Wales. Life for the early settlers was far from easy, even though
 they ruled themselves.

 Newport returned to England for supplies, leaving Captain John Smith, an 
 acquitted mutineer, in charge. With limited food supplies, the constant
 presence of disease, and the danger of attack by the native tribes, many 
 of the settlers perished within a few months of reaching the New World.

 If this new community is to fluorish they will need food, in the shape of
 farms and fisheries. A cash crop like tobacco will prove the financial 
 viability of the colony to those back home in England and much-needed income
 for the settlers. Complacency, however, is dangerous. The native tribes
 remain a threat."


Well, this is the first of the episodes for the Road to Independence, which
is essentially a tutorial for the game. There are three Chapters in this 
Episode, so basically, this mission is seperated into three, which isn't
all that hard, since it is more or less a tutorial.

				Chapter 1

"You must lead the early settlers to establish Jamestown as a safe a 
 prosperous settlement in this dangerous new world. From time to time, the
 British Government will issue various missions for you to perform. As you
 complete these missions, the wealth and security of Jamestown will improve
 and your influence throughout the whole of the new world will expand."

OBJECTIVE : Peasant Farms
"Your first task in the New World should be the protect of the Jamestown
 Settlement and the survival of its people. By building a farm in the 
 designated area to the west of Jamestown the colonists will be able to
 produce their own food and sustain themselves in the years ahead. 

 Supplies from England are irregular and not guaranteed. You must make
 Jamestown self sufficient in order for this fragile colony to survive."

Reward = Treasury +500

When you start this mission, you get this mission to start off and you need
to build a farm on the nearby Woodland Forest, and you just need to wait a 
single turn before you can have it ready and complete this objective. And 
when that is done, the port of Yorktown is founded, and this provides a n
area to fish.

OBJECTIVE : Fishery
"Taking advantage of the bounty of the oceans will help to sustain your
 growing population. Building a fishery on the eastern coast will improve
 the region's food supply and prepare your people for expansion into 
 northern territories."

Reward = Unlock Chapter 2

Now, you will see that there is a fishery, or rather, port which is named
Yorktown, so you will need to build the fishery there, and it does take two
turns to be fully complete. Just take your time. Meanwhile, you need to 
start recruiting some militia from your settlement via the appropriate
tabs. You need a good mix, and then merge them with your main group led
by John Smith. When the fishery is done, you get hit with the next two
objectives

				Chapter 2

"You have successfully built a farm and fishery in your Jamestown region. 
 The settlement should now grow and prosper, so it is time to deal with the
 threat from local native tribes. You must send an army to capture the
 village to the north east."

OBJECTIVE : Colonial Militia
"Your presense in this new world is not wholly welcome. Increase your military
 strength as a protecting against attacks by the native tribes. Recruit more
 men and increase your army in order to protect the people. 

 The locals will resist expansion in their territory and so "persuasion" by
 musket and shot will almost be required from time to time."

Reward = Treasury +500

OBJECTIVE : Werowocomoco
"To the North East lies the Native America stronghold of Werowocomoco. In 
 order to expand your holdings in Virginiathe threat from this native 
 settlement must be extinguished. Attacks on Jamestown and its surrounding
 farmsteads should cease. Conquer Werowocomoco in the name of the King!

 The settlement was home to the Powhatan princess Pocohontas, a woman 
 renowned for preventing the execution of Captain John Smith."

Reward = Unlock Chapter 3

Now, you need to recruit militia. You only need to recruit one Colonia 
Militia unit, but you only want one, the Jamestown Militia units are a tad
superior and better in terms of combat damage than the colonial Militia. 
Build up an army, merge them with Captain John Smith's army and get them to
get ready for an attack. Despite what the game says, there isn't really an
attack on your settlement, it will be docile, so don't worry about defending
against enemy attacks. 

The Settlement is protected by a bunch of natives. They are led by their
General, Wahunsonacock, and protected by a regiment of Bowmen and two 
regiments of Armed Tribesmen. Even with your initial force, you can easily
take over the settlement, Auto-Complete will save you the hassle of battle
but everyone likes battle don't they?

Conquer the city in any way you see fit and that will complete this chapter
and there is only one more chapter to go. 


				Chapter 3

"Your successful capture of this village has significantly reduced the 
 threat against Jamestown. To fully establish a British foothold in North
 America, you must now capture the remaining native village far to the
 North."

OBJECTIVE : Shackamaxon
"The last Native American town lies to the north, in the foothills of the
 mountain. It is secure and well defended. Fail to capture this place and
 all you have worked for could be lost. By fending off the threat posed
 by native tribes, expansion of the colonies becomes possible. With no danger
 of attack, immigrants from home will be more willing to come to the colonies
 to seek a new life."

Reward = Complete Episode One

Now, the enemy will start to send enemy armies to fight your main one. There
are two that will normally spawn, one is of a lone bowmen regiment, and that
will normally head towards Jamestown. The second, which is tougher, will 
consist of 2 Bowmen Regiments and 2 Armed Tribesmen Regiment, and that will
head to your new settlement of Werowocomoco. 

To prevent that from happening, have your main army intercept both of them,
and if you are lucky, both will be destroyed. However, as a fallback, have
both Jamestown and Werowocomoco defended by militia that you have recruited
in Jamestown, and that should easily fend off the weakened enemy. 

Once those two parties have been wiped off, you need to attack the settlement
of Shackamaxon. Don't take this lightly, you really need reinforcements in 
this battle. They have 2 Regiments of Bowmen but 10 Regiments of Armed 
Tribesmen. Sure, you might have guns, but mass infantry tactics tend to win
the day, so you should at least have 10 Regiments with you. I attacked with
12 Regiments, just to be sure.

When that battle is over, you have completed the first episode. There are
still more to come however. 

"Thanks to your efforts, the Jamestown settlement has prospered! No longer
 reliant on food from England, the settlers can start amassing wealth and
 expanding Britain's colonies in America.

 The Jamestown settlement has made a good start, but complacency is now a 
 dangerous thing. As world of the successful colonisation of the New World
 spreads, more people arrive from the Old World. Other European nations
 have taken note of your success. They too are looking to the New World 
 with a view to possible expansion of their own interests. Although vast,
 these American lands are not endless. Confrontation is inevitable."

*~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~*
[2.02] Episode Two - The French and Indian War

"The French and Indian War begin as the result of British and French rivalries
 in North America, and were part of a larger, globe-spanning conflict between
 the two nations. In 1754 both countries wanted control of the Ohio Valley,
 an uncharted, but potentially valuable area. Each built a chain of forts
 into the valley to stake their claims, and conflict was inevitable, as 
 struggles between native tribes were used to foment further trouble.

 The war was a tough experience for the British. Both sides quickly realised
 that alliances with local tribes would be an asset. The French were better
 at using the North American terrain to their advantage, and early battles
 saw heavy British losses. However, it was during this conflict that a young
 officer called George Washington began his military career.

 To secure America, the British must remove the French threat. Take control 
 of the Ohio Valley. Fort Niagara must be in British hands if an attack on
 the Southern fort of Louisberg is to succeed, and allow a campaign northwards
 to Quebec and Montreal."

				Chapter 1

"The French have established a series of forts in the Ohio Valley. The forts
 are well defended and will be difficult to take through military force alone.
 Perhaps the Iroquois tribes to the North will provide you with much-needed
 assistance?"

OBJECTIVE : Iroquois Confederacy

"You have been tasked to form an alliance with the local Iroquois tribe. The
 skill and knowledge of their warriors will be of great benefit to you in
 the war against the French. Instigate negotiations by clicking on the 
 Diplomacy button."

Reward = Treasury +500

OBJECTIVE : Fort Niagara
"The British Government has ordered you to capture the settlement of Fort
 Niagara. The fight across the rest of North America cannot continue until
 you have achieved this mission. The only direct route to Fort Niagara is 
 guarded by the heavily fortified Fort Duquesne - although an alternative
 route may exist through the forests in Iroquois territory. Engaging in
 diplomacy with the Iroquois and gaining military access through their lands
 may provide an easier route."

Reward = Unlock Chapter 2

OBJECTIVE : Fort Dequesne

"Fort Dequesne dominates passage through the Ohio Valley. Capture it to help
 establish our dominance in the region."

Reward = Treasury +500

Well, you want to start off this chapter by making friends with the Iroquois.
You need to make them your allies, which is rather useful, and then ask for
military access, as well as a trade agreement. The first one is useful if 
you want to perform a sneak attack on Fort Niagara, the latter is useful
since you get more money from it.

Now, you start off with two armies, one led by William Jackson, and the other
led by George Washington. Washington's force is rather lacking, so you might
want to get some recruits to back up that smaller force. Fort Niagara is 
lightly defended, and if you have military access, you can sneak through
the hills in Iroquois territory and attack. That still leaves Fort Dequesne
standing.

That fort is extremely well defended, however, you can take that form alone
using the auto-battle function with Jackson's starting force, which will 
take a fair amount of casualties. Lay siege to the force, and wait for the
counter attack, since you have the advantage of defending and they have the
job of repelling you. You still will take a fair amount of casualties, about
a 50% loss, so that is rather annoying to rebuild your forces. 

Fort Niagara itself is relatively weak. It is armed with a Calvary and 
Artillery Regiment, 2 Marine Regiments, 1 Native Musketeers Regiment and 2
Firelock Regiments. This is rather a weak force when they are facing a proper
army. 


				Chapter 2

"You have captured Fort Niagara! The Ohio Valley is firmly under British
 Control. However, the war against the French is still being fought across
 the entire Thirteen Colonies, and it is not going well for the British. Far 
 to the North and East, a large French fleet guards the crucial port of
 Louisberg. You must build a fleet to match the French and send an army 
 to capture Louisberg."

OBJECTIVE : Louisberg
"You must capture the crucial French port of Louisberg. The land route is
 long and arduous, so you should build a fleet of ships to transport an army
 to the outskirts of the city. You will not be able to launch an assault on
 the main French strongholds of Quebec and Montreal until this mission has
 been completed."

Reward = Unlock Chapter 3

OBJECTIVE : Dockyard
"If you are to successfull transport an army along the coast to capture the
 port of Louisberg, you will need to build a navy capable of standing up to
 the powerful French frigates. The British Governement has therefore tasked
 you with the construction of a dockyard at the port East of Williamsburg. 
 You will need to dismantle any pre-existing buildings in that port in order
 to construct the Shipyard."

Reward = Treasury +500

Now that you have captured the Fort Niagara settlement, you need to build up
a larger empire, because more money is necessary to build a large fighting
force. Now, you need both your land armies at full strength. The largest of
your armies should take on Fort Oswego, which is right next to Fort 
Niagara. This will take out the first of the French armies that stand in your
way. Repair and make sure that force is at full strength.

Reinforce both armies, and taken on Fort Carillon. It is extremely heavily
fortified, and you need both armies to siege it at the same time to make the
enemy outnumbered. One army might just cut it, but it will be hard due to 
them outnumbering you, and you will take extremely heavy losses. This is the
last of the major French territories near you that you can take. This will
provide you with a large amount of funds.

With all the money flowing in, upgrade all your Fur Trading Posts to ensure
that you get more mohney to play around with. Build the Shipyard, and then 
upgrade it into a Dockyard, and you get the next objective.

OBJECTIVE : Fifth Rate
"The British Government has tasked you with building a navy capable of 
 transporting an army through heavily defended French waters."

Reward = Treasury +500

Now, you need to concentrate on an army, unless you want to take the ground
approach. Given that you have had some good successes on the ground, you might
just want to take on that approach. For the naval approach, you need at least
3 Fifth Rates, with an Admiral, before taking the enemy on.

The French have a good mix of Sloops and Brigs, and they are no match for
your Fifth Rates. A group of 5 Sloops and Brigs vs 3 Fifth Rates ended with 4
sunk, no friendly casualties. Now, you need to land the troops.

If you took the land approach, you need to take down Fort Beausejour, and it
is moderately fortified, but with enough force, you can take it down without
suffering too much in the way of casualties. Now, the big problem is the town
of Louisberg. It is heavily fortified, and it is packed with troops, so two
armies need to be used to bring them down. You need all your heavy firepower
to capture it, or some extremely good flanking strategies. 


				Chapter 3

OBJECTIVE : Quebec
"You must capture the French stronghold of Quebec. You cannot win the war
 against the French if this city is not under your control."

Reward = Complete Episode Two

OBJECTIVE : Montreal
"You must capture the French stronghold of Montreal. You cannot win the war
 against the French if this city is not under your control."

Now, you must move your forces back towards the settlement of Fort Carillon,
which I told you to capture earlier, and this is where you can cross the 
river, and you are immediately greeted by Fort Chambly, which is not too 
heavily guarded, but use both armies to combine and sustain minimum losses. 

Capture that fort quickly, and move both armies towards Quebec, which happens
to be less fortified than Montreal is. This is needed to be done quickly 
before the French take over the fort again or have time to build up more
forces that you need to take down. If you attacked Fort Chambly with two 
armies, fortified/reinforced at Fort Carillon, then losses will be rather
trivial, and you need to press your advantage. 

After taking Quebec, you need to rebuild your forces if they are badly hurt,
and you need to maybe reinforce them. After taking Quebec, you have more money
to play with, and therefore, you can get things done with more firepower than
before. Fort Carillon is a good place to pick up some reinforcements, so send
them over, and get ready to take on Montreal. 

Quickly, move forwards with both armies and use them to siege Montreal and 
finally, finish this chapter once and for all. 

"The French are defeated! You can claim a decisive victory for Britain over
 her long-standing enemy. The British now control North America, giving them
 the valuable resources of the Ohio Valley.

 But this time of peace may be short lived. Britain's policies in America are
 seen as overbearing and repressive by the colonists. Excessive taxes and 
 restrictions on expansion have left the American people longing for freedom,
 not British rule. If this situation continues, the Thirteen Colonies will be
 forced into open warfare to win the right to self government."

*~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~*
[2.03] Episode Three - American War of Independance

"In 1775, a storm is brewing in America. Following the end of the French and
 Indian Wars, many people in the Thirteen Colonies were increasingly 
 incensed by the British. Laws and new taxes are being imposed from London,
 and "seditious talk" of revolution is no longer a whisper!

 Discontent is widespread, but it is not until a morning in April, 1775, that
 talk becomes warfare. In Lexington, a group of British soldiers open fire
 on local militiamen. This skirmish, the Battle of Lexington and Concord, 
 saw the first shots fired in a conflict that would split families, divide 
 friends, and tear apart an empire.

 As so the fight for America's freedom had truly begun. Until the British 
 are removed from the Thirteen Colonies, Americans shall never truly be 
 free. If the British Army is to be driven out, the Americans will need help.
 Allying yourself with the enemies of the British could provide the 
 experienced troops required to remove them from America once and for all."

			Battle of Bunker Hill

We start off in the Battle of Bunker Hill. This is where you need to hold
the hill against the British invaders, and you are terribly outnumbered in
terms of troops, but you have the upper ground, so this is a good advantage
to counteract the enemy. 

Now, you start off with a good deal of Militiamen, 2 Regiments of Cavalry and
3 Regiments of Artillery. Now, you need to quickly deploy your artillery, 
including the ones at the back, and get them ready to fire at the front on
British assault.

Use your Cavalry, at double speed, to move quickly towards the two sets of
British artillery, one on the hill to your left, and the second to your 
North near the house. Move behind the enemy lines and sneak up on the 
Artillery to get rid of them. This is important because they will be firing
on your own artillery as well as frontline militia.

Now, your militia all need to face an opponent. For every regiment that the
British have on the flanks, you need to have two regiments facing them in
order to quickly defeat them and outflank them. For the frontal assault 
that the British are preparing, use your artillery to fire on them, this
will cause them a fair amount of casualties, and that will be easier for 
your militia.

Now, you have several groups of militia. On your left, there are two 
regiments and you are facing one regiment. The frontline militia should 
all be ready to fire on advancing British troops, and on your right flank,
there are some buildings, garrison them to ensure that your militia don't
sustain too much damage. Your left and right flanks should hold through 
the course of the battle, the Garrisoned building regiment will easily be
able take down several regiments at the expense of a few men.

When your Cavalry has dispatched the Artillery, move and attack the enemy
British troops from the back, and this will cause them a lot of damage.
They will be too focused on the frontline militia, and you can easily 
cause many weakened regiments to be routed before the Cavalry regiment is
routed. 

The British will soon launch an attack from the back on your Artillery, so
move any idle Minutemen columns and your General's Bodyguard to counter the
lone Cavalry regiment. After this, you are faced with a bunch of ragtag
British frontline infantry, so wipe them out. With this, you should easily
win, even though you are outnumbered. 


			The American Revolution

Now, we get to the real battle, to wipe out the British. After your win at
Bunker Hill, you get more experienced units from the battle, so you have
that to your advantage. If you lost, you won't get any extra units. 

Victory Condition: Capture and Hold 15 Regions by the end of Year 1825

This is hard, you are outnumbered on land and on sea, so you will need to
fight a lot of battles early on to save more troops. Now, for your 
empire, you need to do a lot of building, build Farms and Docks in Boston
so you get more income flowing in, and therefore, sustain more troops. 
Also, start developing some technology, and this will make it easier to
sustain a large empire. 

Now, using your existing army, you need to move ahead and capture Maine.
This is the closest Region Capital to you and you have the advantage in
terms of troops. You will need to fight the army led by William Howe so
take them down. Capture Maine, and move one army back to Boston and keep
one in Maine, and reinforce both armies. 

Now, split into single armies, sending one towards New York, and defend a
raid by the British about turn 5. The second army should be kept in Maine
until you are ready to take on Fort Nashwaak. Capture both of them quickly,
sending more reinforcements if you fear that you don't have enough firepower
to take both settlements. 

With Maine and New York under your control, this is where you need to solidify
your power. You should still have plenty of time, and now you have plenty of
money. If you want, although this is entirely optional, you can use the army
in Maine to move east and take Acadia, and they is a wise move, there is a 
Silver Mine there, providing massive income. Movement into Canada, Quebec in
New France and Montreal in Upper Canada are further sources of income, which
allows you to maintain a larger, and more armies to fight the British. Capture
both of them if you want, and reap the rewards. 

The next reason to capture both Quebec and Montreal is that the enemy will
continue to send forces at Maine and try to capture your settlements, so you
might as well capture them just to make sure that the enemy threat to your
settlements are at an end. 

Another optional movement for money is to move the army from New York into 
Iroquois Territory and capture Cayuga, giving more money for you and providing
more funds. All the above territories don't help your objective, but it does
give more money, and makes it easier to crush the British. Conquer where the
Revolutionaries couldn't, take over Canada. 

Meanwhile, you need to start building a navy. This is because the British
will use their fleets to take out your trade routes, which is a problem 
because they are your main source of money. So you really want to make sure
the British fleet remains docked. A small fleet of about 5 Sixth Rates should
easily contain their fleet. 


			The Push South

By now, you have captured a fair amount of regions, and the majority of 
enemy forces are to your south. Keep raising armies, building another army
raising it to three strong armies, and at least 1 fleet, with developed
regions making sure upkeep isn't a problem. 

Philadelphia is a problem because it is heavily fortified, but if you have
the army of about the same size, it shouldn't be too big of a problem because
what the enemy will do when you siege the place is that the enemy will move
and counterattack, in order to repel you, and that is where you have the 
advantage. All you need to do is to crush their counter-attack and then move
on the offensive and retake the city. Meanwhile, the Iroquois will move and
join the British, so you get some more land off them, but even though they
might have the numbers, they don't have many firearms. But still, match them
for numbers and you are bound to win against them. 

With the fall of Philadelphia, you need to push south to continue the 
fall of the British. The Iroquois isn't much of a problem, just defeat 
their raiding parties, or if you want, you can capture both Niagara and 
Detroit, but that involves a large army and you don't have too much time to
move and capture them. 

Now, move south and capture Maryland and Virginia, and that will start to make
the British a bit more concerned. Now, this is where a strong fleet comes in,
you need about 6 Sixth Rates and that should easily take care of any enemy
ships that come along once you capture the region, and force the enemy's
ship out to sea. 

From there, you only have three more regions to capture, Carolinas, Georgia
and Florida. They aren't heavily fortified, so you can move your ships down
and transport an army to capture the settlements. The Cherokee Nations will
soon declare war on you as well, so make sure that other armies are ready
to counter-attack the enemy assault. 

Now, the last state, Florida. You probably need two armies here because the
enemy has fortified Florida up pretty well, to the max, so you need a lot
more firepower to break the siege. 

With that out of the way, you need to capture some more regions, you need a 
total of 15 regions to offically win this, and become the United States. Those
Natives who decided to declare war on you seems to be a good target. 

"Free Americans have thrown off their chains, and driven out the tyrannical
 British oppressors! At last, America is the Land of the Free, as well as the
 Home of the Brave. The remaining British troops leave American shores by the
 shiploads and American independence has been fully, if reluctantly, accepted
 in London.

 Without your efforts, none of this would have been possible. American would
 remain in the hands of the British. Your careful timing and well-timed
 aggression have brought Americans to a new dawn. The dark night of British
 rule is at an end. The bright dawn of a united America lies ahead."

After this, there is a campaign for America, it technically isn't the Grand
Campaign for America per se, but it is the only campaign where you can play
as the United States in freeplay. This will be covered in the Grand Campaign
section. 

*~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~*
[2.04] United States - A New Nation

Maybe not a new section then.

"The United States of America is a nation forged in the fires of revolution
 and rebellion against a British monarch seen as distant, foreign and 
 tyrannical.

 After the French and Indian Wars, the British government took an entirely
 unreasonable line: the American colonists should pay taxes to contribute
 to the navy and army that helped defend them. After all, those colonial
 fellows enjoyed the benefits of peace, protected by Britain's expensive
 soldiers and sailors. The colonists had other views. The British responded
 with political stupidity and military inepitude.

 Aided, once they had rebelled, by the French Bourbons (who, for reasons of  
 their own, had every wish to see Britain pre-occupied by war and then
 humiliated by seditious rebels), the Americans faced down Britain. The
 struggle split countries, cities, towns, even families, but it united the
 nation. 

 In its wake, the revolution left behind a new kind of nation, a republic
 where men choose their own destinies, and are not subject to the whims of
 kings. This spirit of independence is a source of strength: it is an idea
 worth defending! It is also a source of weakness, for Americans cherish 
 the right to do as they think best. This is not necessarily a good thing
 in an army.

 America now has a future of boundless possibilities. A continent stretches
 away to the West, and no one is entirely sure what is to be found there. 
 The Atlantic swell washes against the eastern seaboard, and beckons 
 American seamen onwards: trade and adventure lie that way too. There may
 still be scores to settle with the British in Canada, or ambitious nations
 from Europe to discourage. There is much to do, if this newest and boldest
 of nations is to survive and prosper."

Well, what you need to do in this mission is to control a total of 22 
regions, and you have to control a specific set of 7 as well. The 7 provinces
are: Texas, Pennsylvania, Upper Louisiana, New Mexico, New France, Michigan
Territory and Florida.

Florida is controlled by the Spanish, whilst Upper Louisiana is controlled
by the French. Mishigan Territory is controlled by the Iroquois, Texas is
controlled by the Pueblo Nations, New France by Britain and New Mexico by
Spain, though it is isolated. Pennsylvania is controlled by you in the start.

Well, given what you have, this is going to be hard. Like what the little
description says, you will need to purchase the land off the French and 
Spanish, given that you are allied with France and you really don't want to
piss off a major ally.

Build up your economy to give you enough money to sustain a large army, and
then you will need to go to war. Against who is completely up to you, but
I suggest you go to war against the Native Indians, taking over Texas and
all their other land, which you will need to expand. Stick solely to the
continential United States, don't expand to the Caribbean just yet.

With a powerful economy and good allies supporting you, you can easily
take control of New France, and then take Upper Canada, which will severely
limit the amount of force Britain can project into your nation. Unlike 
other Grand Campaigns, you need to worry about enemies in the America
theatre, which is few and far between. 

Other than that, this is a lot less painful, there is a lot less diplomacy
to worry about, so think of it as a starting board for the Grand Campaigns
that you can play next. Good hunting. 

*~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~*
[3.01] Great Britain

"Great Britain is not a natural creation, but the marriage of seperate 
 kingdoms and people. This new nation has been through a century of
 unparalleled turbulence: an unwelcome joining of Scotland and England; 
 religious strife; civil wars; an executed king; military dictatorship; a
 populist monarch restored; and the overthrow of a second king. Less than 15
 years ago, the hated Catholic James II was forced into exile in the Glorious
 Revolution and a Protestant monarchy restored. A short, vicious war in 
 Ireland put paid to any chance of a Catholic Stuart restoration. Nonetheless,
 the exiled James Stuart has sympathisers, the Jacobites, throughout Britain.
 Despite - or perhaps because of - this turbulent history, Britain is an 
 engine driving the scientific and cultural advancement of northern Europe;
 turmoil foils creativity.

 As an island nation, Britons have always look to, as Shakesphere puts it:

 "... the Silver sea,
  Which serves it in the office of a wall
  Or as a moat defensive to a house ..."

 Britain's strengh lies at sea, but in trade and colonisation as much as naval
 power. Trade taxes pay for the navy; the navy allows unhindered trade. The 
 English Channel keeps the French at bay and, to a lesser extent, the Dutch.
 With Dutchman William III on the British throne, there is ambivalence in the
 traditional rivalry with the Netherlands!

 The English and the Scots like to think they can sleep safe, that no foreign
 invader or tyranny need worry them. They are partly right, as only as long as
 there is no centralised Continential power. A nation that can unit the 
 resources of Europe will surely crush the dream of Albion. This, then, is the
 fundamental aim of Britain: to side with the weak in Europe against the 
 strong - and steal as many overseas possessions as possible while doing it!"


			Victory Conditions

--==Short Campaign==--

"Capture and hold 25 regions by the end of the year 1750, including the 
 regions shown. New France, Georgia, Leeward Islands, Ireland, Gibraltar, 
 Florida, Hindustan, Scotland, England."


--==Long Campaign==--

"Capture and hold 35 regions by the end of the year 1799, including the
 regions shown. Egypt, Malta, Florida, England, Bijapur, Bengal, Georgia, 
 Scotland, Hindustan, Ireland, Gibraltar, New France, Leeward Islands."


--==Prestige Victory==--

"Capture and hold 25 regions by the end of the year 1799, including the
 regions shown. New France, Georgia, Leeward Islands, Ireland, Gibraltar,
 Florida, Hindustan, Scotland, England.

 Be the nation attaining the highest prestige rating at the end of the year
 1799."


--==World Domination==--

"Capture and hold 50 regions by the end of the year 1799, including the
 regions shown. England."


The Grand Campaign is where you basically lead a nation to glory by 
completing the victory conditions that you are shown. I will be giving the 
outline for all campaigns using the Long Campaign victory condition. This is
to ensure the best consistancy in the game. 


				The Campaign

We start off the campaign with a total of 7500 and control of 6 provinces, 
some in America and the rest in Europe. This is on normal difficulty, this is
your average difficulty. 

First turn, you want to first of all, build upgrades, especially in the 
Americas where you can start new industries there, and that will give a nice
boost to income. Also, start building alliances with those nations that are
friendly to you, and trade agreements to anyone you can. Also, in Europe, 
grab one of your fleets and one army, and move them towards the Ivory Coast,
which is at the bottom of the Europe Map, and this will send take some time,
but necessary. 

When you end turn, make sure that CPU moves are off, because that will drag 
your CPU down into the gutter. Also, it will show other nations giving their 
offers to you, and that means some nations will give trade agreements, which 
is nice. Next turn, you get the first objective

OBJECTIVE: Georgia, Cherokee Territory, New France

"The leaders of the Thirteen Colonies suggest that you ensure the future
 domination of Britain in the Americas by consolidating your control over
 the surrounding area. If you succeed in capturing the regions of Georgia,
 Cherokee Territory, and New France, the Thirteen Colonies will be yours to
 command. Be sure to maintain friendly relations with them until this union
 is secured."

Reward = The Thirteen Colonies will join your nation

Georgia and Cherokee Territory are both under the control of the Cherokee
whilst New France is, understandably, under the control of France. You need
to be able to move armies into Georgia and Cherokee Territory, so your 
army in Bahamas and the fleet stationed there will need to be used to 
take the provinces of Georgia and Cherokee Territory. You will need to 
declare war and you might want to call some allies to join you, especially
the Thirteen Colonies. The French however, you will need to wait for a while,
considering your force in Rupert's Land is quite weak, and you need a strong
force to take New France, so bide your time. When it is right, then you need
to strike, and you get the Thirteen Colonies. 

After a few turns, you will have your fleet on the edge of Europe, so send the
fleet to India. You might want to load them up with an large army, one large
army indeed, because you want to take on Mysore, because that is the smallest
empire in India and that will get you a good foothold in India. Or you can
take on Goa, which is owned by Portugal, but that means a European war, which
you probably could win give that you have a decent navy.

On the topic of European wars, I suggest that you keep out of them, breaking
alliances if need be, until you have a larger army. Whilst you have a far
superior navy, you need land units and until you have a few full strength
armies, don't consider a land war. However, the Hurons will declare war on
you sooner or later, so make sure that Rupurt's Hand is well built up because
you need to defend and counter-attack. Take Huron Territory, and keep it from
the French who want to take it from you. You need it to assault France. 

Another point of interest right now is the base in Antigua, held by the
pirates. They are only pirate mobs, but there are over 1000 of them, you will
need to have some sort of numbers to take them over. However, you can easily
raid the port to stop any further pirate threat to your shipping. When you
have the numbers, take over the province. 


			Capturing the Territories

You really need to start building up your ground forces, and if that means
you need to declare war in order to keep the money rolling in, do so. I had
Sweden declaring war on the Thirteen Colonies, both were allies, so lets 
invade Sweden. You need to attack countries not allied to anyone else and
where you have available forces. You will need to declare war on the Mughal
Empire, mainly because you will probably need their provinces. The Maratha
will need to go as well, mainly because you need some of their provinces. 
You will be doing a lot of battling, so Auto Resolve is a nice option. 

By 1720, William III will pass on, and you will be led by Victoria I, armed
with some new traits, so check them out. You still need to conquer the new
territories, so keep an eye out for wars, and take on nations that have no
allies, making it easier to conquer. 

When you conquer, use your navy to your advantage. You can easily blockade
all their trade routes by sea, which get you some extra income, and cut off
their empire, so it makes it easier for a ground invasion. Have three main
armies, one in America, Europe and India, and some smaller armies.


			American Rebellion

By the 1770's, the Americas get more important. If you don't do a good job
there, they will rebel against you, starting the American Revolution, so 
seriously, don't piss them off, just be nice, and lower taxes. Even though
you might win, your Economy will suffer like a waiter when flies are found
in the soup.

If you do want to fight when them, just don't make the same mistakes that
the British did in reality, press the rebels at every chance, blockade their
land and finally, make sure that you limit their numbers by quickly capturing
their cities.


			What You Need To Do

Remember, when you play as Britain, you need to remember that you are a 
massive island. It will be hard for the enemy to invade if you control the
high seas, and an army at home won't hurt. Technology research is extremely
vital to your country, so make sure you always upgrade your tech for better
and strong troops and a stronger economy. 

If you want a hint as Great Britain, naval blockades are a good source of 
money and since you have a large navy, be mindful of that. Also, remember
that your navy needs to be equal in all three theatres, because pirates will
certainly be a big pain. I had to move a European fleet to America because
I neglected to keep an eye on that area. Needless to say, Pirates are quite
strong, they will use Galleons, which are equal to a Fourth Rate Ship of the
Nine.

Technology wise, you will need to concentrate on all aspects. You need to 
play a lot of catchup, so naval techs are going to be important to start, and
other military techs are needed if you are going to be a superpower. 
Economics will be needed as well as Philosophy to advance your buildings to
have a big trading empire.

Therefore, if you want to be as badass as Great Britain was in reality, you
really need to have a lot of tech research. I mean a lot, so you need to
have multiple colleges. Put them in safe zones, such as your mainland because
they will decrease happiness when you develop them into universities. 


			Reader's Suggestions

This is the section of my guide that is devoted to reader's strategies about
how to play and win as Great Britain. If you have any ideas, send them in. 

Submitted by bailiff05

"Hi, I read the latest update on your Empire Total War Guide regarding the 
 Grand Campaign for Great Britain. I am currently in the middle of a World 
 Domination Campaign with Great Britain on normal difficulty and have an 
 alternate method for starting, albeit a very risky one and probably only 
 best for more experienced players.

 For the first few goes I built up a full land army and then the first thing 
 I did was invade France, who only have 2 small armies near the start and 
 only 2 territories. I don’t know whether you figured this out yet, but when 
 you capture France’s territories in Europe, their territories in the Americas
 fall out of their control and the faction is destroyed. Some of these 
 territories then fall under the control of rebels and others under the 
 control of a new faction that arises. The same happened when I destroyed 
 the Spanish in Europe. This obviously makes it much easier to conquer these 
 territories and therefore makes it easy to capture New France as part of the 
 Thirteen Colonies objective. Also when the new faction arises they have no 
 allies or enemies so there aren’t really any ramifications.

 I’ve also gotten to a point where things are getting a little heated in 
 Europe and even my allies are beginning to dislike me because of my 
 expansionism. Whether this is just because I am too powerful or because I 
 have expanded to fast though, I don’t know. However, because I conquered 
 the Americas with relative ease I now have an absolutely ridiculous economy 
 that can support a vast army in Europe."

*~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~*
[3.02] France

"France had some fifty years of military and administrative excellence under
 Louis XIV, the Sun King and his servents. They achieved this in spite of a 
 backdrop of strife and rebellion sparked by France's involvement in the
 Thirty Years War. Louis and his able ministers, Cardinals Richelieu and 
 Mazarin, were able to steer France away from the feudal struggles that
 hampered growth, and they created a centralised government where the King's
 power is absolute.

 In 1700, France is the pre-eminent power in Western Europe, with an
 unrivalled army, vast colonies, and a King who is respected and feared by
 all, both at home and abroad. Few nations pose any real threat his well- 
 equipped armies and heavily fortified borders.

 The French Bourbon dynasty is strong, even though Louis XIV is aging. There
 are sons and relations aplenty, with legitimate claims to many titles. To
 the south, the lack of a Hapsburg heir in Spain - and feeble-mindedness of
 Charles II - means that a Bourbon could one day rule in Madrid. A course of
 action that brings this about has much to recommend it. Of course, not all
 offshoots of the Hapsburg line are as weak as their Spanish cousins. The
 Austrian Hapsburgs, and other European nations, may not be entirely willing
 to see a Frenchman or French nominee as King of Spain. No matter.

 France is surrouded by possibilities, and beyond Europe there are other
 continents to conquer and colonise: New France in North America, and the 
 riches of India. The untrustworthy British may have to be swept aside or
 crushed, but what is wrong with that?"


			Victory Conditions

--==Short Campaign==--

"Capture and hold 20 regions by the end of the year 1750, including the 
 regions shown. New France, Corsica, New York, Confederation of New England,
 Leeward Islands, Pennsylvania, Cherokee Territory, Savoy, Algonquin 
 Territory, Liguria, Michigan Territory, France."


--==Long Campaign==--

"Capture and hold 30 regions by the end of the year 1799, including the
 regions shown. New France, Savoy, New York, Orissa & Circars, Algonquin
 Territory, Michigan Territory, Carnatica, Flanders, Confederation of New
 England, Pennsylvania, Liguria, France, Corsica, Hindustan, Cherokee
 Territory, Egypt, Leeward Islands."


--==Prestige Victory==--

"Capture and hold 20 regions by the end of the year 1799, including the 
 regions shown. New France, Corsica, New York, Confederation of New England,
 Leeward Islands, Pennsylvania, Cherokee Territory, Savoy, Algonquin 
 Territory, Liguria, Michigan Territory, France.

 Be the nation attaining the highest prestige rating at the end of the year
 1799."


--==World Domination==--

"Capture and hold 50 regions by the end of the year 1799, including the
 regions shown. France."


	    		      Let Us Start

We start off with 8 provinces and a total of 8000 Gold. Now, what you want
to do is to gain some territories in Europe and quick. Now, don't worry 
about the British, what you do want to do is to get Military Access from
Spain, combine all three garrisons near Paris, and march through the
Flanders. You want to take some lone provinces quickly before you they get
allies and build up in stength. The best two are Rhineland and Wurttemburg.
The province of Rhineland requires the three garrisons from Paris and the
Wurttemburg province requires the garrisons and army near Alsace-Lorraine.

After your first turn, you get your First Objective

OBJECTIVE: Michigan Territory, Algonquin Territory, Cherokee Territory

"The leaders of Louisiana, your protectorate in the Americas request your
 help. If you succeed in capturing the Michigan, Algonquin and Cherokee
 Territories, the domination of France in America will be almost
 guaranteed, and the lands of Louisana will be yours to control too. Be
 sure to maintain friendly relations with them until this union is 
 secured."

Now Michigan Territory is controlled by the Iroquois, Cherokee Territory
is understandably controlled by the Cherokee and the Algonquin Territory
is under the control of Iroquois. They aren't under the control of any
nation, so you will need to build up a force in Upper Canada and New France
and then build it so you have a good balance between artillery and infantry,
and then attack all the Natives. Attack all of them, mainly for the land,
as well as the resources. You are better off taking them all out, this is
to prevent the British from having a chance to capture some land. 


			Expanding Your Territory

If you want to beat the British, the first thing you want to do is to move
in and beat the crap out of the Thirteen Colonies. Declare war on them and
take all their land. Do not worry about the British, with the AI's inability
to launch naval invasions, you only need to worry about the strength of the
colonies. Just make sure that they don't have too many allies that you need
to fight. 

The Thirteen Colonies will provide you with a hell of a lot of wealth for 
such an early period in the game. Meanwhile, what you need to do is to start
to build up a force in Europe, and send them down to India and conquer as 
much as you can. India is also a source of wealth, and considering the 
amount of wealth the Colonies will bring in and the massive technological and
firepower advantage, take some holdings in India and deny this to Britain. 

With the Thirteen Colonies and most of India is yours, you will have a lot
of wealth, but you still have Europe to deal with. Since you have Britain on
its own, it shouldn't be too hard to get rid of them, just blockade them with
some ships, but then you need a big navy.


			Controlling All Of Europe

You will need Spain's help for now, you need them to help you conquer Europe.
Expand and take on Prussia and Austria, crushing any lone state that is 
standing in your path. After Prussia and Austria are down, then you need to
solidify your holdings in Europe for now. You need to rebuild and reinforce
the borders with troops. 

What you need to do for now is to take on Africa. If you have hit the 
southern states, the pirates will be causing some problems, so send in the
navy and some hardened troops to flush them out. That will bring in some 
more money. 

Now that you are ready, position all your troops near Spain, and all their
holdings overseas. We are about to backstab them in the best way possible,
with troops marching through their lands. You want Flanders straight away,
and if you have military access through their lands, then it would be 
simple to place a few armies right outside Madrid. Take their land, and 
once all their land in Europe is gone, you just need to control the rebels in
their territories. 

			The Rest of the Journey

Now, what you do with France's superpower is up to you from here. You can
take the rest of America and India. Or you can conquer and take care the
rest of Europe, the rest is utterly up to you.

*~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~*
[3.03] Austria

"The history of Austria is one of warfare against invaders from the east,
 and the infidel Turks in particular. Originally, the Duchy was the eastern
 marches of the Holy Roman Empire (the Ostmark) and the defensive important
 of Austria to the rest of Europe is immense. For nearly 250 years, the 
 Ottoman Turks have hurled themselves against the bastion of Austria, reaching
 the gates of Vienna on more than one occasion. The last time was in 1683,
 Austrian bravery has kept them at bay, every time.

 After the bloodletting of the last century - the Thirty Years War - within
 the Holy Roman Empire, Austria is a leading power among "the Germanies".
 Leopold I, the ruling Hapsburg, has brought peace and prosperity, and 
 maintained a first-class military machine (in particular, the Austrian
 have mastered the tactics of using light, irregular troopss.) This gives the
 Austrians the potention to become a truly great power, either within the
 borders of the old Empire, to be south in Italy, or to the east. This latter
 scheme requires the Turks to be persuaded - at sword point - that their
 destiny lies outside Europe. The Austrians also have much to be proud of
 in the arts, music and culture.

 Beyond their immediate borders, there are other matters for the Hapsburgs
 to consider. The Spanish branch of the family is for now close to extinction,
 as Charles II has failed to produce an heir, among his other problems. 
 Perhaps Spain should remain a part of Hapsburg domains, but this might lead
 to confrontation with France. And then, of course, there are the pan-Slavic,
 Christian Orthodox ambitions of the Russian Tsar to consider."


			Victory Conditions

--==Short Campaign==--

"Capture and hold 15 regions by the end of the year 1750, including the 
 regions shown. Austria, West Prussia, East Prussia, Hungary, Rumelia, 
 Brandenburg, Venetia."


--==Long Campaign==--

"Capture and hold 30 regions by the end of the year 1799, including the 
 regions shown. East Prussia, Hungary, Austria, Brandenburg, West Prussia, 
 Venetia, Rumelia, Poland."


--==Prestige Victory==--

"Capture and hold 15 regions by the end of the year 1799, including the 
 regions shown. Austria, West Pressia, East Prussia, Hungary, Rumelia, 
 Brandenburg, Venetia.

 Be the nation attaining the highest prestige rating at the end of the year
 1799."


--==World Domination==--

"Capture and hold 40 regions by the end of the year 1799, including the 
 regions shown. Austria."


			Lets Go Marines!

Austria starts off with a measly 6 provinces and a bunch of coins. You start
off allied with Great Britain, the United Provinces, Bavaria, Savoy,
Westphalia and Wurttemburg. So, naturally, you are going not to be very
friendly to the French, the Spanish, who are actually hostile to you, the
Ottomans and the Polish. 

Well, lets be honest, Austria wasn't known throughout the ages as pioneers
of the New World, so basically, you won't be needing to move into the new
theatres, the Americas and India. So there isn't any use to expand your
holdings there. However, it doesn't mean that you can send in some trade
ships to the new theatres, such as Brazil, to get some trade goods back
home.

The reason why you shouldn't expand to America or India is that you will be
making unnecessary enemies. For now, you aren't at war with the French or
the Spanish, so you really don't need to piss them off. Besides, right 
beside you is a prime target, the small, single province countries, such as
Saxony and to a lesser extent, Prussia.

What is important is that you cannot ignore that the fact that you will
go to war. Build up a very strong income to build and then maintain an
army. Your first target are single province nations that you aren't too 
friendly with, such as Saxony and Prussia, and set your armies there, and
get ready to fight.


			Building Your Empire

This is the hard part, taking those nations, maintaining peace and 
surviving the new wars. Odds are, Poland and the Ottomans aren't going to
be too friendly at this point, and if war hasn't broken out, it will
soon. Move your armies to these fronts when you can keep the peace. Not
only is fighting these two nations essential sooner or later, it will 
help build an empire. 

This however, creates 2 new fronts, a northern and southern front. The
Polish in the North, the Otoomans hiding in the South. For this, you will
need some help, so try to get some help from nearby nations with heavy
military power, mainly the Russians. 

You can safely shift most of your military power from your nation to
fight Poland and the Ottomans because there should still be plenty of 
nations that can act as a buffer between you, and the alliance of the
French and Spanish. Until those buffer nations are taken out, you still
have time to fight your enemies. 

Poland should be easy to take out, they are relatively close by and they 
don't have many in terms of provinces that you need to capture. However, 
the problem are the Ottomans, they have a lot of provinces and there is a
hell of a lot of space.

My solution for this is to fight them so that their influence in Europe is
weak, fight them until you capture Istanbul. From there, there is only a 
single land route between you and the Ottomans, so as long as you defend
that area well with a fully stacked army, you shouldn't have a problem 
keeping the Turks at bay. You can conquer the rest of Eastern Europe later
on. 


			Debts To Be Settled

However, whether you like it or not, the French and Spanish are going to be 
a threat sooner or later. You want it to be later, so you can take out
Poland and keep the Turks at bay, and shift your now experienced military
units to the Western Front. 

The French and Spanish are good for one thing, they have little provinces
in Europe that you need to worry about, especially the French. The French
only have 2 provinces, the Spanish have 6, and some you will need some
naval power for. 

They will get you into a fight, and it is best to knock France out of the
war first. They have a strong military force that they will use, and that
will give you the option to take down their colonies in the Americas. The
Spanish are a bit harder to take out, mainly because they have more colonies
and they are all over the place, but again, take them out with your 
experienced forces and this gives you to option to take their colonies as 
well. 


			From Here On In

You are on your own. What I've given you is a basic outline of what you can
do, take down Poland and keep the Turks at bay, to build up a force and take
down the French and Spanish. But from here on in, what now?

You can finish off the Turks completely by sending in some of your experienced
armies to take them out, because considering the land mass you will be 
fighting on, there is a lot of land for little in terms of provinces.

Or, alternatively, you can so something the Austrians didn't do, which is to
travel to the Americas and suppress the rebels and conquer the former colonies
of the French and Spanish if you have taken them out. The game gives you an
infinite amount of possibilities, it is a question of whether you are going 
to try ot not. 

			Reader Strategy!

Below is a strategy for playing Austria by C Donovan, outlining a way to heal
up the old wounds. After some editing and spellchecking, here it is. 

"The most obvious choice for me was to seal old wounds. I obtained a 
 ceasefire and trade agreement with the Ottomans and even got the Polish to 
 be my allies! I also got a Ceasefire with the Barbarians (The Barbary 
 states) and then, I got to work.
 
 Since I didn't want my Populace to be unhappy I built Church schools in my 
 fresh towns, got my farms upgraded (with some "Research"), and I sent my 
 Catholic Missionries to the city just North of Prague (I think it's 
 Bohemia, unless Bohemia is Prague's name).
 
 I then mustered as much Militia as I could, got a General, 2 Regiments of 
 Provincial Cavalry and some Demi-cannons, and the Invasion of Italy began!
 (Oh right....I decided to attack Venice. That also got me at war with the 
 Italian states. Both of those nations are Catholic, so it wasn't all bad.)
 
 After a relatively easy battle for Venice and Rome (I only had to 
 Auto-resolve the attack on Rome), I had a lot more money and 2 more 
 provinces.
 
 After that, Prussia decided to declare war on me. Not such a good move for 
 them OR Me. (Them because they got Me, Poland and Wurtemburg as enemies, me 
 because the Brits cancelled their Alliance with me.) I quickly built The 
 Highest level Barracks I could in Prague and Vienna to get Line Infantry. 
 At the same time, I got my Veteran Militia from the Italian Campaign up 
 north. I was able to get 3 Regiments of Demi-Cannons, 12 of Militia, 2 of 
 Line Infantry and a General up to the North.
 
 I decide to strike quickly.... Sadly, not quick enough to defend Prague 
 from a Prussian seige(I don't believe in Garrisoning heavily). In 
 retaliation, I attacked Prussian held Berlin with my previously mentioned 
 army (1 General, 3 Artillery, 12 Militia, 2 Line Infantry). After a bloody 
 seige (out of my 1,800 men, only 535 were left), I had won. That spurred my 
 anger. I then decided that Demi-Cannons and Militia were crap and then, with 
 my 2 big cities (Berlin and Vienna) started to up my Oomph a little more 
 with 6-Lber Horse Artillery and Regiments upon Regiments of Line Infantry.
 
 I decided quickly I needed all the Industry I could get so I attacked 
 Saxony (also held by Prussians) and Bavaria. Saxony was hard but I defeated 
 Bavaria on the first battle. I also was able to, then, train my first GOOD 
 Cavalry (which I would come to depend on); Carabineers.
 
 With a combo of Moveable Artillery, Excellent Infantry, Great Cavalry and a 
 total of 5 towns to Research stuff with(and Gentlemen in each one), I soon 
 kicked Prussia's ass (with a loss, in total, of about 5,000 Men), The Polish
 (My Allies, Remember) Took Prague and nurtured it like a baby (Still are), I 
 had trade with Half of the world, and I still wasn't done.
 
 I soon "Blitzkreiged" Wurttemburg(Who broke their alliance after I killed 
 Bavaria), Southern Italy, Milan, and Caligari (All of which belonged to 
 Spain), Cologne, Rhineland (They have very advanced roads), and 
 Alsice-Lorraine (French territory). I have targeted Amsterdam currently
 (Spanish held), and Paris (which isn't really heavily defended, for some 
 reason). I am also planning for the Naval Invasions of Greece (Venetian 
 Held) and Mainland Spain and Portugal (Both of which are Spanish territory).
 
 Well, that's my current limit, besides having researched the Tech needed 
 for Cadenced Marching and Rank fire, Carcass and Explosive shot, Naval 
 stuff to the extent of Flintlock Cannon, and gotten all the way to 
 Selective Breeding. I also am making tons of cash and am the leading nation 
 in terms of Prestige."

The only problem I would have with this strategy is the use of militia and
the lack of defence. What I would generally do is to use Line Infantry 
exclusively in my armies, no militia at all. Costly to start and maintain, but
they are decent in battle. 

Also, you should have several armies as well. You don't need them at full
strength, but you need to make sure all your fronts are defended, because like
what happened, the AI will declare war whenever it wants to, which is a good
thing, if you want land, and a bad thing if you don't have armies to defend
against their army. You should always make sure that your province capitals
are defended by an army that can reach there in 2 turns, which means more in
terms of upkeep, but will save you when they declare war on you. 

*~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~*
[3.04] United Provinces

"The United Provinces are a Protestant stronghold in North-western Europe,
 a place where science, trade, and freedom of thought have flourished since
 the Spanish were driven out in the last century. Having tamed their land and
 held back the sea, the Dutch have also embraced the sea and become the 
 foremost naval power in the world. A mere generation ago, the Dutch navy
 sailed into the Thames and burned the English fleet at anchor: this kind of
 bravado and expertise is not quickly forgotten.

 Dutch merchantmen range across the world's oceans, and the wealth of the
 world passes through Dutch ports, Dutchmen can be found trading in the 
 Indies, where they give the locals a run for their money, and the Caribbean.
 They are everywhere, in fact, where there is a profit to be made. Spanish
 claims to the New World and its treade are cheerfully ignored, as are
 Spanish threats. The Dutch have learned to live with Hapsburg threats hanging
 over their heads. Heaving beaten off brutal attempts to bring them to heel, 
 the Dutch now have little love for Hapsburg-ruled Spain or Austria. A 
 distant Catholic emperor holds no appeal for them. An expansionist France,
 on the other hand, does bear watching, and guarding against.

 Other rivals close at hand are now less of a threat than they used to be. 
 The British have been ... tamed is too strong a word ... brought to their
 senses by having a good, honest Dutchman on their throne. William III of
 Orange was an acceptable Protestant ruler for the British when they needed
 one. His presense has done much to calm relations, especially as the
 equally-mercantile British have designs on world trade that should 
 rightfully be Dutch!

 For the future, the Dutch have much to be hopeful about. They have a strong
 navy, and a tradition of victory. There is wealth aplenty in every corner 
 of the world, if only the Dutch have the will to go and take it!"


			Victory Conditions

--==Short Campaign==--

"Capture and hold 15 regions by the end of the year 1750, including the 
 regions shown. Ceylon, Curacao, French Guyana, New Andalusia, Dutch Guyana,
 Carnatica, Flanders, New York, Netherlands."


--==Long Campaign==--

"Capture and hold 25 regions by the end of the year 1799, including the
 regions shown. New York, Bijapur, Netherlands, Hindustan, Dutch Guyana,
 Flanders, Curacao, Goa, French Guyana, Carnatica, Ceylon, New Andalusia, 
 Mysore."


--==Prestige Victory==--

"Capture and hold 15 regions by the end of the year 1799, including the
 regions shown. Ceylon, Curacao, French Guyana, New Andalusia, Dutch Guyana,
 Carnatica, Flanders, New York, Netherlands.

 Be the nation attaining the highest prestige rating at the end of the year
 1799."


--==World Domination==--

"Capture and hold 40 regions by the end of the year 1799, including the
 regions shown. Netherlands."


			Rule the Seven Seas

The Dutch start off with little in terms of provinces, they have 2 in the
Americas, 1 in Europe and 1 in India. However, they do make valuable starting
points. Currently, you can build up an army in Europe and get ready to take
on Spain. 

If you take on Spain, be prepared to take on New Spain and France. However,
unlike what you will think, given the position of most of your colonies,
you can take most of the Spanish holdings in America, including Cuba, Florida
and Hispaniola. Most of New Spain is actually quite valuable, they have 
plenty of valuable mineral deposits and plenty of stuff to trade off. 

In India, you start off with both major Indian nations rather unfriendly, and
because of this, they will, sooner or later, think it is smart to declare war
on you. This is another blessing, you have a powerful navy, sinking their
invasion forces, while you can build up a powerful force and take on their
provinces.

This is the blessing of having few provinces. In America, you start with a 
strong navy to take down the enemy invasion fleets, and as such, you can bide
your time to build up a strong navy. In Europe and India, you have a lone
province, Europe has a massive army, India, well, you are surrounded by
water.


			Conquer the Enemy

It won't be soon because the Spanish get pissed off and declare war. When
they do, you want to hit them back and retake Flanders. If you want to declare
war for strategic, Portugal is a nice target. Their province of Goa is a nice
foothold in India and their own home province is a good target for you to take
on the Spanish and pose a threat to Madrid. 

You need to start to build a large presense in America, that is where a lot
of money can be made in a heartbeat. There is little in terms of enemy 
defences to protect cities, and there is lots in trade and taxes to be had.
Spain is a definite enemy, sooner or later, you will need to take them on.

Another good target are the pirates. Their base of Leeward Islands is a good
place to capture, and their remaining provinces. They will pose a threat to
you when you want to move around the map, they will happily take on your
trade routes. By capturing their provinces, you get money and safety. It is a
a win win. 

In India, the two major empires are constantly at war with each other. With
this, you can ally with one to destroy another, and then conquer the other to
make sure they get the message. This will take some time, but it is a good
source of income.


			The Place is Home

However, the most important thing, besides expanding your holdings in the
Americas and in India, is your presence in Europe. No matter what you do,
you will be under attack from all directions. Only the Austrians and the
British are your allies here, and you need to make sure you keep it that
way. The French and the Spanish are your natural enemies.

Take down Flanders, and you will have a stepping stone towards Paris. The
French only have 2 provinces, initially, in Europe, France, and Alsace-
Lorraine. Take them both, and their vast overseas holdings in the Americas
are ripe for the taking. 

From here on, you need to protect your lands in Europe. You don't need to
expand too much, but the nations of Germany, the Prussias, are good targets
and the single province nations are also good targets. You will have to keep
some on side though, you need some trade partners as well. 

Build up your trade income to build up and maintain a large navy and army,
keep your allies in check, and make sure your enemies don't have a chance to
build on their currently holdings overseas and at home.

The United Provinces is hard to play, like Prussia, no one is friendly much.
and as such, you need to be paranoid. However, given that the AI likes to 
declare war as often as it can, all this can change at a heartbeat, and given
your holdings in all three theatres, you need to keep an eye on everyone.

*~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~*
[3.05] Spain

"The Spanish have long been conquers and colonisers in distant parts. Indeed,
 the Spanish and Portuguese signed a treaty in 1494 that nearly divided the
 world between themselves. The Spanish went conquering "for God, Spain and to
 get rich". They succeeded, to a great degree, in all these aims. 

 Spain is a staunchly Catholic country, and the Church and the fearsome 
 Spanish Inquisitonn still have their hold over men's hearts. This partly
 expalins why, for all its wealth. Spain is economoically backward: the 
 Church sees usary (money lending) as sinful. This may be so, but this lack of
 credit does not help the merchant classes. Economic growth is also not helped
 when it is beneath the dignity of any hidalgo gentlemen to earn money or 
 work. But a gentleman's honour is worth defending and a nation's glory is 
 worth winning, so courage is not in short supply. Indeed, Spain is blessed
 with courageous men on both land and sea.

 That Spain will need defending, and soon, is self-evident to many. Charles 
 II, "El Hechizado" or "the Bewitched" is a feeble-minded and pathetic 
 figure, a shadow of his Hapsburg ancestors, and childless, Spain has 
 suffered from his weakness of mind and government, but Charles cannot live
 forever. When he dies, what forces will shape the destiny of the Empire?
 Will Spain once again face its Protestant rivals down? Will there be a new
 generation of conquistadores to plant the Spanish flag on distant shores?
 His successor will have much to ponder, but a brave nation to lead back to
 greatness!"

			Victory Conditions

--==Short Campaign==--

"Capture and hold 25 regions by the end of the year 1750, including the 
 regions shown. Trinidad & Tobago, Austria, Spain, Texas, Netherlands, 
 Curacao, Flanders, Lombardy, Naples, Gibraltar"


--==Long Campaign==--

"Capture and hold 35 regions by the end of the year 1799, including the
 regions shown. Austria, Spain, Texas, Morocco, Lombardy, Trinidad &
 Tobago, Netherlands, Gibraltar, Curacao, Flanders, Portugal, Naples"


--==Prestige Victory==--

"Capture and hold 25 regions by the end of the year 1799, including the
 regions shown. Trinidad & Tobago, Austria, Spain, Texas, Netherlands,
 Curacao, Flanders, Lombardy, Naples, Gibraltar

 Be the nature attaining the highest prestige rating at the end of the year
 1799"


--==World Domination==--

"Capture and hold 50 regions by the end of the year 1799, including the
 regions shown. Spain"


			The Spanish Amarda Reborn

With Spain, you get a fair amount of starting provinces in Europe and 
America, a good start in tax money. For the first turn, just do as you would
do, build up a trade fleet or upgrade your buildings, and wait until you 
get the mission. 

OBJECTIVE: Trinidad & Tobago, Texas, Curacao

"The government of New Spain, your protectorate in the New World, has 
 requested that you ensure Spanish domination in the Americas by consolidating
 your control. If you succeed in capturing the regions of Trinidad & Tobago,
 Texas and Curacao, the lands of New Span will be at your command. Be sure
 to maintain friendly relations with them until this union is joined.

 Reward: New Spain will join your nation."

This should now be your mission for the time being, you need to take on the
Pirates, who only serve as a menace anyway, the Dutch and a lone Native nation
for the kill. This isn't that hard. You are already at war with the Cherokee
in America, so take care of them first, and build up a proper army with them
before anything else. Give them experience and they will fight well. 

The Dutch aren't that hard to take care of, they only have the Netherlands in
Europe that they need to defend, so build up your army in the Flanders to
take them on and defeat them. With them out of the way, you have a bit more 
wriggle room, since Curacao is also owned by them. Take down those rebels,
and you will have the mission complete. New Spain is large and there is a lot
of wealth to be had there.

With that little part out of the way, we can control on taking on the rest of
the world.


			Beyond the Frontiers

With the Dutch out of the way, you will need to take on the Portuguese. They
aren't too friendly towards you, and they only have 2 provinces, one at home
and the other in India. Take them out, and now, there should be 2 rebel 
nations in India. There is Ceylon, left by the Dutch, and there is going to
be Goa, as long as the other nations haven't touched it. 

This gives you a lot of stepping stones on what you want to do. You definitely
want more space, and the best nation to take on for that will be Britain. They
aren't too keen on you at the start, and seeing you have France for an ally,
you will have some firepower to play with. Before you take them on, you will
need to have a strong navy, both at home in Europe and in the Americas, as well
as a strong army to play with, both at home and abroad.

The British will have the Americas, but more interestingly are their 
possessions in the Caribbean, such as Jamaica and the Bahamas. You want these,
to give you control of the entire area, and the Americas, where the US 
currently sit, would be a nice takeover target as well. Whilst in Europe, the
British Isles look like a good target. 


			Battlegrounds: Fields of Europe

If you want some revenge, the attack on the Austrian Empire seems like a 
good one, not only does it give you a lot more room in Europe, which is 
always a nice thing, you are getting back for putting a weak ruler on the
Throne by them. 

Other than that, you have India to take care of, there is a fair amount of
work if you are going to capture all of that, or you can take on the Ottomans
and the Barbary Pirates, which are right next to your capital. That seems a
place for some target practice. 

The Spanish Empire is quite easy to play, they aren't as landlocked as the
central European powers, and that is nice. From here on, you should have
enough to take on the rest of the world, the world is your apple, you make
do of it as you will. 

*~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~*
[3.06] Prussia

"Prussia itself has only been "German" since the 13th Century, when the
 Teutonic Knights carved out a new Christian state on the Baltic coast. The
 present Kingdom of Prussia is a new state, the result of a union between
 the duchies of Brandenburg and Prussia and it is a Kingdom only because the
 current ruler, Elector Frederick III has decided to improve his status to
 that of King! In doing so, however, he has been carefulnot to offend the 
 Holy Roman Emperor, the Archducke of Austria, and calls himself the King
 "in" Prussia, not the King "of" Prussia. The form of words is a fig leaf: 
 Frederick is King. And he is king of a potentially powerful and influential
 Protestant nation, the centre of gravity within "the Germanies" for all
 those who would look elsewhere for a lead than Catholic Austria.

 The Prussians belive - not without reason - that their virtues as a people
 can carry them through any trouble: martial discipline, sacrifice, a sense
 of order, but this sense of duty should not be confused with ignorance or
 intolerance, no matter what others may say. Prussians have always had to
 fight, but that has made them competent, not bloodthirsty. They have the  
 potential to become a great continential power thanks to their martial
 traditions, many of which can be traced back to the Teutionic Knights. These
 could form the basis of a truly world-beating army. Under the right guidance,
 they could unit the German-speaking people into a single entity, dominate
 the Baltic and, perhaps, extend their reach far beyond the confines of 
 Central Europe."

			Victory Conditions

--==Short Campaign==--

"Capture and hold 15 regions by the end of the year 1750, including the 
 regions shown. Bohemia & Moravia, Brandenburg, Austria, Wurttemburg, 
 Rhineland, Poland, Silesia, Bavaria, East Prussia, Hannover, Saxony, 
 Alsace-Lorraine, Denmark, West Prussia."


--==Long Campaign==--

"Capture and hold 25 regions by the end of the year 1799, including the
 regions shown. Bohemia & Moravia, East Prussia, Austria, Brandenburg,
 Denmark, West Prussia, Silesia, Poland, Rhineland, Hannover, Wruttemburg,
 Bavaria, Alsace-Lorraine, Saxony."


--==Prestige Victory==--

"Capture and hold 15 regions by the end of the year 1799, including the 
 regions shown. Bohemia & Moravia, Brandenburg, Austria, Wurttemburg, 
 Rhineland, Poland, Silesia, Bavaria, East Prussia, Hannover, Saxony, 
 Alsace-Lorraine, Denmark, West Prussia.

 Be the nation attaining the highest prestige rating at the end of the year
 1799."


--==World Domination==--

"Capture and hold 40 regions by the end of the year 1799, including the
 regions shown. Brandenburg.


			The Rise of the Unrisen

Prussia is one of the best countries to play around in, because there is just
so much war-mongering that you will need to do. You basically need to fight
everyone on Europe to complete your objectives. Like what you are told in
the little starting snippet, you will be need ally yourself with Britain,
the United Provinces, Sweden and Denmark. Well, maybe not Denmark, seeing
that you will need to beat the crap out of them later on. 

You start off with only 2 provinces, and they are seperated, so you have an
easy to manage empire to start off with, but you need to unify your land.
To start off, Saxony is a nice target, they are alone, and they will have a 
nice large city, so you can take it for the good amount of money that you
will get. 

However, we will need to start a war with a big nation soon, and your first
target needs to be, unfortunately, Poland. This time, you will need to retake
West Prussia, you need to space in order to link your empire together, and
from there, you need to build up a large empire. Move downwards and take more
and more of their land, but keep some armies at home, because some nations 
won't like you attacking Poland. 

Meanwhile, you will need a trade partner, so use Britain as one. They are 
friendly at the start, so you will have an added bonus there. Make sure you
build up a navy, because if you want more money from trade goods, that is
where you will need to get some, from new theatres. 


			To Defeat the Enemy Checklist

After you have taken care of Poland, you have a choice. Who do you want to
take on next? Well, the little nations around your own nation are a good
target, they are single provinces, so take them out, add them into your
empire and keep a close eye on them, to ensure they don't start rebelling and
retake your province. 

Now, the next empire. Who shall it be? You can follow history and take on 
the Austrians, or break history and take on the French, either way, you will
need to take one of them on. However, given that the French have the Spanish
as backup, you might as well take on the Austrians, and get access to the
sea. 

The Austrians have a lot of land to cover, but luckily, you don't need to 
have a lot of standing armies, though you might want a full stacked army to
keep an eye on the French. Build up your forces, and move southwards, but
make sure you don't expand too quickly, less you have some rebelling provinces
against you. 

By this point, more and more Catholic nations will start declaring war on 
you, so you will need to slow down your advance to defend your empire. But
after you have taken on the Austrians, you will narrow down your enemy list
somewhat. But not much. 


			The Enemy List Grows

After taking on the Austrians and the Poles, you will have 2 fronts to 
consider. Which enemy do you want to take on? You have the Russians on the 
one side, and the French on the other. This is a problem, both are quite
powerful. 

If you want to worry, worry about the French. They are more likely to hate
the crap out of you, so you might as well declare war on them. They aren't of
the same religion after all. Alsace-Lorraine is quite an easy take, but taking
on Paris is a different story. Once you declare war, more often than not,
the city will have a full stack of angry mobs and there is, annoyingly, the
Spanish. They will be there to protect their friends.

For all intents and purposes, lets assume the Spanish are there. For this, you
will need to take command. The best way to win is to have your artillery 
launching barrage after barrage on the enemy fortress, shelling it into a nice
piece of rubble, and using some Canister Shot, turn it into a shotgun and 
destroy the enemy advance. Slowly but surely, you will take a toll on the 
enemy and they will retreat.

After taking on the French, it is pretty much what you want to do. You can 
go after all the French possessions in the Americas, and possibly, the Indias
for some more money. Or you can take on the Spanish, wipe them out, and
then collect all the holdings available to you from the Spanish and French
collapse.

Alternatively, you can take on the Russians or the Turks, and take more of
their land. However, one thing will be clear. As Prussia, you will be the
most hated, but the most powerful nation in all of Europe if you play it
correctly. 

*~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~*
[3.07] Sweden

"Sweden dominates Scandinavia and the Baltic, a Northern European empire 
 that is the legacy of the incomparable warrior-king, Gustavus II Adolphus.
 Even though he died in battle at Luetzen in 1632, the army that he created
 helped Sweden profit from the seemingly endless religious struggles of the
 Thirty Years War. The nation that emerged from that conflict immeasurably
 stronger in military terms, and able to invade its Baltic neighbours at 
 will. This military power did, however, cost money and Swedish lives. 
 Neither of these commodities are available in abudance, and prudish
 stewardship has been necessary too. Charles XI, however, has left an  
 impressive arsenal in place for his son, should he wish to take up the
 sword; and Charles XII has an obsessive interest in soldiering.

 As the new century dawns, Sweden is a strong, aggressive state, surrounded
 by jealous rivals from whom she has taken territory in the last hundred
 years. To the east, the Russians would like unhindered access to the
 Baltic, and therefore Western Europe and beyond. To the south, Poland-
 Lithuania wants its lost lands back. To the west, the other Scandinavian
 nations want independence or an end to the Swedish domination of the 
 Baltic. 

 In all these potential threats, however, lurk opportunities for those bold
 enough to seize the chance. Individually, Sweden's rivals are not quite as
 threatening as they might appear. Russia is huge, that much is true, but
 incredibly backwards. There is no reason why the Baltic, as a Swedish
 "Mare Nostrum", cannot become the basis of a new Northern, Protestant
 empire. Sweden's armies are the equal of any in Europe, and her navy is 
 not without resources and skill. With a home empire secured, who is to say
 that an overseas empire cannot be taken and held too?"


			Victory Conditions

--==Short Campaign==--

"Capture and hold 15 regions by the end of the year 1750, including the 
 regions shown. Brandenburg, Norway, Poland, Muscovy, Sweden, Denmark, 
 Ingria."


--==Long Campaign==--

"Capture and hold 25 regions by the end of the year 1799, including the 
 regions shown. Sweden, Courland, Brandenburg, Poland, Ingria, Denmark, 
 Karelia, Muscovy, Norway."


--==Prestige Victory==--

"Capture and hold 15 regions by the end of the year 1799, including the 
 regions shown. Brandenburg, Norway, Poland, Muscovy, Sweden, Denmark, 
 Ingria.

 Be the nation attaining the highest prestige rating at the end of the
 year 1799"


--==World Domination==--

"Capture and hold 40 regions by the end of the year 1799, including the
 regions shown. Sweden"


			Known For More Than IKEA

You are going to have a hard time to play as Sweden. You are already trading
and friendly with the British and the French, and they will serve as good
allies in this game. One important goal is to always keep them on side and
that means on your side. Ally with them if you can, you will need their
help. 

The first problem you will face is definitely Russia. They are quite 
aggressive and they really want to retake St. Petersburg. However, their 
armies are quite weak, and they need to cross a lot of land to retake that
long city, so you just need to shove some line infantry there to keep
them off. Meanwhile, build up an army of your own to take on the Russians.

You will want to take Karelia first, this will remove a front in which they
can retake Moscow from. You will need 2 armies if you want to take on the
Russians, 1 to make sure that the province itself is under check and the
enemy doesn't decide to retake the capital, and the second army is to take
on and get rid of the enemy's provinces, in order to stop their raids. Slowly,
you will need more armies as more and more of your troops will be needed to
stop the resistance in the cities.

Taking over all of Russia is a big ask, and it will take a fair amount of
time, so you will need to build up more armies and navies and have them do
their thing in order to build up a large empire.


			Playing Fair Ain't Fair

You will need to build up a navy to take on other nations. A quick and easy
target will be Prussia. They aren't very strong and still are quite weak,
so taking over Brandenburg and East Prussia is a relatively easy task for 2
decent sized armies. 

Prussia is easy, and lets move on to take on Denmark. Take on their two
provinces that are close to yours, and then, you will have Iceland. You can
take it, and this would be useful as a staging point to move off into the
American and India theatres.

After that, you will need to finish off the Russians, if you haven't done
so already. This will give you most of your objectives done. Now, with those
nations under your belt, you need to get bold and take on some new land.


			Fighting Fire with Water

If you want to have some say in the Americas and India, you can guess the
target. The Netherlands. The Dutch only have a single province, and they have
some provinces overseas. Send in staging forces overseas near their holdings
there, so when they will fall under rebel control, you can take them straight
away. 

Send in a full stacked army and capture Amsterdam. This is important if you
want a trade empire. The reason you take on the Dutch to expand overseas is
simple. Moving to the Americas is hard if you don't want to piss off the 
French and the British. You can wait until they attack each other, play it
safe, and capture the rebelling lands. 

From here, you need to take on Poland in order to complete your objectives.
This isn't that hard, if you can take on the Russians, Prussians, Danish and
the Dutch, Poland isn't going to be difficult.

The difficult part is trying to do all this whilst surviving the declarations
of war that is bound to follow. Keep good with your allies, and build some new
ones that you'll backstab later, and keep a strong navy at all times, and 
armies on all fronts, in case someone gets trigger happy. 

*~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~*
[3.08] Russia

""Muscovy", as its rulers have previously called it, is a sleeping giant,
 with age-old traditions and ways of doing things. Here, the feudal way of
 life has become so entrenched that the serfs are as tied to the land as 
 cattle, and with almost as few rights. It is a vast, deeply conservative
 and religious country. Mother Russia and the Orthodox Church are the two
 pillars of national belief. The Tsar may be the father of his people, but
 by tradition and practice he is a stern parent, Ivan the Terrible was well
 named, and he has not been the only ruler with an iron will. Russia needs a
 strong hand controlling the "Third Rome", the true home to Christianity 
 (according to the Orthodox Church) after the fall of Byzantium.

 Now, however, Russia is changing, awakening. It is beginning to look
 outwards, towards the best that the rest of the world has to offer in terms
 of ideas, culture and might. These things must be introduced carefully, to
 avoid the ills of free-thinking that best some Western nations. When Russia
 does fully realise its strength, however, it will be formidable indeed. It
 has boundless resources to draw upon, and the steadfast courage of its 
 people to bolster its armies. It can be a formidable foe, and a difficult
 one for an enemy to attack. One thing that Russia does have is endless
 space, and the lack of apparently defensible frontiers actually becomes a 
 defence in itself. Invaders can be lured deep into the steppes, and left to
 the mercies of "General Winter" and Russia's endless, empty lands.

 To the west lies the wealth of Europe and access to the wider world through
 a port on the Baltic. That the troublesome Swedes are in the way is a bonus,
 for they will have to be crushed! To the south, there are fellow Slavs and
 Orthodox Christians in the Balkans to be incorporated into a Greater 
 Russian empire. The infidel Turks have lands and wealth aplenty too, but
 possibly the strength to defend them.

 And beyond, there is a wider world awaiting conquest by the sons of the
 Mother Russia."


			Victory Conditions

--==Short Campaign==--

"Capture and hold 20 regions by the end of the year 1750, including the 
 regions shown. Crimea, Poland, Chechenya-Dagestan, Muscovy, Belarus &
 Volhynia, Lithuania, Estonia & Livonia, Ingria, Georgia, Sweden."


--==Long Campaign==--

"Capture and hold 30 regions by the end of the year 1799, including the
 regions shown. Georgia, Chechenya-Dagestan, Persia, Belarus & Volhynia, 
 Estonia & Livonia, Rumelia, Ingria, Muscovy, Lithuania, Poland, Crimea,
 Sweden."


--==Prestige Victory==--

"Capture and hold 20 regions by the end of the year 1799, including the 
 regions shown. Crimea, Poland, Chechenya-Dagestan, Muscovy, Belarus &
 Volhynia, Lithuania, Estonia & Livonia, Ingria, Georgia, Sweden."

 Be the nation attaining the highest prestige rating at the end of the
 year 1799"


--==World Domination==--

"Capture and hold 40 regions by the end of the year 1799, including the
 regions shown. Sweden"


			March into the Russian Winter

You start as Russia and you have a lot of provinces to play with. And a lot
of land. Sure, if you are defending, this is a good idea, but since you are 
going to be attacking, this is a problem. What the intro gives you is a nice
start. You will need access to the Seas. You need to take on the Crimean 
Khanate first, they only have a single province, easy to wipe out. Then 
there are the other lone nations to take on. 

Dagestan and Georgia are also easy targets, but once you take those, you will
need to keep an army there at all times, that is your link to the Ottoman
Empire, and they will attack, since you don't get along with them all too
well. I mean, you start off at war with them. Figure that out. 

For now, you are Allied and have a trade agreement with Poland. This gives
you enough time to start taking on Sweden. Also build up a trade agreement
and alliance with the British, French and the Spanish, they are the powerful
nations that you don't want to deal with early on, when you are still
weak. 

			Victory for the Wicked

You want to start a war with Sweden as soon as you have enough forces to 
play with. Inglia needs to be in your hands as fast as you can, seeing that
this gives you access to the Baltic sea. You need to quickly build a navy
and get an invasion force to take their provinces, you don't want the
Swedes to get some reinforcements and send them in to take over your
provinces.

After taking on Sweden, you will have your armies standing acting as guards,
so use this time to reinforce your armies with new troops, more line infantry
and heavy cavalry, and get rid of your weak units, like provincial troops
and your militia. Make sure you take out Courland as well, they are a good
province to use to get to Poland.

You will need more of your armies around Poland, seeing that is your next
target, provided that you are keeping the Turks at bay. Poland is often by
itself, so you will have it easy. Make sure they are alone, and then strike.
Your armies should be able to take out Lithuania, Belarus and Galicia pretty
quickly, and you can easily advance towards Poland and Prussia, if they still
control it. 


			Enemies at this Corner

The Turks are still a problem. You can easily wipe out the Polish, but the
problem with the Turks is that they have a hell of a lot of land to take on. 
This will boost your province count greatly. This is where you move most of
your armies from your Poland conquest south, but not all. Austria may be a 
little worried from your nearby conquests and may declare war on you, so you
will need an army to at least keep the frontline defended. 

If you have built up alliances with Britain, Spain and France, it should be 
good for you. You have enough friends to prevent them from getting involved
with what you are doing, but don't take on too much land, you will get them
edgy.

If you want to expand overseas, you really don't want to head into the
Americas. There is far too much French, British and Spanish influences there,
so your best bet is India. Why? If you have taken out the Turks, you have a 
nice land route there. Take out the Persians, and you have direct access
via land. 

From there, you can take on all of India, bit by bit. However, taking down the
rest of Europe isn't a big problem either. I mean, you have many armies to
play with, just hold the line, and slowly advance. 

*~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~*
[3.09] Poland-Lithuania

"Poland is an old idea, and an old kingdom. Like anything old, it has old
 enmities and problems.

 The problems, and enmities, are those of any state surrounded by ambitious
 rivals, all of whomare looking to become stronger at someone else's expense.
 Sweden's ambition to create an empire around the Baltic; Tsar Peter's 
 desires to make Russia a great European power to rival the style of Bourbon
 France; the Austrians and Prussians seeking to define a greater Germany and
 secure their borders; even the distant Ottomans have to be considered, should
 they ever launch a new assault on Christian Europe. An in the middle of all
 of this, a Polish-Lithuanian state that is not under the control of a single,
 strong ruler, a man who can impose his will to defend his people. Instead,
 Poland is something altogether stranger: a land where the people have a say
 in government. 

 That the country has survived at all is a tribute to the spirit of its 
 people.

 Adn yet, these rivalries could be turned to advantage. A Polish leader who
 picked his alliances carefully, and his wars equally so, could do much to 
 make his country great. The Russians have no divine right to dominate the
 steppes, or the Swedes to control the Baltic. The various German states 
 need allies, the same as other nations, and cannot expect to take anything
 they want without a struggle. A clever Polish leader could make much of this
 situation, if he can manage the hopes, expectations and fears of his people
 at home."


			Victory Conditions

--==Short Campaign==--

"Capture and hold 15 regions by the end of the year 1750, including the 
 regions shown. Lithuania, Brandenburg, Poland, Belarus & Volhynia, Austria,
 Galicia & Podolia."


--==Long Campaign==--

"Capture and hold 25 regions by the end of the year 1799, including the 
 regions shown. Poland, Lithuania, Austria, Belarus & Volhynia, Sweden, 
 Brandenburg, Rumelia, Galicia & Podolia."


--==Prestige Victory==--

"Capture and hold 15 regions by the end of the year 1799, including the 
 regions shown. Lithuania, Brandenburg, Poland, Belarus & Volhynia, Austria,
 Galicia & Podolia.

 Be the nation attaining the highest prestige rating at the end of the year
 1799."


--==World Domination==--

"Capture and hold 40 regions by the end of the year 1799, including the
 regions shown. Poland."

			Lets Do the Invading

Okay, this is one of the hardest nations to play, and with good reason. You
start off in a very bad position. You are surrounded by many nations that 
will want your dead. Your trade alliances and your allies won't be there 
forever. 

Okay, let me start out with your friends. The British are good allies, they
will be of use. For power and support, the French and the Spanish are useful
as well, they will make sure, or rather, they assure you that they won't 
invade you. The same cannot be said about your neighbours.

The Prussians and the Ottomans are going to be your first targets. The 
Ottomans will be wanting to take on the southern area of your empire, and
the Prussians will be wanting to seek to bridge that gap between East 
Prussia and Brandenburg. 

The next problem will be your protectorates. Courland is easily defendable
and you can just take control of them instead. However, Saxony is not so
easy to defend. You need to either smash through Prussia to get through to
defend them, or you will need to start a war with Austria.


			Why Can't It Be Easy?

The problem is that all your neighbours want you dead. Be it the Swedes and
the Prussians in the north, the Russians to the East, the Ottomans to the
South and the Austrians to the West, everyone wants a part of your land, so
you will need armies ready on all fronts. 

For now, you need to crush some of your enemies quicksmart. Prussia needs to
be taken care of, and knocking out the Swedes aren't so bad either. That will
give you some breathing room, and some space.

However, the fight against the Ottomans will be tough. They have a lot of 
land to cover, so just keep them to stalement down near Istanbul, you will
get some ground for your empire, and a simple place to defend.


			Enemies Just Keep Coming

Your next two enemies are going to be a problem. The Austrians and the 
Russians. Assuming you have the French and the British under your influence,
those two are the last main powers that stand in your way. You will need to
take out the Russians and Austrians, they are both in your way.

The Russians have lots of land, but their army is easy to defeat. This is a
dual edged sword, you will need to have more armies to maintain order in 
the captured cities, but they are quick and easy to get rid of. The Austrians
are quite the opposite. They are hard to defeat in battle, but their lands are
quick to take over, compared to the Russians. Either way, you will need to
take them both on.

The Final enemy remaining is the Ottoman Empire. If you have kept them at bay
at Istanbul, you will need to need to get a navy. A single ship is more than
enough, you just need to transport an army or two to their southern states 
so you have opened several fronts for them. The Barbary states are going to be
an issue, so do us a favour and take their lands as well. 

But from there, you can do what you wish. The French and the British as still
friendly towards you, so you can give them a little shock. Or take on the 
Dutch and head overseas. It is your decision, but I must stress, this is one
of the hardest nations to play. 

*~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~*
[3.10] Ottoman Empire

"The history of Europe over the last centuries can be seen as the history of
 the Ottoman Empire and a few annoying, small nations that thwarted Ottoman
 ambitions. Ottoman power is unmatched in its extent and grandeur, straddling
 the traditional trade route between Europe and Asia. The Ottomans also have
 power over the whole of the Mediterranean coast of North Africa.

 This Turkish, Islamic empire supplanted the Orthodox Byzantine Empire in the
 15th Century and since then it has had a continuing, if not always whole- 
 hearted, ambition to expand further westwards into the heart of Europe. In
 living memory, Turkish armies have reached the gates of Vienna, Austria, only
 to be turned back by the steadfast defenders. Turkish expansionism has always
 been a part of palace politics; when a Sultan has felt secure at home he has
 attacked Europe, when a Sultan has felt threatened by his Janissary military
 commanders, he has sent them to attack.

 The Ottomans face challenges but within these are great opportunities. The
 army and navy look old fashioned compared to those of some states, but the
 soldiers of the Sultan are numerous indeed. Strategically, the Empire is in
 a potentially strong position: the Balkans are a natural bastion to defend
 Istanbul, and a possible springboard for conquest into central Europe. There
 may even be valuable allies to be found among Austria's rivals, the authority
 the Pope to stop his European flock making treaties with infidels is all but
 gone. Control of the Mediterranean would allow a Sultan to do as he pleases
 with the smaller European powers. And to the east, the route to India offers
 the chance of riches."


			Victory Conditions

--==Short Campaign==--

"Capture and hold 20 regions by the end of the year 1750, including the
 regions shown. Austria, Chechenya-Dagestan, Persia, Rumelia, Venetia, 
 Hungary, Galicia & Podolia."


--==Long Campaign==--

"Capture and hold 30 regions by the end of the year 1799, including the
 regions shown. Hungary, Persia, Austria, Venetia, Spain, Poland, Morocco,
 Chechenya-Dagestan, Rumelia, Galicia & Podolia."


--==Prestige Victory==--

"Capture and hold 20 regions by the end of the year 1799, including the
 regions shown. Austria, Chechenya-Dagestan, Persia, Rumelia, Venetia, 
 Hungary, Galicia & Podolia.

 Be the nation attaining the highest prestige rating at the end of the year
 1799."


--==World Domination==--

"Capture and hold 45 regions by the end of the year 1799, including the 
 regions shown. Rumelia."


			Let the Cannons Ring

The Ottomans are quite hard to play at the start, mainly because they are 
hated by most of the European powers. If you want a friend, France is the
only nation that starts off as indifferent to you, and given that they are
quite strong in terms of their military, they are useful as an ally. You
will be fighting a lot on this game though.

You start off at war with the Russians, so your first job is to let the
Crimean Khanate fall. This is important, because once it is fallen, since
you are already at war with the Russians, you can send in an army, recapture
it, and then keep an army there, as it is a good staging point to attack 
Kiev and Moscow. 

Your next order of business is to wipe out Georgia and Dagestan, they are 
both buffers to your border to Russia, so take them out and you can 
effectively launch a 2 front battle with the Russians. However, you can't
sleep easy yet because you have kept the Russians at bay.


			Load Up the Cannons!

You will need to wipe out Venice. You have a neighbouring province in 
Athens, so you can take out their smaller province there, but to access their
capital, you'll need to solidfy your army along the Austrian border and
get ready to declare war on them, if they haven't done so already. They 
are hostile to you to say the least. Wipe out Croatia, and you have a free
pass towards Venice.

You will need to solidfy your hold in Moldavia, you will have the Polish and
the Russians to deal with, and given that they are allied, they will pose
quite a problem, so dealing with the Polish is going to be necessary, but
don't stretch your armies too far that they cannot deal with the problems
of your conquered cities. 

And while all this is happening, you'll need an army to take out Persia, 
seeing that they will declare war on you, sooner or later, so you might as
well take the initative to wipe them out first because they start causing
some economic harm with their incursions. 


			Let the Cannons Fire

It will take a fair amount of time to wipe the Persians, Russians, Austrians
and the Polish. In fact, it should take up at least half a long campaign if
you keep everything in check, keeping up with surprises. You don't need to
worry too much about a navy, the Barbary States will do a nice job of pissing
off the enemy's navies to the extent that a navy without a lot of guns is 
more or less a paperweight.

One thing that you do need to take care of is your own empire. The more you 
conquer, the more land that you need to worry about. And by the time you
have taken out the Austrians, Russians and the Poles, you will have a fair
amount of hatred directed at your way from Europe.

If you want, you can move into India and start a war there. You are already
allied to the Mughals, and given that they are quite useless most of the
time, you can wait until they have lost most of their land, or wait until
they have lost all of their land, and then launch an invasion of the Marathas
and take most of India. 

The tradeoff for the Ottomans is this. Fighting in Europe early will knock
out enemies that will come howling down for your blood later on, but fighting
in India early gets you more money. The decision is yours. 

*~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~*
[3.11] Maratha Confederacy

"The Maratha Empire or Confederacy was born in warfare, as the result of the
 successful overthrow of Mughal rule less than a generation ago. Raja (king)
 Shivaji managed to gain control of the Pune region, and from then Mughal 
 power was no longer invincible. As might be expected, the Mughals and the
 Marathas still nurse a dislike for each other.

 Unlike the foreign (in origin) Mughals, the Marathas rulers are Indian 
 princes and kings. They know the value of the Indian way of doing things,
 of the age-old strength of their lands. Their armies may look old fashioned,
 possible quaint to foreign eyes, but that makes them no less effective. 
 The empire exists solely because it has the military strength to withstand
 the Mughal threat. 

 Perhaps now, though, it is time to think of expansion. It may no longer be
 enough to hold off the Mughals; perhaps they should be driven from India
 altogether, and a new empire with Indian rulers established. Perhaps only
 Indians truly have the ability to withstand the Europeans who are starting 
 to demand much of India. For now, the Europeans want only money and trade,
 but soon they will be after concessions, a little piece of land here, 
 another piece there, until it is ruled by foreigners from across the sea.
 Unless a strong hand guides India, it is possible that the rule of Mughal
 outsiders will be replaced by the lordship of European outsiders.

 And perhaps, on day, a Maratha could demand concessions from a European, in
 his lands..."


			Victory Conditions

--==Short Campaign==--

"Capture and hold 15 regions by the end of the year 1750, including the 
 regions shown. Gujarat, Hindustan, Hyderabad, Goa, Malwa, Bijapur, Berar,
 Carnatica, Mysore, Ahmadnagar."


--==Long Campaign==--

"Capture and hold 24 regions by the end of the year 1799, including the
 regions shown. Mysore, Bijapur, Punjab, Carnatica, Ahmadnagar, Orissa &
 Circars, Goa, Bengal, Hyderabad, Malwa, Ceylon, Hindustan, Berar, Gujarat."


--==Prestige Victory==--

"Capture and hold 15 regions by the end of the year 1799, including the 
 regions shown. Gujarat, Hindustan, Hyderabad, Goa, Malwa, Bijapur, Berar,
 Carnatica, Mysore, Ahmadnagar.

 Be the nation attaining the highest prestige rating at the end of the year
 1799."


--==World Domination==--

"Capture and hold 40 regions by the end of the year 1799, including the
 regions shown. Bijapur."


			Rise of the Inferior

Well, you don't start in a good position, lets put it this way. You are 
heavily outnumbered, you only have 2 provinces. You start with the fact that
you are already at war with the Mughals, but for now, you need to maintain
that. Keep the borders in check, for now, but be prepared to piss off a few
European powers.

However, before you hold the line, you might as use the starting positions of
your starting armies to capture Hyderabad and Ahmadnagar. Those two regions
should give you a buffer against the enemy Mughal for now. But now you need
to consolidate the gains, and get ready to fight.

You will need to backstab the Mysore province quickly. They have a large 
amount of land, they are right in the middle of your territory, and they are
a very wealthy nation. That should be enough to have you take them over and 
boost your economy. Goa is another problem. You want to take it out, however,
you will need to piss off Portugal. Of course, you can hope that the Spanish
at home will defeat them, but don't rely on hope, just knock them out. 

Meanwhile, while all this is going on, you will need a navy. Carnatica will
have a number of developing ports, so you can build a shipyard and get a navy
up and running, a good navy as well. Defeat the enemy navies first, and now,
with limited control of the seas, you want to ally yourself to the Europeans
for trade reasons. The French, British and Prussians are good choices. Britain,
Spain and France are the best targets, mainly because they aren't hostile to
you and that they won't collapse on you, all three will be end game nations.


			Making New Enemies, No Friends

The fact is that with a navy, you want to control all of India. That means 
breaking up your trade agreement with the Dutch, the reason I told you to
trade with the British, French and Spanish. That will give you a bit of trade
income. The Dutch control Ceylon. And you want that. Move an army to capture
the lightly defended port. They will fight back, but with a navy, you can 
block their invasion fleets. 

With southern India completely under your control, you need to advance 
north. The problem is that you'll need more armies to keep the frontline under
check, you don't want enemies slipping past your lines and attacking your
safe regions. Keep the lines safe, and move forwards.

The best solution is to move northeast, capture Orissa and Bengal, and those
armies can move west and support your other armies moving north. This way,
you effectively surround them. An invasion from the sea on Sindh will only
improve your odds of beating the enemy Mughal.

From there, advance and capture the rest of India from the Mughal. You want
them destroyed, not merely in a weak position. Defeat them, control the cities
and from there, consolidate your rule over all of India.


			The Future Looks Bright

From here, you will have several armies, but no one to fight on your own
grounds. If you have enough armies, you can move north and take on Persia.
They have a lot of land, and they are quite nice targets, given that they
are quite weak in terms of their military.

After taking out the Persians, you can take out the Ottomans. You can move
your armies towards Armenia and Mesopotamia and capture those two cities,
and from there, split your armies, one moving west towards Anatolia, and
the next moving south to capture Syria, Palestine and Egypt. 

Alternatively, you can take on the Russians through Georgia and Dagestan. 
However, you can ship a few of your armies overseas, either to the Americas
or Europe itself, and capture a few provinces from the Dutch and Portugal
if they are still standing. But after the capture of India, the 
decision on what to do next is completely yours. 

*~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~*
[4.01] Iroquois Confederacy

The Warpaths Campaign is a seperate campaign battle, it is only set in the
Americas, which seems bleedingly obvious, but seems to raise the ire of the
diehard Total War fanatics. Anyway, basically, it is the same as the Grand
Campaign, except you are limited to the Americas, and you only have 5 factions
to play with, the Iroquois Confederacy, Plains Nations, Cherokee, the Pueblo
Nations and the Huron. We shall start with the Iroquois Confederacy. All 
games start in 1783, however, the same as the US Grand Campaign.

"The Iroquois Confederacy represents an alliance of six native tribes who
 share a common language and homeland in the north west of America. They
 call themselves "Haudenosaunee", loosely translated as "People of the 
 Longhouse". During their tenure in America the French named them "Iroquois",
 a word derived from the Huron-Wyandot word meaning "Black Snake". The
 hostility between the Iroquois and their neighbours is the result of 
 conflicts over fur trading. The Huron-Wyandot traded with the French and,
 because of this, the Iroquois naturally found themselves allied with the
 British. This aided them in battle, eventually contributing to the  
 expulsion of the French from America. They also supported Great Britain
 during the American War of Independence, something that now places them at
 odds with the United States. Fortunately the Iroquois are masters of
 irregular warfare: appearing from the undergrowth, striking at their targets,
 and disappearing again as quickly as they arrived. What they lack in terms
 of technology and firepower, the Iroquois make up for with guile, cunning,
 and ruthless brutality when on the warpath."


			Victory Conditions

--==Short Campaign==--

"Capture and hold 14 regions by the end of the year 1813, including the
 regions shown. Upper Canada, New York, Michigan Territory."


--==Long Campaign==--

"Capture and hold 20 regions by the end of the year 1823, including the
 regions shown. New France, Huron Territory, Michigan Territory, Indiana
 Territory, New York, Maryland, Pennsylvania."


--==World Domination==--

"Capture and hold 30 regions by the end of the year 1828, including the
 regions shown. Iroquois Territory."


			On the Warpath Today

The first thing you will notice is that the general playing screen has 
changed. Although the layout has changed, all the little buttons are still
the same. Basically, what you need to know is that there are two agents
of yours, the Scout, which is the Rake/Assassin character, and the Shaman,
which is the Gentleman and the Priest mixed together. 

Anyway, you are the Iroquois, and the first thing to do is to build up a
strong economy. Sure, back in the day, it wasn't so much a big concept, but
you need more money. I mean, I'm sure that the Native Americans didn't have a
tax system, but only then would the game make sense. We don't want to be 
trading in trinkets, do we?

And guess what, you are already at war with the Huron and the Cherokee, so
the provinces to the north and to the south of your current position is 
ripe for the takings. You should have a strong garrison in Ohio, so you can
use that garrison to capture and take over Michigan, and you should get some
more money there.

With that out of the way, you can move your main army down south, and take
over Kaintuck from the Cherokee, and that should set you down for now. You
need to build up a larger army though.


			There is a Iroquois Heli

From there, you need to wipe out the rest of the Cherokee and the rest of 
the Huron. This might take some time, but it is well worth it, you will
have more land, you will have more money, and most important, a more 
experienced army. This is necessary if you want to continue fighting. 

From here, it is most likely the United States will attack you. They
will want more land, and you are the most likely target, you stand in 
their path between them and the frontier. For that, you will be attacked,
and if you have a strong military, you should have a little advantage 
against them.

If you want, you will have to hit them from the South and the North. Take
their small provinces, start with Georgia and New York. They won't be very
well defended, but it will give you more of their land. From there, your
army in Georgia will need to move north, and continue to take land.

The army in New York will need to be split. You will need to have 2 armies,
one to move south to take out Philadelphia onwards, and the second army
to move on and take out Boston and Maine. This isn't going to be easy,
you will need a fairly powerful military to do substantial damage, but the
stakes are well worth it. 


			Cleaning up the Mess

From taking out the United States, something that will probably ruin history
somewhere down the track, you will have the option to do as you will. You can
continue to wipe out the rest of the tribes, the Pueblo and the Plains Nations
for your own personal entertainment.

Or you can take on a challenge and take on the British and / or the Spanish.
Spain has a lot of land, but you will need to move south significantly in 
order to take them on. The British have lands that are closer to yours, a lot
closer, but the problem is that you need to transverse a lot of land in order
to reach them. 

It is up to you what you will do, but the most important is that you do enough
in order to complete and achieve your goals for your game. And given the
victory conditions, it will probably be the British that are on the short end
of the stick. 

*~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~*
[4.02] Huron-Wyandot

"The Huron-Wyandot, or "Wendat" in their own language, are four tribes who
 speak similar language and occupy lands in the central northern part of
 the continent. Hardy trappers and traders, the Huron-Wyandot came into 
 contact with French explorers in the early part of the seventeenth century,
 and forged an alliance based on trade. The chance to gain the upper hand
 over their hated Iroquois neighbours was also welcome. The French approached
 the Wendat as they were the least suspicious of European settlers and the
 most advanced traders, but by naming their new partners "Huron" meaning
 "ruffian", they showed their true feelings of superiority. As allies of 
 France, the Huron-Wyandot naturally became enemies of the British and the
 Thirteen Colonies, but they supported Great Britain during the American War
 of Independence. They realised that the United States intended to expand
 westwards into their territory. Now the smoke of battle has cleared, the
 Huron-Wyandot's goals remain the same: destroy the Iroquois and keep the
 United States from taking their native lands."


			Victory Conditions

--==Short Campaign==--

"Capture and hold 12 regions by the end of the year 1813, including the
 regions shown. Rupert's Land, Ohio Territory, Iroquois Territory."


--==Long Campaign==--

"Capture and hold 20 regions by the end of the year 1823, including the
 regions shown. Upper Canada, Rupert's Land, Algonquin Territory, 
 Ohio Territory, Iroquois Territory, Upper Louisana, New France."


--==World Domination==--

"Capture and hold 30 regions by the end of the year 1828, including the
 regions shown. Huron Territory."

			Your Natural Enemy

For now, you start off with only one single enemy, the Iroquois, and you
stand at a good position to take them out. That should be your first goal,
build up your provinces, and then take out the Iroquois quickly. You need
to do this quickly because you still have a large amount of nations that 
aren't happy with you. 

By fully wiping out the Iroquois, you will give yourself another front, you
need to deal with the United States. Right now, the Plains Nations, the 
British and the United States are quite pissed off at you, so in that case, 
you care looking at a worst case of a three front war, the Plains Nation
to the west, the British to the north, and the United States to the East.
You are surrounded.

With this, you will need three armies, one on each front, in order to have
all the points covered. The most important thing is that you will cover all
the fronts. This is in case the enemy comes a knockin. If they do, you will
just need to defend those frontier provinces, until you can reinforce their
position. 


			Pick your Enemies

If neither of those three have declared war on you yet, then you have a 
chance to declare war on them. The best pick are the Plains Nations, mainly
because they have a few provinces, which makes it easier on you to take 
them out quickly, and mainly because they won't have as powerful units.

With those guys out of the way, you get set up some nice trade agreements
with the Spanish, since they are rather friendly towards you, and that you
will probably need the money anyway. However, that depends whether you 
like them or not, and mainly because they will be able to take a beating
and still be able to trade with you.

From there on, it is either the British or the United States that you 
will need to have a fight with. Again, it comes down to the situation where
the Thirteen States have a lot of provinces, but also a strong military,
whilst the British don't have as strong an army, but they will have larger,
more spread out provinces. It is your poison to pick.


			Tribal Warfare

It will take fair amount of time to wipe those guys out. Not because they
are powerful, but because they have a lot of space to cover, your income
will need to support a lot of armies, which is more or less impossible,
and you will need to deal with a lot of unrest.

The problem with playing as the Natives is that unrest causing rebellion
is a far greater threat than when you were playing as the Europeans, mainly
because the settlers have guns, whilst a majority of your troops are using
bows and arrows, or resorting to melee. 

Simply put, it is, more often than not, forced upon you to take command of
a battle, simply because you can probably do a lot better than autoresolve,
and that you'll take a lot less losses, and you'll probably win a bit more
as well. 

*~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~*
[4.03] Plains Nations

"The Plains Nations are a loose confederacy of nomadic and village-dwelling
 tribes from the west of America, drawn together by their subsistence from
 the hunting of bison. Bison provide the tribes with almost everything:
 their culture is completely dependent upon them. The beasts are not just 
 food, but also give clothes, tools, ornaments, and weapons. Until relatively
 recently the Plains people did not have a settled base, instead following 
 the migration patterns of the bison. This slow progress created the familiar
 "Tipi" dwelling, and they are horse masters without peer, thanks to the
 horses left behind by Spanish settlers. Unsurprisingly, the Spanish were not
 willing to share their equestrian skills with the natives they wished to
 subjugate. This led to hostility from both the Plains and Pueblo Nations. 
 When the Spanish pulled back from New Mexico in 1680 they left many horses
 behind, and both tribal groups were quick to take advantage of this. The
 Plains Nations are generally unfriendly towards their fellow natives, 
 maintaining just enough contact to boost their income through trade."


			Victory Conditions

--==Short Campaign==--

"Capture and hold 12 regions by the end of the year 1813, including the
 regions shown. Northwest Territory, Indiana Territory, Upper Louisana."


--==Long Campaign==--

"Capture and hold 20 regions by the end of the year 1823, including the
 regions shown. Northwest Territory, Upper Louisana, Indiana Territory,
 Michigan Territory, Rupurt's Land, Apache Territory, Wichita Territory,
 New Mexico."


--==World Domination==--

"Capture and hold 30 regions by the end of the year 1828, including the
 regions shown. Black Hills."


			The Sweeping Vast Plains

You start off at war with the Spanish, and they are only on a single 
front, so you have the Pueblo Nations to serves as a buffer. Your first
goal here is to send in your first army to take and capture Upper
Louisana. This will give you an easy to defend front against the Spanish
invaders.

What you want to hope is that the Spanish takes out the Pueblo Nations,
that way, you can gain their land without too much of a fuss. From there,
you need to start fighting the Spanish, and hold them at bay. The best is
that you keep advancing and take more and more of the Spanish land, but 
when you have taken out most of their influence in America, you can capture
and take Mexico, and that should serve as a good stop point, until you can
send in more forces.

However, you will need to move north as well, as your armies slowly take
their take to capture all of Spain's holdings. You should only attack when
you are ready, given that you still need to worry about resistance to 
foreign occupation.


			The Trip Up North

The problem with moving north, the British aren't pissed off or friendly 
with you, so who do you want on? The Huron are the best target, they are
enemies of the British, more or less, and they aren't too strong. That
will give you three more provinces, more or less. 

But sooner or later, you will need to take on the British, as per your
campaign objectives. Take on the British through Rupurt's Land and the
Northwest Territories. That will allow you to sweep the British around
the coastal regions, whilst protecting your hard earnt gains. 

This should, if you have taken out the Huron as well, will give you a 
solid looking nation to defend. If you wipe out the rest of the British,
you will need to face the threat coming from other tribes, and more
importantly, from the United States.


			From Here On In

From here, you either take on the United States or finish the rest of
the Spanish. The Spanish have a lot of wealth, but they have very large
provinces, so that you will need to cover a lot of ground. 

The United States however, doesn't have as much land, but they do 
have a lot of tax money. However, they are quite powerful on the 
ground, so they can give your army a pounding if you do not have 
adequate forces or gunpowder units to fight with.

Either way, they are quite hard to defeat. You cannot defeat the 
Spanish completely, given you lack to power to invade via the sea, and
it will be hard to keep the United States under your control, they
will spawn rebellions like crazy. Either way, it is up to you which route
you wish to take part in. 

*~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~*
[4.04] Pueblo Nations

"The Pueblo Nations take their name from the Spanish word for the clay and
 earth settlements they live in: "pueblo" means "village". Since the Spanish
 arrived in North America, the Pueblo have suffered greatly at their hands:
 Spanish massacres and forced conversions to Catholicism caused an uprising
 in 1680, and the eventual expulsion of Spain from the region for 12 years.
 During this time the natives were able to breed horses left behind by the
 Spanish and develop impressive equestrian skills. By the time the campaign
 begins, the situation for the Pueblo is almost as bad as it was one hundred
 years earlier. Spain have reasserted their oppressive ways, but at least 
 the Pueblo Nations can now fight back. By combining their irregular tactics
 with European ideas and weapons, it is possible the Pueblo could drive
 Spain out of America for good."


			Victory Conditions

--==Short Campaign==--

"Capture and hold 13 regions by the end of the year 1813, including the
 regions shown. Texas, Cheyenne Territory, New Mexico."


--==Long Campaign==--

"Capture and hold 20 regions by the end of the year 1823, including the
 regions shown. Lower Louisana, Cheyenne Territory, New Spain,
 Chickasaw Territory, New Mexico, Texas."


--==World Domination==--

"Capture and hold 30 regions by the end of the year 1828, including the
 regions shown. Apache Territory."


			Where's Zorro Gone?

Well, you need to take two nations on at once. You need to quickly take out
the Plains Nations, if you don't attack, they'll declare war on you pretty
quickly, so you don't have a lot of time. Also, the problem will be with
the Spanish, you start off at war with them. 

The first province to take off the Spanish is Santa Fe, it is right behind
your nation, and it is best to ensure that the Spanish do not get the chance
to launch a surprise attack from the back, seeing it's your capital that is
in the firing line. 

From there, you should quickly wipe out the Plains Nations, mainly to avoid
them launching a surprise attack on you. You need to do this quickly because
you have a lot of space between your capitals and the Spanish armies, and
you don't have long before they cover that space and threaten your towns.


			Where's Waldo Instead

You should start off taking Texas off the Spanish, it will essentially
break the Spanish holdings in American by a half, and giving you a nice
little break. You can there split your armies, you can send half of your
forces to take out Louisana and the rest of the Spanish holdings east of
Texas, and the rest of your forces to take out the Spanish colony of Mexico,
and from there, take out the rest of South America.

This won't be easy though. Again, you will probably need to take command 
on the battlefield, because autoresolve normally sends in your forces to
fight like a normal, conventional fight, which is quite stupid, because
in a battle with artillery and muskets, it isn't hard to tell who will
win.

Instead, you will be relying on a hell of a lot of flanking and rear
attacks. Despite what some people may say, being cowardly and all, your
melee infantry are a great tool to use to absorb or sponge most of the
melee damage, whilst your cavalry, which the Pueblo are great with, can 
move quickly and hit from the flanks, routing your enemies. 


			Where's Everybody Gone?

From here, you will have spent a fair amount of your campaign taking on
the Spanish. If you have managed to capture all their holdings that you
can, including those in South America, you have done very well. Otherwise,
that is one of the places you can head off and capture. 

From here, the next target should be the Cherokee. They are a tribe that
aren't too friendly to you. Besides, if you are playing in the long campaign,
you will need to take them on anyway. They aren't too strong anyway, but 
of course, there is nothing as easy, just varying levels of difficulty.

From here, it is up to you what to do. If you want, you can take on the
United States, and improve on your current situation, or you can take on
the British, and finish them off for good, well, finish off their American
presence anyway. That is completely up to you. 

*~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~*
[4.05] Cherokee Nations

"The Cherokee are the largest and most powerful of the Native American 
 Nations, yet their position remains a fragile one. As the campaign begins
 they are almost entirely surrounded by settlers from Europe. The Spanish
 occupy Florida and Louisana to the south and west, and the United States
 lies to the north and east. Despite this proximity, the Cherokee have
 remained fairly isolated from their neighbours due to the mountainous 
 topography of their homelands. They regularly trade with the United States,
 but are hostile to the expansionist Spanish, allowing other, smaller tribes
 to settle between them and create a buffer against any European expansion.
 Occasionally, tribal tensions eruptinto violence, as the Cherokee are 
 largely hostile to other peoples and are protective of their own interests.
 Maybe it is the suspicious nature and need to compete that has helped keep
 Cherokee population levels high throughout their turbulent history? 
 Certainly, this approach has aided their rise to supremacy in this corner of
 America."


			Victory Condition

--==Short Campaign==--

"Capture and hold 13 regions by the end of the year 1813, including the
 regions shown. Lower Louisana, Ohio Territory, Carolinas."


--==Long Campaign==--

"Capture and hold 20 regions by the end of the year 1823, including the
 regions shown. Carolinas, Upper Louisana, Georgia, Algonquin Territory,
 Florida, Iroquois Territory, Lower Louisana, Ohio Territory."


--==World Domination==--

"Capture and hold 30 regions by the end of the year 1828, including the
 regions shown. Cherokee Territory."


			There Once Was a Man

You are just about hostile to everyone. You start off at war with the 
Iroquois and the Spanish, and the United States, as well as Britain, well,
they don't look to kindly towards you. Basically, think of this game as 
the one as Prussia. You are hated by everyone, but you can wipe everyone
out because you are that strong. 

Basically, you are surrounded by enemies. What you need to do is to rid
the Spanish influence, and wipe out the Iroquois attackers. However,
for now, do nothing to the Iroquois, because the problem with taking them
out is that you don't have the manpower to defend against the Americans
when they decide to invade.

For now, we need to deal with the Spanish and hold them at bay. You need
to move your forces, and your first target should be Florida. From taking
out Florida, you can move on and take out both Lower and Upper Louisana,
and this should give you a good front to hold them at bay. 


			Or Was There Really?

From here, what you need to attack will depend on what the Spanish has
done to the Plains and the Pueblo Nations. Normally, the Spanish should
have done significant damage to them, if not destroyed them. This is good
news for you if this is the case. 

Why? Because you get more ground to steal off the Spanish, that's a good
enough reason. However, if this is not the case, then you will need to take
a bite and take on the Spanish. Again, the best position is to hold the 
Spanish at Mexico, there is enough land there to serve as a buffer as well
as a nice bottleneck.

From here, you need to start to worry over the Iroquois. You need to support
a few armies to invade the Iroquois land. The reason why you will need 
several armies is in case the United States decide it is a fun time to
declare war on you and try to take your land. This is because the lands of the
Iroquois is exposed to a fair amount of people who want you dead, you will 
have to worry about not only the United States, but also the Huron and the
British, and the British is the one to be worried about.


			There WAS NO MAN

It is more or less inevitable that you will need to take on the United 
States, less they declare war on you. You need to move your forces quickly
and attack swiftly, and if you have taken the Iroquois lands, then it is a
lot easier than you would think.

From where you stand, as the Cherokee, you can easily take out Carolinas and
Georgia with relative ease, and you can move from Iroquois Territory and
move on New York, and from there, the 2 major cities of the United States,
Philadelphia and Boston, will be within your grasp. From there, it is more
or less a mop up operation, but still be careful of enemy forces that lurk
there. 

From here, when you have taken on and defeated the United States, you need
to think about what to do with the Spanish. They are still there, and they
won't be going away anytime soon. Also, you need to deal with the British,
they will be getting very nervous and edge after you have defeated the 
United States, something they couldn't do properly. And the rest of the tribes
that have survived, they will want your blood.

Basicaly, when you only have enemies, it makes things rather black and white
on who to take out, and who to let live. 

*~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~*
[A.01] Buildings

These are all the buildings that will appear in the game, as well as their
description as well as their effect in the game. All will be listed, as well
as what they do. Note that some buildings will have units that cannot be
trained. Some buildings will only allow buildings to be trained in certain
episodes of the Road to Independance Campaign, others in the Grand Campaign
itself. All shall be in alphabetical order.

If a building is capable of producing units, I will not name them because
they are different from faction to faction on what they are able to produce
because as you can easily tell, not all factions have the exact same units.
Also, if the building in question requires another building, it basically
means that the building you wish to build requires the required building to
be on the plot before building. 


--==Admirality==--

"A navy requires an administration to keep ships manned, supplied at sea, to
 keep dockyards well stocked and ready, and bring order to the large 
 organisation.

 Even more than an army, a fleet is a highly technical and very expensive
 organisation. The land-bound officers of an admiralty oversee every aspect
 of organisation, making sure that sea-going captains want for nothing when
 they finally engage the enemy. A dockyard is useless unless someone has
 organisd the supply of timber; the timber remains stacked on the wharf
 until someone approves the naval architect's plans; a completed ship is 
 useless without officers and men; and the crew expects to eat, be paid
 and receive prize money. All of these tasks require clerks, secretaries
 and experienced admirals to keep the inevitable paperwork in order and thus
 the machinery of a navy working.

 Historically, the head of admiralty could expect to have a senior position
 in government and untrammelled access to the monarch or president. He was
 often spending a significant proportional of the national wealth: navies
 and their dockyards were some of the biggest "industrial" enterprises in
 the world during the 18th Century. A powerful and effective navy guaranteed
 that trade could continue, unimpeded by nefarious foreigners!"

 * Enhances National Prestige
 * Enables Research of Sextant, Naval Shore Facilities, Flintlock Cannon,
   Seasoning


--==Ajinkyatara==--

"From its location near the city of Satara this great fortress dominates the
 surrounding area.

 It is located on top of an imposing mountain, making any attempt to take it
 difficult indeed. Even a long siege would be a difficult proposition, as the
 fort is well supplied with water. The fort itself controls the surrounding 
 countryside completely: no foe can move in southern Maharashtra without 
 being observed.

 The fort was take by Shrimant Shahu Sambhaju Raje Bhonsle Chhatrapati Maharaj
 (1682-1749), the fourth ruler of the Maratha Empire. Shahu Chhatrapati was
 a survivor, of both Mughal capacity and a Maratha civil war. He was freed 
 at the end of the War of 27 years (1681-1707) and managed to bring stability 
 and careful expansion to the Marathas. Given that he had spent most of his
 childhood as an honoured prisoner of the Mughals, his efforts are creditable
 indeed."

 * Requires Army Staff College
 * +1 Happiness (Nobility)
 * +1 Happiness (Lower Classes)
 * Recruitment Capacity (Units in Training) : 4
 * Enhances National Prestige
 * Recruits all infantry and cavalry
 * Built by the Marathas as highest Military building in Satara


--==Akademia Szlachecka Korpusu Kadetow==--

"This cadet school produces fine officers for the Polish Army.

 Historically, the Akademia, or Szkola Receyska, was the Knights' School or
 the Nobles' Academy for Cadets. It was the first state school in Poland,
 established by King Stanislaw August Poniatowski, the last elected monarch
 of the Polish-Lithanuian Commonwealth in 1765. King Stanislaw had an abiding
 belief in the worth of education,both to the individual and the state.
 Surrounded by enemies, he did his best to advance Polish interests.

 One of the more interesting officer cadets was Tadeusz Koscuiszko (1746-
 1817). Benjamin Franklin recruited him to serve in the Continential Army,
 and he was appointed as head (military) engineer. His contributions at
 Ticonderoga and Saratoga, among other occasions eventually lead to his 
 promotion to brigadier general. He was also given citizenship, land and a 
 large cash grant. To his eternal credit, he used his reward money to help
 black slaves achieve their freedom. Not satisfied with that, he returned 
 home to Poland and organised a rising against the occupying Russians, 
 although this ended in failure. Tsar Paul I, however, obviously thought him
 important and influential, in return for an oath of loyalty, 20,000 
 prisoners of war were freed. Before his death in exile in 1815, Kosciuszko
 had also freed all his serfs in Poland."

 * +1 Happiness (Nobility)
 * +1 Happiness (Lower Classes)
 * Recruitment Capacity (Units in Training) : 4
 * Recruits the best infantry and cavalry units
 * Requires Army Staff College
 * Built by the Polish as the highest Military ranked Building in Warsaw


--==Albertina Museum==--

"The Albertina is a collection of antiques and objects that are the glory of
 Vienna. 

 Originally constructed as a palace by Count Emanuel Teles Silva-Tarouca on
 top of one of Vienna's bastions, the count must have used his influence as
 master of the Court Construction Office, otherwise the defences might have
 been left in place. The building subsequently came into the possession of
 Duke Albert of Saxon-Teschen, the former governor of the Netherlands. He 
 brought the extensive collection of artwork and antiquities to Vienna from
 Brussels, and had the palace extended to hold them all.

 In 1776, the collection expanded when the Austrian ambassador in Venice,
 Giacomo Durazzo, gave around 1000 artworks to Duke Albert, so that they
 would have a safe home. The Albertina, as the collection and palace became
 known, survived even the collapse of Hapsburg power in 1918 at the end
 of the Great War, and the bombing of Vienna in the Second World War. It 
 remains one of Europe's great art museums.

 * +5 Happiness (Nobility)
 * +5 Happiness (Lower Classes)
 * Enhances National Prestige
 * Requires Great Museum
 * Built by the Austrians as their highest Museum building in Vienna


--==Ancestral Grounds==--

"A place to honour the dead and pray to them for advice and guidance.

 Some places in the mortal world have a stronger connection to the spirit 
 world than others. These are places where the spirits of the ancestors feel
 comfortable, places where men can talk with them and ask for their wisdom.

 Historically, the most famous example of these places is Black Hills of
 Dakota, a place believed to be the spiritual centre of the world. This 
 hallowed land was respected by those who sought wisdom. Unfortunately, it
 was also the site of a rich gold seam."

 * +2 Happiness (Lower Classes)
 * +2 Happiness (Nobility)
 * Converts the populace to Animism
 * Spawns Shamans. Maximum Number: +1
 * Recruitment Capacity (Units in Training) : 1
 * Enables research of Spirit of the Forest
 * Recruits basic infantry


--==Arc de Trimophe==--

"This is a magnificant and imposing monument to French military prowess and
 success.

 All armies and nations need to mark their victories and honour their dead.
 The Arc de Trimophe was the largest structure of its type ever designed, and
 as intended to be a grandiloquent gesture of French military superiority. 
 This, given that Napoleon Bonaparte had direction of the French Army, was 
 entirely reasonable.

 Created to mark Napoleon's victory at Austerlitz in 1805, the structure
 was commissioned a tear later, but not completed until the 1830s. Napoleon
 ordered a wooden mock-up to be put in place by 1810, and work was completely
 halted after the Bourbon restoration. Napoleon's corpse eventually passed
 though the arch on its way to its final resting place at Les Invalides. This
 was not the remarkable thing to pass through the arch, at the victory parade
 to mark the end of the First World War, a pilot flew his Nieuport biplane
 under the arch as part of the event! The Tomb of the Unknown Soldier is a 
 later addition, commemorating the honoured dead and missing of the French
 army in the Great War."

 * Requires Army Staff College
 * Built by the French as their highest Military Building in Paris
 * +1 Happiness (Nobility)
 * +1 Happiness (Lower Classes)
 * Recruitment Capacity (Units in Training) : 4
 * Recruits all French military units


--==Army Council==--

"This is the centre of the army's bureaucracy, where clerks and secretaries
 of state labour to make the fighting soldiers' as awkward as possible!

 It is a truism that soldiers that little time for the bureaucrats who
 send them their orders. Some organisation above the level of regiment is,
 however, a necessary evil: supplies must be purchased and distributed,  
 transport organised, officers' promotion lists kept in order, and generals
 given their orders. All this means paperwork, paperwork, and more paperwork!
 Money, and the power to spend it, are vitally important and all government
 secretariats are keen to hold on to both.

 Historically, the government departments that ran armies in the 18th 
 Century were far from being defence ministries or anything approaching a
 general staff. A central war planning function was almost unheard of, and
 often generals were quite unwilling to deal with the authorities at home,
 preferring to control everything themselves. In Europe the army organisations
 dealt with pay and rations: often spending time making sure that colonels
 really did raise regiments they were being paid for! The Ottomans were
 much more organised, and their armies were on a professional footing and
 raised on a national basis, even if some of the units raised were rather
 old fashioned."

 * Requires Military Academy
 * Recruitment Capacity (Units in Training) : 3
 * Enables Research of Light Infantry Doctrine, Shortened Carbines, 
   Platoon Firing
 * Recruits most land based units


--==Army Encampment==--

"Moving an army into an encampment well away from civilians is a useful
 thing to do. Soldiers no longer have easy access to the "demon drink" for
 start!

 Seperating troops from civilians also allows better training and 
 indoctrination. Regiments have the space to practice drills and instil
 discipline in their men. Civilians also have funny ideas, and it is often
 best if common soldiers do not learn of their freethinking and sometime
 disloyal ways.

 An encampment, however, does not always look very military. Apart from the
 fact that soldiers could carry on their civilian trades to supplement their
 army wages, an army encampment would also be thronged with women and 
 children. Soldier's wives were expected to look after their men; wash, cook,
 clean, sew uniforms, act as nurses, and even help bury the dead! A cunning
 officer who once managed "the baggage" well could effectively double the 
 number of hands there were for fetching and carrying. Among the children, 
 young boys could find employment for drummers and musicians from as young
 as ten years of age. Historically, it was not unknown for officers to enrol
 their own children (even babies!) as musicians, so that they gained seniority
 from the date they joined the army!"

 * Recruitment Capacity (Units in Training) : 1
 * Enables research of Plug Bayonets and Carbines
 * Recruits: Basic Infantry and Cavalry


--==Army Staff College==--

"This institution educates soldiers in more advanced aspects of warfare,
 not just in the theory of tactics.

 Tactics may win battles, but wars were won thanks to information, strategy
 and, above all, supply. An army that is unfed and lost is no use to anyone.
 An army staff college produces officers with the skills needed to deal with
 the many details involved in keeping an army in the field. Apart from an
 understanding of strategy, officers were taught military illustrations (the
 vital skill of producing accurate sketch maps and diagrams), some surveying,
 military law, how to behave like a young gentleman (regrettably necessary in
 some cases), horsemanship, weapons handling and given character-building 
 instruction. The end product is a manwho can be an aide to a general in all
 situations.

 Historically, the British, for example, had an inherent distrust of armies
 as tools of tyranny, and this may have contributed to the low priority 
 given to raising professional standards. Pupils had to fund their studies
 from their own pockets at the Royal Military College! This had an
 additional advantage, of course, in ensuring that only candidates from the
 "right" social class could afford to attend. Other nations were not so
 suspicious of giving soldiers necessary military skills."

 * Requires Army Council
 * Recruitment Capacity (Units in Training): 4
 * Enhances national prestige
 * Enables Research of Machined Rifling, Percussion Caps, Screw Breeches
 * Recruits all land based units


--==Artillery Fort==--

"An artillery fort is a permanent defensive structure, mounting as many heavy
 guns as the builders can afford to emplace.

 An artillery fort has strong walls and parapets with embrasures: gaps for 
 cannons to fire through at attackers. Properly served and loaded with grape
 or canister shot, guns turn the approaches to the fort into death traps for
 any attacking infantry.

 The fort has to be strongly constructed to withstand repeated pounding by
 attacking cannons, and by the recoil of its own pieces. Repeated firing by
 even small cannons, such as nine-pounders, causes tremendous strain on the
 structure. The other risk to the fort is, of course, fire. While the fabric
 of the building itself will not burn, the magazine holding the powder and 
 shot for the fort can catch fire and explode.

 Historically, it is not unknown for defenders to blow their own forts up,
 by accident or design. The powder magazine was a dangerous place, and 
 required rigid abherence to correct procedures by everyone if disaster
 was to be avoided. On one occasion at Fort York, during the War of 1812,
 the defending British set off the magazine as they withdrew to deny the
 contents to the American attackers, killing hundreds of the assault force
 in the explosion."

 * Requires Wooden Fort


--==Barracks==--

"A national army requires central organisation, if only for pay and rations.
 Regiments may be at the perserve at their commanding officers, but the 
 functionaries control the purse strings!

 An army guarantees paperwork of all king, and a secretariat grows to keep it 
 all in order. There is an obvious needs to make sure units receive orders
 and supplies in a timely manner - and without unscrupulous suppliers stealing
 too much money. Headquarters staff must also organise transport in co-
 operation with the navy, keep a list of officers and their commissions, 
 organise parades to impress the great and the good, and offer assistance to
 the civil power in times of need.

 Historically, European armies were organised in an ad hoc fashion in the 18th
 century. Usually, the biggest permanent battle formations were regiments, 
 armies were assembled as-and-when a crisis loomed under the command of 
 favoured general. Even so, the concept of the central command telling
 colonels what to do with their regiments often met stiff opposition. The
 Ottoman and Mughal empires were better organised in theory, and did have 
 larger and permanent battle formations such as corps and divisions."

 * Requires Army Encampment
 * Recuirment Capacity (Units in Training) : 1
 * Enables research of Ring Bayonet, Square Formation, Military Syllabus
 * Recruits: Stronger Infantry and Cavalry


--==Bawdyhouse==--

"A bawdyhouse, whorehouse, bagnio, bordello, brothel, or "School of Venus" is
 a business given over to the selling of sexual services.

 Although considered illegal and immoral in many cultures, prostitution takes
 place on which can only be described as an industrial scale in many cities. 
 It is estimated that in London as many as one in six of the population had 
 some link to the underworld of bawdyhouses. In other parts of the world there
 was less stigma attached to being a prostitute, but the life was always a 
 hard one, open to exploitation and with the constant danger of violence from
 both clients and bawdyhouse owners. Bawdyhouses range from very high-class
 establishments where customers are by invitation only to backrooms in filthy
 taverns - and everything in between.

 Life was hard in 18th Century Europe for women; other than service, there 
 were few honest jobs open to them and prostitution was always an easy option,
 especially for the young and good looking. It became the lot of many by
 default. Probably the most famous representation of the corruption of a 
 woman was Hogarth's "A Harlot's Progress", a series of six illustrations 
 showing a young girl arriving in London, being inveigled into whoredom, and
 then gradually debauched, broken, and finally dead (of the pox). It was the
 fate of all too many."

 * Requires Coaching Inn
 * +3 Happiness (Lower Classes)
 * +3 Happiness (Middle Classes)
 * Spawn Rakes. Maximum number +1


--==Berlin Academy==--

"The academy is a gathering of the finest scientific and academic minds in 
 Germany, uniting science and the humanities in one organisation. 

 While the Academy was a pet project of Prince Frederick III, the Elector
 of Brandenburg, he did not fund it from royal or state treasuries. Instead,
 he rather cleverly granted the academy a monopoly on producing and selling
 calendars in his domain, giving it a steady, but not substantial, income.
 When Frederick was crowned as "King in Prussia", the Academy was granted 
 royal patronage. 

 Under Frederick the Great, a man normally regarded as a warrior-king, the
 academy merged with Prussian Nouvelle Societe Litteraire (French being a
 primary language of literature and culture in the 18th Century) and the
 Royal Academy of Sciences. He also offered cash prizes as incentives to the
 members to investigate and solve the scientific conundrums of the day. The
 Academy had its own laboratories, an observatory, libraries, an operating
 theatre (for public demonstrations of surgury), and gardens for plant
 specimens."

 * Requires Royal Academy
 * +3 Happiness (Lower Classes)
 * +3 Happiness (Nobility)
 * +3% to Technology Research Rate
 * Spawn Gentlemen. Maximum Number: +1
 * Enhances National Prestige
 * Built by the Prussians as the highest Cultural Building in Berlin


--==Bey's Mansion==--

"In an absolute monarchy, the monarch's person is the wellspring of all 
 authority. Lackeys - no matter now mighty - serves at the Monarch's pleasure
 and need take no account of locals!

 Absolute monarchy is an effective and sometimes brutal form of government. 
 The monarch's powers are not limited in any way. What the monarch decrees 
 simply happens. If it does not, heads roll, often literally!
		
 The machinery of provincial government receives the same authority from the 
 Crown. A governor, thalur or bey (depending on the nation in question) has 
 the power to do anything to his subjects, providing he delivers what his
 monarch requires - and this is usually tax income and soldiers. Any other 
 considerations can be put to one side; it is the duty of subjects to obey in
 an absolute state, and those who dare argue back are quite rightly treated
 as faithless rebels.

 Historically, absolutism was the main form of Government in many 18th century
 states. Louis XIV of France was speaking the truth when he repeatedly claimed
 "L'Erat, c'est moi!". Like many absolutists and their apologists, he
 sincerely believed that he was responsible for his actions only to God."

 * Requires Governor's Residence
 * +2 to Repression in the Region
 * +6% Coin bonus to region tax income
 * Recruitment capacity (units in training) : 1
 * Recruits, Infantry, Cavalry and Artillery units


--==Brandenburg Gate==--

"This is a magnificant monument to Prussian military prowess and the peace it
 obtained.

 Sited on one of the original city gates of Berlin, the Brandenburg Gate 
 stands at the end of the Unter den Linden, the original approach to the city
 palace of Frederick II, the King of Prussia. The monumental entrance was 
 always intended to overawe and dwarf anyone going to the palace, making clear
 Prussian greatness before they had even begun their audience with the
 monarch.

 The choice of a Classical style was quite deliberate, as it was intended to
 echo the achievements of Rome and Greece. The decoration of a Quadriga of
 Victory, or four-horse chariot, is also intended to evoke ancient 
 connotations of triumph, specifically the quadriga from the Hippodrome of
 Constantinople. It was definitely a symbol of peace through strength, which
 is almost certainly one of the reasons that it was looted and taken to 
 Paris by Napoleon in 1806 after his victory at Jena-Auerstedt. The 
 quadriga was returned in 1814, when Napoleon went into exile on Elba, and
 given the Iron Cross symbol that it currently carries. Subsequently, the
 Brandenburg Gate managed to survive two World Wars and the Cold War in a
 relatively undamaged state."

 * Requires Army Board
 * +1 Happiness (Lower Classes)
 * +1 Happiness (Nobility)
 * Enhances National Prestige
 * Recruitment Capacity (Units in Training): 4
 * Recruits all Cavalry and Infantry
 * Built by the Prussians as the highest Military Building in Berlin


--==Brothel==--

"A house of pleasure, run by a bawd or pimp, where the business consists
 entirely of slaking the physical pleasures of anyone with the money to pay.

 Other than domestic service or labouring in the fields, there are very few
 ways that a woman can earn an independent living. Selling herself and her
 skills as a sexual partner are an obvious choice to many, and brothels 
 provide a relatively safe place to work - certainly safer than the city
 streets. Male prostitution is not unknown, and some brothels cater for an 
 entirely different cilentele.

 Historically, India had a tradition of raising lovemaking to a fine art. A
 significant portion of the Sanskrit "Kama Sutra" deals explicitly with
 sex, and another considers the acquisition and use of courtesans as lovers.
 This was an additional reason for the fascination of European traders and
 soldiers in India, far from home as they were, with the local women. A
 flourishing community of expatriates who were married to, or living with,
 native Indian women existed in the 18th Century. The somewhat bigoted
 idea of "Victorian" morality and "muscular Christianity" among later 
 cohorts of colonial administrators put paid to this and, ironically, brothels
 enjoyed a resurgent trade."

 * Requires Bawdyhouse
 * +1 Happiness (Nobility)
 * +4 Happiness (Lower Classes)
 * Spawns Assassins. Maximum Number: +1


--==Burial Ground==--

"A sacred site where a tribe can honour its fallen warriors for all time.

 A wide variety of burial customs are observed. Some believe that the air 
 is important to the passing of their loved ones. Thus wooden scaffolds are
 created and the dead placed on top, so their spirit may pass into the wind. 
 Others believe the spirit must be kept with the body after death and thus
 build "spirit houses" to trap the spirit. These little wooden structures
 can take many forms, some even look like miniature houses standing over 
 the body.

 Burial rites are often closely tied to tribal totems: eagle-related tribes,
 for example, always place their dead on scaffolding. A bear totem tribe
 often buries the dead in wooded areas, and so on."

 * +1 Happiness (Lower Classes)
 * +1 Happiness (Nobility)
 * Converts the populace to Animism
 * Spawns Shamans. Maximum Number: +1
 * Recruitment Capacity (Units in Training) : 1
 * Enables research of Call of the Wild
 * Recruits basic infantry


--==Cannon Foundry==--

"Cannon foundries not only make guns, but also ammunition and the associated
 equipment for artillerymen. They are hot, dangerous places to work.

 The casting of early cannons is more of an art than a science, and few of 
 the weapons produced are standarised weapons. This is the result of casting
 limitations, the quality of the iron and bronze available, and the 
 manufacturing process (cannon casting as an adaptation of bell making). Most
 6-pounders would be around the right calibre, but no two were truly 
 identical. It was enough that the cannon did not burst and kill its crew, 
 and hurled a shot in the general direction of the enemy.

 Cannon foundries are also responsible for making the ball shot used by the
 weapons, but not the powder. No one but a raving lunatic would make gunpowder
 anywhere near a foundry, with the risk of stray sparks and consequent
 catatrophe! That said, making guns, like any casting work, is a dangerous
 business: if the sand moulds are even slightly damp then a steam explosion
 could occur. Anyone nearby is likely to be killed or maimed by hot metal
 and pieces of the mould.

 In 1716, an explosion at the English foundry in Moorfields killed and injured
 many people when metal was poured into a damp mould. Among those hurt were 
 Colonel Armstrong, the Surveyor-General of Ordnance. The foundry itself
 was totally destroyed."

 * Enables research of Canister Shot, Improved Grenades
 * Recruits: Basic Artillery


--==Chapter School==--

"The virtue and value of hard, honest toil are lessons worth teaching, along
 with a clear understand of God's universe and Man's place within it.

 The Protestant faith has always encouraged learning and the associated hard
 work of study among its faithful. Indeed, intellectual effort and its rewards
 are seen as being as worthy as physical labour, something that reflects the
 Protestant work ethic. It has also encouraged a degree of curiosity and free
 thinking about Creation, although within sensible limits. Curiosity is one
 thing, non-conformism and radicalism something else entirely, and hardly
 welcome in society at large!

 Historically, the Protestant work ethic maintained that hard work and
 subsequent worldly success were indicatations of personal salvation. This,
 supposedly, encouraged the faithful to all work the harder. It is, however,
 a simplistic analysis to see that this lead directly to the intellectual,
 industrial and financial successes of Protestant nations in the 18th Century.
 The end of the Catholic strictures against usury (money lending) almost 
 certainly helped fuel mercantile and industrial progress."

 * Requires Church School, Protestant Nation
 * +2 Happiness for the Protestant Population (Lower Classes)
 * Converts the populace to Protestantism
 * Spawns religious agents. Maximum number: +1


--==Chief's Lodge==--

"Home to the Chief of a tribe; where all can come for help and advice from
 their leader.

 A Chief's lodge is not only home to the man's whole family, and one family
 could live in the lodge for many years as the position was passed down from 
 father to son. The chief presides over many matters, and is expected to give
 every one his best attention.

 In some tribes a chief's standing was denoted by the length and number of 
 feathers in his "war bonnet". These were earned for acts of bravery on 
 behalf of the tribe. Eagle feathers had a deep symbolism attached to them 
 and if a chief had any he was a great man indeed!"

 * +6% Coin tax bonus to region tax income
 * +50 Coins to region wealth
 * +2 Coins per turn to town wealth in the region
 * Recruitment Capacity (Units in Training) : 1 
 * Enables Research of Improved Farming
 * Recruits basic infantry


--==Church School==--

"The Church has always needed educated men to fill its ranks. It is also 
 important to teach the True Faith to the children of the wealthy.

 In a time where basic education is not a right but a bought-and-paid-for
 priviledge, the education provided by Church Schools was often good, as well
 as being the only option. There is, of course, a Scriptural emphasis in what
 is taught, but the sons of merchants, nobles, and the wealthy can gain a 
 good grounding for life and, possibly, further education. A few gifted pupils
 may be offered charitable scholarships, but these are few and recipients are
 never permitted to forget that they should be showing appropriate gratitude.
 Patronage must always be appreciated!

 Historically, learning has been the preserve of the established Church in
 many countries. A priest was both tutor and confessor in many communities
 and households. It also made sense for the Church to control access to 
 education, for that way heresy and dissent could be stamped out early. For
 non-conformist preachers, offering education to paying cilents was also a
 way of subsidizing their meagre income and spreading the Word of the Lord in
 the process."

 * Requires Town
 * +1 Happiness for the X Population (X is national Religion) (Lower Classes)
 * Converts the populace to X (X is the national Religion)
 * Spawns religious agents. Maximum number: +1


--==Classical University==--

"A university offers young men of good standing the finest of educations and
 the chance to study with the greatest minds of the age.

 Education is vital to those who wish to enter the professions, or make their
 way in government using talent alone. A good, well-trained brain is an
 excellent substitute for birth and social connections. A young gentlemen's 
 studies can be wide ranging, and need not be tied to any particular faculty
 or subject area - an awarded degree or doctorate is proof enough of
 intellectual achievement.

 Historically, in Europe at least, the established church controlled most
 universities, either through paying for them or by laws requiring the tutors
 to take holy orders. Sir Issac Newton was very unusual in that he didn't 
 take orders when he was appointed Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at
 Cambridge (a post currently held by Stephan Hawking), arguing that the post
 required the holder to spend time on science, not the Anglican Church. 
 However, the requirement for teachers to accept Church Doctrine did mean
 that universities had a socially conservative outlook. While scholarships
 were available, students had to have money to attend, reinforcing this
 conservatism. While wild, threatening ideas about the world and the way it
 worked did emerge from universities, the institutions were rarely radical
 or revolutionary breeding grounds."

 * Requires College
 * Enhances National Prestige
 * -5 Happiness. Clamour for Reform
 * Conducts technology research. Points per turn: 17
 * Spawns Gentlemen. Maximum Number: +1
 * Enables Research of Seperation of Powers, Joint Stock Companies, Rights of
   Man, National Debt, Wealth of Nations


--==Clearances==--

"Renting to tenants may not guarantee a high enough income for the landowner.
 It can be more profitable to displace people by an animal cash crop.

 Tenanted farm can only generate so much income from rents. With an increase
 in town size, it an increased demand from industry for agricultural products,
 it is more profitable to have herds of animals, not a gaggle of tenants. Meat
 and wool demand increases rapidly as towns grow. Apart from any other 
 considerations, moving people off land also creates large areas where 
 landowners can indulge a passion for hunting. While this generates little
 income, it does give social status.

 The "Highland Clearances" are probably the most famous example of a forced
 change in land usage on a large scale. Contary to popular belief, Highland
 clan leaders carried out most of the Scottish clearances, driving their
 own kinsmen and clans into exile. The chieftans needed to pay for their
 sophisticated life that they could have in Edinburgh and London by 
 reinventing themselves as Scottish gentry. Sheep income earned more money
 than the crofters did."

 * Requires Tenanted Farms, Four Field Crop Rotations
 * +0.7% to Population Growth
 * Reduces the Chance of Food Shortages
 * +X Coins to Region Wealth (Depends on Yield of Farming Region)
 * Enables research of Selective Breeding, Seed Planting Drill, Advanced
   Irrigation, Steam Pumped Land Drainage


--==Coaching Inn==--

"A coaching inn is a large public house with rooms where weary travellers can
 rest overnight.

 A coach or post-chaise is the only practical and vaguely civilized method of
 getting from A to B overland, other than hiring a horse. Regular runs exist
 between many major towns, run on a commercial basis by private companies, 
 necessitating a series of coaching inns roughly a day's travel apart where 
 passengers can rest overnight. Horses must also be changed at regular  
 intervals if speed is to be maintained. Coach journeys of any length demand
 epic levels of stamina from passengers, hence the need for good inns. The
 condition of most roads is execrable, the suspension on most coaches is 
 somewhat lacking, the schedule is punishing and the risk of robbery by 
 "gentlemen of the road" should not be underestimated.

 The locals, of course, also drink and eat at the coaching inn, and a good one
 will have a high reputation for its cellar and its provender. The usual 
 selection of "entertainment" for gentlemen travellers is available, always
 at the right price!

 The word coach, by the way, comes from the Hungarian "Kocsi szeker" meaning
 "Wagon of Kocs", the place where the first coach was produced."

 * Requires Town
 * +2 Happiness (Lower Classes)
 * +2 Happiness (Middle Classes)
 * Spawn Rakes. Maximum number +1


--==Coffee House==--

"Coffee drinking is a civilised way of passing time, exchanging gossip and
 keeping up with the important news of the day.

 Islamic law is quite strict in forbidding some food and drink for the
 faithful; intoxicating alcoholic drinks fall into this category. This is why
 coffee drinking has become a social activity, oiling the wheels of society
 without any of the risks, dangers and the shame of public intoxication. The
 drink itself is a stimulant, and some conservative imams disapprove of it 
 as a result but this has not prevented its general acceptance across all
 social classes. The coffee house has also become a place of entertainment
 too.

 Historically, Middle Eastern rulers did not always regard coffee drinking
 as being a desirable pasttime for the general population. Its stimulating
 effect was seen as somewhat suspect when the drink became wildly popular,
 although this is precisely what had made coffee popular with Sufis. When the
 drink reached Europe, coffee houses rapidly became popular. Some turned into
 businesses venues where finanical deals were struck: the massive insurance
 business Lloyds of London started life as traders in a coffee house!"

 * Requires Town
 * +2 Happiness (Lower Classes)
 * Spawns Assassins. Maximum Number: +1


--==Coffee Warehouse==--

"Warehousing a cash crop allows control over the supply of goods, and
 therefore greater profits as the vagaries of market prices have less effect.

 By holding onto a crop until the market is "right", plantation owners can
 get the best price for their harvest. They can also calm the violatility of
 the commodity's market by evening out the supply over the course of a year,
 rather than having a harvest glut and then a shortage for the rest of the
 time. A warehouse also allows plantation owners to wait until the seasons and
 winds are favourable for a fast sea journey back to the homeland; shipping
 losses and transit times are both reduced. Finally, Warehousing also allows
 smaller crops to be consolidating for shipping back to the home market, and
 for the crop to be properly graded. The finest parts of the harvest can be
 sold at the highest price, rather than simply being lumped in with any old
 druss."

 * Requires Large Coffee Plantation
 * Enhances National Prestige
 * 40 Sacks of Coffee produced each turn


--==College==--

"A college offers an academic education - a veneer of civilised sophistication
 - to the sons of aristocracy and gentry.

 A college education is expensive, and there are few charity-funded places or
 scholarships for the less socially fortunate. It is a privilieged man who 
 goes to college; money or patronage are needed more than intellect. Although
 there is discussion and teaching of the radical ideas of science and 
 philosophy to the students, the college masters are likely to have a 
 conservative outlook. Most of the students are the same, they are from the 
 top rungs of society's ladder, and they have little interest in seeing the
 natural "status quo" altered.

 Historically, attending college was probably the most boring element in the
 education of "young gentlemen", although the actual work required was not
 that arduous. The "Grand Tour" became fashionable during the 18th Century,
 when the rich would wander Italy (Greece being an Ottoman possession), taking
 in the sites of Antiquity and the great works of the Renaissance. In the
 process they would spend a foutune on Classical-period statuary and relics,
 paintings by the great masters, and anything else that took their fancy. 
 Quite reasonably, the less aesthetically refined, but well funded, would
 seek an exotic "education" in local taverns and bawdyhouses!"

 * Requires School, Empiricism
 * -4 Happiness. Clamour for Reform
 * Conducts technology research. Points per turn: 13
 * Spawns Gentlemen. Maximum Number: +1
 * Enables Research of Utiliarianism, Government by Consent, Divison of Labour


--==College of Divinity==--

"A college of divinity specialises in religious education, inculcating all the
 minutiae of the Protestant faith in its students.

 The graduates of this school are armed with the theological arguments against
 other branches of Christianity, and a sense of mission to spread the truth of
 Protestantism as widely as possible. Intellectual effort is expected over and
 above simple-minded faith.

 Originally, many western European universities based on religious training 
 establishments, where divinity was the main (and sometimes only) field of 
 study. Their graduates were granted doctorates, indicated that they were 
 qualified to teach theology to others. However, the universities were also
 often tied to the established Catholic Church, and Protestantism was a revolt
 precisely against the failings of established religion. Where Protestantism
 replaced Catholicism as the offical state religion, teaching changed to 
 remove "papist" doctrine and error. This did not, however, prevent further,
 lesser schemes such as the rise of non-conformists sects like Methodism.
 These nonconformists also wished to teach their views, and they were often
 denied teaching places at universities."

 * Requires Chapter School, Protestant Nation
 * +4 Happiness for the Protestant population (Lower Classes)
 * Converts the populace to Protestantism
 * Spawns religious agents. Maximum number: +1


--==Commercial Basin==--

"With the addition of exchanges, shipping agents, custom houses, even more
 warehouses and even more docks, a basin becomes an economic powerhouse.

 A commercial basin opens up new opportunities for trade, as agents now put
 together cargoes and charter vessels for merchants who would otherwise
 be unable to trade. Money, rather than sea experience, became the driving
 force for success, and trade does not need to go through the basin to make
 money for the men of property!

 The infamous triangle of trade between Bristol and Liverpool in England, 
 Africa and the Caribbean sugar islands is probably one of the most profitable
 trade routs ever invented. Manufactured goods, guns, cloth and trinkets went
 to Africa, where they were traded to the local warlords. Slaves, carried
 in the most horrendous conditions imaginable, made up the cargo for the 
 middle run, across the Atlantic. In the Caribbean, the survivors were sold,
 and the ship loaded with sugar and rum for the run back to Britain. There
 was some handsome profit in each leg, and the ships were never idle. Even
 better, the merchants of Bristol and Liverpool never needed to see the 
 suffering their commerce caused, always assuming that they cared."

 * Requires Commercian Port
 * Improves Export Capacity (Increases Trade Value)
 * +4 trade routes possible (Sea)
 * +800 Coin to region wealth
 * +7 Coin per turn to town wealth in the region
 * Recruits Basic Battle Vessels, Indiaman


--==Commercial Port==--

"Adding warehouses, additional docks and even the services of excisemen to a 
 port increases the amount of trade that can be done. Now cargoes can be 
 consolidated and shipped onwards. 

 Shipping goods to a home market is only one way of making money from trade.
 There is more to be earned from shipping valuable goods to new markets in
 other countries. The ability to warehouse an incoming cargo and only 
 release it when the price is right also increases profits.

 Most maritime nations - Britain and Holland in particular - had rules that
 enforced a native nationals-only rule for carrying goods into their ports.
 Anything, for example, that arrived in the Port of London should have come
 in a "British bottom". This kind of protectionism in trade also applied to
 colonies and indirectly caused at least one war, the War of Jenkin's Ear
 (1739-48), between Spain and Britain. The Spanish were alleged to have 
 chopped off the ear when Jenkins was caught trading in Spanish territory;
 the British had previously agreed in a treaty not to do this. The war became
 part of the War of Austrian Succession (1740-48) but, incidently, marks the
 first public occasion that "God Save the King" was used as the British 
 national anthem, to celebrate the capture of Pueblo Bello in Panama by
 Admiral Vernon."

 * Requires Trading Port
 * Improves Export Capacity (Increases Trade Value)
 * +3 trade routes possible (Sea)
 * +600 Coin to region wealth
 * +5 Coin per turn to town wealth in the region
 * Recruits: Basic Battle Vessels, Basic Trading Ships


--==Communal Farming==--

"An area of farmland worked by the tribe as a whole, to raise crops or
 livestock.

 Communal farming allows a tribe to expand its farmed lands, as the workforce
 moves beyond simple subsistence. The rough division of labour creates farming
 specialists, experts in husbandry or crops. Their knowledge enriches the
 whole tribe.

 As European influence increased, the tribes recognised the need to hold 
 more territory, if only to deprive the invaders of the best lands."

 * +1.2% to population growth
 * Reduces the chance of food shortages
 * +X Coins to region wealth (Depends on Yield)


--==Conservatorium==--

"A conservatorium is a school for musicians, specialising in highly cultured 
 music required for church and state occasions.

 While the emphasis on music for a cultured and upper class audience, the 
 education provided by the conservatorium is practical and vocational. Those 
 who pay the fees intend to earn a living as musicians, at the very least in
 an orchestra of a wealthy patron, and, at best, as a composer of some renownm
 able to choose between commissions, patrons, and even nations! A 
 conservatorium has to provide what its customers want, and they generally
 produce well-polished musicians who can pass themselves off, when needed, as 
 professionals or members of the minor gentry. 

 Historically, many of these schools began as either royal academies of music
 or choristers' schools for the great cathedrals. All music had to be 
 performed live, and the need for new, innovative and excitating music at
 every state or religious event required an enormous amount of musicians - 
 and talented composers with prestdigious work rates! Great composers, such
 as Mozart and Handel, were celebrities and royal houses outbid each other in
 an effort to obtain their services as a prestigious ornament to a court."

 * +1 Happiness (Lower Classes)
 * +1 Happiness (Middle Classes)


--==Cotton Warehouse==--

"Warehousing a cash crop allows control over the supply of goods, and
 therefore greater profits as the vagaries of market prices have less effect.

 By holding onto a crop until the market is "right", plantation owners can
 get the best price for their harvest. They can also calm the violatility of
 the commodity's market by evening out the supply over the course of a year,
 rather than having a harvest glut and then a shortage for the rest of the
 time. A warehouse also allows plantation owners to wait until the seasons and
 winds are favourable for a fast sea journey back to the homeland; shipping
 losses and transit times are both reduced. Finally, Warehousing also allows
 smaller crops to be consolidating for shipping back to the home market, and
 for the crop to be properly graded. The finest parts of the harvest can be
 sold at the highest price, rather than simply being lumped in with any old
 druss."

 * Requires Large Cotton Plantation
 * Enhances National Prestige
 * 40 Bales of Cotton produced each turn


--==Council of Elders==--

"Keepers of wisdom, the Council of Elders see to it that their people's way of
 life is respected and continued.

 An elder is expected to be able to walk between the two worlds of men and
 spirits. Being able to bring back knowledge from the other world sets such a 
 man apart and gives him wisdom which may belie his years. Many elders have
 spent the seasons of their lives on spirit quests, and have learned much. 

 All decisions, even the smallest must go to the Council of Elders before any
 action can be taken. From the small to the great, everything must be 
 considered: from marriages requiring the approval of the council to the 
 blessing of this year's hunting."

 * +3% coin bonus to region tax income
 * +25 coins to region wealth
 * +1 coin per turn to town wealth in the region
 * Recruitment Capacity (Units in Training) : 1
 * Enables research of Improved Fishing, Hunting Techniques
 * Recruits basic infantry


--==Council of Tribes==--

"This is a permanent meeting place for peoples who share beliefs and 
 traditions. 

 A tribe within a nation remains independent under its own chief, but 
 gains strength by having permanent and close allies. The great council 
 presides over matters that threaten all the tribes.

 As European settlers arrived in even-greater numbers, more and more  
 tribes joined together into confederacies and nations. They were all 
 united by a common fear - the need to claim back their lands, and naked
 opportunism."

 * +12% Coin Bonus to region tax income
 * +100 Coins to region wealth
 * +4 Coins per turn to town wealth in the region
 * Recruitment Capacity (Units in Training) : 1
 * Enables Research of Money Economy
 * Recruits basic infnatry


--==Craft Workshops (Smiths)==--

"Artisans and their crafts workshops are the basis of all manufacturing work
 and trade. They are vital to the growth of a local economy.

 Craft workshops are the basis of a thriving economy. Each craftsman and his
 family work from dawn to dusk to produce a bale of cloth, carpet, cutlery, 
 swords, guns - anything, in fact that needs to be made. The system has 
 hardly changed in centuries.

 Craftsmen are paid piecework rates, making it in their interests to to have
 the whole family labouring away. Each workshop produces a complete item from
 start to finish of the manufacturing process, and there is little 
 organisation in producing the finished goods. The small-scale approach does
 impose limits on overall production.

 Historically, it was possible for craft-based technique to produce large 
 quantities of goods, but only having entire communities working in the same
 craft. The steel town of Sheffield, England, became a centre of cutlery 
 making (and later steel production) on the strength of its craft-based 
 workshops. The coming of mills would sweep away generations of expertise,
 as jobs were de-skilled and mechanised."

 * Requires Town
 * +400 Coins to Town Wealth
 * +5 Coins per turn to Town Wealth in the region


--==Craft Workshops (Weavers)==--

"Artisans and their crafts workshops are the basis of all manufacturing work
 and trade. They are vital to the growth of a local economy.

 Craft workshops are the basis of a thriving economy. Each craftsman and his
 family work from dawn to dusk to produce a bale of cloth, carpet, cutlery, 
 swords, guns - anything, in fact that needs to be made. The system has 
 hardly changed in centuries.

 Craftsmen are paid piecework rates, making it in their interests to to have
 the whole family labouring away. Each workshop produces a complete item from
 start to finish of the manufacturing process, and there is little 
 organisation in producing the finished goods. The small-scale approach does
 impose limits on overall production.

 Historically, it was possible for craft-based technique to produce large 
 quantities of goods, but only having entire communities working in the same
 craft. The steel town of Sheffield, England, became a centre of cutlery 
 making (and later steel production) on the strength of its craft-based 
 workshops. The coming of mills would sweep away generations of expertise,
 as jobs were de-skilled and mechanised."

 * Requires Town
 * +300 Coins to Town Wealth
 * +6 Coins per turn to Town Wealth in the region


--==Deep Gem Shaft==--

"The term for a gem field is an "occurance", and often the site has a very 
 small surface area. Eventually, the easy stones are found, and the miners
 must dig a shaft to find more.

 Given that miners are paid only for the gemstones they find and not for 
 any other work, the shaft sunk into the ground is often extremely crude. 
 Shoring up and pumping out the shaft may seem like sensible activities, but
 both of these things go unpaid and therefore undone. The mine owners do not
 care about casualties; men who die need no wages, merely hold up production
 and stop others earning.

 The shafts often have to go deep indeed, as gemstones are deposited in very
 small areas. This does not matter. All that matters is finding riches. Few
 miners worry that side tunnels are little more than death traps, given the
 chances of discovering the perfect stone!"

 * Requires Open Gem Pit
 * -1 Happiness from industrialisation (lower classes)
 * +X Coins (Depends on the Yield of the Mine)


--==Dockyard==--

"A dockyard can carry out major shipbuilding work, and usually includes a 
 large number of associated artisans and tradesmen from coopers to 
 victuallers.

 Dockyards also have extensive shore facilities, such as ropeworks, forges,
 furnaces and, possibly most important of all, seasoning sheds. Using "green"
 timber for shipbuilding results in vessels that can work (have a little
 flexibility), something that the French shipbuilders regard as a good thing,
 even though it means that their ships leak in heavy seas. Seasoning wood
 for months or years is prudent, and most other navies follow this practice.

 On more than one occasion in the century, Royal Navy raiding parties made a
 point of destroying stocks of timber, in particular, masts - stored in
 enemy shipyards. The loss of timber stocks not only set back shipbuilding by
 many years, but also ensured that battle damage was hard to make good too. 
 Burning timber rather than stealing it must have gone against the natural
 inclinations of many RN officers and seamen, as their prize money for the 
 goods was also going up in smoke!"

 * Requires Shipyard
 * Recruits: Basic Battle Vessels


--==Drill School==--

"A drill school creates the common practices for an army, and turns a 
 collection of disparate forces into a precise and clockwork killing machine.

 In an age when all battlefield manoeuvres must be performed exactly, drill
 is a necessary part of all military training. Constant repetition of actions
 involved in loading and firing a piece are useful in themselves, but of more
 use is the unthinking obedience to superiors that is, literally, drilled into
 every man in the ranks. When a soldier is concentrating on his place in line
 and on not attracting the attention of his sergeant or officer, he will not
 worry about what the enemy might be doing. Drill also has another benefit 
 for an army too; men busy on the parade ground cannot be getting into trouble
 or finding a tavern!

 In Britain, one aspect of 18th Century drill survives to this day in the form
 of a ceremonial parade called "Trooping the Colour", carried out on the 
 monarch's offical birthday on Horse Grounds, in London. Originally, this 
 parade was not a celebration but a practical exercise: the men needed to know
 what "the colours", or flags, of their unit looked like. The fact that the
 monarch gets to review the soldiers is not the point! In battle, the men 
 would need to be able to rally to, and then defend, these colours on 
 command."

 * Requires Barracks
 * Recruitment Capacity (Units in Training): 2
 * Recruits Intermediate Infantry and Cavalry
 * Enables Research of Wedge Formation, Socket Bayonet, Cadenced Marching, 
   Fire by Rank


--==Drydock==--

"A dry dock is a large brick or stone basin with a set of watertight gates. 
 Once a ship has floated in, the lock gates are shut and the dock drained.

 Within the dry dock, the ship is supported on blocks, and extra timbers are
 used to wedge firmly upright as the water is removed. By carefully timing
 the movement of a ship to take advantage of high and low tides, the amount
 of pumping (by hand) is minimised. Movements into and out of the dock are
 tidal, and work must be finished by the next high tide.

 The advantages of being able to work on a warship and then float it away
 are considerable. Dry docks are equally useful for construction and repair,
 and are often at the centre of a large complex of workshops specialising 
 in every aspect of shipbuilding.

 The organisation required for all this activity means that craft-based skills
 of the master shipwright are still valuable, but naval architects 
 producing plans, drawings and schedules are now a vital part of the process.
 Naturally, the master of the docks can treat the entire enterprise as his
 own (as long as he delivers the ships needed) and award contracts as he
 sees fit to friends and cronies! Offical making profits from the government's
 investment was an accepted cost of business and, provided the men were not
 too greedy, an assurance that they were looking after their interests and
 those of the navy!"

 * Requires Dockyard
 * Recruits all the nation's battleships


--==Engineer School==--

"Military engineering is a highly technical field of study, best carried out
 by trained officers and not left to common soldiery with mattocks!

 The school teaches all the specialised skills that an officer of engineers
 will require, such as surveying, the use of explosives, military 
 architecture, construction, the arts of siege warfare, military illustration
 (used to create maps) and much else besides. Some mundane tactical skills
 are taught as well, but engineers are not expected to command armies and
 issue orders to gentlemen. It is their lot to position guns and advise when
 a breach in a fortress' walls is "practicable", and could fall to an assult.

 Sappers and miners, like artillery experts, had long history of being
 permanent retainers in royal armies of the medieval and Renaissance periods,
 siege works needed experts to demolish castle walls. Thanks to the likes of
 the French Marshal Vauban (1633-1707) and his magnificant fortifications,
 the need for military engineers to create, or break into, defences grew,
 not lessened, during the 18th Century. The elaborate and layered defences
 that he and his successors developed required skilled architects and 
 builders. Engineer officers became a corps of highly educated experts, while
 leaving the hard, mucky work of digging to the rank-and-file sappers and
 pioneers of course!"

 * Requires Ordnance Board
 * Enhances national prestige
 * Enables research of Shrapnel Shot, Percussion Shells
 * Recruits all Artillery


--==Fishing Fleet==--

"A deep sea fishing fleet can bring in a larger catch than inshore boats. Most
 of the catch has to be salted or pickled for return to port.

 Salting relies on preserving the caught fish in dry salt in barrels or boxes.
 This is the method favoured by many fishering along the North African coast. 
 Pickling preserves the catch in brine (sea water with even more added salt).
 In both cases, the salt stops any fungus or other rot from settling in, and
 may even improve the taste of the fish, although the fish will need to soak
 in fresh water before it can be cooked.

 All of this perservative work is required because the fleet ranges far out to
 sea for days at a time, looking for big shoals of fish. The cargo can take 
 weeks to each port, and even longer to reach inland markets, and if salting
 was not used the catch would be both disgusting and lethal to anyone eating
 it!"

 * Requires Local Fishery
 * +0.8% to Population Growth
 * +300 Coins to Region Wealth
 * Recruits: Basic Battle Vessels


--==Fishing Fleet (Native)==--

"Canoes manned by experienced hunters can exploit inshore shoals of fish.

 No one can afford to ignore a plentiful food supply, even if gathering it
 means braving the ocean as well. Sea fishery is a risky undertaking, but
 one that can feed many. The spearing skills and equipment used by each man
 are the same as for freshwater fish. Once taken, fish can be smoked or 
 salted to last the long winter months.

 Historically the North American tribes did not really have the sailing
 technology to exploit the vast stocks of sea fish that were to be found
 off the coast. However, given that the potential of this food source was 
 demonstrated by the Europeans, it is likely they would have exploited it
 given the chance."

 * Improves export capacity (increases trade values)
 * +1 trade routes possible (Sea)
 * +0.5% to population growth
 * +80 Coins to region wealth


--==Foundry==--

"A foundry is an advanced site for metal production and weaponry; superior 
 arms improve units that can be recruited by the tribe. 

 The foundry furnace improves the quantity and quality of metal; guns can be
 created and adequate barrels can be made. The Warrior Society units that 
 are furnished with such guns enter battle with confidence in, and knowledge
 of, in their weapons. This greatly enhances their utility on the battlefield.

 Foundries and ironworks were established in America as early as 1619. The
 earliest example discovered so far was the Falling Creek iron works, 
 established by the Spanish. It included the first blast furnice in America,
 and a water wheel that was powered by the nearby James River falls. The
 ironworks met its end in the summer of 1622 when the Powhaten tribe, led by
 Opchanacanough, organised a series of raids on the James River area. 
 Falling Creek was burnt to the ground."

 * Spawns Scouts. Maximum Number: +1
 * Recruitment Capacity (Units in Training) : 3
 * Recruits ALL Native American units


--==Fur Exchange==--

"Furs are a mark of luxury and status, as well as a practical way of keeping
 warm. The demand can strip areas of their native fauna.

 Although the medieval sumptuary laws (that defined who could wear what) are
 largely ignored in Europe, the wearing of fur is often restricted to royalty
 and other high-status individuals: the British House of Lords sets out 
 regulations for the fur trimming on peer's robes, while fur is often reserved
 for warloads in the East. Lesser status furs are available to anyone with the
 money to spend.

 In Europe, even artists benefited from the fur trader's work: sable-hair 
 brushes (actually made from a kind of weasel) are extremely good for 
 watercolours, as they come to a fine point and hold paint well. Watercolour
 landscapes became very fashionable during the 18th Century, both to own and
 to paint. Painting watercolours became an accomplishment for marriageable
 young ladies, a delicate art to show off their sensibilites. In the process,
 watercolours became an important part of tourism, as they allowed the rich to
 record what they had seen on their travels."

 * Requires Fur Market
 * 40 Fur Pelts produced each turn


--==Fur Market==--

"There is almost an insatible demand for fur. Pelts are traded for trinkets
 and manufactured goods, including firearms.

 Trade in furs is highly profitable, and almost any item can be parleyed into
 a good deal for pelts. Shipping fur back to the home market can be more of 
 a problem, as transport in the wilderness relies heavily on finding 
 navigable river routes.

 By 1700, the Hudson Bay Company was well established and expanding its 
 operations into previously French-dominated territories. It had been set up
 in 1670, in London, by a royal charter to trade with the natives of Canada. 
 The company traded English wool blankets to the native tribes in return for
 beaver pelts, and became the de facto colonial British government in 
 Canada. Some of its trading posts become sites of substantial fortifications.
 In this, it matched the East India Company's success in the Eat. It did much
 better than the EIC in surviving to the present day; the again, the EIC had
 a spectular lack of success in pursuading Mughal India to take heavy 
 woollen blankets as trade goods!"

 * Requires Fur Trader
 * 25 Fur Pelts produced each turn


--==Fur Trader==--

"Fur trader are explorers and backwoodsmen, practical men in search of the 
 wealth that the wilderness contains: animal pelts.

 Exploiting natural animal resources is one of the cheapest and most 
 effective ways of making profit from virgin territory. It takes training,
 luck and money to extra mineral wealth, but anyone - if they are tough 
 enough - can hunt, or with the natives for pelts.

 Historically, men looking for animal pelts for the finest furs explored
 swathes of North American and the Siberian wilderness. In America, it was
 beaver pelts that drove the traders further into the hinterland; in
 Siberial it was sable pelts that drove traders deeper into the wilds. Demand
 for furs at home in Europe was almost insatiable, probably helped by a cold
 period in climate and a singular lack of effective central heating!"

 * 15 Fur Pelts produced each turn


--==Fur Trader / Native==--

"With the desire for furs every increasing, trading in them is a lucrative
 business.

 Trading in fur can be a long-winded affair until the final customer is 
 reached, as moving furs from the wilderness relies heavily on finding river
 routes to transport them. The use of wooden canoes allows the furs to be sent
 great distances in a much shorter thing than if they had been sent by land.

 Historically, many European outsiders that became "woodsmen" actually took
 up the native way of life, adopting their clothing, lodgings and customs. 
 Some married native women, thus creating bonds to the tribe that came with 
 the benefit of free and easy trade."

 * 15 Fur Pelts produced each turn


--==Fur Trading Post==--

"A building in the wilderness specifically used as a meeting place for the 
 trading of furs and manufactured goods. 

 As European influence increased, the tribes recognised the need to hold 
 more territory, if only to deprive the invaders of the best lands."

 * Requires Fur Trader/Native
 * 25 Fur Pelts produced each turn


--==Games Field==--

"A formal training area for tribal warriors to perfect battle skills and 
 learn necessary discipline.

 Protecting family and land is the first responsibility for a young warrior.
 Learning weapon skills during the hunt gives a man the skills of a fighter;
 learning to fight alongside others makes him a useful warrior, and a 
 credit to his tribe. 

 Historically, warriors used the bow and arrow with astounding skill, 
 thanks to constant hunting. Other daily tools such as the hatchet-like
 tomahawk were useful in war too. Oddly, in some tribes it was the custom
 to bury tomahawks once a war was ended (hence "bury the hatchet"). The 
 tribes, however, never developed an organised approach to warfare to 
 match that of the European invaders."

 * Spawns Scouts. Maximum Number: +1
 * Recruitment Capacity (Units in Training) : 1
 * Enables Esearch of Winter Clothes
 * Recruits basic Native American infantry


--==Global Trading Company==--

"A massive enterprise controlling a nation's trade to one part of the 
 globe, or in certain commodities.

 Trading companies can be enormous, with fleets of armed merchant ships
 carrying all manners of cargo. The successor to the medieval adventurers,
 they generate fantastic wealth from their operations. Usually granted a 
 government monopoly in either a geographical area or in a set of trade
 goods, the companies can also act as a privatised diplomatic service in
 distant corners of the globe. They are known to do deals with local 
 potentates for trade concessions, military access, tax farming and they 
 have taken over native governments by imposion their "advisors."

 Historically, the great East India companies of Britain, France, and the
 Netherlands were armed, quasi-independent mercantile mini-states. The  
 British East India Company was wealthy almost beyond imagining: its trade
 represented about one-sixth of the British national income. Like the 
 French "Compagnie francaise pour le commerce des Indes orientales" and 
 Dutch "Vereeningde Oost-Indische Compagnie", the "John Company" has its
 own fleet and army. In India it fought wars and had its own foreign policy,
 giving the British government little choice but to support its actions.
 In modern times only petrochemical, mining and arms companies have commanded
 considerable power over nations."

 * Requires Commercial Basin
 * Enhances National Prestige
 * Improves export capacity (increases trade value)
 * +5 Trade Routes Possible (Sea)
 * +1000 Coins to Region Wealth
 * +9 Coins per turn to town wealth in the region
 * Build Battle and Trade Vessels


--==Gold Mine==--

"Mining is a dirty, dangerous business. Men hack out all manner of valuable 
 minerals by hand, risking life and limb for the mine owner's profits.

 Lit only by candles (which they must by themselves) or lamps with naked  
 flames, most miners are labouring in conditions that resembles hell on 
 Earth. In some mines firedamp (methane) is a constant risk thanks to the
 candles - an explosion can happen at any time. The risk of a slow death is
 there tool; stone dust and poisonous minerals such as arsenic: ruin a man
 as surely any explosion.

 there were also accidents. Miners are paid only for the valuable minerals
 that they extrace, so there is little incentive to carry out much work
 for safety's sake. Pit props may keep the roof from collapsing, but putting
 them in does not earn any payment - the miners may even be charged for the
 materials! And it is not just men who labour below ground. Women often pull
 carts from the working face to the surface. Children needed less space and
 air than adults, and make ideal support workers, clearing tunnels and 
 bringing food and water to the miners. In smaller seams, children are the
 perfect labourers.

 All of this is secondary, however, to the business of making money, and 
 mining can be a very profitable industry."

 +X to Region Wealth (Depends on the Yield of the Mine)


--==Government Chambers==--

"An imposing meeting place for the "great and good" to offer their advice
 to the local governor, and influence the course of local politics.

 The monarch acts within the law and with the consent of the governed in a 
 constitutional monarchy. This is what distinguishes the system from the 
 crude absolutism of rule by the sovereign's whims and foibles: laws limit
 what the Crown can do, what taxes can be levied, and how people can be 
 treated. In such a system, it is wise for the people to be consulted, and 
 to be seen to be consulted, even if the sovereign's appointed governors 
 actually make the decisions. Often, executive power is handed down to a
 local council of worthies: men wealthy and well connected enough to have a 
 stake in the survival of the state. They can be trusted to act loyally, in 
 the best interests of the monarch, themselves and the people.

 Historically, appointed governors oftten took it upon themselves to select
 local men to advise them about local matters. For example, there was a 
 tradition in English colonies overseas for landowners to offer their services
 and best advice to the London-appointed governors, whether it was welcome or
 not!"

 * Requires Government Council, Constitutional Monarchy
 * +3 to Repression in the Region
 * +6% Coin bonus to region tax income
 * Recruitment Capacity (Units in Training) : 2
 * Recruits: Basic Infantry and Cavalry


--==Government Council==--

"A constitutional monarch's powers are limited by law, as are those of 
 appointed governors. Viable consultation can ease the use of even these
 limited powers.

 While the people do not have to be listened to, it is a wise course of action
 to consult them in local matters. The process may be real or a fig leaf, but 
 one result is that the council takes the blame for poor decisions, not the
 Crown or its governors, beys to thalurs! The propertied classes and local
 dignitaries on the council almost certainly owe their advisory status to 
 their wealth or social position: democracy may play a part, but the 
 franchise is likely to be very limited indeed. The lower social orders are
 unlikely to be given any say in how they are governed. 

 This lack of broad consultation is not as bad as it sounds. The government
 cannot overstep the bounds of its powers. There is a contract (or even an 
 informal understanding) between government and governed as to what the Crown
 may do without the consent of the people (ther people being those with a 
 stake in the country - men of property in other words). Historically, this
 is essentially the model that the British arrived at: the King and his
 ministers ruled, but needed Parliament to raise taxes and pay for 
 everything!"

 * Requires Governor's Residence, Constitutional Monarchy
 * +2 to Repression in the Region
 * +4% Coin bonus to region tax income
 * Recruitment capacity (units in training) : 1
 * Recruits: Infantry and Cavalry Units


--==Governor's Mansion==--

"In an absolute monarchy, the monarch's person is the wellspring of all 
 authority. Lackeys - no matter now mighty - serves at the Monarch's pleasure
 and need take no account of locals!

 Absolute monarchy is an effective and sometimes brutal form of government. 
 The monarch's powers are not limited in any way. What the monarch decrees 
 simply happens. If it does not, heads roll, often literally!
		
 The machinery of provincial government receives the same authority from the 
 Crown. A governor, thalur or bey (depending on the nation in question) has 
 the power to do anything to his subjects, providing he delivers what his
 monarch requires - and this is usually tax income and soldiers. Any other 
 considerations can be put to one side; it is the duty of subjects to obey in
 an absolute state, and those who dare argue back are quite rightly treated
 as faithless rebels.

 Historically, absolutism was the main form of Government in many 18th century
 states. Louis XIV of France was speaking the truth when he repeatedly claimed
 "L'Erat, c'est moi!". Like many absolutists and their apologists, he
 sincerely believed that he was responsible for his actions only to God."

 * Requires Governor's Residence, Constitutional Monarchy
 * +2 to Repression in the Region
 * +4% Coin bonus to region tax income
 * Recruitment capacity (units in training) : 1
 * Recruits, Infantry, Cavalry and Artillery units


--==Governor's Palace==--

"This magificant palace is a pale reflection of a monarch's glory, power and
 wealth, not those of the governor's person.

 In an absolute monarchy, there is a great chain fo authority that stretches
 down from the monarch's person even to the lowliest of his subjects. Everyone
 has a place, sanctioned by time, custom and the approval of the monarch and
 no one is exempt from the awful majesty of the sovereign's power. This is
 especially true of governors away from the royal court. They may rule from 
 marble palaces, but they do so not in their own right but by the authority
 granted from the Crown. If any of them ever forgot that the grandeur and 
 luxury that surrouned them are entirely borrowed, the penalties for personal
 aggrandisement are terrible indeed. Having been raised up, they have an 
 awfully long way to fall. 

 In reality, many governor's residences in absolute monarchies combined luxury
 (for who was to say when the king would visit?) with enough barracks and
 stables to house a small army. Absolutism always relied on the concepts of
 the "rod and the axe" to maintain authority, although by the 18th Century  
 a good stock of gunpowder and a fine collection of artillery did better
 service."

 * Requires Governor's Mansion 
 * +3 to Repression in the region
 * +9% Coin Bonus to region tax income
 * Recruitment Capacity (Units in Training) : 2
 * Recruits basic infantry


--==Governor's Residence==--

"As a province grows, the central government appoints its own governor with
 greater powers, rather than relying on the services of a member of the local,
 minor gentry. 

 No matter what his title - Lord Lieutenant (to the Monarch), Governor, Pasha,
 Thalur - the man appointed to oversee a province is a minor monarch, even in 
 a republic! His main duties are tax raising and defence, and he is the 
 government's man rather than a senior member of the local community. He is
 both protector and enforcer. He can enforce the law as he sees fit, ignore
 it when inconvenient and even grant pardons. He can impress men into military
 service and use them against any who dare to rebel. He has to power of life 
 and death over his subjects - although he may have to use the justice system
 rather than simply having people shot. And, best of all, in an age of 
 "interest" he has the power to fill his own and his friend's purses at the
 state's expense. 

 Historically, office holders in the 18th Century (almost regardless of 
 country or government style) seemed to have trouble keeping the state's money
 out of their own pockets. It was acceptable for a man to appoint himself or 
 a friend as a contractor, tax farmer or monopolist and make a handsome 
 profit."

 * Requires Magistrate, Constitutional Monarchy
 * 1 to Repression in the Region
 * Recruitment Capacity (units in training) : 1
 * Recruits: Infantry and Cavalry Units


--==Grand Opera House==--

"This impressive setting for musical performances allow the audience to 
 delight in novel entertainments, and admire the good taste of the house's
 patron.

 Little expense is spared on a grand opera house, particularly in the "front
 of house" area where the audience are to be found. A grand opera house is 
 a maginificant structure, the equal to any palace in terms of luxurious
 appointments and detailing to overawe the visitors. The staged can be 
 equally elaborate, featuring enormous casts and intricate settings. This is
 conspicious consumption raised to a high art, even before the music starts!

 Many rulers in the 18th Century acted as a patron of the arts, and opera in
 particular. Apart from being fablously and famously expensive (therefore
 demonstrating the patron's wealth), the musical form was also growing in
 popularity and quality. The staging and music of opera advanced tremendously
 during the period, with works from composers of genius such as Mozart, 
 Handel, and Scarlatti. Emperor Joseph II of Austria, the "music king", was
 particularly fortunate that his love of the art coincided with a flowering
 of musical talent in Europe. He used the arts as a subtle tool of 
 nationalism, promoting a Germanic culture within Austria."

 * Requires Opera House
 * +3 Happiness (Lower Classes)
 * +3 Happiness (Middle Classes)


--==Great Arsenal==--

"A great arsenal is a government-owned facility, intended to manage the 
 manufacturing and development of long guns and all the paraphernalia needed.

 The development of new cannons is an expensive and sometimes risky business,
 and one that the state likes to keep under its immediate control. No 
 government likes to contemplate rebellion, but central control of heavy
 artillery and its production is a wise policy. Rebels without cannons are
 an annoyance; with large guns, rebels can become revolutionaries!

 Large guns are necessary for armies (and navies for that matter) to operate
 effectively. The ability of a nation to projects it power in war is, in a
 large part, measured by the size and variety of its artillery train.

 Historically, the arsenals of many states were peacetime stores for
 cannons, shot and powder; domestic peacekeeping by an army rarely required
 artillery. Once cast, a cannon barrel could spend decades in storage before
 mounted on a carriage and used in anger. Gunpowder, too, could spend 
 neglected years in storage, and this caused all kinds of problems when it 
 was finally issued to gunners. Money for the upkeep of stores also caused
 problems, too often ending upin the pockets of the Masters of Ordnance
 and his friends!"

 * Requires Ordnance Factory
 * Enables Research of Carcass Shot
 * Recruits Intermediate Artillery


--==Great Ashram==--

"An ashram offers wisdom and learning to all those who come within its 
 walls.

 This retreat from the cares of the world is a place of peace and 
 tranquility, as well as a place of profound learing and contemplation. 
 Not quite a monastry, or matha, an ashram is bound by an informal code
 of conduct laid down by the religious leader or sage who leads it.

 Traditionally, the ashram are detacted from everyday concerns, and 
 concentrate to the spiritual development of the students. Some act as
 schools for children too. Even though they are places of peace, not 
 everyont who makes a pilgramage to an ashram has peaceful intent. The
 journey, both internal and external, can teach a warrior much about the
 business of warfare and some ashrams do offer a form of martial arts
 training. In the Hindu epic: The Ramayana, warrior princes receieve
 weapons training at an ashram."

 * +4 Happiness for the Hindu Population (lower classes)
 * Converts the populace to Hinduism
 * Spawns religious agents. Maximum number: +1


--==Great Charbagh==--

"These formal gardens are a retreat from the hurly-burly of the everyday 
 world, and a place where important guests can be entertained.

 These are space where rulers, their important functionaries, ambassadors
 and the "great and good" can take their ease, enjoying the peace of shade,
 running water, natural beatuty, and pleasant scents.

 The design of Persian gardens influences the layout of a charbagh, (the
 word itself has Persian origins), and the plants that are grown. The central
 idea is to reflect or recreate Paradise in an earthly setting, albeit with
 the limitations that humans always bring to their works. The garden is 
 divided into four sections, each with its own reflecting pools, formalised 
 streams and fountains, and carefully selected paintings. Water features 
 are important because they represent the four rivers of Paradise. The
 plants carry symbolic meanings too, for those educated enough to "read" the
 garden, such as the cypress trees representing death. Often verses of sacred
 texts are carved into the stonework, or inlaid in wall tiles, as a further
 aid to contemplation.

 The most famous charbagh in existance is probably best known for the tomb 
 it contains: laid out in 1632, the gardens of the Taj Mahal in Agra, are a 
 superb formal setting for any building."

 * Requires School of the Arts
 * +3 Happiness (Nobility)
 * +3 Happiness (Lower Classes)


--==Great Estates==--

"The largest estates can have a huge acerage turned over to the pleasure of 
 their owners. Pleasure in a carefully manicured nature is secondary to the
 need to make money!

 The largest estates are a statement of wealth, complete with dazzling 
 palace-like grand houses in the latest styles and built without thought to
 the expense. Landowners and the great nobility vie with each other to produce
 not just homes, but idealized landscapes around them. Where the terrain is
 not dramatic enough, it is ruthlessly reorganised to suit the owner's tastes.
 In the interests of art and beauty the workers, their homes, and their farms
 are removed from the land.

 Historically, a group of landscape architects in Europe completely remodelled
 many country estates into idyllically perfect vistas for their clients. They
 created the fantasy of a natural landscape, improving on what was there to
 make entirely "artificial" (and this is not a term of disapproval at the 
 time) parkland dotted with romantic ruins and gothic follies. In the process,
 men like Lancelot "Capability" Brown remade hills, flooded valleys, moved
 rivers, destroyed entire villages and displaced people without mercy. Many
 of these amazing houses and gardens still exist today, if only as tourist
 attractions."

 * Requires Clearances
 * +0.9% to Population Growth
 * Reduces the Chance of Food Shortages
 * +X Coins to Region Wealth (Depends on Yield of Farming Region)
 * Enables Research of Threshing Machine


--==Great Museum==--

"This splendid structure is a celebration of national greatness, celebrating
 the progress of a country towards its current perfection.

 Some objects in the collectoin are the spoils on war, gifts from travellers,
 the items collected on the whims of past rulers, and intriguing curios 
 from around the world. This is, in many ways, the national equivalent of a 
 savant's "cabinet of curiosities": a miscellany of interesting things,  
 collected simply because they were interesting. The other half of the 
 collection is a clear demonstration of national prowess in all fields, be
 that a piece of intricate machinery, a work of superlative craftsmanship,
 the largest cannon in the world, and so on. It is understandable if a 
 certain chauvinism creeps into the enterprise, it is an exercise in 
 national trumpet-blowing!

 Historically, private museums and displays had developed from the collections
 in "cabinet of curiosities", and some of these had ended up as government or
 royal property. The world-famous British Museum began this way, when Sir Hans
 Sloane's collection was left to George II so that it could be preserved for
 the nation. Now a wonderful collection of antiquities, the Museum was 
 intended to be a universal collection, and had natural history, geology, and
 science exhibits."

 * Requires Grand Opera House
 * Enhances National Prestige
 * +4 Happiness (Lower Classes)
 * +4 Happiness (Middle Classes)


--==Great Parliament==--

"The seat of parliament in a constitutional monarchy, as the monarch has 
 become a ceremonial figurehead with deliberately limited powers.

 Parliamentary government involves the elected representatives of the people
 forming a government with the monarch's consent - although the ministers who
 emerge from the system may not be entirely to the monarch's taste! While the
 sovereign can at least have an advisory role, and choose chief ministers, 
 those ministers determine national policy. Unless a ministry can command 
 majority support in parliament, its policies, of left or right, radical 
 or conservative, will fail.

 The terms "left" and "right" to define political views in an elected system
 come from just before the violent birth of the French Republic, with the
 absolutist Louis XVI was moving towards a constitutional monarchy. The
 liberal deputies of the "Third Estate" in the "Estates General" (a 
 parliament called by Louis) sat to the left of the assembly president's 
 chair, while the nobility (the "Second Estate") with more conservative views
 sat on his right. The terms "left" and "right" have continued to this day,
 usually in a disapproving fashion. Louis' success with his constitutional
 experiments was limited: the guillotine ended his reign in a sudden and 
 cravat-ruining fashion!"

 * Requires Government Chamber
 * +5 to Repression in the Region
 * +10% Coin Bonus to region tax income
 * Recruitment Capacity (Units in Training): 3
 * Recruits basic militia


--==Gunnery School==--

"A practical education in the arts of gunnery and the uses of firepower can be
 a very useful thing for an officer of artillery.

 Gunners see themselves as a "race apart" from army officers, and with good
 reason. They are skilled specialists who have spent years studying their 
 trade. In the wrong hands, cannons can be as dangerous to their users as to
 the enemy, so gunners are actually expected to know what they are about. 
 Unlike army officers, who have often obtained their rank through the purchase
 of a commission, gunners are promoted on seniority and merit. It is not 
 enough to stand around looking brave; a gunner needs to understand military
 surveying and drawing, mathematics, ballistics, some military engineering, 
 and have a grasp on technical matters. This can create tensions between
 "gentlemen" officers and the gunners practicing a "trade."

 Historically, many corps of artillery and gunnery schools are older than
 national standing armies, as they can date their foundations back to the
 times when a Master of Ordinance or Artillery was part of a royal household.
 The most famous artillery student is, of course, Napoleon Bonaparte; his
 interest was considered surprising given his background as a member of the
 minor nobility."

 * Requires Great Arsenal
 * Enables research of Explosive Rockets
 * Recruits Strong Artillery, Mortars and Howitzers


--==Gunsmiths==--

"A gunsmith is an indispensible asset with the skill to produce and maintain
 firearms.

 The Europeans brought guns to the Americas, but the native tribes have not
 been slow to adopt them. A gun is a status symbol for a warrior, and needs
 care if it is to work properly. The smiths of many tribes have learned to
 repair and even manufacture firearms, following the invaders' patterns.

 For the most part, Native American tribes gained guns through trade or from
 vanquished foes. One of the earliest guns to become available to them was 
 a lightweight, smoothbore, French flintlock musket, thanks to the trading
 and political policies carried out in New France (Canada). The French gave
 "their" natives guns in the hopes of discomforting British Settlers."

 * Spawns Scouts. Maximum Number: +1
 * Recruitment Capacity (Units in Queue) : 3
 * Enables Research of Improved Ironworking, Cannon Casting
 * Recruits: All Native American Infantry


--==High Chief's Lodge==--

"The High Chief has the final say, and his dwelling reflects his status.

 Tribal structure relies on everyone knowing his place and recognising 
 where power is vested. The tribal sub-chiefs need a supreme leader to 
 bring them together, to be a voice for his people. The High Chief fulfils
 this role, acting as father to his tribe with, if he is wise, the guidance
 of the medicine men and older warriors.

 Historically, tribal leaders were the key in determining tribal policies, 
 especially towards the invading Europeans. King Philip's War of 1675-6 seems
 to have been the result of Metacomet (or "King Philip" as the English 
 settlers called him) realising that trading tribal lands for goods was the
 height of folly, despite what previous leaders had done."

 * +9% Coin Bonus to region tax income
 * +75 Coins to region wealth
 * +3 Coins per turn to town wealth in the region
 * Recruitment Capacity (Units in Training) : 1
 * Enables research of Written Language
 * Recruits Basic infantry


--==High Porte==--

"A palace that is almost beyond magnificant, intended to be the envy and 
 amazement of the world.

 All places are intended to overawe and intimidate those who seek an
 audience. The scale of everything is monumental and slightly inhuman, 
 providing the ultimate stage for the public exercise of absolute power. 
 This palace is the external realisation in marble and gold and the 
 fundamental truth that here is a sovereign lord who has no limits: nothing
 is beyond his ambition. The entire resources of the state can be spent to
 create such a palace, if desired, if it costs a thousand lives, no matter.
 Within the walls, the palace is a world within a world, where offical 
 prequisites are jealously guarded and fought over, even as the officals
 scurry to carry out their master's every wish.

 Historically, such as the Winter Palace in St Petersburg, Russia, and the
 High Porte, the private court of the Ottoman Sultans, were almost small
 towns in themselves. Their grandour still inspires admiration and amazement,
 even today. From the Tsar and the Sultan downward, there was a strict
 hierarchy with everyone plotting and counter-plotting to keep or gain 
 status. Even the servents "below stairs" had their own pecking order."

 * Requires Sublime Porte
 * +5 to Repression in the region
 * +15% coin bonus to region tax income
 * Recruitment capacity (units in training) : 3
 * Recruits basic infantry


--==Hofburg==--

"This magnificant palace is a suitably grand and imposing surroundings for the
 business of running an Empire.

 The Hofburg was the imperial residence of the Hapsburgs in Vienna, with 
 sections dating back to the Middle Ages. The idea of this being a single 
 palace is something of a mistake, as it is a complex of buildings that has 
 grown up over the centuries as the needs (not to mention rivalries and 
 dislikes) of the Hapsburg rulers have changed. It housed chapels, a music 
 school, and numerous small residents for the cadet branches of the family.
 Indeed, there is a complete second palace in the Imperial Stables, a result
 of a falling out between the Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand I and his son,
 the Crown Prince Maximillian. Relations between the two were so bad that the
 Emperor did not want his son under the same roof!

 Over the centuries the Hofburg has been extensively rebuilt and remodelled
 as funds have been available and tastes have changed. It remains, however,
 a serious expression of Imperial power and grandeur. The building is still
 in use today as the offical residence of the Austrian president."

 * +1 Happiness (Nobility)
 * +1 Happiness (Lower Classes)
 * +5 to Repression in the region
 * +15% Coin Bonus to Region Tax Income
 * Recruitment Capacity (Units in Training) : 3
 * Enhances National Prestige 
 * Recruits basic infantry
 * Highest level Government building, built in Vienna by the Austrians


--==Horse Breeder==--

"Horses are incredibly valuable and those who look after them command great
 respect.

 The keeping and training of horses is a noble profession, as wealth can be
 measured in a tribe's horses. The beasts are so revered that a breeder will
 bring his prized horses into his home in bad weather.

 The Spanish conquistadors reintroduced horses into America during the 
 sixteenth century. Their arrival had a profound effect on the Native American
 peoples and their way of life. It became a great achievement to steal the
 best horses from neighbouring tribes."

 * Converts the Populace to Animism
 * Recruitment Capacity (units in training) : 1


--==House of Representatives==--

"This is the centre of the republic: the beating heart of the nation where
 the great and good gather to seat their people to a better future.

 The "great and the good", naturally enough, need suitably imposing 
 surroundings to carry out their burdensome law-making duties. Indeed, the
 magnificance of the building used for represenative assemblies can only 
 bolster the honour and the prestige of the republic! That is also adds
 gravitas to the representives themselves is no more than mere coincidence.

 The number of chambers and their methods of selection differ from 
 republic to republic. Nearly all feature one chamber to pass laws and 
 another to revise them.

 While the people may have a say in who creates the law "the great and the
 good" usually take considerable pains to enfranchise only sections of the
 people. By carefully excluding votersthanks to age, sex, wealth, religion,
 birth, and geological location, the political classes can make public 
 support a largely meaningless term. The less astute and largely unwashed
 masses of the people are important, but that does not mean they should
 interfere in government business!"

 * +4 to repression in the region
 * +12% bonus to region tax income
 * Recruitment capacity (units in training) : 2
 * Recruits basic militia


--==Hunting Grounds==--

"A large area inhabited by a variety of wild animals hunted for the meat and
 pelts.

 Hunting is a way of life, and the methods and techniques used have been 
 handed down for generations. The seaons play a huge role in the way hunting
 parties operate: in autumn when the grasses are dry, fire is used in hunting.
 Once a herd of animals is located a large arc of fire is started while, the
 hunters pick the animals as they run from the flames.

 The re-introduction of the horse into the Americas meant that tribes could
 hunt over a greater range for extended periods of time. On the Great Plains,
 some young braves you pursue buffalo for months on end."

 * Spawns Scouts. Maximum Number: +1
 * Recruitment Capacity (units in training) : 1
 * Enables Research of Ironworking
 * Recruits basic Native American infantry


--==Imperial Naval Engineers' School==--

"Despite the name, the naval college offers training to naval architects,  
 shipbuilders and quarterdeck officers.

 The Naval Engineers' School began as a training school at the Golden Horn
 shipyards, and was put on a formal footing by Cezayirli Gazi Hasan Pasha
 (1713-90), the Grand Vizier of Sultan Mustafa III, and a Franco-Hungarian
 military advisor, Francois Baron de Tott. It was a part of Mustafa's efforts
 to modernise the Turkish military and naval system in the face of 
 considerable resistance from the janissaries and their leadership. The
 teaching given was extremely good, and produced fine officers.

 Hasan Pasha is actually more interesting than the school, as he started 
 life as a slave in eastern Turkey and rose through the ranks of the military.
 He even spent time with the Barbary Pirates of Algiers and, while there, 
 domesticated a lion as a pet! Despite being on the losing side at Battle of
 Chesma in 1770 his ship, the 84-gun Real Mustafa, was one of the few on the
 Turkish side to emerge with any credit. His record certainly helped with it
 came to driving through the (limited) reforms that Mustafa managed to 
 advance. Baron de Tott's other achievement was the establishment of a new 
 cannon foundary."

 * Requires Naval College
 * +1 Happiness (Nobility)
 * +1 Happiness (Lower Classes)
 * -5% to Upkeep Costs for all naval units
 * Enhances National Prestige
 * Built as highest Naval Building by the Turks in Istanbul


--==Imperial Palace==--

"A palace that is almost beyond magnificant, intended to be the envy and 
 amazement of the world.

 All places are intended to overawe and intimidate those who seek an
 audience. The scale of everything is monumental and slightly inhuman, 
 providing the ultimate stage for the public exercise of absolute power. 
 This palace is the external realisation in marble and gold and the 
 fundamental truth that here is a sovereign lord who has no limits: nothing
 is beyond his ambition. The entire resources of the state can be spent to
 create such a palace, if desired, if it costs a thousand lives, no matter.
 Within the walls, the palace is a world within a world, where offical 
 prequisites are jealously guarded and fought over, even as the officals
 scurry to carry out their master's every wish.

 Historically, such as the Winter Palace in St Petersburg, Russia, and the
 High Porte, the private court of the Ottoman Sultans, were almost small
 towns in themselves. Their grandour still inspires admiration and amazement,
 even today. From the Tsar and the Sultan downward, there was a strict
 hierarchy with everyone plotting and counter-plotting to keep or gain 
 status. Even the servents "below stairs" had their own pecking order."

 * Requires Royal Palace
 * +5 to Repression in the region
 * +15% coin bonus to region tax income
 * Recruitment capacity (units in training) : 3
 * Recruits basic infantry


--==Improved Settlement Fortifications==--

"At settlements grow there is a need for more elaborate defence in depth. The
 fortifications are designed to intimidate any attacking force, and then kill
 them.

 Extensive fortifications cost huge sums of money and much effort. There is 
 little point in constructing them unless they are well maintained and needed
 for the future survival and prosperity of the town. A defensive wall is good 
 for a sense of security, but does not feed a hungry family after a poor local
 harvest! As a practical matter, then, these fortifications are erected along
 borders and around towns of real strategic significance. 

 The defences are laid out according to the latest military fashions, and as
 well as built as any purely military fortification. This can cause local 
 problems, as prime building land is either used for the fort themselves, or
 must be kept clear to provide excellent fields of fire. During long periods
 of peace, the city fathers must resist the temptation to cover the killing
 zones with houses and commercial properties!

 Historically, fortresses created by Marshal Vauban of France dominated their
 towns for centuries. The fortresses of Strasbourg, in Alsace, are typical
 of his work, and were a clear geographical boundary until the end of the
 19th Century.

 * Requires Settlement Fortifications
 * +1 Happiness (Lower Classes)
 * +1 Happiness (Middle Classes)
 * Surrounds city approaches with a ring of star forts, protecting it from 
   assault
 * Enhances national prestige


--==Independence Hall==--

"Every new nation needs a birthplace.

 Independence Hall in Philadelphia was actually built by the Pennsylvania
 colonial legislature as their State House, and so for the first two decades
 after its completion it was home to part of the British administration in
 America. It is a practical, red brick building in a grand colonial style
 and has an architectural honesty and pleasing, human proportion to it that
 is sometimes lacking in grander neo-Classical structures.

 From 1775, the building was the home to the Second Continential Congress,
 the representatives of the Thirteen Colonies who approved the Declaration
 of Independence. The romantic view is that the "Liberty Bell" was wrung to
 bring citizens to hear the reading of the Declaration in July 1776. 
 Unfortunately, for romantics, historicans now believe that the steeple of
 Independence Hall was in too bad a stateto allow the ringing of bells from
 the Hall. That hasn't stopped the romantics from believing the story for
 a minute! Independence Hall was abandoned by Congress when the British 
 occupied Philadelphia from 1777-78. The government eventually moved to a 
 specially created federal district (later to become Washington DC) when a
 mutiny by the Continential Army drove them out of Philadelphia in 1783. 
 But for the actions of the mutineers, Philadelphia would probably still be
 the capital of the United States."

 * Built in Philadelphia by the US as the maximum Government building
 * Requires Presidential Palace
 * +1 Happiness (lower classes)
 * +1 Happiness (middle classes)
 * +5 repression in the region
 * +15% coin bonus to region tax income
 * Recruitment capacity (units in training) : 3
 * Enhances national prestige
 * Recruits basic infantry and cavalry


--==Ironmaster's Works==--

"Hot, mortally dangerous, clamorous and flithy, the forges and works of the
 ironmasters are, for some, a presentment of Hell on Earth.

 Blacksmiths can only produce small quantities of good quality iron, and
 small items, thanks to their reliance on muscle power for all work. The
 ironmasters have the financial backing and imagination to scale up the
 production of iron, and use water power to force air into the furnaces and
 power machines to work the metal. Where there is a plentiful supply of 
 coal, water and ore, the ironmasters can make a profit.

 The Industrial Revolution and the modern world we now live in owe their
 existance to one small valley in Shropshire, England. Coalbrookdale had
 good supplies of water and coal and this encouraged Abraham Darby to
 establish his coke-burning foundry there to make iron (there had been
 foundries in Coalbrookdale before, producing cannon shot among other things).
 Charcoal-powered furnaces were becoming uneconomic, as the demand for wood
 outstripped supply, hence the switch to coal and coke. Darby's methods were
 revolutionary and the family business went from strength to strength. The
 production of high-quality iron generated demand for more; the Iron Bridge
 at Ironbridge, for example, demonstrated that iron was a superb construction
 material, thanks to the efforts of Abraham's grandson, also called Abraham."

 * Requires Iron Workshops
 * +X to town wealth (Depends on Yield)
 * +11 Coins per turn to town wealth in the region
 * Enables research of Machine Tools, Puddling Furnaces, Steam Engine


--==Iron Mine==--

"Mining is a dirty, dangerous business. Men hack out all manner of valuable 
 minerals by hand, risking life and limb for the mine owner's profits.

 Lit only by candles (which they must by themselves) or lamps with naked  
 flames, most miners are labouring in conditions that resembles hell on 
 Earth. In some mines firedamp (methane) is a constant risk thanks to the
 candles - an explosion can happen at any time. The risk of a slow death is
 there tool; stone dust and poisonous minerals such as arsenic: ruin a man
 as surely any explosion.

 there were also accidents. Miners are paid only for the valuable minerals
 that they extrace, so there is little incentive to carry out much work
 for safety's sake. Pit props may keep the roof from collapsing, but putting
 them in does not earn any payment - the miners may even be charged for the
 materials! And it is not just men who labour below ground. Women often pull
 carts from the working face to the surface. Children needed less space and
 air than adults, and make ideal support workers, clearing tunnels and 
 bringing food and water to the miners. In smaller seams, children are the
 perfect labourers.

 All of this is secondary, however, to the business of making money, and 
 mining can be a very profitable industry."

 +X to Region Wealth (Depends on the Yield of the Mine)


--==Iron Workshops==--

"Blacksmiths are the heart of many communities. Their skills make tools for
 the farm, the home and the workshop alike.

 Smiths make everything that the world of work uses, from ploughshares, 
 horseshoes and sickles to knives, nails, and wagon tires. They even make
 the machinery to make more machines, as they make tools for themselves and
 other crafts not to mention the working parts of many workshops. The people
 with the surname "Smith" (or its equivalent) shows the historical importance
 of ironworking!

 The job is, however, dirty and dangerous. Fire is an ever-present danger, 
 and working with red hot metal has risk all of its own. It breeds tough,
 hardy, independent men with an unsentimental eye for profit.

 Making iron requires a great deal of charcoal as fuel. This means that the
 secondary industry of charcoal burning uses large tracts of woodland to make
 charcoal, and is one of the main limitations on iron production. It is almost
 impossible to produce enough charcoal, year after year, to keep the furnaces
 burning because managed woodlands don't grow fast enough."

 * Requires Craft Workshop (Smiths)
 * +X to region wealth (Depends on the wealth of the town)
 * +8 Coins per turn to town wealth in the region
 * Enables research of Basic Steam Pump, Coke Blast Furnace, Measuring Tools


--==Iron Workshops / Natives==--

"Workshops create tools and trade goods for the tribe.

 A workshop is a vital resource for the community, whatever it produces. 
 These small-scale industries have a large role to play in the tribe's 
 prosperity and survival.

 Beads, for example, were an important craft produce in Native American
 society. They were used in ceremonial jewellery and clothing as a form 
 of currency where barter was not used. Despite the large number of people
 involved in craftwork, the tribes never used anything more powerful than
 human muscle in their industries."

 * -2 Happiness from Industrialisation (Lower Classes)
 * -2 Happiness from Indistrialisation (Nobility)
 * -15% Recruitment Cost for all land units
 * +X to region wealth (Depends on the wealth of the town)
 * Recruitment Capacity (Units in Training) : 1


--==Jesuit College==--

"The Catholic Church has educated the social elite for many centuries, and
 the Society of Jesus provides a vigorous training for young minds.

 Originally formed as the Church's "shock troops" of the Counter-Reformation,
 the Jesuits have long used education as a weapon in their struggles against
 Protestant heresy. Their colleges gives Catholic students an excellent 
 grounding in many disciplines, as well as making sure that their faith is
 certain and sure. A few pupils receive scholarships or charity, but the 
 majority of them are the children of the social elite in Catholic nations.
 Jesuit Colleges have an essentially conservative bent, and exist to confirm
 the existing political and social order (and the Church's over-arching
 authority) in the minds of the students, not make them question the world.

 The Society of Jesus had a long tradition of intellectual excellence, a 
 legacy of its duty to debate with Protestant reformers of the Church. Many
 of the Vatican's best scientists and thinkers have been found among its
 ranks. The Jesuits also have a long tradition of educating the laity, and
 still provide a secular and religious education that is the equal of any
 other in the world."

 * Requires Church School, Catholic Nation
 * +2 Happiness for the Catholic Population (Lower Classes)
 * Converts the Populace to Catholicism
 * Spawns religious agents. Maximum Number: +1


--==Konglig Museum==--

"This impressive collection of art would be an ornament to any nation.

 The Royal Musuem was founded in 1792 by King Gustav III, and gave a home
 to his exquisite artwork collection. It now forms the core of the Swedish
 National Museum.

 Gustav was an absolutist, as might be expected of a nephew of Frederick the
 Great of Prussia. He objected to parliamentary reforms, sought to distract
 everyone's attention with an unsuccessful war against Russia and ignored
 public opinion. Although he was a playright and a patron of music, the arts
 and sciences, and spent liberally on all of them, he did so without gaining
 much popularity against the people or nobles. His museum was the result of
 his free spending ways: where art was concerned, he was rather liberal with
 his money.

 In the end, Gustav was assassinated by a conspiracy of noblemen at the
 Royal Opera House, an event that itself turned into an opera by Giuseppe
 Verdi, Un ballo in maschera (The Masked Ball). Verdi had to change many of
 the details due to government censorship, as the assassination of a monarch
 was felt to be a bit too controversal in Italy of the 1850s."

 * Requires Grand Opera House
 * +5 Happiness (Lower Classes)
 * +5 Happiness (Nobility)
 * Enhances National Prestige
 * Highest ranked Cultural building in Stockhelm built by the Swedes


--==Koninklijke Kweekschool voor de Zeevaart==--

"This naval school produces fine naval officers for Dutch sea service.

 The Dutch Navy owes its existance to the arming of Dutch trading ships in
 the 16th Century and earlier, often indirect contravention of orders from
 their Spanish overlords. The independently-minded Dutch were not minded
 to take much notice of such instructions. A centralised navy, dedicated 
 solely to warfare, could trace its origins back to 1488, and had managed
 to dominate the seas for much of that time.

 A formal training system for officers, however, had to wait until 1785
 when this land-based training establishment was opened. Before that, officers
 had learned their trade at sea, in a very practical way. the whole business
 was formalised under the short-lived Republic of Batavia (1795-1806),
 although by this time maritime supremacy had passed to the Royal British
 Navy. Nevertheless, the Kweekschool voor de Zeevaart was one of the most
 prestigious naval schools, and produced fine officers."

 * +1 Happiness (Nobility)
 * +1 Happiness (Middle Classes)
 * -5% Upkeep Costs for all Naval Units
 * Enhances National Prestige


--==Kunstkamera==--

"This huge collection of natural curiosities and rarities is intended to 
 educate and inform.

 The museum was the idea of Peter the Great, and was built facing his 
 magnificant Winter Palace in the purpose-built "window on the west" of St.
 Petersburg. The collection has a morbid, even prurient air to it, as it 
 features a huge number of "natural curiosities" in the form of human and
 animal foetuses and still-births, all carefully preserved so that their 
 details can be studied. The point, however, wasn't simply to collect odd 
 items for the sake of collecting oddities. Peter the Great wished to debunk
 the superstitions and fears of Russia which, even though he was the tsar,
 he regarded as backwards and ignorant. 

 He had little interest in collecting man-made objects, unlike the hunters 
 and collectors of antiquities at other great museums of the time. Major 
 collection of minerals, rocksand scientific instruments were added to the
 Kunstkamera (a word derived from the Dutch). The museum survived as a single
 collection for around a century, then its collections were despatched to a 
 variety of Imperial museums."

 * +5 Happiness (Lower Classes)
 * +5 Happiness (Nobility)
 * Enhances National Prestige
 * Requires Great Museum
 * Built as highest ranked cultural building in Moscow by the Russians


--==Large Ashram==--

"An ashram offers wisdom and learning to all those who come within its 
 walls.

 This retreat from the cares of the world is a place of peace and 
 tranquility, as well as a place of profound learing and contemplation. 
 Not quite a monastry, or matha, an ashram is bound by an informal code
 of conduct laid down by the religious leader or sage who leads it.

 Traditionally, the ashram are detacted from everyday concerns, and 
 concentrate to the spiritual development of the students. Some act as
 schools for children too. Even though they are places of peace, not 
 everyont who makes a pilgramage to an ashram has peaceful intent. The
 journey, both internal and external, can teach a warrior much about the
 business of warfare and some ashrams do offer a form of martial arts
 training. In the Hindu epic: The Ramayana, warrior princes receieve
 weapons training at an ashram."

 * +2 Happiness for the Hindu Population (lower classes)
 * Converts the populace to Hinduism
 * Spawns religious agents. Maximum number: +1


--==Large Coffee Plantation==--

"Plantations are a very successful method of growing cash crops to meet demand
 in the home market. For the owner, a large plantation is a prestigious 
 investment.

 The profits, however, can be substantial, and this wealth is often reinvested
 in recreating an upper-crust lifestyle for the plantation's owning family.
 This is true even in republics; egalitarianism only extends so far, and 
 rarely includes the field hands doing the back-breaking labour! Owners behave
 with staggering levels of brutality towards their workers, regardless of 
 whether or not they are formally slaves. Partly, of course, it is fear that
 leads them to behave this way: the workers outnumber the overseers many times
 over.

 A large plantation is also an island of home luxuries in an alien land. 
 Owners have money to import anything and everything from home, and some take
 the opportunity to behave like kings in their own tiny empires. They are the
 propertied classes, the ones with influence, and few people at home really
 care about their methods."

 * Requires Small Coffee Plantation
 * 25 Sacks of Coffee produced each turn


--==Large Cotton Plantation==--

"Plantations are a very successful method of growing cash crops to meet demand
 in the home market. For the owner, a large plantation is a prestigious 
 investment.

 The profits, however, can be substantial, and this wealth is often reinvested
 in recreating an upper-crust lifestyle for the plantation's owning family.
 This is true even in republics; egalitarianism only extends so far, and 
 rarely includes the field hands doing the back-breaking labour! Owners behave
 with staggering levels of brutality towards their workers, regardless of 
 whether or not they are formally slaves. Partly, of course, it is fear that
 leads them to behave this way: the workers outnumber the overseers many times
 over.

 A large plantation is also an island of home luxuries in an alien land. 
 Owners have money to import anything and everything from home, and some take
 the opportunity to behave like kings in their own tiny empires. They are the
 propertied classes, the ones with influence, and few people at home really
 care about their methods."

 * Requires Small Cotton Plantation
 * 25 Bales of Cotton produced each turn


--==Large Madrassa==--

"A madrassa is an Islamic place of learning, where Muslims can study not only
 their faith, but also the law, jurisprudence, science and history.

 These schools are often attached to mosques, but they do not offer religious
 instruction alone. Those who wish to do so many study the Qur'an, and become
 honoured as a "hafiz" when they have memorised the whole text. Others may
 choose a wider syllabus and learn additional subjects such as history, logic,
 shari'ah law, the Hadith - the recorded sayings and deeds of the Prophet, 
 peace be upon him - and correct intrepretation of the Qur'an. Those who 
 finish their studies will gain status as scholars and imams, and become
 leaders in the wider commmunity expected to intrepret the law and religion
 for their fellow Muslims.

 Historically, some madrassas offered their pupils an even wider choice of
 subjects, including Arabic literature, literature, English, French, Dutch and
 other useful trade languages as well as science, mathematics and world 
 history. The scholars produced were intelliectually rounded individuals, 
 often better prepared for later studies than the counterparts in Europe. 
 There were even madrassas that specialised as medical schools."

 * +2 Happiness for the Muslim Population (Lower Classes)
 * Converts the populace to Islam
 * Spawns religious agents. Maximum number: +1


--==Large Spice Plantation==--

"Plantations are a very successful method of growing cash crops to meet demand
 in the home market. For the owner, a large plantation is a prestigious 
 investment.

 The profits, however, can be substantial, and this wealth is often reinvested
 in recreating an upper-crust lifestyle for the plantation's owning family.
 This is true even in republics; egalitarianism only extends so far, and 
 rarely includes the field hands doing the back-breaking labour! Owners behave
 with staggering levels of brutality towards their workers, regardless of 
 whether or not they are formally slaves. Partly, of course, it is fear that
 leads them to behave this way: the workers outnumber the overseers many times
 over.

 A large plantation is also an island of home luxuries in an alien land. 
 Owners have money to import anything and everything from home, and some take
 the opportunity to behave like kings in their own tiny empires. They are the
 propertied classes, the ones with influence, and few people at home really
 care about their methods."

 * Requires Small Spice Plantation
 * 25 Pounds of Spice produced each turn


--==Large Sugar Plantation==--

"Plantations are a very successful method of growing cash crops to meet demand
 in the home market. For the owner, a large plantation is a prestigious 
 investment.

 The profits, however, can be substantial, and this wealth is often reinvested
 in recreating an upper-crust lifestyle for the plantation's owning family.
 This is true even in republics; egalitarianism only extends so far, and 
 rarely includes the field hands doing the back-breaking labour! Owners behave
 with staggering levels of brutality towards their workers, regardless of 
 whether or not they are formally slaves. Partly, of course, it is fear that
 leads them to behave this way: the workers outnumber the overseers many times
 over.

 A large plantation is also an island of home luxuries in an alien land. 
 Owners have money to import anything and everything from home, and some take
 the opportunity to behave like kings in their own tiny empires. They are the
 propertied classes, the ones with influence, and few people at home really
 care about their methods."

 * Requires Small Sugar Plantation
 * 25 Loaves of Sugar produced each turn


--==Large Tea Plantation==--

"Plantations are a very successful method of growing cash crops to meet demand
 in the home market. For the owner, a large plantation is a prestigious 
 investment.

 The profits, however, can be substantial, and this wealth is often reinvested
 in recreating an upper-crust lifestyle for the plantation's owning family.
 This is true even in republics; egalitarianism only extends so far, and 
 rarely includes the field hands doing the back-breaking labour! Owners behave
 with staggering levels of brutality towards their workers, regardless of 
 whether or not they are formally slaves. Partly, of course, it is fear that
 leads them to behave this way: the workers outnumber the overseers many times
 over.

 A large plantation is also an island of home luxuries in an alien land. 
 Owners have money to import anything and everything from home, and some take
 the opportunity to behave like kings in their own tiny empires. They are the
 propertied classes, the ones with influence, and few people at home really
 care about their methods."

 * Requires Small Tea Plantation
 * 25 Chests of Tea produced each turn


--==Large Tobacco Plantation==--

"Plantations are a very successful method of growing cash crops to meet demand
 in the home market. For the owner, a large plantation is a prestigious 
 investment.

 The profits, however, can be substantial, and this wealth is often reinvested
 in recreating an upper-crust lifestyle for the plantation's owning family.
 This is true even in republics; egalitarianism only extends so far, and 
 rarely includes the field hands doing the back-breaking labour! Owners behave
 with staggering levels of brutality towards their workers, regardless of 
 whether or not they are formally slaves. Partly, of course, it is fear that
 leads them to behave this way: the workers outnumber the overseers many times
 over.

 A large plantation is also an island of home luxuries in an alien land. 
 Owners have money to import anything and everything from home, and some take
 the opportunity to behave like kings in their own tiny empires. They are the
 propertied classes, the ones with influence, and few people at home really
 care about their methods."

 * Requires Small Tobacco Plantation
 * 25 Barrels of Tobacco produced each turn


--==Lazienki Park==--

"These magnificant gardens are a splendid setting for any royal palace.
 
 The Park and its gardens were acquired by Stanislaw II August Poniatowski,
 the last King and Grand Duke of the Polish-Lithanuian Commonwealth, after
 his election. Although already impressive, he set about remodelling them, and
 made the gardens his life's work, building his "Palace on the Water" in a
 suitable magnificant setting by the Lake. This watery connection was how the
 park got its name of Lazienki or "Royal Baths" Park after the bathing 
 pavilion that was constructed in the gardens.

 The garden was also a magnificant setting for Stanislaw's regular dinner 
 parties with leading artists, writers and politicans. While Stanislaw was 
 something of an autocrat, he was also a believer in education and the ideas
 of the Enlightenment, using the dinners to engage with leading thinkers.

 The park and palaces were lucky to survive the Warsaw Rising in 1944. They
 were mined for destruction, but the German occupiers never completed their
 demolition works, although Lazienki Palace was burned."

 * +5 Happiness (Nobility)
 * +5 Happiness (Lower Classes)
 * Enhances National Prestige
 * Requires Great Museum
 * Built by the Polish as highest Cultural Building in Warsaw


--==Local Fishery==--

"No one can afford to ignore a plentiful, cheap source of food. Inshore 
 fishing can bring in good catches. 

 A local fishery, however, only takes fish from waters nearby, and most 
 fishermen use small boats, thus limiting the overall size of the catch.
 There is always a surplus that can be sent inland to supplement local food
 supplies. While catches can be seasonal as fish come and go according to the
 tides and currents, it is rare for the catch to fail completely. Fishing is 
 a dangerous activity; each year the sea claims it's share of fishing fleets
 and the lives of many men.

 Historically, fish was an important food staple all over the world. There 
 were religious prescriptions that encourages the eating of fish such as
 the Catholic requirement not to each flesh on a Friday. Islamic jurisprudence
 sees fish with scales as halal (permissible), while some authorities hold 
 that shelled sea creatures are haraam (forbidden). Given the bottom-dwelling
 nature of mussels, clans, and so on and the risk of inherent food poisoning
 if they are improperly stored or cooked, this is a sensible precaution."

 * 2 Turns to Build
 * +0.6% to Population Growth
 * +X Coins to Region Wealth (Depends on the Town's Wealth)
 * Recruits: Sloop


--==Local Fishery (Native)==--

"Fishing is an activity undertaken by all members of the tribe, using a 
 variety of tools and techniques.

 Like many aspects of the Native American way of life, fishing is dependent
 upon the seasons. Ice fishing in winter is a cold, lonely and slow business
 compared to using nets and lures in spring. The arrival of fish off the coast
 and in rivers is also tied to the passing seasons.

 Fish often played a key part in mythology, none more than the salmon. One
 tale tells of a salmon becoming involved in a contest for a chief's daughter.
 The contest saw the salmon break a set of elk antlers into pieces to win the
 hand of the young maiden."

 * Improves export capacity (increases trade values)
 * +1 trade routes possible (sea)
 * +0.3% to Population Growth
 * +X Coins to region wealth (Depends on Yield)


--==Logging Camp==--

"Virgin forests are a vital strategic as well as economic resource. A logging 
 camp allows the tall timber to be cut and used locally or shipped to the home
 country.

 Apart from its obvious uses in construction and as fuel, timber is vital for
 shipbuilding. All vessels of the period are entirely wooden, and need 
 hundreds of tons of good quality lumber, of many kinds, each. Frames and  
 structural members, for example, are made of oak. Buildings also use a large 
 amount of wood both in the structure and during the building process as 
 scaffolding.

 Historically, the forests of the eastern seaboard of America was extremely
 useful strategic resources, as they became an excellent source of the trees
 needed for masts and yards for the British Royal Navy. By their nature, masts
 need tall trees! Other types of timber became important cash crops, such as
 mahogany found in the Far East, prized for its strength and beauty."

 * +X Coins to Region Wealth (Depends on Yield of the Forest)


--==Lumber Mill==--

"A water-powered lumber mill produces logs and sawn timber from prime forests.
 Its semi-finished product can then be sold on local markets or shipped to the
 home market. 

 It is more efficient to ship half-finished planks and logs than tree trunks,
 this increasing profits from logging. Even though most of the equipment used
 is brought in from home, a lumber mill on a good site can easily repay the
 investment. The hard work needed to dig a mill pond and race, as well as 
 carefully position a waterwheel is also handsomely repaid when a powered saw
 starts work. 

 Historically, it was possible for a logging operation to denude a forest of 
 all its profitable trees, in the process causing terrible environmental 
 damage. Without the trees, the soil is soon gone, washed away in the first
 strong rains. It then becomes impossible for any kind of forest to 
 re-establish itself. This worried hardly anyone in the 18th Century (there
 were exceptions - some men did go out of their way to plant trees so that
 navies would never be without supplies), as the world had been given to 
 men to subdue, and there were always more trees in the next valley."

 * Requires Logging Camp
 * +X Coins to Region Wealth (Depends on Yield of the Forest)


--==Magistrate==--

"The magistrate is, for common people, the government made flesh. There may be
 a president or governor on the coinage, but it is the magistrate's 
 pronouncements that really matter!

 Law and order are the basis of good, bad and indifferent government. 
 Appointed as a judge for his local standing, the magistrate of a region often
 acts as an administrator, tax collecter, thief-taker, leader in charitably 
 good works, military recruitment and father figure to his community. A 
 magistrate usually represents both the state and the landed classes. It is 
 his task, as often as not, to protect the rights of property than of people,
 even when a republican regime is in power - liberty and equally are all very
 well, but the deserving rich need to be sure their wealth is safe!

 Magistrates also often have the power to raise troops as formed units, and to
 send convicted men into the military as a punishment. The magistrate, 
 therefore, becomes the first line of defence against the mob in times of 
 disorder."

 * +1 Repression in the Region, Constitutional Monarchy
 * Recruitment Capacity (Units in Training) : 1
 * Recruits: Infantry Units


--==Maharaja's Palace==--

"A palace that is almost beyond magnificant, intended to be the envy and 
 amazement of the world.

 All places are intended to overawe and intimidate those who seek an
 audience. The scale of everything is monumental and slightly inhuman, 
 providing the ultimate stage for the public exercise of absolute power. 
 This palace is the external realisation in marble and gold and the 
 fundamental truth that here is a sovereign lord who has no limits: nothing
 is beyond his ambition. The entire resources of the state can be spent to
 create such a palace, if desired, if it costs a thousand lives, no matter.
 Within the walls, the palace is a world within a world, where offical 
 prequisites are jealously guarded and fought over, even as the officals
 scurry to carry out their master's every wish.

 Historically, such as the Winter Palace in St Petersburg, Russia, and the
 High Porte, the private court of the Ottoman Sultans, were almost small
 towns in themselves. Their grandour still inspires admiration and amazement,
 even today. From the Tsar and the Sultan downward, there was a strict
 hierarchy with everyone plotting and counter-plotting to keep or gain 
 status. Even the servents "below stairs" had their own pecking order."

 * Requires Raja's Palace
 * +5 to Repression in the region
 * +15% coin bonus to region tax income
 * Recruitment capacity (units in training) : 3
 * Recruits basic infantry


--==Major Fishery==--

"A major fishery is a complex network of workshops and small industries, all
 providing the equipment needed for large scale fishing.

 Life for a fisherman is hard, with months at sea in harsh conditions chasing
 the shoals. Ashore, there are many people working to exploit the catch. Apart
 from the craftsmen directly involved in ship and boat building, chandlers, 
 net weavers, and the like, there are also smokehouse operators, coopers, salt
 merchants, shippers - and in some parts of the world, the inevitable press 
 gangs looking for experienced sailors. 

 Historically, hunting the largest "fish" of all - whales - was extremely 
 profitable and, depending on the species, highly dangerous. Whalers used 
 hand-thrown harpoons, often from large rowing boats launched from a mother
 ship. A wounded whale could easily destroy its hunters' flimsy craft. Again
 depending on the type, whales were taken for their meat, whalebone (baleen,
 the "comb" used to filter out plankton when feeding) and their blubber, which
 was rendered down into whale oil (actually a kind of runny wax) used in 
 lighting, cosmetics and industry."

 * Requires Fishing Fleet
 * +1.2% to Population Growth
 * +400 Coin to Region Wealth
 * Recruits: Basic Battle Vessels


--==Meeting Hall==--

"A place for the community to, socialise and have their say on tribal matters.

 A wise chief listens to his people, and use their collective wisdom and 
 instincts. The meeting hall gives a venue where their concerns can be heard
 and tribal business carried forward. The hall is also the social centre of
 the tribe too, where happy occasions such as marriages and births can be
 celebrated.

 Meeting halls were decorated with beautiful depictions of tribal history,
 the spirits and important animals. Some tribes also practiced sand painting,
 although this was used as a healing ritual. The sand images varied 
 according to the sickness to be cured, and the beauty of the work affected
 the success of the healing."

 * +4 Happiness (Lower Classes)
 * +4 Happiness (Nobility)
 * Conducts technology research. Points per turn: 20


--==Military Academy==--

"A military academy is a training establishment for young officers, those who
 must rely on talent, rather than connections or wealth, for perferment.

 In most countries, military command is limited to those in the ruling 
 classes. There is a quite sensible belief that only those with a stake in  
 the survival of society will defend it properly. However, they are 
 counter-arguments to the effects that military matters are complicated, and
 "gentlemen amateurs", no matter how well connected, are not good enough,
 Military academies, therefore, teach the theory and practice of the military
 sciences. The graduates, however, are sometimes regarded as common tradesmen
 because of their knowledge.

 The French were the pre-eminent military power of Western Europe, and lead 
 the way in military training with the creation of a "Ecole Militaire" in 
 1751 to educating promising cadets from poorer backgrounds. It was later
 re-organised and re-named as the "Ecole des Cadets-gentilshommes" or "School
 of Young Gentlemen" which subverted the original intent, although Napoleon
 Bonaparte was a graduate of the new school. By contrast, the United 
 Kingdom's military schools mostly provided an education for the orphans of
 serving officers, with no more than the hope that the pupils would go into
 the army. The Ottoman military system included the Janissaries, a class of
 warrior-administrators, selected and indoctrinated as children, who 
 effectively ran the Ottoman Empire."

 * Requires Drill School
 * Recruitment Capacity (Units in Training): 2
 * Enables Research of New Model Bayonet Drill, Diamond Formation, Reorganised
   Procurement, Fire and Advance
 * Recruits Intermediate Infantry and Cavalry


--==Military Governor's Barracks==--

"Barracks provide more than simple housing blocks for regular military forces.
 The buildings also serve to remind the local people who is in charge.

 They are a statement in brick and stone that the military are present to 
 defend the state and keep order. Usually constructed around a drill square,
 they are a carefully segregated military would deliberately kept from the
 civilians beyond. The walls present a blank, defensible, and intimidating
 face to the outside world. It can be important to keep troops away from the
 assorted temptations of flesh and the bottle. Civilians also harbour 
 unsuitable, unmilitary ideas of disobedience and disloyalty - there must be
 limits to what an army can permit its men to think!

 Historically, in Europe the fashion for building barracks blocks seemed to
 mirror the fascination with the Classical World of Greece and Rome. Among its
 other achievements, the Roman army had stantardised designs for military
 buildings; armies in the 18th Century began to be similarly standardised.
 Governments employed good architects too: Nicholas Hawksmoor, for example,
 built the garrison barracks at Berwick-upon-Tweed for the British government.
 He was almost the equal of Sir Christopher Wren in talent if not in lasting
 fame, and produced many fine churches to replace those lost in the Great Fire
 of London."

 * Requires Military Governor's Encampment
 * +1 to Repression in Region
 * +2% Coin Bonus to Region Tax Income
 * Recruitment Capacity (Units in Training) : 2
 * Recruits: Basic and Intermediate Infantry, Cavalry, Artillery


--==Military Governor's Encampment==--

"Moving an army into an encampment well away from civilians is a useful
 thing to do. Soldiers no longer have easy access to the "demon drink" for
 start!

 Seperating troops from civilians also allows better training and 
 indoctrination. Regiments have the space to practice drills and instil
 discipline in their men. Civilians also have funny ideas, and it is often
 best if common soldiers do not learn of their freethinking and sometime
 disloyal ways.

 An encampment, however, does not always look very military. Apart from the
 fact that soldiers could carry on their civilian trades to supplement their
 army wages, an army encampment would also be thronged with women and 
 children. Soldier's wives were expected to look after their men; wash, cook,
 clean, sew uniforms, act as nurses, and even help bury the dead! A cunning
 officer who once managed "the baggage" well could effectively double the 
 number of hands there were for fetching and carrying. Among the children, 
 young boys could find employment for drummers and musicians from as young
 as ten years of age. Historically, it was not unknown for officers to enrol
 their own children (even babies!) as musicians, so that they gained seniority
 from the date they joined the army!"

 * Requires Governor's Residence
 * +1 to Repression in the region
 * +2% Coin bonus to region tax income
 * Recruitment Capacity (Units in Training) : 1
 * Recruits: Basic Infantry, Cavalry and Artillery


--==Modern University==--

"This is a centre of learning and original thought, where the sciences and 
 arts of Mankind are extended.

 The investigation of the universe, and disputation over the results, are not
 done out of any sense of altruism, of course. National pride in intellectual
 achievement is an important motve in the work undertaken. Personal pride and
 ambition are also stern taskmasters. But what is significant is that the 
 ideas, theories and fact generated at the university are not kept within 
 the academic elite. This flowering of learning informs and inspires artists, 
 poets and musicians, and well-read laymen too. The practical benefits of the
 advances made here percolate out into the wider national society, improving
 life for the ordinary people in ways both small and dramatic.

 In the 18th Century, great universities and the great minds they attracted
 were sources of nationalistic pride. Sir Issac Newton was lauded across 
 Europe for his work at Cambridge in England. The University of Gottingen 
 aided the development of "German-ness" by publishing research and standard
 texts in German as well as Latin (the traditional language of learning).
 Gottingen was also unusual in, rather daringly, letting lecturers teach any
 book with reference to the State of Church!"

 * Requires Classical University
 * -7 Happiness. Clamour for Reform
 * Conducts technological research. Points per turn: 24
 * Spawns Gentlemen. Maximum Number: +1
 * Enhances National Prestige
 * Enables research of Citizenship, Secular Humanism, Free Trade Doctrine, 
   Abolition of Slavery, Classical Economics


--==National Academy==--

"An academy is a "gentlemen's club", of sorts, for the greatest minds of a 
 nation to gather for discourse, lectures, debates and some very nice dinners.

 Academies concern themselves with all aspects of national, cultural and 
 scientific life. From the most abstract of mathematical conundrums to the
 collection of natural wonders and the study of languages and lexicography,
 nothing is outside the interests of academicians. The members are, by and
 large, selected by their peers, although individual governments do use their
 influence to secure places for worthy men - and these learned societies are
 not above granting membership to royalty in the hope of securing patronage!

 Large projects were matters of national prestige. The Academic francaisem
 was charged with the collation of an offical French dictionary. The epic
 voyage of Captain Cook, RN, in 1768-71 was partly influences by the desire
 of the British Royal Society to observe the transit of Venus across the
 Sun from Tahiti. Other nations sent observers to, among other places, Canada
 and Siberia - Cook got the nicest destination! By observing the event from
 different sides of the Earth, parallax made it possible to calculate the 
 size of the solar system and establish the astronomical unit.

 * Requires National Observatory
 * +2 Happiness (Lower Classes)
 * +2 Happiness (Middle Classes)
 * +8% to Technology Research Rate
 * Spawns Gentlemen. Maximum Number +1
 * Enhances National Prestige


--==National Observatory==--

"An observatory is a centre of many scientific studies, not just astronomy. 
 All the phyiscal sciences are advanced here.

 The study of the heavens leads to advances in mathematics, and improvements
 in scientific instrument making, horology, and perhaps most importantly of
 them all, navigation and surveying. Accurate star charts and lunar tables 
 (showing the phases of the moon) enable sailors to accurately determine
 their position at sea, and a navy that can navigate accurately is one that
 can carry out its duties effectively. An observatory is also a centre for
 national prestige, as discoveries made and published reflect well on the
 institute and the nation that funds its work.

 Historically, observatories were vital in the development of navigation
 and accurate clocks. This is why the zero-degree longitude line passes 
 through the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, London (until 1884 most states
 used their own nationalistic reference points.) Indeed, the nationalism
 of astronomy often leads to the ignorance of the observations and 
 deductions of non-European astronomers.

 Astronomers could also be outrageous flatterers. After he discovered what
 he thought was a new planet, Sir William Herschel chose the name "Georgium
 Sidus", or George's Star, in a transparant bit of sucking up to his patron,
 King George III. Other astronomers also flirted with the name "Herschel" 
 then settled on "Uranus" for the new planet."

 * Requires Opera House
 * +4% to Technology Research Rate
 * Spawns Gentlemen. Maximum Number +1
 * Enhances National Prestige
 * +2 Happiness (Lower Classes)
 * +2 Happiness (Middle Classes)


--==Nautch Dancing School==--

"Dancing has a long history in India, both as entertainment and act of 
 worship. Nautch dancing is for entertaining people, not honouring the gods!

 The dancers draw on Hindu temple traditions, but their dances are secular. 
 All styles of dance can fall into the category of Nautch, but the dancers
 are always well-presented and graceful girls. Indeed, a career as a Nautch
 girl can be a way for a girl to work her way out of poverty or a low
 social caste. Good performers can find work in the courts of rulers from 
 nawabs to zamindars, and their presence adds considerable lustre to any
 formal event. Muslim rulers also employ Nautch dancers to entertain their
 guests.

 Historically, Nautch dancing rose to prominence under the Mughal emperors
 but they continued to be popular, even when the British East India Company
 took over much of the administration of the Indian sub-continent."

 * +1 Happiness (Lower Classes)
 * +1 Happiness (Nobility)


--==Naval Board==--

"Ships at sea were a visible sign of naval power but without organisation, 
 they are worthless. A naval administration keeps the fleets at sea running
 smoothly.

 More than simply organising supplies, fleet movements, promotions and pay,
 a naval administration also draws up plans for the future: it oversees
 construction of new dockyards and naval facilities, husbands scarce 
 resources (some sea-going officers would say a little too carefully), and
 collects navigation charts and improved ship designs from all over the 
 world. The navy secretariat studies anything worthwhile to make the sea 
 service more effective or (better yet) cheaper!

 As navies increased in size during the 18th Century, the support 
 organisations ashore become correspondingly large. The Royal Navy was the
 largest "business" in the world, employing tens of thousands of workers 
 to produce everything needed for the fleet from ropes to nails, yards to
 swivel guns. The functionaries needed to oversee this enterprise had to 
 be clever, clear thinking and reasonably honest; a man would give a 
 lucrative contract to friends, if he could, but not if it risked the good
 of the Service. Other nations never really matched the efficiency of the
 British Royal Navy system, and their fleets at sea suffered as a result."

 * Requires Admiralty, Naval Shore Facilties
 * Enhances National Prestige
 * Enables Naval Architecture Advances, Improved Grape Shot, Longitude 
   Watch, Reformed Naval Administration, Carronades, Lime Juice and 
   Sauerkraut, Copper Bottoms


--==Naval College==--

"This school provides a theoretical and academic education in all matters
 of seamanship to young men desirous of a career in the naval service.

 The college exists to provide the practical mathematics needed for safe
 navigation, a theoretical understanding of the mysteries of ship building
 (a complex subject, given the rigging of most ships), gunnery, swordsmanship,
 the manners of gentlemen, some Classics, perhaps a foreign language, and the
 laws and usages of war. The final product is a junior officer who is 
 presentable, but not necessarily useful aboard a ship! A stupid or ill-
 prepared man could sink his ship and kill his crew as surely as any enemy,
 and to master their chosen profession newly-minted officers must go to sea.

 In the 18th Century, virtually every navy recognised the need for 
 professional naval officers. While men had nothing more to offer than good
 breeding could do a fine job in command of armies, ship's captains really
 needed to know their jobs, otherwise their careers really would end on the
 rocks! The better navies of the time operated as a "moderated meritocracy" -
 influence and connections still counted, but ability, training and character
 counted for more."

 * Requires Naval Board
 * Enhances National Prestige
 * Enables Rifled Cannons, Improved Coppering, Sheet Lead Cartridges, Top
   Gallants, Preserved Food


--==Naval Hospital==--

"A naval hospital gives high quality care to the sick and wounded. A sailor
 who finds himself looked after here can count himself lucky!

 The navy pays for doctors and surgeons to cure his infirmities: he has a
 bed in a clean ward, and best of all, he cannot spend his pay on drink and
 loose living. From the navy's point of view, their men are returned to duty
 quickly and cannot desert or be "crimped" (pressed into service) by 
 unscrupulous carers.

 Historically, illness abaord ship could be a serious problem: "ship fever"
 (typhus) could destroy a crew more surely than a battle. It was traditional
 to put the sick ashore and leave them in the dubious care of lodging house
 and tavern owners. Death was the most likely outcome for the patient. The
 British Royal Navy constructed hospitals ashore to look after their sick
 and wounded: skilled seamen, it has to be said, were not easy to find, and
 taking good care of them made excellent sense. Better health care for sailors
 also came in small matters, such as the Royal Navy's "portable soup", a kind
 of dried beef stock that made a hot meal with the addition of hot water
 and a few vegetables. Good food aboard ship was as important as good 
 doctoring ashore."

 * Requires Drydock
 * Enhances national prestige
 * Recruits nearly all battle worthy ships


--==Nur-u Osmaniye Mosque==--

"This magnificant Baroque and Rococo mosque is one of the finest religious 
 buildings ever constructed.

 It is designed in a style that was extremely popular in the Ottoman Empire
 of the 1700s, and was ordered by the Sultan Mahmud I in 1748. Unfortunately
 for him, it was only completed in the reign of Sultan Osman III in 1755, and
 is probably the most significant achievement of that particular sultan. The
 name of the mosque, "Light of Osman" commemorates his efforts in financing
 this superb, light, airy buliding with its many windows.

 By most standards (even those of an 18th Century absolute monarch) Osman was
 a little odd. He was notably intolerant towards non-Muslims and generally
 regarded as a bit insignificant before he took the throne. He had lived much
 of his life within the palace as a prisoner. He loathed music, and banished
 every musician from his court. He also found the company of women extremely
 distasteful, having been imprisoned within the harem section of the palace.
 When he became Sultan he took to wearing iron shoes so that his approach 
 would always be audible. Any women in the vicinity were expected to hear him
 coming, and then find somewhere to hide while he passed by. He was 
 succeeded by Mustafa II, a better fellow and ruler by far."

 * Requires Great Museum
 * +5 Happiness (Lower Classes)
 * +5 Happiness (Nobility)
 * Enhances National Prestige
 * Built by the Turks has the highest Cultural building in Istanbul


--==Ornamental Tulip Gardens==--

"Formal gardens are a place of quiet comtemplation, where the cares and 
 burdens of the state can be set aside for a while.

 The tulip is a native flower of, among other places, Anatolia, and the 
 flower has long been prized by the Ottomans. Planted in formal gardens, the
 design of which owes much to the Persian "paradise garden", they are a 
 spectular display of shapes and colour. The layout of the gardens is intended
 to reflect the layout of paradise, and perfect blooms are a part of that.

 Despite the insane finanical spectulation of "tulip mania" in Holland during
 the 17th Century, the tulip was not a native plant; it had arrived from the
 Ottoman Empire. The Dutch, however, were quite innovative when they indulged
 in the lunacy of tulip spectulation, trading individual bulbs at ridiculously
 inflated prices. They even operated a "tulip futures" market on specimens
 that hadn't even been planted or grown! Dishonest was rife and eventually the
 spectulation had to stop; the tulip market collapsed, like all financial 
 bubbles, leaving many penniless. The tulip, fortunately, remains a popular
 garden plant to this day, although thankfully without the financial jiggery-
 pokery! Gardeners with too much money did pay high prices for tulip bulbs
 in the 18th Century although these were for planting, not financial
 speculation."

 * Requires School of Poetry
 * +3 Happiness (Lower Classes)
 * +3 Happiness (Nobility)


--==Open Gem Pit==--

"Wherever gems are found, men will work in the most foul of conditions in the
 hope of striking it rich.

 This is simply an open pit - the word quarry is hardly appropriate, as that
 would imply some sort of organisation - where workers scrabble in the mud
 to find gemstones. As miners are only paid for what they find, it is possible
 for men to work for days or week shifting mud and rock without seeing a 
 single penny. The prospect of find that one, valuable strike is enough to
 keep them going, even when the risk of the pit collapsing is great.

 Others work the spoil heaps, searching for valuable stones that have been
 thrown aside in the rush to delve into the earth. What with the diggings,
 the shantytown that surrounds the working, and the spoil heaps, an open pit
 is an eyesore. It is also some of the most valuable real estate in the
 world.

 * +X to Region Wealth (Depends on Yield of Gem Field)


--==Opera House==--

"An opera house was a sumptuous feature for the performance of highly 
 stylized musical plays. Society figures attend to be seen rather than for
 amusement.
 
 No expense is spared in making an opera house a grand venue. An opera house
 rivals many great palaces with the luxury of its fixtures and fittings, as
 these public areas for the audience are more important than the 
 entertainment. Theatrical contrivances and mechanical tricks may make the
 staging as grand as the music, but for the elite it was the gossip, plotting
 and backbiting that is the real pleasure of a night at the opera.

 In the 18th Century opera was done in the Italian "serious" style, a musical
 form that influenced many non-Italian composers such as Mozart. The plots
 were intentionally simple, based on Classical themes, usually tragic and 
 often had a highly conservative bent - as befitted the tastes of the patrons
 paying for the music. Many are still performed today. One fashion that has
 (mercifully) ended is the use of castrati singers: young men gelded so 
 that their voices did not break and remained in the soprano range."

 * Requires Conservatorium
 * +2 Happiness (Lower Classes)
 * +2 Happiness (Middle Classes)


--==Ordnance Board==--

"This council of state is charged with looking after all matters relating to
 the production and use of artillery.

 The committee is in charge of the design, development, casting and storage
 of artillery pieces for all the armed forces. The members are also in charge
 of powder production for the army and navy too, all too often with the 
 bureaucratic muddle and rivalry that this can cause. The Ordnance is an
 important national asset because artillery is very expensive and yet a 
 measure of national power.

 Historically, great guns and siege weapons always required specialists to
 operate them, men quite seperate from common soldiery. In charge was a 
 Master of Ordnance, a man of some importance in medieval royal households.
 His duties of looking after the king's artillery train eventually required
 a large staff of gunners, founders, powder makers, mathematicians, surveyors,
 and even wagon drivers. In time, all of these men came under the control of
 the Board or Council of Ordnance, depending on the state involved, and
 they extended their responsibilities to take in the management of fortresses
 and, in some cases, the manufacture of all weapons for the army and navy."

 * Requires Gunnery School
 * Enables Research of Quicklime Shells
 * Recruits nearly all artillery


--==Ordnance Factory==--

"An Ordnance factory is a large-scale enterprise dedicated to the design and
 manufacture of guns and their associated equipment for the army and navy.

 The large-scale manufacturing of cannons is a monopoly often retained by the
 state, even in a republic: there is no need for anyone other than a 
 government to own large cannons! The creation of large guns is also a  
 difficult and expensive business, and the state is the only authority that
 can afford to do it. The number of guns available is therefore a measure of
 national prestige, and the ability to produce guns (rather than buy them from
 foreigners) is equally prestigious. An Ordnance factory adds lustre and
 firepower to armies. 

 Historically, most Ordnance factories began as royal establishments, giving
 the crown in each nation a source of cannons. These were needed for reducing
 the castles of recalcitrant barons! Even though politics moved on, the
 state control of cannon production remained. The royal household, or near- 
 ministrial status of the Master Gunner or Master of the Ordnance is proof
 that artillery was an important part of national or royal prestige. Size
 really did matter! The Ottoman Turks had a strong tradition of artillery
 production, in particular heavy siege guns."

 * Requires Cannon Foundry, Canister Shot
 * Enables Research of Explosive Shells
 * Recruits More Artillery


--==Palacio Real de Madrid==--

"The Royal Palace is a suitable setting for any monarch with pretensions to 
 rule much of the world.

 Originally a Moorish fortress when Madrid was ruled by the Islamic emir of
 Cordoba, and then a castle under the stewardship of the Christian kings of
 Castile, the site was not regularly used as a royal residence. The Antiguo
 Alcazar or Old Castle dated back to the 16th Century, but this burned down
 on Christmas Eve, 1734.

 King Phillip V, the first of the Bourbon rulers of Spain, ordered a new 
 palace to be constructed. Perhaps he had it in mind to create a rival to
 Versailles, the palace of his grandfather, Louis XIV of France. In the 
 event, he died before the construction work was complete and never lived
 in the New Palace, as it was only in 1764 that Carlos III occupied the 
 building. As a setting for a monarchy, however, the palace had been well
 worth waiting for! It is vast: with 2800 rooms it is far bigger than any 
 other European palace.

 It is still the offical residance of the Spanish monarchy, although it is
 only used for state occasions."

 * +1 Happiness (Nobility)
 * +1 Happiness (Lower Classes)
 * +5 to Repression in the Region
 * +15% Coin to Region Tax Income
 * Recruitment Capacity (Units in Training) : 3
 * Enhances National Prestige
 * Recruits basic infantry
 * Built by the Spanish as the highest Government building in Madrid


--==Palais Bourbon==--

"Governments need a suitably magnificant setting to conduct their business.

 Lawmakers should meet in awe-inspiring and magnificant buildings, because
 then there is a chance that they will take the business of making new law
 seriously. If something cannot be built for the purpose, then taking the
 extremely expensive home of a "dashed aristo" will do quite nicely!

 Historically, the Palais Bourbon was built as a home for Louise-Francoise,
 duchesse de Bourbon, one Louis XIV's legitmised bastards by one of his 
 favourite mistresses, Francoise-Athenais de Montespan. The building, 
 although rather magnificant and scarcely a hovel, was not technically a 
 palace, because Louise-Francoise herself did not have royal rank. After the
 French Revolution, it was nationalised and used as a meeting place of the
 Council of Five Hundred. It is still a parliament building, now acting as
 home to the deputies of the French National Assembly, the lower legislative
 house of the French Republic. Louise-Francoise probably wouldn't recognise
 her old home, as it has been extensively remodelled.

 * Requires Imperial Palace
 * +1 Happiness (Lower Classes)
 * +1 Happiness (Nobility)
 * +5 to repression in the region
 * +15% coin bonus to region tax income
 * Recruitment Capacity (Units in Training) : 3
 * Enhances national prestige
 * Recruits basic infantry
 * Maximum Level of Government Building in Paris


--==Palatial Estate==--

"A royal palace set in its own magnificant gardens and parkland, complete with
 annals, artfully arranged woodlands, and a tame population of beautified
 peasants and animals.

 This is a pure statement of the nation's wealth and power. No expense is 
 spared in order to give the monarch a suitable setting. Apart from the
 landscape itself, which is carefully ordered to banish wild nature and the
 lower orders, the palace itself is a magnificant structure, unrestrained 
 by any budgetary constraints. This is a setting for balls, masques,
 intrigues, and plots, all under the watchful eye of the monarch and his
 inner circle.

 Versailles was probably the most magnificant example of this kind of 
 palace. From the palace itself to the mock farm (complete with sheep washed
 in eau de cologne) for the Queen to play at being a shepherdess, no 
 expense was spared. It was a very public projection of the wealth and the
 prestige of the Bourbons and of France itself. The place was designed  
 to overawe and confound lesser men with its sumptuous, sybaritic comforts."

 * Requires Great Estates
 * +1 Happiness (Nobility)
 * Enhances National Prestige
 * +0.9% to population growth
 * Reduces the chance of food shortages
 * +X Coins to Region Wealth (Depends on Yield of Farm)


--==Parliament Chamber==--

"This is the beating heart of the nation, where the representatives of the
 people meet to form a government for their sovereign.

 An assembly of the great and good passes law in the monarch's name for the
 good order of the state, and not all these laws will be necessarily wanted
 by the monarch. A good deal of hard-headed bargaining between the sovereign,
 his ministers and the parliamentary assembly ensures that while no one is
 entirely happy, no one is ever entirely excluded from the exercise and
 benefits of power. The assembled represenatives allow the monarch to collect
 taxes, and in return, the state protects the liberties of subjects. The 
 monarch is as bound by laws as his subjects.

 Despite the involvement of the people in government, there need be no broad
 franchise. Property requirements, social class and religious affiliation 
 often limit the entitlement to a vote. However, that the monarchy bothers
 to consult its subjects even to a limited extent is a remarkable thing: the
 sovereign has ceded power to the people and stuck by this contract, 
 recognising that mostly-willing subjects are better than unwilling slaves
 cowed into obedience."

 * Needs to be the Capital, Constitutional Monarchy
 * +4 to Repression in the region
 * +8% Coin Bonus to region tax income
 * Recruitment Capacity (Units in Training) : 2
 * Recruits Militia


--==Pasha's Palace==--

"This magificant palace is a pale reflection of a monarch's glory, power and
 wealth, not those of the governor's person.

 In an absolute monarchy, there is a great chain fo authority that stretches
 down from the monarch's person even to the lowliest of his subjects. Everyone
 has a place, sanctioned by time, custom and the approval of the monarch and
 no one is exempt from the awful majesty of the sovereign's power. This is
 especially true of governors away from the royal court. They may rule from 
 marble palaces, but they do so not in their own right but by the authority
 granted from the Crown. If any of them ever forgot that the grandeur and 
 luxury that surrouned them are entirely borrowed, the penalties for personal
 aggrandisement are terrible indeed. Having been raised up, they have an 
 awfully long way to fall. 

 In reality, many governor's residences in absolute monarchies combined luxury
 (for who was to say when the king would visit?) with enough barracks and
 stables to house a small army. Absolutism always relied on the concepts of
 the "rod and the axe" to maintain authority, although by the 18th Century  
 a good stock of gunpowder and a fine collection of artillery did better
 service."

 * Requires Bey's Mansion 
 * +3 to Repression in the region
 * +9% Coin Bonus to region tax income
 * Recruitment Capacity (Units in Training) : 2
 * Recruits basic infantry


--==Peasant Farms==--

"The basis of all agriculture is the humble peasant, labouring in the field
 to bring in his master's crop, or to keep his master's animals alive.

 Day-to-day life for a peasant farmer has barely changed in a thousand years.
 It is a short, hard life of abject poverty and backbreaking labour. He can
 expect nothing better than to work and die in the same village, tilling 
 the same fields, his life bounded by the same horizon. Peasant farms are not
 terribly efficient: the landowners have little interest beyond their rents
 and tithes. The problem for them is that peasant economies are, by their very
 nature, cash poor and most income is in kind, and there is a limit to where
 you can spend a goat!

 Historically, life for a peasant was pretty much the same all over the world:
 work from dawn to dusk. In Russia, the peasants were serfs tied to the land
 and the property of the landowner as much as any cow or goat. In India, 
 peasants were a caste locked into their social position by hallowed custom. 
 The system eventually broke down in Western Europe thanks to 
 industrializatio needing a constant supply of workers and changes in land
 usage."

 * 1 Turn to Build
 * +0.3% to Population Growth
 * Reduces the chance of food shortages
 * +X Coins to Region Wealth (Depends on Yield of Farming Region)
 * Enables research of Common Land Enclosures, Improved Animal Husbandry


--==Pioneer Cabins==--

"Pioneer cabins are built on land sold to European settlers. The sale provides
 a cash lump sum, but the Europeans cause unrest by their presence.

 Log cabins provide shelter and safety for pioneers as they migrate to
 the unexplored west. The pioneers live simple lives on civilization's 
 frontier, and these dwellings prove more than adequate for survival. However,
 the sale of land that intrinsically cannot be owned causes unrest amongst
 the tribal locals, and the gradual encroachment upon their way of life by
 strange European interlopers is worse. The sales provide funds for the 
 further development of tribal society, but there are many who resent this
 loss of the old ways.

 The perilous journey of the pioneer was undertaken by those seeking a new
 life. Upon arrival a suitable site for a cabin was chosen, and the land 
 around would be cleared of vegetation. The cabins were relatively easy to
 build and used notches to slot the stacked log walls together. They could 
 be insulated against the weather by stuffing any gaps with sticks, rocks
 and a coating of mud."

 * -1 Happiness from Industrialisation (Lower Classes)
 * +525 Coins to region wealth
 * +5 Coins per turn to town wealth in the region
 * Converts the populace to Protestantism


--==Pioneer Farms==--

"Farms built on land bought from the natives provide food for the pioneers
 and money for developing tribal societies, but may be seen as a threat.

 For pioneers, day-to-day life can be a dangerous struggle. Cut off from
 outside supplies, not to mention luxuries from established towns, starvation
 is a constant threat. Farms enable pioneers to control food production and
 become independent, though many among the tribes are wary of the gradual
 encroachment of outsides.

 Pioneers introduced new farming techniques to the native tribes, advancing
 existing farming traditions by increasing yields. The planting of the 
 "three sisters" was an important aspect of this tradition, and a major
 food source for tribes. Squash, maize, and climbing beans were all planted
 in what is now called a "complimentary planting" system. The maize provided
 a frame for the beans to climb and the squash, by spreading across the 
 ground, prevented weeds from competing with the food crops."

 * -2 Happiness from Industrialisation (Lower Classes)
 * +700 Coins to region wealth
 * +10 Coins per turn to town wealth in the region
 * Converts the populace to Protestantism


--==Pleasure Gardens==--

"An ornamental garden, laid out in a formal style with pleasant walks to show 
 off horticultural workers and the fashionable elements of society equally.

 Public gardens are for the enjoyment of the leisured classes, and this 
 usually means the moneyed classes. The chance to wonder through a carefully
 tended landscape, enjoy a rural idyll and, possibly, a fashionable "pique-
 nique" while being seen by one's peers is definitely a pleasure of the rich.

 Historically, pleasure gardens often catered to a wide cilentele, not all of
 whom came to enjoy the flowers. Visitors who stayed after dark could enjoy
 entertainments of a very non-horticultural; though similarly earthy, nature. 
 The character of the gardens changed as night fell: they became the haunt of
 prostitutes, gambliers, mollies and the foully debauched. Vauxhill Gardens in
 London, for example, were notorious as playgrounds of vice and disgusting 
 iniquity, were a meal, a whore (of any kind) and a drunken evening of sin 
 were available to anyone with sufficient funds, if they could avoid a 
 mugging. The elaborate theatricals and fireworks staged at Vauxhill were 
 merely a bonus for watching revelers!"

 * Requires Theatre
 * Enhances National Prestige
 * +5 Happiness (Lower Classes)
 * +5 Happiness (Middle Classes)
 * Spawns Rakes. Maximum number: +1


--==Practice Fields==--

"An open space for warriors to practice horsemanship, break in and train 
 horses, and practice basic Cavalry tactics.

 Horses raised and trained in a tribe are used to constant human contact - 
 the lack of fences means that someone must always stays with the herd. 
 Horses are respected and never saddled: in turn riders develop their skills
 and fight better while not in the saddle!

 Historically, native warriors are accustomed to hunting with bows from
 horseback, and they adapted quickly to firing guns while mounted. Although
 slower to reload, guns had status value for the warriors that carried them
 into battle and on the hunt."

 * Requires Warrior Lodge
 * Converts the populace to Animism
 * Recruitment Capacity (units in training) : 1
 * Recruits All Native American units


--==Presidential Palace==--

"The palace of a republic's president, the people's most exalted servant, is
 the expression of a nation's dignity in stone.

 The president is expected to live in some style, yet retain his accessibility
 as the elected leader. Like many royal palaces, a president's home is home
 to a working bureaucracy, keeping the affairs of the nation in order.

 Republics often hark back to the Classical themes of their culture: European
 republics hark back to Roman architecture for its grandeur, monumential scale
 and implied permaence. Other republics have a similar tendancy to 
 appropriate the dignity of the past for their political buildings.

 Historically, and despite many egalitarian protests, most presidential 
 residences are palatial in luxury if not in size. Most presidents are from 
 the moneyed classes, after all, and are used to their creatre comforts. Of 
 course, a republic does not imply any kind of equality, merely that "the
 people" have the greatest say in government; the ruling classes still 
 exists and still expect their perquisites. Purpose-built presidential 
 palaces are usually grander, as an exercise in overawing visiting foreign
 dignitaries with the power and prestige of the nation itself and the office
 of president (if not always the prestige of the current holder of the 
 office.)

 * Require House of Representatives
 * +5 to Repression in the region
 * +15% coin bonus to region tax income
 * Recruitment capacity (units in training) : 3
 * Recruits basic infantry and cavalry


--==Raja's Academy==--

"An academy is a "gentlemen's club", of sorts, for the greatest minds of a 
 nation to gather for discourse, lectures, debates and some very nice dinners.

 Academies concern themselves with all aspects of national, cultural and 
 scientific life. From the most abstract of mathematical conundrums to the
 collection of natural wonders and the study of languages and lexicography,
 nothing is outside the interests of academicians. The members are, by and
 large, selected by their peers, although individual governments do use their
 influence to secure places for worthy men - and these learned societies are
 not above granting membership to royalty in the hope of securing patronage!

 Large projects were matters of national prestige. The Academic francaisem
 was charged with the collation of an offical French dictionary. The epic
 voyage of Captain Cook, RN, in 1768-71 was partly influences by the desire
 of the British Royal Society to observe the transit of Venus across the
 Sun from Tahiti. Other nations sent observers to, among other places, Canada
 and Siberia - Cook got the nicest destination! By observing the event from
 different sides of the Earth, parallax made it possible to calculate the 
 size of the solar system and establish the astronomical unit.

 * Requires Raja's Observatory
 * +2 Happiness (Lower Classes)
 * +2 Happiness (Middle Classes)
 * +3% to Technology Research Rate
 * Spawns Gentlemen. Maximum Number +1
 * Enhances National Prestige


--==Raja's Observatory==--

"An observatory is a centre for many scientific studies, not just astronomy. 
 All the physical sciences are advanced here.

 The study of the heavens lead to advances in mathematics, and improvements
 in scientific instrument making, biology and, perhaps most importantly of
 all, navigation and surveying. Accurate star charts and lunar tables (showing
 the phases of the moon) enable sailors to determine their positions at sea,
 and a navy that can navigate accurately is one that can carry out its 
 duties effectively. An observatory is also a centre for national prestige, as
 discoveries made and published reflect well on the institute and the nation
 that funds its work.

 Historically, observatories were vital in the development of navigation
 and accurate clocks. This is why the zero-degree longitude line passes 
 through the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, London (until 1884 most states
 used their own nationalistic reference points.) Indeed, the nationalism
 of astronomy often leads to the ignorance of the observations and 
 deductions of non-European astronomers.

 Astronomers could also be outrageous flatterers. After he discovered what
 he thought was a new planet, Sir William Herschel chose the name "Georgium
 Sidus", or George's Star, in a transparant bit of sucking up to his patron,
 King George III. Other astronomers also flirted with the name "Herschel" 
 then settled on "Uranus" for the new planet."

 * Requires School of the Arts
 * +2% to Technology Research Rate
 * Spawns Scholars. Maximum Number +1
 * Enhances National Prestige
 * +2 Happiness (Lower Classes)
 * +2 Happiness (Middle Classes) 


--==Raja's Palace==--

"The residence of a sovereign should inspire awe and dread in equal measure,
 overwhelming lesser men by its magnificence.

 This magnificant structure is the beating heart of an empire, its nerve
 centre and the glory of the nation given physical form. Every carved 
 detail, every piece of luxorious inlay, every painted ceiling, every tile on
 the floor, has been paid for by the blood and swear of the nation's people, 
 and all to glorify the person of the monarch. The rule and his state are
 one, for under an absolute system of government, all power resides in the 
 person of the monarch. The court exists only to provide obedient servants, 
 as an absolutist system can permit no rivals to the throne. The servants of
 the state must be kept firmly n their place, and made to remember that they 
 wield borrowed (at best) power. The source of power needs a suitably 
 magnificant setting, a public stage where upstarts can be broken and brought
 to heel, subtly or otherwise.

 All royal palaces, no matter what culture produces them, represent a  
 substantial investment of national wealth. From Versailles in France to the
 places of the Sultan in Istanbul, money was no object when it came to royal
 luxury. Taxes, after all, belong to the monarch in person, not the state."

 * Requires Subadar's Palace
 * +4 to repression in the region
 * +12% coin bonus to region tax income
 * Recruitment capacity (units in training) : 2
 * Recruits basic infantry


--==Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando==--

"The fines arts are an ornament to any civilized nation.

 The Academy received royal approval in 1774, but it was not until the reign
 of Carlos III that it found a proper home in a former Baroque palace. This is
 somewhat surprising given that Carlos was a benevolent despot and rather 
 fond of hunting. He was, however, also much given to public works and, more
 significantly for the advancement of the arts, has had a serious falling out
 with the anti-Enlightenment Jesuits. He suppressed the order in Spainand
 rendered the Spanish Inquisition largely ineffective.

 The Academy included many artists of note, but surely its most distinguished
 master was Francisco Goya (1746-1828). Goya was supremely talented, and 
 became the painter of choice in the Spanish court. His work marks a 
 transition between the work of the "Old Masters" and the modern world to
 come: his painting "La maja desnuda" has been described as the first non- 
 symbolic nude painting in the Western world. Sadly, he was toutured by 
 deafness and illness in later life, and his painting took on a grimmer,
 darker feel.

 The Academy is now home to a fine collection of paintings from the 15th
 Century onwards."

 * Requires Royal Academy
 * Highest ranked Cultural Building in Madrid, built by the Spanish
 * +3 Happiness (Lower Classes)
 * +3 Happiness (Nobility)
 * +3% to Technology Research Rate
 * Spawns Gentlemen. Maximum Number: +1 
  * Enhances National Prestige


--==Rice Farm==--

"By introducing organisation beyond the simple hand-to-mouth methods of 
 peasantry, rice yields are improved. 

 Rice does require extensive earthworks in terms of ditches, dykes, and 
 watercourses. Without a substantial and controllable supply of fresh water,
 crop yields will suffer. By moving away from a peasant-level growing 
 pattern, where each farmer is responsible for only his fields and nothing 
 else, a rice farm takes maximum advantage of the available land and water
 supply.

 Although rice is an important crop, it is not a complete diet in itself. 
 The causes and cures of dietery "diseases" (actually, deficiencies) where
 dimly understood by 18th century medical men, if indeed they were seen as
 being problems caused by a poor diet at all. Doctors knew fresh food helped
 people with scurvy, by why this worked was a complete mystery. Other dietery
 mysteries, such as beriberi, were equally impenetrable. In that case, white
 rice, often seen as a higher-status dish than brown, un-husked rice, can be
 the cause of beriberi. Rice husk often contains a relative large amount of
 thiamine (vitamin B1), the lack of which causes beriberi, a crippling 
 condition. The causes and cures of beriberi, which was endemic in some parts
 of Asia, remained unknown until the early 20th Century."

 * Requires Rice Paddies
 * +0.6% to Population Growth
 * Reduces the chance of food shortages
 * +X Coins to Region Wealth (Depends on the Yield of the Rice Field)


--==Rice Farming Estates==--

"Large plantations allow for capital investment in rice production and 
 planning beyond the next harvest. Yields can rise as a result.

 The key, of course, to all large estates is the profit to be made by the
 owners and a general increase in trade beyond immediate markets. Plantations
 are hacked out of the surrounding forests and land made productive if there 
 is a home market to be satified. Foodstuffs always find a ready market, and
 rice is an easy commodity to ship without too much spoilage.

 Historically, rice growing eventually became an important part of the 
 economy in colonial Georgia and Carolina and, in turn, had a direct impact
 on the already-thriving slave trade. Slaves from rice-growing areas of
 Africa attracted a premium price because they were more useful to plantation
 owners, and this naturally influenced where slaves traders procured their
 unfortunate wares. Knowledgeable Africans were victimised by the trade and
 shipped to America precisely because of their skills; a strong back was 
 always useful, but a skilled labourer was much more useful - and profitable."

 * Requires Rice Farm
 * +0.9% to Population Growth
 * Reduces the chance of food shortages
 * +X Coins to Region Wealth (Depends on the Yield of the Rice Field)


--==Rice Paddies==--

"Rice is a staple foodstuff for many people, and produces the best crops when
 grown in a system of flooded fields.

 Paddy fields require breakbacking labour by farmers to plant, maintain and
 harvest the rice crops. Flooded fields do not readily lend themselves to any
 kind of labour-saving devices; and all domesticated draft animals (other than
 the water buffalo) suffer when used to cultivate rice paddies. A large amount
 of manual labour is also required to maintain the elaborate system of 
 waterways and dykes needed to keep fields flooded to the right depth. Too 
 much water will ruin a rice crop just as surely as too little. All of this
 needs manual labour, a class of peasants to work the land constantly. 

 Historically, rice is one of the oldest cultivated crops; no one is quite 
 sure when and where it was first domesticated. Humans have domesticated wild
 rice streams more than once in seperate parts of the world, including dry 
 field varients that grow like other cereals. Rice remains one of the vital
 food crops of the world."

 * +0.3% to Population Growth
 * Reduces the chance of food shortages
 * +X Coins to Region Wealth (Depends on the Yield of the Rice Field)


--==Royal Palace==--

"The residence of a sovereign should inspire awe and dread in equal measure,
 overwhelming lesser men by its magnificence.

 This magnificant structure is the beating heart of an empire, its nerve
 centre and the glory of the nation given physical form. Every carved 
 detail, every piece of luxorious inlay, every painted ceiling, every tile on
 the floor, has been paid for by the blood and swear of the nation's people, 
 and all to glorify the person of the monarch. The rule and his state are
 one, for under an absolute system of government, all power resides in the 
 person of the monarch. The court exists only to provide obedient servants, 
 as an absolutist system can permit no rivals to the throne. The servants of
 the state must be kept firmly n their place, and made to remember that they 
 wield borrowed (at best) power. The source of power needs a suitably 
 magnificant setting, a public stage where upstarts can be broken and brought
 to heel, subtly or otherwise.

 All royal palaces, no matter what culture produces them, represent a  
 substantial investment of national wealth. From Versailles in France to the
 places of the Sultan in Istanbul, money was no object when it came to royal
 luxury. Taxes, after all, belong to the monarch in person, not the state."

 * +4 to repression in the region
 * +12% coin bonus to region tax income
 * Recruitment capacity (units in training) : 2
 * Recruits basic infantry


--==Turkish Bath==--

"The influence of Ottoman culture and power extends to how people enjoy
 themselves. A Turkish bath is not just a place to get clean, socialise and
 catch up on gossip.

 Intimate pleasures are also available - at a price. The bathhouse staff, or
 "tellak", help customers wash themselves, much as the slaves did in Roman
 and Byzantine baths centuries before. Incidentally, Bzyantine designs 
 influenced the layout and processes of the Turkish bath. However, tellak 
 are young men (never women) recruited from among the non-Muslim subject
 peoples of the Ottoman Empire, selected for their good looks and pliant 
 ways. A visit to a Turkish bath can therefore be a purely hygenic exercise,
 an opportunity for gossip, or a chance to indulge a taste of depravity.

 Historically, Turkish baths did become popular across Europe although not
 necessarily always as disguised bawdyhouses. By the Victorian period, they
 were a popular - and unimpeachable - adjunct to many gentlemen's clubs and
 the better sort of hotel."

 * Requires Coffee House
 * +3 Happiness (Lower Classes)
 * Spawns Assassins. Maximum Number: +1


--==School==--

"A school offers education to the children of those willing to pay the fees.
 In some schools, subsidies from religious or charitable groups may be 
 available.

 Education is not a right or even considered much of privilege in many 
 societies. The skills of reading (a little), hunting, and beating 
 recalcitrant servants are the only worthwhile accomplishments of "proper
 gentlemen". A smattering of religious education puts a veneer of civilisation
 on top.

 The emerging middle and mercantile classes value education a good deal more
 highly, and pay for it to be drummed into their children! A few schools, 
 mostly the work of charities and religious bodies, exist to teach the 
 children of the deserving poor, or give orphans some kind of start to life.

 The British system of state education and "public schools" (which are
 actually non-state private schools) owe its confusing terminology to this
 period. Public schools were open to the public - the public who could pay - 
 while private schools took pupils as they saw fit. British mass "state
 education" would have to wait for another century. State education existed
 in some countries, but always ran the risk of creating an imbalance between
 learning and obedient loyalty if it was extended much beyond those with a 
 real stake in society."

 * Requires Town
 * -3 Happiness. Clamour for Reform
 * Spawns Gentlemen. Maximum Number: +1
 * Conducts technology research. Points per turn: 9
 * Enables research of Empiricism, Physiocracy, Social Contract


--==School of Calligraphers==--

"Calligraphy is the art of writing and, by extension, the art of producing
 books. It is a worthy accomplishment to product beautiful script. 

 The art of calligraphy and the skill of writing beautifully are important
 because they preserve and communicate the revelations of the Qur'an.

 The work of calligraphers is prized and collected for its inherent beauty,
 as well as its meaning. The mastery of the many styles and forms is a 
 lifetime's work, but one that can bring rich rewards. A student cannot
 sign work until he had received an "icazet" or diploma, granted for
 producing an examination piece in the presence of several teachers. Standards
 are exceptionally high, but a recognised calligrapher could expect to have
 his work treasured by his cilents.

 Calligraphy also forms the basis of some Islamic decoration (along with 
 geometric arabesque art) and has a figurative style were interweaved words
 create images. These "calligrams" are both intricate and incredibly 
 beautiful artworks. Calligraphy also has influences on other artistic 
 endeavours, such as the creations of elaborate carpets and textiles."

 * +1 Happiness (Lower Classes)
 * +1 Happiness (Nobility)


--==School of Poetry==--

"Poetry is a form of literature held in high regard throughout the Turkish,
 Persian and Arab-speaking world by all the educated classes of society.

 The styles and hidden allegorical meanings of poems take much time to 
 master, and there is a rich set of traditions to draw on from all three
 languages.

 Ottoman "divan" poetry use Persian forms and many borrowed words (as 
 Turkish does not suit Persian rhyming schemes). Arab poetry can be a great
 many styles, some of which need careful handling if they are not to offend
 religious sensibilities. Poetry can distract from proper Islamic studies,
 as well as praise God. A school of poetry teaches all of these nuances, and
 provide a grounding for those who wihsh to become court poets, a rewarding
 position for those who have talent.

 Finding a patron to, of course, a matter for individual students, and a 
 good grasp of calligraphic styles can help too. Being literate and having
 a beautiful style of penmanship is truly something to be treasured."

 * Requires School of Calligraphers
 * +2 Happiness (Lower Classes)
 * +2 Happiness (Nobility)


--==School of the Arts==--

"There are rich traditions in the Hindu, Buddhist and Islamic arts that are
 valued by the educated and wealthy. 

 India is the birthplace of many cultures and arts, and the ruling classes
 have enough money to attend - and pay for - the best of everything. This
 creates a demand for skilled artisans of many kinds, and a demand for 
 training in the arts from rich dilettantes who wish to dabble for themselves
 and, after all, an educated patron can spend his money wisely. There are
 schools specialising in every art, from erotic temple statuary to 
 maniscript illumination - and everything in between.

 Historically, some of the finest buildings and artistic achievements in 
 India were created during the period of Mughal rule, in a style that can
 be called Islamo-Indian. The Islamic Mughal ruling class appreciated the
 skills of their Hindu subjects, and made full use of them in creating a rich
 and beautiful environment. At places like Lahore Fort, later rulers continued
 the tradition of architectural and artistic excellence."

 * Requires Nautch Dancing School
 * +2 Happiness (Lower Classes)
 * +2 Happiness (Nobility)


--==Seminary==--

"This Catholic establishment educates those hoping to join the priesthood, 
 making sure that their instruction is firmed routed in Church dogma.

 The syllabus concentrates on giving students the theological, spiritual
 and philosophical tools needed to carry out their duties, as well as a 
 solid "Classical" education to produce men who will be well-respected 
 members of society. Where science and the natural world are touch upon, it
 is always with an emphasis on how they reveal God's grand plan of creation.
 A seminary is not intended to produce an enquiring mind, only a very 
 disciplined one.

 Historically, the seminary system owes its existance to the forces of the
 Counter-Reformation, a movement that aimed to defeat the heretical, 
 Protestant views of Martin Luther and his ilk. The Council of Trent 
 recognised education as a weapon in its struggles against schism. The Church
 required an educated and intelligent group of priests, who could argue 
 successfully in its defence. While the 18th Cenutry is seen as the "age of
 Enlightenment", the Reformation and the Counter-Reformation had yet to play
 themselves out completely and the Church's place in the hearts of men, 
 affairs of state and God's universe was still open to argument. In parts of
 Europe, the Catholic Church was still a tremendous force for social, 
 political and scientific conservatism."

 * Requires Jesuit College, Catholic Nation
 * +4 Happiness for the Catholic population (Lower Classes)
 * Converts the populace to Catholicism
 * Spawns religious agents. Maximum Number: +1


--==Seraglio==--

"An enclosed section of a palace, where the concubines are secluded, ready for
 pleasure of their master and away from the lustful gazes of other men.

 The word came to English through Italian, where the Turkish "serai" (palace)
 was confused with the Latin "sera" (door-bar). A "serai" was any grand
 palace built around a courtyard, not just a harem. Despite this confusion,
 there were seperate quarters for concubines (Circassian girls were highly
 prized for their reputedly amazing good looks), and access was tightly
 controlled.

 The whole idea of a seraglio was something of an obsession in Western Europe,
 and the subject matter of many works of art in "Turkish" Oriential style,
 which was quite popular during the 18th Century. Obviously, it combined the
 exotic and the naughtily erotic in tasteful pictures for the rich! The
 concept provided the inspiration for Mozart's opera, "Die Entfuhrun aus dem
 Serail" (Abduction from the Seraglio), where the hero attempts to rescue his
 love from the clutches of an Ottoman Pasha. First performed in Austria in
 1782 under the (indirect) patronage of the Austrian Emperor, Joseph II, there
 had to be a suspicion that anti-Turkish sentiment informed the piece. 
 Nevertheless, the opera was a success and personally very profitable for 
 Mozart."

 * Requires Turkish Bath
 * +1 Happiness (Nobility)
 * +4 Happiness (Lower Classes)
 * Spawns Assassins. Maximum Number: +1


--==Settlement Fortifications==--

"Defences constructed around a town will hold off many attacks, but cannot be
 expected to hold off heavy attacks forever. 

 Settlements defences are seldom allowed to be truly impregnable defences. 
 Practical matters such as cost, or the need to house a growing population, 
 often stop city fathers from investing fully in their own defences. Instead,
 their defences are good enough to deter a casual attack, and good enough to
 hold up an enemy's advance. Interlocking fields of fire can sweep attackers
 off the glacis as the defenders reap a terrible toll. It takes a disciplined
 approach to reduce a settlement's fortification to a point where a breach is
 "practicable" and the town can be taken. 

 Historically, the town garrison was often offered the "honours of war" and  
 allowed to march away with their weapons, but only if they gave up without a
 fight. The townsfolk were likely to be spared of any indignity. Once, 
 however, the attackers had launched an assault, then the town, its 
 inhibitants and the garrison were fair game for any amount of pillaging and
 looting. The assault was a dangerous business, and a lawless orgy afterwards
 was often the soldiers' reward."

 * Surrounds city approaches with a ring of artillery forts, protecting it 
   from assault


--==Shamanic Gateway==--

"A gateway to the spirit world, controlled by a shaman or medicine man.

 The spirit world has a lot of sway over the events that unfold on a day
 to day basis. They can bring tidings of joy, but the can alsobring news of
 impending doom. Those that have the ability to commune with the spirits 
 hold a position of great power within society.

 Shamans use a wide variety of methods to reach the spirit world. One of 
 these is to use drumming to hull them into a deep trance. Another is to 
 use potions and herbs to ease their passage into the spirit world, allowing
 them to commune freely with the spirits and learn hidden truths."

 * +5 Happiness (Lower Classes) 
 * +5 Happiness (Nobility)
 * Converts the populace to Animism
 * Spawns Shamans. Maximum Number: +1
 * Recruitment Capacity (Units in Training) : 1
 * Recruits basic infantry


--==Shaniwar Wada==--

"This magnificant fortified palace is a visible expression of Maratha 
 greatness.

 The palace name reflects the auspicious day Shaniwar (Saturday), 10 January
 1730 when the foundation stones were placed by the prime minister, Baji Rao,
 of the Maratha Empire. This wada (or residential complex) was never intended
 for the king, but to be an offical residence for prime ministers and his
 administration of the Maratha Empire. No expense was spared in its 
 construction: every door in the building was hand-carved from the finest 
 teak: every floor was the finest marble available. The palace took two years
 to complete; and later prime ministers made it grander still, adding 
 bastions, and magnificant gardens.

 When designed, the Shaniwar Wada was as much a fortress as palace. An army
 attempting to breach its gate faced formidable defences.

 This building still exists, although it is much reduced from its former
 grandeur. A fire in 1828 destroyed much of the original leaving only the
 granite stones undamaged."

 * Requires Maharaja's Palace
 * +1 Happiness (Lower Classes)
 * +1 Happiness (Nobility)
 * +5 to Repression in the region
 * +15% Coin Bonus to Region Tax Income
 * Recruitment Capacity (Units in Training) : 3
 * Enhances National Prestige
 * Recruits Basic Infantry
 * Built as highest Government buliding by the Marathas in Satara


--==Shipyard==--

"A shipwright needs somewhere to build ships, even if this is only a slipway
 and a timber yard - but any piece of firm foreshore will do for smaller
 vessels!

 The services of a smithy within the yard are also very useful, as most ships
 use a surprising amount of bespoke ironwork in their construction, not to
 mention hundreds of nails. A shipward cab produce smaller vessels and carry
 out repairs and maintenance too. Careening is a regular chore for wooden 
 vessels: hulls become fouled with weeds and barnicales that cause drag and 
 slow the vessel. A shipway has all the gear necessary to empty a ship, then 
 haul it onto a beach or slipway so that it can be scraped clean and washed
 by the tides.

 Historically, shipwards needed a good source of timber close by, or were on
 the estuaries of navigable rivers (so that wood could be shipped from 
 further inland to the yard). Buckler's Hard on the Beaulieu River in the New
 Forest in southern England is a typical shipyard in where it was constructed.
 However, it is larger than many, and had an exclusive staff of artisans and
 could handle two ships at once. The shipwrights of Buckler's Hard built HMS
 Agamemnonm, Admiral Horatio Nelson's favourite ship, in 1781; many of the
 crew were equally attached to their captain, and followed him to later 
 commands."

 * Recruits: Basic Battle Vessels


--==Silver Mine==--

"Mining is a dirty, dangerous business. Men hack out all manner of valuable 
 minerals by hand, risking life and limb for the mine owner's profits.

 Lit only by candles (which they must by themselves) or lamps with naked  
 flames, most miners are labouring in conditions that resembles hell on 
 Earth. In some mines firedamp (methane) is a constant risk thanks to the
 candles - an explosion can happen at any time. The risk of a slow death is
 there tool; stone dust and poisonous minerals such as arsenic: ruin a man
 as surely any explosion.

 there were also accidents. Miners are paid only for the valuable minerals
 that they extrace, so there is little incentive to carry out much work
 for safety's sake. Pit props may keep the roof from collapsing, but putting
 them in does not earn any payment - the miners may even be charged for the
 materials! And it is not just men who labour below ground. Women often pull
 carts from the working face to the surface. Children needed less space and
 air than adults, and make ideal support workers, clearing tunnels and 
 bringing food and water to the miners. In smaller seams, children are the
 perfect labourers.

 All of this is secondary, however, to the business of making money, and 
 mining can be a very profitable industry."

 +X to Region Wealth (Depends on the Yield of the Mine)


--==Small Ashram==--

"An ashram offers wisdom and learning to all those who come within its 
 walls.

 This retreat from the cares of the world is a place of peace and 
 tranquility, as well as a place of profound learing and contemplation. 
 Not quite a monastry, or matha, an ashram is bound by an informal code
 of conduct laid down by the religious leader or sage who leads it.

 Traditionally, the ashram are detacted from everyday concerns, and 
 concentrate to the spiritual development of the students. Some act as
 schools for children too. Even though they are places of peace, not 
 everyont who makes a pilgramage to an ashram has peaceful intent. The
 journey, both internal and external, can teach a warrior much about the
 business of warfare and some ashrams do offer a form of martial arts
 training. In the Hindu epic: The Ramayana, warrior princes receieve
 weapons training at an ashram."

 * +1 Happiness for the Hindu Population (lower classes)
 * Converts the populace to Hinduism
 * Spawns religious agents. Maximum number: +1


--==Small X Plantation / Native==--

"An area of land given over to the growing of a crop for trade.

 Plantations can turn a large profit for their owners, providing the seasons
 are kind. The divisions of lands into small sections under a series of 
 private owners means that profits can be made for personal gain. These
 profits can them be used to buy a plantation owner power and prestige 
 within their society. As land-holding becomes concentrated in the hands of
 a few people, the chance for profit and for investment in those lands also
 grow. Income is not diluted into feeding many farmers and their families. 

 With large plantations it also becomes practical to hold slaves on a larger
 scale. The slave trade was not something that was carried out only by 
 Europeans. Many Native American tribes were also in the habit of keeping 
 slaves - both bought from traders and captured in warfare - to work their
 lands."

 * 15 Units of X produced each turn


--==Small Coffee Plantation==--

"A plantation is an estate carved from the virgin forests of a new territory
 for growing one cash crop for export to the home market. 

 There are tremendous profits to be made in growing crops to satisfy the 
 demand for luxury goods in Europe and elsewhere. There are also tremendous
 risks: crops may fail, slaves may revolt and, once a cargo is gathered, the
 ship carrying it home may sink!

 Plantations are labour-intensive, especially during harvest time. They may
 not be necessarily profitable without indentured or slave labour. Slaves
 are self-explanatory, but indentured labour was the result of the European 
 taste for transporting convicted felons to their colonies. Once a criminal
 record, several years of forced or cheap labour was imposed on him or her,
 and this indenture could be traded to a plantation owner. It was possible
 to buy out an indenture and become free, an option that was rarely available
 to slaves.

 Originally, the English word "plantation" was used to refer to any colony
 "planted" in a new location, even the Scottish settlers in Ulster were a 
 plantation. There was no implication of farming one cash crop." 

 * 2 Turns to Build
 * 15 Sacks of Coffee produced each turn


--==Small Cotton Plantation==--

"A plantation is an estate carved from the virgin forests of a new territory
 for growing one cash crop for export to the home market. 

 There are tremendous profits to be made in growing crops to satisfy the 
 demand for luxury goods in Europe and elsewhere. There are also tremendous
 risks: crops may fail, slaves may revolt and, once a cargo is gathered, the
 ship carrying it home may sink!

 Plantations are labour-intensive, especially during harvest time. They may
 not be necessarily profitable without indentured or slave labour. Slaves
 are self-explanatory, but indentured labour was the result of the European 
 taste for transporting convicted felons to their colonies. Once a criminal
 record, several years of forced or cheap labour was imposed on him or her,
 and this indenture could be traded to a plantation owner. It was possible
 to buy out an indenture and become free, an option that was rarely available
 to slaves.

 Originally, the English word "plantation" was used to refer to any colony
 "planted" in a new location, even the Scottish settlers in Ulster were a 
 plantation. There was no implication of farming one cash crop."

 * 2 Turns to Build
 * 15 Bales of Cotton produced each turn


--==Small Madrassa==--

"A madrassa is an Islamic place of learning, where Muslims can study not only
 their faith, but also the law, jurisprudence, science and history.

 These schools are often attached to mosques, but they do not offer religious
 instruction alone. Those who wish to do so many study the Qur'an, and become
 honoured as a "hafiz" when they have memorised the whole text. Others may
 choose a wider syllabus and learn additional subjects such as history, logic,
 shari'ah law, the Hadith - the recorded sayings and deeds of the Prophet, 
 peace be upon him - and correct intrepretation of the Qur'an. Those who 
 finish their studies will gain status as scholars and imams, and become
 leaders in the wider commmunity expected to intrepret the law and religion
 for their fellow Muslims.

 Historically, some madrassas offered their pupils an even wider choice of
 subjects, including Arabic literature, literature, English, French, Dutch and
 other useful trade languages as well as science, mathematics and world 
 history. The scholars produced were intelliectually rounded individuals, 
 often better prepared for later studies than the counterparts in Europe. 
 There were even madrassas that specialised as medical schools."

 * +1 Happiness for the Muslim Population (Lower Classes)
 * Converts the populace to Islam
 * Spawns religious agents. Maximum number: +1


--==Small Spice Plantation==--

"A plantation is an estate carved from the virgin forests of a new territory
 for growing one cash crop for export to the home market. 

 There are tremendous profits to be made in growing crops to satisfy the 
 demand for luxury goods in Europe and elsewhere. There are also tremendous
 risks: crops may fail, slaves may revolt and, once a cargo is gathered, the
 ship carrying it home may sink!

 Plantations are labour-intensive, especially during harvest time. They may
 not be necessarily profitable without indentured or slave labour. Slaves
 are self-explanatory, but indentured labour was the result of the European 
 taste for transporting convicted felons to their colonies. Once a criminal
 record, several years of forced or cheap labour was imposed on him or her,
 and this indenture could be traded to a plantation owner. It was possible
 to buy out an indenture and become free, an option that was rarely available
 to slaves.

 Originally, the English word "plantation" was used to refer to any colony
 "planted" in a new location, even the Scottish settlers in Ulster were a 
 plantation. There was no implication of farming one cash crop." 

 * 2 Turns to Build
 * 15 Pounds of Spice produced each turn


--==Small Sugar Plantation==--

"A plantation is an estate carved from the virgin forests of a new territory
 for growing one cash crop for export to the home market. 

 There are tremendous profits to be made in growing crops to satisfy the 
 demand for luxury goods in Europe and elsewhere. There are also tremendous
 risks: crops may fail, slaves may revolt and, once a cargo is gathered, the
 ship carrying it home may sink!

 Plantations are labour-intensive, especially during harvest time. They may
 not be necessarily profitable without indentured or slave labour. Slaves
 are self-explanatory, but indentured labour was the result of the European 
 taste for transporting convicted felons to their colonies. Once a criminal
 record, several years of forced or cheap labour was imposed on him or her,
 and this indenture could be traded to a plantation owner. It was possible
 to buy out an indenture and become free, an option that was rarely available
 to slaves.

 Originally, the English word "plantation" was used to refer to any colony
 "planted" in a new location, even the Scottish settlers in Ulster were a 
 plantation. There was no implication of farming one cash crop." 

 * 2 Turns to Build
 * 15 Loaves of Sugar produced each turn


--==Small Tea Plantation==--

"A plantation is an estate carved from the virgin forests of a new territory
 for growing one cash crop for export to the home market. 

 There are tremendous profits to be made in growing crops to satisfy the 
 demand for luxury goods in Europe and elsewhere. There are also tremendous
 risks: crops may fail, slaves may revolt and, once a cargo is gathered, the
 ship carrying it home may sink!

 Plantations are labour-intensive, especially during harvest time. They may
 not be necessarily profitable without indentured or slave labour. Slaves
 are self-explanatory, but indentured labour was the result of the European 
 taste for transporting convicted felons to their colonies. Once a criminal
 record, several years of forced or cheap labour was imposed on him or her,
 and this indenture could be traded to a plantation owner. It was possible
 to buy out an indenture and become free, an option that was rarely available
 to slaves.

 Originally, the English word "plantation" was used to refer to any colony
 "planted" in a new location, even the Scottish settlers in Ulster were a 
 plantation. There was no implication of farming one cash crop." 

 * 2 Turns to Build
 * 15 Chests of Tea produced each turn


--==Small Tobacco Plantation==--

"A plantation is an estate carved from the virgin forests of a new territory
 for growing one cash crop for export to the home market. 

 There are tremendous profits to be made in growing crops to satisfy the 
 demand for luxury goods in Europe and elsewhere. There are also tremendous
 risks: crops may fail, slaves may revolt and, once a cargo is gathered, the
 ship carrying it home may sink!

 Plantations are labour-intensive, especially during harvest time. They may
 not be necessarily profitable without indentured or slave labour. Slaves
 are self-explanatory, but indentured labour was the result of the European 
 taste for transporting convicted felons to their colonies. Once a criminal
 record, several years of forced or cheap labour was imposed on him or her,
 and this indenture could be traded to a plantation owner. It was possible
 to buy out an indenture and become free, an option that was rarely available
 to slaves.

 Originally, the English word "plantation" was used to refer to any colony
 "planted" in a new location, even the Scottish settlers in Ulster were a 
 plantation. There was no implication of farming one cash crop." 

 * 2 Turns to Build
 * 15 Barrels of Tobacco produced each turn


--==Somerset House==--

"This is a national government building, purpose-built to house many of the
 important departments of state in a suitably awe-inspiring style.

 Built on the Strand, Somerset House was in a neo-classical style, and was
 not unusual in having its own water gates and docks in the basement. 
 Eightteenth Century roads were fairly appalling, so the River Thames was the
 main highway through London and well frequented by Government officals.The
 Thames was also the main sewer for London, which may have made it difficult
 for casual onlookers to distinguish between politicans and lumps of dung.
 
 When Somerset House was designed, it was intended to be a home for most of 
 the Government, at least according to the Act of Parliament in 1775 that
 enabled the work. Among other departments, space was to be available for
 the Salt Office, the Stamp Office, the Tax Office, the Navy Office (later 
 the Admiralty), the Navy Victualling Office, the Public Lottery Office,
 the Hawkers and Pedlar Office, the Hackney Coach Office, the Surveyor 
 General of the Crowns Land Offce, the Auditors of the Imprest Office, the
 Pipe Office, the Offices of the Duchies of Lancaster and of Cornwall, the
 Office of the Ordinance, the Bargemaster's House, and the King's Barge 
 Houses. Over the next decades, additional building work allowed the Royal
 Academy, the Royal Society and the Society of Antiquities to find rooms, 
 not to mention the University of London as some government tenants either
 moved out or were closed down."

 * Maximum Level of Government Building in London
 * +1 Happiness (Middle Classes)
 * +1 Happiness (Nobility)
 * +5 to Repression in the region
 * +10% Coin Bonus to region tax income
 * Recruitment Capacity (Units in Training): 3
 * Enhances National Prestige
 * Recruits Militia


--==Spice Warehouse==--

"Warehousing a cash crop allows control over the supply of goods, and
 therefore greater profits as the vagaries of market prices have less effect.

 By holding onto a crop until the market is "right", plantation owners can
 get the best price for their harvest. They can also calm the violatility of
 the commodity's market by evening out the supply over the course of a year,
 rather than having a harvest glut and then a shortage for the rest of the
 time. A warehouse also allows plantation owners to wait until the seasons and
 winds are favourable for a fast sea journey back to the homeland; shipping
 losses and transit times are both reduced. Finally, Warehousing also allows
 smaller crops to be consolidating for shipping back to the home market, and
 for the crop to be properly graded. The finest parts of the harvest can be
 sold at the highest price, rather than simply being lumped in with any old
 druss."

 * Requires Large Spice Plantation
 * Enhances National Prestige
 * 40 Pounds of Spice produced each turn


--==Spiritual Circle==--

"An area of great spiritual power respected and honoured by all.

 A spirit centre is a centre of sacred power that has been blessed by a  
 spiritual leader or Shaman. Entry to these circles is only from the east, 
 and once inside the sacred dancers move round the circle in the same  
 direction as the path of the sun through the sky.

 Spirituality was, and still is, a deeply important aspect of Native
 American life. Many believed that there were three levels of spirit order,
 the first being spirits on earth. Every being was made to have the power
 of the spirits within them. These were in turn controlled by the final 
 level of spirits; those that oversee the whole universe."

 * +4 Happiness (Lower Classes) 
 * +4 Happiness (Nobility)
 * Converts the populace to Animism
 * Spawns Shamans. Maximum Number: +1
 * Recruitment Capacity (Units in Training) : 1
 * Enables research of Spirit Medicine
 * Recruits basic infantry


--==Star Fort==--

"A star fort is an enormous system of bastions and defensive positions with
 interlocking fields of fire: an intimidating obstacle to any attacker!

 In the Medieval period, castles had relied on high walls to make them 
 impregnable and to give them a sense of overwhelming grandeur - part of their
 purpose was simply to intimidate lesser men. With the advent of gunpowder
 artillery, a different defensive scheme was required. Fortifications sank 
 into the ground, protected by enormously thick walls, deep counterscarps
 and a sloping bank or glacis that would, hopefully, cause cannon shots to
 ricochet over the defences rather than penetrate.

 Passive defence, however, is not enough. The layout of projecting bastions
 in a star fort creates interlocking fields of flanking fire to destroy 
 attackers as they approach over the sloping glacis. In theory, no 
 attacker should reach the wall without coming under sustained and murderous
 attack from the defenders. The star shape evolved so that no part of the 
 defences would be "blind" to fire from somewhere within the fort. The
 whole structure is, in fact, one massive killing zone for artillery weapons
 and defensive musketry.

 Historically, the most notable creator of star forts was the French military
 engineering genius, Marshall Varban (1633-1707); his name is virtually
 synonymous with the design. His defences at Verdun were still in use during
 the battle there in 1916 during the First World War."

 * Requires Artillery Fort


--==State Capitol==--

"This magnificant building is the embodiment of the Republic and of the 
 people's continuing involvement in their own laws and governance.

 The state capitol of a republican province is the seat of government, and
 place where the to the good government of their region. At regional level
 government is usually divided into an upper and lower chamber, although both
 are elected. The regional governor himself may still be an appointee of the
 central government, a useful way of balancing local and national interests.
 All that said, little expense is spared on the capitol building itself, as
 this is a considerable source of pride and unity.

 Despite the seemingly democratic nature of the system, there is no guarantee
 that anything approaching all the adult population will actually have a vote.
 Historically, the extension of the franchise to the popular majority is a 
 late development in many democracies and republics. The US state of New 
 Jersey, for example, allowed women the vote after the Revolution in 1775,
 only to take the right away in 1807!"

 * Requires State House
 * +3 to Repression in the Region
 * +6% Coin bonus to region tax income
 * Recruitment Capacity (Units in Training) : 2
 * Recruits: Basic Provincial Militia


--==State House==--

"A republic stands for government of its people, for the people and (to some
 extent) by the people, and it is here that the people's representatives meet
 to discuss local issues.

 Republics maintain representative government structures at a local level,  
 with each province eventually having its own assembly as it becomes rich or
 populous enough to justify it. Locally elected worthes enact local laws,
 appoint of form the judiciary, raise militias, and exercise all the other
 functions of government, sometimes with a degree of common sense.

 Represenative government is the basis of a republic, although the 
 qualifications needed to be a voter are often restrictive. Represenation
 of "the people" is not necessarily democratic: most republics prevent the
 unwashed masses from voting by having property, age, sex, class or religious
 restrictions. Of these, property and social classes qualifications are by
 far the most common - the logic being that only men of substance have a 
 properly vested interest in their nation's survival, and the wisdom to
 exercise their franchise correctly. Historically, even the Founding Fathers
 of America were very careful in establishing that only men with property
 could vote - universal suffrage was an alien and frightening idea!

 * Requires Governor's Residence
 * +2 to Repression in the region
 * +4% Coin bonus to region tax income
 * Recruitment Capacity (Units in Queue) : 1
 * Recruits: Basic Infantry and Cavalry


--==State Madrassa==--

"A madrassa is an Islamic place of learning, where Muslims can study not only
 their faith, but also the law, jurisprudence, science and history.

 These schools are often attached to mosques, but they do not offer religious
 instruction alone. Those who wish to do so many study the Qur'an, and become
 honoured as a "hafiz" when they have memorised the whole text. Others may
 choose a wide syllabus and learn additional subjects such as history, logic,
 shari'ah law, the Hadith - the recorded sayings and deeds of the Prophet,
 peace be upon him - and correct intrepretation of the Qur'an. Those who
 finish their studies will gain status as scholars and imams, and become 
 leaders in the wider commu?nity expected to intrepret the law and religion
 for their fellow Muslims.

 Historically, some Madrassas offered their pupils an even wider choice of
 subjects, including Arabic literature, English, French, Dutch as other 
 useful trade languages as well as science, mathematics and world history.
 The scholars produced were intellectually round individuals, often better
 prepared for later studies than the counterparts in Europe. They were 
 even madrassas that specialised as medical schools."

 * +4 Happiness for the Muslim Population (lower classes)
 * Converts the populace to Islam
 * Spawns religious agents. Maximum Number: +1


--==Steam Drydock==--

"A steam drydock is a magnificant achievement of an industrializing nation:
 a manufactory of ships without equal!

 The kind of beam engines used to pump water around a canal system (and drain
 mines) can drain a drydock efficiently. Using steam to power these engines
 is an obvious keep, but once steam engines are in a dockyard this goes 
 far beyond pumping seawater around.

 This can be used to drive sawmills, lathes, even block-making machines and
 as the lifting power for dockside cranes. The efficiency gains - admittedly
 with some new risk of fire, as the main shipbuilding material is wood - are
 impressive!

 The scale of the military-naval industry could be large in maritime 
 nations, even discounting civilian yards. The British Royal Navy dockyards
 were the largest industrial organisation in the world during the 18th
 Century, and could make every part of a warship from a mast to a nail;
 guns were the exception, and they came from the Board of Ordnance. The 
 ropewalk at Chatham, Kent, produced anchor ropes and was the longest brick
 building in Europe when constructed. It is still producing high quality
 ropes for ships today. The dockyards were so important that damaging them
 by fire or explosion carried the death penalty - something not actually
 repealed until 1971 (two years after the UK death penalty was finally
 abolished for murder)."

 * Requires Drydock
 * Enhances National Prestige
 * Recruits all Battleships


--==Steam Engine Factory==--

"This huge workshop creates the steam engine that provide motive power for 
 other factories and their machinery; it is a birthplace of a new industrial
 age.

 Steam-powered machines offer a way of creating unlimited goods of many kinds
 in an efficient manner. This enormous ironworks designs, develops and 
 creates new static steam engines of many kinds, from the beam engines used
 to pump water out of mines, to the stationary engines used to haul plateway
 wagons, and the complicated expansion engines that provide power to other
 machines. Each new technical advance can be applied to work of the shop
 itself, and other manufactories soon benefit from any improvements, if they
 pay for the engineers' work.

 The "shock of the new" in the 18th Century was immense and nowhere more so 
 than in the factories and mills that steam engines made possible. Workers'
 lives were transformed overnight, and they had to master many strange new
 concepts: steam engines could be dangerous things. It's worth remembering
 that many workers were killed by poorly installed or maintained engines, 
 boiled alive thanks to steam explosions or mangled by a lack of safety 
 features. Safety valves to release excess pressure were fitted not only to
 save lives, but also the expense of rebuilding if a boiler did explode!"

 * Requires Ironmaster's Works
 * Enhances National Prestige
 * +X Coins to region wealth (Depends on the wealth of the town)
 * +14 coins per turn to town wealth in the region
 * Enables research of Interchangable Parts


--==Steam-Powered Cloth Mill==--

"A mill powered by steam engines can produce cheap goods of good, reliable
 quality on large machines.

 Profits from the mill can be enormous, as the machines run day and night,
 for as long as the steam engines have coal and water, and there are raw
 materials to process. Usually there is a central engine, and power for
 various machine is transferred by a series of axles and belt drives. Powered
 machinery is dangerous, and injuries among workers are common. This is 
 particularly true among child workers, who are small enough to crawl beneath
 the looms and fix problems as they occur. It is all to easy to get caught
 in the whirling machinery and lose a limb, or worse.

 Historically, workers saw steam power as a threat to the livelihoods. "Plug
 riots" where workers destroyed boiler plugs to render steam engines useless
 were common in Britain. The Luddite movement was so threatening that
 machine breaking was made a capital crime, and men were executed for it.
 The French term "sabotage" originally referred to workers throwing their 
 wooden sabots (shoes) into machinery to cause stoppages. The running of 
 mills night and day did create jobs, but it also introduced the tyranny of
 obeying the clock through shift works."

 * Requires Water-Powered Cloth Mill
 * Enhances national prestige
 * +X Coins to Region Wealth (Depends on the wealth of town)
 * +18 Coins per turn to town wealth in the region
 * Enables research of Mass Production


--==Steam-Powered Sugar Mill==--

"A sugar mill allows the refinement of raw sugar cane into processed sugar,
 a delicacy easily transported to the almost insatiable home market.

 A sugar mill takes sugar cane and crushes it to extract the juice: when
 powered by steam, the crushing gears can extract much more juice from the
 plants. The juice is boiled down until it crystallizes as sugar of various
 grades. As might be imagined, the process is hot (especially in tropical
 climates) and dangerous to the workers: injuries from being dragged into
 the machinery are not uncommon.

 Milling improvements allowed more sugar cane to be processed, and make the
 whole process more efficient as well. Historically, even though European
 demand seemed to have no limits the price of sugar actually fell over time
 as manufacturing improved. A healthy trade in machine parts for mills also
 grew up between Europe and the sugar-growing regions."

 * Requires Sugar Warehouse
 * 60 loaves of sugar produced each turn
 * Enhances national prestige


--==Steam-Pumped Gold Mine==--

"As soon as a mine delves below the water table, water is a problem and  
 flooding a constant danger.

 Pumping or lifting the water allowes the miners to reach richer, deeper
 mineral seams. A steam beam engine, linked to a pump, can lift enough water
 to make it economically sensible to dig deep shafts.

 Historically, Thomas Newcomen was the first develop a practical "atmospheric"
 engine for draining deep mines sometime around 1710. His design had problems
 and was very inefficient, but it worked well enough to be widely adopted 
 where coal was cheap. It was an atmospheric engine because the steam cooled,
 thus sucking the piston down the cylinder. The need to repeatedly warm and
 cool the machine made it wasteful.

 Jame Watt's beam engine design was altogether more efficient. He had a 
 seperate steam condenser, and kept the cylinder at a constant temperature.
 He as also lucky in his choice of working partner, Mathew Boulton, who proved
 an astute business manager and lobbyist; he even pursuaded the British
 Parliament to extend their patent, guaranteeing them further profit!

 * -1 Happiness from Industrialisation (Lower Classes)
 * +X Coins to Region Worth (Depends on the Yield of the Mine)


--==Steam-Pumped Iron Mine==--

"As soon as a mine delves below the water table, water is a problem and  
 flooding a constant danger.

 Pumping or lifting the water allowes the miners to reach richer, deeper
 mineral seams. A steam beam engine, linked to a pump, can lift enough water
 to make it economically sensible to dig deep shafts.

 Historically, Thomas Newcomen was the first develop a practical "atmospheric"
 engine for draining deep mines sometime around 1710. His design had problems
 and was very inefficient, but it worked well enough to be widely adopted 
 where coal was cheap. It was an atmospheric engine because the steam cooled,
 thus sucking the piston down the cylinder. The need to repeatedly warm and
 cool the machine made it wasteful.

 Jame Watt's beam engine design was altogether more efficient. He had a 
 seperate steam condenser, and kept the cylinder at a constant temperature.
 He as also lucky in his choice of working partner, Mathew Boulton, who proved
 an astute business manager and lobbyist; he even pursuaded the British
 Parliament to extend their patent, guaranteeing them further profit!

 * -1 Happiness from Industrialisation (Lower Classes)
 * +X Coins to Region Worth (Depends on the Yield of the Mine)


--==Steam-Pumped Silver Mine==--

"As soon as a mine delves below the water table, water is a problem and  
 flooding a constant danger.

 Pumping or lifting the water allowes the miners to reach richer, deeper
 mineral seams. A steam beam engine, linked to a pump, can lift enough water
 to make it economically sensible to dig deep shafts.

 Historically, Thomas Newcomen was the first develop a practical "atmospheric"
 engine for draining deep mines sometime around 1710. His design had problems
 and was very inefficient, but it worked well enough to be widely adopted 
 where coal was cheap. It was an atmospheric engine because the steam cooled,
 thus sucking the piston down the cylinder. The need to repeatedly warm and
 cool the machine made it wasteful.

 Jame Watt's beam engine design was altogether more efficient. He had a 
 seperate steam condenser, and kept the cylinder at a constant temperature.
 He as also lucky in his choice of working partner, Mathew Boulton, who proved
 an astute business manager and lobbyist; he even pursuaded the British
 Parliament to extend their patent, guaranteeing them further profit!

 * -1 Happiness from Industrialisation (Lower Classes)
 * +X Coins to Region Worth (Depends on the Yield of the Mine)


--==Stockholms Slotts==--

"The Royal Palace in Stockholm is a suitably grand setting for a monarchy with
 pretensions to rule the Baltic and northern Europe.

 Built on the site of an older fortress called the Three Crowns, the current
 Palace is actually its second incarnation as the first building was 
 destroyed in fire in 1697. The current version was designed by Count 
 Nicodemus Tessin (the Younger), an able Baroque architect and city planner,
 and took the best part of 50 years to complete in brick and sandstone. 
 Much of the surrounding city was also re-laid as moats and the like were
 filled in.

 The Palace is still in use today as the offical residence of the Swedish
 monarchy, and houses significant museum collections, including the 
 Livrustkammaren, or Royal Armoury within its 609 rooms. This is the oldest
 museum in Sweden, established by the great Gustavus Adolphus in 1628 when
 he decided to keep and display his equipment from his Polish campaigns. The
 various departments of the royal court and household are also still based in
 the palace, as are the Hogvakten, the Royal Guard of the Svea Livgarde
 (Lifeguards), who have been a part of Palace life since the 1750s."

 * +1 Happiness (Nobility)
 * +1 Happiness (Lower Classes)
 * +5 to Repression in the Region
 * +15% Coin to Region Tax Income
 * Recruitment Capacity (Units in Training) : 3
 * Enhances National Prestige
 * Recruits basic infantry
 * Built by the Swedes as highest Government building in Stockholm


--==Subadar's Palace==--

"This magificant palace is a pale reflection of a monarch's glory, power and
 wealth, not those of the governor's person.

 In an absolute monarchy, there is a great chain fo authority that stretches
 down from the monarch's person even to the lowliest of his subjects. Everyone
 has a place, sanctioned by time, custom and the approval of the monarch and
 no one is exempt from the awful majesty of the sovereign's power. This is
 especially true of governors away from the royal court. They may rule from 
 marble palaces, but they do so not in their own right but by the authority
 granted from the Crown. If any of them ever forgot that the grandeur and 
 luxury that surrouned them are entirely borrowed, the penalties for personal
 aggrandisement are terrible indeed. Having been raised up, they have an 
 awfully long way to fall. 

 In reality, many governor's residences in absolute monarchies combined luxury
 (for who was to say when the king would visit?) with enough barracks and
 stables to house a small army. Absolutism always relied on the concepts of
 the "rod and the axe" to maintain authority, although by the 18th Century  
 a good stock of gunpowder and a fine collection of artillery did better
 service."

 * Requires Thakur's Mansion 
 * +3 to Repression in the region
 * +9% Coin Bonus to region tax income
 * Recruitment Capacity (Units in Training) : 2
 * Recruits basic infantry


--==Sublime Porte==--

"The residence of a sovereign should inspire awe and dread in equal measure,
 overwhelming lesser men by its magnificence.

 This magnificant structure is the beating heart of an empire, its nerve
 centre and the glory of the nation given physical form. Every carved 
 detail, every piece of luxorious inlay, every painted ceiling, every tile on
 the floor, has been paid for by the blood and swear of the nation's people, 
 and all to glorify the person of the monarch. The rule and his state are
 one, for under an absolute system of government, all power resides in the 
 person of the monarch. The court exists only to provide obedient servants, 
 as an absolutist system can permit no rivals to the throne. The servants of
 the state must be kept firmly n their place, and made to remember that they 
 wield borrowed (at best) power. The source of power needs a suitably 
 magnificant setting, a public stage where upstarts can be broken and brought
 to heel, subtly or otherwise.

 All royal palaces, no matter what culture produces them, represent a  
 substantial investment of national wealth. From Versailles in France to the
 places of the Sultan in Istanbul, money was no object when it came to royal
 luxury. Taxes, after all, belong to the monarch in person, not the state."

 * +4 to repression in the region
 * +12% coin bonus to region tax income
 * Recruitment capacity (units in training) : 2
 * Recruits basic infantry


--==Subsistence Farms==--

"An area set aside for the care and cultivation of livestock and crops.

 Livestock and crops were a valuable commodity, allowing the population to 
 grow without relying on what food can be found by hunting and gathering. They
 provide a constant food source, more than the meat brought in by hunting 
 parties.

 Although the processes involved in keeping farms went against the grain of
 Native Americans' religion, they did keep crops. They tended to favour corn,
 beans, and squash, crops they referred to as "the three sisters."

 * +0.1% to population growth
 * Reduces the chance of food shortages
 * +X Coins to Region Wealth (Depends on the Yield of the Farm)


--==Sugar Warehouse==--

"Warehousing a cash crop allows control over the supply of goods, and
 therefore greater profits as the vagaries of market prices have less effect.

 By holding onto a crop until the market is "right", plantation owners can
 get the best price for their harvest. They can also calm the violatility of
 the commodity's market by evening out the supply over the course of a year,
 rather than having a harvest glut and then a shortage for the rest of the
 time. A warehouse also allows plantation owners to wait until the seasons and
 winds are favourable for a fast sea journey back to the homeland; shipping
 losses and transit times are both reduced. Finally, Warehousing also allows
 smaller crops to be consolidating for shipping back to the home market, and
 for the crop to be properly graded. The finest parts of the harvest can be
 sold at the highest price, rather than simply being lumped in with any old
 druss."

 * Requires Large Sugar Plantation
 * Enhances National Prestige
 * 40 Loaves of Sugar produced each turn


--==Sultan's Academy==--

"An academy is a "gentlemen's club", of sorts, for the greatest minds of a 
 nation to gather for discourse, lectures, debates and some very nice dinners.

 Academies concern themselves with all aspects of national, cultural and 
 scientific life. From the most abstract of mathematical conundrums to the
 collection of natural wonders and the study of languages and lexicography,
 nothing is outside the interests of academicians. The members are, by and
 large, selected by their peers, although individual governments do use their
 influence to secure places for worthy men - and these learned societies are
 not above granting membership to royalty in the hope of securing patronage!

 Large projects were matters of national prestige. The Academic francaisem
 was charged with the collation of an offical French dictionary. The epic
 voyage of Captain Cook, RN, in 1768-71 was partly influences by the desire
 of the British Royal Society to observe the transit of Venus across the
 Sun from Tahiti. Other nations sent observers to, among other places, Canada
 and Siberia - Cook got the nicest destination! By observing the event from
 different sides of the Earth, parallax made it possible to calculate the 
 size of the solar system and establish the astronomical unit.

 * Requires Sultan's Observatory
 * +2 Happiness (Lower Classes)
 * +2 Happiness (Middle Classes)
 * +3% to Technology Research Rate
 * Spawns Gentlemen. Maximum Number +1
 * Enhances National Prestige


--==Sultan's Observatory==--

"An observatory is a centre for many scientific studies, not just astronomy. 
 All the physical sciences are advanced here.

 The study of the heavens lead to advances in mathematics, and improvements
 in scientific instrument making, biology and, perhaps most importantly of
 all, navigation and surveying. Accurate star charts and lunar tables (showing
 the phases of the moon) enable sailors to determine their positions at sea,
 and a navy that can navigate accurately is one that can carry out its 
 duties effectively. An observatory is also a centre for national prestige, as
 discoveries made and published reflect well on the institute and the nation
 that funds its work.

 Historically, observatories were vital in the development of navigation
 and accurate clocks. This is why the zero-degree longitude line passes 
 through the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, London (until 1884 most states
 used their own nationalistic reference points.) Indeed, the nationalism
 of astronomy often leads to the ignorance of the observations and 
 deductions of non-European astronomers.

 Astronomers could also be outrageous flatterers. After he discovered what
 he thought was a new planet, Sir William Herschel chose the name "Georgium
 Sidus", or George's Star, in a transparant bit of sucking up to his patron,
 King George III. Other astronomers also flirted with the name "Herschel" 
 then settled on "Uranus" for the new planet."

 * Requires School of Poetry
 * +2% to Technology Research Rate
 * Spawns Scholars. Maximum Number +1
 * Enhances National Prestige
 * +2 Happiness (Lower Classes)
 * +2 Happiness (Middle Classes)


--==Sweat Lodge==--

"An area of great power and energy; used for a variety of rituals, including
 the rain dance and ghost dance.

 One of the most powerful holy grounds is the medicine wheel. These areas are
 a representation of the path an individual must walk in their life time. By
 standing on each of the spokes a man can understand what it is to walk 
 another's path and fully appreciate all aspects of life and nature.

 Historically, the most famous medicine wheel is found at Big Horn in 
 Wyoming; it was the first to be created and was built on a ridge of Medicine
 mountain. People visited the site seeking harmony with the powerful spirits
 that inhabited it, searching for a greater understanding of the mysteries 
 of mother earth."

 * +3 Happiness (Lower Classes)
 * +3 Happiness (Nobility)
 * Converts the populace to Animism
 * Spawns Shamans. Maximum Number: +1
 * Recruitment Capacity (Units in Training) : 1
 * Enables research of Riding the Winds
 * Recruits basic infantry


--==Tavern==--

"A tavern is a drinking establishment where all manner of drink, food and
 entertainment are available - always providing that the money is forthcoming!

 Drink is one of the solace's of a long working day. There are, of course,
 religious and social taboos about getting drunk, but these rarely bother
 tavern owners or their customers! A tavern provides a place to drink cheaply,
 pick up the local news, gossip, gamble (cockfighting is a popular pastime)
 and generally have a few hours respite from the day's labour. It is often the
 "other" centre of community, where the real business of running a town goes
 on, well away from offical interferrence.

 A tavern is distinguished from an inn because it does not offer overnight
 accommodation, although rooms for private functions - and discreet 
 entertainment of an intimate or personal nature - may well be part of the
 service."

 * Requires Town
 * +2 Happiness (Lower Classes)
 * Spawns Assassins. Maximum Number: +1


--==Tea Warehouse==--

"Warehousing a cash crop allows control over the supply of goods, and
 therefore greater profits as the vagaries of market prices have less effect.

 By holding onto a crop until the market is "right", plantation owners can
 get the best price for their harvest. They can also calm the violatility of
 the commodity's market by evening out the supply over the course of a year,
 rather than having a harvest glut and then a shortage for the rest of the
 time. A warehouse also allows plantation owners to wait until the seasons and
 winds are favourable for a fast sea journey back to the homeland; shipping
 losses and transit times are both reduced. Finally, Warehousing also allows
 smaller crops to be consolidating for shipping back to the home market, and
 for the crop to be properly graded. The finest parts of the harvest can be
 sold at the highest price, rather than simply being lumped in with any old
 druss."

 * Requires Large Tea Plantation
 * Enhances National Prestige
 * 40 Chests of Tea produced each turn


--==Tenanted Farms==--

"Tenent farmers are a large social step up from the humble peasant. They
 may toil as hard, but they do so for their own profit not that of a distant
 master. 

 Tenanted farms primarily produce cash crops. The landlord expects his rent
 to be paid, so subsistence farming is a waste of time, as it will not 
 guarantee any income. Successful tenants, who develop their land, can become
 quietly wealthy men and may be able to buy their farms.

 For a landlord the main benefit of tenanted farms is that income from them is
 in cash, not kind. Absentee landlords can live the high life in a city; they
 rarely need trouble themselves with the mud and muck of the countryside - as 
 long as they have trustworthy agents and tenants! A leisured class of 
 "gentlemen farmers" and rentiers therefore arises, all thanks to the efforts
 of tenant farmers.

 Historically, tenanted farms made good profit but, like all farming, were 
 subject to the vagaries of weather. Tenancies could be, and were, passed down
 the generations of families, something that allows tenants to see a point in
 developing "their" land with their cash surplus."

 * Requires Peasant Farms, Common Land Enclosures
 * +0.5% to Population Growth
 * Reduces the Chance of Food Shortages
 * +X Coins to Region Wealth (Depends on Yield of Farming Region)
 * Enables research of Four Field Crop Rotation


--==Teyler Museum==--

"The Museum is the private collection, antiquities and books that intrigued
 the founder.

 Pieter Teyler van der Hulst (1702-1778) left his fortune to the furthering of
 science and culture, as befitted a part-Scottish following of the Scottish
 Enlightenment. He also left money for some almshouses for the poor folks of
 Haarlem. Before his death he had established various learned societies in
 the town and, like many gentlemen of the period, had a "cabinet of 
 curiosities": a large collection of objects of interest or antiquarian 
 value. His fortune, made from the cloth trade, was certainly large enough to
 let him indulge in his passions for science and collecing.

 The museum was a reflection of his interests, and was added to over the years
 so that it now had a fine collection of fossils, scientific instruments (and
 making them something of a Dutch speciality), coins, paintings, prints and
 drawings. Pieter Teyler left a charitable and worthy legacy of a "Christian
 Gentleman" in the museum and the almshouses."

 * +5 Happiness (Nobility)
 * +5 Happiness (Lower Classes)
 * Enhances National Prestige
 * Requires Great Museum
 * Built only by the Dutch in Amsterdam as highest Cultural Building


--==Thakur's Court==--

"As a province grows, the central government appoints its own governor with
 greater powers, rather than relying on the services of a member of the local,
 minor gentry. 

 No matter what his title - Lord Lieutenant (to the Monarch), Governor, Pasha,
 Thalur - the man appointed to oversee a province is a minor monarch, even in 
 a republic! His main duties are tax raising and defence, and he is the 
 government's man rather than a senior member of the local community. He is
 both protector and enforcer. He can enforce the law as he sees fit, ignore
 it when inconvenient and even grant pardons. He can impress men into military
 service and use them against any who dare to rebel. He has to power of life 
 and death over his subjects - although he may have to use the justice system
 rather than simply having people shot. And, best of all, in an age of 
 "interest" he has the power to fill his own and his friend's purses at the
 state's expense. 

 Historically, office holders in the 18th Century (almost regardless of 
 country or government style) seemed to have trouble keeping the state's money
 out of their own pockets. It was acceptable for a man to appoint himself or 
 a friend as a contractor, tax farmer or monopolist and make a handsome 
 profit."

 * Requires Zamindars Court
 * 1 to Repression in the Region
 * 2% Coin Bonus to region tax income
 * Recruitment Capacity (units in training) : 1
 * Recruits: Infantry and Cavalry Units


--==Theatre==--

"Sensation and spectacle for the people can keep them occupied and 
 entertained, not to mention distracted from politics.

 A night at the theatre is a bawdy, rambunctions, rowdy, exciting, and novel
 experience. The theatre holds up a mirror to society, and sometimes society
 does not like what it sees. The audience shows little respect, heckling is an
 art, and performers play to their claques rather than follow the text. Yet
 each great performance, each actor-manager, each new work, is eagerly  
 followed by the chattering classes.

 Historically, theatres could mean a great deal of trouble for the 
 authorities. Riots were not uncommon if unpopular or provocative plays were
 staged, and David Garrick, the leading light of the London stage, was forced
 to kneel in apology before a fickle audience he had offended. They were in 
 the process in completely wrecking his theatre and his liveihood! Because of
 this public excitability, and the potential for subversive propaganda, in the
 interests of "public morality" all governments closely monitored theatre
 performances. Indeed, Great Britain only scrapped censorship in theatres
 in 1968 when the Lord Chancellor's Office no longer required London theatres
 to have approval for every production."

 * Requires Bawdyhouse
 * +1 Happiness (Nobility)
 * +4 Happiness (Middle Classes)
 * Spawns Rakes. Maximum Number: +1


--==The British Museum==--

"The British Museum is a collection of curiosities, antiquities and books that
 is the envy of the civilized world.

 Many 18th Century gentlemen collecters exhibited a "cabinet of curiosities"
 to friends and rivals. Competition for the most noteworthy and prestigious
 items soon meant that "cabinets" were often whole rooms or suites set aside
 for this expensive hobby. Studying the curiosities themselves also became a 
 respectible field of scholarly endeavour by antiquarians, a strange collection
 themselves of dusty, rum coves with limited social skills.

 The British Museum began as one of these collections, but George II donated
 the Old Royal Library, thus guaranteeing that every book ever published in
 Britain would end up on its library shelves. Further equally generous gifts,
 such as Garrick's library of plays, and shrewd purchases made sure that the
 collection of antiquities grew at a prodigious rate. Sir William Hamiliton
 (the husband of Emma Hamiliton, the mistress of Admiral Horatio Nelson) 
 profited quite handsomely when he sold his collection of Roman and Greek
 items to the Museum. He had collected them, as a hobby, for next to nothing
 while the ambassador of Naples, Italy. It probably took his mind off being
 cuckolded.

 The Museum also became home to spoils of exploration and conquests: objects
 collected during Captain Cook's expedition to the South Seas were exhibited
 at the museum for a time. The Rosetta stone also ended up in the Museum,
 having been captured from the French after Napoleon's abortive attempt to
 conquer Egypt."

 * Highest level of Museum in London
 * Requires Great Museum
 * +5 Happiness (Middle Classes)
 * +5 Happiness (Nobility)
 * Enhances National Prestige


--==The Smithsonian Institution==--

"The Smithsonian is an establishment dedicated to learning and knowledge,
 with a world-renowned collection of objects and manuscripts.

 The Smithsonian is not like other major museums, established to show off
 the collections of wealthy patrons or as an exercise in national glory. 
 Instead, it is the legacy of a man who was neither American nor visited
 the country. James Smithson (1765-1829) stipulated that his fortune was
 to be used for the "increase & diffusion of Knowledge among men" if his
 nephew died without leaving an heir. With over pre-inflationary $500,000
 in the fund, it took Congress nearly a decade to decide how to spend the
 money and the Smithsonian "Castle" in Washington was only completed in 
 1855.

 Since then, the Smithsonian has become one of the world's leading 
 repositories for historical objects and archives, funded by the US
 government and private donations. It now has 20 different branches, 
 specialising in everything from ethnic art and objects to aerospace 
 exhibits, and helping to manage the Smithsonian is one of the (very few)
 offical duties of the Vice President of the United States."

 * Highest level of Museum in Philadelphia, Built by the US
 * Requires Great Museum
 * +5 Happiness (lower classes)
 * +5 Happiness (middle classes)
 * Enhances National Prestige


--==Tobacco Warehouse==--

"Warehousing a cash crop allows control over the supply of goods, and
 therefore greater profits as the vagaries of market prices have less effect.

 By holding onto a crop until the market is "right", plantation owners can
 get the best price for their harvest. They can also calm the violatility of
 the commodity's market by evening out the supply over the course of a year,
 rather than having a harvest glut and then a shortage for the rest of the
 time. A warehouse also allows plantation owners to wait until the seasons and
 winds are favourable for a fast sea journey back to the homeland; shipping
 losses and transit times are both reduced. Finally, Warehousing also allows
 smaller crops to be consolidating for shipping back to the home market, and
 for the crop to be properly graded. The finest parts of the harvest can be
 sold at the highest price, rather than simply being lumped in with any old
 druss."

 * Requires Large Tobacco Plantation
 * Enhances National Prestige
 * 40 Barrels of Tobacco produced each turn


--==Trading Port==--
 
"Shipping goods of any kind by land is difficult and expensive. Any item that
 has to travel more than a few miles goes by ship wherever possible.

 Most good are simply terrible, and bulk cargoes (such as coal) must go by
 ship anyway: it is the only way of moving goods cheaply and relatively 
 quickly. It also makes the whole world a marketplace, even if the customers
 are not sure what to make of the goods being sent (British merchants 
 insisted on exporting heavy woollen cloth to India for years, even though
 there was no obvious market for it.)

 Coastal trade can be also very profitable. For example, a "cheese fleet" 
 did nothing but shuttle back and forth between London and the northwest of
 England, bring Cheshire cheeses to the London market. By a happy accident
 of geology, Cheshire had rock salt mines that provided a preservative for 
 the local cheese to make the sea journey to London. Although salty, this
 was undoubtedly healthier than most foods on a gentleman's table in the 
 18th Century!"

 * Improves Export Capacity (Increases Trade Values)
 * +2 Trade Routes Possible (Sea)
 * +X Coins to Region Wealth (Depends on the Town's Wealth)
 * +3 Coins Per Turn to Town Wealth in the region
 * Recruits: Basic Battle Vessels, Basic Trading Ships


--==Tribal Drill Grounds==--

"A forming training area for tribal warriors to perfect battle skills and 
 learn necessary discipline.

 Protecting family and land is the first responsibility of a young warrior.
 Learning weapon skills during the hunt gives the man the skills of a fighter;
 learning to fight alongside others makes him a useful warrior, and a credit
 to his tribe. 

 Historically, warriors used the bow and arrow with astounding skill, thanks
 to constant hunting. Other daily tools such as the hatchet-like tomahawk were
 useful in war too. Oddly, in some tribes it was the custom to bury tomahawks
 once a war was ended (hence "bury the hatchet"). The tribes however, never
 developed an organised approach to warfare to match that of the European
 invaders."

 * Settlement of Conquered Native American Tribe
 * Converts the populace to Animism
 * Recruit Capacity (Units in Training) : 1


--==Village Longhouse==--

"A large wooden framed structure used as a communal area for the whole tribe.

 Long houses are similar to wigwams, in that they use a wooden pole frame
 covered with elm bark. There are holes at intervals along the roof to allow
 smoke from the fires burning inside the building to escape. During the 
 winter months the two main entrances are covered with animal pelts to keep 
 out the cold winds.

 Long houses are big enough for an entire extended family or clan and have
 raised platform areas for sleeping mats, leaving large areas of the lower
 floor for socializing."

 * +2 Happiness (Lower Classes)
 * +2 Happiness (Nobility)
 * Conducts technology research. Points per turn: 10


--==Vineyards==--

 A vineyard is a farm dedicated to the growing of grapes and the production
 of wine, but on a relatively small scale.

 Wine is one of the pleasures of life for all classes of societies and, along
 with ale, is the standard drink of many Europeans thanks to poor quality 
 water supplies in towns and cities. No one actually cares about the public
 health implications of wells and open sewers in close proximity to each
 other!

 The patterns of growth and consumption of wine in the 18th Century often had
 some odds roots. The British tale for "claret" (Bordeaux wines) dates back to
 the Middle Ages when the English monarchy controlled the region. Much of the
 earliest "New World" wine was supposedly the result of plantings by the
 Catholic Church to ensure that they had a supply of wine for Mass. Grape 
 varieties can have similar odd origins: Shiraz, for example, started as Syrah
 grapes, originating in Persia and were brought back to France around the time
 of the Crusades. There were many more local grapes varieties today, because
 pests from America wiped out older types in the 19th Century.

 * +0.2% to population Growth
 * Reduces the chance of Food Shortages
 * +X Coins to Region Wealth (Depends on the Yield of the Land)


--==Warrior Lodge==--

"A lodge set aside for warriors and the elders of the tribe to discuss matters
 of importance before deciding policy.

 As European influence increased, the tribes recognised the need to hold more
 territory, if only to deprive the invaders of the best lands."

 * Spawns scouts Maximum Number: +1
 * Recruitment Capacity (units in Training) : 2
 * Enables Research of Gun Dealing, Sharp Shooting
 * Recruits most Native American Units


--==Warrior Society==--

"A warrior society allows the recruitment of military units and adds to the
 experience of bow-armed units.

 There is no greater measure of a man than how he handles himself in warfare;
 it is an honourable pursuit for a Native American. When needed, peasants 
 and farmers can take up arms to fight for survival, but real warriors are
 needed if there is to be any proper defence against invaders. A warrior
 society instils a sense of courage and honour in the tribe's fighters, as 
 well as laying the groundwork for training in the arts of ambushing.

 Warrior societies played an important role in tribal life. They provided
 warriors with a social structure and gave them prestige within the tribe.
 Each society had its own distinctive rituals and encourage bravery through
 rivalry with other societies nd the promise of higher society rank. Although
 these positions provided great respect and privileges they also came with
 huge personal sacrifices for an individual. A "bear-belt wearer" in the Big
 Dog Society of the Crow, for example, was expected to walk straight up to
 the enemy during battle and never, ever retreat no matter what happened."

 * Spawns scouts. Maximum Number: +1
 * Recruitment Capacity (Units in Training) : 2
 * Enables Research of Ambush Tactics, Powder Making
 * Recruits most Native American units


--==Water-Powered Cloth Mill==--

"A water-powered cloth mill allows the operation of large weaving machines, 
 beyond what human muscles can power and, consequently, larger profits.

 The waterwheel is one of the oldest sources of motive power in the world. 
 Watermills have been grinding flour since Classical times, and used to power
 tools for nearly as long. Ultimately, waterpower relies on gravity. Damming
 streams to make millponds to provide a head of water is futile unless the 
 water is there in the first place; the expense is pointless if the mill
 itself is not a lot lower than the water supply. Steep-sided valleys and
 plentiful rain therefore determine where watermills are likely to be 
 economically viable propositions.

 Once the waterwheel is turning, it drives a series of axles. Individual 
 machines take power by a pulley-and-leather-belt system. This limits the
 overall size of the mill, because a wheel can only drive a limited number
 of machines thanks to friction and the fundamental inefficiencies of a 
 gearless drive. Thanks to few or no safety features - and leather strapping
 moving at high speed - a mill is a dangerous place to work. Any unlucky
 worker trapped by the machinery will be crippled or killed in seconds, and
 probably have their wages stopped for causing the mill owner to lose 
 profits during the cleaning of blood and body parts."

 * Requires Weaver's Cottage
 * +X to Town Wealth (Depends on Wealth of the Town)
 * +14 Coins per turn to town wealth in the region
 * Enables research of Punch Card Looms, Power Loom


--==Weaver's Cottage==--

"The move from very traditional craft to a more formal "cottage industry" 
 allows trade and manufacturing to expand significantly.

 A "cottage industry" is literally that: one where whole families live and  
 work in their cottages at the same craft. Once the whole community is 
 engaged in the same trade, output can be relatively substantial, but
 limited by the skills of the workers. There is some division of labour 
 involved: family women tend to be the yarn producers, while men operate the
 manual looms. From dusk to dawn, the machines have to work in order for 
 families to survive; they are paid piecework rates, so must work quickly.

 Historically, weaving was a substantial industry but entirely cottage-based
 before the rise of water and steam-powered mills in Yorkshire, England. Cloth
 and "piece" halls in market towns allowed the consolidation of bulk shipments
 from many small suppliers. The system, however, was incapable of producing 
 goods of a consistant quality (as each weaver worked to his own standards), 
 and could not be scaled to match demand. Artisans took years to master their
 trades, not the weeks it took to install a new machine in a powered mill."

 * Requires Craft Workshop (Weavers)
 * +X to region wealth (X depends on wealth of the town)
 * +10 Coins per turn to town wealth in the region
 * Enables research of Spinning Jenny, Spinning Mule, Flying Shuttle


--==Weaver's Lodge / Native==--

"Trade goods are valuable to a tribe, barter allows access to many items
 that cannot be made by the people themselves. As trade becomes increasingly
 valuable many are seeking an additional source of income through business
 run from home.

 Wool is a by-product of farming sheep for food, and weavers can make it 
 into useful cloth for trade and clothes. To begin with, weaving is a 
 "home industry", but eventually there is enough work to make specialisation
 worthwhile.

 There are other forms of weaving, of course. Basketwork is an important craft
 for many tribes, if only to create storage for grain and food to last the
 harsh American winters."

 * +X to region wealth (X depends on wealth of the town)
 * +10 Coins per turn to town wealth in the region
 * Enables research of Spinning Jenny, Spinning Mule, Flying Shuttle


--==Wineries==--

"A winery takes the product of seveal vineyards and produces wine on a large
 scale, shipping much of it in casks to distant markets.

 Glass is expensive, and it is better to ship casks to market and then have 
 the consignment bottled by wine merchants to suit local tastes. The casks can
 then be broken down for easy shipment back for refilling. The maturing 
 process in the casks is a happy accident that improves the flavour of the 
 wine!

 The 18th Century was a period when food adulteration was common - whitening
 flour with chalk, for example - and wine was no exception. Watering was the
 least offensive and probably safest practice, as the alcohol would kill 
 infectious parasites and germs in the water. Also common was the practice of
 sweetening wine by adding various chemicals, including lead. Lead was known
 to be poisonous, but without legislation to protect customers, there was
 nothing that could be done to stop vintners adding whatever they wanted to
 wine."

 * Requires Vineyards
 * +0.4% to population Growth
 * Reduces the chance of Food Shortages
 * +X Coins to Region Wealth (Depends on the Yield of the Land)


--==Wine Estates==--

"A wine estate represents a substantial investment in wines, land and time.
 wine is lovingly produced, carefully aged, and sold on at a premium.

 The entire process is still subject to the vagaries of weather, soil and
 time. It is quite possible for an estate to produce a truly great wine
 one year and a foul one the next because, while standards were improving,
 there are still a great many variables that are only dimly understood.

 In some parts of the world, a great wine estate is a prestigious possession,
 over and above it's economic value.

 And the value could be great indeed: the 18th Century was a time of 
 prodigious boozing in Europe, Georgian Englishmen, for example, apparently
 had bottomless gullets even by contemptorary standards, as the available 
 water was not always fit to drink. Contary to the popular belief of the
 time, excessive drinking was not the cause of gout (an agonising inflammation
 of the joints) only a contributory factor. Gout is triggered by a high-
 protein diet (as favoured by the wealthier classes of the period), and the
 liberal use of toxic lead compounds to sweeten the wine probably did little
 to help matters!"

 * Requires Wineries
 * -1 Happiness from Industrialisation (Lower Classes)
 * Enhances National Prestige
 * +0.6% to population Growth
 * Reduces the chance of Food Shortages
 * +X Coins to Region Wealth (Depends on the Yield of the Land)


--==Winter Palace==--

"Peter the Great's splendid building was intended to rival any royal palace
 anywhere in Europe or beyond.

 It did so magnificantly. The location in St. Petersburg was part of Peter's
 policy of opening up to western ideas, where they were suitable for Russia,
 and his adoption of western architecture, culture and technology. The Tsar
 wanted his Palace to be the centrepiece of a "Third Rome" on the River
 Neva, and a new Imperial seat of government for all the Russias. It was 
 deliberately built to be a palace rather than a fortress like the Kremlin in
 Moscow, although the wide prospects and avenues of St. Petersburg certainly
 made it entirely defensible by musket-armed troops.

 The Palace remained the offical home of the Tsars for the next two centuries.
 It continued to play an important part in Imperial affairs until the end of
 Tsarist Russia and beyond. The 1905 "Bloody Sunday" massacre of unarmed
 protestors publically demonstrated that the Tsar, for all the propaganda 
 about being the "Little Father" of his people, had scant regard for the needs
 of ordinary folk. The storming of the Winter Palace in 1917 is an ironic 
 moment in Russia history, the defining moment in the establishment of the
 Soviet state."

 * Requires Imperial Palace
 * +1 Happiness (Nobility)
 * +1 Happiness (Lower Classes)
 * +5 to Repression in the region
 * +15% Coin bonus to region tax income
 * Enhances National Prestige
 * Recruitment Capacity (Units in Training) : 3
 * Recruits Intermediate Infantry and Cavalry
 * Built by the Russians in Moscow as highest Government building


--==Wooden Fort==--

"A wooden fort is a substantial defensive work, built from logs and supporting
 earthworks. 

 As a defensive work, it is well able to withstand enemy attacks when 
 properly defended by stalwart men, a garrison should expect to hold out 
 against attacks for some little time. The walls are high enough to give a 
 good firing position to any defenders, and any aggressor had better bring a
 ladder or particularly acrobatic attackers to siege! The walls are only the
 most visible part of the defence: the surrounding trees and undergrowth are
 cut back to provide a clear firing - and therefore killing - ground for the
 defenders. This cleared ground often extends well beyond musket range, to
 deny attackers the chance to approach unseen.

 Unlike a stockade, a fort is a relatively permanent structure and, as such,
 it serves to mark ownership of territory as much as to command the 
 surrounding area. Forts are positioned with an eye to using existing terrain,
 commanding any strategic approaches (such as passes and river crossings) and
 intimidating the natives."

 * Built by armies


--==Yusekokul==--

"This establishment provides higher education to any who desire instruction
 in religious matters and for those seeking positions of authority.

 The syllabus concentrates on traditional Islamic areas of study, and
 emphases the philosophical underpinnings of faith, the theological and
 spiritual orthodoxies, and the legal implications of following the teachings
 of the Prophet (peace be upon him). The result is a highly educated man,
 who can act as a scholar in the wider community, but has the intellectual 
 and practical abilities to hold many government positions. The graduates
 of a yusekokul can be relied upon to carry out their duties with diligence.

 Historically, the Ottoman Empire relied almost entirely upon its Muslim
 population for administrators at every level. Minority religions were 
 granted legal protections and treated leniently, but it was almost unheard
 of for a professed Christian or Jew to reach a position of high authority.
 Although education was valued, the janissaries did have something of a 
 military stranglehold on the administration of the Empire. Inherently, 
 resistant to change, the janissary administrators were a deadening force in
 the intellectual, political and scientiifc life of the Empire."

 * Requires Large Madrassa
 * +4 Happiness to the Muslim Population (Lower Classes)
 * Converts the populace to Islam
 * Spawns religious agents. Maximum Nubmer: +1


--==Zamindar's Court==--

"The zamindar is an overseer of taxes. His word is more than law for the
 peasants; it can be life and death if he chooses to take all of their  
 surplus crop and more.

 The land-holding system of the zamindar (the word comes from the Persian
 for "landholder") outwardly has much in common with feudal systems common
 in Europe and Japan. Land tenure is given to office holders and nobles. 
 However, as an overseer of taxes a zaminder only holds his lands as long
 as he pays the stipulated revenue to the central government. He is, in 
 effect, a tax farmer: his income and profit are dependent solely on his
 ability to tax his lands. He also carries out judical and military duties
 for his tenured lands.

 Historically, the zamindari system suvived both the end of Mughal rule and
 the British Raj. Tax farming allowed the European trading companies to take
 over as zamindars themselves (and make a profit), even before the Mughal
 collapse, as they could pay governments for the right to collect taxes."

 * +1 to repression in the region
 * Recruitment Capacity (Units in Training) : 1
 * Recruits Basic Infantry

*~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~*
[A.02] Infantry Units

Units are basically units that you need to use on the battlefield to fight
for you. There are many units, and not all of them belong to one faction, many
will be available to all factions, some will be exclusives. 

Units are seperated by characteristics. 

Men basically means the maximum number of people in the regiment. Guns means
the amount of cannons that are on the artillery or battle vessel.

Range means the maximum distance the unit can shoot the enemy. The bigger the
value, the further the maximum shooting distance of the unit is. If it is 0,
then the unit is a melee unit.

Accuracy is another trait. The higher the value, the chances of the unit 
hitting the enemy is greater. That means a value of 35% means that there is
only a 35% chance that a musket ball will hit the enemy. Of course, the higher
the better, again, 0 means melee. 

Reloading skill is one where the higher the value, the faster the unit will
reload their muskets and hire, the higher, the better, and the lower the 
chance of a misfire. 0 again means melee.

Ammunition means the amount of ammo your troops have. The higher, the more
ammo your troops will carry with them, because you need to remember that ammo
is a limited resource for all gunpowder units. 0 again means melee.

Firepower is specifically for siege units, the stronger, the more damage
it will do. 

Melee Attack is the amount of damage that you units will do in close quarters
so it either means the unit is melee or the unit attached bayonets to their
weapons. 

Charge Bonus is where you have your units, in melee mode, rush headfirst into
the enemy front lines. This will amplify the damage that your units will do 
and reduce the amount of damage taken.

Defence is basically the defence of the unit. It sort of works that it 
increases the amount of hits they can take before they die. The more, of 
course, the better. This is replaced by Hull Strengh on ships.

Speed is for naval vessels, and basically means the speed of the unit, as 
you can guess, useful on the map and in battle. 

Manoeuvrability is the turning speed of the boat, useful in battle because
turning means the rate you can swing around and give another broadside. 

Finally, there is morale. This is the morale of the unit, which means the
amount of damage they will take before they retreat out of the battle. The
more means the more willing they are to fight to the death, and lower means
they will run when things just don't go their way in the slightest. 

I will not post the upkeep and recruitment costs, mainly because they are
highly variable due to ministers, research, etc. 

I shall also post their abilities, given that they are quite useful. I'll 
also post the Grand Campaign characteristics. The ones in the Road to 
Independence evolve, whilst the Grand Campaign stats are rather, well, 
static. They might different from Empire to Empire, so keep that in mind.
This will be split up into four sections depending on what type of unit
they are.


--==1st Delaware==--

"Musket-armed troops who use massed volleys to break an enemy, relying on
 discipline to withstand any counter-fire.

 These soldiers carry muzzle-loading, smoothbore muskets firing lead balls
 as wide as a man's thumb. These are inaccurate weapons, effective only to 
 around 200 paces when fired in volleys. The ability to fire with machine-
 like regularity with comrades falling all around is what wins battles,
 that and an ability to fight in a variety of tactical formations. Any 
 enemy foolhardy enough to charge their cavalry at this unit while they are
 in square will find them a tough target.

 The 1st Delaware Regiment came into being in 1776 under the supervision of
 Colonel John Haslet; they went on to fight in the Battle of Long Island in 
 August of that year. Along with the 1st Maryland Regiment they were able
 to repel the British, allowing Washington and his troops to make a safe
 retreat. The Delaware was then forced to make a daring retreat through
 marshland while escorting 23 prisoners of war. Their action during this
 battle prompted Washington to appoint them his rear guard when he 
 strategically withdrew his army from Brooklyn to Manhattan."

Regiment Size   = 120
Range           = 70
Accuracy        = 45
Reloading Skill = 25
Ammunition      = 15
Melee Attack    = 6
Charge Bonus    = 9
Defence         = 13
Morale          = 9

 * Can hide in woodland
 * Resistant to morale shocks

Only available to the US in the province of Pennsylvania

**Requests Elite Units of America Downloadable Content**


--==1st Maryland==--

"Elite infantrymen responsible for holding the line, these versatile troops
 are equally at home with muskets or bayonets.

 By their very nature, line infantry are vulnerable to bombardment from
 artillery and sniping from skirmishers, it takes a special kind of courage
 to stand and carefully fire volleys at the enemy then dispatch them with 
 a bayonet charge. Extensive drill, training and battle have helped mould
 these men into soldiers, capable of dealing with the enemy on equal
 terms.

 Historically, the 1st Maryland regiment was raised to protect the province
 of Maryland and came under the command of Colonel William Smallwood. In 
 July 1776 the troops were assigned to the main Continential Army and in 
 the months that followed they joined Sterling's Brigade. They took part
 in the Battle of Guildford Courthouse, but it was at the Battle of Long
 Island that they earned their formidable reputation. They single-handedly
 covered the American retreat, holding off superior numbers of British
 regulars."

Regiment Size   = 120
Range           = 70
Accuracy        = 55
Reloading Skill = 50
Ammunition      = 15
Melee Attack    = 7
Charge Bonus    = 11
Defence         = 17
Morale          = 9

 * Can hide in woodland
 * Can hide in light scrub
 * Resistant to morale shocks
 * Inspires nearby units

Only available to the US in the province of Maryland

**Requests Elite Units of America Downloadable Content**


--==2nd New York==--

"These musket-armed troops use massed volleys to break an enemy, relying on
 discipline to withstand any counter-fire.

 Marching or line regiments make up the majority of units in European-
 pattern armies. They are so-called because they form the line of battle,
 not because they deploy in lines. They can also form square, a particularly
 effective tactic against cavalry charges, although this leaves the unit
 incredibly vulnerable to artillery fire and skirmishers. This weakness
 aside, the versatility of a line regiment makes them a valuable addition 
 to any force.

 The 2nd New York regiment was raised in 1775 and placed under the command
 of Colonel Philip van Cortlandt. The can Cortlandt family history was
 already impressive; Philip's great grandfather was the first American-born
 mayor of New York and the family name was used for various place names
 across America. Colonel van Cortlandt was promoted to brigadier general 
 following acts of valour at the Siege of Yorktown. He lived out his 
 remaining years as a politican, eventually dying at the age of 81."

Regiment Size   = 120
Range           = 70
Accuracy        = 45
Reloading Skill = 25
Ammunition      = 15
Melee Attack    = 6
Charge Bonus    = 9
Defence         = 15
Morale          = 9

 * Can hide in woodland
 * Resistant to morale shocks

Only available to the US in the province of New York

**Requests Elite Units of America Downloadable Content**


--==33rd Foot==--

"These troops are responsible for holding the line, equally skilled using
 their bayonets or firing massed volleys.

 The 33rd Foot are known as "The Pattern" for their stoic professionalism 
 in battle; they are able to calmly pick targets and fire on them even while
 skirmishers' shots whiz by their ears, artillery shells explode around 
 them and cavalry charges bear down upon them. To guard against such 
 devastating enemy charges they can move from line to square formation.

 The 33rd Foot was originally raised in 1702 as the Earl of Huntington's
 Regiment of Foot. It was not until 1751, when all regiments were numbered
 rather than taking their general's name, that it became the 33rd Foot. They
 left England for America in May of 1776 and were part of the force that
 besieged Charlestown. They joined Howe's New York Campaign and took part
 in a number of key battles including Brandywine. Despite losses the 33rd
 Foot were able to break the American line, pursuing them for a full 2 miles.
 The regiment eventually became "The Duke of Wellington's", the only unit 
 in the British Army to honour a non-Royal."

Regiment Size   = 120
Range           = 70
Accuracy        = 40
Reloading Skill = 25
Ammunition      = 15
Melee Attack    = 10
Charge Bonus    = 12
Defence         = 14
Morale          = 9

 * Can hide in woodland
 * Resistant to morale shocks

Only available to the British in the province of England

**Requests Elite Units of America Downloadable Content**


--==Afghan Hillmen==--

"These fierce and independent men spend their lives fighting, making them
 superb irregular troops for a general they respect.

 Mountains breed men who are unforgiving to their enemies, suspicious of
 strangers and wary around their friends. Life is hard in the mountains, and
 it is easier to take something than build, grow or make it. Banditry, feuds,
 revenge, and murder are a way of life for many, and the survivors of this 
 harsh school of life must be tough and uncompromising in their hating. All 
 this means that they are superb in war: deadly shots and dirty fighters. 
 Any governor who tries to impose order rapidly finds that hill folk may fight
 each other, but they will always unite against the outsider.

 Historically, many outside powers have tried to tame the wilder elements in
 Kurdish and Afghan society but with mixed results. Alexander the Great gave
 up, even after marrying a Bactrian woman, Roxana. In 1842, for example, a
 15,000-strong British column decided to withdraw from Afghanstan back to
 India. Only one man actually made it back to "civilization" alive."

Regiment Size   = 60
Range           = 90
Accuracy        = 45
Reloading Skill = 20
Ammunition      = 20
Melee Attack    = 4
Charge Bonus    = 2
Defence         = 6
Morale          = 3

 * Can skirmish
 * Can hide in woodland
 * Can hide in light scrub
 * Can hide in long grass
 * Good stamina
 * Resistant to heat fatigue

Recruited in the Afghanstan region by the Ottomans and Marathas


--==African Native Infantry==--

"These muskets-armed troops are use massed volleys to break an enemy, relying
 on discipline to withstand any counter fire.

 "Marching regiments" or "line battlions" make up the majority of units in 
 European-style armies. They are so called because they form the line of 
 battle, not because they always deploys in line. Indeed, over time the 
 capabilities of line infantry should improve as new tactics, drill and
 weaponry are developed.

 These soldiers carry muzzle-loading, smoothbore muskets firing lead balls 
 as wide as a man's thumb. These are inaccurate weapons, effective only over
 200 paces or so and when fired in massed volleys. The ability to fire and
 reload with machine-like regularity with shot and bullet flying and comrades
 falling all around is what wins battles.

 Historically, in many armies colonels receive a fee to raise regiments, which
 remained their personal property and commands. They jealously guarded their
 right to appoint friends, relatives and hangers-on as regimental officers. 
 This contractor system, however, allowed unscrupulous officers to make 
 handsome profits by pocketing the pay of non-existant soldiers. The better
 colonels did take a pride in their regiments, spending their own fortunes
 on good uniforms and weapons. The capabilities of a "standard" line infantry
 unit therefore varied between nations and over time. It wasn't until the 
 1760s that anything approaching uniformity of drill, equipment, and 
 regulations became the norm.

 Line infantry regiments remained unchanged throughout the period, and their
 organisational patterns still forms the basis of modern military units."

Regiment Size   = 120
Range           = 70
Accuracy        = 35
Reloading Skill = 25
Ammunition      = 10
Melee Attack    = 4
Charge Bonus    = 4
Defence         = 9
Morale          = 7

 * Can hide in woodland
 * Resistant to heat fatigue

This unit is trained in an European power's African colonies


--==Armed Peasantry==--

"Arming the people is something that leaders find detestable and frightening,
 necessary perhaps, but certainly unwelcome.

 These people are the common people with whatever dangerous weapons they can
 obtain by fair means or foul. If a leader has reached the point of asking his
 people to act as this kind of militia, things are indeed desperate! If the 
 governed have reached this point on their own, then matters are truly 
 desperate for their leaders!"

Regiment Size   = 60
Range           = 70
Accuracy        = 25
Reloading Skill = 10
Ammunition      = 3
Melee Attack    = 4
Charge Bonus    = 4
Defence         = 6
Morale          = 4

 * Can hide in woodland
 * Can hide in light scrub
 * Resistant to heat fatigue

Recruited by the Marathas


--==Armed Tribesmen==--

"Arming the people is something that leaders find detestable and frightening,
 necessary perhaps, but certainly unwelcome.

 These people are the common people with whatever dangerous weapons they can
 obtain by fair means or foul. If a leader has reached the point of asking his
 people to act as this kind of militia, things are indeed desperate! If the 
 governed have reached this point on their own, then matters are truly 
 desperate for their leaders!"

Regiment Size   = 120
Range           = 0
Accuracy        = 0
Reloading Skill = 0
Ammunition      = 0
Melee Attack    = 6
Charge Bonus    = 5
Defence         = 1
Morale          = 3

 * Can hide in woodland
 * Can hide in light scrub

Used only when defending cities by Native American tribes.

**Requires The Warpaths Downloadable Content**


--==Armenian Archers==--

"Seeming archanic in an age of gunpowder and revolutionary fervour, these bow-
 armed skirmishers are still a dangerous force.

 They are capable of covering ground quickly, and of using the land and cover
 to best advantage: hiding behind a blade of grass or a pebble if needs must!
 While their bows might seem outmoded, their skills ive them a good rate of
 fire and are accurate: an enemy killed by an arrow is as dead as one shot by
 a musket ball. Armenian archers carry knives to be used in hand-to-hand  
 combat, but they should not be committed to melee without good reason. They
 are also vulnerable to cavalry attack, and can suffer excessive casualties
 when facing riflemen or specialist musketeers.

 Historically, Ottoman subjects could, and did, declare that they were soldiers
 by arming themselves and joining an army on the field. They could leave the
 service without penalty just as easily. What looked like lack of organsation
 was useful: good leaders attracted followers and kept them. However, 
 provincial troops were not always as loyal to the Sultan in Istanbul as they
 were to their locality or commander, and there was a regrettable tendancy
 for private, rather than state, armies to flourish."

Regiment Size   = 60
Range           = 70
Accuracy        = 40
Reloading Skill = 15
Ammunition      = 20
Melee Attack    = 7
Charge Bonus    = 7
Defence         = 5
Morale          = 6

 * Can skirmish
 * Can hide in woodland
 * Can hide in light scrub
 * Can hide in long grass
 * Good stamina

Recruited in the Armenia province only by the Ottomans

**Requires Elite Units of the East Downloadable Content**


--==Atakapa Elite Warriors==--

"These men are stealthy warriors armed with axes, ideal for ambushes and
 skirmish warfare.

 Atakapa Warriors have a fearsome reputation and an ability to read a 
 landscape immediately. This allows them to move swiftly and silently 
 without the possibility of detection. The combination of field craft 
 and an element of surprise makes these warriors ideal for ambush and
 sudden skirmishes. The Atakapa's weapons of choice are tomahawks, small
 axes that lend themselves perfectly to quiet attacks, either when thrown
 or in hand-to-hand combat.

 The Atakapa originated from present day Louisana and had a repuation
 among their neighbours for cannibalism. Literally translated, the name
 Atakapa means "man-eaters", and was given to them by the Chocktaws. The
 Atakapas actually referred to themselves as the Ishaks or "people". There
 is, of course, always the chance that the name Atakapa might have been a
 misunderstanding between the Chocktaws and the French explorers who
 first recorded the name. Cannibalism was extremely rare amongst Native
 American tribes, and the few recorded descriptions concern the ritualised
 eating of vanquished foes."

Regiment Size   = 90
Range           = 40
Accuracy        = 40
Reloading Skill = 35
Ammunition      = 4
Melee Attack    = 12
Charge Bonus    = 10
Defence         = 6
Morale          = 10

 * Can skirmish
 * Can hide in woodland
 * Can hide in light scrub
 * Can hide in long grass
 * Remains hidden whilst walking
 * Paths seldom trod
 * Good stamina
 * Resistant to heat fatigue

Trained only by the Cherokee Nations

**Requires The Warpaths Downloadable Content**


--==Azzars==--

"These irregular troops are often poorly equipped and ill-disciplined, but 
 they can be a very effect, mobile "mob".

 Such men have little to do with standard military protocols and practice,
 or even organisation, often taking up arms in extraordinary circumstances.
 This lack of discipline means that they can sometimes be extremely brutal,
 even brutish, in their behaviour. This can work in their favour, so in that
 it gives enemies pause for thought. More typically, their lack of discipline
 counts against them, and face with a well-ordered force they can be at a 
 disadvantage. In such a case, their mobility can be boon, allowing them
 to harass an enemy and withdraw as soon as the fight goes against them."

Regiment Size   = 60
Range           = 90
Accuracy        = 35
Reloading Skill = 10
Ammunition      = 20
Melee Attack    = 7
Charge Bonus    = 8
Defence         = 2
Morale          = 3

 * Can skirmish
 * Can hide in woodland
 * Can hide in light scrub
 * Can hide in long grass
 * Can hide in buildings
 * Remains hidden whilst walking
 * Good stamina
 * Resistant to heat fatigue

Trained by the Ottomans as a mob unit


--==Bargir Infantry==--

"Heavily influenced by European military training, Bargirs are a match to
 most line infantry regiments.

 With their equipment paid for by the state and their organisation based
 on tried and tested European principles, Bargir infantry are more reliable
 tha most Indian foot soldiers. Armed with good muskets and often trained
 or lead by mercinery European officers, Bargirs provide their general with a
 range of tactical options on the battlefield. 

 Traditionally, armies on the Indian subcontinent were geared towards mounted
 troops who enjoyed a high status compared to infantry. Footsoldiers, mainly
 drawn from the lowest echelons of society, were typically a disorganised 
 rabble, useful to a commander only because they added numbers to an army. 
 They were expendable, poorly-equipped and easily-dismayed in battle, often
 making them a liability rather than an asset.

 The social mobility which characterised Maratha society allowed a more 
 modern view of the role of infantry to come to prevalence. Through 
 observation of European methods, the equipment and training of Maratha
 infantry began to improve, allowing the successful use of advanced 
 manoeuvres and firing drills."

Regiment Size   = 120
Range           = 70
Accuracy        = 40
Reloading Skill = 25
Ammunition      = 15
Melee Attack    = 6
Charge Bonus    = 9
Defence         = 15
Morale          = 7

 * Can hide in woodland
 * Resistant to morale shocks
 * Resistant to heat fatigue

Trained only by the Marathas


--==Bashi-Bazouks==--

"These irregular troops are often poorly equipped and ill-disciplined, but 
 they can be a very effect, mobile "mob".

 Such men have little to do with standard military protocols and practice,
 or even organisation, often taking up arms in extraordinary circumstances.
 This lack of discipline means that they can sometimes be extremely brutal,
 even brutish, in their behaviour. This can work in their favour, so in that
 it gives enemies pause for thought. More typically, their lack of discipline
 counts against them, and face with a well-ordered force they can be at a 
 disadvantage. In such a case, their mobility can be boon, allowing them
 to harass an enemy and withdraw as soon as the fight goes against them."

Regiment Size   = 60
Range           = 0
Accuracy        = 0
Reloading Skill = 0
Ammunition      = 0
Melee Attack    = 9
Charge Bonus    = 8
Defence         = 3
Morale          = 5

 * Can hide in woodland
 * Can hide in light scrub
 * Can hide in long grass
 * Can hide in buildings
 * Remains hidden whilst walking
 * Good stamina
 * Resistant to heat fatigue

Trained only by the Ottomans as a mob unit


--==Beylik Janissary Grenadiers==--

"The janissaries are professional soldiers, hardened by arduous training and
 given the best equipment in the army.

 As a force, they are the cream of the Ottoman army, but, in comparsion to
 some other nations, they fight in a slightly old fashioned way. This is 
 small comfort to those who stand against them, as the janissaries are  
 personally brave to the point of foolhardiness. They are also given to 
 festooning themselves with weapons and hurling themselves into any fray!


 Historically, the corps of janissaries (the term means "new soldiers") 
 dates back to the 14th Century. They were intended to replace the unreliable
 ghazi tribe warriors with a force indoctrinated to be completely loyal to
 the Sultan. This was achieved by taking boys as young as five for training
 and conversaion to Islam if required. The janissaries had their own corps
 of engineers, supply troops and were even paid regularly, whether they wer
 at war or not! Over time, however, they came to be used as bureaucrats and
 administrators, and this gave them too much power over the Ottoman Empire.
 Eventually, the janissaries' entrenched position in government became
 arrogance and an entrenched position against chance, and so helped the
 Ottomans to stagnate and decline."

Regiment Size   = 60
Range           = 70
Accuracy        = 45
Reloading Skill = 35
Ammunition      = 15
Melee Attack    = 11
Charge Bonus    = 12
Defence         = 11
Morale          = 8

 * Can hide in woodland
 * Can hide in light scrub
 * Resistant to morale shocks
 * Resistant to heat fatigue

Trained only by the Ottomans


--==Beylik Janissary Musketeers==--

"The janissaries are professional soldiers, hardened by arduous training and
 given the best equipment in the army.

 As a force, they are the cream of the Ottoman army, but, in comparsion to
 some other nations, they fight in a slightly old fashioned way. This is 
 small comfort to those who stand against them, as the janissaries are  
 personally brave to the point of foolhardiness. They are also given to 
 festooning themselves with weapons and hurling themselves into any fray!


 Historically, the corps of janissaries (the term means "new soldiers") 
 dates back to the 14th Century. They were intended to replace the unreliable
 ghazi tribe warriors with a force indoctrinated to be completely loyal to
 the Sultan. This was achieved by taking boys as young as five for training
 and conversaion to Islam if required. The janissaries had their own corps
 of engineers, supply troops and were even paid regularly, whether they wer
 at war or not! Over time, however, they came to be used as bureaucrats and
 administrators, and this gave them too much power over the Ottoman Empire.
 Eventually, the janissaries' entrenched position in government became
 arrogance and an entrenched position against chance, and so helped the
 Ottomans to stagnate and decline."

Regiment Size   = 120
Range           = 70
Accuracy        = 45
Reloading Skill = 40
Ammunition      = 15
Melee Attack    = 9
Charge Bonus    = 10
Defence         = 11
Morale          = 8

 * Can hide in woodland
 * Can hide in light scrub
 * Resistant to morale shocks
 * Inspires nearby units
 * Resistant to heat fatigue

Trained only by the Ottomans


--==Blackfoot Blood Warriors==--

"Armed with axes and a distinct lack of fear, the Blackfoot Blood Warriors
 are fearsome foes indeed.

 Blackfoot Blood Warriors charge headlong into enemy lines bellowing 
 fearsome war cries to terrify their enemies. They are experts at 
 hand-to-hand fighting, and little use for anything else. Even the clothes
 they wear are designed to frighten and intimidate: Blood Warriors wear
 traditional war shirts emblazoned with symbolic representations depicting
 their victories in battle. These give the wearer the protection of the
 Spirits. They also provide an illustrated guide to all the reasons why
 an enemy should know fear!

 Warrior societies played a key role in the day to day life of young Native
 Americans. The Blackfoot Blood Warrior society, or "aiinikiks" (meaning 
 "all comrades"), was a "graded" society. When a group of boys reached 
 fighting age they would present the most junior members of the society 
 with gifts in order to "purchase" positions. Once a deal had been struck
 between two fighters they would smoke a pipe to seal the deal. The 
 warrior that had sold his position would then present gifts to a man in 
 the grade above him, and move up in status."

Regiment Size   = 120
Range           = 0
Accuracy        = 0
Reloading Skill = 0
Ammunition      = 0
Melee Attack    = 9
Charge Bonus    = 8
Defence         = 11
Morale          = 9

 * Can hide in woodland
 * Can hide in light scrub
 * Can hide in long grass
 * Paths seldom trod
 * Good stamina
 * Resistant to heat fatigue

Trained only by the Plains Nations

**Requires The Warpath Downloadable Content**


--==Blue Guards==--

"The Blue Guards are the elite bodyguard unit that serves the rulers of the
 Netherlands.

 All royal guards think of themselves as the elite of their national armies.
 Sometimes, they are court regiments where a martial appearance is valued 
 more than real soldiering. The Blue Guards, however, have a tradition of 
 fighting, and can shame any line regiment with their discipline and skill.
 This does not make them popular as they are, of course, with gentlemen and
 superior to any mere common infantry.

 Historically, the Blue Guards began as the personal bodyguard to Protestant
 William of Orange (later William III of England and Scotland). They followed
 him as he drove out the Catholic King James II after the "Glorious 
 Revolution" of 1688. They were at the forefront of the attack during the 
 Battle of the Boyne in Ireland in 1690, wading across the river to fall upon
 James' line. With William's claim to the throne secure after James' defeat,
 the Blue Guards remained his personal bodyguards until his death in 1702.
 William could not bring himself to really trust Englishmen. After his death
 the Blue Guards returned to the Netherlands, and resumed their duties there,
 playing a key role in the War of Spanish Succession."

Regiment Size   = 120
Range           = 70
Accuracy        = 55
Reloading Skill = 60
Ammunition      = 15
Melee Attack    = 11
Charge Bonus    = 15
Defence         = 20
Morale          = 12

 * Can hide in woodland
 * Can hide in light scrub
 * Resistant to morale shocks
 * Inspires nearby units

Hired by the Dutch in Amsterdam

**Requires Elite Units of the West Downloadable Content**


--==Bosnian Panduks==--

"These irregulars are expert skirmishers, but can also give foes a nasty shock
 in close combat.

 They are armed with muskets and swords, and use both with equal skill and
 ruthlessness, as might be expected of men who are expected to use brigandage
 as a stratagem. They do not wear armour, as this would slow them down when
 moving across country, but they are able to use the same broken country to
 good effect when going to ground and hiding. If they are vulnerable in combat,
 it is when facing cavalry, as they lack the formal training to use square
 formation against mounted men.

 Panduks are, in many ways, the Ottoman equivalent of Austrian pandours. 
 Indeed, men might find themselves serving both sides during their lives. 
 Pandours were irregulars, employed to act as brigands in attacking enemy 
 lines of supplies. The Bosnian panducks performed much the same duties, and
 were recruited from among ex-soldiers of many armies. It was quite possible
 to find men in their ranks hat had once worn Austrian, Russian, and Ottoman
 uniforms. What united them was their Bosnian nationality: unlike the other
 conquests in the Balkans, the Ottomans left the territorial extent of
 Bosnia unchanged. They wiped out the aristocracy, but left the people's
 sense of identity and place untouched."

Regiment Size   = 60
Range           = 90
Accuracy        = 35
Reloading Skill = 15
Ammunition      = 20
Melee Attack    = 11
Charge Bonus    = 11
Defence         = 4
Morale          = 6

 * Can skirmish
 * Can hide in woodland
 * Can hide in light scrub
 * Can hide in long grass
 * Good stamina

Hired by the Ottomans in the Balkans


--==Bowmen==--

"A bow-armed force capable of long-range, almost-silent, attacks.

 The bow is a tool as well as a weapon, used for providing food and defending
 the tribe. In the time it takes a musketeer to fire and reload, a skilled
 bowman can loose several arrows making them formidable enemies. Tribesmen
 hone their skills daily, hunting to provide food for their families and 
 furs to trade with Europeans.

 The materials used to make a bow vary from tribe to tribe. Some are made
 from wood, others from the horn of elks or mountain sheep. Bowstrings are  
 sinew or rawhide but, in an example of using whatever is to hand, the 
 Dakotas are reputed to use the necks of snapping turtles!"

Regiment Size   = 60
Range           = 70
Accuracy        = 25
Reloading Skill = 10
Ammunition      = 20
Melee Attack    = 4
Charge Bonus    = 3
Defence         = 1
Morale          = 4

 * Can skirmish
 * Can hide in woodland
 * Can hide in light scrub
 * Can hide in long grass
 * Can hide in buildings
 * Remains hidden whilst walking
 * Paths seldom trod
 * Resistant to heat fatigue
 * Resistant to cold fatigue

Trained by all Native Tribes.

**Requires The Warpaths Downloadable Content**


--==Bulkeley's Regiment==--

"Expatriate infantry are exiles in another nation's service: men with nothing
 left to lose but their lives. 

 Europe is awash with exiles, the dispossessed have that taken up arms thanks
 to war, religious persecution and politics. Some fight to free their 
 homelands and some because home is gone. A few fight for the romance of it 
 all, and for glory and riches. All serve because it is a better choice than
 starving. Whatever their motives, expatriates are a useful source of men. If
 someone can carry a musket, there is a place in the ranks. There is always
 the suspicions that individuals who have turned their coats once may do so
 again, even though this is unfair to many. As a result, it is unusual for
 expatriates to serve under their own officers.

 Despite the fact that many in the ranks are intelligent enough to act as
 skirmishers, expatriate infantry carry smoothbore, muzzle-loading muskets
 and usually fight as line infantry. It is easier to maintain discipline in 
 such units. 

 Historically, expatriate infantry varied in quality. The Irish Catholic "Wild
 Geese" in French service fought well, especially against the English. The
 French Royal "Chasseurs Britaiques" in the British army, did not relish 
 battle and often deserted at the first opportunity."

Regiment Size   = 120
Range           = 70
Accuracy        = 50
Reloading Skill = 50
Ammunition      = 15
Melee Attack    = 11
Charge Bonus    = 11
Defence         = 19
Morale          = 11

 * Can hide in woodland

Used only by France.

**Requires Special Forces Edition**


--==Cairo Janissaries==--

"Cairo janissaries are recruited from among the children of janissary 
 families, which gives them a sense of camaraderie and superiority.

 They are armed with muskets and swords, making them equally useful in the 
 firing line or in melee. They are, however, vulnerable to cavalry as their
 training does not include formal drills to form square for protection. They
 do not wear armour, despite appearing rather old-fashioned compared to 
 European troops.

 Janissaries were always a elite group within the Ottoman military, although
 by the end of the eighteenth century they were no longer necessary numbered
 among the best soldiers in the world. Originally, janissaries had been
 recruited among Christian boy children within Ottoman lands, as troops 
 under the direct control of the Sultan and as a counter to his more powerful
 vassals. The practice of taking children in this way was gradually abandoned,
 and by the 18th Century the janissaries were a power in their own right. The
 Cairo janissaries were almost exclusively recruited from among Arabic 
 Egyptians. Turkish members of the larger corps did their best to make sure
 that the janissaries, and their families, gained and kept control of the 
 plum jobs within the Ottoman administration. As a result, they ceased to be
 a purely military force and became a highly conservative group, determined
 to fight any reform within the Empire that reduced their influence."

Regiment Size   = 120
Range           = 70
Accuracy        = 45
Reloading Skill = 45
Ammunition      = 15
Melee Attack    = 11
Charge Bonus    = 12
Defence         = 12
Morale          = 8

 * Can hide in woodland
 * Can hide in light scrub
 * Resistant to morale shocks
 * Inspires nearby units
 * Resistant to heat fatigue

Trained only by the Ottomans in the Egypt province

**Requires Elite Units of the East Downloadable Content**
 

--==Cazadores==--

"Riflemen are skirmishers and snipers without peer, picking off leaders to sow
 confusion in enemy ranks.

 Organised and equipped as light infantry with rifles, not smoothbore muskets,
 riflemen have every right to see themselves as an elite. Chosen for 
 initiative and intelligence, they fight without close supervision from
 their officers. Their uniforms set them apart in an age when soldiers dress
 like peacocks: they deliberately blend into the landscape so that they can
 stalk their prey.

 Historically, the most famous riflemen, the British Greenjackets, carried
 infantry rifles designed by Ezekiel Baker. This muzzle-loading flintlock
 used a small ball from a tightly rifled barrel to give superb accuracy. 
 There are accounts of riflemen holding targets for each other at hundreds 
 of paces! It was a slow business to load the piece properly, as high-
 quality powder was carefully measured out and the bullet wrapped in a  
 leather patch then tapped down the barrel to engage with the grooves. All
 of this could take a minute or more to do properly, but the resulting shot
 was deadly over astonishing ranges. Baker even carefully supplied a "sword
 bayonet" so that the overall length of his rifle plus bayonet matched that
 of a line infantryman's bayonet-tipped musket."

Regiment Size   = 60
Range           = 125
Accuracy        = 70
Reloading Skill = 35
Ammunition      = 20
Melee Attack    = 7
Charge Bonus    = 12
Defence         = 6
Morale          = 7

 * Can skirmish
 * Can hide in woodland
 * Can hide in light scrub
 * Can hide in long grass
 * Can hide in buildings
 * Good stamina
 * Resistant to heat fatigue

Trained by the Spanish only. 


--==Cemaat Janissaries==--

"The janissaries are professional soldiers, hardened by arduous training and
 given the best equipment in the army.

 As a force, they are the cream of the Ottoman army, but, in comparsion to
 some other nations, they fight in a slightly old fashioned way. This is 
 small comfort to those who stand against them, as the janissaries are  
 personally brave to the point of foolhardiness. They are also given to 
 festooning themselves with weapons and hurling themselves into any fray!

 Historically, the corps of janissaries (the term means "new soldiers") 
 dates back to the 14th Century. They were intended to replace the unreliable
 ghazi tribe warriors with a force indoctrinated to be completely loyal to
 the Sultan. This was achieved by taking boys as young as five for training
 and conversaion to Islam if required. The janissaries had their own corps
 of engineers, supply troops and were even paid regularly, whether they wer
 at war or not! Over time, however, they came to be used as bureaucrats and
 administrators, and this gave them too much power over the Ottoman Empire.
 Eventually, the janissaries' entrenched position in government became
 arrogance and an entrenched position against chance, and so helped the
 Ottomans to stagnate and decline."

Regiment Size   = 120
Range           = 0
Accuracy        = 0
Reloading Skill = 0
Ammunition      = 0
Melee Attack    = 13
Charge Bonus    = 9
Defence         = 10
Morale          = 7

 * Can hide in woodland
 * Can hide in light scrub
 * Resistant to heat fatigue

Trained only by the Ottomans


--==Cemaat Janissary Grenadiers==--

"The janissaries are professional soldiers, hardened by arduous training and
 given the best equipment in the army.

 As a force, they are the cream of the Ottoman army, but, in comparsion to
 some other nations, they fight in a slightly old fashioned way. This is 
 small comfort to those who stand against them, as the janissaries are  
 personally brave to the point of foolhardiness. They are also given to 
 festooning themselves with weapons and hurling themselves into any fray!

 Historically, the corps of janissaries (the term means "new soldiers") 
 dates back to the 14th Century. They were intended to replace the unreliable
 ghazi tribe warriors with a force indoctrinated to be completely loyal to
 the Sultan. This was achieved by taking boys as young as five for training
 and conversaion to Islam if required. The janissaries had their own corps
 of engineers, supply troops and were even paid regularly, whether they wer
 at war or not! Over time, however, they came to be used as bureaucrats and
 administrators, and this gave them too much power over the Ottoman Empire.
 Eventually, the janissaries' entrenched position in government became
 arrogance and an entrenched position against chance, and so helped the
 Ottomans to stagnate and decline."

Regiment Size   = 60
Range           = 70
Accuracy        = 42
Reloading Skill = 32
Ammunition      = 15
Melee Attack    = 11
Charge Bonus    = 11
Defence         = 10
Morale          = 8

 * Can throw grenades
 * Can hide in woodland
 * Can hide in light scrub
 * Resistant to morale shocks
 * Resistant to heat fatigue

Trained only by the Ottomans


--==Chasseurs a Pied==--

"Light infantry are skirmishers who harass the enemy while screening the main
 body of an army.

 Initiative, aggression and pace of action mark these men out and they
 consider themselves a cut above other infantry, regardless of the title that
 they use. Light infantry, jaegers or chasseurs do not mindlessly follow 
 orders, but pick and choose their own ground and targets, using such cover
 as they can find. They carry standard smoothbore, muzzle-loading muskets,
 but they do not rely on massed volley fire; they deliberately aim (as well
 as they can, given that muskets lack sights), at individuals within the 
 enemy ranks. This selective fire can disrupt enemy formations or drive off
 enemy skirmishers. Over time, development in tactics and weapons will make
 them very effective as snipers as well as covering forces.

 In 1700, many European nations did not recruit light infantry regiments,
 Each line infantry regiment had a light company, but the massed volley was
 the proper way to employ firepower. As irregular light troops proved their 
 worth and tribal natives refused to co-operate by fighting formal, set piece
 battles, it was realised that collecting together light companies in ad hoc
 regiments was no longer enough. Direct recruitment of light infantry 
 regiments began in earnest, and by the end of the 18th Century every army
 fielded fast, light regiments."

Regiment Size   = 60
Range           = 90
Accuracy        = 55
Reloading Skill = 30
Ammunition      = 20
Melee Attack    = 5
Charge Bonus    = 4
Defence         = 6
Morale          = 6

 * Can Skirmish
 * Can hide in woodland
 * Can hide in light scrub
 * Can hide in long grass
 * Can hide in buildings
 * Good stamina

Available only to France


--==Chasseurs Britanniques==--

"Expatriate infantry are exiles in another nation's service: men with nothing
 left to lose but their lives. 

 Europe is awash with exiles, the dispossessed have that taken up arms thanks
 to war, religious persecution and politics. Some fight to free their 
 homelands and some because home is gone. A few fight for the romance of it 
 all, and for glory and riches. All serve because it is a better choice than
 starving. Whatever their motives, expatriates are a useful source of men. If
 someone can carry a musket, there is a place in the ranks. There is always
 the suspicions that individuals who have turned their coats once may do so
 again, even though this is unfair to many. As a result, it is unusual for
 expatriates to serve under their own officers.

 Despite the fact that many in the ranks are intelligent enough to act as
 skirmishers, expatriate infantry carry smoothbore, muzzle-loading muskets
 and usually fight as line infantry. It is easier to maintain discipline in 
 such units. 

 Historically, expatriate infantry varied in quality. The Irish Catholic "Wild
 Geese" in French service fought well, especially against the English. The
 French Royal "Chasseurs Britaiques" in the British army, did not relish 
 battle and often deserted at the first opportunity."

Regiment Size   = 60
Range           = 80
Accuracy        = 60
Reloading Skill = 30
Ammunition      = 15
Melee Attack    = 5
Charge Bonus    = 4
Defence         = 6
Morale          = 5

 * Can Skirmish
 * Can hide in woodland
 * Can hide in light scrub
 * Can hide in long grass
 * Can hide in buildings
 * Good stamina


Available only to Britain


--==Coldstream Guards==--

"The reputation of these elite soldiers and the example they set provides
 encouragement to comrades nearby.

 These men are a cut above the average line infantry regiment and they are 
 often the lynchpin of a commander's battle strategy. The presence of such
 men in the line of battle is enough to lift the hearts of all those around
 them, strengthening their determination to resist any enemy. A general can
 be confident that these men will hold, and he can base the rest of his 
 strategy around that fact.

 The factors which lead a regiment to acquire an exalted position within its
 country's military are hard to define: training and skill play their part,
 but in the main it is phyiscal and mental endurance that keeps good men
 fighting even when the tide of battle is against them. A lucky few carry
 such strength within themselves, but others derive it from the proud 
 martial traditions of their regiment. In Europe, the famous "vieux" and
 "petits-vieux" regiments of France have centuries of such history to call
 upon, whilst the various deeds of the British Coldstream Guards and Black
 Watch regiments reinforce the natural grit of the men in the ranks."

Regiment Size   = 120
Range           = 70
Accuracy        = 55
Reloading Skill = 40
Ammunition      = 10
Melee Attack    = 9
Charge Bonus    = 6
Defence         = 15
Morale          = 12

 * Can hide in woodland
 * Can hide in light scrub
 * Resistant to morale shocks
 * Inspires nearby units

Hired by the British in Edinburgh.


--==Colonial Light Infantry==-

"Light infantry are skirmishers who harass the enemy while screening the main
 body of an army.

 Initiative, aggression and pace of action mark these men out and they
 consider themselves a cut above other infantry, regardless of the title that
 they use. Light infantry, jaegers or chasseurs do not mindlessly follow 
 orders, but pick and choose their own ground and targets, using such cover
 as they can find. They carry standard smoothbore, muzzle-loading muskets,
 but they do not rely on massed volley fire; they deliberately aim (as well
 as they can, given that muskets lack sights), at individuals within the 
 enemy ranks. This selective fire can disrupt enemy formations or drive off
 enemy skirmishers. Over time, development in tactics and weapons will make
 them very effective as snipers as well as covering forces.

 In 1700, many European nations did not recruit light infantry regiments,
 Each line infantry regiment had a light company, but the massed volley was
 the proper way to employ firepower. As irregular light troops proved their 
 worth and tribal natives refused to co-operate by fighting formal, set piece
 battles, it was realised that collecting together light companies in ad hoc
 regiments was no longer enough. Direct recruitment of light infantry 
 regiments began in earnest, and by the end of the 18th Century every army
 fielded fast, light regiments."

Regiment Size   = 60
Range           = 80
Accuracy        = 55
Reloading Skill = 30
Ammunition      = 15
Melee Attack    = 5
Charge Bonus    = 3
Defence         = 6
Morale          = 7

 * Can Skirmish
 * Can hide in woodland
 * Can hide in light scrub
 * Can hide in long grass
 * Can hide in buildings
 * Good stamina
 * Resistant to heat fatigue

This unit is trained in a nation's colonies. 


--==Colonial Line Infantry==--

"These muskets-armed troops are use massed volleys to break an enemy, relying
 on discipline to withstand any counter fire.

 "Marching regiments" or "line battlions" make up the majority of units in 
 European-style armies. They are so called because they form the line of 
 battle, not because they always deploys in line. Indeed, over time the 
 capabilities of line infantry should improve as new tactics, drill and
 weaponry are developed.

 These soldiers carry muzzle-loading, smoothbore muskets firing lead balls 
 as wide as a man's thumb. These are inaccurate weapons, effective only over
 200 paces or so and when fired in massed volleys. The ability to fire and
 reload with machine-like regularity with shot and bullet flying and comrades
 falling all around is what wins battles.

 Historically, in many armies colonels receive a fee to raise regiments, which
 remained their personal property and commands. They jealously guarded their
 right to appoint friends, relatives and hangers-on as regimental officers. 
 This contractor system, however, allowed unscrupulous officers to make 
 handsome profits by pocketing the pay of non-existant soldiers. The better
 colonels did take a pride in their regiments, spending their own fortunes
 on good uniforms and weapons. The capabilities of a "standard" line infantry
 unit therefore varied between nations and over time. It wasn't until the 
 1760s that anything approaching uniformity of drill, equipment, and 
 regulations became the norm.

 Line infantry regiments remained unchanged throughout the period, and their
 organisational patterns still forms the basis of modern military units."

Regiment Size   = 120
Range           = 70
Accuracy        = 45
Reloading Skill = 25
Ammunition      = 10
Melee Attack    = 8
Charge Bonus    = 5
Defence         = 13
Morale          = 9

 * Can hide in woodland

This unit is trained in a Nation's colonies. 


--==Colonial Militia==--

"These musket-armed troops are recruited to defend their own locality, not 
 carry the war to an enemy's land.

 Militia or provincial troops are commonly held to be inferior to regular
 soldiers and, although they are trained to use the same tactics as marching
 regiments of the line, there is some truth in this assertion. Militia are
 expected to act as reassuring presence, and sometimes as a police force in
 suppressing local disturbances.

 Historically, it was not unusual for militia to be locals recruited as part-
 time soldiers while retaining their day jobs and trades. In Britain, for 
 example, service in the militia was seen as a good idea; you not only looked
 very patriotic for volunteering, but you could not be sent overseas! For 
 ambitious would-be officers, there was a hidden financial benefit for joining
 the militia. A commander who could persuade his men to transfer to the army
 with him would not have to pay the cost of his regular commission."

Regiment Size   = 120
Range           = 70
Accuracy        = 40
Reloading Skill = 20
Ammunition      = 10
Melee Attack    = 6
Charge Bonus    = 4
Defence         = 11
Morale          = 5

 * Can hide in woodland
 * Can hide in light scrub

Recruitable only in your nation's colonies


--==Company Infantry==--

"Raised in India, these European mercenaries do not fight "for King and 
 Country" but for the great East India trading companies.

 Company infantry are professional soldiers drawn exclusively from Europeans,
 both officers and other ranks. They are members of private armies for the 
 traders, but one that is available to further national needs when required.
 They fight using European doctrine and equipment as line infatrymen, carrying
 smoothbore, muzzle-loading muskets. These soldiers were also enforcers, tax
 gatherers, and a potent threat against the local princes in India, even away
 from the battlefield. Native regiments under European officers exist too, but
 their reliability is doubtful.

 Historically, the great East India trading companies were often closer to 
 being nations in their own right than business ventures. India was so wealthy
 that the companies needed armies, not just guards, to protect and expand 
 their interests and prestige. The British East India Company (the "John
 Company"), the Dutch "Vereenigde Oostindische Compagnie" (VOC) and the French
 "La Compagnie francaise des Indes orientales" all had their own armed forces:
 1 in 5 VOC employees were soldiers!"

Regiment Size   = 120
Range           = 70
Accuracy        = 40
Reloading Skill = 25
Ammunition      = 15
Melee Attack    = 6
Charge Bonus    = 9
Defence         = 13
Morale          = 7

 * Can hide in woodland
 * Resistant to heat fatigue

These troops were recruited in India most nations


--==Company of Select Marksmen / Fraser's Rangers==--

"These elite marksmen are trained in wilderness warfare and taught to survive
 in harsh conditions.

 Rangers are used for scouting and raiding missions far beyond the skills of
 ordinary men. Their ranks are mostly drawn from frontiersmen already hardened
 to living in the wilderness and capable of hiding in a variety of terrain
 types. Excellent marksmen, they excel at ranged combat but suffer in 
 prolonged melee attacks. They are trained to conceal themselves and fight in
 loose formation, but if caught in the open by line infantry or cavalry the
 are likely to sustain heavy casualties.

 Historically, Fraser's Rangers was a British brigade in Canada and composed
 of General Fraser's 24th Regiment of Foot, with light infantry and grenadier
 units from Sir Guy Carleton's Montreal force. These men took part in a number
 of key battles during the American Revolution, must notably the Battle of
 Bennington where they sustained heavy losses. They also fought at Saratoga,
 where they came up against Major General Morgan and his 500 elite riflemen. 
 Morgan's men were attacked by the British advanced company, but Fraser and
 his rangers drove them back, allowing the advanced company to retreat."

Regiment Size   = 60
Range           = 70
Accuracy        = 60
Reloading Skill = 25
Ammunition      = 20
Melee Attack    = 7
Charge Bonus    = 9
Defence         = 5
Morale          = 8

 * Can skirmish
 * Can hide in woodland
 * Can hide in light scrub
 * Can hide in long grass
 * Paths seldom trod
 * Good stamina
 * Resistant to heat fatigue

Only available to the British in the province of Upper Canada

**Requests Elite Units of America Downloadable Content**


--==Conscripts==--

"These men are legally compelled to serve in the army, on pain of imprisonment
 or death. As a result, they may not be the most enthusaistic of soldiers!

 Conscripts are usually given basic training of a kind; a measure of drill
 instruction and enough knowledge of their weapons so that they are less
 danger to themselves than the enemy. However, it is often impossible to 
 instil military skills and virtues in men who do not want to be in the 
 army, and for this reason their grasp of even elementary tactics may be 
 scant. This can cost lives in battle, as the use of conscripts is to march
 them towards the enemy en masse, and hope that the enemy cannot kill them
 all.

 Conscription is an easy method of recruiting troops, by simply compelling 
 the adult male population to join the army for a set period or until an
 emergency ends. Usually there are enough special exemptions so that the
 moneyed classes do not have to join the ranks. Conscription is now without
 its costs; as men are swept into the ranks, the supply of labourers and
 even skilled workers can vanish almost overnight."

Regiment Size   = 120
Range           = 70
Accuracy        = 35
Reloading Skill = 15
Ammunition      = 3
Melee Attack    = 6
Charge Bonus    = 9
Defence         = 11
Morale          = 6

 * Can hide in woodland
 * Can hide in light scrub

Hired by some European powers as massed troops.


--=='Corso Terrestre' Guerillas==--

"These men are not soldiers, but civilians driven to take up arms against
 their nation's enemies.

 Guerillas are not a recognised military organisation at all, but bands of 
 fighters and neighbours who have adapted banditary to be a way of making 
 war. They fight hard, because if they are not captured they can expect little
 mercy from an enemy: at best, a trial before inevitable execution. War and
 vendetta are often the same things for guerillas: wrongs done and the 
 resulting hatred are what drive them to fight. They are best when employed
 in ambush, or to skirmish and harass. They cannot be expected to fight in
 carefully dressed lines likes soldiers, because they are not soldiers.

 Historically, the Spanish people had an enormous capacity for carrying on
 wars against foreign occupiers long after their rulers had capitulated or
 made their peace with an enemy. Guerillas arose as an act of rebellion. The
 name itself is Spanish, and means "little war": the constant skirmishing
 and sniping that wears out an occupying army. When his men were bogged down
 there, Napoleon described Spain as an "ulcer", thanks in part to the constant
 partisan warfare carried on by the guerillas."

Regiment Size   = 60
Range           = 90
Accuracy        = 35
Reloading Skill = 15
Ammunition      = 20
Melee Attack    = 9
Charge Bonus    = 9
Defence         = 4
Morale          = 5

 * Can skirmish
 * Can hide in woodland
 * Can hide in light scrub
 * Can hide in long grass
 * Can hide in buildings
 * Remains hidden whilst walking
 * Paths seldom trod
 * Resistant to heat fatigue

Trained only by the Spanish in Madrid

**Requires Special Forces Edition**


--==Cossack Infantry==--

"Cossacks are a free warrior people, fine horsemen and terrible foes, from the
 steppes of Russia and Asia.

 They are organised into large hosts, each under the leadership of an ataman,
 or chief. Within each host, small Cossack bands fight as seperate units. 
 Traditionally, Cossacks are cavalrymen without peer, as might be expected
 of a steppe people, but they are equally adept at fighting on foot. They 
 are personally brave, even headstrong, in the presense of enemies, something
 that can make them too eager to get into the fight.

 Historically, Russians and other Eastern Europeans have had an ambiguous
 relationship with the Cossacks. There is admiration for their fighting 
 qualities, yet a certain wariness of their wild nature. This has not stopped
 them from being used as irregular troops by many nations. Even as late as the
 Second World War entire Cossack divisions were used by the Soviet Army, and 
 then by the Germans who invaded Russia. Those Cossacks who served with the
 Germans (there were Cossack Waffen-SS divisions) were either killed in
 combat or captured and sent to die in labour camps."

Regiment Size   = 120
Range           = 70
Accuracy        = 30
Reloading Skill = 20
Ammunition      = 15
Melee Attack    = 7
Charge Bonus    = 8
Defence         = 6
Morale          = 5

 * Can hide in woodland
 * Resistant to cold fatigue

Trained only by the Russians


--==Coureurs de Bois==--

"These elite light infantrymen are trained in wilderness warfare and 
 taught to survive in harsh conditions.

 Rangers are used for scouting and raiding missions far beyond the skills
 of ordinary men. The ranks are mostly drawn from frontiersmen already
 hardened to living in the wilderness, as their experience making them ideal
 for further training. The wild nature of their environment is reflected in
 the unconventional tactics they are taught, and they are given some leeway
 where formal army dicipline is concerned.

 Historically, rangers were employed by the British army and were used in the
 hostile environments of North America during the French and Indian War. They
 would carry out long distance winter raids using crude snowshoes to travel.
 The most famous and revered of all rangers were the "Rogers' Rangers", named
 for the commanding officer, Robert Rogers. The traditions of Rogers' Rangers
 are carried on today by the US Army Rangers, although the modern unit owes
 its existence to the Second World War experience to US troops fighting  
 alongside British commandos and a reformed force in the Korean War."

Regiment Size   = 60
Range           = 80
Accuracy        = 60
Reloading Skill = 25
Ammunition      = 15
Melee Attack    = 8
Charge Bonus    = 4
Defence         = 3
Morale          = 8

 * Can skirmish
 * Can hide in woodland
 * Can hide in light scrub
 * Can hide in long grass
 * Paths seldom trod
 * Good stamina
 * Resistant to heat fatigue

Available only to the French


--==Dahomey Amazons==--

"These merciless female warriors, armed with rifles, are rightly feared by men
 for their aggressing in battle. 

 Originally formed as a band of elephant hunters, they were developed into a 
 royal bodyguard recruited from among the King's wives, a group of women that
 sometimes numbered in the hundreds. Willing volunteers expand this force, 
 while other recruits are put forward by disgruntled husbands and fathers who
 visit the King with tales of spousal misbehaviour! The Amazons are denied 
 the right to marriage once in the regiment, and religion is used to give them
 a sense of being sacred.

 They are extremely well trained, and inculcated with a very aggressive 
 attitude. They are ferocious fighters with a reputation for decapitating 
 those who were unfortunate to become their captives. Woe betide the foe that
 underestimates them!"

Regiment Size   = 120
Range           = 90
Accuracy        = 40
Reloading Skill = 10
Ammunition      = 5
Melee Attack    = 7
Charge Bonus    = 8
Defence         = 3
Morale          = 6

 * Can skirmish
 * Can hide in woodland
 * Can hide in light scrub
 * Can hide in long grass
 * Can hide in buildings
 * Remains hidden whilst walking
 * Good stamina
 * Resistant to heat fatigue

Available only in Custom Battles, Early. 

**Requires Special Forces + Bonus Units Downloadable Content**


--==Desert Warriors==--

"Harsh and unforgiving warriors are born in harsh and unforgiving lands. These
 men are as deadly as their deserts.

 Living in a desert makes a man tough and ruthles, or dead. The weak do not
 survive, and this fierce cull produces proud and dangerous warriors. Their
 battle skills have been honed by years of raiding and goat thievery, or 
 against the more settled people of oasis villages. Defeat is unthinkable,
 because defeat is death.

 Traditionally, the Bedouin were among the most dangerous of desert tribes,
 fighting among themselves when outsiders weren't available. Constantly on
 the move to find new pastures for their livestock, they learned to live with
 the minimum of possessions and little external support in the harshest of 
 lands. Loyalty to the tribe and family was all that helped a man survive."

Regiment Size   = 120
Range           = 70
Accuracy        = 25
Reloading Skill = 10
Ammunition      = 5
Melee Attack    = 4
Charge Bonus    = 4
Defence         = 7
Morale          = 4

 * Can hide in woodland
 * Can hide in light scrub
 * Resistant to heat fatigue

Recruited in the Desert Regions in Asia by the Ottomans and Marathas


--==East India Company Infantry==--

"Raised in India, these European mercenaries do not fight "for King and 
 Country" but for the great East India trading companies.

 Company infantry are professional soldiers drawn exclusively from Europeans,
 both officers and other ranks. They are members of private armies for the 
 traders, but one that is available to further national needs when required.
 They fight using European doctrine and equipment as line infatrymen, carrying
 smoothbore, muzzle-loading muskets. These soldiers were also enforcers, tax
 gatherers, and a potent threat against the local princes in India, even away
 from the battlefield. Native regiments under European officers exist too, but
 their reliability is doubtful.

 Historically, the great East India trading companies were often closer to 
 being nations in their own right than business ventures. India was so wealthy
 that the companies needed armies, not just guards, to protect and expand 
 their interests and prestige. The British East India Company (the "John
 Company"), the Dutch "Vereenigde Oostindische Compagnie" (VOC) and the French
 "La Compagnie francaise des Indes orientales" all had their own armed forces:
 1 in 5 VOC employees were soldiers!"

Regiment Size   = 120
Range           = 70
Accuracy        = 45
Reloading Skill = 25
Ammunition      = 10
Melee Attack    = 8
Charge Bonus    = 5
Defence         = 13
Morale          = 9

 * Can hide in woodland
 * Resistant to heat fatigue

These troops were recruited in India by Britain


--==Ferguson Riflemen==--

"Ferguson Riflemen are scouts and snipers, who harass the enemy by targeting
 officers and leaders.

 Major Patrick Ferguson's remarkable and patented flintlock is a breech-
 loading weapon, with a cunning screw mechanism that opens the breech for
 loading and still seals the chamber tightly for firing. In the hands of a
 well-trained man, firing the piece is rapid; the labourous business of muzzle
 loading is no more! The rifling makes it accurate and deadly!

 Historically, Ferguson intended his gun to go into the hands of an elite 
 force, under officers of enterprise and daring, who would move rapidly, use
 cover, and could deliver accurate and withering fire. In practice, the weapon
 was not a success, because it was difficult to manufacture in quantity and
 somewhat fragile in the rough conditions of a battlefield: the screw
 mechanism would jam if not treated with respect. After Ferguson was wounded
 in action, his critics lost no time in equipping the unit with Brown Bess
 muskets, and then eventually disbanding Ferguson's prized riflemen."

Regiment Size   = 60
Range           = 125
Accuracy        = 65
Reloading Skill = 30
Ammunition      = 15
Melee Attack    = 5
Charge Bonus    = 4
Defence         = 8
Morale          = 9

 * Can skirmish
 * Can hide in woodland
 * Can hide in light scrub
 * Can hide in long grass
 * Can hide in buildings
 * Good stamina

These troops are only available to the British.


--==Firelock Armed Citizenry==--

"Arming the people is something that leaders find detestable and frightening,
 necessary perhaps, but certainly unwelcome.

 These people are the common people with whatever dangerous weapons they can
 obtain by fair means or foul. If a leader has reached the point of asking his
 people to act as this kind of militia, things are indeed desperate! If the 
 governed have reached this point on their own, then matters are truly 
 desperate for their leaders!"

Regiment Size   = 60
Range           = 70
Accuracy        = 25
Reloading Skill = 10
Ammunition      = 2
Melee Attack    = 4
Charge Bonus    = 4
Defence         = 5
Morale          = 3

 * Can hide in woodland
 * Can hide in light scrub

Used only as a unit to defend your cities when attacked. 


--==Frei-korps==--

"These light infantry are used to harass the enemy and screen the main body of
 the army.

 On the battlefield, they are skirmishers used to counter enemy light infantry
 troops that cause problems to a highly regimented Prussian regulars. Those 
 recruited into the Frei-korps include foreign mercenaries, ex-prisoners and
 deserters from other armies. Their less-than-reputable nature makes the 
 Frei-korps perfect for raids and independent operations where the ability to 
 live off the land (by stealing) is more important than parade ground drill.
 They travel light and their uniforms are deliberately plain to avoid drawing
 unwelcome atteention. 

 Historically, Frederick the Great (1740-86) had little respect for the 
 Frei-korps. He was a believer in discipline and drill in soldiers, and the
 independence of the light troops held little appeal. The men were basically
 sneaky and professional rascals and this was simple un-gentlemanly and
 dishonourable to the 18th Century mind. Frederick's army was surpremely
 disciplined, but even he had to accept that sometimes a certain "flexibility"
 was required, hence the Frei-korps.

 Despite the name, the Freikorps formed in Germany after the Great War had 
 little in common with these 18th Century troops, as they were "free" brigades
 of anti-communist ex-soldiers, returning from the front with no prospects
 and little loyaltey to the Weimar Republic."

Regiment Size   = 90
Range           = 90
Accuracy        = 50
Reloading Skill = 35
Ammunition      = 20
Melee Attack    = 6
Charge Bonus    = 5
Defence         = 11
Morale          = 7

 * Can skirmish
 * Can hide in woodland
 * Can hide in light scrub
 * Can hide in long grass
 * Can hide in buildings
 * Good stamina

Trained only by the Prussians

**Requires Elite Units of the West Downloadable Content**


--==French East India Company Infantry==--

"Raised in India, these European mercenaries do not fight "for King and 
 Country" but for the great East India trading companies.

 Company infantry are professional soldiers drawn exclusively from Europeans,
 both officers and other ranks. They are members of private armies for the 
 traders, but one that is available to further national needs when required.
 They fight using European doctrine and equipment as line infatrymen, carrying
 smoothbore, muzzle-loading muskets. These soldiers were also enforcers, tax
 gatherers, and a potent threat against the local princes in India, even away
 from the battlefield. Native regiments under European officers exist too, but
 their reliability is doubtful.

 Historically, the great East India trading companies were often closer to 
 being nations in their own right than business ventures. India was so wealthy
 that the companies needed armies, not just guards, to protect and expand 
 their interests and prestige. The British East India Company (the "John
 Company"), the Dutch "Vereenigde Oostindische Compagnie" (VOC) and the French
 "La Compagnie francaise des Indes orientales" all had their own armed forces:
 1 in 5 VOC employees were soldiers!"

Regiment Size   = 120
Range           = 70
Accuracy        = 40
Reloading Skill = 25
Ammunition      = 15
Melee Attack    = 6
Charge Bonus    = 9
Defence         = 13
Morale          = 7

 * Can hide in woodland
 * Resistant to heat fatigue

These troops were recruited in India by the French.


--==Frontiersmen==--

"These elite light infantrymen are trained in wilderness warfare and 
 taught to survive in harsh conditions.

 Rangers are used for scouting and raiding missions far beyond the skills
 of ordinary men. The ranks are mostly drawn from frontiersmen already
 hardened to living in the wilderness, as their experience making them ideal
 for further training. The wild nature of their environment is reflected in
 the unconventional tactics they are taught, and they are given some leeway
 where formal army dicipline is concerned.

 Historically, rangers were employed by the British army and were used in the
 hostile environments of North America during the French and Indian War. They
 would carry out long distance winter raids using crude snowshoes to travel.
 The most famous and revered of all rangers were the "Rogers' Rangers", named
 for the commanding officer, Robert Rogers. The traditions of Rogers' Rangers
 are carried on today by the US Army Rangers, although the modern unit owes
 its existence to the Second World War experience to US troops fighting  
 alongside British commandos and a reformed force in the Korean War."

Regiment Size   = 60
Range           = 90
Accuracy        = 50
Reloading Skill = 30
Ammunition      = 20
Melee Attack    = 8
Charge Bonus    = 10
Defence         = 7
Morale          = 5

 * Can skirmish
 * Can hide in woodland
 * Can hide in light scrub
 * Can hide in long grass
 * Paths seldom trod
 * Good stamina
 * Resistant to heat fatigue

Trained by the Spanish in the Americas, similar to Ranger units.


--==Ghoorkas==--

"Recruited by colonial powers, these indigenous Indian infantry are renowned
 for their loyalty and resilience.

 These indigenous troops formed hugely effective regiments when used by the
 European East India companies. They were acclimatised to India with a 
 resilience and endurance that put Europeans to shame. In combat, they 
 typically displayed unwavering bravery and a tenacious determination.

 Often recruited from barren or mountainous regions, these men are tough and
 hard working. Loyal without question, their familiarity with local culture
 allowed Europeans to fight insurgencies and unrest with understanding as well
 as brute force.

 The sepoys of the British East India Company were typical in that they had 
 native and European officers. "Natives" never commanded Company battalions,
 but their opinions were always sought by the better sort of European officer.
 The Ghoorkas were a special case, because Nepal was never colonised, but a 
 treaty was made between the company and the native King."

Regiment Size   = 150
Range           = 0
Accuracy        = 0
Reloading Skill = 0
Ammunition      = 0
Melee Attack    = 11
Charge Bonus    = 10
Defence         = 8
Morale          = 7

 * Can hide in woodland
 * Can hide in light scrub
 * Resistant to heat fatigue

Trained by a European power in Kashmir with Native Indian Government Building

**Requires Special Forces Edition**


--==Gorodskiye Streltsy==--

"These light soldiers are the traditional guardians of Russian towns, part 
 militia, part police and part fire brigade!

 The viborniye ("electives" who have chosen to serve in the ranks) and 
 gorodskiye (municipal) streltsy are both hereditary militia. Originally
 raised from the ranks of tradesmen by Ivan the Terrible, they are an old- 
 fashioned and traditionally-minded group. Over the centuries, membership of 
 the streltsy has been passed down from father to son, and a lack of new 
 volunteers - new blood - has ossified the old ways of battle. The streltsy
 are reliable, however, in defence of their homeland.

 Historically, the streltsy posed a significant challenge to the young Peter
 the Great (ruled 1682-1725). Angered by changes in the army which removed 
 their traditional privileges (of having an extremely easy life), the streltsy
 attempted to overthrow Peter. In 1698 they marched on Moscow, intent on 
 replacing him with his sister, Sophia Alekseyevna. Previous attempts to 
 change the system had usually provoked riots by the streltsy - the very
 people supposed to suppress such trouble - or worse. This time, Peter's new-
 model "Western" -fashion forces crushed them. This was not the end to the
 streltsy, however, as Russia's precarious position during the Great Northern
 War (1700-21) meant that Peter had to recall them to the colours."

Regiment Size   = 120
Range           = 0
Accuracy        = 0
Reloading Skill = 0
Ammunition      = 0
Melee Attack    = 11
Charge Bonus    = 12
Defence         = 8
Morale          = 3

 * Can hide in woodland
 * Paths seldom trod
 * Garrison policing bonus
 * Resistant to cold fatigue

Trained only by the Russians


--==Green Jackets==--

"Riflemen are skirmishers and snipers without peer, picking off leaders to sow
 confusion in enemy ranks.

 Organised and equipped as light infantry with rifles, not smoothbore muskets,
 riflemen have every right to see themselves as an elite. Chosen for 
 initiative and intelligence, they fight without close supervision from
 their officers. Their uniforms set them apart in an age when soldiers dress
 like peacocks: they deliberately blend into the landscape so that they can
 stalk their prey.

 Historically, the most famous riflemen, the British Greenjackets, carried
 infantry rifles designed by Ezekiel Baker. This muzzle-loading flintlock
 used a small ball from a tightly rifled barrel to give superb accuracy. 
 There are accounts of riflemen holding targets for each other at hundreds 
 of paces! It was a slow business to load the piece properly, as high-
 quality powder was carefully measured out and the bullet wrapped in a  
 leather patch then tapped down the barrel to engage with the grooves. All
 of this could take a minute or more to do properly, but the resulting shot
 was deadly over astonishing ranges. Baker even carefully supplied a "sword
 bayonet" so that the overall length of his rifle plus bayonet matched that
 of a line infantryman's bayonet-tipped musket."

Regiment Size   = 60
Range           = 125
Accuracy        = 65
Reloading Skill = 30
Ammunition      = 15
Melee Attack    = 5
Charge Bonus    = 4
Defence         = 12
Morale          = 9

 * Can skirmish
 * Can hide in woodland
 * Can hide in light scrub
 * Can hide in long grass
 * Can hide in buildings
 * Good stamina

These are a British only unit.


--==Grenadiers==--

"Grenadiers are large, strong men, armed with muskets and carrying bags of
 bombs to hurl at the enemy's ranks.

 Explosive grenades are one of the oldest types of gunpowder weapon, and 
 one of the most dangerous to use. Grenades are a simple cast iron ball, with
 a fuse sticking out of the top. Fuses are notoriously unreliable, and 
 grenadiers can die as their own bombs explode prematurely. Yet no matter
 how terrifying grenades are for the throwers, they are infinitely worse
 for the targets! Grenadiers see themselves as elite, and occupy the place
 of honour at the right of the line on parade. they have good reason: only
 large, brave men become grenadiers, because it takes a big chap to throw
 one properly. Even their uniform makes them look bigger thanks to the 
 pointed grenadier's cap, a tricorne gets in the way of a good throw.

 Historically, grenadiers regiments and battlions began as ad hoc assault
 forces. All line infantry had grenadier companies, collecting these sub-units
 gave commanders a useful group of heavily armed, aggressive and skilful 
 soldiers. Grenadier companies remained in line infantry regiments after 
 the creation of grenadier regiments, but they abandoned grenades. Instead,
 each grenadier company became a "heavy mob" of the biggest and strongest 
 soldiers in a regiment."

Regiment Size   = 60
Range           = 70
Accuracy        = 50
Reloading Skill = 35
Ammunition      = 10
Melee Attack    = 10
Charge Bonus    = 7
Defence         = 17
Morale          = 12

 * Can hide in woodland
 * Can hide in light scrub
 * Resistant to morale shocks

Trained by all nations.


--==Grenzers==--

"Grenzers are aggressive skirmishers, armed with an unusual double-barrelled
 musket. 

 These light infantry are used to harass and disrupt the enemy as battle
 commences. Like other skirmishing forces the grenzers consider themselves 
 a cut above most infantrymen. They are expected to show individual 
 aggression, initiative and soldiering skills, not just obey and fight in
 formation. 

 Unusually, they carry heavy double-barrelled (over-and-under) muskets,
 allowing the shots before reloading. This innovative weapon doubles the
 firepower of a grenzer unit, compared to any other skirmishing force. Added
 to this, grenzers are taught to select their targets carefully, making them
 quite deadly opponents.

 Historically, the Austrians had a tradition of creating high-quality light
 forces such as hussars and skirmishers. The grenzers were a part of this
 tradition, recruited from among the Coast and Transylvania population of 
 the Austrian Empire's domain as frontier guards against the Turks. As
 frontiersmen, they had a certain air of lawlessness and even banditry, but
 they proved extremely able light troops and were used against Austria's
 other enemies. Over time, however, they became a hybrid type between line 
 infantry and skirmishers, often deployed in battle in the line, but with
 the ability to skirmish when necessary. As identifiable infantry units, the
 Grenzers remained in Austrian service until the end of the First World War
 in 1918."

Regiment Size   = 60
Range           = 90
Accuracy        = 55
Reloading Skill = 40
Ammunition      = 20
Melee Attack    = 7
Charge Bonus    = 8
Defence         = 7
Morale          = 7

 * Can skirmish
 * Can hide in woodland
 * Can hide in light scrub
 * Can hide in long grass
 * Can hide in buildings
 * Good stamina

Trained only by the Austrians.


--==Guard Grenadiers==--

"Guard Grenadiers are chosen from among the bravest and largest men in the 
 Polish army.

 Renowned for their stoic resolve, Guard Grenadiers can be relied on not to
 break under the strain of battle. Apart from anything else, throwing 
 grenades is a dangerous business, but potentially devastating to the enemy.
 Strength is also needed in hand-to-hand combat, and Guard Grenadiers are a
 useful force of shock troops to be hurled against a wavering enemy. Their
 skills and physical presence makes them intimidating, even before steel is
 drawn.

 The 18th Century was a period when there were attempts to codify and define
 every aspect of military life to the smallest detail. Everything, from
 the smallest button on a uniform, to the way a man marched, was subject to
 discussion, regulation, and draconion punishment for deviation. The Polish
 Guard Grenadiers were subject to rigorous drill in every aspect of their
 training. Their throwing drill for grenade had stances to be adopted when,
 priming, igniting and throwing a grenade. Woe betide any Grenadier who did
 not follow the laid down procedure! Equally, woe betide any man who failed
 to dress to the appropriate standard, or behave as expected of a Guardsman!"

Regiment Size   = 60
Range           = 70
Accuracy        = 50
Reloading Skill = 50
Ammunition      = 15
Melee Attack    = 11
Charge Bonus    = 15
Defence         = 18
Morale          = 11

 * Can hide in woodland
 * Can hide in light scrub
 * Resistant to morale shocks
 * Inspires nearby units

Trained only by the Polish.

**Requires Elite Units of the West Downloadable Content**


--==Guardia de Infanteria==--

"The elite foot guards are charged with protecting the persons of the monarch
 and the royal family.

 These troops are equipped in much the same way as line infantrymen, and carry
 smoothbore muskets as their primary weapons. There, however, the similarities
 end. Their uniforms are altogether more splendid, marking them out as a 
 superior force, in arrogance if nothing else. This attitude can serve them 
 well in battle, as the guard can hardly be seen to be cutting and running, no
 matter how hot the enemy fire. They are also expected to do a good jobas 
 garrison troops, keeping the royal family safe no matter what the locals 
 might think or be tempted to do by some foolish revolutionary fervour.

 Historically, the French Masion du Roi (literally "House of the King") were
 the epitome of household troops. They provided a ceremonial guard at every
 state occasion, and Louis XIV picked them from candidates sent in by each
 regiment; inappropriate candidates brought punishment on the officers who 
 had sent them! The Prussian "Potsdam Giants" were a quirky household guard,
 the product of Frederick I's obsession with very, very tall men and military
 pump. Oddly, he wasn't a very warlike chap at all."

Regiment Size   = 120
Range           = 70
Accuracy        = 50
Reloading Skill = 55
Ammunition      = 15
Melee Attack    = 9
Charge Bonus    = 13
Defence         = 18
Morale          = 11

 * Can hide in woodland
 * Can hide in light scrub
 * Resistant to morale shocks
 * Inspires nearby units

Trained only by the Spanish


--==Guards==--

"The elite foot guards are charged with protecting the persons of the monarch
 and the royal family.

 These troops are equipped in much the same way as line infantrymen, and carry
 smoothbore muskets as their primary weapons. There, however, the similarities
 end. Their uniforms are altogether more splendid, marking them out as a 
 superior force, in arrogance if nothing else. This attitude can serve them 
 well in battle, as the guard can hardly be seen to be cutting and running, no
 matter how hot the enemy fire. They are also expected to do a good jobas 
 garrison troops, keeping the royal family safe no matter what the locals 
 might think or be tempted to do by some foolish revolutionary fervour.

 Historically, the French Masion du Roi (literally "House of the King") were
 the epitome of household troops. They provided a ceremonial guard at every
 state occasion, and Louis XIV picked them from candidates sent in by each
 regiment; inappropriate candidates brought punishment on the officers who 
 had sent them! The Prussian "Potsdam Giants" were a quirky household guard,
 the product of Frederick I's obsession with very, very tall men and military
 pump. Oddly, he wasn't a very warlike chap at all."

Regiment Size   = 120
Range           = 70
Accuracy        = 50
Reloading Skill = 40
Ammunition      = 10
Melee Attack    = 11
Charge Bonus    = 6
Defence         = 17
Morale          = 14

 * Can hide in woodland
 * Can hide in light scrub
 * Resistant to morale shocks
 * Inspires nearby units

Trained by most nations.


--==Guerillas==--

"These men are not soldiers, but civilians driven to take up arms against
 their nation's enemies.

 Guerillas are not a recognised military organisation at all, but bands of 
 fighters and neighbours who have adapted banditary to be a way of making 
 war. They fight hard, because if they are not captured they can expect little
 mercy from an enemy: at best, a trial before inevitable execution. War and
 vendetta are often the same things for guerillas: wrongs done and the 
 resulting hatred are what drive them to fight. They are best when employed
 in ambush, or to skirmish and harass. They cannot be expected to fight in
 carefully dressed lines likes soldiers, because they are not soldiers.

 Historically, the Spanish people had an enormous capacity for carrying on
 wars against foreign occupiers long after their rulers had capitulated or
 made their peace with an enemy. Guerillas arose as an act of rebellion. The
 name itself is Spanish, and means "little war": the constant skirmishing
 and sniping that wears out an occupying army. When his men were bogged down
 there, Napoleon described Spain as an "ulcer", thanks in part to the constant
 partisan warfare carried on by the guerillas."

Regiment Size   = 60
Range           = 90
Accuracy        = 45
Reloading Skill = 10
Ammunition      = 20
Melee Attack    = 7
Charge Bonus    = 8
Defence         = 2
Morale          = 3

 * Can skirmish
 * Can hide in woodland
 * Can hide in light scrub
 * Can hide in long grass
 * Can hide in buildings
 * Remains hidden whilst walking
 * Paths seldom trod
 * Resistant to heat fatigue

Trained only by the Spanish in Madrid


--==Hand Mortar Company==--

"The hand mortar can be used to place a grenade on a target beyond normal
 throwing range.

 Despite its name, the hand mortar is more of a grenade launcher, wiht a 
 wide barrel, typically of bronze, mounted on a musket stock so that it can be
 fired from the shoulder. This method of delivery offers increased range, but
 the weapons are temperamental and prone to misfires or bursting. This, 
 coupled with the variable quality of the grenades fired, means that in the
 wrong hands a hand mortar can often be as much of a danger to the man firing
 it as to the enemy. Despite this, the grenade is a useful battlefield 
 weapon when used against an empire deployed in cover, or for clearing choke
 points.

 Historically the armies of the Ottoman Empire and Russia employed the hand
 mortar. In the Russian military, hand mortar detechments typically operated
 in support of the artillery, possible because the unpredictability of the
 weapon made it unpopular among the line regiments! The Ottomans always 
 treated grenades as a form of "thrown artillery"."

Regiment Size   = 60
Range           = 70
Accuracy        = 50
Reloading Skill = 40
Ammunition      = 6
Melee Attack    = 11
Charge Bonus    = 11
Defence         = 15
Morale          = 9

 * Can hide in woodland
 * Can hide in light scrub
 * Resistant to morale shocks

These are trained only by the Ottomans. 


--==Haydut Irregulars==--

"These irregulars have the field skills to survive in the mountains, and all
 the cunning of bandits.

 This is because they are bandits. They carry muskets, and they have the
 skills to use them extremely accurately compared to other musket-armed 
 troops. Haydut irregulars are extremely good at using ground cover, and can
 hide in almost any terrain, again as might be expected of brigands or
 bandits. They are, however, not suited to combat against cavalrymen, as 
 they have no formal military training. They do not wear armour, as this
 would slow them down if they needed to run away!

 In the Balkans a haydut (the Turkish version of the word) or hajduk, was a
 Muslim or Christian bandit, but one who stole mostly from the Ottoman
 overlords, led his fellows in fighting in justice, and robbed the rich
 to give to the poor. All this is very romantic, but not entirely inaccurate.
 The hayduts were bandits, but they did not always fight against the Ottomans.
 For the right money, they could also be persuaded to fight for the Sultan.
 Like bandits everywhere, their equipment and uniforms were taken from their
 victim, so it was not uncommon to see hayduts using Austrian as well as 
 Turkish war gear. 

Regiment Size   = 60
Range           = 90
Accuracy        = 45
Reloading Skill = 20
Ammunition      = 20
Melee Attack    = 9
Charge Bonus    = 9
Defence         = 4
Morale          = 6

 * Can skirmish
 * Can hide in woodland
 * Can hide in light scrub
 * Can hide in long grass
 * Good stamina

Requires training from the Ottomans in the Balkans region.

**Requires Elite Units of the East Downloadable Content**


--==Hessian Grenadiers==--

"Hessian Grenadiers are large, strong men, armed with muskets, grenades, and 
 a fearsome reputation.

 Grenadiers set themselves as elite, and usually occupy the place of honour
 at the right of the line. They have every reason to be proud: only large,
 brave men become grenadiers. The size and strength makes them impressive and
 gives them an edge in melee combat. They are vulnerable when attacked by
 heavy cavalry and skirmish troops. This aside, grenadiers are dedicated
 soldiers who will follow orders to the letter. 

 Historically, Hessian soldiers were renowned for their skills and discipline.
 This is due, in part, to the harsh penalties imposed upon them for any
 indisciplined. Corporal punishment was a regular occurance, minor offenses
 often being punished with clubs and cudgels! Another popular punishment was
 "the gauntlet": a ritualistic beating that involved a soldier's comrades
 gather in two lines to beat the accused as he ran or walked past them. For
 more serious offenses Hessian soldiers would be swiftly hanged. This 
 treatment did not make them tolerant of rebellious behaviour in others,
 including civilians."

Regiment Size   = 60
Range           = 70
Accuracy        = 45
Reloading Skill = 35
Ammunition      = 15
Melee Attack    = 10
Charge Bonus    = 14
Defence         = 14
Morale          = 8

 * Can hide in woodland
 * Can hide in light scrub
 * Resistant to morale shocks

Only available to the British in a North American province

**Requests Elite Units of America Downloadable Content**


--==Hessian Line Infantry==--

"These muskets-armed troops are use massed volleys to break an enemy, relying
 on discipline to withstand any counter fire.

 "Marching regiments" or "line battlions" make up the majority of units in 
 European-style armies. They are so called because they form the line of 
 battle, not because they always deploys in line. Indeed, over time the 
 capabilities of line infantry should improve as new tactics, drill and
 weaponry are developed.

 These soldiers carry muzzle-loading, smoothbore muskets firing lead balls 
 as wide as a man's thumb. These are inaccurate weapons, effective only over
 200 paces or so and when fired in massed volleys. The ability to fire and
 reload with machine-like regularity with shot and bullet flying and comrades
 falling all around is what wins battles.

 Historically, in many armies colonels receive a fee to raise regiments, which
 remained their personal property and commands. They jealously guarded their
 right to appoint friends, relatives and hangers-on as regimental officers. 
 This contractor system, however, allowed unscrupulous officers to make 
 handsome profits by pocketing the pay of non-existant soldiers. The better
 colonels did take a pride in their regiments, spending their own fortunes
 on good uniforms and weapons. The capabilities of a "standard" line infantry
 unit therefore varied between nations and over time. It wasn't until the 
 1760s that anything approaching uniformity of drill, equipment, and 
 regulations became the norm.

 Line infantry regiments remained unchanged throughout the period, and their
 organisational patterns still forms the basis of modern military units."

Regiment Size   = 120
Range           = 70
Accuracy        = 45
Reloading Skill = 25
Ammunition      = 10
Melee Attack    = 6
Charge Bonus    = 4
Defence         = 12
Morale          = 7

 * Can hide in woodland

Found in North America, hired as mercanaries by the British.


--==Hindu Musketeers==--

"These musketeers are a useful addition to any force, even if they lack the 
 fire discipline of regular soldiers.

 For all its smoke and noise, handling the smoothbore, muzzle-loading musket
 can be taught to all but the most stupid of men. Once the basic skills of
 loading have been mastered, it is simply a matter of point the loud end at
 the enemy and pulling the trigger. It is in God's hand as to what happens
 next!

 Even the most inexperienced or cack-handled of peasants can be useful with
 a musket in his hands. The noise of a volley is often enough to frighten, and
 any casualties in the enemy ranks are a bonus.

 Historically, such units of irregular musket men would arrive at a  
 battlefield with all kinds of weapons, from ancient matchlocks handed down 
 from father to son, to modern government-issue weapons looted from the enemy
 dead. This lack of standardisation did not matter much, as it was the
 ability to fire at all that made the unit a useful force."

Regiment Size   = 120
Range           = 70
Accuracy        = 25
Reloading Skill = 20
Ammunition      = 15
Melee Attack    = 9
Charge Bonus    = 8
Defence         = 6
Morale          = 5

 * Can hide in woodland
 * Resistant to heat fatigue



--==Hindu Warriors==--

"A sword is an honourable weapon for any warrior. The man who carries one 
 must demonstrate this courage if he is to cut down his foe. 

 Although a sword, no matter what its design, may appear outdated next to
 a musket, it has one great advantage, it never needs loading. A truly
 skilled swordman will never want for employment, and he is an intimidating
 sight to many regular musket-armed soldiers.

 Units of swordsmen are also easier to hand tactically on a battlefield. A
 general does not have to make fine judgements about when to hold or give  
 fire: he need only send his men forward to do their killing work at the
 right time. Once committed, they will keep fighting until death or victory
 comes."

Regiment Size   = 120
Range           = 0
Accuracy        = 0
Reloading Skill = 0
Ammunition      = 0
Melee Attack    = 15
Charge Bonus    = 9
Defence         = 17
Morale          = 7

 * Can hide in woodland
 * Can hide in light scrub
 * Resistant to heat fatigue

Trained by the Marathas


--==Holland Guards==--

"The Holland Guards are infantry, charged with protecting the national leader 
 and his immediate family.

 These troops are equipped as line infantry, and carry smoothbore muskets. 
 Their uniforms are splendid, and mark them out as a superior unit, in 
 arrogance if nothing else. They are trained to deliver devastating volley
 fire, and never to waver in the face of a foe. this attitude serves them 
 well in battle, as the Guard can hardly be seen to cut and run, no matter
 how hot the fight.

 Historically, the guards sometimes became the only unit a leader could rely
 on when politics got out of hand, most of the time. It was not unknown for
 the Guard to be kingmakers, even in a republic, and only give their 
 protection to their preferred choice of leader. With the turbulent history
 of the Dutch, the Holland Guard were provided with numerous opportunities
 to change the national leader. As the 18th Century drew to a close, the 
 fire of the French Revolution was spreading throughout Europe: free thinkers
 swa the merits of the Revolution and many set their minds on something 
 similar in their own countries."

Regiment Size   = 120
Range           = 70
Accuracy        = 55
Reloading Skill = 60
Ammunition      = 15
Melee Attack    = 7
Charge Bonus    = 11
Defence         = 18
Morale          = 11

 * Can hide in woodland
 * Can hide in light scrub
 * Resistant to morale shocks
 * Inspires nearby units

Hired only by the Dutch in Amsterdam. 


--==Hungarian Grenadiers==--

"Hungarian Grenadiers are strong men with the ability to hurl a grenade with
 precision into enemy lines. 

 Recruited from the largest and strongest men available, grenadiers must
 be capable of throwing a grenade far enough so that the subsequent explosion
 does not kill them! Even so, fuses are notoriously unreliable, and men 
 sometimes die from premature explosions. Yet no matter how worrying 
 grenades are for the grenadiers, they are definitely worse for the targets!

 Grenadiers, thanks to their imposing figure, are also used as close-quarters
 shock troops, as they have the edge in a melee over smaller men.

 Historically, Hungarian Grenadiers were a sight to behold on the battlefield
 in their magnificant uniforms. Hungarian units in the Austrian army were
 raised by feudal levy. Although the Austrians had an integrated military, 
 Hungary remained a seperate kingdom, even though it shared a Hapsburg monarch
 with Austria. Military enlistment in Austrian service was originally for 
 life; in 1757 limited service was introduced in the hopes of attracting
 better recruits and thereby improving the calibre of the soldiers. Men were
 allowed to enlist for a maximum of 6 years or for the duration of any
 hostilities, whichever was longer."

Regiment Size   = 60
Range           = 70
Accuracy        = 50
Reloading Skill = 40
Ammunition      = 15
Melee Attack    = 9
Charge Bonus    = 13
Defence         = 17
Morale          = 9

 * Can hide in woodland
 * Can hide in light scrub
 * Resistant to morale shocks

Trained only by Austrian in the Hungary province

**Requires Elite Units of the West Downloadable Content**


--==Infantry Petit-Veiux==--

"The reputation of these elite soldiers and the example they set provides
 encouragement to comrades nearby.

 These men are a cut above the average line infantry regiment and they are 
 often the lynchpin of a commander's battle strategy. The presence of such
 men in the line of battle is enough to lift the hearts of all those around
 them, strengthening their determination to resist any enemy. A general can
 be confident that these men will hold, and he can base the rest of his 
 strategy around that fact.

 The factors which lead a regiment to acquire an exalted position within its
 country's military are hard to define: training and skill play their part,
 but in the main it is phyiscal and mental endurance that keeps good men
 fighting even when the tide of battle is against them. A lucky few carry
 such strength within themselves, but others derive it from the proud 
 martial traditions of their regiment. In Europe, the famous "vieux" and
 "petits-vieux" regiments of France have centuries of such history to call
 upon, whilst the various deeds of the British Coldstream Guards and Black
 Watch regiments reinforce the natural grit of the men in the ranks."

Regiment Size   = 120
Range           = 70
Accuracy        = 55
Reloading Skill = 50
Ammunition      = 15
Melee Attack    = 7
Charge Bonus    = 11
Defence         = 17
Morale          = 9

 * Can hide in woodland
 * Can hide in light scrub
 * Resistant to morale shocks
 * Inspires nearby units

Available only to the French.


--==Infantry Veiux==--

"The reputation of these elite soldiers and the example they set provides
 encouragement to comrades nearby.

 These men are a cut above the average line infantry regiment and they are 
 often the lynchpin of a commander's battle strategy. The presence of such
 men in the line of battle is enough to lift the hearts of all those around
 them, strengthening their determination to resist any enemy. A general can
 be confident that these men will hold, and he can base the rest of his 
 strategy around that fact.

 The factors which lead a regiment to acquire an exalted position within its
 country's military are hard to define: training and skill play their part,
 but in the main it is phyiscal and mental endurance that keeps good men
 fighting even when the tide of battle is against them. A lucky few carry
 such strength within themselves, but others derive it from the proud 
 martial traditions of their regiment. In Europe, the famous "vieux" and
 "petits-vieux" regiments of France have centuries of such history to call
 upon, whilst the various deeds of the British Coldstream Guards and Black
 Watch regiments reinforce the natural grit of the men in the ranks."

Regiment Size   = 120
Range           = 70
Accuracy        = 50
Reloading Skill = 50
Ammunition      = 15
Melee Attack    = 7
Charge Bonus    = 15
Defence         = 17
Morale          = 11

 * Can hide in woodland
 * Can hide in light scrub
 * Resistant to morale shocks
 * Inspires nearby units

Available only to the French.


--==Irish Brigade==--

"Expatriate infantry are exiles in another nation's service: men with nothing
 left to lose but their lives. 

 Europe is awash with exiles, the dispossessed have that taken up arms thanks
 to war, religious persecution and politics. Some fight to free their 
 homelands and some because home is gone. A few fight for the romance of it 
 all, and for glory and riches. All serve because it is a better choice than
 starving. Whatever their motives, expatriates are a useful source of men. If
 someone can carry a musket, there is a place in the ranks. There is always
 the suspicions that individuals who have turned their coats once may do so
 again, even though this is unfair to many. As a result, it is unusual for
 expatriates to serve under their own officers.

 Despite the fact that many in the ranks are intelligent enough to act as
 skirmishers, expatriate infantry carry smoothbore, muzzle-loading muskets
 and usually fight as line infantry. It is easier to maintain discipline in 
 such units. 

 Historically, expatriate infantry varied in quality. The Irish Catholic "Wild
 Geese" in French service fought well, especially against the English. The
 French Royal "Chasseurs Britaiques" in the British army, did not relish 
 battle and often deserted at the first opportunity."

Regiment Size   = 120
Range           = 70
Accuracy        = 35
Reloading Skill = 25
Ammunition      = 15
Melee Attack    = 6
Charge Bonus    = 8
Defence         = 11
Morale          = 7

 * Can hide in woodland

Trained only by the Spanish in Madrid


--==Isarelys==--

"These musketeers are a useful addition to any force, even if they lack the 
 fire discipline of regular soldiers.

 For all its smoke and noise, handling the smoothbore, muzzle-loading musket
 can be taught to all but the most stupid of men. Once the basic skills of
 loading have been mastered, it is simply a matter of point the loud end at
 the enemy and pulling the trigger. It is in God's hand as to what happens
 next!

 Even the most inexperienced or cack-handled of peasants can be useful with
 a musket in his hands. The noise of a volley is often enough to frighten, and
 any casualties in the enemy ranks are a bonus.

 Historically, such units of irregular musket men would arrive at a  
 battlefield with all kinds of weapons, from ancient matchlocks handed down 
 from father to son, to modern government-issue weapons looted from the enemy
 dead. This lack of standardisation did not matter much, as it was the
 ability to fire at all that made the unit a useful force."

Regiment Size   = 120
Range           = 70
Accuracy        = 30
Reloading Skill = 20
Ammunition      = 15
Melee Attack    = 4
Charge Bonus    = 8
Defence         = 12
Morale          = 5

 * Can hide in woodland
 * Resistant to heat fatigue

Trained by the Ottomans as basic Line Infantry


--==Jaegers==--

"Light infantry are skirmishers who harass the enemy while screening the main
 body of an army.

 Initiative, aggression and pace of action mark these men out and they
 consider themselves a cut above other infantry, regardless of the title that
 they use. Light infantry, jaegers or chasseurs do not mindlessly follow 
 orders, but pick and choose their own ground and targets, using such cover
 as they can find. They carry standard smoothbore, muzzle-loading muskets,
 but they do not rely on massed volley fire; they deliberately aim (as well
 as they can, given that muskets lack sights), at individuals within the 
 enemy ranks. This selective fire can disrupt enemy formations or drive off
 enemy skirmishers. Over time, development in tactics and weapons will make
 them very effective as snipers as well as covering forces.

 In 1700, many European nations did not recruit light infantry regiments,
 Each line infantry regiment had a light company, but the massed volley was
 the proper way to employ firepower. As irregular light troops proved their 
 worth and tribal natives refused to co-operate by fighting formal, set piece
 battles, it was realised that collecting together light companies in ad hoc
 regiments was no longer enough. Direct recruitment of light infantry 
 regiments began in earnest, and by the end of the 18th Century every army
 fielded fast, light regiments."

Regiment Size   = 60
Range           = 90
Accuracy        = 55
Reloading Skill = 30
Ammunition      = 20
Melee Attack    = 5
Charge Bonus    = 4
Defence         = 6
Morale          = 6

 * Can Skirmish
 * Can hide in woodland
 * Can hide in light scrub
 * Can hide in long grass
 * Can hide in buildings
 * Good stamina

Trained only by the Austrians


--==Jamestown Settlers==--

"The inhibitants of colonial towns must sometimes take up arms to defend
 themselves.

 Self-defence was a part of life in Elizabethian and Jacobean England. A 
 man expected to look after his family and property as the local parish
 constables were not necessarily a reliable police force. In some parishes
 the constables were either old men, or non-existant. Men were also expected
 to join the local fencibles or trained bands, a militia for the defence of
 the kingdom in times of trouble. Skill-at-arms was therefore not unknown
 in the general population, and these skills were taken to the New World by
 the colonists. In times of tension with the native tribes, the fact that
 the colonists could, if needs must, protect themselves, was useful."

Regiment Size   = 60
Range           = 70
Accuracy        = 40
Reloading Skill = 20
Ammunition      = 15
Melee Attack    = 8
Charge Bonus    = 4
Defence         = 7
Morale          = 5

 * Can hide in woodland
 * Can hide in light scrub

Found in the Road to Independance Campaign.


--==Janissary Hand Mortar Boluk==--

"The hand mortar can be used to place a grenade on a target beyond normal
 throwing range.

 Despite its name, the hand mortar is more of a grenade launcher, wiht a 
 wide barrel, typically of bronze, mounted on a musket stock so that it can be
 fired from the shoulder. This method of delivery offers increased range, but
 the weapons are temperamental and prone to misfires or bursting. This, 
 coupled with the variable quality of the grenades fired, means that in the
 wrong hands a hand mortar can often be as much of a danger to the man firing
 it as to the enemy. Despite this, the grenade is a useful battlefield 
 weapon when used against an empire deployed in cover, or for clearing choke
 points.

 Historically the armies of the Ottoman Empire and Russia employed the hand
 mortar. In the Russian military, hand mortar detechments typically operated
 in support of the artillery, possible because the unpredictability of the
 weapon made it unpopular among the line regiments! The Ottomans always 
 treated grenades as a form of "thrown artillery"."

Regiment Size   = 60
Range           = 70
Accuracy        = 45
Reloading Skill = 35
Ammunition      = 6
Melee Attack    = 8
Charge Bonus    = 8
Defence         = 13
Morale          = 8

 * Can hide in woodland
 * Can hide in light scrub
 * Resistant to morale shocks
 * Resistant to heat fatigue

Trained by the Ottomans only


--==John Smith's Band==--

"A group of settlers armed with arquesbuses and commandered by Captain John 
 Smith.

 John Smith is a fearless leader. His no-nonsense approach to colonisation
 has led men, who would otherwise have rested on their laurels, to work hard
 to provide for themselves and their fellow settlers. Armed with arquebuses
 and a desire to colonise the New World, these men will have to fight to make
 a home for themselves in an inhospitable land.

 Historically, John Smith was a bit of a rogue. During the voyage to the New
 World, he incited mutiny and was locked in the brig, pending trial upon
 arrival. The ship's captain - Christopher Newport - intended to have Smith
 executed, but, thanks to the orders issued by the Virginia Company before
 the voyage had even begun, Smith was reprieved. He was named as one of the
 leaders of the early colony, and as such Newport fell compelled to let him
 live."

Regiment Size   = 120
Range           = 70
Accuracy        = 45
Reloading Skill = 15
Ammunition      = 15
Melee Attack    = 10
Charge Bonus    = 5
Defence         = 6
Morale          = 7

 * Can hide in woodland
 * Can hide in light scrub
 * Inspires nearby units
 * Good stamina

Found in the Road to Independance Campaign.


--==King's Royal Regiment of New York==--

"Whether using their muskets or their bayonets, these infantrymen hold the
 line in battle.

 This loyalist regiment is made of line infantrymen who fire mass volleys
 into the main body of an enemy to break them. Once their ammunition is
 spent or the enemy is sufficiently weaked, they can fix bayonets and 
 deliver a decisive charge. Because these men fight in close formation,
 they are vulnerable to long-range attacks by artillery and skirmishers,
 but they can counter cavalry charges by moving to a square formation.

 The King's Royal Regiment of New York was a misleading name for a regiment
 that never actually stationed in New York. In fact, the men spent a great
 deal of their time in Montreal. The unit was originally comprised of
 colonists fleeing "patriot", or rebel, persecution and in time proved
 to be a very effective raiding party. This may have been thanks to the
 Native American warriors who often accompanied them in action. These
 warriors were led by their own chiefs, and the number attached to the 
 regiment would vary in size depending on the campaign."

Regiment Size   = 120
Range           = 70
Accuracy        = 40
Reloading Skill = 25
Ammunition      = 15
Melee Attack    = 11
Charge Bonus    = 12
Defence         = 13
Morale          = 9

 * Can hide in woodland
 * Can hide in light scrub
 * Resistant to morale shocks

Only available to the British in the province of Upper Canada

**Requests Elite Units of America Downloadable Content**


--==Kurdish Hillmen==--

"These fierce and independent men spend their lives fighting, making them
 superb irregular troops for a general they respect.

 Mountains breed men who are unforgiving to their enemies, suspicious of
 strangers and wary around their friends. Life is hard in the mountains, and
 it is easier to take something than build, grow or make it. Banditry, feuds,
 revenge, and murder are a way of life for many, and the survivors of this 
 harsh school of life must be tough and uncompromising in their hating. All 
 this means that they are superb in war: deadly shots and dirty fighters. 
 Any governor who tries to impose order rapidly finds that hill folk may fight
 each other, but they will always unite against the outsider.

 Historically, many outside powers have tried to tame the wilder elements in
 Kurdish and Afghan society but with mixed results. Alexander the Great gave
 up, even after marrying a Bactrian woman, Roxana. In 1842, for example, a
 15,000-strong British column decided to withdraw from Afghanstan back to
 India. Only one man actually made it back to "civilization" alive."

Regiment Size   = 60
Range           = 90
Accuracy        = 45
Reloading Skill = 20
Ammunition      = 20
Melee Attack    = 4
Charge Bonus    = 2
Defence         = 6
Morale          = 3

 * Can skirmish
 * Can hide in woodland
 * Can hide in light scrub
 * Can hide in long grass
 * Good stamina
 * Resistant to heat fatigue

Recruited in the Baghdad region by the Ottomans and Marathas


--==Landless Rabble==--

"A mob, armed with whatever they have been able to steal.

 These people are hardly even peasants, as they do not have any land to work.
 But they can still be pushed into taking up arms, a desperate action for 
 such folk. At best, they will be armed with argicultural tools (these can 
 still kill in angry hands) and whatever they have managed to loot.

 They are of dubious military worth."

Regiment Size   = 150
Range           = 0
Accuracy        = 0
Reloading Skill = 0
Ammunition      = 0
Melee Attack    = 5
Charge Bonus    = 1
Defence         = 3
Morale          = 2

 * Can hide in woodland
 * Can hide in light scrub
 * Resistant to heat fatigue

Trained by the Marathas


--==Legion of the United States==--

"The Legion is a composite force of infantry, able to fight in a battle line 
 and as skirmishers.

 These men are professional soldiers, the best that can be found in the United
 States. Each man is trained to fight with guts, independence and 
 determination. All are schooled in the tactics of formal, European fighting,
 where giving fire from rigid lines is the norm, yet they are also fighting 
 in a flexible, loose skirmish fashion that is ideally suited to war against
 the natives. The Legion may not be numerous, but it makes up for that in 
 fighting spirit!

 The Founding Fathers were very suspicious of armies and believed that a 
 citizen militia was quite sufficient for national defence. Events proved them
 wrong. Formed in 1791 to fight the natives, the Legion was America's first
 standing army. Under the leadership of "Mad" Anthony Wayne - so called not
 because he was insane, but because he was "mad for it" and always up for a 
 fight - US units were properly trained for the first time. After Wayne was 
 killed in 1796, his Legion was reorganised into more conventional infantry
 regiments, which still exist as combat units in the US Army today."

Regiment Size   = 90
Range           = 90
Accuracy        = 50
Reloading Skill = 35
Ammunition      = 50
Melee Attack    = 6
Charge Bonus    = 9
Defence         = 13
Morale          = 7

 * Can skirmish
 * Can hide in woodland
 * Can hide in light scrub
 * Can hide in buildings
 * Good stamina

Trained only by the United States

**Requires Elite Units of the West Downloadable Content**


--==Life Guard==--

"The elite foot guards are charged with protecting the persons of the monarch
 and the royal family.

 These troops are equipped in much the same way as line infantrymen, and carry
 smoothbore muskets as their primary weapons. There, however, the similarities
 end. Their uniforms are altogether more splendid, marking them out as a 
 superior force, in arrogance if nothing else. This attitude can serve them 
 well in battle, as the guard can hardly be seen to be cutting and running, no
 matter how hot the enemy fire. They are also expected to do a good jobas 
 garrison troops, keeping the royal family safe no matter what the locals 
 might think or be tempted to do by some foolish revolutionary fervour.

 Historically, the French Masion du Roi (literally "House of the King") were
 the epitome of household troops. They provided a ceremonial guard at every
 state occasion, and Louis XIV picked them from candidates sent in by each
 regiment; inappropriate candidates brought punishment on the officers who 
 had sent them! The Prussian "Potsdam Giants" were a quirky household guard,
 the product of Frederick I's obsession with very, very tall men and military
 pump. Oddly, he wasn't a very warlike chap at all."

Regiment Size   = 120
Range           = 70
Accuracy        = 50
Reloading Skill = 65
Ammunition      = 15
Melee Attack    = 9
Charge Bonus    = 18
Defence         = 18
Morale          = 12

 * Can hide in woodland
 * Can hide in light scrub
 * Resistant to morale shocks
 * Inspires nearby units

Trained only by the Prussians.


--==Life Guards of Foot==--

"The elite foot guards are charged with protecting the persons of the monarch
 and the royal family.

 These troops are equipped in much the same way as line infantrymen, and carry
 smoothbore muskets as their primary weapons. There, however, the similarities
 end. Their uniforms are altogether more splendid, marking them out as a 
 superior force, in arrogance if nothing else. This attitude can serve them 
 well in battle, as the guard can hardly be seen to be cutting and running, no
 matter how hot the enemy fire. They are also expected to do a good jobas 
 garrison troops, keeping the royal family safe no matter what the locals 
 might think or be tempted to do by some foolish revolutionary fervour.

 Historically, the French Masion du Roi (literally "House of the King") were
 the epitome of household troops. They provided a ceremonial guard at every
 state occasion, and Louis XIV picked them from candidates sent in by each
 regiment; inappropriate candidates brought punishment on the officers who 
 had sent them! The Prussian "Potsdam Giants" were a quirky household guard,
 the product of Frederick I's obsession with very, very tall men and military
 pump. Oddly, he wasn't a very warlike chap at all."

Regiment Size   = 120
Range           = 70
Accuracy        = 50
Reloading Skill = 55
Ammunition      = 15
Melee Attack    = 9
Charge Bonus    = 13
Defence         = 18
Morale          = 11

 * Can hide in woodland
 * Can hide in light scrub
 * Resistant to morale shocks
 * Inspires nearby units

Trained by the Swedes. 


--==Light Infantry==-

"Light infantry are skirmishers who harass the enemy while screening the main
 body of an army.

 Initiative, aggression and pace of action mark these men out and they
 consider themselves a cut above other infantry, regardless of the title that
 they use. Light infantry, jaegers or chasseurs do not mindlessly follow 
 orders, but pick and choose their own ground and targets, using such cover
 as they can find. They carry standard smoothbore, muzzle-loading muskets,
 but they do not rely on massed volley fire; they deliberately aim (as well
 as they can, given that muskets lack sights), at individuals within the 
 enemy ranks. This selective fire can disrupt enemy formations or drive off
 enemy skirmishers. Over time, development in tactics and weapons will make
 them very effective as snipers as well as covering forces.

 In 1700, many European nations did not recruit light infantry regiments,
 Each line infantry regiment had a light company, but the massed volley was
 the proper way to employ firepower. As irregular light troops proved their 
 worth and tribal natives refused to co-operate by fighting formal, set piece
 battles, it was realised that collecting together light companies in ad hoc
 regiments was no longer enough. Direct recruitment of light infantry 
 regiments began in earnest, and by the end of the 18th Century every army
 fielded fast, light regiments."

Regiment Size   = 60
Range           = 80
Accuracy        = 55
Reloading Skill = 30
Ammunition      = 15
Melee Attack    = 5
Charge Bonus    = 3
Defence         = 6
Morale          = 7

 * Can Skirmish
 * Can hide in woodland
 * Can hide in light scrub
 * Can hide in long grass
 * Can hide in buildings
 * Good stamina

Trained by most nations.


--==Line Infantry==--

"These muskets-armed troops are use massed volleys to break an enemy, relying
 on discipline to withstand any counter fire.

 "Marching regiments" or "line battlions" make up the majority of units in 
 European-style armies. They are so called because they form the line of 
 battle, not because they always deploys in line. Indeed, over time the 
 capabilities of line infantry should improve as new tactics, drill and
 weaponry are developed.

 These soldiers carry muzzle-loading, smoothbore muskets firing lead balls 
 as wide as a man's thumb. These are inaccurate weapons, effective only over
 200 paces or so and when fired in massed volleys. The ability to fire and
 reload with machine-like regularity with shot and bullet flying and comrades
 falling all around is what wins battles.

 Historically, in many armies colonels receive a fee to raise regiments, which
 remained their personal property and commands. They jealously guarded their
 right to appoint friends, relatives and hangers-on as regimental officers. 
 This contractor system, however, allowed unscrupulous officers to make 
 handsome profits by pocketing the pay of non-existant soldiers. The better
 colonels did take a pride in their regiments, spending their own fortunes
 on good uniforms and weapons. The capabilities of a "standard" line infantry
 unit therefore varied between nations and over time. It wasn't until the 
 1760s that anything approaching uniformity of drill, equipment, and 
 regulations became the norm.

 Line infantry regiments remained unchanged throughout the period, and their
 organisational patterns still forms the basis of modern military units."

Regiment Size   = 120
Range           = 70
Accuracy        = 45
Reloading Skill = 30
Ammunition      = 10
Melee Attack    = 8
Charge Bonus    = 5
Defence         = 15
Morale          = 10

 * Can hide in woodland
 * Resistant to morale shocks

This unit has different stats depending on the type of empire you are playing
as. These stats are from the British version. 


--==Long Rifle Men==--

"The woods of the frontier have taught these men the value of marksmanship and
 and an accurate firearm.

 The fur trade which thrives in the American frontier forests is a rich source
 of men who are reliant of their marksmanship for survival. With no ready
 access to the kind of manufactories found in Europe, this hardy and self-
 sufficient breed have learnt to fashion their own rifles. The guns themselves
 reflect the demands made by their environment. With an unusually long rifled
 barrel, they are far more accurate than any smooth-bore musket, an important
 factor when powder and shot are hard to come by and game must be stalked for
 many hours before a shot can be taken. This distinctive design is however 
 slightly awkward to reload.

 The skills of the hunter translates well to the battlefield, especially when
 employed against regular troops who often have no experience of such tactics
 and no answer to a foe who appears as if from nowhere and will not then stand
 still to be shot at. Adept at concealing themselves amongst trees, these men
 can stalk any prey, remaining hidden as they move slowly within range."

Regiment Size   = 60
Range           = 125
Accuracy        = 75
Reloading Skill = 35
Ammunition      = 20
Melee Attack    = 7
Charge Bonus    = 9
Defence         = 7
Morale          = 6

 * Can skirmish
 * Can hide in woodland
 * Can hide in light scrub
 * Can hide in long grass
 * Can hide in buildings
 * Remains hidden whilst walking
 * Good stamina
 * Resistant to heat fatigue

These are only used by the United States


--==Maison du Roi==--

"The elite foot guards are charged with protecting the persons of the monarch
 and the royal family.

 These troops are equipped in much the same way as line infantrymen, and carry
 smoothbore muskets as their primary weapons. There, however, the similarities
 end. Their uniforms are altogether more splendid, marking them out as a 
 superior force, in arrogance if nothing else. This attitude can serve them 
 well in battle, as the guard can hardly be seen to be cutting and running, no
 matter how hot the enemy fire. They are also expected to do a good jobas 
 garrison troops, keeping the royal family safe no matter what the locals 
 might think or be tempted to do by some foolish revolutionary fervour.

 Historically, the French Masion du Roi (literally "House of the King") were
 the epitome of household troops. They provided a ceremonial guard at every
 state occasion, and Louis XIV picked them from candidates sent in by each
 regiment; inappropriate candidates brought punishment on the officers who 
 had sent them! The Prussian "Potsdam Giants" were a quirky household guard,
 the product of Frederick I's obsession with very, very tall men and military
 pump. Oddly, he wasn't a very warlike chap at all."

Regiment Size   = 120
Range           = 70
Accuracy        = 50
Reloading Skill = 55
Ammunition      = 15
Melee Attack    = 9
Charge Bonus    = 13
Defence         = 18
Morale          = 11

 * Can hide in woodland
 * Can hide in light scrub
 * Resistant to morale shocks
 * Inspires nearby units

Trained by France.


--==Medicine Men==--

"Medicine men commune with the spirit world, bringing the spirits' wisdom
 and strength to the aid of their fellow warriors. 

 In times of battle, they ask the spirits to guide and protect the tribe's
 fighters, keeping them from true knowledge of the enemy's strengths and
 guiding the aim of every man. They carry individual totems that hold great
 power: objects struck by lightning, or that have been in contact with the
 dead. This is their contribution to the safety and strength of all
 involved in a battle.

 Historically, medicine men and shamen gave supposedly magical power to those
 in their tribes, but they also gave practical medical help too. They had a 
 deep knowledge of herbs and plants, many of which could be used to heal 
 wounds and well as treat illness."

Regiment Size   = 60
Range           = 40
Accuracy        = 45
Reloading Skill = 20
Ammunition      = 4
Melee Attack    = 9
Charge Bonus    = 8
Defence         = 9
Morale          = 9

 * Can rally routing comrades
 * Can hide in woodlands
 * Can hide in light scrub
 * Can hide in long grass
 * Paths seldom trod
 * Inspires nearby units
 * Good stamina
 * Resistant to heat fatigue
 * Resistant to cold fatigue

These are available only to native tribes.

**Requires The Warpaths Downloadable Content**


--==Militia==--

"These musket-armed troops are recruited to defend their own locality, not 
 carry the war to an enemy's land.

 Militia or provincial troops are commonly held to be inferior to regular
 soldiers and, although they are trained to use the same tactics as marching
 regiments of the line, there is some truth in this assertion. Militia are
 expected to act as reassuring presence, and sometimes as a police force in
 suppressing local disturbances.

 Historically, it was not unusual for militia to be locals recruited as part-
 time soldiers while retaining their day jobs and trades. In Britain, for 
 example, service in the militia was seen as a good idea; you not only looked
 very patriotic for volunteering, but you could not be sent overseas! For 
 ambitious would-be officers, there was a hidden financial benefit for joining
 the militia. A commander who could persuade his men to transfer to the army
 with him would not have to pay the cost of his regular commission."

Regiment Size   = 120
Range           = 70
Accuracy        = 25
Reloading Skill = 10
Ammunition      = 15
Melee Attack    = 4
Charge Bonus    = 8
Defence         = 9
Morale          = 4

 * Can hide in woodland
 * Can hide in light scrub

Available in most nations.


--==Militia Infantry==--

"These musket-armed troops are recruited to defend their own locality, not 
 carry the war to an enemy's land.

 Militia or provincial troops are commonly held to be inferior to regular
 soldiers and, although they are trained to use the same tactics as marching
 regiments of the line, there is some truth in this assertion. Militia are
 expected to act as reassuring presence, and sometimes as a police force in
 suppressing local disturbances.

 Historically, it was not unusual for militia to be locals recruited as part-
 time soldiers while retaining their day jobs and trades. In Britain, for 
 example, service in the militia was seen as a good idea; you not only looked
 very patriotic for volunteering, but you could not be sent overseas! For 
 ambitious would-be officers, there was a hidden financial benefit for joining
 the militia. A commander who could persuade his men to transfer to the army
 with him would not have to pay the cost of his regular commission."

Regiment Size   = 120
Range           = 70
Accuracy        = 40
Reloading Skill = 20
Ammunition      = 5
Melee Attack    = 6
Charge Bonus    = 4
Defence         = 11
Morale          = 5

 * Can hide in woodland
 * Can hide in light scrub

Slight variation from the Militia unit. 


--==Minutemen==--

"These self-appointed militiamen are expert shots and fight as irregular 
 infantry, often under officers chosen by the men.

 Minute are so called because they pride themselves on being ready to defend
 their homes and families within a minute of being alerted to danger. This
 somewhat optimistic claim should not, however, underestimate their ability
 to inflict damage on enemies with their long-ranged muskets. They are adept
 at using what cover is available, and at sniping from that cover.

 Historically, the minutemen were among the first American forces to engage
 British regular troops during the American War of Independance (1775-1783).
 Their throughly unsporting habit of not standing in line to get shot was much
 despised by their British opponents. Had the Geneva Convention applied at the
 time, the minutemen could have been shot out of hand as "illegal combatants"
 because they certainly did not wear uniforms.

 It can be argued that the success of the minutemen gave rise to the Second
 Amendment of the US Constitution (the right to keep and bear arms) although
 it is often forgotten that the text mentions a "well regulated militia" as  
 "being necessary" which, it could also be argued, might not be quite the same
 as everyone who wants one having a gun. The name "Minutemen" was recently
 revived as the same of a nuclear intercontinential ballistic missile in USAF
 service."

Regiment Size   = 120
Range           = 70
Accuracy        = 40
Reloading Skill = 20
Ammunition      = 10
Melee Attack    = 8
Charge Bonus    = 5
Defence         = 3
Morale          = 7

 * Can skirmish
 * Can hide in woodland
 * Can hide in light scrub
 * Paths seldom trod

Minutemen are a US only unit


--==Mohawk Elite Warriors==--

"These fierce warriors are skilled both at skirmishing and fighting in close
 combat.

 The flexibility of Mohawk Elite Warriors makes them invaluable on the 
 battlefield, and they can pepper an enemy at a distance with arrows then 
 engage in close combat to break any survivors. The Mohawks are merciless
 in warfare and practice the collection of scalps for trophies, meaning
 enemies can expect a literally hair-raising death! Anybody who manages to
 avoid a scalping might be tortured before being burned at the stake, or,  
 if very lucky, adopted into the clan as a replacement for a dead Mohawk.

 Historically, many Native American tribes used furs and skins to trade 
 with the European settlers. High demand forced the Mohawks into intensive
 hunting that soon depleted the beaver population in their area, leaving
 them with little to trade. In 1630 the Mohawks started the "Beaver Wars",
 attacking other tribes and seizing control of the lucrative fur trade. 
 Because of their loyalty to the British, the Mohawks concentrated their
 attacks on the tribes trading with the French, hurting their enemies
 and making a profit in the process."

Regiment Size   = 90
Range           = 70
Accuracy        = 40
Reloading Skill = 15
Ammunition      = 15
Melee Attack    = 10
Charge Bonus    = 8
Defence         = 7
Morale          = 8

 * Can skirmish
 * Can hide in woodland
 * Can hide in light scrub
 * Can hide in long grass
 * Can hide in building
 * Remains hidden whilst walking
 * Paths seldom trod
 * Resistant to heat fatigue
 * Resistant to cold fatigue

Recruited only by the Iroquois Tribe

**Requires The Warpaths Downloadable Content**


--==Morgan's Provisional Rifle Corp==--

"Morgan's Corp are skirmishers and snipers without peer, picking off leaders
 to sow confusion in enemy ranks.

 Organised as light infantry but armed with rifles rather than smoothbore
 muskets, riflemen have every right to see themselves as elite. Chosen for
 initiative and intelligence, they do not need close supervision by their
 officers. These crack shots are trained for ranged combat and will be 
 found wanting if they engage in melee. At their best in cover, their loose
 formation makes them a tough target for line infantry, and their uniforms
 allow them to blend in into the landscape as they stalk their human prey.

 The men of Morgan's Provisional Rifle Corp was seen by many, including 
 George Washington, as elite soldiers; they were well acquainted with the use
 of a rifle and were expert marksmen. This exceptional reputation meant they 
 were chosen to accompany Benedict Arnold to attack Quebec. The attack began
 during a blinding snowstorm and ended in failure. Morgan did manage to get
 a few of his men over the wall and in to the city, something which no
 other American achieved."

Regiment Size   = 60
Range           = 125
Accuracy        = 80
Reloading Skill = 35
Ammunition      = 20
Melee Attack    = 10
Charge Bonus    = 10
Defence         = 8
Morale          = 9

 * Can skirmish
 * Can hide in woodland
 * Can hide in light scrub
 * Can hide in long grass
 * Can hide in buildings
 * Good stamina

Only available to the US in the province of Virginia

**Requests Elite Units of America Downloadable Content**


--==Muscogee Tribesmen==--

"These elite bowmen have honed their skills with the bow through years of
 practice in warfare and hunting.

 Muscogee bowmen are deadly shots, capable of shooting the shiny buttons
 off a European soldier at one hundred paces! Their warrior spirit encourages
 competition, and this healthy competition encourages the warrior spirit. 
 Trained from an early age, these men use their bows to feed their families
 and for protection. They are specialists in skirmish warfare, and provide
 assistance to the main force of the tribe, protecting against enemy 
 skirmish attacks and harassing the foe where possible. 

 Historically, the Muscogee and Cherokee relationship with the European 
 powers was a rocky one. During the French and Indian War they sided with
 the British, but this alliance was far from settled. As the war progressed,
 the conduct of British soldiers angered the Cherokee; renegade troops 
 committed terrible crimes against Cherokee women and children when the 
 warriors were away. This eventually prompted the Cherokee and their allies
 to attack the British, and their war continued until peace was declared
 between France and Britain in 1763. The Cherokee eventually made peace in
 November of that year."

Regiment Size   = 90
Range           = 70
Accuracy        = 50
Reloading Skill = 25
Ammunition      = 14
Melee Attack    = 8
Charge Bonus    = 6
Defence         = 8
Morale          = 8

 * Can skirmish
 * Can hide in woodland
 * Can hide in light scrub
 * Can hide in long grass
 * Can hide in buildings
 * Remains hidden whilst walking
 * Paths seldom trod
 * Resistant to heat fatigue

Recruited by the Cherokee Nations

**Requires The Warpaths Downloadable Content**


--==Musellims==--

"A mob, armed with whatever they have been able to steal.

 These people are hardly even peasants, as they do not have any land to work.
 But they can still be pushed into taking up arms, a desperate action for 
 such folk. At best, they will be armed with argicultural tools (these can 
 still kill in angry hands) and whatever they have managed to loot.

 They are of dubious military worth."

Regiment Size   = 150
Range           = 0
Accuracy        = 0
Reloading Skill = 0
Ammunition      = 0
Melee Attack    = 6
Charge Bonus    = 2
Defence         = 4
Morale          = 3

 * Can hide in woodland
 * Can hide in light scrub
 * Resistant to heat fatigue


--==Musketmen==--

"These warriors are experienced in the use of European firearms.

 A musket is a status symbol among the tribes, even though it is not as 
 practical or reliable as a hunting bow. A musket does, however, have a 
 greater killing power and range than a bow. Warrior tactics in battle 
 closely resemble those of European skirmishers, moving as small groups
 and firing as individuals. Massed volleys are almost unknown. 

 Historically, the tribes used whatever smoothbore muskets they could 
 obtain by trade, thefy or conquest. It was highly unlikely that any two
 guns would bear more than a passing similarity, unless the tribe had 
 managed to ambush and defeat a European military unit."

Regiment Size   = 90
Range           = 90
Accuracy        = 40
Reloading Skill = 20
Ammunition      = 15
Melee Attack    = 9
Charge Bonus    = 7
Defence         = 4
Morale          = 7

 * Can skirmish
 * Can hide in woodlands
 * Can hide in light scrub
 * Can hide in long grass
 * Can hide in buildings
 * Remains hidden whilst walking
 * Paths seldom trod
 * Resistant to heat fatigue
 * Resistant to cold fatigue

Trained only by the Native tribes.

**Requires The Warpath Downloadable Content**


--==Native American Auxiliary==--

"These tribesmen are willing to fight for European gold, and a musket apiece.

 A musket is a status symbol among the tribes, even though it is not as useful
 in a fight as an old-fashioned and reliable bow. It is, however, a mark of
 personal bravery that a warrior has taken on in battle, or been considered 
 worthy enough to have been given one of the precious weapons. These men are 
 the most irregular of forces, unwilling to take formal army discipline, yet
 willing to fight like men possessed when the need arises.

 In the early days of European settlement, the Native American were happy to
 work with the various foreign powers that colonised America, even forming 
 alliances against their neighbours and other Europeans. The tribes soon 
 became involved in trade, fought wars because of the allegiances they forged,
 and were forced into new alliances as old tribal enemies took up with 
 Europeans."

Regiment Size   = 60
Range           = 80
Accuracy        = 40
Reloading Skill = 15
Ammunition      = 15
Melee Attack    = 10
Charge Bonus    = 5
Defence         = 3
Morale          = 8

 * Can skirmish
 * Can hide in woodland
 * Can hide in light scrub
 * Can hide in tall grass
 * Can hide in buildings
 * Remains hidden whilst walking
 * Paths seldom trod
 * Resistant to heat fatigue

Recruited in North America.


--==Native American Warrior==--

"A band of fearless warriors armed in traditional fashion for close, personal
 combat.

 Warriors dominate Native American society. They defend the tribes and earn
 renown while doing so. This gives them the status to become unchallenged
 chiefs and leaders in all aspects of tribal life. Hunting is also a fine 
 preparation for war, as it teaches a man to be unafraid of bloodshed and
 danger.

 Historically, the tribes used a wide variety of weapons for the hunt and
 warfare. Some were the same for both but others, like the war club, were of
 little use except when hunting other men. Traditionally carved from a single
 piece of hard wood, as the influence of Europeans grew, the war club came to
 imitate the shape of a rifle butt."

Regiment Size   = 120
Range           = 0
Accuracy        = 0
Reloading Skill = 0
Ammunition      = 0
Melee Attack    = 13
Charge Bonus    = 7
Defence         = 9
Morale          = 8

 * Can hide in woodland
 * Can hide in light scrub
 * Can hide in tall grass
 * Paths seldom trod
 * Good stamina
 * Resistant to heat fatigue

Available only to tribes.


--==Native American Lancers==--

"These mounted men carry long lances capable of causing significant damage
 to enemy.

 The horsemenship of many Native Americans is unparalleled. Able to wield 
 any number of weapons on horseback, they are formidable foes. Perhaps their
 most deadly weapon from horseback is the lance. Often decorated with items
 to commemorate courageous acts performed by a warrior, eagle feathers mark 
 a particularly ferocious man.

 The traditional lance used for hunting was found to be far too long for
 use in warfare, and a much shorter version was developed. The materials used
 to make a lance would depend on the area a tribe inhabited, but the "business
 end" was made from flint, a material far sharper than many more "civilised"
 materials."

Regiment Size   = 120
Range           = 0
Accuracy        = 0
Reloading Skill = 0
Ammunition      = 0
Melee Attack    = 13
Charge Bonus    = 7
Defence         = 9
Morale          = 8

 * Can hide in woodland
 * Can hide in light scrub
 * Can hide in long grass
 * Paths seldom trod
 * Good stamina
 * Resistant to heat fatigue

Available only to tribes.


--==Native Bowmen Auxilliary==--

"These tribal warriors are willing to fight for foreign powers, but at a 
 price.

 The bow is a practical tool: it puts food in bellies as well as killing
 enemies. A skilled bowman can stalk his prey (man or beast) in utters
 silence, before killing with a well-aimed shot of a broad-headed arrow,
 designed to cause massive bleeding. In the time it takes to fire and
 reload a musket, a good bowman can fire half a dozen aimed shots, and 
 probably have moved to better ground while doing so.

 In the early days of their contact with the various foreign powers that
 colonised America, the tribes were glad to co-operate with them, and
 formed alliances with the French, British and Dutch. The tribes soon 
 became involved in trade, and often ended up fighting proxy wars on behalf
 of their allies."

Regiment Size   = 60
Range           = 100
Accuracy        = 40
Reloading Skill = 5
Ammunition      = 15
Melee Attack    = 3
Charge Bonus    = 3
Defence         = 1
Morale          = 8

 * Can skirmish
 * Can hide in woodland
 * Can hide in light scrub
 * Can hide in long grass
 * Can hide in buildings
 * Remains hidden whilst walking
 * Paths seldom trod
 * Good stamina
 * Resistant to heat fatigue

Recruited in North America. 


--==Native Musketmen Auxilliary==--

"These tribesmen are willing to fight for European gold, and a musket apiece.

 A musket is a status symbol among the tribes, even though it is not as useful
 in a fight as an old-fashioned and reliable bow. It is, however, a mark of
 personal bravery that a warrior has taken on in battle, or been considered 
 worthy enough to have been given one of the precious weapons. These men are 
 the most irregular of forces, unwilling to take formal army discipline, yet
 willing to fight like men possessed when the need arises.

 In the early days of European settlement, the Native American were happy to
 work with the various foreign powers that colonised America, even forming 
 alliances against their neighbours and other Europeans. The tribes soon 
 became involved in trade, fought wars because of the allegiances they forged,
 and were forced into new alliances as old tribal enemies took up with 
 Europeans."

Regiment Size   = 60
Range           = 90
Accuracy        = 35
Reloading Skill = 15
Ammunition      = 15
Melee Attack    = 8
Charge Bonus    = 6
Defence         = 3
Morale          = 5

 * Can skirmish
 * Can hide in woodland
 * Can hide in light scrub
 * Can hide in tall grass
 * Can hide in buildings
 * Remains hidden whilst walking
 * Paths seldom trod
 * Resistant to heat fatigue

Recruited in North America.


--==Native Warrior Auxilliary==--

"These tribal warriors are willing to fight for foreign invaders, as it gives
 them a chance for glory and fame.

 No true warrior willingly runs from a fight. A man's worth in tribal society
 is often measured by his skill as a warrior and war leader. Fighting for the
 Europeans gives a man many chances to go into battle, earn honour and gain
 in skill and reputation. The chance to fight traditional tribal enemies 
 is also welcome.

 Historically, European settlers had few qualms about exploiting the warlike
 nature of some native peoples of the New World. It was far better to have a 
 "noble savage" at your side than facing you in battle."

Regiment Size   = 120
Range           = 0
Accuracy        = 0
Reloading Skill = 0
Ammunition      = 0
Melee Attack    = 13
Charge Bonus    = 5
Defence         = 2
Morale          = 10

 * Can hide in woodland
 * Can hide in light scrub
 * Can hide in long grass
 * Paths seldom trod
 * Good stamina
 * Resistant to heat fatigue

Recruited in North America.


--==Nizam-I Cedit Infantry==--

"These troops of the "new model" army are armed, equipped and trained in the
 latest Western European military fashion.

 Fighting in formal order with tight control and disciplined fire is a new 
 idea for Turkish forces; the traditional method has usually involved 
 heavily armed and very brave men hurling themselves pell-mell at the enemy.
 The nizam-I cedit fight just as bravely, but with much more organisation.
 This "new model" army is such a break with the past that it has even
 adopted Western-style military dress for the most part.

 Historically, the Nizam-I Cedit reforms were made vital by the repeatedly
 poor performances of the Ottoman armies against the Russians. The Empire's
 inability to defend itself against a growing Slavic threat, and European
 predatory moves, was the reason why Turkey became the "sick man of Europe".
 The French Revolutionary Republic (anxious for any allies at the time) 
 provided much of the starting expertise that the Ottomans required for
 retraining their army in modern tactics and methods. The process was not
 without problems, though. The janissaries resented their loss of privileges
 and position and eventually the corps had to be disbanded."

Regiment Size   = 120
Range           = 70
Accuracy        = 40
Reloading Skill = 35
Ammunition      = 15
Melee Attack    = 8
Charge Bonus    = 9
Defence         = 13
Morale          = 9

 * Can hide in woodland
 * Resistant to heat fatigue

Trained only by the Ottomans


--==Nizam-I Cedit Light Infantry==--

"These troops of the "new model" army are armed, equipped and trained in the
 latest Western European military fashion.

 Fighting in formal order with tight control and disciplined fire is a new 
 idea for Turkish forces; the traditional method has usually involved 
 heavily armed and very brave men hurling themselves pell-mell at the enemy.
 The nizam-I cedit fight just as bravely, but with much more organisation.
 This "new model" army is such a break with the past that it has even
 adopted Western-style military dress for the most part.

 Historically, the Nizam-I Cedit reforms were made vital by the repeatedly
 poor performances of the Ottoman armies against the Russians. The Empire's
 inability to defend itself against a growing Slavic threat, and European
 predatory moves, was the reason why Turkey became the "sick man of Europe".
 The French Revolutionary Republic (anxious for any allies at the time) 
 provided much of the starting expertise that the Ottomans required for
 retraining their army in modern tactics and methods. The process was not
 without problems, though. The janissaries resented their loss of privileges
 and position and eventually the corps had to be disbanded."

Regiment Size   = 60
Range           = 90
Accuracy        = 45
Reloading Skill = 30
Ammunition      = 20
Melee Attack    = 5
Charge Bonus    = 4
Defence         = 9
Morale          = 6

 * Can skirmish
 * Can hide in woodland
 * Can hide in light scrub
 * Can hide in long grass
 * Can hide in buildings
 * Good stamina
 * Resistant to heat fatigue

Trained only by the Ottomans


--==Nizam-I Cedit Rifles==--

"These troops of the "new model" army are armed, equipped and trained in the
 latest Western European military fashion.

 Fighting in formal order with tight control and disciplined fire is a new 
 idea for Turkish forces; the traditional method has usually involved 
 heavily armed and very brave men hurling themselves pell-mell at the enemy.
 The nizam-I cedit fight just as bravely, but with much more organisation.
 This "new model" army is such a break with the past that it has even
 adopted Western-style military dress for the most part.

 Historically, the Nizam-I Cedit reforms were made vital by the repeatedly
 poor performances of the Ottoman armies against the Russians. The Empire's
 inability to defend itself against a growing Slavic threat, and European
 predatory moves, was the reason why Turkey became the "sick man of Europe".
 The French Revolutionary Republic (anxious for any allies at the time) 
 provided much of the starting expertise that the Ottomans required for
 retraining their army in modern tactics and methods. The process was not
 without problems, though. The janissaries resented their loss of privileges
 and position and eventually the corps had to be disbanded."

Regiment Size   = 60
Range           = 125
Accuracy        = 70
Reloading Skill = 35
Ammunition      = 20
Melee Attack    = 10
Charge Bonus    = 10
Defence         = 9
Morale          = 8

 * Can skirmish
 * Can hide in woodland
 * Can hide in light scrub
 * Can hide in long grass
 * Can hide in buildings
 * Good stamina
 * Resistant to heat fatigue

Trained only by the Ottomans


--==Ojibwa Warriors==--

"The strength of these tomahawk-armed warriors lie in close combat with their
 foes.

 Fear the sound of Ojibwa Warriors travelling to war! Songs are sung, dances
 danced, and tales of glory told by the light of campfires. As they near a 
 battle the Ojibwa makes their final preparations for war: strong medicine
 is prepared and war paint applied. These are not men to quail in the face
 of an enemy.

 In May 1830 the Indian Removal Act was passed by the US Congress. This 
 allowed the United States government to move tribes from east of the 
 Mississippito the west. Though the process was supposedly voluntary, the
 system was used "creatively". In 1850, the Ojibwa was forced to move 
 when their annual payments and supplies were sent east, away from their
 spiritual home. Only a small percentage of the payment and supplies 
 arrived, and as a result over three hundred Ojibwa died from disease
 and starvation. Public outcry eventually led to the Act's repeal and the
 establishment of Native Reservations."

Regiment Size   = 120
Range           = 0
Accuracy        = 0
Reloading Skill = 0
Ammunition      = 0
Melee Attack    = 14
Charge Bonus    = 8
Defence         = 12
Morale          = 9

 * Can hide in woodland
 * Can hide in light scrub
 * Can hide in long grass
 * Paths seldom trod
 * Good stamina
 * Resistant to heat fatigue

Trained only by the Huron-Wyandot.

**Requires The Warpaths Downloadable Content**


--==Palestinian Auxiliaries==--

"These musket-armed regulars were good soldiers and, as garrison troops
 were able to keep order among the ordinary folk.

 Palestian auxiliaries would seem to be an oxymoron: high quality militia.
 In fact, they are extremely useful soldiers, perfectly capable of 
 delivering volley fire and in melee also. They are, however, outmatched
 by regular infantry with better training and equipment, and are vulnerable
 to cavalry attacks as they lack the discipline to form defensive squares.
 However, their policing abilities more than make up for any battlefield
 shortcomings.

 Palestine in an ancient land, although it rarely enjoyed independence
 from outside control. After the Ottoman conquest of Palestine in 1516
 the name disappeared from maps, and the area was referred to as the
 vilayet, or province, of Sadya, now Sidon in modern Lebanon. The idea of
 a Palestinian people, however, persisted. The Palestinians were loyal to
 the idea of the Ottoman Empire, and fought hard in its defence. Under
 Jezzar Pasha, Palestinian were among those who stubbornly held out 
 at the Siege of Acre in 1799, forcing Napoleon and his French army to
 withdraw. This helped to bring his schemes of conquest in the Middle East
 to a halt."

Regiment Size   = 120
Range           = 70
Accuracy        = 30
Reloading Skill = 15
Ammunition      = 15
Melee Attack    = 6
Charge Bonus    = 5
Defence         = 9
Morale          = 8

 * Can hide in woodland
 * Can hide in light scrub

Trained only by the Ottomans in Palestine

**Requires Elite Units of the East Downloadable Content**


--==Pandour==--

"These irregular troops are often poorly equipped and ill-disciplined, but 
 they can be a very effect, mobile "mob".

 Such men have little to do with standard military protocols and practice,
 or even organisation, often taking up arms in extraordinary circumstances.
 This lack of discipline means that they can sometimes be extremely brutal,
 even brutish, in their behaviour. This can work in their favour, so in that
 it gives enemies pause for thought. More typically, their lack of discipline
 counts against them, and face with a well-ordered force they can be at a 
 disadvantage. In such a case, their mobility can be boon, allowing them
 to harass an enemy and withdraw as soon as the fight goes against them."

Regiment Size   = 60
Range           = 90
Accuracy        = 35
Reloading Skill = 5
Ammunition      = 20
Melee Attack    = 7
Charge Bonus    = 8
Defence         = 2
Morale          = 3

 * Can skirmish
 * Can hide in woodland
 * Can hide in light scrub
 * Can hide in long grass
 * Can hide in buildings
 * Remains hidden whilst walking
 * Good stamina

Recruited in Eastern Europe. 


--==Petun Wolf Warriors==--

"These axe-wielding warriors instil terror and can cause the enemy to rout.

 The appearance of the fearsome Petun Wolf Warriors, cloaked in animal skins
 and daubed in war paint, is enough to put terror in the stoutest of hearts!
 Their tomahawks can be used in close combat or flung from afar, but the 
 effect on an enemy's skull will remain constant and terrible! If a warrior
 defeats an enemy's couragethe battle is already half won: only the messy
 business of hacking at the flesh remains undone.

 The Petun were part of the Huron Confederacy and lived in what is now  
 Southern Ontario. The Petun's name comes from the tobacco plant that they
 cultivated, smoked and traded. Tobacco was commonly used by the Native
 Americans, as they believed it to be a gift from the Creator. Due to its
 sacred origins, tobacco was used in offerings to the spirits, charms and
 incantations. It was also used for medicinal purposes and smoked to mark
 important social occasions, deals or decisions."

Regiment Size   = 90
Range           = 40
Accuracy        = 45
Reloading Skill = 55
Ammunition      = 0
Melee Attack    = 11
Charge Bonus    = 10
Defence         = 12
Morale          = 11

 * Can hide in woodland
 * Can hide in light scrub
 * Can hide in long grass
 * Paths seldom trod
 * Scares enemies
 * Good stamina
 * Resistant to heat fatigue

Recruited only by the Huron.

**Requires The Warpaths Downloadable Content**


--==Pikemen==--

"Pikemen carry long spears of a type that would have been familiar to the 
 soldiers of Alexander the Great.

 Despite the fact that firepower is the key to battle, "trailing a pike" into
 battle is more gentlemanly than carrying a gun. Pikemen are shock troops, 
 relying on mass and impact in melee. Pikes are not without their uses, a 
 solid wall of spear points is a formidable barrier to any Cavalry attack. 
 Pikemen still march into battle because not every European nation can 
 afford (or find) enough guns for everyone. Sending men into battle with an
 obsolescent weapon is better than sending them forward with nothing at all.

 By 1700, most European generals realised that the pike and pikemen were 
 hopelessly outdated and outclassed on a modern battlefield. Pikemen had 
 been a vital part of all infantry formations, protecting musketeers from 
 Cavalry and being the "shock" element of melee combat. There was a fatal 
 problem for pikemen: a musket could kill at a distance, and once a decent
 bayonet was developed, pikes really did lose their point!

 Although a brillant general in every (other?) respect, Maurice de Saxe, the
 great Marshal General of France, remained an advocate of the pike even in
 the 1740s. By then, it was obvious that pikes were useless against massed
 musket-armed infantry."

Regiment Size   = 120
Range           = 0
Accuracy        = 0
Reloading Skill = 0
Ammunition      = 0
Melee Attack    = 8
Charge Bonus    = 2
Defence         = 7
Morale          = 8

 * Can hide in woodland

Normally not trained by any nation, available in starting units early in
the game for most nations.


--==Pioneer Militia==--

"These hardy sons of the frontier have taken up arms to defend their homes and
 loved ones.

 Although not trained soldiers, pioneers can turn their natural advantages of
 self-reliance and mutual help to advantage in times of war. Although they are
 an armed rabble at fight sight, they have marksmanship skills honed by the
 need to put food in their children's bellies. Their muskets might have seen 
 use in bring down quail or deer, but they are still capable of killing men.
 In hand-to-hand combat against the native tribes they have the disadvantages
 of all so-called civilized men, but with some native cunning as a result of
 living alongside the natives for so many years.

 The colonial frontier required men to be self-reliant in all things, 
 including defence. A man who could not take up arms to defend his homestead
 and family would soon find himself without both. Self-defence, however, was
 often extended to become a form of pre-emptive self-defence, as the colonial
 settlers banded together and, for a want of a better term, went on the
 warpath against their tribal neighbours. Their logic was impeccable in its
 own terms, entirely driven by fear that the tribes would attack them if they
 did not attack first."

Regiment Size   = 60
Range           = 90
Accuracy        = 25
Reloading Skill = 10
Ammunition      = 25
Melee Attack    = 7
Charge Bonus    = 8
Defence         = 4
Morale          = 4

 * Can skirmish
 * Can hide in woodland
 * Can hide in light scrub
 * Can hide in long grass
 * Can hide in buildings
 * Remains hidden whilst walking
 * Paths seldom trod
 * Resistant to heat fatigue

Trained only by the United States.


--==Prussian Jaegers==--

"Light infantry forces form a skirmish line to slow the enemy advance and 
 keep their own line unmolested by enemy skirmishers.

 Whether they are called light infantry, jaegars, tirailleurs or chasseurs a
 pied, it is the job of these men to screen the main battle line, harass
 the enemy and, if possible, pick off important men in the enemy's ranks. 
 Unlike their fellows in the line infantry, light infantryman are trained to
 think for themselves, use the ground and cover intelligently, and not fight
 in rigid lines. Instead, they form loose skirmish line and fire independently
 at their own designated targets. The effect is a constant, low-level barrage
 rather than the crushing thunder of a volley but the effect is quite 
 deadly as officers and sergeants are picked off and removed from the fight.
 Against cavalry, however, their best defence is to withdraw to their own
 battle line.

 Historically, the Austrians were widely regarded as producing the finest 
 light infantry forces in Europe. Other nations did catch up but in the case
 of Britain and France it was their experiences in fighting in North America
 that persuaded them of the wisdom of light troops. Battle lines were simply
 impossible to manage in these dense woodlands, and largely pointless
 against the native tribe!"

Regiment Size   = 60
Range           = 125
Accuracy        = 70
Reloading Skill = 35
Ammunition      = 20
Melee Attack    = 7
Charge Bonus    = 8
Defence         = 7
Morale          = 7

 * Can skirmish
 * Can hide in woodland
 * Can hide in light scrub
 * Can hide in long grass
 * Can hide in buildings
 * Good stamina

Tried only by the Prussians, obviously. 


--==Rangers==--

"These elite light infantrymen are trained in wilderness warfare and 
 taught to survive in harsh conditions.

 Rangers are used for scouting and raiding missions far beyond the skills
 of ordinary men. The ranks are mostly drawn from frontiersmen already
 hardened to living in the wilderness, as their experience making them ideal
 for further training. The wild nature of their environment is reflected in
 the unconventional tactics they are taught, and they are given some leeway
 where formal army dicipline is concerned.

 Historically, rangers were employed by the British army and were used in the
 hostile environments of North America during the French and Indian War. They
 would carry out long distance winter raids using crude snowshoes to travel.
 The most famous and revered of all rangers were the "Rogers' Rangers", named
 for the commanding officer, Robert Rogers. The traditions of Rogers' Rangers
 are carried on today by the US Army Rangers, although the modern unit owes
 its existence to the Second World War experience to US troops fighting  
 alongside British commandos and a reformed force in the Korean War."

Regiment Size   = 60
Range           = 90
Accuracy        = 50
Reloading Skill = 30
Ammunition      = 20
Melee Attack    = 8
Charge Bonus    = 10
Defence         = 7
Morale          = 5

 * Can skirmish
 * Can hide in woodland
 * Can hide in light scrub
 * Can hide in long grass
 * Paths seldom trod
 * Good stamina
 * Resistant to heat fatigue

Available only to Britain and the US.


--==Republican Guard==--

"The Republican Guard are the elite of the nation, proud to fight for their
 people and unwavering in the defence of their hard-won battles.

 The guard are trained to fight in the same fashion as line infantry, standing
 in line to deliver volley fire from their smoothbore muskets. They are, 
 however, considered to be elite, as they are chosen for their devotion to the
 national cause and for their personal courage. In a republic all men may be
 equal, but the guard are more equal than other soldiers!

 In much the same way as a royal or household guard would do in a monarchy,
 this force also has a ceremonial role, giving protection to the head of 
 state. Their presence at formal occasions adds gravitas to the business of
 the republic. A republican guard is different from a royal guard in one other
 respect: it can include political officers in its ranks, whose main job is
 to watch for signs of disloyalty.

 Historically, the "palace guard" sometimes became the only unit a leader 
 could rely on when politics got out of hand, most of the time. It was not
 unknown for the guard to take the role of "kingmakers", even in a republic,
 and only give their protection to a presidential candidate of whom they
 approved."

Regiment Size   = 120
Range           = 70
Accuracy        = 50
Reloading Skill = 55
Ammunition      = 15
Melee Attack    = 9
Charge Bonus    = 13
Defence         = 18
Morale          = 11

 * Can hide in woodland
 * Can hide in light scrub
 * Immune to morale shocks
 * Inspires nearby units

The Guard unit of Republic nations. 


--==Regiments Estrangers==--

"Expatriate infantry are exiles in another nation's service: men with nothing
 left to lose but their lives. 

 Europe is awash with exiles, the dispossessed have that taken up arms thanks
 to war, religious persecution and politics. Some fight to free their 
 homelands and some because home is gone. A few fight for the romance of it 
 all, and for glory and riches. All serve because it is a better choice than
 starving. Whatever their motives, expatriates are a useful source of men. If
 someone can carry a musket, there is a place in the ranks. There is always
 the suspicions that individuals who have turned their coats once may do so
 again, even though this is unfair to many. As a result, it is unusual for
 expatriates to serve under their own officers.

 Despite the fact that many in the ranks are intelligent enough to act as
 skirmishers, expatriate infantry carry smoothbore, muzzle-loading muskets
 and usually fight as line infantry. It is easier to maintain discipline in 
 such units. 

 Historically, expatriate infantry varied in quality. The Irish Catholic "Wild
 Geese" in French service fought well, especially against the English. The
 French Royal "Chasseurs Britaiques" in the British army, did not relish 
 battle and often deserted at the first opportunity."

Regiment Size   = 120
Range           = 70
Accuracy        = 40
Reloading Skill = 20
Ammunition      = 10
Melee Attack    = 8
Charge Bonus    = 5
Defence         = 13
Morale          = 11

 * Can hide in woodland

These are mainly French units.


--==Riflemen==--

"Light infantry forces form a skirmish line to slow the enemy advance and 
 keep their own line unmolested by enemy skirmishers.

 Whether they are called light infantry, jaegars, tirailleurs or chasseurs a
 pied, it is the job of these men to screen the main battle line, harass
 the enemy and, if possible, pick off important men in the enemy's ranks. 
 Unlike their fellows in the line infantry, light infantryman are trained to
 think for themselves, use the ground and cover intelligently, and not fight
 in rigid lines. Instead, they form loose skirmish line and fire independently
 at their own designated targets. The effect is a constant, low-level barrage
 rather than the crushing thunder of a volley but the effect is quite 
 deadly as officers and sergeants are picked off and removed from the fight.
 Against cavalry, however, their best defence is to withdraw to their own
 battle line.

 Historically, the Austrians were widely regarded as producing the finest 
 light infantry forces in Europe. Other nations did catch up but in the case
 of Britain and France it was their experiences in fighting in North America
 that persuaded them of the wisdom of light troops. Battle lines were simply
 impossible to manage in these dense woodlands, and largely pointless
 against the native tribe!"

Regiment Size   = 60
Range           = 125
Accuracy        = 70
Reloading Skill = 35
Ammunition      = 20
Melee Attack    = 7
Charge Bonus    = 8
Defence         = 7
Morale          = 7

 * Can skirmish
 * Can hide in woodland
 * Can hide in light scrub
 * Can hide in long grass
 * Can hide in buildings
 * Good stamina

Hired only by the Dutch Army and the Swedes


--==Rogers' Rangers==--

"These elite light infantrymen are trained in wilderness warfare and 
 taught to survive in harsh conditions.

 Rangers are used for scouting and raiding missions far beyond the skills
 of ordinary men. The ranks are mostly drawn from frontiersmen already
 hardened to living in the wilderness, as their experience making them ideal
 for further training. The wild nature of their environment is reflected in
 the unconventional tactics they are taught, and they are given some leeway
 where formal army dicipline is concerned.

 Historically, rangers were employed by the British army and were used in the
 hostile environments of North America during the French and Indian War. They
 would carry out long distance winter raids using crude snowshoes to travel.
 The most famous and revered of all rangers were the "Rogers' Rangers", named
 for the commanding officer, Robert Rogers. The traditions of Rogers' Rangers
 are carried on today by the US Army Rangers, although the modern unit owes
 its existence to the Second World War experience to US troops fighting  
 alongside British commandos and a reformed force in the Korean War."

Regiment Size   = 60
Range           = 90
Accuracy        = 65
Reloading Skill = 35
Ammunition      = 20
Melee Attack    = 9
Charge Bonus    = 11
Defence         = 9
Morale          = 9

 * Can skirmish
 * Can hide in woodland
 * Can hide in light scrub
 * Can hide in long grass
 * Paths seldom trod
 * Good stamina
 * Resistant to heat fatigue

Available only to the British in the American colonies

**Requires Special Forces Edition**


--==Royal Deux-Ponts Regiment==--

"These are versatile infantry of the line, able to dispatch enemies with 
 musket or bayonet. 

 Line infantry are responsible for holding the line in battle, forming the
 backbone of the army while specialist troops harass and chip away at the
 enemy. Once the enemy is worn down, the regiment can rush them with a 
 finishing bayonet charge. Their close formation gives them strength when
 attacking, but leaves them vulnerable to artillery and harassing 
 skirmishers. If under threat from cavalry they can form a defensive square.

 Historically, the Royal Deux-Ponts take their name from the Duke of Deux-
 Ponts who raised the regiment on his German estates. The regiment served
 throughout the Seven Years War and remained active after the war, while
 many long established French units were disbanded. It went on to serve as
 part of the French expeditionary force that arrived in America in 1780 
 under Jean-Baptiste Donatien de Vimeur, comte de Rochambeau."

Regiment Size   = 120
Range           = 70
Accuracy        = 45
Reloading Skill = 30
Ammunition      = 15
Melee Attack    = 6
Charge Bonus    = 9
Defence         = 13
Morale          = 9

 * Can hide in woodland
 * Resistant to morale shocks

Only available to the French in the province of Alsace-Lorraine

**Requests Elite Units of America Downloadable Content**


--==Royal Ecossais==--

"Expatriate infantry are exiles in another nation's service: men with nothing
 left to lose but their lives. 

 Europe is awash with exiles, the dispossessed have that taken up arms thanks
 to war, religious persecution and politics. Some fight to free their 
 homelands and some because home is gone. A few fight for the romance of it 
 all, and for glory and riches. All serve because it is a better choice than
 starving. Whatever their motives, expatriates are a useful source of men. If
 someone can carry a musket, there is a place in the ranks. There is always
 the suspicions that individuals who have turned their coats once may do so
 again, even though this is unfair to many. As a result, it is unusual for
 expatriates to serve under their own officers.

 Despite the fact that many in the ranks are intelligent enough to act as
 skirmishers, expatriate infantry carry smoothbore, muzzle-loading muskets
 and usually fight as line infantry. It is easier to maintain discipline in 
 such units. 

 Historically, expatriate infantry varied in quality. The Irish Catholic "Wild
 Geese" in French service fought well, especially against the English. The
 French Royal "Chasseurs Britaiques" in the British army, did not relish 
 battle and often deserted at the first opportunity."

Regiment Size   = 120
Range           = 70
Accuracy        = 50
Reloading Skill = 45
Ammunition      = 15
Melee Attack    = 9
Charge Bonus    = 17
Defence         = 17
Morale          = 11

 * Can hide in woodland
 * Can hide in light scrub
 * Resistant to morale shocks
 * Inspires nearby units

Used only by France.


--==Royal Welch Fusiliers==--

"Elite grenade-armed troops, capable of fighting in line with an impressive
 charge and excellent melee skills.

 Armed with grenades and a powerful throwing arm, the Royal Welch Fusiliers
 are far more than your average missile troop. Their skills extend past the
 throwing of highly explosive projectiles, also encompassing the fine art 
 of marksmanship, musket being the weapon of choice. Although primarily 
 expected to fight at range, fusiliers are also more than capable in melee
 and on the charge. Their only real weakness is artillery and heavy cavalry
 who could charge them from the flank or the rear.

 The Royal Welch Fusiliers were founded in 1689. At this time they weren't
 known as the Fusiliers, this title was not bestowed upon them until 1702. 
 A further addition was to follow after the War of Spanish Succession in
 1713, when they became the Royal Welch Fusiliers. This wa a variation of
 "Welsh" used at the time. Later members of the regiment would earn 14
 Victoria Crosses (the highest British award for gallantry) and can count
 famous servicemen and poets Siegfried Sassoon and Robert Graves amongst 
 their number."

Regiment Size   = 60
Range           = 70
Accuracy        = 45
Reloading Skill = 40
Ammunition      = 15
Melee Attack    = 12
Charge Bonus    = 16
Defence         = 17
Morale          = 9

 * Can hide in woodland
 * Can hide in light scrub
 * Resistant to morale shocks

Only available to the British in the province of England

**Requests Elite Units of America Downloadable Content**


--==Scots==--

"These muskets-armed troops are use massed volleys to break an enemy, relying
 on discipline to withstand any counter fire.

 "Marching regiments" or "line battlions" make up the majority of units in 
 European-style armies. They are so called because they form the line of 
 battle, not because they always deploys in line. Indeed, over time the 
 capabilities of line infantry should improve as new tactics, drill and
 weaponry are developed.

 These soldiers carry muzzle-loading, smoothbore muskets firing lead balls 
 as wide as a man's thumb. These are inaccurate weapons, effective only over
 200 paces or so and when fired in massed volleys. The ability to fire and
 reload with machine-like regularity with shot and bullet flying and comrades
 falling all around is what wins battles.

 Historically, in many armies colonels receive a fee to raise regiments, which
 remained their personal property and commands. They jealously guarded their
 right to appoint friends, relatives and hangers-on as regimental officers. 
 This contractor system, however, allowed unscrupulous officers to make 
 handsome profits by pocketing the pay of non-existant soldiers. The better
 colonels did take a pride in their regiments, spending their own fortunes
 on good uniforms and weapons. The capabilities of a "standard" line infantry
 unit therefore varied between nations and over time. It wasn't until the 
 1760s that anything approaching uniformity of drill, equipment, and 
 regulations became the norm.

 Line infantry regiments remained unchanged throughout the period, and their
 organisational patterns still forms the basis of modern military units."

Regiment Size   = 120
Range           = 70
Accuracy        = 40
Reloading Skill = 25
Ammunition      = 15
Melee Attack    = 8
Charge Bonus    = 14
Defence         = 13
Morale          = 7

 * Can hide in woodland
 * Can hide in light scrub
 * Resistant to heat fatigue

Hired by the Dutch in Amsterdam


--==Semenys==--

"Arming the people is something that leaders find detestable and frightening,
 necessary perhaps, but certainly unwelcome.

 These people are the common people with whatever dangerous weapons they can
 obtain by fair means or foul. If a leader has reached the point of asking his
 people to act as this kind of militia, things are indeed desperate! If the 
 governed have reached this point on their own, then matters are truly 
 desperate for their leaders!"

Regiment Size   = 60
Range           = 70
Accuracy        = 25
Reloading Skill = 10
Ammunition      = 2
Melee Attack    = 4
Charge Bonus    = 4
Defence         = 5
Morale          = 3

 * Can hide in woodland
 * Can hide in light scrub
 * Resistant to heat fatigue

Trained only by the Ottomans as a mob unit


--==Sepoys==--

"Recruited by colonial powers, these indigenous Indian infantry are renowned
 for their loyalty and resilience.

 These indigenous troops formed hugely effective regiments when used by the
 European East India companies. They were acclimatised to India with a 
 resilience and endurance that put Europeans to shame. In combat, they 
 typically displayed unwavering bravery and a tenacious determination.

 Often recruited from barren or mountainous regions, these men are tough and
 hard working. Loyal without question, their familiarity with local culture
 allowed Europeans to fight insurgencies and unrest with understanding as well
 as brute force.

 The sepoys of the British East India Company were typical in that they had 
 native and European officers. "Natives" never commanded Company battalions,
 but their opinions were always sought by the better sort of European officer.
 The Ghoorkas were a special case, because Nepal was never colonised, but a 
 treaty was made between the company and the native King."

Regiment Size   = 120
Range           = 70
Accuracy        = 40
Reloading Skill = 25
Ammunition      = 10
Melee Attack    = 6
Charge Bonus    = 4
Defence         = 10
Morale          = 7

 * Can hide in woodland
 * Resistant to heat fatigue

These are recruited in India by European powers.


--==Siberian Hunters==--

"These elite light infantrymen are trained in wilderness warfare and 
 taught to survive in harsh conditions.

 Rangers are used for scouting and raiding missions far beyond the skills
 of ordinary men. The ranks are mostly drawn from frontiersmen already
 hardened to living in the wilderness, as their experience making them ideal
 for further training. The wild nature of their environment is reflected in
 the unconventional tactics they are taught, and they are given some leeway
 where formal army dicipline is concerned.

 Historically, rangers were employed by the British army and were used in the
 hostile environments of North America during the French and Indian War. They
 would carry out long distance winter raids using crude snowshoes to travel.
 The most famous and revered of all rangers were the "Rogers' Rangers", named
 for the commanding officer, Robert Rogers. The traditions of Rogers' Rangers
 are carried on today by the US Army Rangers, although the modern unit owes
 its existence to the Second World War experience to US troops fighting  
 alongside British commandos and a reformed force in the Korean War."

Regiment Size   = 60
Range           = 90
Accuracy        = 50
Reloading Skill = 30
Ammunition      = 20
Melee Attack    = 8
Charge Bonus    = 10
Defence         = 8
Morale          = 5

 * Can skirmish
 * Can hide in woodland
 * Can hide in light scrub
 * Can hide in long grass
 * Paths seldom trod
 * Good stamina
 * Resistant to cold fatigue

Trained only by the Russians.


--==Siemenovski Foot Guards==--

"These elite foot guards are charged with protecting the persons of the Tsar
 or Tsarina and the Imperial Family.

 Armed and equipped in the same fashion as line infantrymen with smoothbore
 muskets. They are, however, altogether more splendid fellows in uniforms cut
 out from the finest cloth. Sartorial elegance is not the only mark of 
 superiority, as these men are arrogant (with good reason), well trained and
 terrifying soldiers. Any general is glad to have these men to hand, as they
 can be relyed upon, unlike many line infantry units. They also make
 fearsome garrison troops as their loyalty to the throne makes them ruthless
 in suppressing dissent.

 The Siemenovski Foot Guards were raised by Peter the Great (1682-1725) during
 his time at the Royal Lodge in Preobrazhenskoe. The Guard began as two 
 Poteshyi companies Peter created to learn about the art of command. The 
 Siemenovski Foot Guards proved themselves invaluable in Peter's eyes, and
 further guard regiments were raised from among Russian nobles for years to 
 come. The Guards were not just a military force: Peter used them as a 
 political and administrative weapon. Officers were sent out to enforce 
 Peter's reforms across Russia."

Regiment Size   = 120
Range           = 70
Accuracy        = 55
Reloading Skill = 60
Ammunition      = 15
Melee Attack    = 11
Charge Bonus    = 15
Defence         = 20
Morale          = 12

 * Can hide in woodland
 * Can hide in light scrub
 * Resistant to morale shocks
 * Inspires nearby units

Trained by the Russians upon completion of the Winter Palace

**Requires Elite Units of the West Downloadable Content**


--==Sikh Musketeers==--

"Sikhs are an independently-minded people, fiercely brave, and extremely
 adept in battle.

 Sikhs are a distinctive community from northern India; they are easily
 recognised by their turbans, beards and uncut hair. They also carry
 swords as one of the marks of their faith, and sometimes for less 
 ceremonial purposes. In addition to being a devout people, Sikhs have a 
 proud martial tradition, like many in the Punjab. As fighters, they are 
 fierce foes, and rightly feared by their neighbours and enemies.

 Historically, Sikhism is the youngest of the world's major religions. 
 The word "sikh" can be translated as disciple or pupil. Arising in 15th
 Century Mughal India, the leaders of the new faith were often persecuted
 by the Mughals, although sometimes for political rather than religious  
 reasons. With the decline in Mughal power, the Sikhs managed to carve
 out a kingdom of their own, and gave the advancing British several nasty
 shocks. It is noticeable that the British Raj later made very extensive
 use of Sikh troops. Even today, when Sikhs are only a tiny percentage of
 India's population, they represent a substantial part of the Indian 
 Army's officer corps."

Regiment Size   = 120
Range           = 70
Accuracy        = 45
Reloading Skill = 30
Ammunition      = 15
Melee Attack    = 7
Charge Bonus    = 10
Defence         = 16
Morale          = 8

 * Can hide in woodland
 * Resistant to heat fatigue

Recruited by the Marathas


--==Sikh Warriors==--

"Sikhs are an independently-minded people, fiercely brave, and extremely
 adept in battle.

 Sikhs are a distinctive community from northern India; they are easily
 recognised by their turbans, beards and uncut hair. They also carry
 swords as one of the marks of their faith, and sometimes for less 
 ceremonial purposes. In addition to being a devout people, Sikhs have a 
 proud martial tradition, like many in the Punjab. As fighters, they are 
 fierce foes, and rightly feared by their neighbours and enemies.

 Historically, Sikhism is the youngest of the world's major religions. 
 The word "sikh" can be translated as disciple or pupil. Arising in 15th
 Century Mughal India, the leaders of the new faith were often persecuted
 by the Mughals, although sometimes for political rather than religious  
 reasons. With the decline in Mughal power, the Sikhs managed to carve
 out a kingdom of their own, and gave the advancing British several nasty
 shocks. It is noticeable that the British Raj later made very extensive
 use of Sikh troops. Even today, when Sikhs are only a tiny percentage of
 India's population, they represent a substantial part of the Indian 
 Army's officer corps."

Regiment Size   = 120
Range           = 0
Accuracy        = 0
Reloading Skill = 0
Ammunition      = 0
Melee Attack    = 14
Charge Bonus    = 12
Defence         = 18
Morale          = 9

 * Can hide in woodland
 * Can hide in light scrub
 * Resistant to heat fatigue

Recruited by the Marathas


--==Superior Line Infantry==--

"The reputation of these elite soldiers and the example they set provides
 encouragement to comrades nearby. 

 These men are a cut above the average line infantry regiment and they are
 often the lynchpin of a commander's battle strategy. The presence of such
 men in the line of battle is enough to lift the hearts of all those around
 them strengthening their determination to resist any enemy. A general can
 be confident that these men will hold, and he can base the rest of his 
 strategy around that fact.

 The factors which lead a regiment to acquire an exalted position within 
 its country's military are hard to define: training and skill play their
 part, but in the main it is physical and mental endurance that keeps good
 men fighting even when the tide of battle is against them. A lucky few 
 carry such strength within themselves, but others derive it from the
 proud martial traditions of their regiment. In Europe, the famous "vieux"
 and "petits-vieux" regiments of France have centuries of such history
 to call upon, whilst the various deeds of the British Coldstream Guards
 and Black Watch regiments reinforce the natural grit of the men in their
 ranks."

Regiment Size   = 120
Range           = 70
Accuracy        = 45
Reloading Skill = 45
Ammunition      = 15
Melee Attack    = 7
Charge Bonus    = 10
Defence         = 15
Morale          = 9

 * Can hide in woodland
 * Can hide in light scrub
 * Resistant to morale shocks
 * Inspires nearby units

Trained only by the Prussians and Swedes.


--==Swiss Guards==--

"These Swiss soldiers are the trusted guards of the King's person and his
 residences and, like all Swiss troops, are disciplined and well trained
 men.

 Resplendent in bright red uniforms, the Swiss Guard is recruited in the 
 cantons of Switzerland. Armed with smoothbore muskets, these men are not
 just a decorative, court regiment, but very capable warriors, certainly
 the better of ordinary line infantry units. Their origins mean that they 
 can be trusted not to involve themselves in French conspiracies. French
 monarches are not the first to realise that foreign soldiers are often
 hated and distrusted more than the monarchy itself by many internal 
 enemies! The Swiss Guard, therefore, live and die in the service of the
 throne, because, viewed cynically, their survival demands it.

 In August 1792, France was in turmoil. King Louis XVI (1774-92) was a 
 hollow, hated figurehead. The Swiss Guard were his last line of defence,
 guarding the Tuileries Palace when the revolutionaries attacked. The
 Bourbons escaped, but hundreds of their royal Swiss Guards were killed.
 Many survivors succumbed to their wounds or were murdered during the
 September Massacres. Finally, in 1821 a statue was erected in Luccerne 
 to commemorate the sacrifice made by the Swiss Guard. It depicts a dying
 lion, symbolically protecting the French monarchy."

Regiment Size   = 120
Range           = 70
Accuracy        = 55
Reloading Skill = 60
Ammunition      = 15
Melee Attack    = 11
Charge Bonus    = 15
Defence         = 20
Morale          = 12

 * Can hide in woodland
 * Can hide in light scrub
 * Resistant to morale shocks
 * Inspires nearby units

Available only to the French.

**Requires Elite Units of the West Downloadable Content**


--==Swiss Infantry==--

"These muskets-armed troops are use massed volleys to break an enemy, relying
 on discipline to withstand any counter fire.

 "Marching regiments" or "line battlions" make up the majority of units in 
 European-style armies. They are so called because they form the line of 
 battle, not because they always deploys in line. Indeed, over time the 
 capabilities of line infantry should improve as new tactics, drill and
 weaponry are developed.

 These soldiers carry muzzle-loading, smoothbore muskets firing lead balls 
 as wide as a man's thumb. These are inaccurate weapons, effective only over
 200 paces or so and when fired in massed volleys. The ability to fire and
 reload with machine-like regularity with shot and bullet flying and comrades
 falling all around is what wins battles.

 Historically, in many armies colonels receive a fee to raise regiments, which
 remained their personal property and commands. They jealously guarded their
 right to appoint friends, relatives and hangers-on as regimental officers. 
 This contractor system, however, allowed unscrupulous officers to make 
 handsome profits by pocketing the pay of non-existant soldiers. The better
 colonels did take a pride in their regiments, spending their own fortunes
 on good uniforms and weapons. The capabilities of a "standard" line infantry
 unit therefore varied between nations and over time. It wasn't until the 
 1760s that anything approaching uniformity of drill, equipment, and 
 regulations became the norm.

 Line infantry regiments remained unchanged throughout the period, and their
 organisational patterns still forms the basis of modern military units."

Regiment Size   = 120
Range           = 70
Accuracy        = 45
Reloading Skill = 40
Ammunition      = 15
Melee Attack    = 6
Charge Bonus    = 9
Defence         = 15
Morale          = 9

 * Can hide in woodland
 * Can hide in light scrub
 * Resistant to morale shocks

Hired only by the Dutch


--==The Black Watch==--

"The reputation of these elite soldiers and the example they set provides
 encouragement to comrades nearby.

 These men are a cut above the average line infantry regiment and they are 
 often the lynchpin of a commander's battle strategy. The presence of such
 men in the line of battle is enough to lift the hearts of all those around
 them, strengthening their determination to resist any enemy. A general can
 be confident that these men will hold, and he can base the rest of his 
 strategy around that fact.

 The factors which lead a regiment to acquire an exalted position within its
 country's military are hard to define: training and skill play their part,
 but in the main it is phyiscal and mental endurance that keeps good men
 fighting even when the tide of battle is against them. A lucky few carry
 such strength within themselves, but others derive it from the proud 
 martial traditions of their regiment. In Europe, the famous "vieux" and
 "petits-vieux" regiments of France have centuries of such history to call
 upon, whilst the various deeds of the British Coldstream Guards and Black
 Watch regiments reinforce the natural grit of the men in the ranks."

Regiment Size   = 120
Range           = 70
Accuracy        = 50
Reloading Skill = 35
Ammunition      = 10
Melee Attack    = 11
Charge Bonus    = 8
Defence         = 17
Morale          = 12

 * Can hide in woodland
 * Can hide in light scrub
 * Resistant to morale shocks
 * Inspires nearby units

Hired by the British in Edinburgh.


--==Tirailleurs==--

"Light infantry forces form a skirmish line to slow the enemy advance and 
 keep their own line unmolested by enemy skirmishers.

 Whether they are called light infantry, jaegars, tirailleurs or chasseurs a
 pied, it is the job of these men to screen the main battle line, harass
 the enemy and, if possible, pick off important men in the enemy's ranks. 
 Unlike their fellows in the line infantry, light infantryman are trained to
 think for themselves, use the ground and cover intelligently, and not fight
 in rigid lines. Instead, they form loose skirmish line and fire independently
 at their own designated targets. The effect is a constant, low-level barrage
 rather than the crushing thunder of a volley but the effect is quite 
 deadly as officers and sergeants are picked off and removed from the fight.
 Against cavalry, however, their best defence is to withdraw to their own
 battle line.

 Historically, the Austrians were widely regarded as producing the finest 
 light infantry forces in Europe. Other nations did catch up but in the case
 of Britain and France it was their experiences in fighting in North America
 that persuaded them of the wisdom of light troops. Battle lines were simply
 impossible to manage in these dense woodlands, and largely pointless
 against the native tribe!"

Regiment Size   = 60
Range           = 125
Accuracy        = 70
Reloading Skill = 35
Ammunition      = 20
Melee Attack    = 7
Charge Bonus    = 8
Defence         = 7
Morale          = 7

 * Can skirmish
 * Can hide in woodland
 * Can hide in light scrub
 * Can hide in long grass
 * Can hide in buildings
 * Good stamina

These are hired by the French.


--==Tribesmen==--

"Tribesmen are a melee unit, relying primarily on force of numbers over skill.

 When the tribe is threatened all men are called to arms. Young or old 
 matters little as long as they have the strength and will to hold a weapon.
 Some men may have never seen battle, and only have weapons used in the 
 hunt. Pride in protecting the tribe and the possible spoils that come from
 distinguishing oneself in battle are enough to drive tribesmen forward.

 Historically, tattoos commemorated the brave actions of a tribesmen. Fish
 bones or rock splinters were used to cut the design, and soot or natural
 dyes coloured the wound. If one tribe defeated another in battle all those
 on the winning side were given tattoos to commemorate the victory. Animal
 totems were another popular theme, giving the wearer the strength of the 
 creature in the tattoo design."

Regiment Size   = 120
Range           = 0
Accuracy        = 0
Reloading Skill = 0
Ammunition      = 0
Melee Attack    = 6
Charge Bonus    = 5
Defence         = 2
Morale          = 4

 * Can hide in woodland
 * Can hide in light scrub
 * Can hide in long grass
 * Paths seldom trod
 * Resistant to cold fatigue
 * Resistant to heat fatigue

Available to all Native Tribes. 

**Requires The Warpaths Downloadable Content**


--==US Marines==--

"These infantrymen are tough, resourceful and excellent marksmen, even with 
 their smoothbore shortened, sea-pattern muskets.

 The Marines are light infantry, line infantry and sea-going soldiers: 
 whatever is required to carry out their appointed task, they will turn their
 hands to it. Every Marine prides himself on being a fighting soldier first
 and foremost especially if he is an officer. This battle-winning spirit 
 is a powerful weapon in the Marine arsenal, and these men will rarely, if
 ever, run from a fight. 

 Traditionally, the US Marines claim to date back to 1775, and the  
 establishment of the Continential Marines during the Revolution. These forces
 were disbanded when America won its independence, and the Congress was 
 forced to raise new forced of a United States Navy and a Marine Corpsin
 1798 when war with Revolutionary France looked likely. The units were 
 raised with such haste that they were given hand-me-down infantry uniforms,
 including the uncomfortable stocks that give the Marines their "Leathernecks"
 nickname. That war never came, but the Marines were in action within a 
 short pace of time, proving their worth in fights against the Barbary 
 Pirates. Marine officers wearing full dress uniform still carry a "Mameluke"
 pattern sword to commemorate these early successes."

Regiment Size   = 90
Range           = 70
Accuracy        = 50
Reloading Skill = 45
Ammunition      = 15
Melee Attack    = 7
Charge Bonus    = 11
Defence         = 17
Morale          = 9

 * Can hide in woodland
 * Can hide in light scrub
 * Resistant to morale shocks
 * Inspires nearby units

These units are only hired by the United States

**Requires Elite Units of the West Downloadable Content**


--==V.O.C. Infantry==--

"Raised in India, these European mercenaries do not fight "for King and 
 Country" but for the great East India trading companies.

 Company infantry are professional soldiers drawn exclusively from Europeans,
 both officers and other ranks. They are members of private armies for the 
 traders, but one that is available to further national needs when required.
 They fight using European doctrine and equipment as line infatrymen, carrying
 smoothbore, muzzle-loading muskets. These soldiers were also enforcers, tax
 gatherers, and a potent threat against the local princes in India, even away
 from the battlefield. Native regiments under European officers exist too, but
 their reliability is doubtful.

 Historically, the great East India trading companies were often closer to 
 being nations in their own right than business ventures. India was so wealthy
 that the companies needed armies, not just guards, to protect and expand 
 their interests and prestige. The British East India Company (the "John
 Company"), the Dutch "Vereenigde Oostindische Compagnie" (VOC) and the French
 "La Compagnie francaise des Indes orientales" all had their own armed forces:
 1 in 5 VOC employees were soldiers!"

Regiment Size   = 120
Range           = 70
Accuracy        = 40
Reloading Skill = 25
Ammunition      = 15
Melee Attack    = 6
Charge Bonus    = 9
Defence         = 13
Morale          = 7

 * Can hide in woodland
 * Resistant to heat fatigue

Hired by the Dutch in India


--==Walloon Guards==--

"The blue-clad Walloon Guards are an elite infantry regiment, dedicated to the
 service of Spain and the Royal Family.

 Although a court regiment and expected to be immaculate at all times, they 
 are also capable field soldiers. Trained to fight in line of battle, they are
 far steadier under fire than any ordinary infantry and equally capable in
 close-quarters fighting too.

 Historically, this bodyguard unit was originally raised in mostly Catholic
 Wallonia (now part of Belgium), a Hapsburg, and therefore Spanish possession
 at the time. As with other royal families, it was considered safer to have 
 outsiders as guards for the monarch than the locals, who might put their
 local sympathies ahead of royal safety in times of crisis. The loss of the
 Spanish Netherlands meant that non-Walloons had to be accepted into their
 ranks, although the name and the tradition of loyalty to the crown were
 retained. The first intake of Walloons had all been big men, to act as shock
 troops, but by the middle of the 18th Century they had been remodelled as a 
 royal guard, consciously aping the French Bourbon Swiss Guards to add dignity
 to the Spanish court, by then under another branch of the Bourbon family."

Regiment Size   = 120
Range           = 70
Accuracy        = 55
Reloading Skill = 60
Ammunition      = 15
Melee Attack    = 11
Charge Bonus    = 15
Defence         = 20
Morale          = 12

 * Can hide in woodland
 * Can hide in light scrub
 * Resistant to morale shocks
 * Inspires nearby units

Hired only by the Spanish in Madrid with the Palacio de Real Madrid

**Requires Elite Units of the West Downloadable Content**


--==Warriors==--

"A band of fearless warriors armed in traditional fashion for close, 
 personal combat.

 Warriors dominate Native American society. They defend the tribes and
 earn renown while doing so. This gives them the status to become  
 unchallenged chiefs and leaders in all aspects of tribal life. Hunting
 is also a fine preparation for war, as it teaches a man to be unafraid
 of bloodshed and danger.

 Historically, the tribes used a wide variety of weaponsfor the hunt and
 warfare. Some were the same for both but others, like the war club, were
 of little use except when hunting men. Traditionally carved from a 
 single piece of hard wood, as the influence of Europeans grew, this war
 club came to imitate the shape of a rifle butt."

Regiment Size   = 120
Range           = 0
Accuracy        = 0
Reloading Skill = 0
Ammunition      = 0
Melee Attack    = 12
Charge Bonus    = 6
Defence         = 7
Morale          = 7

 * Can hide in woodland
 * Can hide in light scrub
 * Can hide in long grass
 * Paths seldom trod
 * Good stamina
 * Resistant to heat fatigue
 * Resistant to cold fatigue

Hired by all the Native Tribes.

**Requires The Warpath Downloadable Content**


--==Warrior Society==--

"These are the strongest, bravest and most ferocious men of the tribe, 
 proficent in all forms of combat. 

 Members of a Warrior Society are the tribal equivalent of professional
 soldiers. The most practiced and deadly men in the tribe, they have a 
 position of great power. They provide military leadership and war 
 chiefs are chosen from their ranks to keep discipline, organise hunting
 partiesand oversee ceremonies.

 Warrior societies quickly gained a reputation for unrelenting ferciousness.
 They would literally tether themselves to one spot on the battlefield, and
 not move until the battle was over. They would battle against any enemy 
 that came at them and never ever consider retreat. They were skilled with
 a number of weapons including the tomahawk and the war club."

Regiment Size   = 90
Range           = 40
Accuracy        = 45
Reloading Skill = 30
Ammunition      = 4
Melee Attack    = 11
Charge Bonus    = 10
Defence         = 10
Morale          = 11

 * Can hide in woodland
 * Can hide in light scrub
 * Can hide in long grass
 * Paths seldom trod
 * Good stamina
 * Resistant to heat fatigue
 * Resistant to cold fatigue

Hired by all Native Tribes.

**Requires The Warpath Downloadable Content**


--==Windbuchse Jaegers==--

"These skirmishers and scouts carry almost-silent airguns and are well suited
 to stealthy sniping and tactical ambushes.

 Windbuchsenjager are woodmen, hunters and poachers - men with a good grasp
 of field craft. Their speciality is skirmishing, to disrupt enemy formations
 with harassing fire, or to stop the enemy doing the same to their comrades.
 Unlike other light troops, however, they carry airguns. These weapons give
 them a distinctively unfair advantage!

 Apart from the fact that is silent, with no muzzle flash or smoke, the 
 windbuchse ("wind rifle") has a 20-round magazine and fires as quickly as
 quickly as the jager can pull the trigger. The gun can drive a ball through
 a plank (or a man) at 100 paces,but the velocity of shots drop as the air
 reservoir empties. Austrian gunsmiths have produced a deadly, if delicate,
 weapon in the windbuchse! However, it needs a highly trained and very fit
 man to use it properly: pumping up the air reservoir is a huge effort. 

 Historically, airguns were not a success. They were quiet, but they did not
 work after rough treatment, something that was inevitable in battle. 
 Napoleon Bonaparte hated them and decreed that any captured "assassin" 
 with an airgun was to be executed, not treated as a soldier."

Regiment Size   = 45
Range           = 125
Accuracy        = 70
Reloading Skill = 35
Ammunition      = 25
Melee Attack    = 4
Charge Bonus    = 4
Defence         = 10
Morale          = 7

 * Can skirmish
 * Can hide in woodland
 * Can hide in light scrub
 * Can hide in long grass
 * Can hide in buildings
 * Remains hidden whilst walking
 * Good stamina

These are only trained by the Austrians


--==Winnebago Warriors===--

"Armed with tomahawks, these warriors give no quarter in hand-to-hand 
 fighting.

 The Winnebago are not the most forgiving of tribes, and do not forget a 
 transgression easily. On the battlefield, they are fearsome fighters in a
 melee whenever they are allowed to close with enemies. The thrill of battle
 is their strength and joy.

 Away from the battlefield, many an envoy has met the wrong end of a tomahawk
 or ended up in a Winnebago's belly after mistakenly thinking they could 
 be bargained with or bought.

 By 1665, a series of misfortunes caused the Winnebago's numbers to dwindle
 to five hundred: there was a disastrous storm, and an epidemic decimated the
 tribe. The remainder starved as they were too weak from disease to harvest
 their crops. Seeing the Winnebago so depleted, their former Illinois enemies
 sent them food and warriors as an act of goodwill. The newcomers were
 welcomed, and then killed during a celebrating feast. The vengeful Illinois
 waited until they had an opportunity to attack, during the Winnebagos'  
 winter hunt and almost wiped them out. Only at the end of the Beaver Wars
 was the tribe restored by intermarriage with Algonquin refugees."

Regiment Size   = 45
Range           = 125
Accuracy        = 70
Reloading Skill = 35
Ammunition      = 25
Melee Attack    = 4
Charge Bonus    = 4
Defence         = 10
Morale          = 7

 * Can rally routing enemies
 * Can hide in woodland
 * Can hide in light scrub
 * Can hide in long grass
 * Remains hidden whilst walking
 * Paths seldom trod
 * Inspires nearby units
 * Good stamina
 * Resistant to heat fatigue
 * Resistant to cold fatigue

Trained only by the Iroquois Tribe.

**Requires The Warpaths Downloadable Content**

*~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~*
[A.03] Cavalry Units

--==2nd Continential Light Dragoons==--

"Trained in mounted and dismounted combat, this light cavalry unit is useful
 to reinforce cornered comrades.

 When a friendly unit is being harassed by an enemy beyond its fire range,
 these cavalrymen can react immediately, riding to the enemy to counter the
 threat. When mounted they are good in melee, at the charge, and can fire
 their carbines. They are not very effective in close combat on foot, leaving
 themselves vulnerable when acting as melee infantry.

 The 2nd Continential Light Dragoons were one of the first cavalry units 
 raised in 1776 following Washington's realisation that the war was going 
 to be far longer than expected. His original plan was to raise 3,000 
 horsemen, but it soon became obvious that paying and equipping so many
 horsemen was beyond the resources of Congress. Instead, four small regiments
 of light dragoons was raised. The 2nd Light Dragoons were commanded by
 Colonel Elisha Sheldon, who was commemorated for his efforts by the 
 citizens of Sheldon, Vermont."

Regiment Size   = 60
Range           = 90
Accuracy        = 45
Reloading Skill = 30
Ammunition      = 20
Melee Attack    = 7
Charge Bonus    = 10
Defence         = 6
Morale          = 8

 * Can skirmish
 * Can hide in woodland
 * Garrison policing bonus
 * Good stamina

Only available to the US in the province of Confederation of New England

**Requests Elite Units of America Downloadable Content**


--==2nd Hussars==--

"These elite light cavalrymen are used for skirmishing and are some of the 
 finest horsemen in the Prussian Army.

 Hussar duties include patrolling, gathering of information and denying the
 enemy the freedom to do the same. They also provide the valuable service of
 pursuing routing enemies, and their speed makes them a useful reserve to 
 attack any enemy unit that is about to break. Bringing about such a crisis
 can make the difference between victory and defeat.

 Historically, hussars in Prussian service were not large men, with a maximum
 height of 1.67 metres, possibly the result of their largely peasant 
 upbringing; their horses were proportionally small. Their commanding officers
 were, however, under no such restrictions and were drawn from among the 
 Prussian Junkers. General Hans Joachim von Ziethen started as an infantry
 officer, but transferred to the dragoons when his commander took a dislike
 to his "squeaky voice and mean, insignificant appearance". Possibly because
 of these personal qualities he developed a reputation as a duellist and
 dissenter. This aggressive attitude served him well when he transferred to 
 the 2nd Hussars and he was given command. He remained with the regiment 
 for 45 years, even after promotion to general's rank until his death at 
 87."

Regiment Size   = 45
Range           = 0
Accuracy        = 0
Reloading Skill = 0
Ammunition      = 0
Melee Attack    = 13
Charge Bonus    = 17
Defence         = 11
Morale          = 10

 * Can hide in woodland
 * Paths seldom trod
 * Inspires nearby units
 * Good stamina

Hired only by the Prussians in Berlin after the Brandenburg Gate

**Requires Elite Units of the West Downloadable Content**


--==Apache Mescalero Warriors==--

"These horse archers used speed to sweep in, attack, and then ride out of
 range.

 The Mescalero Apache are a mountain people and, unusually for such a 
 folk, highly skilled riders. Masters of irregular warfare, they have an
 intimate knowledge of the landscape, and concealment skills that give
 them an edge over enemies. The Mescalero Apache take full advantage of
 the environment, and recognise the importance of subterfuge and diversions
 when fighting a larger enemy force.

 They even create fake camps, climb sheer rock faces to leave no trail,
 and live off the land, all to confound enemy trackers. Their horses are 
 not only for hunting and battle, but are also eaten when food is scarce.

 The Mescalero Apache lived among the mountains of New Mexico and Texas.
 The heart of their homeland was the peak of the Sierra Blanca. Their name
 originates from their use of the century mescal plant, a reliable source 
 of food that can be found in the deserts of New Mexico. The tribe harvested
 the plant's heart and cooked it by steaming. Today the plant is used in a 
 very different form: it is distilled to create mescal, a spirit closely 
 related to tequila."

Regiment Size   = 45
Range           = 70
Accuracy        = 50
Reloading Skill = 10
Ammunition      = 20
Melee Attack    = 10
Charge Bonus    = 9
Defence         = 9
Morale          = 8

 * Can skirmish
 * Can hide in woodland
 * Can hide in light scrub
 * Paths seldom trod
 * Good stamina
 * Resistant to heat fatigue

Trained by the Pueblo Nations

**Requires The Warpaths Downloadable Content**


--==Barawardi==--

"Barawardi are an elite light cavalry force. Despite wearing armour, they are
 surprisingly quick on the battlefield.

 Equipped with helmets and curiasses, they also carry swords. Their charge
 is not particularly powerful, but they can give a very good amount of 
 themselves in melee. Like other light cavalry, barawardi can be used to
 ride down skirmishers and disorganised enemies. If properly handled, they
 may well be able to close with artillery units without suffering too many
 casualties. However, they should not be committed against heavier cavalry
 forces, as they will suffer disproportionate losses, and require exceptional
 luck, or a very good commander, to be able to break an infantry square.

 Cavalry was the most important element in Mughal armies, and it seems likely
 that all cavalrymen were well-trained fighters - expected to by physically
 fitand proficient horsemen. Men served in ethnically-based units, so Afghans 
 would fight under Afghan officers, Rajputs with their own, and so on. This
 naturally created unit camaraderie and cohesion, because men were unlikely to
 let their own kith and kin die unduly. The cavalry were, however, not always
 trusted: their mounts would be branded with both imperial and the unit 
 commander's marks. This was to stop soldiers selling their good horses and
 enlisting as infantrymen, or from substituting inferior horseflesh. With
 harsh laws to punish thieves, there was therefore no market for horses 
 carrying army marks."

Regiment Size   = 45
Range           = 0
Accuracy        = 0
Reloading Skill = 0
Ammunition      = 0
Melee Attack    = 10
Charge Bonus    = 14
Defence         = 12
Morale          = 8

 * Can hide in woodland
 * Can hide in light scrub
 * Paths seldom trod
 * Good stamina
 * Resistant to heat fatigue

Trained by the Marathas in Afghanistan and Baluchistan

**Requires Elite Units of the East Downloadable Content**


--==Bargir Lancers==--

"These cavalrymen are armed with a long spear or lance that makes them  
 particularly deadly when charging.

 The lance is probably the oldest cavalry weapon. It gives the user a chance
 ot put all the momentium of himself and his charging horse into one very
 sharp point that can, in the hands of a skilled man, be driven right 
 through any man. This is what makes lances so intimidating to face but, 
 if the lancer does not kill his target, then he is vulnerable. A long lance
 is a good deal less useful in a melee than a sword, and a lancer is at a
 disadvantage once the close fighting starts.

 Historically, many nations used lancers, although the European fashion 
 for them owes much to the uhlans: cavalry raised for Austrian and Prussian
 service. The French adopted lancers with some enthusiasm, and Napoleon 
 even included Polish lancers in his Imperial Guard. In India the lance
 had long been used as a weapon, and lancer skills were often improved by
 "pegging" (picking tent pegs out of the ground with the lance tip) or
 pig-sticking (hunting wild pigs or even wild dogs with the lance). Native
 Indian lancers were rightly feared by European troops." 

Regiment Size   = 45
Range           = 0
Accuracy        = 0
Reloading Skill = 0
Ammunition      = 0
Melee Attack    = 7
Charge Bonus    = 25
Defence         = 9
Morale          = 5

 * Can hide in woodland
 * Good stamina
 * Resistant to heat fatigue

Trained by the Marathas


--==Bosniaks==--

"Bosniaks are lancers, used to skirmish and for chasing down routing enemies.

 These light-fingered cavalrymen are irregular forces, deployed where 
 courage and speed are required, and mounted on the best horses. Their
 disciplinary shortcomings can be overlooked as long as they fight as if 
 captained by the Devil himself! Looting is second nature to these men, and
 is (possibly rightly) considered a second source of pay. The other, 
 unsavoury activities associated with pillage are equally considered a right,
 not a prequisite. Their reputation for lawlessness often counts against them.

 Although they have their origins in the Balkans, as the name suggest, 
 "Bosniak" lancers can include men from many nations. Historically, the 
 prototype for this unit was raised by an Albanian, Stephan Serkis, who 
 recruited a force of lancers originally intended for Saxon service. He then
 offered his men to Frederick the Great (1740-86) of Prussia. Even though
 Frederick thoroughly disapproved of irregular troops in Prussian service,
 he took them into his army, and later recruited Poles, Lithuanians and 
 Tatars to replenish the ranks. The regiment was eventually amalgamated into
 various other light cavalry forces by the beginning of the 19th Century."

Regiment Size   = 45
Range           = 0
Accuracy        = 0
Reloading Skill = 0
Ammunition      = 0
Melee Attack    = 9
Charge Bonus    = 27
Defence         = 10
Morale          = 7

 * Can hide in woodland

Hired only by the Prussians.

**Requires Elite Units of the West Downloadable Content**


--==Brunswick Dragoons==--

"These German dragoons are heavy cavalry, skilled in the use of sword and
 carbine.

 Brunswicker dragoons are versatile troops; they have a powerful charge that
 can break enemy infantry formations, and can ride to critical spots on the
 battlefield to lend support to beleaguered allies. However, should they be
 pitted against infantry formed in square their charge will fall short of 
 the power achieved by heavy cavalry units. They do have the advantage of
 being armed with carbine muskets, but they are trained to use these when on
 foot; dragoons should not be expected to engage in close combat effectively
 when dismounted.

 The Brunswicker Dragoons (and other Brunswick units) left Germany for
 America under the command of Col. Friedrich Riedesel in 1776. When the 
 dragoons arrived in America they did so without horses. They were paid as
 heavy infantrymen and acted in this capacity for many of the early 
 campaigns. At the Battle of Bennington most of the 120 men were either 
 killed or captured, dramatically reducing the size of the unit. Those that
 did survive rejoined the main body of British troops after the surrender at
 Saratoga. This under-strength regiment remained in garrison duty in Canada
 until 1783, when it returned to Brunswick."

Regiment Size   = 60
Range           = 0
Accuracy        = 0
Reloading Skill = 0
Ammunition      = 15
Melee Attack    = 8
Charge Bonus    = 11
Defence         = 9
Morale          = 8

 * Can dismount
 * Can hide in woodland
 * Garrison policing bonus

Only available to the British in the province of England

**Requests Elite Units of America Downloadable Content**


--==Camel Nomads==--

"Camel nomads are lord of the merciless desert and few who face them there in
 battle live to tell the tale. 

 There is no environment harsher than the desert, and the nomadic tribesmen
 who inhibit it are as pitless as the shifting sands. The trackless sandy
 wastes are littered with the bones of those foolish enough to have ventured
 there in defiance of those who call this place home. Nomads are experts in
 using the desert to defeat an enemy before risking an attack, although they
 tend to fare less well in cooler climes. The nomads' camels can withstand
 searing temperatures which would quickly exhaust a horse - and no horse is
 happy with the sound and smell of camels either!

 A common nomad tactic is to allow the intense heat of the desert to weaken
 their foe, then to thin their numbers with fire from their archaic-looking
 matchlocks. Despite their ancient appearance, those muskets are well-
 maintained and used to deadly effect. Once an enemy has begun to falter, 
 nomads risk a more direct attack, closing for the kill with their scimitars.
 The weird ululating battle cries favoured by the nomadic tribesmen are
 often amongst the last sounds heard by their exhausted and dispirited 
 victims!"

Regiment Size   = 45
Range           = 0
Accuracy        = 0
Reloading Skill = 0
Ammunition      = 0
Melee Attack    = 11
Charge Bonus    = 12
Defence         = 7
Morale          = 5

 * Can hide in woodland
 * Scares horses
 * Resistant to heat fatigue

Hired by the Ottomans and Marathas in the Desert Regions of Asia


--==Carbineers==--

"These light cavalrymen are armed with carbines, it is their role to harass
 enemies with fire. 

 They are a highly mobile unit, with enough long-range firepower to hurt many
 enemies; the pistols used by some cavalrymen are only really suitable for
 close-in fighting during a melee. Their carbines fire a smaller ball than 
 the muskets of infantrymen, but it is still large enough to maim and kill
 a target. Having the speed of light cavalry, these men are a useful force
 for any general; they can be moved quickly to a key part of the line to 
 give fire, and then redeployed with equal speed. They are also remarkably
 difficult opponents for heavy cavalry, it is hard to come to grips with an
 enemy who can simply outpace you!

 Historically, the carbine was only a smaller calibre version of an infantry
 musket. The idea to cut down the barrel only emerged when it became clear 
 that reloading a full-length musket on horseback was a horrible job, even
 if the enemy weren't trying to kill you at the same time. Attaching the
 carbine to the user by a sling finally made it into a very practical, 
 deadly weapon."

Regiment Size   = 45
Range           = 70
Accuracy        = 40
Reloading Skill = 25
Ammunition      = 20
Melee Attack    = 7
Charge Bonus    = 8
Defence         = 7
Morale          = 6

 * Can skirmish
 * Can hide in woodland
 * Good stamina

Hired by the French, Spanish and Austria


--==Chasseurs a Cheval==--

"Light cavalry are used to screen an army and act as its eyes and ears; they
 can also pursue fleeing enemies and keep them from regrouping.

 These horsemenhave many national titles, and military fashion plays a huge
 part in their employment and naming; light horse, chasseurs a cheval, 
 chevau-legers, even hussars and dragoons are used as titles by light 
 cavalry forces. Regardless of the name, their purpose, tactics and equipment
 usually have much in common. They disdain armour, even the sensible steel 
 skull caps favoured by many beneath their offically sanctioned tricornes and 
 helmets. They carry swords, carbines and pistols, but they are not expected
 to charge home, merely harass and pursue enemies. Their horses are always
 fast with good endurance, well bred and well looked after; a cavalryman
 without his horse is, after all, useless.

 Traditionally, light cavalry forces also undertook the role of communications
 for an army. Their speedy horses made them ideal for carrying messages 
 between camps, or as gallopers on the battlefield. They were also among the
 most "dandified" of soldiers, and light cavalry uniforms of the period are
 some of the gaudiest ever created. This made recruitment easdy, because
 prospective troopers could see what a dashing figure they would cut for the
 ladies!"

Regiment Size   = 45
Range           = 70
Accuracy        = 45
Reloading Skill = 20
Ammunition      = 10
Melee Attack    = 9
Charge Bonus    = 10
Defence         = 6
Morale          = 5

 * Can hide in woodland
 * Path seldom trod
 * Good stamina

Used only by the French.


--==Chevaux-legers==--

"These cavalrymen armed with a long spear or lance that makes them 
 particularly deadly when charging.

 The lance is probably the oldest cavalry weapon. It gives the user a 
 chance to put all the momentium of himself and his charging horse into one
 very sharp point that can, in the hands of a skilled man, be driven through
 any man. That is what makes lances so intimidating to face but, if the
 lancer does not kill his target, he is then vulnerable. A long lance is a 
 good deal less use in a melee than a sword, and a lancer is at a  
 disadvantage once the close fighting starts.

 Historically, many nations used lancers, although the European fashion for
 them owes much to the ulhans, cavalry raised for Austrian and Prussian 
 service. The French adopted lancers with some enthusiasm, and Napoleon
 even included Polish lancers in his Imperial Guard. In India, the lance
 had long been used as a weapon, and lancer skills were often improved by 
 "pegging" (picking tent pegs out of the ground with the lance tip) or
 pig-sticking (hunting wild pigs or even wild dogs with the lance). Native
 Indian lancers were rightly feared by European troops."

Regiment Size   = 45
Range           = 0
Accuracy        = 0
Reloading Skill = 0
Ammunition      = 0
Melee Attack    = 10
Charge Bonus    = 9
Defence         = 4
Morale          = 9

 * Can hide in woodland

These are mainly French units.


--==Cheyanne Dog Soldiers==--

"These mounted warriors fight on foot, and possess a bravery that few can 
 lay claim to and even fewer display.

 Cheyenne Dog Soldiers are master horsemen and use their skills to great 
 effect. They prefer to use their horses for swift transport rather than
 as war horses, dismounting to fight hand-to-hand. Dog Soldiers uphold an
 oath of unflinching bravery, and will stand fast even when the battle 
 appears lost and all others have fled. They are ideal for a fast paced
 attack against a strategic enemy position where the enemy must retake
 the ground, and as a last line of defence when all hope is lost.

 The Spanish conquistadores re-introduced the horse to the Americas (quite
 by accident), and the animals were soon adopted for war by the natives.
 They became integral in the day-to-day tasks of hunting and travelling
 across the plains, jobs which had previously been performed by dogs. Horses
 were so highly prized they even became trophies: warriors often had one
 horse that they prized above all others and used only for bison hunts.
 These horses were always tethered directly outside a warrior's tipi, and
 were key targets for enemy raiding parties."

Regiment Size   = 60
Range           = 90
Accuracy        = 50
Reloading Skill = 35
Ammunition      = 20
Melee Attack    = 9
Charge Bonus    = 12
Defence         = 7
Morale          = 8

 * Can skirmish
 * Can hide in woodland
 * Garrison policing bonus
 * Good stamina

Trained only by the Plains Nations

**Requires The Warpath Downloadable Content**


--==Chief's Bodyguard==--

"These riders are entrusted with the life of their chief, and are highly
 skilled an dedicated to their task.

 They are expected to shadow the chief at all times and, if necessary, lay
 down their lives to protect him. This is one of the highest honours 
 available to a warrior, and those that are afforded it will proudly show
 their status.

 Chiefs were often chosen for previous acts of valour and were men that 
 other warriors respected and would follow accordingly. Although chiefs
 held the power to make decisions in the tribe the elders had the power to
 over rule them on any decisions that did not focus on the good side of the
 tribe. These tribal elders were also responsible for choosing a new chief
 when the previous one died."

Regiment Size   = 45
Range           = 0
Accuracy        = 0
Reloading Skill = 0
Ammunition      = 0
Melee Attack    = 7
Charge Bonus    = 10
Defence         = 5
Morale          = 9

 * Can rally routing comrades
 * Paths seldom trod
 * Inspires nearby units
 * Resistant to heat fatigue
 * Resistant to cold fatigue

These are the General's Bodyguard of the Native Tribes.

**Requires The Warpaths Downloadable Content**


--==Circassian Armoured Cavalry==--

"Medieval cavalry in chainmail may look hopelessly old fashioned, but it is
 a foolish enemy who underestimates these men.

 These cavalrymen may look like they have ridden out of a storybook, or be
 fighting Crusader knights, but they are superb horsemen and can deliver
 a shocking charge against an unwary enemy. If this does not break a foe's
 line, they can then fight in melee with their sabres until they do win!
 Armour and weight, however, do not help much when facing the cannons' blast
 or when trying to break into a well-formed infantry square.

 The people of the Caucasus Mountains have a long tradition of producing
 beautiful women and brave and skilled fighters. Circassian ladies were
 highly regarded for their looks, intelligence, and spirit, and were
 considered very desirable concubines by the Ottomans. Circassian men had
 centuries of experience of fighting invaders and each other. They were also
 extremely set in their ways; they produced fine and beautiful weapons and 
 armour in, as might be expected, somewhat conservative and traditionalist
 designs. Armoured cavalrymen from the Caucasus were in Russian service as
 well as in the Ottoman army, and were rightly regarded as an asset, not an
 archaic burden.

Regiment Size   = 45
Range           = 0
Accuracy        = 0
Reloading Skill = 0
Ammunition      = 0
Melee Attack    = 19
Charge Bonus    = 17
Defence         = 16
Morale          = 12

 * Resistant to heat fatigue

These are recruited by the Ottomans in the Anatolia province

**Requires Elite Units of the East Downloadable Content**


--==Colonial Dragoons==--

"Despite appearances, dragoons are not really Cavalry but mounted line 
 infantry, riding into a battle then fighting on foot.

 Horses give mobility, not shock value in combat. Dragoons do not charge
 home, but ride to critical spots on the battlefield where infantry 
 firepower is needed. They carry smoothbore, muzzle-loading muskets with
 shortened barrels (to make reloading easier) originally called "dragons"
 or dragoons; over time, this name transferred to the men.

 Dragoons are also useful for riot control and civil suppression ("dragooning"
 is to bully people into a course of action). Their usefulness as infantry 
 and "cheap" Cavalry means that they can put down all kinds of trouble, as
 cutting down civilians is beneath the dignity of proper Cavalry regiments.

 Historically, dragoons slowly became Cavalry soldiers like any other, and
 stopped fighting as mounted infantry, although many regiments did retain
 the name. The Cavalry had always regarded them as (lower paid) social
 inferiors, and the infantry had resented them as not being proper 
 footsloggers, so the dragoons welcomed their new acceptability."

Regiment Size   = 60
Range           = 70
Accuracy        = 40
Reloading Skill = 10
Ammunition      = 10
Melee Attack    = 9
Charge Bonus    = 6
Defence         = 5
Morale          = 8

 * Can hide in woodlands
 * Garrison policing bonus
 * Resistant to heat fatigue

Recruitable only in your nation's colonies.


--==Comanche Mounted Warriors==--

"These mounted musketeers have superior riding skills, making them an 
 effective attack force.

 The Comanche are gifted horsemen with an unmatched understanding of their
 horses. These skills allow them to cross even rough ground with terrifying
 speed, and then pepper an enemy with musket balls and tomahawks. They can
 then quickly withdraw to safely to reload, or rejoin the main body of a 
 tribal enemy.

 When the Spanish left horses in North America, the Comanche quickly 
 recognised their potential, and rebuilt their lives around the animals. 
 Their individual skills on horseback seemed almost magical to their
 enemies: riding bareback, they could even pick up fallen comrades at the
 gallop! The Comanche were particularly fond of pinto horses, believing
 them to be sacred. Pintos were supposedly to give their riders 
 invulnerability in battle."

Regiment Size   = 45
Range           = 70
Accuracy        = 45
Reloading Skill = 30
Ammunition      = 20
Melee Attack    = 10
Charge Bonus    = 9
Defence         = 7
Morale          = 8

 * Can skirmish
 * Can hide in woodland
 * Can hide in light scrub
 * Paths seldom trod
 * Good stamina
 * Resistant to heat fatigue

Trained only by the Plains Nations

**Requires The Warpaths Downloadable Content**


--==Cossacks==--

"Cossacks are a free warrior people, fine horsemen and terrible foes, from the
 steppes of Russia and Asia.

 They are organised into large hosts, each under the leadership of an ataman,
 or chief. Within each host, small Cossack bands fight as seperate units. 
 Traditionally, Cossacks are cavalrymen without peer, as might be expected
 of a steppe people, but they are equally adept at fighting on foot. They 
 are personally brave, even headstrong, in the presense of enemies, something
 that can make them too eager to get into the fight.

 Historically, Russians and other Eastern Europeans have had an ambiguous
 relationship with the Cossacks. There is admiration for their fighting 
 qualities, yet a certain wariness of their wild nature. This has not stopped
 them from being used as irregular troops by many nations. Even as late as the
 Second World War entire Cossack divisions were used by the Soviet Army, and 
 then by the Germans who invaded Russia. Those Cossacks who served with the
 Germans (there were Cossack Waffen-SS divisions) were either killed in
 combat or captured and sent to die in labour camps."

Regiment Size   = 45
Range           = 70
Accuracy        = 35
Reloading Skill = 15
Ammunition      = 10
Melee Attack    = 9
Charge Bonus    = 13
Defence         = 7
Morale          = 6

 * Can hide in woodland
 * Paths seldom trod
 * Good stamina
 * Resistant to cold fatigue


--==Cossack Ataman Cavalry==--

"Cossacks are a free warrior people, fine horsemen and terrible foes, from the
 steppes of Russia and Asia.

 They are organised into large hosts, each under the leadership of an ataman,
 or chief. Within each host, small Cossack bands fight as seperate units. 
 Traditionally, Cossacks are cavalrymen without peer, as might be expected
 of a steppe people, but they are equally adept at fighting on foot. They 
 are personally brave, even headstrong, in the presense of enemies, something
 that can make them too eager to get into the fight.

 Historically, Russians and other Eastern Europeans have had an ambiguous
 relationship with the Cossacks. There is admiration for their fighting 
 qualities, yet a certain wariness of their wild nature. This has not stopped
 them from being used as irregular troops by many nations. Even as late as the
 Second World War entire Cossack divisions were used by the Soviet Army, and 
 then by the Germans who invaded Russia. Those Cossacks who served with the
 Germans (there were Cossack Waffen-SS divisions) were either killed in
 combat or captured and sent to die in labour camps."

Regiment Size   = 45
Range           = 0
Accuracy        = 0
Reloading Skill = 0
Ammunition      = 0
Melee Attack    = 10
Charge Bonus    = 14
Defence         = 9
Morale          = 7

 * Can hide in woodland
 * Paths seldom trod
 * Inspires nearby units
 * Good stamina
 * Resistant to cold fatigue


--==Company Cavalry==--

"Recruited to fight in India, company Cavalry are mercenaries fighting for the
 greatest trading companies. 

 The officers and men in these units are European, not locals, even though 
 these regiments were raised in India. They are supposedly more reliable than
 native levies when defending European interests.

 Company Cavalry are equipped in European rathan than Indian fashion; they
 fight as light, sabre-armed cavalry. Their tasks include acting as scouts,
 screening the main body of an army, and pursuing fleeing enemies - taking a
 sabre to someone already running away is likely to keep him running! It is 
 not their main job to break enemy units or to fight other cavalry."

Regiment Size   = 45
Range           = 0
Accuracy        = 0
Reloading Skill = 0
Ammunition      = 0
Melee Attack    = 11
Charge Bonus    = 12
Defence         = 8
Morale          = 7

 * Can hide in woodlands
 * Resistant to heat fatigue

These troops are recruited in India by the United States.


--==Creek Horse Riders==--

"Creek Horse Riders are capable of missile attacks or devastating charges
 into enemy units.

 These mounted warriors are armed with muskets and axes, their strength
 lies in the flexibility these weapons gives them on the battlefield. 
 They can unleash a barrage of firepower on an enemy then use their axes
 to terrible effect when charging home. By targeting the enemy flank or
 rear, they can break units on their own.

 In 1813 the Creek nation was divided by a civil war, that came to be 
 known as the Red Stick War. The Red Sticks were Creek who believed the
 tribe should return to the traditional ways of life and reject American
 influences. When a group of Red Sticks were executed by the Creeks for
 killing two settler families it sparked a tribal war, with the Americans
 joining the fight. The Red Sticks lost, and Colonel Andrew Jackson 
 forced the Creeks to cede twenty million acres of land to the US 
 Government, regardless of Creek loyalties. Jackson later became President,
 and was responsible for the contraversial Indian Removal Act of 1830.

Regiment Size   = 45
Range           = 70
Accuracy        = 45
Reloading Skill = 25
Ammunition      = 20
Melee Attack    = 12
Charge Bonus    = 10
Defence         = 9
Morale          = 9

 * Can skirmish
 * Can hide in woodland
 * Can hide in light scrub
 * Paths seldom trod
 * Good stamina
 * Resistant to heat fatigue

These troops are only recruited by the Cherokee Nations

**Requires The Warpaths Downloadable Content**


--==Crow Horse Warriors==--

"These mounted warriors are armed with bows for skirmishing and axes for 
 charging home.

 Crow Horse Warriors can employ two tactics in warfare to great effect. 
 Firstly, they can wear an enemy down with arrows; they can then demolish
 them by charging home and doing terrible work with their axes. Fear is a 
 stranger to Crow warriors: the battlefield is a chance to prove that a 
 warrior has mettle, and so improve his standing within the tribe.

 Historically, the Crow gave recognition and status to individuals who had
 achieved much in war. They could take part in religious ceremonies, name
 children and gain rank and reputation within the tribe. Warriors who
 "counted coup" against enemies would decorate their war shirts with rosettes,
 or wear wolf tails at the heels of their moccasins. Conversely, anti-social
 behaviour was punished: the Crow had "joking relatives" whose job was to
 shame each other into behaving appropriately. If good behaviour wasn't
 observed, the next step was exile, or the destruction of the offender's
 lodge and belongings."

Regiment Size   = 45
Range           = 70
Accuracy        = 40
Reloading Skill = 25
Ammunition      = 20
Melee Attack    = 14
Charge Bonus    = 12
Defence         = 8
Morale          = 11

 * Can skirmish
 * Can hide in woodland
 * Can hide in light scrub
 * Paths seldom trod
 * Good stamina
 * Resistant to heat fatigue

Trained only by the Pueblo Nations

**Requires The Warpaths Downloadable Content**


--==Cuirassiers==--

"Cuirassiers are heavy cavalry who still wear armour who rely on the shock of
 impact to defeat enemies.

 These are big men, mounted on big horses, and their primary task is to crash
 into enemy forces and engage in hand-to-hand combat. To this end, they wear
 back- and breastplates over leather padding - the cuirass - and usually wear
 reinforced metal helmets too. Heavy straight swords are the weapons of 
 choice. A wise commander with a cuirasser force under his hand keeps it as 
 a battering ram to hit the enemy at the critical point.

 Historically, armoured cavalry were the direct functional descendents of
 armoured knights and three-quarter-armoured "lobsters" of 16th Century 
 armies.

 Despite the military mania for neatness and order, nearly all cuirasses
 had a small dent in them. This was a proofing mark, where a pistol ball had 
 been fired into the cuirass to "prove" that it worked as armour. A cuirass
 with a hole in it after this test would be thrown back into the furnace!

 Cuirassiers still exist in modern armies, although their armour is now purely
 ceremonial. The French army still has two regiments of cuirassiers, the 
 Italians have a Presidential Honour Guard, and technically the Household
 Cavalry in the British Army are also cuirassiers.

Regiment Size   = 45
Range           = 0
Accuracy        = 0
Reloading Skill = 0
Ammunition      = 0
Melee Attack    = 17
Charge Bonus    = 15
Defence         = 12
Morale          = 10

Hired by most European powers.


--==Death's Head Hussars==--

"Hussars are light cavalry, used as skirmishers and for scouting ahead of an
 army. 

 These superb horsemen are a force that can be used as a screen by the main
 army, or for strategic scouting to locate the enemy. They are armed with 
 curved sabres and smoothbore carbine muskets. Their gaudy, almost popinjay
 uniforms should not lead enemies to underestimate them as mere dandies -  
 these are trained, disciplined and dangerous soldiers.

 Hussars have a certain swashbuckling attitude towards the business of 
 warfare, and the bandit origins of the Hungarian "huszarok" are certainly
 evident. Even non-Hungarian hussars cultivate a slightly barbarous air, 
 and little private and enemy property is safe when they are around! Oddly,
 they are also unusally democratic, and troopers expect to be consulted
 by their officers before attacking the enemy, again probably a legacy of
 their brigand heritage."

Regiment Size   = 45
Range           = 0
Accuracy        = 0
Reloading Skill = 0
Ammunition      = 0
Melee Attack    = 11
Charge Bonus    = 15
Defence         = 17
Morale          = 11

 * Can hide in woodland
 * Paths seldom trod
 * Good stamina

Trained only by the Prussians in Brandenburg.

**Requires Special Forces + Bonus Units Downloadable Content**


--==Deli Horsemen==--

"These extravagantly attired light cavalry are an extremely useful force for
 any general.

 Easily recognisable by their distinctive animal skins and feathered shields,
 these troops are recruited from many peoples. They have an ethos of personal,
 rather than collective, bravery. The animal skins worn include wolf, leopard
 and bear pelts, and their winged shields are enhanced by attaching bird
 feathers to them. They are armed with scimitars, and they can cause terrible
 slashing wounds in hand-to-hand combat. The task of the scouts, though, is to
 avoid combat, seek out the enemy and return with news.

 Historically, Deli infantry men and cavalry were irregular troops, and deli 
 horsemen would often find employment guarding caravans and important 
 dignitaries."

Regiment Size   = 45
Range           = 70
Accuracy        = 35
Reloading Skill = 15
Ammunition      = 10
Melee Attack    = 11
Charge Bonus    = 11
Defence         = 7
Morale          = 6

Trained by the Ottomans only.


--==Dragoons==--

"Despite appearances, dragoons are not really Cavalry but mounted line 
 infantry, riding into a battle then fighting on foot.

 Horses give mobility, not shock value in combat. Dragoons do not charge
 home, but ride to critical spots on the battlefield where infantry 
 firepower is needed. They carry smoothbore, muzzle-loading muskets with
 shortened barrels (to make reloading easier) originally called "dragons"
 or dragoons; over time, this name transferred to the men.

 Dragoons are also useful for riot control and civil suppression ("dragooning"
 is to bully people into a course of action). Their usefulness as infantry 
 and "cheap" Cavalry means that they can put down all kinds of trouble, as
 cutting down civilians is beneath the dignity of proper Cavalry regiments.

 Historically, dragoons slowly became Cavalry soldiers like any other, and
 stopped fighting as mounted infantry, although many regiments did retain
 the name. The Cavalry had always regarded them as (lower paid) social
 inferiors, and the infantry had resented them as not being proper 
 footsloggers, so the dragoons welcomed their new acceptability."

Regiment Size   = 60
Range           = 70
Accuracy        = 40
Reloading Skill = 10
Ammunition      = 10
Melee Attack    = 9
Charge Bonus    = 6
Defence         = 5
Morale          = 8

 * Can hide in woodlands
 * Garrison policing bonus

Hired by nearly all European powers.


--==East India Company Cavalry==--

"Recruited to fight in India, company Cavalry are mercenaries fighting for the
 greatest trading companies. 

 The officers and men in these units are European, not locals, even though 
 these regiments were raised in India. They are supposedly more reliable than
 native levies when defending European interests.

 Company Cavalry are equipped in European rathan than Indian fashion; they
 fight as light, sabre-armed cavalry. Their tasks include acting as scouts,
 screening the main body of an army, and pursuing fleeing enemies - taking a
 sabre to someone already running away is likely to keep him running! It is 
 not their main job to break enemy units or to fight other cavalry."

Regiment Size   = 45
Range           = 0
Accuracy        = 0
Reloading Skill = 0
Ammunition      = 0
Melee Attack    = 12
Charge Bonus    = 8
Defence         = 6
Morale          = 9

 * Can hide in woodlands
 * Resistant to heat fatigue

These troops are recruited in India by the British.


--==East India Company Lancers==--

"These cavalrymen armed with a long spear or lance that makes them 
 particularly deadly when charging.

 The lance is probably the oldest cavalry weapon. It gives the user a 
 chance to put all the momentium of himself and his charging horse into one
 very sharp point that can, in the hands of a skilled man, be driven through
 any man. That is what makes lances so intimidating to face but, if the
 lancer does not kill his target, he is then vulnerable. A long lance is a 
 good deal less use in a melee than a sword, and a lancer is at a  
 disadvantage once the close fighting starts.

 Historically, many nations used lancers, although the European fashion for
 them owes much to the ulhans, cavalry raised for Austrian and Prussian 
 service. The French adopted lancers with some enthusiasm, and Napoleon
 even included Polish lancers in his Imperial Guard. In India, the lance
 had long been used as a weapon, and lancer skills were often improved by 
 "pegging" (picking tent pegs out of the ground with the lance tip) or
 pig-sticking (hunting wild pigs or even wild dogs with the lance). Native
 Indian lancers were rightly feared by European troops."

Regiment Size   = 45
Range           = 0
Accuracy        = 0
Reloading Skill = 0
Ammunition      = 0
Melee Attack    = 10
Charge Bonus    = 19
Defence         = 4
Morale          = 9

 * Can hide in woodland
 * Resistant to heat fatigue

These troops were recruited in India by the British.


--==Elephant Musketeers==--

"These troops ride into battle on the back of elephants, beasts who very
 presence spreads terror throughout enemy ranks.

 Like many animals, elephants can be trained to ignore the sights, smells 
 and, above all, hellish noises of a battlefield. They can also be trained
 to fight, goring men with their tusks and trampling others underfoot. 
 Elephants make superb platforms for men to fight from, giving them an 
 automatic height benefit over many opponents. 

 There are risks to using elephants in warfare. They do panic, and if they
 stampede they will cause terrible damage to everyone, friends and foe
 alike. Indian elephants, however, are relatively tractable beasts, and 
 there is a long history of using them as beasts of burden.

 There is also a long history of using unusual animals in combat, from
 elephants to war dogs, and even seals and dolphins in more recent times. 
 Elephants at least stand a chance of survival, unlike the Russian mine
 dogs of the Second World War, who were trained to look for their dinners
 under enemy tanks. This doesn't sound too bad, until you learn that the
 dogs were carrying explosive packs on their backs. Dinner time on the 
 battlefield was always terminal for the dog and his target tank."

Regiment Size   = 30
Range           = 70
Accuracy        = 45
Reloading Skill = 25
Ammunition      = 20
Melee Attack    = 22
Charge Bonus    = 27
Defence         = 10
Morale          = 11

 * Scares horses
 * Scares enemies
 * Resistant to heat fatigue

Trained only by the Marathas


--==French East India Company Cavalry==--

"Recruited to fight in India, company Cavalry are mercenaries fighting for the
 greatest trading companies. 

 The officers and men in these units are European, not locals, even though 
 these regiments were raised in India. They are supposedly more reliable than
 native levies when defending European interests.

 Company Cavalry are equipped in European rathan than Indian fashion; they
 fight as light, sabre-armed cavalry. Their tasks include acting as scouts,
 screening the main body of an army, and pursuing fleeing enemies - taking a
 sabre to someone already running away is likely to keep him running! It is 
 not their main job to break enemy units or to fight other cavalry.

 By 1700, the great European trading companies were so huge they could afford
 armies of their own, seperate from the national army. The British East India
 Company, the Dutch "Vereenigde Oostindische Compagnie" (VOC) and the French
 "La Compagnie francaise des Indes orientales" all had armies, fleets and 
 forts in India and the far east. The Dutch felt it profitable to have one
 fifth of their employees in uniform, and the other companies were not far
 behind."

Regiment Size   = 45
Range           = 0
Accuracy        = 0
Reloading Skill = 0
Ammunition      = 0
Melee Attack    = 11
Charge Bonus    = 12
Defence         = 8
Morale          = 7

 * Can hide in woodlands
 * Resistant to heat fatigue

These troops are recruited in India by the French.


--==Garde a Cheval==--

"The Garde a Cheval are gentlemen of quality, hand picked from the best 
 families, who protect the monarch.

 The Garde a Cheval are a court regiment where appearance is just as 
 important as fighting prowess. The gentlemen of this unit (and they were 
 all gentlemen) are not the common sort of soldier, and they are not 
 respected by the rest of the army. Often, they are also unloved by the
 people too, as they stand with the monarch, and this can mean taking a 
 sabre to their own countrymen.

 Historically, from 1721 the Russian throne was protected by a mounted 
 guard regiment, a unit drawn almost exclusively from the nobility. Because
 of their duties and control of access to the Imperial family, the Garde
 a Cheval had significant political power. Although drawn from the 
 nobility, the original guards were not appointed for their military skills:
 as the bodyguards of the Empress Elizabeth, they were chosen for their
 other "endowments". The Empress had a roving eye, and a taste for handsome
 young men of good blood. A certain kind of stamina was also required! This
 kind of behaviour merely served to confirm the prejudices against Russians
 in the more refined (or so they liked to think) royal courts of Western
 Europe."

Regiment Size   = 45
Range           = 0
Accuracy        = 0
Reloading Skill = 0
Ammunition      = 0
Melee Attack    = 21
Charge Bonus    = 19
Defence         = 17
Morale          = 13

 * Inspires nearby units

Trained by the Russians after completing the Winter Palace. 


--==Garde du Corps==--

"The royal guard cavalrymen are all gentlemen, hand picked to protect the
 person of the sovereign.

 Royal guards are elite, but they are also a court regiment where appearance
 is as important as fighting ability. As gentlemen they are hardly expected
 to associate with the common sort of soldier, and this does not make them 
 popular or respected with the rest of the army. They are also often unloved
 by the general populace too, as they are the last line of defence for the
 royal family, and this may mean that they are sometimes required to turn 
 their swords on their countrymen to put down domestic trouble.

 Historically, perhaps the oddest sounding of the various royal guard
 cavalry regiments were the curiously named horse grenadier guards. Common 
 sense would seem to indicate that these men would only ever get to throw 
 their grenades once, before their horses took off at speeds towards all 
 points of the compass! In British service the Household Cavalry regiments
 did not, and do not, have sergeants: they have a rank "corporal of horse".
 The word "sergeant" has the same origins as "servant", and no gentleman, 
 even a private trooper, is ever a servant."

Regiment Size   = 45
Range           = 0
Accuracy        = 0
Reloading Skill = 0
Ammunition      = 0
Melee Attack    = 19
Charge Bonus    = 17
Defence         = 15
Morale          = 12

 * Inspires nearby units

This is a French and Dutch Guard unit.


--==Gendarmerie==--

"These locally recruited Cavalry are a valuable aid in keeping order.

 These light horsemen are often little more than mounted militia, but with
 a greater social standing. Cavalry always sees themselves as better than
 footsoldiers, but in this case, it may be true. It is, after all, not cheap
 to purchase and maintain a decent horse, and this means that men with 
 financial standing make up the majority of recruits.

 They are, however, not as disciplined as regular Cavalry, simply because
 they do not have the time or available resources to learn the craft of
 war as thoroughly. They are, however, extremely useful in policing the 
 rougher, lower orders and keeping the existing social structure intact.

 Historically, there are many examples of yeomanry or gendarmes turing 
 on their own citizenery with surprising and horrific violence. They were
 widely used against the anti-factory Luddites in northern England and,
 most infamously, were responsible for the Peterloo Massacre in 1819, when
 the Manchester and Salford Yeomanry charged a mostly peaceful, but excited
 crowd, and cut down many unarmed protesters."

Regiment Size   = 45
Range           = 0
Accuracy        = 0
Reloading Skill = 0
Ammunition      = 0
Melee Attack    = 10
Charge Bonus    = 7
Defence         = 5
Morale          = 7

 * Can hide in woodland

This is a predominately French, German unit.


--==General's Bodyguard==--

"These tough warriors and soldiers have only one task: keeping their commander
 alive and well in the swirling chaos of battle. 

 A general can only do his duty properly if these men keep rough and 
 unpleasant fellows from interrupting his calm deliberations about how to kill
 as many of the enemy as possible for as little loss as possible. 

 Only the most loyal and fiercest fighters are assigned to a general's 
 bodyguard. Good manners are a bonus, of course, but a strong sword arm and
 a deadly aim are more useful! Their general is especially of the finest 
 quality, and their pay is often supplemented from the general's own pocket: 
 they have a sound financial interest in keeping him alive, as well as their
 honour in carrying out a duty successfully!"

Regiment Size   = 24
Range           = 0
Accuracy        = 0
Reloading Skill = 0
Ammunition      = 0
Melee Attack    = 15
Charge Bonus    = 12
Defence         = 11
Morale          = 14

 * Can rally routing comrades
 * Inspires nearby units

You need to promote a unit to General for this unit to appear. 


--==Guardia de Corps==--

"The royal guard cavalrymen are all gentlemen, hand picked to protect the
 person of the sovereign.

 Royal guards are elite, but they are also a court regiment where appearance
 is as important as fighting ability. As gentlemen they are hardly expected
 to associate with the common sort of soldier, and this does not make them 
 popular or respected with the rest of the army. They are also often unloved
 by the general populace too, as they are the last line of defence for the
 royal family, and this may mean that they are sometimes required to turn 
 their swords on their countrymen to put down domestic trouble.

 Historically, perhaps the oddest sounding of the various royal guard
 cavalry regiments were the curiously named horse grenadier guards. Common 
 sense would seem to indicate that these men would only ever get to throw 
 their grenades once, before their horses took off at speeds towards all 
 points of the compass! In British service the Household Cavalry regiments
 did not, and do not, have sergeants: they have a rank "corporal of horse".
 The word "sergeant" has the same origins as "servant", and no gentleman, 
 even a private trooper, is ever a servant."

Regiment Size   = 45
Range           = 0
Accuracy        = 0
Reloading Skill = 0
Ammunition      = 0
Melee Attack    = 19
Charge Bonus    = 17
Defence         = 15
Morale          = 12

 * Inspires nearby units

Trained only by the Spanish.


--==Hakkapeliita==--

"Light cavalry are used to screen an army and act as its eyes and ears; they
 can also pursue fleeing enemies and keep them from regrouping.

 These horsemenhave many national titles, and military fashion plays a huge
 part in their employment and naming; light horse, chasseurs a cheval, 
 chevau-legers, even hussars and dragoons are used as titles by light 
 cavalry forces. Regardless of the name, their purpose, tactics and equipment
 usually have much in common. They disdain armour, even the sensible steel 
 skull caps favoured by many beneath their offically sanctioned tricornes and 
 helmets. They carry swords, carbines and pistols, but they are not expected
 to charge home, merely harass and pursue enemies. Their horses are always
 fast with good endurance, well bred and well looked after; a cavalryman
 without his horse is, after all, useless.

 Traditionally, light cavalry forces also undertook the role of communications
 for an army. Their speedy horses made them ideal for carrying messages 
 between camps, or as gallopers on the battlefield. They were also among the
 most "dandified" of soldiers, and light cavalry uniforms of the period are
 some of the gaudiest ever created. This made recruitment easdy, because
 prospective troopers could see what a dashing figure they would cut for the
 ladies!"

Regiment Size   = 45
Range           = 0
Accuracy        = 0
Reloading Skill = 0
Ammunition      = 0
Melee Attack    = 9
Charge Bonus    = 13
Defence         = 11
Morale          = 6

 * Can hide in woodland
 * Good stamina
 * Resistant to cold fatigue

Trained only by the Swdes.


--==Heavy Cavalry==--

"These cavalrymen see themselves as elite. It is their job to smash into enemy
 units and destroy them utterly.

 Heavy cavalry are so called to distinguish them from the light cavalry 
 forces. It was not the job of heavy cavalry to pursue enemies. It is their
 lot to use their speed and weight directly against enemies, battering them
 into breaking by shock of impact. To this end, they are usually armed with
 fearsome heavy swords that are quite capable of skewering a man or carving
 him in two. This role often means that heavy cavalry are held as a reserve
 by a wise general, so that they can be used to batter a hole in a critically
 weakened point of an enemy line.

 Historically, there was debate during the period about the purpose of 
 cavalry forces. Some generals favoured having their men close with the enemy
 and use "cold steel" of its terrifying morale impact. Britain's John 
 Churchill favoured this approach, keeping his men short of ammunition while
 on campaign so that they weren't tempted to use any bullets in battle! The
 other school of thought, naturally enough, favoured using cavalry firepower
 to break enemy formations. Heavy cavalry did, therefore carry carbines and 
 pistols, depending on the army they served in."

Regiment Size   = 45
Range           = 0
Accuracy        = 0
Reloading Skill = 0
Ammunition      = 0
Melee Attack    = 15
Charge Bonus    = 13
Defence         = 10
Morale          = 12

Hired by the British and the Swedes.


--==Horse Guards==--

"Horse Guards are an elite heavy cavalry unit, with a fierce reputation and
 deadly sabres. 

 It is the task of the heavy cavalry to break the enemy by shock. Simply put,
 the Horse Guards are expected to charge home and smash enemy ranks by 
 weight and speed. They are not for chasing down enemies: this is the work
 of light cavalry forces. Instead, they are a battering ram, hurled over short
 distances against close-formed enemies in the hope of producing a  
 breakthrough and further confusion. These highly trained cavalrymen lend a 
 further touch of class, thanks to the role as part of the royal household
 guard, to the brutal business of a cavalry charge.

 Historically, the Horse Guards remain a feature of the British Army although
 they now use tanks. Their name is attached to Horse Guards and Horse Guards
 Parade. This building complex was designed by William Kent and completed in
 1755 and are still used by the Household Cavalry. Horse Guards Parade is the
 setting for "Trooping of the Colour", a practice that dates back to the 17th
 Century. A regiment's colours (or flags)were a rallying point in battle and
 so they were shown to the soldiers so that they would be recognised in 
 battle. Today, the ceremony is used to celebrate the offical birthday of the
 ruling monarch; at the time of writing Queen Elizabeth attends every year
 and takes the salute at the end of the parade."

Regiment Size   = 45
Range           = 0
Accuracy        = 0
Reloading Skill = 0
Ammunition      = 0
Melee Attack    = 21
Charge Bonus    = 19
Defence         = 13
Morale          = 13

* Inspires nearby units

Hired only by the British and Dutch

**Requires Elite Units of the West Downloadable Content**


--==Household Cavalry==--

"The royal guard cavalrymen are all gentlemen, hand picked to protect the
 person of the sovereign.

 Royal guards are elite, but they are also a court regiment where appearance
 is as important as fighting ability. As gentlemen they are hardly expected
 to associate with the common sort of soldier, and this does not make them 
 popular or respected with the rest of the army. They are also often unloved
 by the general populace too, as they are the last line of defence for the
 royal family, and this may mean that they are sometimes required to turn 
 their swords on their countrymen to put down domestic trouble.

 Historically, perhaps the oddest sounding of the various royal guard
 cavalry regiments were the curiously named horse grenadier guards. Common 
 sense would seem to indicate that these men would only ever get to throw 
 their grenades once, before their horses took off at speeds towards all 
 points of the compass! In British service the Household Cavalry regiments
 did not, and do not, have sergeants: they have a rank "corporal of horse".
 The word "sergeant" has the same origins as "servant", and no gentleman, 
 even a private trooper, is ever a servant."

Regiment Size   = 45
Range           = 0
Accuracy        = 0
Reloading Skill = 0
Ammunition      = 0
Melee Attack    = 19
Charge Bonus    = 17
Defence         = 15
Morale          = 12

 * Inspires nearby units

Available to most European powers as elite Cavalry.


--==Hungarian Hussars==--

"Hussars are light cavalry, used to skirmish and for scouting ahead of an
 army.

 Like other light cavalrymen, hussars have speed, "dash" and an elitish
 attitude towards ememies. Hungarian Hussars are, without exception, 
 superb equestrians, as might be expected for a Magyar force. Their
 organisational origin as irregular forces (reputedly recrtuied from 
 among brigands) gives them a certain independence of spirit, something
 that aids them in reconnissance work. They carry a curved sabre and a
 muzzle-loading smoothbore carbine. this is a smaller calibre weapon than
 an infantry musket, the "sawn off" length of carbines being a late 
 development to make reloading on horseback an easier exercise.

 Austria had raised units of irregular Magyar horseback called "huszarok"
 in the mid-15th Century, and they had fought bravely for Matthias 
 Corvinus, the King of Hungary and Croatia and Duke of Austria, but it 
 was not until the 1680s that regular hussar regiments were formed. Having
 proved their utility in Austrian service, other nations soon added hussars
 to their own armies - and enthusiastically adapted hussar uniforms as a
 fashion statement for cavalrymen. In some armies, hussar uniforms grew ever
 so gaudy, exaggerated and, frankly, needlessly suggestive in the cut of
 the very tight breeches! The cavalrymen didn't mind that they were being 
 dressed up like peacocks, as a splendid uniform was always useful in 
 attracting the ladies!"

Regiment Size   = 45
Range           = 0
Accuracy        = 0
Reloading Skill = 0
Ammunition      = 0
Melee Attack    = 11
Charge Bonus    = 15
Defence         = 8
Morale          = 6

 * Can hide in woodland
 * Paths seldom trod
 * Good stamina

Available only to the Austrians in Hungary Province


--==Hussars==--

"Hussars are light cavalry, used to skirmish and for scouting ahead of an
 army.

 Like other light cavalrymen, hussars have speed, "dash" and an elitish
 attitude towards ememies. Hungarian Hussars are, without exception, 
 superb equestrians, as might be expected for a Magyar force. Their
 organisational origin as irregular forces (reputedly recrtuied from 
 among brigands) gives them a certain independence of spirit, something
 that aids them in reconnissance work. They carry a curved sabre and a
 muzzle-loading smoothbore carbine. this is a smaller calibre weapon than
 an infantry musket, the "sawn off" length of carbines being a late 
 development to make reloading on horseback an easier exercise.

 Austria had raised units of irregular Magyar horseback called "huszarok"
 in the mid-15th Century, and they had fought bravely for Matthias 
 Corvinus, the King of Hungary and Croatia and Duke of Austria, but it 
 was not until the 1680s that regular hussar regiments were formed. Having
 proved their utility in Austrian service, other nations soon added hussars
 to their own armies - and enthusiastically adapted hussar uniforms as a
 fashion statement for cavalrymen. In some armies, hussar uniforms grew ever
 so gaudy, exaggerated and, frankly, needlessly suggestive in the cut of
 the very tight breeches! The cavalrymen didn't mind that they were being 
 dressed up like peacocks, as a splendid uniform was always useful in 
 attracting the ladies!"

Regiment Size   = 45
Range           = 0
Accuracy        = 0
Reloading Skill = 0
Ammunition      = 0
Melee Attack    = 9
Charge Bonus    = 13
Defence         = 6
Morale          = 6

 * Can hide in woodland
 * Paths seldom trod
 * Good stamina

Hired by the Dutch and Prussians only.


--==Kalmuks==--

"These light cavalrymen are superb horsemen, expert in skirmishing and 
 harassing an enemy.

 There is a long tradition on the steppes of fighting from horseback. 
 Children are put in the saddle before they can walk, and this makes them
 almost part of the horse. In previous centuries, accurately firing a bow
 while riding at speed requires a man who has expectional ability with both
 weapon and a horse. Steppe warriors can control their horses using their
 knees, and without the need to hold the reins they can use weapons easily
 and well. Their tactics has always involved galloping up to a slower 
 enemy, delivering a devastating volley, and then riding away again. This 
 way of warfare has survived in the era of pistols and muskets, although
 most steppe warriors carry numerous weapons (if they can) to avoid reloading
 in the heat of battle.

 Historically, all the eastern nations had an ambiguous relationship with the
 steppe people. They both feared them and wanted their services. This allowed
 the more cunning steppe tribes to keep a measure of automony when other
 "natives" were being ruthlessly crushed."

Regiment Size   = 45
Range           = 100
Accuracy        = 20
Reloading Skill = 5
Ammunition      = 20
Melee Attack    = 7
Charge Bonus    = 9
Defence         = 4
Morale          = 3

Trained by the Russians only, similar to Tatars.


--==Lancers==--

"These mounted men carry long lances capable of causing significant damage
 to enemy.

 The horsemenship of many Native Americans is unparalleled. Able to wield 
 any number of weapons on horseback, they are formidable foes. Perhaps their
 most deadly weapon from horseback is the lance. Often decorated with items
 to commemorate courageous acts performed by a warrior, eagle feathers 
 traditionally mark a particularly ferocious man. 

 The traditional lance used for hunting was found to be far too long for 
 use in warfare, and a much shorter version was developed. The materials 
 used to make a lance would depend on the areas a tribe inhabited, but the
 "business end" was made from flint, a material far sharper tha many more
 "civilized" materials."

Regiment Size   = 45
Range           = 0
Accuracy        = 0
Reloading Skill = 0
Ammunition      = 0
Melee Attack    = 5
Charge Bonus    = 24
Defence         = 2
Morale          = 4

 * Can hide in woodland
 * Paths seldom trod
 * Resistant to heat fatigue
 * Resistant to cold fatigue

Trained by all Native tribes.

**Requires The Warpath Downloadable Content**


--==Lee's Legion==--

"Speed and agility, coupled with the ability to fight on horseback or on 
 foot, makes these men very useful in a fight.

 Fast moving and highly skilled, these men are are truly skilled horsemen.
 They do not fire their carbines whilst mounted, however, preferring to
 ride men down and dispatch them with cold steel. These impressive 
 collection of skills make them ideal for use against artillery and 
 skirmishers. However, should they find themselves facing well-disciplined
 line infantry, formed in square, their weakness would swiftly become
 evident.

 Lee's Legion was commanded by Henry "Light Horse" Lee, the father of famed
 Confederate general Robert E. Lee. Henry Lee's first commission was as 
 Captain of the Virginia Light Dragoons. During his time as a captain he
 caught the eye of Washington while leading a series of successful raids on
 enemy supply trains. At Paulus Hook, New Jersey, he increased his renown
 by taking 400 British soldiers prisoner with the loss of only one of his
 cavalrymen. This action earned him a gold medal, an honour usually 
 reserved for only men of general's rank."

Regiment Size   = 60
Range           = 70
Accuracy        = 40
Reloading Skill = 25
Ammunition      = 15
Melee Attack    = 9
Charge Bonus    = 12
Defence         = 6
Morale          = 8

 * Can hide in woodland
 * Garrison policing bonus

Only available to the US in the any province

**Requests Elite Units of America Downloadable Content**


--==Libyan Kuloglu==--

"Libyan kuloglu are auxiliary cavalry, capable of dismounting to deliver a
 devastating volley with their blunderbusses.

 They also carry sabres, which can be used when in the saddle, giving the
 ability to fight well in melee. Unlike some other Turkish and Ottoman
 troops, they do not wear armour. Their blunderbusses are large-bore 
 flintlock weapons, much like giant shotguns, and cannot be used from 
 horseback. They have a very short range but a blast from one, let alone
 a volley from a whole unit, is terrible. This weapon makes the kuloglu
 a superb attacking force, if they can get within range of the target. They
 suffer when facing troops with longer-ranged muskets or rifles.

 Historically, the Kuloglu were recruited from the sons of ethnic Turkish
 janissaries and local, Libyan women. These men are specifically excluded
 from joining the ranks of the prestigous janissaries, proving their worth
 by fighting with bravery and discipline - particularly during the American
 attack on Tripoli. Indeed, the kuloglu who behaved in a cowardly way were
 made to dress as women until they redeemed themselves through acts of 
 not-quite-suicidal bravery, or died in the attempt. This, however, was
 mild compared to what was done to any who "abused" young prisoners taken
 in battle: the offender was beheaded or beaten 100 times with a stout cane,
 something that was surely a protracted death sentence!"

Regiment Size   = 60
Range           = 0
Accuracy        = 0
Reloading Skill = 0
Ammunition      = 15
Melee Attack    = 10
Charge Bonus    = 11
Defence         = 8
Morale          = 7

 * Can dismount
 * Can hide in woodland
 * Garrison policing bonus

Available only to the Ottomans in the Egypt Province

**Requires Elite Units of the East Downloadable Content**


--==Life Guards==--

"The royal guard cavalrymen are all gentlemen, hand picked to protect the
 person of the sovereign.

 Royal guards are elite, but they are also a court regiment where appearance
 is as important as fighting ability. As gentlemen they are hardly expected
 to associate with the common sort of soldier, and this does not make them 
 popular or respected with the rest of the army. They are also often unloved
 by the general populace too, as they are the last line of defence for the
 royal family, and this may mean that they are sometimes required to turn 
 their swords on their countrymen to put down domestic trouble.

 Historically, perhaps the oddest sounding of the various royal guard
 cavalry regiments were the curiously named horse grenadier guards. Common 
 sense would seem to indicate that these men would only ever get to throw 
 their grenades once, before their horses took off at speeds towards all 
 points of the compass! In British service the Household Cavalry regiments
 did not, and do not, have sergeants: they have a rank "corporal of horse".
 The word "sergeant" has the same origins as "servant", and no gentleman, 
 even a private trooper, is ever a servant."

Regiment Size   = 45
Range           = 0
Accuracy        = 0
Reloading Skill = 0
Ammunition      = 0
Melee Attack    = 17
Charge Bonus    = 13
Defence         = 10
Morale          = 16

 * Inspires nearby units

The Guard unit of several nations. 


--==Life Guards of Horse==--

"The royal guard cavalrymen are all gentlemen, hand picked to protect the
 person of the sovereign.

 Royal guards are elite, but they are also a court regiment where appearance
 is as important as fighting ability. As gentlemen they are hardly expected
 to associate with the common sort of soldier, and this does not make them 
 popular or respected with the rest of the army. They are also often unloved
 by the general populace too, as they are the last line of defence for the
 royal family, and this may mean that they are sometimes required to turn 
 their swords on their countrymen to put down domestic trouble.

 Historically, perhaps the oddest sounding of the various royal guard
 cavalry regiments were the curiously named horse grenadier guards. Common 
 sense would seem to indicate that these men would only ever get to throw 
 their grenades once, before their horses took off at speeds towards all 
 points of the compass! In British service the Household Cavalry regiments
 did not, and do not, have sergeants: they have a rank "corporal of horse".
 The word "sergeant" has the same origins as "servant", and no gentleman, 
 even a private trooper, is ever a servant."

Regiment Size   = 45
Range           = 0
Accuracy        = 0
Reloading Skill = 0
Ammunition      = 0
Melee Attack    = 19
Charge Bonus    = 17
Defence         = 15
Morale          = 12

 * Inspires nearby units

Trained by the Swedes. 


--==Light Dragoon==--

"Light dragoons are mounted skirmishers, riding to a fight then engaging the
 enemy on foot.

 Their horses are for mobility, not for any shock value in battle and are 
 often little better than nags and ponies, rather than decent warhorses. In
 battle, this is unimportant as light dragoons dismount and form a skirmish
 line to harass an enemy and screen the main body of their own army.

 The main weapon carried is a shortened musket, originally termed a "dragon"
 or dragoon (like "rifle", the term came to be applied to the man carrying
 the gun). This is not an accurate weapon, but is no worse than any other
 smoothbore.

 Light dragoons are also useful in suppressing riotous and rebellious 
 civilians. Their horses give them strategic mobility, allowing them to 
 police large areas effectively and come to the aid of the local authorities.

 Historically, dragoons lost their role as mounted infantry over the course
 of the 18th Century, and became another kind of light cavalry, although
 they retained the name. The officers and men welcomed the change to a 
 role that had a higher social status (and usually better pay rates.)"

Regiment Size   = 60
Range           = 70
Accuracy        = 45
Reloading Skill = 10
Ammunition      = 15
Melee Attack    = 11
Charge Bonus    = 7
Defence         = 6
Morale          = 10

 * Can skirmish
 * Can hide in woodland
 * Garrison policing bonus
 * Good stamina

Hired by most European powers.


--==Mamelukes==--

"Mamluks are fearless light horsemen, deadly when deployed against a broken or
 unsupported enemy.

 Mounted on tireless light horses and armed with scimitars, they are commonly
 employed to harass an enemy force, restricting its space to manoeuvre easily.
 Once battle is fully joined, they will often time their charges to coincide 
 with those of a supporting infantry unit, seeking to break the enemy quickly
 then wreaking havoc amongst them as they flee.

 Mamluks were traditionally slave soldiers of the various caliphs and sultans
 of the Middle Ages, captured as children and raised in the Islamic faith to
 provide their master with a force of men unconnected to any other part of the
 hierarchy. Over time, the Mamluks accured power of their own and even went
 as far as seizing control of Egypt; they founded a Mamluk Sultanate in 1250. 
 Though the Mamluk's strength enabled the Sultanate to repel several invasions
 by Christian crusaders and Mongols, it was eventually overpowered by the
 Ottoman Empire in 1517. The Mamluks so came into the service of the Sublime
 Porte."

Regiment Size   = 45
Range           = 0
Accuracy        = 0
Reloading Skill = 0
Ammunition      = 0
Melee Attack    = 11
Charge Bonus    = 15
Defence         = 10
Morale          = 6

 * Can hide in woodland
 * Good stamina
 * Resistant to heat fatigue

Hired by the Ottomans only.


--==Mounted Nizam I Cedit==--

"These mounted infantry ride into battle before delivering volleys of fire,
 but can fight on horseback if needed.

 They are armed with muskets, which are used dismounted in the manner of 
 European-style dragoons, and fight with sabres when they attack while 
 mounted. In either role, they are not quite as effective or efficient as 
 properly specialised soldiers, but their flexibility that they give a 
 commander in their use more than makes up for this lack. They should not 
 be used as shock cavalry, but can prove useful as pursuit forces, or for
 riding down disorganised opposition.

 Historically, the nizam-i-cedit were a "new model" army that used western
 European military doctrine and practices. The janissary corps vigorously
 opposed these foreign ideas, because they diminished warriors by expecting
 them to fight as parts in a machine rather than show individual bravery. 
 This was not the right way to conduct wars, or for righteous men to act. 
 The rest of the Ottoman army rather resented the nizam-i-cedit and the
 modernity they represented. After the new model corps was created, the 
 second regiment, or orta, of nezim-i-cedit was trained and equipped to
 operate as mounted infnatry rather than line infantry. This was a practical
 way of increasing mobility on and off the battlefield, and one that  
 copied the original concepts of dragoons."

Regiment Size   = 60
Range           = 0
Accuracy        = 0
Reloading Skill = 0
Ammunition      = 15
Melee Attack    = 6
Charge Bonus    = 9
Defence         = 6
Morale          = 7

 * Can dismount
 * Can hide in woodland
 * Garrison policing bonus

Recruited only by the Ottomans

**Requires Elite Units of the East Downloadable Content**


--==Mounted Tribal Auxiliary==--

"These tribesmen are willing to fight for European gold, and a musket apiece.

 A musket is a status symbol among the tribes, even though it is not as useful
 in a fight as an old-fashioned and reliable bow. It is, however, a mark of
 personal bravery that a warrior has taken on in battle, or been considered 
 worthy enough to have been given one of the precious weapons. These men are 
 the most irregular of forces, unwilling to take formal army discipline, yet
 willing to fight like men possessed when the need arises.

 In the early days of European settlement, the Native American were happy to
 work with the various foreign powers that colonised America, even forming 
 alliances against their neighbours and other Europeans. The tribes soon 
 became involved in trade, fought wars because of the allegiances they forged,
 and were forced into new alliances as old tribal enemies took up with 
 Europeans."

Regiment Size   = 45
Range           = 70
Accuracy        = 35
Reloading Skill = 5
Ammunition      = 15
Melee Attack    = 9
Charge Bonus    = 7
Defence         = 4
Morale          = 8

 * Can skirmish
 * Can hide in woodland
 * Can hide in light scrub
 * Paths seldom trod
 * Good stamina
 * Resistant to heat fatigue

Recruited in North America. 


--==Mounted Tribal Gunners==--

"These warriors are experienced in the use of European firearms.

 A musket is a status symbol among the tribes, even though it is not as 
 practical or reliable as a hunting bow. A musket does, however, have a 
 greater killing power and range than a bow. Warrior tactics in battle 
 closely resemble those of European skirmishers, moving as small groups
 and firing as individuals. Massed volleys are almost unknown. 

 Historically, the tribes used whatever smoothbore muskets they could 
 obtain by trade, thefy or conquest. It was highly unlikely that any two
 guns would bear more than a passing similarity, unless the tribe had 
 managed to ambush and defeat a European military unit."

Regiment Size   = 45
Range           = 70
Accuracy        = 35
Reloading Skill = 20
Ammunition      = 20
Melee Attack    = 8
Charge Bonus    = 7
Defence         = 4
Morale          = 6

 * Can skirmish
 * Can hide in woodland
 * Can hide in light scrub
 * Paths seldom trod
 * Good stamina
 * Resistant to heat fatigue
 * Resistant to cold fatigue

Trained only by the Native tribes.

**Requires The Warpaths Downloadable Content**


--==Native American Lancers==--

"These mounted men carry long lances capable of causing significant damage
 to enemy.

 The horsemenship of many Native Americans is unparalleled. Able to wield 
 any number of weapons on horseback, they are formidable foes. Perhaps their
 most deadly weapon from horseback is the lance. Often decorated with items
 to commemorate courageous acts performed by a warrior, eagle feathers mark 
 a particularly ferocious man.

 The traditional lance used for hunting was found to be far too long for
 use in warfare, and a much shorter version was developed. The materials used
 to make a lance would depend on the area a tribe inhabited, but the "business
 end" was made from flint, a material far sharper than many more "civilised"
 materials."

Regiment Size   = 60
Range           = 0
Accuracy        = 0
Reloading Skill = 0
Ammunition      = 0
Melee Attack    = 5
Charge Bonus    = 24
Defence         = 2
Morale          = 3

 * Can hide in woodland
 * Paths seldom trod
 * Resistant of heat fatigue

Available only to tribes.


--==Native Indian Cavalry==--

"Sipahis are superb horsemen and their ornate lances are deadly when brought 
 to bear at the charge.

 Though prematurely abandoned by many European armies, the lance remains a
 formidable weapon when used at the charge, concentrating the weight of horse
 and rider into a single needle-sharp point. The lance has retained its 
 popularity in India, a centre of excellence with the weapon.

 The term "sipahi" has its roots in ancient Persian where it means simply
 "army". In common with cavalry formations the world over, sipahis have an
 air of high status and their elaborate arms, mounts and armour underline 
 the fact that they are not mere foot-sluggers. A general who can call on
 their knows that once a battle is joined, the shock of their charge, 
 skilfully applied, can swiftly destroy all but the most resolute and
 dipciplined army."

Regiment Size   = 45
Range           = 0
Accuracy        = 0
Reloading Skill = 0
Ammunition      = 0
Melee Attack    = 10
Charge Bonus    = 18
Defence         = 4
Morale          = 9

 * Can hide in woodland
 * Resistant to heat fatigue

Recruited in India. 


--==Navajo Scout Warriors==--

"These warriors have honed their archery and horsemanship over years of
 riding.

 As a result, these men are horse archers almost without peer, well able
 to use any ground to full effect. Even superior firepower may be of 
 little use against them, as they have the speed to attack and then pull
 out of range before it can be brought to bear.

 Raiding has always been an important, even natural, part of the Navajo
 economy. This made many enemies for the Navajo among other tribes as
 well as European settlers.

 After many years of Navajo raids, counter-raids and treaties, the United
 States government demanded the surrender of the Navajo. It was the 
 adoption of a scorched-earth policy that starved the Navajo out of their
 homelands. In January 1864, many Navajos started what became known as
 the Long Walk, a journey to Fort Sumner. The overcroweded reservation
 contained ten thousand people inhabiting an area meant for five hundred.
 Four hundred of those were Mescalero Apaches, rivals of the Navajo.
 The Navajos were eventually allowed to return home, in 1868, finally
 completing their Long Walk."

Regiment Size   = 45
Range           = 70
Accuracy        = 30
Reloading Skill = 30
Ammunition      = 20
Melee Attack    = 10
Charge Bonus    = 9
Defence         = 7
Morale          = 8

 * Can skirmish
 * Can hide in woodland
 * Can hide in light scrub
 * Paths seldom trod
 * Good stamina
 * Resistant to heat fatigue

Trained only by the Pueblo Nations

**Requires The Warpath Downloadable Content**


--==Ojibwa Horse Warriors==--

"These powerful cavalry warriors combine mobility with hand-to-hand combat
 skills.

 The Ojibwa Horse Warriors' manoeuvrability makes it possible for them 
 to cover large distances quickly and bear down on enemy threats beyond
 other units' range. Wielding bows and tomahawks, the Ojibwa bombard foes
 with an assault that is both swift and terrible. They are an excellent
 force to counter skirmishers.

 Historically, the Ojibwa were friendly with the French and fought 
 alongside them against the British during the French-Indian Wars. 
 Unfortunately, the Ojibwa had to deal with the British victors when the
 war was over. Rather than learning the good relationships the French
 had built up, the British discouraged any camaraderoe and ceased the 
 annual tradition of gifts to the tribes. This provoked Pontiac's
 Rebellion, an uprising consisting to many tribes, including Ojibwa, 
 under the Ottawa leader Pontiac."

Regiment Size   = 45
Range           = 70
Accuracy        = 40
Reloading Skill = 20
Ammunition      = 20
Melee Attack    = 10
Charge Bonus    = 9
Defence         = 9
Morale          = 8

 * Can skirmish
 * Can hide in woodland
 * Can hide in light scrub
 * Paths seldom trod
 * Good stamina
 * Resistant to heat fatigue

Trained only by the Huron-Wyandot tribe.

**Requires The Warpath Downloadable Content**


--==Onondaga Fire Keepers==--

"These heavy cavalry are adept at harassing enemy troops with missile
 fire.

 The Fire Keepers are hardened warriors, honoured by the Iroquois. 
 Thundering into battle armed with muskets and tomahawks, the Onondaga
 are useful for quickly reinforcing isolated units and taking on 
 troublesome skirmishers. The fires of war burn bright in their souls
 and bellies!

 As the Fire Keepers of the Iroquoid Confederacy, the Onondaga were 
 responsible for gathering the Grand Council of the Iroquois. They opened
 and closed the councils, and sanctioned the decisions arrived at by
 the Council chiefs. The Onondaga were also Keepers of the Wampum: the  
 Wampum belts were historical records of the Iroquois' traditions, rituals
 and events. Onondaga remains the capital of the Iroquois Confederacy to 
 this day."

Regiment Size   = 45
Range           = 70
Accuracy        = 45
Reloading Skill = 40
Ammunition      = 20
Melee Attack    = 12
Charge Bonus    = 11
Defence         = 10
Morale          = 10

 * Can skirmish
 * Can hide in woodland
 * Can hide in light scrub
 * Paths seldom trod
 * Good stamina
 * Resistant to heat fatigue
 * Resistant to cold fatigue

These are only recruited by the Iroquois.

**Requires The Warpaths Downloadable Content**


--==Pindari Horsemen==--

"These unruly bands of sabre-armed cavalry have a cruel reputation, and are
 experts in ambushes and skirmishing.

 The Pindari are irregular force of men from many lands and social classes,
 united only by the fact that they are all Pindari. With an elected leadership
 and a distain for military convention, they are not an easy force to control, 
 but allowed to do a little looting, they can be a useful force of 
 skirmishers.

 Originally attached to the Marathas armies, these men were forced to turn 
 to banditry for any kind of proper income. Not surprisingly, this proved to
 be more profitable and safer than large scale battle. and the Pindari have
 specialised in raiding ever since. If they must fight, though, they will, and
 with considerable skill."

Regiment Size   = 45
Range           = 70
Accuracy        = 25
Reloading Skill = 10
Ammunition      = 10
Melee Attack    = 9
Charge Bonus    = 10
Defence         = 6
Morale          = 4

 * Can hide in woodland
 * Can hide in light scrub
 * Paths seldom trod
 * Good stamina
 * Resistant to heat fatigue

Trained only by the Marathas. 


--==Pioneer Raiders==--

"These irregular cavalry are a rabble, not a military force, but they are 
 hardy, brutal individuals, well able to fight for hearth and home. 

 These men are armed with carbines, and dead-eye shots, well used to 
 using firearms to feed their kinfolk. They are equally adept at hunting 
 men, both criminals and enemies. They can fight from horseback, or dismount
 and fight just as well as an ill-trained but courageous dragoon militia 
 force. The ability to cover the terrain quickly and then fight as best 
 suits the ground makes them a relatively formidable threat. 

 The pioneers are almost forced to fight as dragoons of a sort rather than
 a proper cavalry force because of their available forces. Cavalry horses
 are expensive, highly trained and rare beasts on the frontier. A pioneer
 can, in moments of need, throw a blanket and saddle on his plough horse
 and ride it into battle. Of course, the loss of a horse is greater than 
 just the loss of a transport. It can also mean starvation for a family
 as land goes unplugged or crops rot in the field because they cannot be
 harvested."

Regiment Size   = 45
Range           = 70
Accuracy        = 25
Reloading Skill = 15
Ammunition      = 20
Melee Attack    = 7
Charge Bonus    = 9
Defence         = 4
Morale          = 6

 * Can dismount
 * Can skirmish
 * Can hide in woodland
 * Good stamina

Trained only by the United States


--==Poligar==--

"Poligars are unusual: elite light cavalry who wear armour. Despite the
 extra weight, they are still a terrifying swift force on the 
 battlefield.

 They generally wear helmets and cuirasses, often of the highest quality;
 Indian weapon makers need acknowledge few equals. They carry swords, and
 have skill enough to use them well in melee. Poligars also have the speed 
 to ride down light troops such as skirmishers, and to pursue broken enemies. 
 They should not be thrown away attacking disciplined infantry in square:
 they require luck to break such a target.

 Light cavalry were a fixed tradition of war in India, romanticised for
 their bravery and freebooting ways. Horsemanship was a prized and honoured
 skill throughout Indian society, as was fighting prowess. To make the most
 of both, Indian craftsmen produced some fascinating weapons, many of which
 are still in use in the 18th Century. The "patta", for example, was a 
 gauntlet-sword: a blade built into an armoured glove, making it almost 
 impossible for the user to be disarmed, other than by being literally 
 "disarmed" or maimed. It had a horizontal grip like an Indian punch-dagger,
 something that looked like a Chicago gangster's brass knuckles crossed 
 with a razor-sharp triangular knife."

Regiment Size   = 45
Range           = 0
Accuracy        = 0
Reloading Skill = 0
Ammunition      = 0
Melee Attack    = 11
Charge Bonus    = 15
Defence         = 13
Morale          = 9

 * Can hide in woodland
 * Can hide in light scrub
 * Paths seldom trod
 * Good stamina
 * Resistant to heat fatigue

Trained only by the Marathas

**Requires Elite Units of the East Downloadable Content**


--==Provincial Cavalry==--

"These locally recruited Cavalry are a valuable aid in keeping order.

 These light horsemen are often little more than mounted militia, but with
 a greater social standing. Cavalry always sees themselves as better than
 footsoldiers, but in this case, it may be true. It is, after all, not cheap
 to purchase and maintain a decent horse, and this means that men with 
 financial standing make up the majority of recruits.

 They are, however, not as disciplined as regular Cavalry, simply because
 they do not have the time or available resources to learn the craft of
 war as thoroughly. They are, however, extremely useful in policing the 
 rougher, lower orders and keeping the existing social structure intact.

 Historically, there are many examples of yeomanry or gendarmes turing 
 on their own citizenery with surprising and horrific violence. They were
 widely used against the anti-factory Luddites in northern England and,
 most infamously, were responsible for the Peterloo Massacre in 1819, when
 the Manchester and Salford Yeomanry charged a mostly peaceful, but excited
 crowd, and cut down many unarmed protesters."

Regiment Size   = 45
Range           = 0
Accuracy        = 0
Reloading Skill = 0
Ammunition      = 0
Melee Attack    = 9
Charge Bonus    = 11
Defence         = 5
Morale          = 5

 * Can hide in woodland

Hired as basic cavalry in your provinces.


--==Pulaski's Legion==--

"A combination of speed and a powerful charge makes these mounted troops 
 exceptional shock cavalry.

 These cavalrymen, armed with lances, have a devastating charge, which is
 especially effective against enemy line infantry. Pulaski's Legion is best
 employed to rush and break the enemy line, and then it should be pulled
 back for another charge before the enemy regains their senses. Despite 
 their great initial attack, a wise commander will avoid leaving them in
 melee, as they are extremely vulnerable to prolonged close-combat.

 Pulaski's Legion was created by a Pole, Casmir Pulaski. He was forced to
 flee Poland after being implicated in a plot to kill the King; it was 
 during is exile in Paris that Pulaski met Benjamin Franklin. Franklin
 convinced him to aid the emerging American army against the British and
 Pulaski joined Washington's army just before the battle of Brandywine. 
 During the battle he led a scouting missing that discovered the British
 flanking movement. This act alone earned him the position of brigadier
 general of the American cavalry."

Regiment Size   = 45
Range           = 0
Accuracy        = 0
Reloading Skill = 0
Ammunition      = 0
Melee Attack    = 9
Charge Bonus    = 25
Defence         = 7
Morale          = 8

 * Can hide in woodland

Only available to the US in the province of Virginia

**Requires Elite Units of America Downloadable Content**


--==Rajput Zamindar==--

"These heavy cavalry are armoured from head to toe in mail and plate, 
 giving them a terrific shock value as they charge home.

 An elite force, the zamindars are not particularly swift, but they
 are intimidating. Any foe that gets into close combat with them may
 suffer a severe mauling, and they can simply ride over lighter cavalry,
 disorganised troops or infantry that has not formed square. They are.,
 however, vulnerable to artillery bombardment and disciplined musketry;
 it would be wasteful indeed to commit them against infantry in square.

 The zamindars were originally a class of almost-feudal tax farmers: men
 empowered to collect taxes from the peasantry. From being tax farmers,
 the zamindars slowly accumulated all the responsibilities and power of
 lesser aristocracy or gentry. The title itself is a Persian borrowing
 and means "landholder". The zamindars kept their holdings as long as
 taxes were forthcoming. Over the years, they became actual landowners,
 and gradually assumed military responsibilities as well. Some of these
 could be deferred by sending money, but it was also expected that these
 gentlemen should fight as irregulars for their overlords. The zamindar
 tax system survived even in areas ruled by Europeans; there was a 
 "change of management" and a change to where the tax revenues were sent,
 but that was all."

Regiment Size   = 45
Range           = 0
Accuracy        = 0
Reloading Skill = 0
Ammunition      = 0
Melee Attack    = 21
Charge Bonus    = 15
Defence         = 16
Morale          = 12

 * Resistant to heat fatigue

Trained by the Marathas in Rajpootana, Gujarat, Ahnadnagar, Berar

**Requires Elite Units of the East Content**


--==Regiment of Horse==--

"These cavalry are shock troops, intended to charge into melee and deliver
 terrible blows with thei straight swords.

 To this end, the horses of these regiments are all large beasts, and trained
 to bring out a nasty temperament: it is not just the rider who fights in 
 some cases! They use their weight to push enemies back, while slashing to 
 kill and maim.

 Historically, many regiments of horse were raised under contract by a 
 colonel, and were regarded as his personal property. A colonel could choose
 his own officers by selling commissions or by appointing his friends and
 cronies to the posts. He also had a free hand over drill, uniform, and 
 horses for "his" regiment, at it was not unknown for unscrupulous men 
 to have a few "ghosts" in the regiment so that their pay could be claimed
 from the government and kept by the colonel. Given that the regiment was 
 "his" property. It was also not unknown for a colonel to argue with his
 general if his men were ordered to carry out dangerous, unpleasant, or 
 low status tasks. A colonel had his honour and profits to consider, after 
 all."

Regiment Size   = 45
Range           = 0
Accuracy        = 0
Reloading Skill = 0
Ammunition      = 0
Melee Attack    = 12
Charge Bonus    = 8
Defence         = 6
Morale          = 9

 * Can hide in woodland

Hired by most European nations. 


--==Tarleton's Light Dragoons==--

"These British dragoons are excellent light cavalry, using sabres when 
 mounted and carbines when on foot.

 Named for Banastre Tarleton, also known as "The Bloody Ban", these 
 troops are ideal for coutnering enemies such as skirmishers and artillery.
 Tarleton's dragoons have fast horses and can reach enemies out of range 
 of friendly line units. Upon reaching their target, they can unleash a
 cavalry charge or engage in melee. Dismounted, they can use their carbines
 to fire upon the enemy, although they are relatively vulnerable in close-
 combat.

 Banastre Tarleton sailed to America as a volunteer in 1775, quickly 
 earning the rank of major for his bravery in the New York campaign. By the
 time Tarleton retired he had worked his way up through the ranks to 
 General, and was even invested as Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the
 Bath, a significant honour, for his efforts. Offically the 17th Light
 Dragoons, Tarleton's troopers were the mounted element of the British
 Legion. At the time, the Legion was a mixed force of cavalry and infantry
 and was sometimes referred as Tarleton's Legion."

Regiment Size   = 60
Range           = 70
Accuracy        = 40
Reloading Skill = 25
Ammunition      = 15
Melee Attack    = 8
Charge Bonus    = 11
Defence         = 8
Morale          = 8

 * Can dismount
 * Can hide in woodland
 * Garrison policing bonus

Only available to the British in the province of New York

**Requests Elite Units of America Downloadable Content**


--==Shatural Camel Gunners==--

"These camel troops are armed with large-bore long muskets, and all of them
 are crack shots.

 Like many desert troops, these men have learned the trade of killing in
 a hard school. The desert is unforgiving to those who are weak, and a man
 who cannot fight well is unlikely to survive the constant feuding and 
 banditry that his neighbours will visit upon him. The scarcity of resources
 has also taught these men the value of making every shot count. When a 
 bullet and a shot's worth of gunpowder must be stolen, taken as loot or 
 bought at enormous cost, a wise man makes sure that he only shoots at
 something he can kill.

 These gunners carry very large musket, with the bore the width of two 
 thumbs on a grown man. Such a weapon is too large for any foot soldier
 to carry around in a desert, which is why these men fight as mounted 
 infantry: riding into battle, the dismounting to deliver their devastating
 fire. Any wound from them is likely to be fatal, even an apparently minor
 one in a limb: musket balls often have bubbles and flaws when they are 
 cast which causes them to burst inside a target, causing horrendous 
 injuries."

Regiment Size   = 45
Range           = 90
Accuracy        = 35
Reloading Skill = 20
Ammunition      = 20
Melee Attack    = 5
Charge Bonus    = 10
Defence         = 7
Morale          = 5

 * Can hide in woodland
 * Scares horses
 * Resistant to heat fatigue

Trained only by the Ottomans and Marathas in the desert provinces


--==Silladar Lancers==--

"These cavalrymen are armed with a long spear or lance that makes them  
 particularly deadly when charging.

 The lance is probably the oldest cavalry weapon. It gives the user a chance
 ot put all the momentium of himself and his charging horse into one very
 sharp point that can, in the hands of a skilled man, be driven right 
 through any man. This is what makes lances so intimidating to face but, 
 if the lancer does not kill his target, then he is vulnerable. A long lance
 is a good deal less useful in a melee than a sword, and a lancer is at a
 disadvantage once the close fighting starts.

 Historically, many nations used lancers, although the European fashion 
 for them owes much to the uhlans: cavalry raised for Austrian and Prussian
 service. The French adopted lancers with some enthusiasm, and Napoleon 
 even included Polish lancers in his Imperial Guard. In India the lance
 had long been used as a weapon, and lancer skills were often improved by
 "pegging" (picking tent pegs out of the ground with the lance tip) or
 pig-sticking (hunting wild pigs or even wild dogs with the lance). Native
 Indian lancers were rightly feared by European troops." 

Regiment Size   = 45
Range           = 0
Accuracy        = 0
Reloading Skill = 0
Ammunition      = 0
Melee Attack    = 5
Charge Bonus    = 24
Defence         = 5
Morale          = 3

 * Can hide in woodland
 * Good stamina
 * Resistant to heat fatigue


--==Sipahis==--

"Sipahis are superb horsemen and their ornate lances are deadly when brought
 to bear at the charge.

 They are unswerving faithful and proudly deserving of their elite status. 
 Mounted on the finest horseflesh, they carry ornate lances which are are
 deadly when brought to bear at the charge. When delivered in the flanks or
 rear of an enemy formation, such a charge proves decisive to the course of
 the battle.

 As fief-holders, Sipahis are granted income from a parcel of land in 
 exchange for their military service, and they are also expected to supply
 a number of armed men. Highly disciplined and enjoying the high status 
 common to many cavalry corps, Sipahis see themselves as superior to the
 sometimes unruly Janissaries, with whom they maintain a simmering rivalry.
 A contributing factor to this is that Sipahis are all ethnic Turks, whereas
 the Janissaries are of mixed stock, recruited as children from provincial
 Christian families and converted to the Islamic faith. Regardless of these
 petty concerns, Sipahis represent the best horsemen available to the  
 Sublime Porte."

Regiment Size   = 45
Range           = 0
Accuracy        = 0
Reloading Skill = 0
Ammunition      = 0
Melee Attack    = 14
Charge Bonus    = 23
Defence         = 13
Morale          = 10

 * Resistant to heat fatigue

Recruited only by the Ottomans and Marathas


--==Tatars==--

"These light cavalrymen are superb horsemen, expert in skirmishing and 
 harassing an enemy.

 There is a long tradition on the steppes of fighting from horseback. 
 Children are put in the saddle before they can walk, and this makes them
 almost part of the horse. In previous centuries, accurately firing a bow
 while riding at speed requires a man who has expectional ability with both
 weapon and a horse. Steppe warriors can control their horses using their
 knees, and without the need to hold the reins they can use weapons easily
 and well. Their tactics has always involved galloping up to a slower 
 enemy, delivering a devastating volley, and then riding away again. This 
 way of warfare has survived in the era of pistols and muskets, although
 most steppe warriors carry numerous weapons (if they can) to avoid reloading
 in the heat of battle.

 Historically, all the eastern nations had an ambiguous relationship with the
 steppe people. They both feared them and wanted their services. This allowed
 the more cunning steppe tribes to keep a measure of automony when other
 "natives" were being ruthlessly crushed."

Regiment Size   = 45
Range           = 100
Accuracy        = 20
Reloading Skill = 5
Ammunition      = 20
Melee Attack    = 7
Charge Bonus    = 9
Defence         = 4
Morale          = 3

Trained by the Russians, Ottomans and Polish in Eastern Europe


--==Uhlans==--

"These cavalrymen are armed with a long spear or lance that makes them  
 particularly deadly when charging.

 The lance is probably the oldest cavalry weapon. It gives the user a chance
 ot put all the momentium of himself and his charging horse into one very
 sharp point that can, in the hands of a skilled man, be driven right 
 through any man. This is what makes lances so intimidating to face but, 
 if the lancer does not kill his target, then he is vulnerable. A long lance
 is a good deal less useful in a melee than a sword, and a lancer is at a
 disadvantage once the close fighting starts.

 Historically, many nations used lancers, although the European fashion 
 for them owes much to the uhlans: cavalry raised for Austrian and Prussian
 service. The French adopted lancers with some enthusiasm, and Napoleon 
 even included Polish lancers in his Imperial Guard. In India the lance
 had long been used as a weapon, and lancer skills were often improved by
 "pegging" (picking tent pegs out of the ground with the lance tip) or
 pig-sticking (hunting wild pigs or even wild dogs with the lance). Native
 Indian lancers were rightly feared by European troops." 

Regiment Size   = 45
Range           = 0
Accuracy        = 0
Reloading Skill = 0
Ammunition      = 0
Melee Attack    = 9
Charge Bonus    = 29
Defence         = 9
Morale          = 7

 * Can hide in woodland
 * Good stamina

Hired only by the Austrians and Prussians


--==V.O.C. Cavalry==--

"Recruited to fight in India, company Cavalry are mercenaries fighting for the
 greatest trading companies. 

 The officers and men in these units are European, not locals, even though 
 these regiments were raised in India. They are supposedly more reliable than
 native levies when defending European interests.

 Company Cavalry are equipped in European rathan than Indian fashion; they
 fight as light, sabre-armed cavalry. Their tasks include acting as scouts,
 screening the main body of an army, and pursuing fleeing enemies - taking a
 sabre to someone already running away is likely to keep him running! It is 
 not their main job to break enemy units or to fight other cavalry.

 By 1700, the great European trading companies were so huge they could afford
 armies of their own, seperate from the national army. The British East India
 Company, the Dutch "Vereenigde Oostindische Compagnie" (VOC) and the French
 "La Compagnie francaise des Indes orientales" all had armies, fleets and 
 forts in India and the far east. The Dutch felt it profitable to have one
 fifth of their employees in uniform, and the other companies were not far
 behind."

Regiment Size   = 45
Range           = 0
Accuracy        = 0
Reloading Skill = 0
Ammunition      = 0
Melee Attack    = 11
Charge Bonus    = 12
Defence         = 8
Morale          = 7

 * Can hide in woodlands
 * Resistant to heat fatigue

These troops are recruited in India by the Dutch.


--==Vibomiye Streltsy==--

"These light soldiers are the traditional guardians of Russian towns, part 
 militia, part police and part fire brigade!

 The viborniye ("electives" who have chosen to serve in the ranks) and 
 gorodskiye (municipal) streltsy are both hereditary militia. Originally
 raised from the ranks of tradesmen by Ivan the Terrible, they are an old- 
 fashioned and traditionally-minded group. Over the centuries, membership of 
 the streltsy has been passed down from father to son, and a lack of new 
 volunteers - new blood - has ossified the old ways of battle. The streltsy
 are reliable, however, in defence of their homeland.

 Historically, the streltsy posed a significant challenge to the young Peter
 the Great (ruled 1682-1725). Angered by changes in the army which removed 
 their traditional privileges (of having an extremely easy life), the streltsy
 attempted to overthrow Peter. In 1698 they marched on Moscow, intent on 
 replacing him with his sister, Sophia Alekseyevna. Previous attempts to 
 change the system had usually provoked riots by the streltsy - the very
 people supposed to suppress such trouble - or worse. This time, Peter's new-
 model "Western" -fashion forces crushed them. This was not the end to the
 streltsy, however, as Russia's precarious position during the Great Northern
 War (1700-21) meant that Peter had to recall them to the colours."

Regiment Size   = 45
Range           = 0
Accuracy        = 0
Reloading Skill = 0
Ammunition      = 0
Melee Attack    = 9
Charge Bonus    = 11
Defence         = 5
Morale          = 5

 * Can hide in woodland
 * Garrsion policing bonus
 * Resistant to cold fatigue

Trained only by the Russians


--==Wallachian Boyars==--

"These swift fighters are right to see themselves as better men than their
 foes, as they pursue enemies from the battlefield.

 Wallachian boyars carry sabres but do not wear armour. This aids them in 
 moving quickly across broken ground but makes them vulnerable when in
 combat against heavy cavalrymen. It would be wasteful to see boyars attack
 formed infantry in square, but they are extremely useful in pursuing 
 already-broken enemies. They can also be used to ride down disorganised 
 troops and skirmishers.

 Wallachia had been a battleground for over a century, as both the Austrians
 and Russians attempted to take the province from the Ottomans during a series
 of wars. The boyar aristocracy were now, however, always impressed with their
 new rules and their absoluist ways: they had often enjoyed more latitude 
 under the Ottomans. Being a boyar was a mark of nobility, and meant that a 
 boyar man owned land, had serfs, and had military duties or obligations. The 
 boyarshad begun as elected chiefs but had, over the centuries, become a 
 hereditary class; this meant a man could be "of boyar bones" and aristocratic
 even if he lacked lands or serfs to work it. As in many other parts of 
 Europe, military service was an honourable, possibly the only, profession
 for a nobleman."

Regiment Size   = 45
Range           = 0
Accuracy        = 0
Reloading Skill = 0
Ammunition      = 0
Melee Attack    = 11
Charge Bonus    = 15
Defence         = 10
Morale          = 9

 * Can hide in woodland
 * Can hide in light scrub
 * Paths seldom trod
 * Good stamina
 * Resistant to heat fatigue

Trained only by the Ottomans in the Bulgaria province

**Requires Elite Units of the East Downloadable Content**


--==War Elephants==--

"These troops ride into battle on the back of elephants, beasts who very
 presence spreads terror throughout enemy ranks.

 Like many animals, elephants can be trained to ignore the sights, smells 
 and, above all, hellish noises of a battlefield. They can also be trained
 to fight, goring men with their tusks and trampling others underfoot. 
 Elephants make superb platforms for men to fight from, giving them an 
 automatic height benefit over many opponents. 

 There are risks to using elephants in warfare. They do panic, and if they
 stampede they will cause terrible damage to everyone, friends and foe
 alike. Indian elephants, however, are relatively tractable beasts, and 
 there is a long history of using them as beasts of burden.

 There is also a long history of using unusual animals in combat, from
 elephants to war dogs, and even seals and dolphins in more recent times. 
 Elephants at least stand a chance of survival, unlike the Russian mine
 dogs of the Second World War, who were trained to look for their dinners
 under enemy tanks. This doesn't sound too bad, until you learn that the
 dogs were carrying explosive packs on their backs. Dinner time on the 
 battlefield was always terminal for the dog and his target tank."

Regiment Size   = 30
Range           = 0
Accuracy        = 0
Reloading Skill = 0
Ammunition      = 0
Melee Attack    = 25
Charge Bonus    = 26
Defence         = 9
Morale          = 10

 * Scares horses
 * Scares enemies
 * Resistant to heat fatigue

Trained only by the Marathas


--==Winged Hussars==--

"Polish Winged Hussars make a brave sight in any battle, their wings giving 
 them an imposing and intimidating appearance.

 These troops are usually members of the nobility, for only they can afford
 the expense involved in being a memberof this prestigious force. They are 
 armed with long lances, sabres and pistols for fighting at close quarters.
 Their armour and elaborate uniforms, complete with two towering, feathered
 wings, set them apart from other "hussars", and make them appear to be a 
 kind of cuirassier to the uneducated eye. Their charge with levelled lances
 and fearsome appearance is enough to strike terror into many foot troops.

 Historically, the Polish Winged Hussars had been inspired by the successes
 of the Hungarian hussars. Over the centuries since their establishment, they
 became a heavier, armoured force and, if possible, even more convinced of
 their elite status. The truth was somewhat different: as the 18th Century
 dawned, the Winged Hussars were outmoded and, in the face of disciplined
 firepower, no longer quite as effective as they had once been."

Regiment Size   = 45
Range           = 0
Accuracy        = 0
Reloading Skill = 0
Ammunition      = 0
Melee Attack    = 16
Charge Bonus    = 25
Defence         = 17
Morale          = 12

 * Paths seldom trod
 * Inspires nearby units

Trained only by the Polish.


--==Yeomanry==--

"These locally recruited Cavalry are a valuable aid in keeping order.

 These light horsemen are often little more than mounted militia, but with
 a greater social standing. Cavalry always sees themselves as better than
 footsoldiers, but in this case, it may be true. It is, after all, not cheap
 to purchase and maintain a decent horse, and this means that men with 
 financial standing make up the majority of recruits.

 They are, however, not as disciplined as regular Cavalry, simply because
 they do not have the time or available resources to learn the craft of
 war as thoroughly. They are, however, extremely useful in policing the 
 rougher, lower orders and keeping the existing social structure intact.

 Historically, there are many examples of yeomanry or gendarmes turing 
 on their own citizenery with surprising and horrific violence. They were
 widely used against the anti-factory Luddites in northern England and,
 most infamously, were responsible for the Peterloo Massacre in 1819, when
 the Manchester and Salford Yeomanry charged a mostly peaceful, but excited
 crowd, and cut down many unarmed protesters."

Regiment Size   = 45
Range           = 0
Accuracy        = 0
Reloading Skill = 0
Ammunition      = 0
Melee Attack    = 10
Charge Bonus    = 7
Defence         = 5
Morale          = 7

 * Can hide in woodland

This is a predominantly British unit.

*~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~*
[A.04] Artillery Units

--==12-lber Foot Artillery==--

"Foot artillery batteries are the core of an army on campaign: the weapons
 that win battles and batter down walls.

 Despite the name, foot artillery batteries are towed by horses, not men. 
 The artillerymen march alongside their pieces. All guns are smoothbore, and
 rated by the size or weight of the solid projectile that they fire: a 
 12-pounder is so called because it hurls a cannonball weighing 12 pounds
 towards the enemy! It may not do so very accurately, as the casting of 
 barrels and balls means that there is inevitable a gap (windage) between a
 shot and the barrel sides. This means the cannonball rattles down the barrel
 when fired, leading to an inherent accuracy. As technology advances, other
 types of ammunition can be fired.

 Historically, there was limited standardisation between guns, even in the
 same battery. Parts from one gun would not always fit a sister piece. A 
 gunner would know the quirks of his own weapon intimidately. Cunningly, the
 French attempted to develop a system of interchangable components for all 
 their guns and field equipment. Jean Baptiste Vaquette de Gribeauval (1715- 
 1789), the inspector of Artillery, tried but he wasn't entirely successful.
 Even after he had finished there were still more than 20 different types of
 wheel in use!"

Regiment Size   = 18
Guns            = 4
Firepower       = 27
Range           = 400
Accuracy        = 45
Reloading Skill = 30
Morale          = 3

 * Slow-moving
 * Can hide in woodland

Recruited by the European powers


--==12-lber Howitzer Foot Artillery==--

"Howitzers send shells plunging into enemy formations and over defences, 
 making cover irrelevent.

 Howitzers fall somewhere between guns and mortars, the other main artillery
 types. They have a limited mobility, like guns. Like mortars, they do not 
 fire straight at the target, but send shots high into the air to plunge 
 down on a target (and over anything in the way). By angling the barrel and
 changing the propellent charge used, howitzers have an impressive flexibility
 in shell trajectories. Experienced crews can lob explosive shells and 
 incendiary rounds with great accuracy into a "beaten" zone, making life 
 utterly miserable and very short for anyone within it. In close action,
 they can fire canister rounds directly into enemy formations, like giant
 sawn-off shotguns.

 The term foot artillery applies because the gunners walk into battle 
 alongside the draft animals. Like all artillery, the rating of these 
 howitzers refers to the nominal weight of shots fired; loading the heavier
 pieces made for strong gunners!

 Historically, howitzers - like many other artillery pieces - were far
 from standardised weapons in the 18th Century. Shells and spare parts made
 in one foundry did not always fit another foundry's pieces, even if the
 calibre was nominally identical and the two guns were part of the same 
 battery in the field. It took a good deal of effort and argument to get
 foundries to standardise barrels and ancillary equipment, even in a 
 single country."

Regiment Size   = 18
Guns            = 4
Firepower       = 27
Range           = 400
Accuracy        = 45
Reloading Skill = 25
Morale          = 4

 * Slow-moving
 * Can hide in woodland

Recruited by the European powers


--==18-lber Foot Artillery==--

"Foot artillery batteries are the core of an army on campaign: the weapons
 that win battles and batter down walls.

 Despite the name, foot artillery batteries are towed by horses, not men. 
 The artillerymen march alongside their pieces. All guns are smoothbore, and
 rated by the size or weight of the solid projectile that they fire: a 
 12-pounder is so called because it hurls a cannonball weighing 12 pounds
 towards the enemy! It may not do so very accurately, as the casting of 
 barrels and balls means that there is inevitable a gap (windage) between a
 shot and the barrel sides. This means the cannonball rattles down the barrel
 when fired, leading to an inherent accuracy. As technology advances, other
 types of ammunition can be fired.

 Historically, there was limited standardisation between guns, even in the
 same battery. Parts from one gun would not always fit a sister piece. A 
 gunner would know the quirks of his own weapon intimidately. Cunningly, the
 French attempted to develop a system of interchangable components for all 
 their guns and field equipment. Jean Baptiste Vaquette de Gribeauval (1715- 
 1789), the inspector of Artillery, tried but he wasn't entirely successful.
 Even after he had finished there were still more than 20 different types of
 wheel in use!"

Regiment Size   = 18
Guns            = 4
Firepower       = 33
Range           = 400
Accuracy        = 50
Reloading Skill = 30
Morale          = 3

 * Slow-moving
 * Can hide in woodland
 * Can hide in light scrub
 * Resistant to heat fatigue

Trained only by the Ottomans and Marathas


--==18-lber Horse Guard Artillery==--

"Intended to keep with rapidly-advancing mounted forces, horse artillery
 batteries have a touch of "cavalry dash" about them.

 Horse artillery units are distinguished from other types of artillery forces
 because everyone rides into battle; drivers ride the horses, while gun crews
 are often given seats on the gun limbers. The cannon assigned to horse
 artillery units usually fire relatively small calibre rounds although, as
 always, the weight of the shot is used to designate different horse artillery
 types. The weight of fire is considered to be less important than the speed
 with which it can be moved to a firing position, deployed, and then removed
 to a new site. This is what gives horse artillery its appeal to generals: 
 the ability to rapidly give fire almost from anywhere on the battlefield.
 Horse artillery can be used as a flexible reserve, or to exploit a weakness
 in an enemy line.

 Historically, in many countries horse artillery developed a cavalry-like
 air of being an elite force. This attitude is entirely understandable. 
 Dragging heavy artillery pieces across country at the gallop is an inherently
 dangerous thing to do, even without people shooting at you!"

Regiment Size   = 18
Guns            = 4
Firepower       = 33
Range           = 400
Accuracy        = 65
Reloading Skill = 50
Morale          = 7

 * Can hide in woodland

Trained only by the French


--==24-lber Foot Artillery==--

"Foot artillery batteries are the core of an army on campaign: the weapons
 that win battles and batter down walls.

 Despite the name, foot artillery batteries are towed by horses, not men. 
 The artillerymen march alongside their pieces. All guns are smoothbore, and
 rated by the size or weight of the solid projectile that they fire: a 
 12-pounder is so called because it hurls a cannonball weighing 12 pounds
 towards the enemy! It may not do so very accurately, as the casting of 
 barrels and balls means that there is inevitable a gap (windage) between a
 shot and the barrel sides. This means the cannonball rattles down the barrel
 when fired, leading to an inherent accuracy. As technology advances, other
 types of ammunition can be fired.

 Historically, there was limited standardisation between guns, even in the
 same battery. Parts from one gun would not always fit a sister piece. A 
 gunner would know the quirks of his own weapon intimidately. Cunningly, the
 French attempted to develop a system of interchangable components for all 
 their guns and field equipment. Jean Baptiste Vaquette de Gribeauval (1715- 
 1789), the inspector of Artillery, tried but he wasn't entirely successful.
 Even after he had finished there were still more than 20 different types of
 wheel in use!"

Regiment Size   = 18
Guns            = 4
Firepower       = 42
Range           = 400
Accuracy        = 55
Reloading Skill = 5
Morale          = 4

 * Slow-moving
 * Can hide in woodland

Recruited by all nations


--==24-lber Guard Artillery==--

"Foot artillery batteries are the core of an army on campaign: the weapons
 that win battles and batter down walls.

 Despite the name, foot artillery batteries are towed by horses, not men. 
 The artillerymen march alongside their pieces. All guns are smoothbore, and
 rated by the size or weight of the solid projectile that they fire: a 
 12-pounder is so called because it hurls a cannonball weighing 12 pounds
 towards the enemy! It may not do so very accurately, as the casting of 
 barrels and balls means that there is inevitable a gap (windage) between a
 shot and the barrel sides. This means the cannonball rattles down the barrel
 when fired, leading to an inherent accuracy. As technology advances, other
 types of ammunition can be fired.

 Historically, there was limited standardisation between guns, even in the
 same battery. Parts from one gun would not always fit a sister piece. A 
 gunner would know the quirks of his own weapon intimidately. Cunningly, the
 French attempted to develop a system of interchangable components for all 
 their guns and field equipment. Jean Baptiste Vaquette de Gribeauval (1715- 
 1789), the inspector of Artillery, tried but he wasn't entirely successful.
 Even after he had finished there were still more than 20 different types of
 wheel in use!"

Regiment Size   = 18
Guns            = 4
Firepower       = 42
Range           = 400
Accuracy        = 65
Reloading Skill = 50
Morale          = 7

 * Slow-moving
 * Can hide in woodland

Trained only by the French


--==24-lber Howitzer Foot Artillery==--

"Howitzers send shells plunging into enemy formations and over defences, 
 making cover irrelevent.

 Howitzers fall somewhere between guns and mortars, the other main artillery
 types. They have a limited mobility, like guns. Like mortars, they do not 
 fire straight at the target, but send shots high into the air to plunge 
 down on a target (and over anything in the way). By angling the barrel and
 changing the propellent charge used, howitzers have an impressive flexibility
 in shell trajectories. Experienced crews can lob explosive shells and 
 incendiary rounds with great accuracy into a "beaten" zone, making life 
 utterly miserable and very short for anyone within it. In close action,
 they can fire canister rounds directly into enemy formations, like giant
 sawn-off shotguns.

 The term foot artillery applies because the gunners walk into battle 
 alongside the draft animals. Like all artillery, the rating of these 
 howitzers refers to the nominal weight of shots fired; loading the heavier
 pieces made for strong gunners!

 Historically, howitzers - like many other artillery pieces - were far
 from standardised weapons in the 18th Century. Shells and spare parts made
 in one foundry did not always fit another foundry's pieces, even if the
 calibre was nominally identical and the two guns were part of the same 
 battery in the field. It took a good deal of effort and argument to get
 foundries to standardise barrels and ancillary equipment, even in a 
 single country."

Regiment Size   = 18
Guns            = 4
Firepower       = 40
Range           = 400
Accuracy        = 40
Reloading Skill = 25
Morale          = 4

 * Slow-moving
 * Can hide in woodland

Recruited by all nations


--==3-lber Horse Artillery==--

"Intended to keep up with rapidly-advancing mounted forces, horse aritllery
 batteries have a touch of "cavalry dash" about them.

 Horse artillery units are distinguished from other types of artillery forces
 because everyone rides into battle; drivers ride the horses, while gun crews
 are often given seats on the gun limbers. The cannon assigned to horse
 artillery units usually fire relatively small calibre rounds although, as
 always, the weight of the shot is used to designate different horse artillery
 types. The weight of fire is considered to be less important than the speed
 with which it can be moved to a firing position, deployed, and then removed
 to a new site. This is what gives horse artillery its appeal to generals: 
 the ability to rapidly give fire almost from anywhere on the battlefield.
 Horse artillery can be used as a flexible reserve, or to exploit a weakness
 in an enemy line.

 Historically, in many countries horse artillery developed a cavalry-like
 air of being an elite force. This attitude is entirely understandable. 
 Dragging heavy artillery pieces across country at the gallop is an inherently
 dangerous thing to do, even without people shooting at you!"

Regiment Size   = 18
Guns            = 4
Firepower       = 9
Range           = 400
Accuracy        = 60
Reloading Skill = 35
Morale          = 4

 * Can hide in woodland

Recruited by the European powers


--==4-inch Mortar Battery==--

"A mortar is a large calibre, fixed artillery piece that lobs an explosive
 shell in a high arc at the enemy.

 To the uneducated eye, a mortar looks like a large, stumpy cooking pot, set
 at an angle in a heavy wooden frame. Indeed, the weapon's name may even have
 come from its similarity to the mortars used to grind spices. Mortars use
 indirect fire, firing their shells high into the air to plunge down on 
 enemy positions. This makes them ideal for use in siege warfare.

 Unlike a howitzer, a mortar uses a fixed, and relatively small, charge of
 gunpowder to propel its shell. Range is adjusted by changing the angle of
 fire; accuracy is subject to winds and weather, thanks to the flight path.
 There is also a practical minimum range to mortar fire, no artilleryman is
 going to drop a shell so close that he will be caught in the blast. Their
 size, expressed in terms of the diameter of shell they fire, indicates 
 their destructiveness.

 Mortars have returned to favour with armies since the First World War. 
 Modern designs based on the British Stokes trench mortar, come in many 
 sizes. Most can fire shells with proximity fuses as anti-personnel rounds.
 The larger examples can fire sophisticated "smart" munitions that guide
 themselves onto targets."

Regiment Size   = 18
Guns            = 4
Firepower       = 42
Range           = 750
Accuracy        = 15
Reloading Skill = 5
Morale          = 4

 * Can hide in woodland

Recruited by the European powers


--==6-lber Horse Artillery==--

"Intended to keep up with rapidly-advancing mounted forces, horse aritllery
 batteries have a touch of "cavalry dash" about them.

 Horse artillery units are distinguished from other types of artillery forces
 because everyone rides into battle; drivers ride the horses, while gun crews
 are often given seats on the gun limbers. The cannon assigned to horse
 artillery units usually fire relatively small calibre rounds although, as
 always, the weight of the shot is used to designate different horse artillery
 types. The weight of fire is considered to be less important than the speed
 with which it can be moved to a firing position, deployed, and then removed
 to a new site. This is what gives horse artillery its appeal to generals: 
 the ability to rapidly give fire almost from anywhere on the battlefield.
 Horse artillery can be used as a flexible reserve, or to exploit a weakness
 in an enemy line.

 Historically, in many countries horse artillery developed a cavalry-like
 air of being an elite force. This attitude is entirely understandable. 
 Dragging heavy artillery pieces across country at the gallop is an inherently
 dangerous thing to do, even without people shooting at you!"

Regiment Size   = 18
Guns            = 4
Firepower       = 15
Range           = 400
Accuracy        = 50
Reloading Skill = 30
Morale          = 3

 * Can hide in woodland

Recruited by the European powers


--==64-lber Heavy Artillery==--

"These enormous cannons can pound enemies to pieces in very short order. Their
 size and weight make them almost immoble once emplaced.

 As the name suggests, these huge guns fire cannon balls in excess of 60  
 pounds. The impact of such a shot crushes anyone unlucky enough to be caught,
 and does terrible damage to any structure hit. That canister shot can be  
 added on top of such a ball is merely piling on the misery for the 
 unfortunate targets. These enormous guns require large-scale support to
 operate effectively. Indeed, in Indian service they are often towed by 
 elephants rather than a team of smaller draught oxen!

 Historically, guns this size were difficult to cast without flaws; the size
 of gunpowder charge involved in firing these guns meant that any flaw would
 be fatal to the gunners. Secondly, there was the difficulty of moving these
 guns to the battlefield. Smaller artillery produced substantial trains of
 draught animals, additional carts for powder, spares and shots, (all with
 more draught animals) - and then all of these would need feeding and 
 watering, even before the gun crews were considered. That is was considered
 worthwhile to produce and then use these guns with all these drawbacks shows
 just how destructive they were."

Regiment Size   = 18
Guns            = 4
Firepower       = 70
Range           = 600
Accuracy        = 35
Reloading Skill = 30
Morale          = 3

 * Can hide in woodland

Recruited only by the Ottomans and Marathas. 


--==9-lber Artillery==--

"A saker is an old-fashioned style of light cannon, deployed in a fixed
 position.

 Artillery pieces are expensive to cast, as a result, they tend to be in
 service until captured, destroyed or rusted away. Sakers are a prime 
 example of this, as many of the barrels date back to the 17th Century, even
 if they have been taken from dust-covered warehouses and mounted on 
 refurbished carriages. 

 They are relatively light cannons in terms of the shot fired, which is much
 the same as a six-pounder. Some sakers are even old enough to have been
 intended for stone ammunition, and this is reflected in the fact that the
 windage (or difference between the barrel bore and shot size) is often 
 quite large. This "rattling" of a shot down the barrel when it is fired 
 does not help accuracy.

 Despite the light weight of shot, sakers are anything but lightweight guns.
 Saker gun carriages are large, awkward and tactically immobile. Gunners
 and draft animals can drag them into place before a battle, but there is 
 little chance of moving a gun to be a better firing position once the action
 has commenced.

 Although obsolescent, there were 14 sakers in the "Blenhelm train" of 
 artillery in 1704 available to the Duke of Marlborough - guns were expensive
 and he took what was available."

Regiment Size   = 18
Guns            = 4
Firepower       = 21
Range           = 400
Accuracy        = 40
Reloading Skill = 30
Morale          = 3

 * Can hide in woodland

Trained only by the Ottomans.


--==Artillery==--

"Native Artillery gives the firepower needed to put formal, set-piece battles
 against Europeans on an equal footing. 

 Artillery gives any war chief an awesome amount of power to strike down his
 enemies. It does, however, require careful handling in battle to make 
 artillery work well with the informal tactics that many tribes use.

 The art of making and repairing cannons is one that tribal smiths can 
 understand, but it is not an easy process with their tools and resources.

 Historically, the Native Americans never developed anything approaching an
 artillery corps. Heavy weapons did not suit their style of fighting and would
 have reduced the tribes' strategic mobility too. The Europeans were also 
 quite careful to prevent the tribes acquiring any cannons: the military
 independence that this would have granted was a step too far."

Regiment Size   = 18
Guns            = 4
Firepower       = 21
Range           = 400
Accuracy        = 35
Reloading Skill = 25
Morale          = 3

 * Can hide in woodland

Trained by the Native Americans

**Requires The Warpaths Downloadable Content**


--==Bombardment Mortar==--

"A mortar is a large calibre, fixed artillery piece that lobs an explosive
 shell in a high arc at the enemy.

 To the uneducated eye, a mortar looks like a large, stumpy cooking pot, set
 at an angle in a heavy wooden frame. Indeed, the weapon's name may even have
 come from its similarity to the mortars used to grind spices. Mortars use
 indirect fire, firing their shells high into the air to plunge down on 
 enemy positions. This makes them ideal for use in siege warfare.

 Unlike a howitzer, a mortar uses a fixed, and relatively small, charge of
 gunpowder to propel its shell. Range is adjusted by changing the angle of
 fire; accuracy is subject to winds and weather, thanks to the flight path.
 There is also a practical minimum range to mortar fire, no artilleryman is
 going to drop a shell so close that he will be caught in the blast. Their
 size, expressed in terms of the diameter of shell they fire, indicates 
 their destructiveness.

 Mortars have returned to favour with armies since the First World War. 
 Modern designs based on the British Stokes trench mortar, come in many 
 sizes. Most can fire shells with proximity fuses as anti-personnel rounds.
 The larger examples can fire sophisticated "smart" munitions that guide
 themselves onto targets."

Regiment Size   = 18
Guns            = 4
Firepower       = 36
Range           = 750
Accuracy        = 10
Reloading Skill = 5
Morale          = 3

 * Can hide in woodland
 * Resistant to heat fatigue

Trained by the Ottomans


--==Cannons==--

"A demi-cannon is a heavy artillery piece from the previous century, deployed
 in a fixed battlefield position.

 Although obsolete, a demi-cannon is still a dangerous weapon to face as it
 fires a ball with a nominal weight of around 24 pounds. This large calibre
 makes for a large weapon with a massive gun carriage. Once properly emplaced,
 a demi-cannon is hard enough to adjust for aim, let along drag to a new 
 location! Originally, this lack of tactical mobility was not a problem, as 
 the gun was for siege work or for a battlefield where there was little 
 artillery present. It was unlikely to ever suffer any kind of counter-
 battery fire, so didn't need to be moved.

 Artillery was sometimes incredibly dangerous to its users as well as the
 targets: fire was a terrible risk. The artillery baggage train usually held
 an enormous quantity of powder, and any stray spark was liable to cause an
 explosion. Anyone out of place caught near the powder train could expect 
 little mercy: some generals ordered that enemy agents should be burned 
 alive if caught in an arson attempt, and immediate lynching for their own
 errant soldiers wandering too near the artillery train!"

Regiment Size   = 18
Guns            = 4
Firepower       = 42
Range           = 400
Accuracy        = 50
Reloading Skill = 30
Morale          = 3

 * Can hide in woodland
 * Resistant to heat fatigue

Recruited by the Marathas


--==Demi-Cannons==--

"A demi-cannon is a heavy artillery piece from the previous century, deployed
 in a fixed battlefield position.

 Although obsolete, a demi-cannon is still a dangerous weapon to face as it
 fires a ball with a nominal weight of around 24 pounds. This large calibre
 makes for a large weapon with a massive gun carriage. Once properly emplaced,
 a demi-cannon is hard enough to adjust for aim, let along drag to a new 
 location! Originally, this lack of tactical mobility was not a problem, as 
 the gun was for siege work or for a battlefield where there was little 
 artillery present. It was unlikely to ever suffer any kind of counter-
 battery fire, so didn't need to be moved.

 Artillery was sometimes incredibly dangerous to its users as well as the
 targets: fire was a terrible risk. The artillery baggage train usually held
 an enormous quantity of powder, and any stray spark was liable to cause an
 explosion. Anyone out of place caught near the powder train could expect 
 little mercy: some generals ordered that enemy agents should be burned 
 alive if caught in an arson attempt, and immediate lynching for their own
 errant soldiers wandering too near the artillery train!"

Regiment Size   = 18
Guns            = 4
Firepower       = 38
Range           = 400
Accuracy        = 45
Reloading Skill = 30
Morale          = 4

 * Can hide in woodland

Recruited by all nations.


--==Guns==--

"A saker is an old-fashioned style of light cannon, deployed in a fixed
 position.

 Artillery pieces are expensive to cast, as a result, they tend to be in
 service until captured, destroyed or rusted away. Sakers are a prime 
 example of this, as many of the barrels date back to the 17th Century, even
 if they have been taken from dust-covered warehouses and mounted on 
 refurbished carriages. 

 They are relatively light cannons in terms of the shot fired, which is much
 the same as a six-pounder. Some sakers are even old enough to have been
 intended for stone ammunition, and this is reflected in the fact that the
 windage (or difference between the barrel bore and shot size) is often 
 quite large. This "rattling" of a shot down the barrel when it is fired 
 does not help accuracy.

 Despite the light weight of shot, sakers are anything but lightweight guns.
 Saker gun carriages are large, awkward and tactically immobile. Gunners
 and draft animals can drag them into place before a battle, but there is 
 little chance of moving a gun to be a better firing position once the action
 has commenced.

 Although obsolescent, there were 14 sakers in the "Blenhelm train" of 
 artillery in 1704 available to the Duke of Marlborough - guns were expensive
 and he took what was available."

Regiment Size   = 18
Guns            = 4
Firepower       = 21
Range           = 400
Accuracy        = 40
Reloading Skill = 30
Morale          = 3

 * Can hide in woodland
 * Resistant to heat fatigue

Recruited by the Marathas


--==Large Mortar==--

"A mortar is a large calibre, fixed artillery piece that lobs an explosive
 shell in a high arc at the enemy.

 To the uneducated eye, a mortar looks like a large, stumpy cooking pot, set
 at an angle in a heavy wooden frame. Indeed, the weapon's name may even have
 come from its similarity to the mortars used to grind spices. Mortars use
 indirect fire, firing their shells high into the air to plunge down on 
 enemy positions. This makes them ideal for use in siege warfare.

 Unlike a howitzer, a mortar uses a fixed, and relatively small, charge of
 gunpowder to propel its shell. Range is adjusted by changing the angle of
 fire; accuracy is subject to winds and weather, thanks to the flight path.
 There is also a practical minimum range to mortar fire, no artilleryman is
 going to drop a shell so close that he will be caught in the blast. Their
 size, expressed in terms of the diameter of shell they fire, indicates 
 their destructiveness.

 Mortars have returned to favour with armies since the First World War. 
 Modern designs based on the British Stokes trench mortar, come in many 
 sizes. Most can fire shells with proximity fuses as anti-personnel rounds.
 The larger examples can fire sophisticated "smart" munitions that guide
 themselves onto targets."

Regiment Size   = 18
Guns            = 4
Firepower       = 36
Range           = 750
Accuracy        = 10
Reloading Skill = 5
Morale          = 3

 * Can hide in woodland
 * Resistant to heat fatigue

Trained by the Marathas


--==Mortar==--

"A mortar is a large calibre, fixed artillery piece that lobs an explosive
 shell in a high arc at the enemy.

 To the uneducated eye, a mortar looks like a large, stumpy cooking pot, set
 at an angle in a heavy wooden frame. Indeed, the weapon's name may even have
 come from its similarity to the mortars used to grind spices. Mortars use
 indirect fire, firing their shells high into the air to plunge down on 
 enemy positions. This makes them ideal for use in siege warfare.

 Unlike a howitzer, a mortar uses a fixed, and relatively small, charge of
 gunpowder to propel its shell. Range is adjusted by changing the angle of
 fire; accuracy is subject to winds and weather, thanks to the flight path.
 There is also a practical minimum range to mortar fire, no artilleryman is
 going to drop a shell so close that he will be caught in the blast. Their
 size, expressed in terms of the diameter of shell they fire, indicates 
 their destructiveness.

 Mortars have returned to favour with armies since the First World War. 
 Modern designs based on the British Stokes trench mortar, come in many 
 sizes. Most can fire shells with proximity fuses as anti-personnel rounds.
 The larger examples can fire sophisticated "smart" munitions that guide
 themselves onto targets."

Regiment Size   = 18
Guns            = 4
Firepower       = 18
Range           = 750
Accuracy        = 15
Reloading Skill = 5
Morale          = 3

 * Can hide in woodland
 * Resistant to heat fatigue

Trained by the Marathas


--==Organ Gun==--

"Thanks to its multiple barrels, an organ gun can fire devastating volleys all
 on its own.

 An organ gun has several barrels that can fired, almost simutaneously, when
 a gunner applies the match. In theory, each barrel can be loaded with a 
 different kind of projectile, although given the different ranges of, say, 
 shot and canister, this would be wasteful. Only a suicidal or slightly mad
 artilleryman would use explosive shells. There is a good change that the
 first shell would have exploded in its barrel before the last is prepared.

 There has always been a tendancy to make artillery pieces with more than one
 barrel. The great Leonardo da Vinci was amony many to design a ribauldequin, 
 or volley gun. As so often with artillery, the Ottoman Turks were ahead of
 European gunmakers in their work. They also persisted with producing organ
 guns after other nations had abandoned them. They also experimented with
 cannons of different calibres, where a central barrel would be surrounded 
 by small bore tubes cast into the main cannon wall. The French also flirted
 with a design for a triple-barrelled cannon early in the 18th Century, but
 it was heavy and offered no real advantages over three ordinary guns of the
 same calibre."

Regiment Size   = 18
Guns            = 4
Firepower       = 12
Range           = 400
Accuracy        = 40
Reloading Skill = 25
Morale          = 3

 * Can hide in woodland

Trained only by the Ottomans

**Requires Special Forces Edition**


--==Puckle Gun==--

"The Puckle gun is a tripod-mounted repeating heavy musket or small cannon,
 capable of rapid fire.

 It achieves this by using pre-loaded breech chambers that are rotated into
 line with the barrel, fired and then a new chamber is positioned for the
 next shot. All this is achieved mechanically, by the operator revolving a 
 handle at the back of the piece. As long as loaded magazines are available
 for the piece, a puckle gun can be kept in rapid fire action!

 Historically, Jame Puckle's "defence gun" was not a huge success, partly 
 because the engineering of 1718 simply wasn't up to the task of producing
 components with fine tolerances. His gun had promise, though, as it could
 fire shots around three times faster than a well-trained fusilier. One 
 odd feature of the design was the two versions offered to potential 
 customers: a round barrel fired conventional bullets for shooting at 
 Christian (but not Protestant) enemies, while a second barrel was offered
 that fired square bullets (that allegedly did more damage) for use against
 Turks and similar unwelcome infidels. The British Royal Navy never bought
 any, and other users were equally reluctant to part with their money. 
 Puckle's career as a gunsmith ended in failure for him and his investors.

Regiment Size   = 18
Guns            = 4
Firepower       = 3
Range           = 150
Accuracy        = 40
Reloading Skill = 25
Morale          = 4

 * Slow-moving
 * Can hide in woodland

Recruited by the European Powers


--==Rocket Band==--

"War rockets are a terrifying device, capable of carrying different kinds 
 of warhead and of causing utter panic in their targets.

 These iron tubes filled with gunpowder propellant are fired in large 
 volleys: the noise alone could somewhat be unnerving. Each rocket is laid
 in an angled launcher, and it is the job of the artilleryman to correctly
 judge the angle of launch and drop the rockets in the middle of the enemy.
 He also needs to take into account wind, as the long tails of the rockets
 can mean they are blown off cause. The least dangerous rockets are tipped
 with a large spear point, but explosive heads are also fitted.

 Historically, it was the Indian war rockets used by Tippu Sultan of
 Mysore that introduced Europeans to the concept. The experience was not a
 pleasant one. The British copied these weapons as the Congreve rocket 
 system, and used them aboard ships as well as on land. A rocket troop was
 present at the final defeat of Napoleon at Waterloo in 1815, although 
 accounts of their effectiveness vary. Congreve's system even included
 illumination rounds to light up the battlefield!"

Regiment Size   = 18
Guns            = 4
Firepower       = 6
Range           = 750
Accuracy        = 15
Reloading Skill = 5
Morale          = 3

 * Can hide in woodland
 * Resistant to heat fatigue

Recruited by the Marathas


--==Rocket Troop==--

"War rockets are a terrifying device, capable of carrying different kinds 
 of warhead and of causing utter panic in their targets.

 These iron tubes filled with gunpowder propellant are fired in large 
 volleys: the noise alone could somewhat be unnerving. Each rocket is laid
 in an angled launcher, and it is the job of the artilleryman to correctly
 judge the angle of launch and drop the rockets in the middle of the enemy.
 He also needs to take into account wind, as the long tails of the rockets
 can mean they are blown off cause. The least dangerous rockets are tipped
 with a large spear point, but explosive heads are also fitted.

 Historically, it was the Indian war rockets used by Tippu Sultan of
 Mysore that introduced Europeans to the concept. The experience was not a
 pleasant one. The British copied these weapons as the Congreve rocket 
 system, and used them aboard ships as well as on land. A rocket troop was
 present at the final defeat of Napoleon at Waterloo in 1815, although 
 accounts of their effectiveness vary. Congreve's system even included
 illumination rounds to light up the battlefield!"

Regiment Size   = 18
Guns            = 4
Firepower       = 6
Range           = 750
Accuracy        = 15
Reloading Skill = 5
Morale          = 4

 * Can hide in woodland

Recruited to all but the Ottomans and Marathas


--==Sakers==--

"A saker is an old-fashioned style of light cannon, deployed in a fixed
 position.

 Artillery pieces are expensive to cast, as a result, they tend to be in
 service until captured, destroyed or rusted away. Sakers are a prime 
 example of this, as many of the barrels date back to the 17th Century, even
 if they have been taken from dust-covered warehouses and mounted on 
 refurbished carriages. 

 They are relatively light cannons in terms of the shot fired, which is much
 the same as a six-pounder. Some sakers are even old enough to have been
 intended for stone ammunition, and this is reflected in the fact that the
 windage (or difference between the barrel bore and shot size) is often 
 quite large. This "rattling" of a shot down the barrel when it is fired 
 does not help accuracy.

 Despite the light weight of shot, sakers are anything but lightweight guns.
 Saker gun carriages are large, awkward and tactically immobile. Gunners
 and draft animals can drag them into place before a battle, but there is 
 little chance of moving a gun to be a better firing position once the action
 has commenced.

 Although obsolescent, there were 14 sakers in the "Blenhelm train" of 
 artillery in 1704 available to the Duke of Marlborough - guns were expensive
 and he took what was available."

Regiment Size   = 18
Guns            = 4
Firepower       = 21
Range           = 400
Accuracy        = 40
Reloading Skill = 30
Morale          = 4

 * Can hide in woodland

Available to the European powers

*~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~*
[A.05] Naval Units

--==24-pounder Frigate==--

"A frigate is a single deck warship, used for independent cruises, commerce
 trading and convoy protection.

 American frigates are stronger than those built by other nations, both in
 terms of the punishment they can sustain and in weight of broadside. The
 two factors are related: the design includes diagonal bracing, and think
 planking, allowing a ship of this type to mount 24-pounder cannons in place
 of the usual 12-pounders carried aboard frigates. This American frigate
 still has all the tradiational virtues of the type. It is a good sailor, and
 can operate far from home waters. It outguns other frigates, but has the
 necessary speed to escape from larger battleships.

 Historically, the reasons for creating a large class of frigates were
 strategically sound for the fledging United States. There was, of course,
 not shortage of suitable timber in American yards on the eastern seaboard
 to make ships to this design. More importantly, however, the designed 
 recognised that America simply didn't have the manpower to create a navy
 to the European model. She needed ships that used relatively small crews
 for the amount of havoc they could cause!"

Regiment Size   = 134
Guns            = 48
Firepower       = 132
Range           = 500
Accuracy        = 57
Reloading Skill = 8
Hull Strength   = 4654
Speed           = 17
Manoeurability  = Medium


--==Admiral's Flagship, 1st Rate==--

"The first rate is the largest type of "ship of the line", intended to be 
 the command ship at the centre of any fleet.

 While these warships are among the most powerful vessels afloat, they are
 poor sailors being both slow and unresponsive. This is not a serious
 shortcoming because, armed with around 100 cannons firing 32-, 24- and 
 18-pounder balls on their three decks, they can fire a terrible and 
 destructive broadside. They carry a crew of over 800 sailors, gunners and
 marines and have more artillery than most land armies. Their cost, however,
 is a drawback and few navies can afford to build or maintain more than a
 handful of them. Their great size, however, means that an admiral and his
 staff can be carried with little disruption to the normal working of the
 ship.

 One first rate flagship never ever reached the sea! The British Royal 
 Navy's HMS St Lawrence was built, launched and served only on Lake Ontario.
 Shallow rapids meant that few vessels could reach the lake from the sea,
 and Niagara Falls prevented any ship from leaving the lake in the other
 direction. 

Regiment Size   = 264
Guns            = 106
Firepower       = 238
Range           = 500
Accuracy        = 63
Reloading Skill = 8
Hull Strength   = 9408
Speed           = 14
Manoeurability  = Low


--==Admiral's Flagship, 3rd Rate==--

"The third rate is a compromise between firepower and handling. A stable gun
 platform, it also makes a good flagship.

 Overall, the "74" (from the number of guns carried) or "third rate" is a very
 practical vessel. With a crew of around 700 men, it has enough firepower and
 resilience to survive most battles. It can deliver a horrendously effective
 broadside from its 32-pounders (on the lower deck), 18-pounders on the
 upper deck and 9-pounders in the upper works. It also has enough space to
 house an admiral and his busy staff in some comfort, even if the ship's
 officers have to sacrifice their living space.

 Historically, many admirals and commadores chose 74s to be their flag
 vessels. In the 18th Century, "commadore" was not a formalised naval rank, but
 and appointment as a "temporary fleet commander". Appointing a commadore 
 allowed the navy to choose any talented or well-connected captain, no matter
 how junior, for command. Admiral was usually a rank that any captain, no
 matter how useless, could reach if he lived for long enough!"

Regiment Size   = 196
Guns            = 74
Firepower       = 231
Range           = 500
Accuracy        = 63
Reloading Skill = 8
Hull Strength   = 5544
Speed           = 16
Manoeurability  = Low


--==Admiral's Flagship, 5th Rate==--

"Flagship frigates are single-deck warships, combining good handling,
 firepower and endurance at sea.

 These handy frigates are used for pursuit, convoy protection, commerce
 raiding and reconnaissance work and, when operating as a deteched squadron,
 as a flagship for the admiral in charge. Excellent sailing characteristics,
 especially in inshore waters, make it a useful addition to any blockading
 fleet, and perfect for aggressive admirals. Accommodation for the flag
 officer and his small staff may be a little on the snug side, as these
 are fighting vessels with little spare room for many creature comforts. This
 is a footling inconvenience when considered against the chance to carry 
 the fight to the foe! An admiral's flagship, normally a somewhat staid  
 appointment, is an excellent appointment for men who are hungry for glory - 
 when that flagship is a frigate.

 Historically, the term "fifth rate" is a Royal Navy one, and applies to
 the largest single-deck frigates, mounting some 44 12-pounder guns. However,
 every navy that used European designs found a use for this class of vessel."

Regiment Size   = 130
Guns            = 48
Firepower       = 112
Range           = 500
Accuracy        = 63
Reloading Skill = 6
Hull Strength   = 3080
Speed           = 18
Manoeurability  = Medium


--==Bomb Ketch==--

"The "bomb" is a floating weapons platform, usually adapted from a small,
 two-masted ketch. The whole ship is considered around a single large-calibre
 mortar.

 Strongly-built bomb ketches must stand the recoil of repeated mortar 
 discharges. Often chains replace the rigging ropes nearest the mortar to
 prevent muzzle blast damage. They are the only naval vessels to carry and
 use explosive shells, making them a hazardous assignment. That fact that 
 the ketch should be at anchor in order to fire accurately also makes them
 easy targets for any return fire.

 Bomb ketches are not good sailing ships. The mortar has to be on the centre
 line, with a clear vertical field of fire. This means that the masts had
 to be aft of their ideal positions, making the ship handling qualities
 rather poor. With these limitations in mind, however, they are a powerful
 addition to any admiral's firepower. The ability to deliver shells by
 indirect fire (lobbing shells into fortifications, for example), is very
 useful.

 Historically, the bomb ketch was a French invention, but other nations 
 perfected the idea. The British mounted the mortar on a rotating platform
 so that it was no longer necessary to move the whole vessel to change aim.
 "The Star-Spangled Banner", the US national anthem, commemorates these 
 ships with the line "the bombs bursting in air.""

Regiment Size   = 42
Guns            = 14
Firepower       = 66
Range           = 750
Accuracy        = 60
Reloading Skill = 4
Hull Strength   = 1176
Speed           = 16
Manoeurability  = Low


--==Brig==--

"A brig is a lightly armed, small, two-masted sailing ship, much prized for
 its exceptional handling and sailing qualities.

 The term "brig" is a contraction of "brigantine" (an earlier sailing ship
 design), although the two types do not have the same rigging. A brigantine
 carries fore-and-aft sails, while a brig is square-rigged: this explains why
 the brig was favoured, for square rigging requires far fewer skilled hands
 to sail the vessel. The term "brig" could also include many rigging sets,
 including the strangely named "hermaphrodite brig", which had a square- 
 rigged forward mast and schooner-riged aft (main) mast.

 All brigs, in the hands of a good captain, are handy little ships, and can
 virtually turn in their own length. This manoeurability partly makes up
 for the light armament, usually no more than a couple of cannon - and those
 no larger than 12-lbers. The development of carronades (short-barreled, 
 short-range, large-bore weapons) added to a brig's firepower.

 Historically, the fledging United States Navy used brigs, especially on the
 Great Lakes. USN brigs also put up a brave account of themselves against
 the Barbary Pirates."

Regiment Size   = 78
Guns            = 26
Firepower       = 76
Range           = 500
Accuracy        = 60
Reloading Skill = 7
Hull Strength   = 1258
Speed           = 21
Manoeurability  = High


--==Carronade Frigate==--

"Carronade frigates are single-deck vessels, with extremely impressive short-
 range firepower.

 Normally frigates would be armed with long guns, probably no larger than
 12-pounders. A few short-barrelled 64-pounder carronades might be aboard to
 give a close-in broadside more weight of shot. A carronade frigate goes one
 better, and carries nothing by carronades - short guns that are half the
 weight of the equivalent conventional cannon. Whiule the weight of the
 broadside is truly awesome, the frigate has to get in close in order to blow
 an enemy to smithereens thanks to the carronades' limited range. A clever
 enemy will stay out of range of the carronades' horrendous power and take
 long range pot shots.

 Historically, only the Royal Navy experimented with an all-carronade  
 armament aboard HMS Glatton (in service from 1795). Glatton carried 28
 64-pounder and 28 32-pounder carronades, giving a weight of fire that was
 more than 17% greater than HMS Victory could deliver at the Battle of
 Trafalgar! This massive firepower allowed her, on one occasion, to chase 
 all eight vessels in a French squadron back to port. Oddly enough, the next
 two vessels to carry the name "Glatton" in RN service were also massively
 over-armed."

Regiment Size   = 76
Guns            = 24
Firepower       = 52
Range           = 300
Accuracy        = 60
Reloading Skill = 8
Hull Strength   = 2856
Speed           = 18
Manoeurability  = Medium


--==Dhow (Trade Ship)==--

"A dhow is a traditional Arab sailing vessel, rigged with a lateen sail. 
 Although an ancient design, it is an efficient and handy craft, particularly
 for coastal work - and pirates!

 The design of the dhow has remained unchanged over hundreds of years; it 
 simply doesn't need to be improved. Used throughout the Arab worldas 
 trading boats, pirates also favour them because of their good handling, 
 and relatively high speed. That said, the design may well as be Indian in
 origin, later adoped by Arab seafarers. A well-handled dhow has the advantage
 over many European ships, in that it can stay out of the firing footprint
 of most lumbering ships and yet is quick enough to be able to escape in 
 even the lightest of breezes.

 The lateen (or triangular) sail is also a ancient design. It is not, however,
 perfect for all conditions. The canted lateen yardarm is difficult to 
 handle in stormy conditions with a small crew. This may explain why the 
 sailing rig is favoured in the Mediterranean, the Red Sea and around the
 Arab peninsular rather than the Atlantic. The construction method of 
 stitching the planks together is a unique feature of the dhow.

 Historically, Europeans tended to use the term "dhow" indiscriminately to
 mean any vessel rigged with lateen sails. An Arab sailor would make a much
 finer distinction based on the hull configuration."

Regiment Size   = 11
Guns            = 3
Firepower       = 68
Range           = 500
Accuracy        = 36
Reloading Skill = 2
Hull Strength   = 904
Speed           = 19
Manoeurability  = Low


--==Fifth Rate==--

"Frigates are single-deck warships used for a variety of tasks thanks to a 
 combination of good handling, firepower and endurance at sea. 

 "Fifth Rate" is a Royal Navy term for the largest of the single-deck 
 frigates, square-rigged ships that carry some 44 guns, usually no heavier
 than 12-pounders. Originally a French design - but quickly adopted by 
 other European powers - the frigate is used for pursuit, convoy protection,
 commerce raiding and reconnaissance work. The design's excellent sailing
 characteristics and good handling, especially in inshore waters, make it
 a useful addition to any blockading fleet. The frigate's ability to 
 operate far away from a home port also makes it a useful cruiser, carrying
 the fight to the enemy in unexpected waters.

 Frigates can have the advantage over larger, two-deck ships in rough 
 waters. A frigate captain rarely has to worry about his gun deck taking on
 water, and can therefore fight in conditions that leave bigger ships at a
 disadvantage. However, fifth rates are not powerful enough to face
 battleships. They have the speed and handling to stay out of trouble: they
 do not have the strength of construction to survive a pounding! Against
 sloops, brigs and merchantmen, however, they are deadly. This makes them
 excellent postings for officers hungry for prize money and glory.

 Frigate captains made splendid role models for fictional heroes: Thomas,
 Lord Cochrane earned a fortune in prize money, gained the nickname "le 
 loup des mers" (sea-wolf) and was the inspiration for fictional heroes 
 Horatio Hornblower and Jack Aubrey."

Regiment Size   = 130
Guns            = 48
Firepower       = 112
Range           = 500
Accuracy        = 60
Reloading Skill = 8
Hull Strength   = 2856
Speed           = 18
Manoeurability  = Medium


--==First Rate Ship of the Line==--

"The first rate is the largest type of "ship of the line", intended to be 
 the command ship at the centre of any fleet.

 While these warships are among the most powerful vessels afloat, they are
 poor sailors being both slow and unresponsive. This is not a serious
 shortcoming because, armed with around 100 cannons firing 32-, 24- and 
 18-pounder balls on their three decks, they can fire a terrible and 
 destructive broadside. They carry a crew of over 800 sailors, gunners and
 marines and have more artillery than most land armies. Their cost, however,
 is a drawback and few navies can afford to build or maintain more than a
 handful of them. Their great size, however, means that an admiral and his
 staff can be carried with little disruption to the normal working of the
 ship.

Regiment Size   = 264
Guns            = 106
Firepower       = 238
Range           = 500
Accuracy        = 60
Reloading Skill = 10
Hull Strength   = 8772
Speed           = 14
Manoeurability  = Low


--=-Flyut (Trade Ship)==--

"A Flyut is a design for a square-rigged merchantman that is faster and 
 handier than a galleon.

 The shipis a good sailor, as befits a design coming from a seafaring
 nation like Holland.

 Historically, the flyut was originated by Dutch shipbuilders, and the type
 helped the Dutch to become a maritime trading nation in the 17th Century. 
 Extensively used by the Dutch trading companies, it was soon adopted by
 other nations. The vessels were easy for a relatively small crew to handle,
 and could carry around a dozen cannon for self-defence, although these were
 sometimes left ashore so that even more cargo could be carried.

 The flyut had a distinctive "fat-bottomed" cross section. This was a 
 cunning scheme to avoid taxes and tolls, as the Dutch had a habit of 
 charging tolls based on the deck area to access to the straits between 
 Denmark, Norway and Sweden. A small deck (the big cargo hold below 
 counted for nothing) meant lower taxes! The Dutch had to pay these tolls
 if they wanted access to any of the lucrative Baltic trade."

Regiment Size   = 142
Guns            = 41
Firepower       = 115
Range           = 500
Accuracy        = 43
Reloading Skill = 5
Hull Strength   = 4454
Speed           = 16
Manoeurability  = Low


--==Fourth Rate Ship of the Line==--

"The fourth rate is the smallest vessel styled a "ship of the line" (of 
 battle), carring as many as 60 guns.

 Ship of the line were the mainstay of fighting fleets: strong and stable
 gun platforms for battering enemy vessels into submission. The designation
 of "fourth rate" for ships of this size was a British Navy one, and covers
 a number of designs, all with very similar handling and combat power. All
 fourth rates are square-rigged, two-deck ships, with up to 60 guns on board
 in a mixture of calibres, usually a mixture of 24-, 18- and 12-pounders,
 with the heavier guns mounted on the lower deck.

 Even though fourth rates are obviously smaller than the third-rate 74s, their
 firepower is much lower than a simple number of guns comparsion would 
 indicate. There is no structural strength or space for coping with the recoil
 of massive guns. As a result, although partially it makes up for this by
 beind a handier sailing vessel, especially in shallow waters.

 Historically, it was obvious by the 1750s that ships of this size were not
 tough enough to stand in the line of battle against larger vessels. Over
 time, various admiralties removed these smaller battle ships from the
 active service, or sent them to minor stations where they were unlikely to
 encounter powerful enemies. Some survived as converted transports."

Regiment Size   = 152
Guns            = 58
Firepower       = 158
Range           = 500
Accuracy        = 60
Reloading Skill = 8
Hull Strength   = 4152
Speed           = 16
Manoeurability  = Low


--==Galleon (Trade Ship)==--

"A galleon is a square rigged warship, capable of long ocean voyages and of
 carrying some cargo. Demi-culverins are the usual armament carried.

 A galleon is a strong, seaworthy vessel, capable of surviving an Atlantic
 crossing in the worst of weathers. This is a tribute to their builder's
 methods and techniques, learned over the decades of making caravels and
 carracks. The line of a galleon show its medieval heritage, as a type
 similar to the earlier ships, but without their high forecastle shape. 
 The galleon retains a high stern castle, but its main fighting power is on
 the gun deck. This charge meant that galleons are not fighting platforms
 for (land) troops, but fight with broadside batteries of demi-culverin
 cannons. In this respect, it is a forerunner to the later square-rigged
 rated ships of the line. The guns and the strength of construction make
 them dangerous targets, as numerous English pirates and privateers 
 discovered to their cost.

 A galleon can also carry a substantial cargo. The Spanish galleon fleets
 carry bullion from the New World, for example, made a tempting target 
 because they were such good cargo vessels. The wealth they imported was
 almost beyond calculation. The gold and silver, however, damaged Spain
 by flooding the country with "cheap" money, and there was no understanding
 of economics to help stop the problem."

Regiment Size   = 176
Guns            = 58
Firepower       = 188
Range           = 50
Accuracy        = 43
Reloading Skill = 5
Hull Strength   = 4683
Speed           = 15
Manoeurability  = Low


--==Galley==--

"Galleys are propelled by both oars and sails, with cannons on firing 
 platforms above the rowers' heads. 

 Although made obsolecent by the rise of broadside-firing sailing ships,
 galleys still have a place in naval warfare. The wind (or its lack) does
 not limit their movement, and, if well handled, galleys can run rings
 around sailing ships. A galley has a reasonable amount of firepower for
 its size with cannons on a firing platform, or with a full gun deck
 above the rowers (on a design called the galleas). Up to five men work 
 each oar; these are convicts (at best) or slaves (at worst). The life
 of a rower is hard, brutal, and can be short: chained to their oars, they
 will go down with the galley if it founders.

 The galley's main disadvantage is its vulnerability in heavy seas: it would
 almost certainly sink in a full Atlantic seaway. It is most useful in 
 relative calm waters such as the Mediterranean or Baltic. These smaller seas
 also help keep a galley close to port: the large crew size means that they
 cannot venture far from a supply port, making them unsuitable for trans-
 oceanic voyages.

 Historically, the galley survived for a long time as a practical warship
 in sheltered waters. The Ottomens, Swedes and Russians all used them in
 their battle fleets. As late as the 1790s they were still in use in the
 Baltic and the Mediterranean (C.S. Forrester has his famous fictional
 hero Horatio Hornblower face Spanish galleons in one encounter). North
 African corsairs also used galleys, as they had a ready supply of European
 slaves to serve in them"

Regiment Size   = 74
Guns            = 2
Firepower       = 174
Range           = 500
Accuracy        = 57
Reloading Skill = 3
Hull Strength   = 1032
Speed           = 18
Manoeurability  = High


--==Heavy First Rate==--

"For some navies big is never quite big enough! This oversized "first rate
 ship of the line" is more a floating fortress than a mere battleship.

 This 120-gun (or larger) "first rate" is larger than a normal ship of that
 class, and far more powerful than a simple count of guns would imply. The
 ship carries 32-, 24- and 18-pounders its decks, and wherever possible
 heavier guns to replace the standard cannon found on a normal first rate.
 The result is quite expensive, very powerful, very prestigious warship, but
 one that can have limited utility. Few nations could afford the expense of
 building and crewing such a vessel, or can operate it far from shore
 facilities for very long. Its sailing qualities might be charitable described
 as "lubberly": this is not a ship for chasing down enemies. All these 
 drawbacks are secondary to its massive firepower and intimidating presence:
 this is a ship for dashing enemies to very small pieces!

 Historically, only the Stantisima Trinidad, a Spanish "super battleship" of
 four decks and some 136 guns, ever fought in action. Constructed as a three- 
 decker she was enormous at 120 guns, ever before her reworking. She fought
 at Cape St Vincent (1797) and Trafalgar (1805), and foundered after the latter
 battle in a storm while being towed away as a prize. The American USS
 Pennsylvania (ordered 1821; completed 1837) never saw action. The US Navy
 destroyed her in 1860 to keep her out of Confederate hands."

Regiment Size   = 300
Guns            = 122
Firepower       = 246
Range           = 500
Accuracy        = 58
Reloading Skill = 8
Hull Strength   = 10042
Speed           = 12
Manoeurability  = Low


--==HMS Victory==--

"HMS Victory is a first rate ship of the line, carrying some 100 guns and a 
 crew of more than 800 men.

 Like all first rates, Victory is not a handy ships, being both slow and
 unresponsive. Good sailing qualities, however, are secondary to the weight
 of broadside that she can both deliver and withstand. This is important
 in a warship that is intended to form the centrepiece of any squadron and
 act as an admiral's flagship.

 Completed in 1765, Victory is probably the most famous first rate in 
 history, and the only one still in existance. The work of naval architect 
 and genius Sir Thomas Slade, Victory was always intended to be a flagship;
 the Royal Navy perferred the smaller 74s as battleships. Forty years later,
 in 1805, she was Horatio Nelson's flagship at Trafalgar, a battle which
 gave the Royal Navy undisputed mastery of the world's oceans for more than
 a century."

Regiment Size   = 268
Guns            = 106
Firepower       = 252
Range           = 500
Accuracy        = 65
Reloading Skill = 8
Hull Strength   = 10586
Speed           = 14
Manoeurability  = Low

Built only by the British in their ports

**Requires Special Forces Edition**


--==Indiaman (Trade Ship)==--

"The Indiaman is an armed merchant ship, strongly built for the trade routes
 between Europe and the East. It is not a warship but can defend itself in
 need.

 The Indiaman is a three masted, square-rigging sailing ship of some 1000
 tons displacement. Although work for the relatively small crew is hard, there
 are compensations: they can trade goods in their own right, and make 
 excellent profits by doing so.

 Unusually for a merchant ship, an Indiaman carries cargo, passengers, and a
 good number of guns. Intended to sail from Europe to the other side of the
 world and back carrying valuable - sometimes priceless - cargoes, these
 ships have to be able to defend themselves. The passengers can expect some
 creature comforts, being both officers of the owning trade companies and
 assorted "gentlemen" seeking their fortunes in foreign parts.

 Historically, East Indiamen resembled ships of the line, both in their
 general configuration and paintwork. At the Battle of Pula Aura (1804), the
 ambiguous appearance and aggressive handling of a squadron of British 
 Indiamen completely humbugged the French Admiral, Charles-Alexandre Linois.
 He withdraw in the face of "superior" forces. Commodore Nathaniel Dance, 
 of the British Company fleet, received a knighthood and a handsome reward
 for his cunning.

 National navies purchased Indiamen and converted them into troopships and
 warships."

Regiment Size   = 54
Guns            = 12
Firepower       = 36
Range           = 500
Accuracy        = 36
Reloading Skill = 4
Hull Strength   = 1938
Speed           = 16
Manoeurability  = Low


--==Light Galley==--

"Light galleys have sails and oars, and light cannons mounted on platforms
 above the rower's benches.

 In restricted waters, galleys are useful craft, although in any kind of
 heavy sea they can be dangerous to manage: it would be a brave or foolish
 captain who risked his galley in the North Sea or Atlantic. Although they
 do not carry as many guns as a modern sailing vessel, the ability to move
 independently of the wind is very useful.

 The fighting crew of a galley is a relatively small part of the full crew,
 because the rowers are often convicts or pressed men and aboard only as 
 strong backs, not as stout hearts. Indeed, in some navies the rowers are
 often more of a threatto the crew than the enemy! The number of men 
 carried also limits the strategic range of a galley: they simply cannot
 carry enough food and water to sustain the crew for longer than a few
 days.

 Historically, galleys did good service in sheltered waters like the
 Mediterranean and the Baltic, and the Ottomans, Russians and Swedes
 all used them in anger. They were also favoured by the Barbary Coast
 Pirates, who could be guaranteed a good supply of slave rowers from
 captured European merchantmen."

Regiment Size   = 16
Guns            = 2
Firepower       = 174
Range           = 500
Accuracy        = 27
Reloading Skill = 2
Hull Strength   = 578
Speed           = 19
Manoeurability  = High


--==Race-Built Galleon==--

"A galleon is a square rigged warship, capable of long ocean voyages and of
 carrying some cargo. Demi-culverins are the usual armament carried.

 A galleon is a strong, seaworthy vessel, capable of surviving an Atlantic
 crossing in the worst of weathers. This is a tribute to their builder's
 methods and techniques, learned over the decades of making caravels and
 carracks. The line of a galleon show its medieval heritage, as a type
 similar to the earlier ships, but without their high forecastle shape. 
 The galleon retains a high stern castle, but its main fighting power is on
 the gun deck. This charge meant that galleons are not fighting platforms
 for (land) troops, but fight with broadside batteries of demi-culverin
 cannons. In this respect, it is a forerunner to the later square-rigged
 rated ships of the line. The guns and the strength of construction make
 them dangerous targets, as numerous English pirates and privateers 
 discovered to their cost.

 A galleon can also carry a substantial cargo. The Spanish galleon fleets
 carry bullion from the New World, for example, made a tempting target 
 because they were such good cargo vessels. The wealth they imported was
 almost beyond calculation. The gold and silver, however, damaged Spain
 by flooding the country with "cheap" money, and there was no understanding
 of economics to help stop the problem."

Regiment Size   = 176
Guns            = 58
Firepower       = 109
Range           = 500
Accuracy        = 43
Reloading Skill = 5
Hull Strength   = 1481
Speed           = 18
Manoeurability  = Medium


--==Razee==--

"A razee is a robust frigate, created by cutting the top deck off a 
 larger ship of the line.

 Frigates are a vital part of any balanced sea-going fleet. They are 
 cruisers that can operate independently and are swift to hunt down 
 enemy merchantmen. The chance or prize money makes them popular postings
 among officers and men alike!

 One way of creating a large, powerful frigate is to take a two-deck  
 ship of the line and, in effect, saw off the top deck creating a single-
 deck frigate. The first result is that a 64-gun ship crew can now only
 carry 44 guns, but the ones that remain are heavier than those normally
 found on a frigate, typically 32- or 24-pounders rather than the
 expected 18s! The second result is that the razee retains the strong 
 timbers of the original 64, making it a robust ship in combat. Thirdly,
 having lost its upper works, the new ship generally handles rather well
 under sail. All this work takes time and valuable dock space of course.

 Historically, one of the most successful razees was HMS Indefatigable,
 commanded by Edward Pellew. In the company of another frigate, Pellew
 took on - and defeated - the Droits de l'Homme, a French 74, in 1797.
 During the next year or so, Pellew and the Indefatigable went on to
 take a further nine vessels.

Regiment Size   = 134
Guns            = 48
Firepower       = 124
Range           = 500
Accuracy        = 60
Reloading Skill = 10
Hull Strength   = 4654
Speed           = 18
Manoeurability  = Medium


--==Rocket Ship==--

"A rocket ship is a floating arsenal, usually converted from a two-masted
 ketch-rigged vessel. The whole ship is given over to a rocket battery and 
 the necesary stores. 

 A rocket ship is intended to plaster a large area with a huge number of
 rocket projectiles in a very short time. The need for a large deck space to
 be clear for the rockets' launch troughs compromises the ship's handling
 and sailing qualities, but this is a small price to pay for horrendous
 and terrifying firepower! There is also the danger to the crew: the risk
 of explosion is enough to age any captain prematurely, and rigging chains
 (not ropes) and wetted sails are standard features.

 Military rockets are the result of European troops getting some very
 nasty surprises when campaigning in India (Congreve's rocket system was 
 designed to copy Indian weapons). The large variety of warheads, including
 explosive shells, makes rockets a versatile but often inaccurate weapon.
 The best way of using rockets is en masse: the more fired at a single
 target, the better, given that some are almost inevitably going to fly
 astray - not that this inaccuracy matters to those on the receiving end!

 Historically, the Royal Navy used rockets to bombard ports and enemy
 fortifications. The phrase "the rockets' red glare" in the US national
 anthem commemorates the use of Congreve rockets against Fort McHenry, 
 which guarded the harbour entrance at Baltimore, Maryland, during the
 War of 1812."

Regiment Size   = 16
Guns            = 3
Firepower       = 66
Range           = 750
Accuracy        = 20
Reloading Skill = 6
Hull Strength   = 578
Speed           = 16
Manoeurability  = Low


--==Second Rate Ship of the Line==--

"The second rate is a three-deck "Battle Ship of the Line" carrying up to 98
 cannons, a powerful unit in any fleet.

 This three-deck warship is a compromise design between the firepower of a 
 first-rate ship and the sea-keeping qualities of a third-rate 74. Like many
 compromises, the result was something that pleases few, but the extra
 weight of the broadside does compensate for poor sailing qualities. The
 design does have one unexpected benefit: many captains are often quick to
 identify second rates as much larger ships and, as a result, flee from a 
 "much superior" enemy!

 The lower gun deck houses 32-pounders, and this explains the "tumblehome"
 shape of all ships of the period: the bulge at water level and just above 
 in the hull allowed more room on the lower decks for the recoil of large
 cannons; the lighter guns on the higher decks did not recoil as much.

 Historically, only the British Royal Navy commissioned many ships of this
 rating, other nations simply built first rates instead. This might be due
 to the Royal Navy needing to keep large shipson foreign stations as 
 flagships, an assignment that would have been wasteful and expensive for
 a first rate."

Regiment Size   = 224
Guns            = 86
Firepower       = 166
Range           = 500
Accuracy        = 60
Reloading Skill = 10
Hull Strength   = 6796
Speed           = 14
Manoeurability  = Low


--==Sixth Rate==--

"A sixth rate is the smallest class of frigate. It is a useful scout for slow
 battle fleets, and usually has excellent handling characteristics.

 The Royal Navy system of rating ships defines a "sixth rate" as a small
 frigate: a single-deck ship, square-rigged, with around 28 nine-pounder 
 guns and a crew of around 200 men. This is the smallest vessel in the 
 system set out by Samuel Pepys (the very same fellow who is now famous for
 his sometimes rude diaries), and the smallest command of post captain. This
 means that sixth rate captains are either old men, passed over for command,
 or young, ambitious officers looking to make their mark. It's also worth
 pointing out that, even with "only" 28 nine-pounder cannons at his command,
 the captain of a sloop has more firepower than many generals alone!

 Historically, the sixth rate's small size made them handy for scouting
 work and perfect where speed and good sailing qualities were required. They
 were a very good counter to privateers in small luggers, brigs and sloops:
 sixth rates can chase them down and have enough guns and men to win the
 subsequent engagement! They were also extremely useful in blockades, as  
 they could sail in shallow waters and keep close watch on enemy ports."

Regiment Size   = 92
Guns            = 32
Firepower       = 78
Range           = 500
Accuracy        = 60
Reloading Skill = 8
Hull Strength   = 2196
Speed           = 19
Manoeurability  = Medium


--==Sloop==--

"A sloop of war is usually ketch-rigged with two masts. These small vessels 
 handle well in restricted waters.

 The ability to navigate in exceptionally shallow or dangerous waters makes
 sloops very useful in such seas as the reef-strewn waters of the Caribbean.
 They can also operate without the need for extensive onshore naval facilities
 nearby. They are also extremely useful as fleet auxiliaries, carrying out
 communications tasks and vital inshore scouting work, and can hunt down 
 smaller prey such as privateers and small enemy cargo vessels. A sloop-of-war
 (sometimes a corvette in French service) is a different vessel from a 
 civilian, merchant sloop, having a fresh deck, two square-rigging masts, 
 guns, and a larger crew.

 Historically, a post captain would rarely command a ship this small. The 
 commanding officer was the "master and commander" (this is the origin of 
 the modern naval rank of commander), and held the formal rank of lieutenant.
 Captain Cook RN commanded HMS Resolution, a sloop converted from a collier
 (coal ship), on his epic Pacific voyages and was highly satisfied with its
 performance. Sloop captains could be aggressive: before his promotion to post
 captain. Thomas Cochrane commanded the 14-gun HMS Speedy and managed to
 capture "El Gamo", a Spanish xebec of 32 guns with a crew six times larger
 than his own!"

Regiment Size   = 62
Guns            = 18
Firepower       = 84
Range           = 500
Accuracy        = 60
Reloading Skill = 6
Hull Strength   = 1396
Speed           = 22
Manoeurability  = High


--==Steamship==--

"A steamship still uses sails, but the ability to ignore the wind is highly
 desirable in a warship.

 By fitting a steam engineand all its machinery into an existing hull, naval
 architects hoped to create a ship-of-the-line not tied to the wind and tide.
 In this, they were moderately successful. A steamship can sail independently
 of the prevailing winds, but most still spend a good deal of time under the
 sail. Coal is expensive, and coaling stations are few and far between: 
 steam is not a practical method of strategic movement.

 Tactically, however, it is a different story. With powerful guns, a steamship
 can out-manoeuvre  any sailing ship. Admittedly, the idea of going into 
 battle with a fire raging in the belly of his ship is not one that appeals
 to every captain. Boiler explosions are not entirely unknown either, as 
 safety features are installed as the fancy takes the engineer, not as a 
 matter of course. A stray shot through the engine room can also do terrible
 damage.

 Historically, the conversion of ships of the line to steam was never going
 to be anything more than a stopgap measure. Steamships, with their dirt
 and smoke, were not popular with traditionally minded captains, particularly
 in the British Royal Navy. They expected obsessively high standards of
 neatness and cleanliness, with no soot and lubricating oil smeared over
 their nice clean ships."

Regiment Size   = 114
Guns            = 34
Firepower       = 216
Range           = 500
Accuracy        = 60
Reloading Skill = 10
Hull Strength   = 3134
Speed           = 18
Manoeurability  = High


--==Third Rate Ship of the Line==--

"The third rate is an excellent compromise between firepower and handling
 qualities. A stable gun platform, it has more guns than many whole armies!

 The third rate, or "74" (from the number of guns aboard), is a supremely
 practical weapon of war. With a crew of around 700 men, it is a "wooden
 world" in itself and a statement of national power. A two-deck design, it is
 strong enough to mount very heavy cannons on its lower deck, often 32-
 pounders. With 18-pounders on the upper gun deck and then 9-pounders in the
 upper works, it has a devastating broadside. The design and construction
 means a 74 can withstand horrendous damage in battle.

 Historically, the French invented the concept of the 74-gun ship in the
 mid 18-Century. The design was so good that other navies lost no time in
 copying it or in capturing French ships. French vessels, while well-designed,
 were often made from green timber that "worked" in heavy seas and therefore
 leaked. Dutch examples had a shallower, broader draft to suit their harbours
 and shore waters. The few American 74s were extremely strong and well made.
 British 74s were well constructed too, although there was a regrettably 
 tendancy to save money by recycling timber - complete with timber rot- 
 from older vessels!

 Amazingly, HMS Implacable, the last of the third rates, was scuttled in 1949!
 Built in 1800 by the French, and captured at Trafalgar in 1805, she stayed
 in service until 1842. Eventually, she ended her days as a coal hulk."

Regiment Size   = 196
Guns            = 74
Firepower       = 231
Range           = 500
Accuracy        = 60
Reloading Skill = 10
Hull Strength   = 4818
Speed           = 16
Manoeurability  = Low


--==USS Constitution==--

"The USS Constitution is a powerful, heavy frigate in the United States Navy.

 She is easily equal of many smaller fourth rate ships of the line in terms 
 of combat power as she carries 44 24-pounder guns; a normal frigate in 
 another navy would carry 12-pounders at best. The Constitution is also 
 strongly built and large, allowing her to withstand punishment from other
 frigates and still be able to outrun larger opposition. 

 Unlikely as it sounds, the United States sold off the ships of the 
 Continential Navy after the Revolutionary War. This had unfortunate 
 consequences because the Barbary pirates noticed that, if America was a new
 nation, American ships were no longer protected by any treaty signed with
 Britain. The USS Constitution was therefore intended to combat the pirates.
 Even more incredibly, once a treaty with the pirates had been signed, 
 construction was suspended! Eventually, Congress agreed to fund the ship,
 and she was launched in 1797."

Regiment Size   = 134
Guns            = 48
Firepower       = 189
Range           = 400
Accuracy        = 60
Reloading Skill = 40
Hull Strength   = 6586
Speed           = 17
Manoeurability  = Medium

Built only by the United States

**Requires Special Forces + Bonus Units Downloadable Content**


--==Xebec==--

"The xebec is a lateen-rigged ship with exceptional speed, making it popular 
 with North African corsairs hunting wealthy infidel merchants!

 These relatively small vessels have three masts carrying fore-and-aft sails,
 making them handy sailors, even in light winds. The lateen sails also allow
 the ship to sail close-hauled to the wind, making pursuits easier. Even when
 becalmed, some xebecs can still be dangerous enemies to face, as they carry
 oars and can close with an enemy at a time of their own choosing.

 Although not quite as well armed as a European frigate, xebecs carry a 
 formidable arsenal of 12- or 18-pounder guns. This, combined with their 
 excellent sailing characteristics, makes them particularly suitable for
 piracy, and the corsairs - the infamous Barbary Pirates - of the North
 African coast use them. They can also carry a good-sized crew of ruffians!

 Historically, the Barbary Pirates were a severe threat to European traders
 for centuries, partly because of excellent warships like the xebec (the name
 probably comes from an Arabic word "shabbak", meaning a small warship).
 Eventually a few xebec-frigates were used by European Mediterranean naval
 powers, where the basic xebec hull shape was preserved but the distinctive
 lateen walls were replaced by square rigged sails. A few xebecs carried a 
 hybrid rig with both square and lateen sails."

Regiment Size   = 88
Guns            = 24
Firepower       = 147
Range           = 500
Accuracy        = 57
Reloading Skill = 2
Hull Strength   = 1200
Speed           = 19
Manoeurability  = High

Used mainly by Pirates and the African Nations

*~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~*
[A.06] Traits

Traits are little, well, traits that are possessed by your characters. There
are several sets of traits. There are five sets. The one represented by
the black face on the purple backdrop is a passive effect, that is, it will
always be there. The Books will mean it is related to research and the 
Crossed Swords means it is effective only in battle. The Anchor will be part
of Battle traits, except it is for water. The Crossed Tools are industrial 
traits. The Clasped hands are Religious Traits.

Traits are gained in two ways. Most battle traits are gained after a battle,
after a win or loss. The other way is to have them gained over time. Your
ministers, gentlemen, rakes, generals and leader will all gain some traits,
both good and bad, over time. 

Anyway, below, there are the traits. I'll list them into five groups, battle,
research, industry, religious and passive. Note that you have really, no 
control on the passive traits, and sort of an influence on battle, given that
you get the good traits on a win, bad traits on a loss. Battle Traits can, be
lost in a battle if the General loses. 


				Battle Traits


--==Able Seaman==--

 * +1 to Command at Sea when defending


--==Admiral of the Bathtub==--

 * Research points per turn for military technologies : 1


--==A Fair Fight?==--

 * Enables the army to conduct attacks as ambushes


--==Aggressive Attacker==--

 * +2 to Command when attacking on land


--==Aggressive Commander==--

 * +2 to Command when attacking on sea


--==A Good Dutchmen==--

 * -10% upkeep costs for all naval units
 * +2 to Morale in battles
 * +5% movement range for ships on the campaign map


--==A "Good Seat"==--

 * +1 to Command when leading cavalry units


--==A Lack of "Bottom"==--

 * -1 to morale in Battles


--==An Eye for Trajectory==--

 * +1 to Command when leading Artillery units


--==Armchair General==--

 * Research points per turn for military technologies : 1


--==A Taste for Battle==--

 * +2 to Command when attacking on land


--==Attacking General==--

 * +1 to Command when attacking on land


--==Blockade Runner==--

 * +1 to Command when Commandering Frigates


--==Bloody==--

 * -1 to Morale in all Battles


--==Born Cavalryman==--

 * +2 to Command when leading Cavalry Units


--==Born to Fight==--

 * +2 to Command in Land Battles


--==Brave==--

 * +2 to Morale in Battles


--==Brave Sailor==--

 * +1 to Command in Sea Battles
 * +1 to Morale in battles


--==Brave Soldier==--

 * +2 to Morale in all Battles


--==Captain Fishface!==--

 * -1 to morale in battles


--==Cold-Blooded==--

 * -2 to Morale in battles
 * -5% to recovery chances of battle casualties


--==Common Labourer==--

 * +1 to Command when Beseiging


--==Confident==--

 * +3 to Command when attacking on land


--==Confident Admiral==--

 * +1 to Command in Sea Battles


--==Confident Defender==--

 * +3 to Command when defending on land


--==Confident General==--

 * +1 to Command in Land Battles.


--==Confident War Chief==--

 * +1 to Command in Land Battles


--==Contempt for the Turk==--

 * +1 to Command when in battle against the Ottomans


--=="Corporal in Gold Braid"==--

 * +1 to Morale in all Battles


--==Cool Under Fire==--

 * +1 to Morale in all Battles


--==Courageous Leader==--

 * +3 to Morale in all Battles


--==Cruelty Mocked==--

 * -1 to Morale in all Battles


--==Cunning General==--

 * +1 to Command during ambushes


--==Cunning Seamaster==--

 * +2 to Command at Sea when defending


--==Dangerous==--

 * -1 to Morale in Battles


--==Deeds Recounted==--

 * +1 to Morale in Battles


--==Defensive Admiral==--

 * +3 to Command at Sea when Defending


--==Defensively Inept==--

 * -1 to Command when defending on land


--==Defensively Weak Admiral==--

 * -2 to Command at Sea when Defending


--==Dithering Defender==--

 * -1 to Command when defending on land


--==Drillmaster==--

 * +2 to Command when leading Infantry Units
 * +5% to infantry unit's campaign movement range


--==Famous Post Captain (in his day)==--

 * +1 to Command when commanding Ships of the Line


--==Ferang==--

 * +2 to Command when in battle against European nations


--==Fighting Sailor==--

 * +1 to Command at Sea when attacking


--==Fleet Tactics==--

 * +3 to Command when commanding Ships of the Line


--==Frigate Captain==--

 * +1 to Command when commandering Frigates


--==Frontier General==--

 * +2 to Command when fighting in the Americas


--==Frontiersman==--

 * +1 to Command when fighting in the Americas


--==General in Infantry==--

 * -1 to morale in battles
 * +3 to Command when leading infantry units
 * +10% to infantry units campaign movement range


--==General of Cavalry==--

 * +3 to Command when leading cavalry units
 * +5% to cavalry units campaign movement range


--==Glorious Admiral==--

 * +4 to Command in Sea Battles


--==Glorious General==--

 * +3 to Command in Land Battles


--==Going Native==--

 * +1 to Command when fighting in India


--==Good Defender==--

 * +1 to Command when defending on land


--==Good on Attack==--

 * +1 to Command when attacking on land


--==Great Admiral==--

 * +3 to Command in Sea Battles


--==Great General==--

 * +3 to Command in Land Battles


--==Hero of the Army==--

 * +4 to Morale in all Battles


--==Hero of the Nation==--

 * +1 to Prestige per turn
 * +4 to Morale in Battles


--==Hero of the Navy==--

 * +1 to Command in Sea Battles
 * +3 to morale in battles


--==Hero-Worshipped==--

 * -1 to Command in land battles
 * +4 to Morale in battles


--==Hold the Walls!==--

 * +2 to Command when besieged


--==Horseman==--

 * +1 to Command when leading Cavalry units


--==Independent Command==--

 * +3 to Command when commanding frigates


--==Lacking Combative Instincts==--

 * -1 to Command at Sea when Attacking


--==Line Expert==--

 * +2 to Command when commanding Ships of the Line


--==Masterful Attacker==--

 * +3 to Command at Sea when attacking


--==Master Gunner==--

 * +1 to Command when leading artillery units


--==Master of Horses==--

 * +2 to Command when leading cavalry units


--==Melancholy Soul==--

 * +1 to Command when defending on land


--==Military Writer==--

 * Research points per turn for military technologies: 2


--==Moral Jellyfish==--

 * -3 to Morale in Battles


--==Natural Scout==--

 * +5% to Army Campaign Movement Range


--==Plotter of Wars==--

 * Research points per turn for military technologies: 3


--==Polish Heritage==--

 * +1 to Command when defending on land


--==Poor At Sieges==--

 * -1 to Command when besieging


--==Poor General==--

 * -1 to Command in Land Battles


--==Riding Master==--

 * +2 to Command when leading Cavalry Units


--==Rumours of Cowardice==--

 * -1 to Morale in Battles


--==Sailor From Birth==--

 * +1 to Command in Sea Battles


--==Sepoy General==--

 * +2 to Command when fighting in India


--==Siege Expert==--

 * +1 to Command when beseiging


--==Skilled Siege Commander==--

 * +1 to Command when being Beseiged


--==Skilled Siege Defender==--

 * +1 to Command when Beseiged


--==Slippery Character==--

 * +1 to Command when Commandering Frigates
 * +1 to Morale in Battles


--==Soldier from Birth==--

 * +1 to Command in Land Battles


--==Son of the Sea==--

 * +2 to Command in Sea Battles
 * +5% Movement Range for Ships on the Campaign Map


--==Son of the Waves==--

 * +5% Movement Range for Ships on the Campaign Map


--==Steadfast==--

 * +1 to Command when commandering Frigates


--==Steady==--

 * +1 to morale in battles


--==Stiff-Necked Spaniard==--

 * +1 to Morale in Battles


--==Superior Admiral==--

 * +2 to Command in Sea Battles


--==Superior General==--

 * +2 to Command in Land Battles


--==Superior War Chief==--

 * +2 to Command in land battles


--==Swashbuckler==--

 * +1 to Command at Sea when Attacking
 * +1 to Morale in Battles


--==Thinker on War==--

 * Research points per turn for military technologies: 2


--==Tribal War Chief==--

 * +2 to Command in land battles
 * Enables the army to conduct attacks as ambushes


--==Unstoppable Attacker==--

 * +1 to Command in Land Battles
 * +3 to Command when attacking on land


--==War Leader==--

 * +1 to Command in Land Battles
 * Enables the army to conduct attacks as ambushes


--==Warrior from Birth==--

 * +1 to Morale in battles


--==With Mother's Milk==--

 * +2 to Command when in battle against the Ottomans


				Industrial Traits

--==Capitalist==--

 * +2 Happiness (Middle Classes)
 * +2 to Manage for Treasury Administration


--==Stallholder==--

 * +1 Happiness (Middle Classes)
 * +1 Management for Treasury Administration



				Passive Traits

--==A Cruel Wit==--

 * +2 to Duelling when Duelling with Swords


--==Addled Wits==--

 * -1 to Command in land battles
 * -2 to Morale in battles


--==A Fascination with Foreigners==--

 * -1 Happiness (Nobility)
 * +10 to Diplomatic Relations


--==A Good Listener==--

 * +1 to Subterfuge for Infiltration Missions


--==Agrarian==--

 * +1 to Management
 * +1 Happiness (Nobility)
 * -1 to Management for Treasury Administration


--==A Happy Drinkner==--

 * +1 to Morale in Battles


--==A Holy Light==--

 * +2 to Zeal when seeking converts in India


--==A Hunter Born==--

 * -1 to Management


--==A Little Too Clever==--

 * -2 Happiness (Nobility)
 * +10% to Technology Research Rate
 * +1 Prestige per turn


--==A Nose for Trouble==--

 * +2 to Subterfuge when Counterspying


--==A Sportsman Born==--

 * -1 to Management


--==A Test of Endurance==--

 * -1 to Zeal when seeking converts in India


--==Army Enthusiast==--

 * -5% Recruitment Cost to all Land Units


--==Assassin==--

 * +1 to Subterfuge for Assassination Missions


--==Autocrat==--

 * +1 to maximum town Repression bonus from town watch


--==Believer in Name Only==--

 * This man understands religion, but does not have a hold over them.


--==Bloodyhand==--

 * +2 to Subterfuge for Assassination Missions


--==Bon Vivant==--

 * +1 to Management
 * +1 Happiness (Lower Classes)


--==Born to Quarterdeck==--

 * +1 to Command in Sea Battles
 * +5% to movement range of ships on the campaign map


--==Brother to the Wolf==--

 * +2 to Command during ambushes


--==Buffalo Warrior==--

 * +1 to Morale in Battle


--==Camp Follower==--

 * +3 to Management for Army Administration


--==Cautious==--

 * -5% Chance of Assassination


--==Cloak and Dagger==--

 * There is something glamourous and dangerous about the shadow world.


--==Commissioner==--

 * +2 to Management for Navy Administration


--==Corresponds with the Learned==--

 * +5% to Technology Research Rate
 * +5% to Clamour for Reform


--==Crisis of Faith==--

 * -2 to Zeal when seeking converts in India


--==Crude==--

 * -5 to Diplomatic Relations


--==Cunning as Two Foxes==--

 * +3 to Subterfuge for Infiltration Missions


--==Darkly Charismatic==--

 * +1 to Duelling when duelling with Swords


--==Darling of the Gutter Press==--

 * +2 to Morale in All Battles


--==Deathbringer==--

 * +3 to Subterfuge for Assassination Missions


--==Devout==--

 * +2 to Zeal
 * -10% to Religious Unrest


--==Divine Right to Rule==--

 * +2 to Management
 * -1 Happiness (Nobility)
 * +1 Prestige per Turn


--==Drawing Room Philosopher==--

 * +5% to Clamour for Reform


--==Drunken==--

 * -5 to morale in battles


--==Dull as a Flounder==--

 * This man may have heard of the art of public speaking, but her certainly
   doesn't believe it is worth learning.


--==Eastern Mystic==--

 * +2 to Command when in battle against the Ottomans
 * -5% to army campaign movement range


--==Enlightened Despot==--

 * -5% to the cost of Town Watch


--==Faith Reaffirmed==--

 * +1 to Zeal when seeking converts in India


--==Fertile Ground==--

 * +1 to Zeal when seeking converts in Europe


--==Fingers in the Privy Purse==--

 * -2 to Management
 * -1 Happiness (Nobility)


--==Fond of Sailors==--

 * +3 to Management of Navy Administration


--==Four-Bottle Man==--

 * -1 to morale in Battles


--==Freak of Nature==--

 * -2 to Management
 * -2 Prestige per turn


--==Frugal and Thrifty==--

 * +1 to Management
 * -1 Happiness (Nobility)
 * -2 Management for Treasury Administration


--==Genuphone==--

 * +1 to morale in battles


--==Gone Native==--

 * -1 to Zeal when seeking converts in the Americas


--==Good Aim==--

 * +2 to Duelling when duelling with pistols


--==Good News==--

 * +1 Morale in All Battles


--==Good Saboteur==--

 * +1 to Subterfuge
 * +1 to Subterfuge for sabotage missions


--==Good Swordsman==--

 * +2 to Duelling when duelling with swords


--==Glutton==--

 * -2% to campaign map movement range


--==Hale and Hearty==--

 * +5 to Campaign Movement Range


--==Harsh Reputation==--

 * +1 to Management
 * -1 Happiness (Lower Classes)
 * +1 to Management for Justice Administration


--==Hates the White Man==--

 * +2 to Command when in battle against European nations


--==Head for Figures==--

 * -5% upkeep costs for all naval units


--==Honey-Tongued==--

 * +2 to Subterfuge for Sabotage Missions


--==Honest==--

 * +1 to Management


--==Incorruptable==--

 * -1 to Management
 * -2 Happiness (Nobility)
 * +3 to Management for Treasury Administration


--==Industrial Revolutionary==--

 * +1 to Management for Treasury Administration


--==Informers==--

 * +3 to Subterfuge when Counterspying


--==Interested in Europeans==--

 * +5 to Diplomatic Relations


--==Iron Hand==--

 * -2 Happiness (Lower Classes)
 * +1 Happiness (Middle Classes)
 * +2 to Management for Justice Administration


--==Jug Head==--

 * +1 Happiness (Lower Classes)
 * -1 Happiness (Nobility)
 * +3% Clamour to Reform


--==Keeper of the Dark Secrets==--

 * +5 to subterfuge when counterspying


--==Lewd==--

 * -1 Happiness (Lower Classes)


--==Lewd and Loose==--

 * -10 to Diplomatic Relations


--==Likes Uniform==--

 * -10% Recruitment Cost for Naval Units


--==Little Sergeant==--

 * +5% to infantry units' campaign movement range


--==Local Knowledge==--

 * +1 Subterfuge when Counterspying


--==Looks to the Eagles==--

 * +1 to Command during ambushes


--==Majestic==--

 * +1 to Management
 * +1 Prestige per turn


--==Medicine Charm==--

 * +2 to Morale in Battles


--==Mentioned in Dispatches==--

 * +1 to Command when leading infantry units
 * +1 to Morale in all Battles


--==Mole==--

 * +2 to Subterfuge


--==Morally Impaired==--

 * -1 to Management


--==Murderous Imbalance==--

 * +2 to subterfuge for assassination missions


--==Nasty, Brutish, and American==--

 * -2 to Zeal when seeking converts in the Americas


--==Natural Horseman==--

 * +1 to Command when leading cavalry units


--==Naval Enthusiast==--

 * -5% Recruitment Cost for all Naval Units


--==No Sense of Shame==--

 * +1 Happiness (Nobility)


--==Nonsenical Outbursts==--

 * -2 Prestige per turn


--==Obsessive==--

 * -5% to land military technology research rate
 * -10% recruitment cost for all land units
 * -5% recruitment cost for Cavalry


--==Odd==--

 * -1 to Morale in Battles


--==Patron==--

 * +1 to Management for Navy Administration


--==Peacemaker==--

 * +1 to Diplomatic Relations


--==Petty Tyrant==--

 * -1 to Morale in Battles
 * +10% to infantry units' campaign movement range


--==Pious==--

 * +1 to Zeal
 * -5% to Religious Unrest


--==Promotes on Merit==--

 * +1 to Management
 * +1 Happiness (Middle Classes)


--==Prussian Junker==--

 * +1 to Command when leading infantry units


--==Prussian Officer==--

 * +2 to Command when leading infantry units


--==Rather Clever==--

 * +5% to technology research rate
 * +1 Prestige per turn


--==Raving and Drolling==--

 * -3 to Management
 * -2 Prestige per turn


--==Res Publica==--

 * +1 to Management
 * +5% to Clamour for Reform
 * +1 Prestige per turn


--==Rosy-Cheeked==--

 * +5% to Campaign Movement Range


--==Soaked in Claret==--

 * -2 to morale in all battles


--==Sickly==--

 * -5% to Campaign Movement Range


--==Something of a Banker==--

 * +1 to Management for Treasury Administration


--==Something of a Blade==--

 * +1 to Duelling when Duelling with Swords


--==Spiritual Leader==--

 * +1 to Zeal when seeking converts in the Americas
 * +1 to Diplomatic Relations


--==Status Quo==--

 * -1 Happiness (Lower Classes)
 * +1 Happiness (Nobility)
 * -3% to Clamour for Reform


--==Steady Hand==--

 * +1 to Duelling when Duelling with Pistols


--==Steady Under Fire==--

 * +1 to Morale in Battles


--==Stormcloud==--

 * +1 to Subterfuge for Sabotage missions


--==Strategist==--

 * +2 to Management for Army Administration


--==Sybarite==--

 * +1 Happiness (Lower Classes)
 * -1 Happiness (Nobility)


--==Tactician==--

 * +1 to Management for Army Administration


--==The Great Outdoors==--

 * +10% to Campaign Movement Range


--==Three Bottle Man==--

 * This man's wine merchant is comfortably wealthy


--==Too Clever==--

 * -2 Happiness (Nobility)
 * +10% to technology research rate


--==Touched By His Hand==--

 * +4 to Zeal


--==Trencherman==--

 * -1% to Campaign Movement Range


--==Tyrant==--

 * +2 to Maximum Repression Bonus from Town Watch


--==Uncle to his Men==--

 * +1 to Morale in battles


--==Unsavoury Bawd==--

 * -1 Happiness (Lower Classes)


--==Upright==--

 * +1 to Management for Treasury Administration
 * -1 Happiness (Nobility)


--==Weasel Cunning==--

 * +1 to Subterfuge to Infiltration missions


--==Woodland Preacher==--

 * +1 to Zeal when seeking converts in the Americas


				Research Traits

--==Academic Fellow==--

 * +4 to Research


--==A Man of Business==--

 * Research points per turn for industrial technologies : 3


--==Banking Genius==--

 * Research points per turn for enlightenment technologies : 3


--==Compleat Banker==--

 * Research points per turn for enlightenment technologies : 1


--==Doctorate==--

 * +1 to Research


--==Emeritus Professorship==--

 * +3 to Research


--==Factory Master==--

 * Research points per turn for industrial technologies : 1


--==Gentleman Farmer==--

 * Research points per turn for industrial technologies : 2


--==Gentleman Scientist==--

 * Research points per turn for industrial technologies : 1


--==Learned Member==--

 * +1 to Research
 * Research points per turn for industrial technologies : 1


--==Manufactory Owner==--

 * Research points per turn for industrial technologies : 2


--==Moral Thinker==--

 * Research points per turn for enlightenment technologies : 2


--==Rustic Gentlemen==--

 * Research points per turn for industrial technologies : 1


--==Respected Philosopher==--

 * Research points per turn for enlightenment technologies : 3	


--==Scholar==--

 * Research points per turn for enlightenment technologies : 1


--==Tenured Professorship==--

 * +2 to Research


--==Wind Rider==--

 * +2 to Subterfuge for Infiltration missions


*~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~*
[A.07] Followers

Followers are sort of like traits, think of them as SUPER TRAITS. These are
basically always positive, which is a good thing, unlike traits. These are
more or less people who follow you main unit, and they can go and attach
themselves to anyone who can have a trait, and that means it will be able to
attach itself to Generals, Admirals, Gentlemen, Rakes, Ministers and Leaders.
Followers such as Ancileries are listed here as well. 

--==Aide de Camp==--

 * +1 to Command in Land Battles


--==Amusing Cad==--

 * +1 Happiness (Nobility)
 * -1 Happiness (Lower Classes)


--==Architect==--

 * No structure, placed harmoniously within a landscape, is entirely wasted
   sir!


--==Barber==--

 * -1 to Morale in Battles
 * -5% chance to death at the end of the turn


--==Berdache==--

 * +1 to Morale in Battles


--==Blood Brother==--

 * +2 to Command when fighting in the Americas


--==Capering Loon==--

 * Research points per turn for enlightenment technologies: 1
 * Research points per turn for military technologies: -1


--==Captive Colonist==--

 * +1 to Diplomatic Relations


--==Captured Lady==--

 * +2 to Management


--==Captured Wife==--

 * +1 to Management


--==Captured Woman==--

 * -1 to Command when in battle against European nations


--==Choirmaster==--

 * +1 Happiness (Nobility)


--==Circassian Beauty==--

 * -10% to chance of Assassination
 * +2 Prestige per turn


--==Comptroller==--

 * -4% bonus to global tax income
 * +2 to Management for Treasury Administration


--==Confidential Secretary==--

 * +2 to Management for Treasury Administration
 * -1 to Management for Justice Administration


--==Contrary Brave==--

 * +2 to Command in Land Battles
 * +1 to Morale in Battles


--==Controller of Works==--

 * -5% to Cost of constructing cultural buildings
 * -5% to Cost of constructing metalworking buildings


--==Corn Factor==--

 * -1 Happiness (Lower Classes)
 * +5% Wealth Generated by arable farms


--==Coup Stick==--

 * -1 to Command in Land Battles
 * +2 to Morale in battles


--==Court Composer==--

 * +2 Happiness (Nobility)


--==Crimper==--

 * -5% Recruitment cost for Infantry


--==Cunning Monkey==--

 * +1 to Subterfuge for sabotage missions
 * +1 to Subterfuge for infiltration missions
 * +1 to Subterfuge for assassination missiles


--==Desert Mystic==--

 * -5% to army movement range
 * +3 to Zeal


--==Drillmaster==--

 * +10% to infantry units' campaign movement range
 * -1 to morale in battles


--==Dusty Librarian==--

 * +2 to Research


--==Eastern Mystic==--

 * -5% to army campaign movement range
 * +2 to Command when in battle against the Ottomans


--==European Black Sheep==--

 * +2 to Command when in battle against European nations


--==European Prospector==--

 * 5 Fur Pelts produced each turn


--==European Turncoat==--

 * +2 to Command when attacking on land


--==Exploring Officer==--

 * +5% to Campaign Movement Range


--==Expert Purser==--

 * -4% Upkeep Costs for all Naval Units
 * -1 to Morale in Battles


--==Favourite War Pony==--

 * +1 to Command when leading cavalry units


--==Flag Lieutenant==--

 * +1 to Command at sea when Attacking


--==Foul-Mouthed Parrot==--

 * +1 to Command at Sea when Attacking


--==Fur Trapper==--

 * +2 to Command during ambushes


--==Galloper==--

 * +1 to Command in Land Battles


--==Hagiographer==--

 * -2 to Morale in Battles


--==Harridan==--

 * -1 Happiness (Lower Classes)
 * -1 Happiness (Middle Classes)


--==Industrial Genius==--

 * Research points per turn for industrial technologies : 2


--==Lance==--

 * +1 to Command when attacking on land


--==Landscape Gardener==--

 * +2 Happiness (Nobility)
 * -1 Happiness (Lower Classes)
 * +10% to cost of constructing farm buildings


--==Loyal Sowar==--

 * +2 to Command when fighting in India


--==Lunatick==--

 * +10% to Chance of Assassination
 * Research Points per turn for enlightenment technologies: 2


--==Man-Eating Tiger==--

 * +1 to Repression across the theatre
 * -1 to Management for Justice Administration


--==Master of Lunacy==--

 * -1 to Repression across Theatre
 * -5% to chance of Assassination


--==Mercenary French Gunner==--

 * +2 to Command when Leading Artillery Units
 * +5 to Artillery Unit's Campaign movement range


--==Military Artist==--

 * +5% to Army Campaign Movement Range


--==Military Padre==--

 * +2 to morale in battles


--==Military Surveyor==--

 * +5% to Army Campaign Movement Range


--==Mistress==--

 * +1 Happiness (Nobility)


--=="Mistress"==--

 * -2 Happiness (Middle Class)
 * +1 Happiness (Nobility)


--==Naval Surgeon==--

 * -10% to recovery change of battle casualties


--==Naval Surveyor==--

 * +2 Management to Navy Administration


--==Numismatist==--

 * +2 to Management for treasury administration
 * -1 Happiness (Nobility)


--==Parrot==--

 * +1 to morale in battles


--==Patriotic Sword==--

 * +1 to Duelling when duelling with Swords
 * +2 to Morale in Battles


--==Pet Hermit=--

 * +5% to cost of constructing industrial buildings
 * +1 Happiness (Nobility)


--==Pipe of Peace==--

 * +1 to Diplomatic Relations


--==Poet Laureate==--

 * -1 Happiness (Lower Classes)
 * +1 Happiness (Nobility)


--==Polymath of the Spheres==--

 * Research points per turn for industrial technologies: -2
 * Research points per turn for enlightenment technologies: 2


--==Presentation Sword==--

 * +1 to Duelling when duelling with Swords
 * +1 to Command at Sea when attacking
 * +1 to Morale in Battles


--==Private Secretary==--

 * +1 to Management of the Treasury Administraiton
 * +2 to Management of the Justice Administration


--==Prize Agent==--

 * +2 to morale in battles


--==Professional Witness==--

 * +1 to Management for Justice Administration
 * +1 to repression across the theatre


--==Radical Pamphleteer==--

 * +1 to Subterfuge for Sabotage Missions
 * +1 to Subterfuge for Infiltration Missions


--==Runaway Wrench==--

 * -1 to Morale in Battles
 * +3 to Command when in battle against European nations


--==Sacred Cow==--

 * -10% to religious unrest


--==Secret Policeman==--

 * +5% chance to Spawning Rakes
 * -5% Chance of Assassination


--==Sommelier==--

 * +1 Happiness (Nobility)


--==Stupid Nephew==--

 * +2 to Morale in Battles


--==Surgeon==--

 * +10% to recovery chance of battle casualties


--==Tax Farmer==--

 * -2 Happiness (Lower Classes)
 * +4% Bonus to Global Tax Revenue


--==Thieftaker==--

 * +2 to repression across the theatre
 * -1 Happiness (Nobility)


--==Thug==--

 * -1 to Subterfuge for sabotage missions
 * +3 to Subterfuge for assasination missions


--==Wagonmaster==--

 * +5% to army campaign movement range


--==War Bonnet==--

 * +1 to Morale in Battles


--==Well-Connected Mistress==--

 * +1 to Management for Justice Administration
 * +1 to Management for Treasury Administration

*~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~*
[A.08] Technology

The technology tree is the same for everyone, and is basically the way you
improve your units and empire. You might face the enemy with the exact same
army as you, technology will provide the edge that you need to win. There
are many techs in the game, and given that I have absolutely no clue about
national units, I just list the ranking of units you can recruit. 

There are three branches of research, Military, Industry and Philosophy, and
they all have sub-groups. For the Military, you have the Military, Ordnance
and Naval. Industry will have Agriculture, Textile and Metal. These will
be listed, as well as prerequistites and what they will lead to and do. 

All technology will also require a certain building to be built somewhere in
your empire. Without this building, you cannot build any new technology. 
Again, this is all in alphabetical order.

******************************************************************************
*Note that all the technologies that are only found with The Warpaths        *
*Downloadable Content installed with have been marked, just so you don't get *
*confused.                                                                   *
******************************************************************************

The Natives also have technologies, but they fit in one page. There are 3
branches, compared to the 7 that the Europeans have. They don't have named 
attached, so I get to have a little creative license. Seeing the first branch
starts with a Burial Ground, I will call it the Mystic Branch. The second 
deals with the Military, so it will be Military. Finally, the third branch
deals with the Economy and Culture, so that will be its name.

So let us begin with all the technology that is available. Note that for the
European technologies, there are 2 that are faction specific, one for the
British and one for the Austrians, but they will be clearly marked out for
you to see. 


--==Abolition of Slavery==--

"The abolition of slavery removes the right of one man to own another, and
 outlaws any trade in human beings as property.

 The slave trade is highly profitable for those who engage in it, whether
 through trade such as that from Africa to the New World, or conquests such
 as the depredations of European shipping by the Barbary Pirates of North
 Africa. The morality and necessity of slave owner, however, are disputed. 
 Abolition of the trade has its roots in religious feelings, and in radical
 Enlightenment thought, but its effects are clear: a cessation of slave 
 taking, transportation, and exploitation.

 Historically, abolition was far from universally popular. William Wilderforce
 (1759-1833), the MP for Kingston-upon-Hull in Yorkshire, campaigned for many
 years in the face of bitter opposition from mercantile interests. His 
 eventual success only outlawed slavery in British possessions and British
 involvement in any foreign trade. The Royal Navy acted as a "world policeman",
 attempting to stop the African trade at source. Oddly, English judges had 
 already decided that slaves could become free by stepping onto British soil
 in 1772. Wilberforce's work was the start of a process that continues even
 today with attempts to stop "people trafficking."

Requires        = Citizenship
Building Needed = Modern University
Leads To        = None
Stream          = Philosophy


--==Advanced Irrigation==--

"The techniques and tools of managing water flow on farmland, to improve the
 soil and crop yields.

 Advanced irrigation is the application of scientific ingenuity and mechanical
 principles to the use and distribution of water. Marshy landscapes are
 drained and tamed to make productive and profitable farmland, rivers can be
 dammed and diverted, ponds and the landscape itself reworked to the benefit
 of its owners. These advances are leading to the cultivation of land that
 would previously considered unsuitable for agriculture, providing more food
 for a growing population.

 In Europe, the Dutch were the masters of irrigation and water management - 
 hardly surprising given the low-lying nature of much of the Netherlands! In
 Asia and India, rice farmers had long practical experience with paddy fields.
 Crop irrigation is an ancient skill, dating back to the down of agriculture:
 the Egyptions used the yearly flooding of the Nile as the basis of their
 entire civilisation, a dead world that scholars and antiquaries in the late
 18th Century were beginning to explore."

Requires        = None
Building Needed = Clearances
Leads To        = Steam-Pumped Land Drainage
Stream          = Agriculture, Industry

 * +0.4% to the population growth impact of farms
 * Reduces the chances of food shortages
 * +10% Coin Wealth generated by farms
 * Enhances national prestige
 * Leads to Wine Estates


--==Airguns==--

"Rifles that only use compressed air rather than gunpowder to propel bullets,
 airguns are almost silent in use and produce no muzzle flash or smoke.

 There are two ways of powering an air gun: a pneumatic, pumped reservoir of
 air, or a spring-powered piston. The reservoir, which uses the muscles of the
 user to reach pressure, is by far more reliable and practical mechanism. 
 A pistol requires very fine tolerances, making it too expensive and 
 unreliable to manufacture. Given that any air gun is expensive to make, it
 also makes sense to give them rifled barrels. 

 The Austrians where the only nation to employ airguns and with only partial
 success. The "Windbuchse" (wind rifle) was made by Girandoni (1744-1799),
 a gunsmith from Tyrol. The weapon was accurate, quiet and quick firing, but
 too delicate for everyday use. It used a pneumatic system fired a carbine- 
 sized bullet, and had a 20-round integral magazine. An experienced user could
 fire off all 20 rounds in less than half a minute; a reservoir was built 
 into the stock, and could be removed independently from the magazine for
 recharging."

Requires        = None
Building Needed = Army Staff College
Leads To        = None
Stream          = Military, Military

 * Enables recruitment of Windbuchse Jaegars

These are only used by the Austrians


--==Ambush Tactics==--

"Used correctly, surprise is an effective weapon: ambushes can give an edge
 over larger enemy forces.

 Understanding of the land and centuries of hunting experience have taught
 Native Americans many techniques they can adapt for warfare. Europeans may
 frown upon these ambushes and see them as cowardly and skulking, but this is 
 probably because they work! And what general likes to admit that he as been
 outwitted and outclassed by mere savages?

 In 1755 the British general Edward Braddock fell foul of one of the most
 devastating ambushes of the French and Indian War. Sent to attack the 
 French at Fort Dequensne, Braddock made a fatal error when he took his men
 through a narrow valley, and was ambushed by tribesmen and their French 
 allies. A massacre ensued, Braddock was killed, and his force lost 900 men,
 along with many horses and provisions."

Requires        = THE WARPATH DOWNLOADABLE CONTENT!
                  None
Building Needed = Warrior Society
Leads To        = None
Stream          = Military, Native

 * Allow all units to fire while hidden


--==Basic Steam Pump==--

"This is steam-powered mechanical contrivance allows the easy drainage of 
 mines, among other tasks.

 Practical "steam engines" that can do useful work offer many advantages over
 other sources of power such as animals and waterwheels. A beam engine that
 harnesses the pressure of steam to work a mechanical pump can be used to pump
 water out of mine workings either more effectively or from greater depths. In
 both cases, the profits of the mine are greatly increased.

 Historically, there were several almost-abortive attempts to create a "steam
 pump", with most of the early efforts carried out by engineers in Cornwall,
 England. This county was rich in many mineral ores, and landowners were 
 prepared to pay handsomely for profitable innovations. Captain Thomas Savery
 (1650-1715) developed a "fire engine" that worked, after a fashion and as 
 well as it could, given the time's engineering limitations. It was, however,
 the beam "atmospheric engine" of Thomas Newcomen (1664-1729) that harnessed 
 steam power and made miner's lives safer."

Requires        = Nothing
Building Needed = Iron Workshops
Leads To        = Coke Blast Furnice
Stream          = Metal Industry, Industry

 * -10% to cost of constructing metalworking buildings
 * -10% to cost of constructing mines
 * Leads to Steam-Pumped Gold, Iron and Silver Mines


--==Cadenced Marching==--

"Marching to a beat unifies the movement of soldiers, and makes it possible 
 to more accurately measure pace.

 Originally drums were not carried onto the battlefield to provide musical
 accompaniment to the business of killing. They were there as a "repeater" 
 system for the shouted orders, as it was obvious that a single voice would be
 lost in the murderous hubbub of battle. However, it was soon realised that a
 regular beat was useful in teaching men how to load, present and fire their
 muskets. From that idea it is a short step to making sure that soldiers are 
 trained to do everything in a regular beat, including marching. Drummers,
 originally intended only to beat a coded tattoo for particular orders, can 
 also keep time for a whole regiment. With cadenced marching, a unit no longer
 ambles to its destination, it steps out with determination! A cunning colonel
 can even up the pace and have his men cover more ground by having the 
 drummers beat a little faster!

 Historically, many colonels of infantry regiments did pay for bands out of
 their own pockets, knowing that music could lift the spirits of "the lads"
 as surely as a bottle of gin."

Requires        = Square Formation
Building Needed = Drill School
Leads To        = None
Stream          = Military, Military

 * Improves campaign map movement speed
 * Enhances national prestige


--==Call of the Wild==--

"Nations living in harmony with their lands are bettle able to exploit natural
 resources.

 The earth is mother to all and no man can claim ownership. The tribes have
 lived by this rule for generations, and it serves them well. Although they 
 control the land they occupy they do not own it. By respecting and living in
 harmony with the earth a tribe can obtain the maximum benefit, so improving
 the life of the people.

 Forced migration out of traditional homelands claimed many lives: the 
 Cherokee called this "the Trail of Tears" with good reason. Some 17,000
 Cherokee were forcibly transported across the Mississippi by soldiers under
 the command of General Winfield Scott in 1838. It is estimated that around 
 4000 of them died in the process, mostly from disease and starvation in
 the transit camps."

Requires        = THE WARPATH DOWNLOADABLE CONTENT!
                  None
Building Needed = Burial Ground
Leads To        = Spirit of the Forest
Stream          = Mystic, Native

 * +10% Wealth generated by farms
 * Enables building of Ancestral Grounds


--==Canister Shot==--

"This ammunition for cannons is a cylinder stuffed with musket bullets that 
 bursts as soon as it leaves the gun barrel.

 Any cannon can be turned into a giant shotgun using the appropriate size of
 round. Normal cannon balls are terrible enough when they hit, but they will
 usually only kill or injure a few men. Canister is a short-range weapon, and
 used as a last-ditch defence against a massed attack. The slaughter inflicted
 on nearby enemies can be fearsome indeed. Usually, canister shots are made 
 of tin, which serves to keep everything together while it is rammed down
 the barrel, but it is no impediment to bursting effect. It is not uncommon 
 for artillery crews to load a canister shot on top of a normal cannon ball,
 if they have time, to maximise killing the power. 

 Canister is still used by armies todays, and has been refined over the years:
 beehive rounds used flechettes (small darts) rather than round shot, but the
 principle is the same. The 120mm main gun on the modern US M1 Abrams tank is
 capable of firing canister ammunition, making it a 60-tonne armoured 
 shotgun."

Requires        = None
Building Needed = Cannon Foundry
Leads To        = None
Stream          = Ordnance, Military

 * Enables Canister Shot
 * Recruits: Basic Artillery
 * Leads to Ordnance Factory


--==Cannon Casting==--

"This technology allows the small-scale production of artillery, and reduces
 the upkeep costs of firearm-equipped units.

 Cannons are a most destructive force indeed, but not a brave and noble way
 of fighting! But, as enemies have cannons, only a foolish tribe would not 
 seek to protect their land and people. The strength of the tribes may be
 in stealth and surprise, but a new weapon of such power demands new ways.

 Historically, the use of cannon by Native Americans was rare, as the 
 European settlers carefully controlled their artillery pieces. They were 
 given away rarely, for a tribe with heavy guns would be a threat indeed.
 In 1661, the Maryland colonists, supplied their allies, the Susquehannocks,
 with men, ammunation and a cannon with which to defend their village 
 against Iroquois attack."

Requires        = THE WARPATH DOWNLOADABLE CONTENT!
                  Powder Making
Building Needed = Gunsmith
Leads To        = None
Stream          = Military, Native

 * Enables building of Foundry


--==Carbines==--

"A carbine is a smoothbore musket, lighter than a standard infantry weapon,
 for use by Cavalrymen.

 An infantry musket fires a ball about the width of a man's thumb: a pound
 of lead is melted down to make about 10 or 12 rounds. A carbine fires a 
 smaller ball: some 15-17 rounds from the same amount of lead. This smaller
 bullet does slightly reduce its killing potential, but the reduction in
 recoil when fired from horseback is welcome. A carbine is, however, just as 
 long as a regular infantry musket, something that makes it awkward to reload
 while mounted. A carbine is often fitted with a sling-and-swivel to attach
 it to a Cavalryman's shoulder belt, so that it cannot be lost while riding
 at speed.

 Historically, there was some debate over whether or not regiments of horse
 should be equipped with firearms at all. John Churchill, the Duke of  
 Marlborough, favoured Cavalry using cold steel against the enemy. He felt
 that the morale impact of a Cavalry charge was more important than any
 marginal increase in firepower. As a result, his Cavalrymen received a tiny
 allocation of three rounds apiece - for the whole of a campaign season, not
 each battle!"

Requires        = Nothing
Building Needed = Army Encampment
Leads To        = Wedge Formation
Stream          = Military, Military

 * Enables Carbines. This allows the recruitment of carbine-wielding Cavalry
   units
 * Enables Firearm Cavalry


--==Carcass Shot==--

"This ammunition is a hellish incendiary, contrived from combustible 
 substances wrapped in canvas, strengthened and supported by iron hoops.

 The shells are made by pouring an unpleasant cocktail or turpentine, tallow,
 resin, saltpetre, sulphur and antimony compounds into a canvas sack, which
 is supported by iron interlocking hoops. This mixture hardens, and the 
 shot can then be fired from mortars and howitzers. A weapon with a low
 muzzle velocity is required, otherwise the canvas rips apart and the crew
 are showered with the burning contents of the canvas. The hoops hopefully
 prevent the shot from bursting as it leaves the barrel, setting the users 
 on fire rather than the target.

 In theory, the mixture should burn for a few minutes when the shot bursts
 on impact, and be incredibly difficult to extinguish. Certainly dousing the
 flames with water will have little effect. This makes carcass shot 
 particularly useful against defensive positions, and an extremely unpleasant
 weapon when used against troops in the open."

Requires        = None
Building Needed = Ordnance Factory
Lead To         = Quicklime Shells, Explosive Rockets
Stream          = Ordnance, Military


--==Carronades==--

"This weapon is a short-barrelled, muzzle-loading cannon that can be mounted 
 on the upper decks of a warship.

 Carronade differ from the normal warship "long guns" by having a shorterned
 barrel, relatively to the weight of shot. Short barrels require reduced
 gunpowder charges; large charges would be wasted because they would not have
 time to burn properly. This gives a reduced muzzle velocity, less recoil, 
 and a lighter weapon. As a further benefit, carronades require fewer gunners
 to fire them. There is, however, a tactical price to pay: carronades are
 short-range weapons. In close, but only in close, they can do fearful
 slaughter.

 Historically, the carronade was developed by the Carron Company of Fife,
 Scotland. It was a huge success initially, as the weight of shot more than
 made up for its short range, 68-pounder carronades were quite easily carried
 aboard even small ships. HMS Victory carried 68-pounder carronadesas part of
 her armament: one raking round shot and a load of 500 musket balls did 
 terrible slaughter on the gun deck of the Bucentaure at the Battle of 
 Trifalgar in 1805."

Requires        = Improved Grape Shot
Building Needed = Naval Board
Leads To        = Rifled Cannons
Stream          = Naval, Military

 * Enhances National Prestige
 * Able to Recruit Carronade Vessels


--==Citizenship==--

"The idea of belonging to a society and adhering to its rules in order to reap
 the benefits of being a citizen.

 A man must be accountable for his own actions, for if he is not, is he a man
 at all? When actions are considered in the context of others, men begin along
 the path of citizenship. With the status of citizen there are 
 responsibilities that are inherent in this position. In order to gain the
 advantages and privileges of being a citizen, a man must adhere to the rules
 laid out by those that have made him this.

 The idea of citizenship hails from Classical antiquity, and in particular the
 study of Roman authors and their views upon Roman Republic politics. Certain
 members of society were given "citizenship", in effect creating a ruling
 class with greater political and social rights than their fellow nationals.
 Slaves and foreigners were not to be given political rights, and any social
 rights they had were limited at best. This "Roman" idea of citizenship 
 did not imply any move to democracy of any kind, but it did imply a 
 commonality of interests among the citizenry."

Requires        = None
Building Needed = Modern University
Leads To        = Abolition of Slavery
Stream          = Philosophy

 * -1 Happiness (Middle Classes). Clamour for reform
 * -10% recruitment cost for infantry
 * +6 Coins per turn to town wealth in the region
 * Enhances National Prestige


--==Classical Economics==--

"An attempt to understand, explore, and explain economic growth and 
 development.

 Classical economics seeks to change the way a nation's wealth is considered.
 No longer is the amount of money in a king's treasury the sole measurement
 of national wealth. The earnings of the populace are now taken into account.
 With this step forward people leave feudal society and stop forward as 
 individuals seeking their own gains for their own benefit.

 Classical economics was eventually superceded. Its influence does still
 linger however, especially within the modern school of thought known as 
 "new classical economics."

 Historically, the school of classical economics was originally created by
 Scottish philosopher Adam Smith, but David Ricardo is leading the school
 forward in its belief and methods. His debates on such topics as the Corn
 Laws with Thomas Malthus are giving theorists much to consider. One of 
 the key questions the theory seeks to answer is: how can a society be 
 built upon a system where man seeks to further only his own interests?"

Requires        = Free Trade Doctrine
Building Needed = Modern University
Leads To        = None
Stream          = Philosophy

 * -1 Happiness. Clamour for reform
 * +14 Coins per turn to town wealth in the region
 * +15% Coin Wealth generated by all buildings
 * Enhances National Prestige


--==Coke Blast Furnace==--

"A furnice used to smelt ore efficiently and cheaply, allowing the creation of
 iron on a large scale.

 Iron smelting is traditionally done on a small scale, using charcoal as a 
 fuel for the furnace. Demand for iron is now such that the charcoal burning
 industry can no longer keep up, simply because there aren't enough trees to
 be chopped down for fuel! Instead, new methods using coal and, in particular,
 coke, can produce more iron of better quality.

 Coke is coal that has been heated in a confined space so that its volatile
 components are driven off, producing a carbonized residue. This burns in the
 same steady fashion as charcoal, and is an ideal fuel for blast furnaces. In
 these air is forced through as quickly as possible, quickly raising 
 temperature and melting the ore.

 Historically, it was English ironmaster Abraham Darby (1678-1717) who 
 discovered coke could be used in blast furnaces, and to better effect than
 charcoal. His iron was not of good quality but could be produced cheaply. 
 He founded a dynasty of ironmasters who are directly responsible for the new
 "cast iron age" of the early Industrial Revolution."

Requires        = Basic Steam Pump
Building Needed = Iron Workshops
Leads To        = None
Stream          = Metal Industry, Industry

 * +10% Coin Wealth generated by metalworking buildings
 * Enhances national prestige
 * Leads to Ironmaster's Works


--==Common Land Enclosures==--

"The appropriation of community land is an efficient way for the landed 
 classes to increase their wealth.

 Enclosure laws removes the rights of the lower social classes to graze their
 animals on common land, because it is now legally somone's private property,
 and fenced in as such. Farming does become more efficient as a result 
 because subsistance farming is replaced by cash crops, and there is more
 food grown. This is of little consequence to the common people who have
 been dispossessed of their ancient rights. They cannot feed themselves 
 anymore from their own smallholdings and herds which grazed on the commons,
 and must take the wages offered by the new landlords.

 In England, the landowners sitting in Parliament were not backwards in 
 passing many "Inclosure" Acts for their own benefit in the 18th Century.
 Enormous parcels of land were, effectively, stolen from the common working
 people and incorporated into private estates. The effect was to empty the
 landscape of unwanted labourers, who were forced into the new mill towns
 and rapdily industrialising cities, swapping rural poverty for urban squalor.
 Poor laws did little to alleviate poverty, other than making sure that the
 poor moved on to starve somewhere else."

Requires        = Nothing
Building Needed = Peasant Farm
Leads To        = Nothing
Stream          = Agriculture, Industry

 * +0.2% to the population growth impact to farms
 * Reduces the chance of food shortages
 * Leads to Rice Farms, Wineries, Tenanted Farms


--==Copper Bottoms==--

"Ships can be protected from fouling and the ravages of worms by covering them
 with copper sheeting below the waterline.

 Wooden ships are a rich feast for many marine animals, and a home for all 
 manner of weeds and barnicles. Over time, any hull becomes fouled when weeds
 and encrustations to the point that the ship's speed is compromised. Worse
 still, given time, worms will eat the planks of the ship to the point where
 its bottom literally falls out! Other than scraping a beached hull clean,
 there is no cure, worm eaten timbers have to be chopped out and replaced.

 Coppering involves nailing or bolting thin sheets of metal over the whole
 of a ship's underside. The copper is toxic to worms and weeds, and greatly
 extends the working life of a ship, and improves its sea keeping qualities.

 Historically, coppering was only a partial solution to the problem of 
 fouling. It worked well in keeping the hull clean but, thanks to an 
 electrolytic reaction with iron bolts used to hold the ship together, the
 bolts rotted away! The iron, copper, and seawater had created a battery, 
 and the (unintentional) iron cathodes were damaged by the reaction."

Requires        = Seasoning 
Building Needed = Naval Board
Leads To        = Improved Coppering
Stream          = Naval, Military

 * +5% Recruitment cost for all naval units
 * +10% topspeed of ships in battle
 * +5% movement range for ships on the campaign map


--==Diamond Formation==--

"An improved method for positioning and manoeuvring a cavalry unit, so that
 it may change direction with expedition.

 A diamond formation, as the name suggests, is a way of employing all the 
 men of a cavalry unit to best effect. Rather than being arranged as a simple
 wedge, the point towards the enemy, the unit tapers off from its broadest 
 point. Even though the riders may be knee-to-knee to maximise the shock of
 impact should a charge connect with a target, a diamond-formed unit can
 change direction quickly. This is not true with the earlier cavalry wedge,
 the members of which find any kind of wheeling turn difficult to execute.

 Historically, the Swedes were among the leaders in European cavalry tactics
 at the start of the 18th Century; King Charles XII was all in favour of
 closely packed, large cavalry formations that he believed that those would
 break the enemy by fear alone. There was debate among military men in 
 other nations too: in Britain the Duck of Marlborough favoured his cavalry
 charging home with cold steel, rather than relying on fear or bullets to
 do their terrible work"

Requires        = Wedge Formation
Building Needed = Military Academy
Leads To        = Shortened Carbines
Stream          = Military, Military

 * Enables cavalry diamond formation. This replaces the wedge formation


--==Division of Labour==--

"The idea that the specialisations of roles within an industry creates a more
 skilled and organised workforce.

 As society expands its capabilities and needs grows within it. By dividing
 labour amongst workers a manufactory power can develop a more skilled and
 effective work force, in turn leading to a quicker production time and larger
 profits. Allocating workers to specific tasks create a more skilled and 
 knowledgeable work force, capable of passing their knowledge on to others.

 Scottish philosopher Adam Smith (1723-1790) was a firm proponent of the 
 division of labour. He argued that the rate of production would be 
 dramatically increased within industry if work was divided effectively. In
 "The Wealth of Nations", he called for a public education system to be put
 in place to teach workers the finer points of their craft. Economist William
 Petty took a different view point: he argued that the main purpose of the
 division of labour was creating a more skilled work force, rather than  
 speeding up production times."

Requires        = Physiocracy
Building Needed = College
Leads To        = Joint Stock Companies
Stream          = Philosophy

 * +4 Coin per turn to town wealth in the region
 * +10% Coin Wealth generated by industrial buildings
 * Enhances national prestige
 * Leads to Plantation Warehouses


--==Dreamwalking==--

"The dream world not only reveals a man's destiny, but also the location of
 hidden enemies.

 Properly harnessed the power of dreams enables warriors to see through 
 an enemy's deceptions: hidden units can be hunted down before they can 
 spring an ambush!

 Native Americans believed strongly in prediction through dreams, and would
 make decisions guided by them, even abdicating leadership or turning back
 from a battle if a dream told them it was the right thing to do. Direction
 and purpose could be acquired by embarking on a vision quest. The vision
 seeker isolated himself, achieving a heightened condition through fasting,
 hallucinogens, or even self-mutilation, then waiting for the vision to 
 appear. This often came in the form of a bird or animal, and once recieved
 would be followed without question; the seeker had to remain in harmony
 with the wishes of the Spirits.

Requires        = THE WARPATH DOWNLOADABLE CONTENT!
                  Spirit Medicine
Building Needed = Shamanic Gateway
Leads To        = None
Stream          = Mystic, Native

 * Increases the line of sight of all generals


--==Empiricism==--

"The belief that all human knowledge is gained through experience and those 
 aspects of life that cannot be directly experienced must not exist. 

 As men seek to explain the world around them, and their place within it, 
 new theories are formulated almost weekly and such theory is empiricism. 
 Empericists believe that the human mind is a tabula rasa (white paper), and
 our experiences as we grow and learn make a mark on this paper. It is though
 these marks that we identify with things and understand them.

 The work of philosopher John Locke (1632-1704) was the driving force behind
 the inception of empiricism. He redefined the tabula rasa argument, first 
 worked on by Ibn Tufail in the 12th century. His key works explored the
 human mind and often clashed with other theorists of his time. The 
 rationalists, for example, held the human mind to be capable of comprehending
 some things without the need of the senses, through faith. Locke, on the 
 other hand, believed the mind was only capable of comprehending things 
 through experience."

Requires        = None
Building Needed = School
Leads To        = Nothing
Stream          = Philosophy

 * +5% to technology research rate
 * +2 Coin per turn to town wealth in the region
 * Enhances National Prestige
 * Leads to College


--==European Doctrine==--

"The European way of organising armies and training soldiers is fashionable
 because is has been successful on the battlefield.

 The wholesale adoption of a completely new military model in troop types,
 drill, tactics, deployment, strategy, supply, fortifications and force
 organisation is a wrenching change for any Medieval or Renaissance-style
 army. The military "doctrine" of European powers is not so much a 
 formalised approach to the business of making war, but a collection of
 practical solutions that have been found to work in many battles in many
 wars on many continents. From basic ideas such as the equipment carried
 by an infantryman, to sophisticated concepts of star fortifications, 
 European methods have been forged in the crucible of war!

 Historically, the Ottoman Empire had an army that was old fashioned, even
 in 1700. The "New Soldiers" of the janissary corps had ossified military
 thinking in a very conservative fashion, and intended to keep fighting as
 they had done for centuries. The rest of the world had moved on. A military
 treaty with Revolutionary France (a nation desperate for allies) began the
 process of updating the Ottomans' "new model army", based on then-current 
 Western military thinking."

Requires        = None
Building Needed = Drill School
Leads To        = Nothing
Stream          = Military, Military

 * Enhances National Prestige
 * Enables Recruitment of Nizam-I Cedit Infantry


--==Explosive Shells==--

"Hollow projectiles, filled with gunpowder, which, by use of a timed fuse, 
 explode near enemies.

 Cannonballs are usually exactly that: solid lumps of iron (or stone, for
 some early weapons) that do damage on impact. They must hit the target to 
 have an effect. Explosive shells, however, are cunningly contrived to  
 explode after a set time, causing damage and injury to everything within the
 blast. A cast iron sphere contains gunpowder, a lit fuse burns down a set
 rate until the blasting charge is reached. The skill of the gunner is in
 judging the trajectory of the shot and the length of fuse required to
 explode the shell over or amongst the enemy.

 Historically, the weapons used for shells were most often short-barrelled
 mortars or howitzers. Apart from anything else, the gunner had to reach 
 down the barrel to ignite the shell fuse, and then get out of the way before
 the piece fired or the shell exploded. It was not unknown for gunners to be
 killed by premature shell bursts, either in the barrel or shortly after
 firing! The explosive shell lives on today in the form of cartoon bombs with
 the word "BOMB" on the side in large, unfriendly letters."

Requires        = Improved Grenades
Building Needed = Ordnance Factory
Leads To        = None
Stream          = Ordnance, Military

 * Enables explosive shells for howitzers and mortars
 * Leads to recruitment of artillery units
 * Leads to Great Arsenal


--==Fire and Advance==--

"A tactic which allows a unit to move forward in sections, while enjoying
 the benefits of covering fire from its own men.

 When using this evolution, infantry units do not advance as a solid mass, but
 divide into smaller groups, each of which then advances a short distance in
 turn. While a group is stationary, it loads and then discharges the muskets
 at the enemy, harassing them and covering the advance of their moving 
 fellows. Overall, a unit advances more slowly because of the repeated stops
 made by its companies to fire, but the constant, though limited, fire 
 maintained against the enemy is compensation enough.

 This manoeuvre it demands a great deal of comradely loyalty from both 
 officers and men, as each manoeuvring group relies on the fire of the
 other to keep the enemy at bay while it advances. Good discipline and
 weapons drill are also required, so that the stationary companies will always
 be ready to give fire when needed. Properly executed, it can be a devastating
 and effective way of closing with the enemy.

 The tactic has remained in use to the present day as a method of advance 
 called "bounding overwatch", a particularly useful technique for armoured
 units where tanks give each other covering fire."

Requires        = None
Building Needed = Military Academy
Leads To        = None
Stream          = Military, Military

 * Enables line infantry fire and advance drill


--==Fire by Rank==--

"This firing pattern for infantry units prouces a barrage of musketry by 
 having each rank, or line of men, fire in turn.

 By careful timing, it is possible for a constant fire to be maintained for,
 as soon as one rank has fired, it begins reloading. By the time other ranks
 in the unit have fired on their turn, all men should have reloaded and ready
 to give fire once more. This requires a good level of discipline and 
 obedience, as each rank must listen only to orders from the relevent officers
 and sergeants. The drill involved in loading a smoothbore musket must also
 be mastered by every man in the unit. Carried out correctly, the result is
 a series of volleys that give enemies no respite from a hail of musket 
 balls!

 Historically, it was usual for units to draw up formations three ranks deep,
 this being considered the "best" compromise between weight of fire and ease
 of control. Deeper formations were tried, but there was always a risk to men
 in the forward ranks from careless shots from the rearmost ranks - men were
 shot in the back by inexperienced comrades. Of course, this firing pattern 
 also meant that only one man in three was ever loaded and ready to fire at  
 any given time!"

Requires        = None
Building Needed = Drill School
Leads To        = None
Stream          = Military, Military

 * Enables line infantry fire by rank firing drill


--==Flintlock Cannons==--

"The simplist ideas are often the most effective. Fitting a flintlock to a 
 cannon reduces misfires and speeds firing.

 Traditionally, cannons are fired by applying a slow-burning match to the 
 touch hole in the breach. The primer catches, flashes into the main barrel,
 and the resulting explosion fires the projectile. The gun captain needs to
 be careful, stay out of the line of the recoil, and keep his linstock away
 from any gunpowder. However, a burning match is not foolproof, and the 
 method can produce misfires and, more dangerously, "hangfires" where the
 priming powder is burning, but has not - yet - set off the main charge.

 By taking the flintlock from a standard musket and attaching it to a cannon
 breach, a reliable spark can be created, making firing a cannon a much more
 reliable process. Any risk of the slow match being extinguished, or causing
 an accidential explosion, is gone. The gun captain has only to cock the 
 flintlock, stand well back, and then pull the lanyard to fire his gun. This
 certainty of fire is much valued aboard warships.

 Historically, only the British Royal Navy and the US Continential Navy 
 adopted the flintlock for use on cannons."

Requires        = None
Building Needed = Admiralty
Leads To        = None
Stream          = Naval, Military

 * -5% Reduction to Navan Cannons' Reloading Time
 * Enhances National Prestige


--==Flying Shuttle==--

"A flying shuttle means the width of a loom can be increased beyond the span 
 of a weaver's arms.

 Manually powered looms can only make pieces of cloth that are no wider than
 the easy reach of the weaver, simply because he has to throw the shuttle 
 carrying the woof across the warp threads on the loom. A flying loom uses a
 clever arrangement of lines and pulleys to launch the "flying" shuttle with a
 tug on a cord, catch it at the other side of the loom, and return it with
 another tug of the cord. The width of the loom, and so the width of the  
 cloth, can be increased as a result, and the quality of the cloth also 
 improves, as the weaver is now free to use one hand to comb and compact the
 woven material.

 The device was invented by Englishman John Kay (1704-80), and it brought him
 little but unhappiness. Weavers saw it as a threat to their livelihoods, and
 other inventors stole the idea and never paid him a penny for his work. The
 unfortunate man died penniless, having failed to sell his idea to the French,
 (Good Lord, the French!) after his ill luck in Britain."

Requires        = None
Building Needed = Weaver's Cottage
Leads To        = Punch-Card Loom
Stream          = Textile Industry, Industry

 * +15% Wealth Bonus to Town Wealth from textile industry buildings
 * Enhances National Prestige


--==Four Field Crop Rotation==--

"By planting four different crops in succession the quality of soil in a field
 can be markedly improved.

 Simply: better soil means better harvests, and by grouping fields into fours,
 the crops are grown every year, just in different places. Farmers have long
 practiced crop rotation, leaving fields to lie fallow one year in every four
 to recover their fertility. This system works, but it means that a quarter 
 of farmland is doing nothing every year. This reduces profits and food 
 supply. Four-fields rotation adds an extra, useful crop to the series that
 actually improves the soil, clover or turnips are typical plantings.

 Viscount Charles "Turnip" Townshend (1674-1738) brought this Dutch invention
 to England, earning his nickname for his devotion to the crop and his 
 exceedingly predictable dinner conservations on the subject. Despite the
 boredom of his dinner guests, his improvements worked, and were part of a
 larger agricultural change that further enriched the landed classes. In
 England, with the Enclosure Acts that effectively stole the common grazing
 lands of the rural community, crop rotation made the wealthy even wealthier."

Requires        = None
Building Needed = Tenanted Farms
Leads To        = None
Stream          = Agriculture, Industry

 * +0.3% to Population Growth impact on farms
 * Reduces the Chance of Food Shortages
 * Leads to Clearances, Rice Farming Estates


--==Free Trade Doctrine==--

"The concept that trade should be unimpeded by taxes, tariffs or any other
 restriction enacted by authority.

 Free trade is an intensely pleasing prospect for traders. The basic principle
 is that the less those in power involve themselves in matters of trade the 
 more it will be able to flourish and grow, thus creating wealth. Taxes, 
 tariffs or other restrictions that can be laid upon trade will only prove
 counterproductive. This runs entirely counter to the medieval idea of 
 guilds, that sought to limit trade and production of goods to those who had
 spent years learning their craft.

 Historically, David Ricardo (1772-1823) was one of the leading minds in the
 advancement of the free trade doctrine. He sought to prove it could be 
 beneficial not only to be economically strong, by also to be economically
 weak. He developed this theory and it became known as the theory of 
 "Comparative Advantage." The key point of the theory was the idea that a 
 region or country should specialise in goods that are easily and economically
 made within their borders. By doing this, a sizeable yet easy profit would
 result and grow from trade with others."

Requires        = Wealth of Nations
Building Needed = Modern University
Leads To        = Classical Economics
Stream          = Philosophy

 * -1 Happiness. Clamour for reform
 * +25% Coin Bonus to the growth in trade route income
 * +10 Coin per turn to town wealth in the region
 * +25% Coin Wealth generated by ports
 * Enhances national prestige
 * Leads to Global Trading Company


--==Government by Consent==--

"The concept that no man can be ruled without his prior consent.

 Society is built on a series of laws and understandings; no man can be 
 governed unless he deems those in power worthy of his respect, or capable of
 upholding his interests. This, in essence, is government by consent. 
 Followers of this theory think rulers should never have the right to 
 force any beliefs on those they rule. If the rulers don't have the consent
 of the masses they can be overthrown and replaced by others chosen by the
 masses.

 Historically, philosopher John Locke spent many years musing about 
 government, and the correct way to govern a society in order to preserve the
 rights of the individual. His thoughts culminated in his work "The two 
 treaties of government." Each of these outlined his thoughts on traditional
 forms of government, and his suggestions on how things could be improved."

Requires        = Social Contract
Building Needed = College
Leads To        = Seperation of Powers
Stream          = Philosophy

 * -1 Happiness. Clamour for reform
 * +5% to technology research rate
 * +3 Coin per turn to town wealth in the region
 * Enhances national prestige


--==Gun Dealing==--

"Trading with outsiders means you can give your warriors firearms, when you
 cannot make them.

 A tribe that fails to keep pace with an enemy risks leaving itself 
 vulnerable to attack. However, sometimes the best course of action is to
 trade, rather than to try to make everything. The Europeans are greedy for
 furs, and there is no shortage of hunters who can get them. Hard bargaining
 can get you many guns, until the tribe's smiths can learn the necessary
 skills.

 In the 1600s, European settlers supplied guns to the native tribes, 
 through trade or gifts to secure alliances. As tribes adopted firearms,
 they quickly became a necessity. A people without guns ran the risk of
 destruction by enemies armed with the new weapons. Though the tribes did
 gain some independence from European suppliers by learning metalworking
 and gun maintenance, making gunpowder remained a slow and difficult 
 process. The natives still had to rely on foreigners for powder, putting
 them at a distinct disadvantage."

Requires        = THE WARPATH DOWNLOADABLE CONTENT!
                  None
Building Needed = Warrior Lodge
Leads To        = None
Stream          = Military, Native

 * Enables building of Warrior Society


--==Hunting Techniques==--

"Better hunting and care of the land increases income from fur trapping.

 Men hunt to feed their families, their tribe. These skills are valuable, 
 too, for the trade goods that they provide. Europeans will barter anything
 for furs. Therefore, any small improvement in the way the tribe conducts
 its hunts is welcome, and profitable.

 Each tribe had tactics tuned to the surroundings and the animals they 
 hunted. The Plains people perfected techniques for hunting bison: a band
 of warriors would scare the herd into a stampede towards a cliff. The
 animals would fall over the edge, being pushed over by their stampeding
 herd-mates. As a way of hunting, this was very effective, and very 
 dangerous: warriors could be gouged to death if the stampede did not go
 as planned."

Requires        = THE WARPATH DOWNLOADABLE CONTENT!
                  Nothing
Building Needed = Council of Elders
Leads To        = None
Stream          = Economy and Culture, Native

 * +25% Bonus to Fur Production
 * Enables building of Chief's Lodge, Warrior Society, Fur Trading Post


--==Improved Animal Husbandry==--

"The application of rational, scientific principles to the care and breeding
 of farm livestock.

 Animal husbandry is, of course, a practical skill of every farmer, cowhand,
 shepard, pigboy and egg collector on just about every farm in the world. It
 is, however, a matter of hard-won individual experience and folklore rather
 than rational, organised study. When gentlemen scholars apply their 
 "scientific methods" of study to animals close to home, an improvement in
 animal care, health and breeding quality can result, leading in turn to
 greater yields for the farmers.

 Historically, Thomas Coke, 1st Earl of Leicester (1754-1842) was a leading
 light in this field in Europe. He reorganised his land and home at the
 family seat, Holkam Hall. His "Holkam Sheerings" were gathering of 
 agriculturalists and gentlemen farmers, who came to admire his flocks and
 herds - and see new ways of turning a profit. Many now see these as the
 forerunners of the traditional county and agrilcultural shows that take place
 to this day."

Requires        = Nothing
Building Needed = Peasant Farm
Leads To        = Selective Breeding
Stream          = Agriculture, Industry

 * Reduces the chance of food shortages
 * +5% Coin Wealth generated by farms


--==Improved Coppering==--

"Coppering a ship prevents weeds fouling it, and this improved method prevents
 the ship's structural bolts from mysteriously rotting away.

 Copper sheets fitted to a wooden ship keeps weeds and worms at bay, making 
 the ship faster in the water and longer lasting in service. However, until
 the advent of a new alloy for making bolts to hold ship's timbers in place,
 coppering caused the iron bolts to be eaten away. Although nobody understands
 why the iron bolts fail, experiments have revealed that an allow of copper 
 and zinc can make bolts of sufficient strength that are immune to the
 mysterious problem.

 Copper sheathing for a ship is not a trival expense, being about six times 
 more expensive than replacing damaged timbers. For those navies who do it,
 however, the improved performance from not having weed-fouled hulls s well
 worth the expense. Fancy metalurgy is a small additional price to pay.

 Historically, the alloy bolts made coppering a success, so much so that 
 "copper bottomed" bacame a mark of approval: something so (financially)
 sound it could not possible fail. The method remained in use until the
 development of anti-fouling paints; even iron hulls get fouled by weeds."

Requires        = Copper Bottoms
Building Needed = Naval College
Leads To        = Top Gallants
Stream          = Naval, Military

 * -5% upkeep costs for all naval units
 * +10% topspeed to ships in battle
 * +5% movement range for ships on the campaign map


--==Improved Farming==--

"Applying European argicultural techniques to existing native knowledge
 produces a beautiful and varied harvest.

 European settlers have brought new crops of coffee, sugar cane, spices
 and wheat to cultivate; cattle, pigs, and sheep; and new iron tools. 
 When combined with the native knowledge of the land, these new 
 argicultural ideas can provide plentiful harvests to feed future 
 generations, as long as the farmer maintains a healthy respect for the
 nature spirits, and does not try to exploit them.

 Long before Europeans arrived, the Native Americans already had a long
 history of farming, including crops such as potatoes, tobacco, squash,
 cocoa, and beans. Slash-and-burn techniques were used to clear large
 areas, and crop locations were regularly moved to prevent over-farming.
 The Europeans introduced improved tools, new crops and a heavier 
 emphasis on livestock. In parts of the New World the natives reared
 alpacas for wooland guinea pigs for food, but most of their meat came
 from hunting rather than rearing domesticated animals. Incidentally,
 the turkey is the only domesticated North American farm animal."

Requires        = THE WARPATH DOWNLOADABLE CONTENT!
                  None
Building Needed = Chief's Lodge
Leads To        = None
Stream          = Economy and Culture, Native

 * +0.5% to the population growth impact of farms
 * Enables building of High Chief's Lodge


--==Improved Fishing==--

"New fishing methods increase food supplies.

 The rivers, lakes, and seas around America contain an abundance of fish. 
 By refining age-old skills, the amount of fish a tribe can catch through
 their fisheries is greatly increased.

 Native Americans employed a variety of fishing techniques, the most
 successful being fishing weirs. These underwater cages could be used to
 trap large numbers of fish with minimum effort, and often spanned the
 entire width of a river."

Requires        = THE WARPATH DOWNLOADABLE CONTENT!
                  Nothing
Building Needed = Council of Elders
Leads To        = None
Stream          = Economy and Culture, Native

 * +10% Coin Wealth generated by fisheries
 * Enables building of Fishing Fleet


--==Improved Grape Shot==--

"Grape shot turns a naval cannon into a giant blunderbass, delivering a 
 devastating blast of man-killing shot into a target.

 Grape shot is usually a canvas bag that contains a large number of small 
 cannon balls. These are usually larger than the musket balls used in 
 canister shot for land-based artillery, as they are expected to blast 
 through wooden ships. Indeed, a part of their terrible killing effect comes
 from the fact that they not only spread out from the gun barrel when fired,
 but also shatter the target into equally deadly splinters. "Splinter" in this
 case can mean a lethally pointed piece of wood as long as a man's shorts!

 Improved grape shot puts the killing balls into a cylindrical container with
 wooden base or "sabot" (shoe), that acts as a poison when the cannon fires.
 Improved grapeshot can therefore can do even more damage to the crew of a 
 target.

 Historically, a broadside of grapeshot from HMS Swallow killed the infamous
 pirate Batholomew "Black Bart" Roberts in 1722. However, grapeshot was
 normally used to "rake" enemy ships by firing into the bow or stern. With
 no transverse bulkheads to absorb any damage, few would survive such an
 attack."

Requires        = Canister Shot
Building Needed = Naval Board
Leads To        = Carronades
Stream          = Naval, Military

 * Improves the effectiveness of grape shot


--==Improved Grenades==--

"Advances in ironworks and in the development of more reliable fuses can be
 applied to that most dangerous of hand-held weapons, the grenade.

 Grenades are dangerous weapons to their users as well as enemies. Premature
 detonation is always a risk, one that will probably kill and certainly maim
 the grenadier and anyone else nearby. There is also a need for a grenadier
 to throw the grenade further than its explosive killing radius! By making the
 hollow case thinner and being careful with the powder composition in fuses, 
 it is possible to make grenades slightly safer for the user.

 Historically, grenades were for the strongest and largest soldiers. It was
 rightly assured that a big chap could throw a cricket ball (baseball) sized
 grenade at a distant enemy. The weight of a dozen grenades in a pack was
 not a trivial load. Flintlock grenade throwers were developed: these had very
 short, wide barrels and used gunpowder to launch the grenade - a man-portable
 mini-mortar! The need to load a musket, light a fuse and fire at an enemy 
 promptly before the grenade exploded made them tricky (and nerve-wracking)
 to use."

Requires        = None
Building Needed = Cannon Foundry
Leads To        = Explosive Shells
Stream          = Ordnance, Military

 * Improves the effectiveness of grenades


--==Improved Ironworking==--

"New ironworking allows the manufacture of small arms, reducing the upkeep 
 costs of gunpowder-armed units.

 Mastering the craft not only frees a tribe from relying on Europeans for 
 iron goods, but also ensures a guaranteed supply of metal and weapons in
 times of trouble. The introduction of guns has dramatically altered 
 warfare: the best way to keep past is for a nation to own and control their
 own means of making firearms.

 During the seventeenth century, many Native Americans became proficent 
 gunsmiths, as metalworking skills became increasingly important, for both
 hunting and warfare. Owning a firearm was a mark of prestige for a 
 warrior, and he would personalise his weapon with decorative beaded 
 buckskin and brass studs. Damaged firearms could also be repaired, and
 barrels shortened to make them less cumbersome for use on horseback. It is
 a short step from such work to creating entire original arms."

Requires        = THE WARPATH DOWNLOADABLE CONTENT!
                  None
Building Needed = Gunsmith
Leads To        = None
Stream          = Military, Native

 * -3% Recruitment cost for all native gunpowder units
 * Enables building of Foundry


--==Interchangable Parts==--

"Uniformity in the parts of any machine or device means that it can be 
 assembled easily or broken items can be replaced quickly.

 Many device are hand-built by craftsmen to extremely high standards, but 
 this brings its own problems. If a designed component doesn't fit into a
 machine, it can be carefully worked until it does; in itself, this is no bad
 thing, but the altered piece may not now fit into an appropriately 
 identical mechanism.

 By making identical parts within a fine tolerance, identical machines can 
 be built from any mixture of those parts. Work can be developed amongst
 craftsmen, and broken parts can be replaced easily, even by a user! This is
 particularly useful for the military, as muskets and other equipment can be
 quickly repaired in the field rather than being thrown away or expensively
 rebuilt.

 This advance became widely known about thanks to American inventor Eli 
 Whitney (1765-1825). He built ten muskets in front of a US Congressional
 committee, took them to pieces, mixed up the parts, and rebuilt the muskets.
 The act was impressive, but he had cheated by having all his demonstrations
 pieces carefully handcrafted to extremely exacting standards. He was 
 largely copying the idea of Frenchmen Honore Blane."

Requires        = None
Building Needed = Steam Engine Factory
Leads To        = None
Stream          = Metal Industry, Industry

 * -5% upkeep costs for all army units
 * -10% upkeep costs for all naval units
 * +5% Coin Bonus to town wealth from all buildings
 * Enhances national prestige


--==Ironworking==--

"Being able to work metal well makes the manufacture of weapons a quicker, 
 easier process.

 As America becomes home to an increasing number of European settlers, 
 gunpowder weapons have become widespread. It is therefore useful for native
 nations to manufacture and maintain guns for themselves, instead relying
 on trade with foreigners for weapons. Ironworking is a new practice for many,
 but vital if the tribes are to survive.

 Historically, the Navajo and Hopi people were famed for their ability to
 make jewellery; silversmithing was particularly advanced among the Navajo.
 Other metalworking skills could be added to these methods, as the scale 
 might be different but the principles were the same."

Requires        = THE WARPATH DOWNLOADABLE CONTENT!
                  None
Building Needed = Hunting Grounds
Leads To        = None
Stream          = Military, Native

 * +5% Coin Wealth generated by industrial buildings
 * Enables building of Games Field, Iron Workshop


--==Joint Stock Companies==--

"A company owned by a group of individuals known as shareholders who can
 sell their stake in the company for profit.

 Joint stock companies are developed by financiers who, as part of their
 ownership, become shareholders. They are then given stocks that they can sell
 at any time, perferably for a profit. Coffee houses are popular haunts for
 men looking to trade in stocks. Many coffee house owners even keep a record
 of the prices of stocks and commodities, encouraging these new financiers
 to conduct their affairs within the establishment - all the while indulging
 in expensive and fashionable coffee drinking! 

 Historically, the South Sea Company was one of the more notorious joint stock
 companies. Robert Harley, the British Treasurer, set it up but, although the
 company appeared to be interested in trade, its chief purpose was to fund
 government debt incurred during the War of the Spanish Succession (1701-
 1714). Rampant speculation pushed share prices to insane levels and, in the
 inevitable crash, many lost their entire fortunes."

Requires        = Division of Labour
Building Needed = Classical University
Lead To         = Wealth of Nations
Stream          = Philosophy

 * -1 Happiness. Clamour for Reform
 * +5 Coin per turn to town wealth in the region
 * +10% Coin Wealth generated by all buildings
 * Enhances national prestige
 * Leads to Commercial Basin, Fur Exchange


--==Light Infantry Doctrine==--

""Being, in the main, a newly improved method of deployment for the correct 
 use of light troops upon the field of battle..."

 Skirmishers deploy as a screen ahead of the main battle line, usually as 
 a widely spaced line of men. It is their job to harass the enemy line by
 peppering them with a few musket balls and scout for weaknesses. Most
 importantly, they must prevent the enemy from doing the same thing. They
 will not stop a serious enemy attack only delay it.

 Advanced skirmishing requires a degree of intelligence from those in the
 ranks. They form small groups, spotting important targets in the enemy ranks
 and deliberately shooting them. For preference, enemy officers and sergeants
 are the main victims, as their loss causes confusion and doubt in the rank- 
 and-file. Light infantry officers direct their men, rather than rigidly 
 control them , leaving the brightest and best in the army to make their
 own kills.

 Historically, light troops were hunters, poachers and the like, or the 
 complete light companies from existing regiements gathered into a new unit.
 A few nations, such as Great Britain, chose to arm their elite skirmishers
 with rifles rather than smoothbore muskets."

Requires        = None
Building Needed = Army Board
Leads To        = Platoon Firing
Stream          = Military, Military

 * Enables advanced light infantry drill
 * Allows recruitment of light infantry


--==Lime Juice and Sauerkraut==--

"A man is what he eats and, if he eats properly, he will keep at bay some of
 those pitiable afflictions that weaken and destroy him.

 Scurvy is a terrible, disabling and ultimately fatal risk to all seafarers
 and many others. Most ship's companies can expect to lose some of their
 number to its ravages. It begins mildly enough, with bad breath, bleeding
 gums, spots, and lays its victims low. Scurvy, however, is entirely  
 avoidable if fresh fruit and vegetables are eaten. Failing that, the juice
 of limes can be stored aboard ships without losing its health-giving 
 potency and sauerkraut (despite being pickled) can be a substitute for
 fresh cabbage.

 In the 18th Century no one had the faintest idea that vitamin deficiency 
 was the cause of scurvy, but a few clear thinkers recognised that something
 was mission from sailors' food. Scottishnaval physican James Lind (1716-1794)
 proved by systematic experimentation that fresh fruit was a cure for scurvy,
 possible the first clinical trial ever conducted. He also advocated keeping
 ships clean and fumigated, and should be seen for all these as a hero of 
 naval medicine for the improvement he made to the sailor's lot."

Requires        = None
Building Needed = Naval Board
Leads To        = Preserved Foods
Stream          = Naval, Military

 * -5% Upkeep costs for all naval units
 * Enhances national prestige
 * Leads to Naval Hospital


--==Longitude Watch==--

"This watch keeps excellent time, enabling sailors to use it to calculate 
 their longitude with some certainty.

 While latitude is relatively easy to calculate for mariners, it is far 
 harder to estimate longitude. Deak reckoning can put a ship many leagues
 out of position, making it incredibly risky to approach a possibly reef-
 strewn coast. Having a reliable "home" time, it is possible to compare
 local readings, and so calculate longitude.

 In the 18th Century, poor navigation was a dangerous issue. Admiral Sir
 Cloudesley Shovell (1650-1707) and 1400 others in his Royal Navy squadron 
 died when a fleet went a aground off the Scillies. Dead reckoning 
 misplaced the fleet in a position of safety and, to add to the navigators'
 problems, no one could place the Scilly Islands on a map with any degree
 of accuracy either. Clearly, improvements were needed in navigational tools
 and the British Longitude Act of 1714 offered the immense fortune of £10,000
 to anyone who could devise a method for successfully calculating that element
 of a position. English clockmaker John Harrison (1693-1776) did eventually
 produce a chronometer that kept very accurate time, but spent more effort 
 in trying to get the money out of a recalcitrant government committee!"

Requires        = Sextant
Building Needed = Naval Board
Leads To        = None
Stream          = Naval, Military

 * +10% movement range for ships on the campaign map
 * Enhances national prestige


--==Machined Rifling==--

"Thanks to precision machinery, barrels can now have very accurate grooves for
 rifling, without troubling a master gunsmith to do the work.

 Rifling in a barrel imparts a spin to a projectile, making it fly with
 greater accuracy once it leaves the barrel. Grooves are cut in a spiral
 helix pattern on the inner surface of the barrel, and this twist is what 
 makes the bullet spin as it is fired. A lead bullet is actually distorted
 by the gunpowder explosion, and forced into the grooves.

 Making such a barrel was a task for a highly skilled gunsmith, meaning
 that rifling was reserved for hunting rifles for the extremely wealthy and
 the nobility. A machine tool that can do the job means that rifled barrels
 can be turned out in some quantity, and that they will be the same time
 after time. This machine cuts one groove at a time, meaning that at least 
 six or seven passes are required to properly rifle a barrel.

 Historically, only the British fields a large force of riflemen, armed with
 Ezekiel Baker's outstanding weapon."

Requires        = None
Building Needed = Army Staff College
Leads To        = Screw Breach
Stream          = Military, Military


--==Machine Tools==--

"Precision, machine tools make components reliably and accurately, replacing
 the skilled eye and hand of a craftsman.

 It is possible for a skilled man to make parts for any device that are all 
 the same size and quality, but is was not easy for him to do this day in,
 day out. By using a series of machines that are set to carry an individual 
 task each, it is possible to replace the skills of the craftsman with 
 unskilled labour. A man only needs to know how to place a work item in a 
 machine and pull a lever. The machine itself will always drill the proper
 hole, cut a shape or turn an item. The main restriction on the number of
 any device made disappears, as skilled labour is only needed to set up
 the machines. As a secondary benefit it is also possible to standardise
 even the most basic of items, such as nuts and bolts.

 John Wilkinson (1728-1808), for example, created a new method of making
 cannons by casting them as a solid "lump" and then accurately boring out
 the barrel with a machine. His technique could also be applied to steam
 engine cylinders."

Requires        = Measuring Tools, Wealth of Nations
Building Needed = Ironmaster's Works
Leads To        = Steam Engine
Stream          = Metal Industry, Industry

 * -15% Recruitment cost for all land units
 * +5% Coin bonus to town wealth from all buildings
 * Enhances national prestige
 * Leads to Ceramic Factory, Lumber Mill


--==Mass Production==--

"A system for making items in huge quantities, where manufacturing is no 
 longer dependant upon the skills of individual craftsmen.

 Craft-based manufacturing of any kind has a ceiling on the number of goods 
 that it can produce. The goods themselves may be beautifully made, but the
 number of expert workers is the limitation: people can only make so many
 things if they are doing everything for themselves.

 Mass Production mechanises the basic and repetitive tasks of production, 
 and divides work into simple, repetitive and repeatable tasks. No longer does
 a master craftsman labuor to make one item from start to finish. Instead, 
 work is broken down into simple tasks and each given to a worker with the
 item passing to the next person for the next task. Each job is simple, so
 mechanical aids and tools can be used in place of expertise.

 Marc Brunel (1769-1849) was a French engineer who fetched up in England after
 the French Revolution. His block-making machines are a typical example of
 mass production in the period. They let unskilled labour make the blocks
 and pulleys needed in the thousands by the Royal Navy - blocks were a vital
 part of ship's rigging."

Requires        = Classical Economics
Building Needed = Steam-Powered Cloth Mill
Leads To        = None
Stream          = Textile Industry, Industry

 * -10% recruitment cost for all land units
 * -10% recruitment cost fof all naval units
 * +10% Coin bonus to town wealth from all buildings
 * Enhances national prestige


--==Measuring Tools==--

"Accurate measuring tools make possible the measurement of everything, 
 allowing scientific and technical work to proceed apace.

 Until there are reliable instruments, standard units of measurement can only
 exist within a single workshop or scientist's laboratory. How can a scientist
 describe the distances or sizes of his experiments and be sure that anyone
 else is working to the same dimensions? Craftsmen must make everything, from
 a clock cogwheel to a musket mainspring to a spinning machine, by trial and
 error, relying on modifying spaces until they fit well enough to work, but 
 not necessarily accurately. An accurate measurement method, which is used in
 different locations, means that consistency and repeatability can triumph!

 Historically, Jesse Ramsden's dividing engine and screw cutting lathe allowed
 the repeatable creation of graduations on measuring tools. Ramsden's early
 work in Britainhad been on the thorny problem on longitude, and a reward of
 £300 (a small fortune at the time) enabled him to expand his business and
 create the tools that lead to accurate sextants. By 1785 his expertise was
 being used to make a theodolite for the Royal Engineers' Ordnance Society,
 allowing the eventual mapping of the whole of the United Kingdom."

Requires        = None
Building Needed = Iron Workshops
Leads To        = Machine Tools
Stream          = Metal Industry, Industry

 * +5% Wealth Bonus to town wealth from all buildings
 * +5% Wealth Bonus generated by industrial buildings
 * Leads to Metalled Roads


--==Military Syllabus==--

"This is a formal system of studies for all young gentlemen seeking a career 
 and success as senior military officers.

 While gifted amateurism and the minor gentry's natural leadership and 
 impressive shouting can do wonders at regimental level, for higher level
 commands a military education is necessary. There are matters of co-operation
 between the different arms of infantry, cavalry and artillery; there are  
 considerations of supply, intelligence, military engineering, politics and
 grand strategy. They are not trivial subjects, and require some study if they
 are to be useful to a general officer. A military syllabus approaches these
 matters in an organised way, and sets out a programme of study for a 
 gentlemen to undertake. At the very least, the reading list will keep the
 less cerebral officers from attaining high rank!

 The development of a system of military education aided the creation of a 
 centralised army staff, as it produced the professional officers needed to
 carry out the necessary duties. In many countries, professionalism was often
 viewed with deep suspicion, because it challenged the idea of nobility and
 propertied classes having an automatic right to command. Talent and proper
 training could trump the settled and natural order of things!"

Requires        = Ring Bayonets
Building Needed = Barracks
Leads To        = None
Stream          = Military, Military

 * -5% Upkeep Costs for all army units
 * Enhances National Prestige
 * Leads to Drill School


--==Money Economy==--

"Money in the form of coinage helps a tribal economy, and simplifies trade
 and taxation. Bartering has been the only form of trade in tribal society
 for generations, with beads and pelts acting as easily understandable 
 currencies. The introduction of a system of money makes buying and selling
 goods a much less complicated affair, allowing the tribe to create wealth
 without just accumulating goods. It also makes collecting taxes much 
 easier because, for any government, money is easier to use than a stack
 of animal pelts!

 Historically, Native Americans used a currency known as wampum, which
 consisted of a variety of small shell beads. Once Europeans arrived in
 America they adopted the use of wampum, as the easiest way to trade with
 the natives. Just like any other form of currency, wampum could be 
 affected by inflation. The beads had originally been hand crafted by 
 skilled tribemen. However, factories were developed for making wampum,
 making it virtually valueless."

Requires        = THE WARPATH DOWNLOADABLE CONTENT!
                  Written Language
Building Needed = Council of Tribes
Leads To        = None
Stream          = Economy and Culture, Native

 * +10 Coins per turn to town wealth in the region
 * +20% Coin wealth generated by all buildings


--==National Debt==--

"The idea that a state can, like an individual, borrow money against future
 (tax) income.

 Kings have always run up debts, borrowing money (sometimes at sword's point)
 from subjects and great banking houses. The debt, however, was the personal
 responsibility of the king. Eventually, his credit would run out. The  
 concept of national debt allows a nation to borrow to finance expansion and
 conquest. Wars can be financed by issuing bills and bonds, and to be repaid -
 probably - from taxation.

 Scottish economist, gamabler and rake John Law (1671-1729) made several
 advances in his field, his most notable being the introduction of the French
 national bank. He also proposed state control over national finances and
 trade. As a result, the state used all national profits to pay off national
 debt. Eventually, his schemes collapsed but in the process he gave the 
 Western world bank notes and the word "millionaire".

 National debt could also be a dangerous thing, for government officals. When 
 the share trading of the "South Sea Bubble" spectacularly failed in 1720,
 government creditors were out of pocket because they had been paid off 
 in shares. The Chancellor of the Exchequer, John Aislabie, was imprisoned
 in the Tower of London for his incompetence."

Requires        = Seperation of Powers
Building Needed = Classical University
Lead To         = None
Stream          = Philosophy

 * -5% Upkeep costs for all army units
 * -5% Upkeep costs for all naval units
 * +8 Coins per turn to town wealth in the region
 * Enhances national prestige


--==Naval Architecture Advances==--

"This is a new approach to the business of designing, building, arming and 
 commissioning warships for the navy.

 The struggle to find a perfect design for a ship of the line occupies many
 minds in many admiralties around the world. Ideally, the perfect design for
 each type of vessel will be a standard, repeatable plan that any compotent
 shipwright can execute. There must be compromise between the various elements
 of the ship: armament and its type, speed, sail area, strength of hull, 
 endurance (in terms of supplies carried) and so forth. If any of these 
 are unbalanced, then the ship will sail or fight poorly, and the fleet be
 weakened as a result. 

 Historically, distinct "classes" of warships built to standardised designs
 emerged by a process of experimentation. Shipwrights were expected to use 
 naval architects rather than build ships by rule of thumb, the way things had
 always been done. Navies encouraged the practice because a certain pleasing
 neatness resulted if ships were built to recognise standards. In Britain, for
 example, the work of Sir Thomas Slade (1704-71) was exceptional: he produced
 a standard plan for the third rate 74, and over 40 ships were built to his
 design."

Requires        = None
Building Needed = Naval Board
Leads To        = Reformed Naval Administration
Stream          = Naval, Military

 * -5% recruitment cost for all naval units
 * Enhances national prestige
 * Leads to Drydock


--==Naval Shore Facilities==--

"A fleet is more than just a collection of ships. It requires an organisation
 and support ashore to keep it afloat and battle worthy.

 Ships at sea requires regular repairs, even if they are not fighting, as wind
 and wave will take a toll of even the strongest vessel. Even ships that are
 not active require some maintenance support, as barnicles and weeds must be
 removed if sailing performance is not to be compromised. A warship requires
 a prodigious quantity of stores, food, water, and ammunitions too: all of 
 these must be collected, properly preserved and then loaded quickly and
 efficiently. 

 All of these tasks mean that navies must have their own shipyards, repair 
 shops and warehouses available at all times. It is not enough to rely on
 civilian capacity. 

 Historically, the Royal Navy was the largest single industrial "business" 
 in the 18th Century world. A huge fleet demanded shore facilities such as 
 dockyards on an equally vast scale, and in every part of the world. Just
 suppling the fleet with food, drink, and spare parts required tremendous 
 purchasing organisation, but the Navy was also capable of building and 
 repairing vessels. Even British foreign policy in places like the Baltic 
 was dominated by the need to keep the navy supplied (with mast timers and
 tar, in the case of the Baltic.)"

Requires        = None
Building Needed = Admiralty
Leads To        = None
Stream          = Naval, Military

 * Enables Building of Dockyard, Naval Board


--==New Model Bayonet Drill==--

"A drill which has been refined to formalise the lasest fashions in 
 bayonet usage, making for a more effective melee attack.

 The first bayonets did a fine job of providing mustketeers with the
 equivalent of a short pike to use in an emergency. Because they were
 pike replacements, the drills used were largely based on the well-known
 and understood pike drills. Now, however, bayonets are seen as something
 more than substitute pikes, something that pragmatic soldiers discovered
 for themselves. New books are emerging, advocating a new fashion of bayonet
 drill: holding the bayonet-carrying musket at waist height, rather than
 advancing with it levelled at shoulder height. There is also an emphasis
 on the offensive use of the bayonet, carrying the fight to the enemy,
 rather than using it defensively to keep attackers at bay. In the thick
 of hand-to-hand fighting, however, many soldiers use their muskets as clubs,
 as the need to live takes precedence over formal training!

 Historically, this development is the birth of the "spirit of the bayonet"
 and the belief in the efficacy of "cold steel" which was to last for the 
 next two centuries in some armies."

Requires        = None
Building Needed = Military Academy
Leads To        = Reorganised Procurement
Stream          = Military, Military

 * +3 to charge bonus for bayonet-equipped units
 * Enhances national prestige


--==Percussion Cap==--

"This small copper container holds a chemical mixture that reacts explosively
 when hit; the flash is used to ignore a main gunpowder charge.

 A percussion piece has less to go wrong than a flintlock during firing: there
 is no flint to become loose; no need to charge the pan with loose powder 
 and less to get wet in bad weather. Instead a small cap is fitted over the
 end of a small tube at the breech end of the barrel. The cap is filled with
 fulminate of mercury, a most volatile substance. When it is struck by the
 hammer it explodes, but in a small way. The flash travels down the tube
 and ignites the main charge of gunpowder, and the musket fires.

 Historically, the percussion cap was the invention of a Scottish clergyman,
 Alexander John Forsyth (1769-1843), who was looking for a solution to a 
 hunting problem. The flintlock's flash in the pan before the main charge
 fired alerted birds that they were about to be shot, causing them to fly
 away in a deucedly unsporting fashion. The newly discovered and very
 unstable fulminate of mercury gave him an invisible spark that didn't 
 warn his feathered victims!"

Requires        = None
Building Needed = Army Staff College
Leads To        = None
Stream          = Military, Military

 * Enhances national prestige
 * Reduces the impact of rain on misfires
 * -5% misfire chance for all gunpowder weapons


--==Percussion Shells==--

"This is a cannon shell which explodes on impact, rather than as the result
 of a burning fuse igniting the bursting charge.

 Explosive shells usually rely on the gunner lighting a seperate fuse on the
 shell itself prior to the gun being fired. The fuse burns at a set rate,
 and explodes after a selected time regardless of whether or not a target
 has been hit or the enemy is nearby. Incorrectly set fuses can kill
 friends or gunners, or not explode at all. Explosive shells are also 
 limited to mortars and howitzers which lob their projectiles in a high arc.

 The percussion shell, however, is cunningly fashioned to take advantage 
 of the explosive properties of fulminating compounds. These chemicals burst
 into flame when struck, and this can be used to ignite larger charges of
 gunpowder. The shock of an impact on a target is transferred to the
 fulminate, which then ignites the shell's bursting charge. Such shells 
 can be fired from ordinary cannons, directly at an enemy.

 Historically, the work of Henri-Joesph Paixhans (1783-1854), who combined
 the flat-firing cannons and a reliable percussion shell, lead directly to
 the obsolescence of the wooden warship and the rise of the ironclad."

Requires        = Carcass Shot
Building Needed = Engineer School
Leads To        = None
Stream          = Ordnance, Military

 * Enables precussive shells. These replace explosive shells for howitzers
   and mortars.


--==Physiocracy==--

"Physiocrats believe the only real source of wealth is land and therefore
 only agriculture is worthy of investment.

 Physiocracy means "ruled by nature" and this perfectly sums up the attitude
 of the theory's adherents. They believe that land is the only profitable
 commodity man can own, and should be the sole concentation of those  
 attempting to make a successful living. 

 The idea is also based on the assumption that humans are instinctively 
 selfish and as such will always act to the benefit of themselves before
 others. Physiocrats believe that this human characteristic is vital to a 
 thriving economy. If a rule hampers the move forwards by levying taxes,
 imposing regulations and generally attempting to control the flow of trade
 he will prevent the creation of wealth and stunt wealth generation.

 As leaders in the development of physiocracy, the French created the theory
 of "laissez-faire". This helped to explain their views on the amount of 
 input a ruler should have on trade, and became an influential idea still 
 used to promote economic liberalism today."

Requires        = None
Building Needed = School
Leads To        = Division of Labour
Stream          = Philosophy

 * +3 Coin per turn to Town Wealth in the Region
 * +15% Coin Wealth Generated by Farms
 * Leads to Large Plantations


--==Platoon Firing==--

"This firing plan for musketry ensures an infantry unit keeps up a 
 continual barrage of shots against an enemy.

 Nearly all line infantry carry smoothbore, muzzle-loading muskets. These
 take considerable time to reload after firing: anything up to a minute 
 for poorly trained or nervous troops. During that time, the enemy can 
 close or return fire unmolested. In the time it takes to reload, a unit
 can be cut down, its half-loaded weapons useless in the face of an 
 aggressive foe. It is sensible to make sure that not everyone in an 
 infantry unit is reloading at the same moment, this, in turn, means that
 not everyone should be firing at the same time.

 Platoon fire is a way of dividing a unit into smaller groups that each
 fire, reload and fire again in turn. The result is a "rippling fire" down
 a line formation and, as the last platoon fires its muskets, the first is
 ready to fire again. A unit can always give some fire to the enemy at all
 times, even if this is less than a complete volley. When more than one 
 unit is involved all the troops in every first platoon fire, followed by
 all the second platoons, and so on, creating several rippling barrages
 down the battle line.

 The word "platoon" in this context does not have the modern meaning of 
 being a sub-unit of a military company. Platoon assignment to what was a
 "fire group" was made on an ad hoc or informal basis, and could mean a 
 whole regiment being assigned to a "platoon"."

Requires        = Light Infatry Doctrine
Building Needed = Army Board
Leads To        = None
Stream          = Military, Military

 * Enables platoon firing drill
 * Leads to Army Staff College


--==Plug Bayonet==--

"A plug bayonet turns a musket into a crude spear or half-pike by plugging
 the muzzle with a blade handle, like a cork into a bottle. 

 At one time "marching regiments" were composed of musketeers and pikemen. 
 The pikes provided protection for the musketeers while they slowly reloaded
 and in the event of a Cavalry attack. In a melee the musketeers reversed
 their guns and used them as clubs, or dropped them and drew swords. Neither
 solution was ideal, and equipping half a unit with pikes also halved its 
 potential firepower. As muskets became lighter and no longer needed a 
 firing rest, it became practical to attack a blade to the muzzle, giving
 the user a better-than-makeshift weapon in melee. 

 Ramming a blade, hilt first, into the muzzle became a practical solution.
 The soldier then has a short pike to fend of Cavalry, and use in hand-to-hand
 combat. The drawbacks are that it is often difficult to remove the plug 
 bayonet once used in anger and resume firing, the user cannot reload - and
 only a fool fires a gun when the barrel is blocked!

 Historically, muskets with plug bayonets were the equivalent of short likes,
 and old-fashioned pike drill applied; men advanced with their muskets held
 shoulder high, and levelled at the enemy."

Requires        = Nothing
Building Needed = Army Encampment
Leads To        = Ring Bayonet
Stream          = Military, Military

 * Enables infantry to fix bayonets in battle


--==Powder Making==--

"Learning to make gunpowder cuts the cost of recruiting gun-armed units.

 The ability to create gunpowder means that a tribe no longer depends on 
 supplies from fickle European traders. The tribe can therefore give muskets
 to more of its warriors, because they can be used, not just carried as  
 clubs. Bullets are less of a problem, as they can be cast by any competant
 smith, and many gunpowder weapons come with bullet mounds as part of their
 accoutrements. But the availability of powder remains key: make that, and
 there are few limits to your power.

 Gunpowder is actually a relatively simply compound, but one that takes time
 and skill to manufacture. Making the ideal mix is a matter of trial and
 error once the ingredients are understood, but grinding the powder to the
 right size takes steady nerves and real care. Powder for a handgun needs
 to have the right size grains if it is not to be too weak to fire a bullet
 or, worse still, burn too quickly and shatter the gun barrel. The user 
 does not often survive such a disaster."

Requires        = THE WARPATH DOWNLOADABLE CONTENT!
                  None
Building Needed = Warrior Society
Leads To        = Cannon Casting
Stream          = Military, Native

 * -6% Recruitment cost for native gunpowder units
 * Enables building of Gunsmith


--==Power Loom==--

"A powered, mechanical loom that can be operated by shifts of unskilled 
 workers.

 Manual weaving is a skilled craft, one that requires long years to master
 and, as always, this limits the output of a craft-based industry. The 
 power loom automates many of the movements needed to weave cloth. A cunning
 series of levers, cams, gears and springs make the individual elements of
 the loom move in precise time. The operator monitors the work, and makes 
 sure that the machine is supplied with yard. This unskilled labour requires
 nimble fingers, but not the master craftsmanship of old.

 During the 18th Century powered looms were seen as a threat to many 
 livelihoods, provoking riots and unrest when they were installed in mills.
 Edmund Cartwright (1743-1823) was not the first to turn his mind to
 mechanical weaving, but he was the first to understand the economics of  
 the problem: that a power loom had to make more than a manual weaver, or
 that one operator had to be able to work several looms at the same time. 
 His machine was not perfect, but it showed promise and the way ahead."

Requires        = Punch Card Loom
Building Needed = Water-Powered Cloth Mill
Leads To        = None
Stream          = Textile Industry, Industry

 * +5% Coin Wealth generated by textile workshops and factories
 * +20% Coin Bonus to town wealth from textile industry buildings
 * Enhances national prestige
 * Leads to Steam-Powered Cloth Mill


--==Preserved Foods==--

"Keeping food fresh at sea requires that it is preserved in some way; at the
 very least, this makes it taste fairly horrible.

 A variety of preserving methods are used to aid the storage life of food. 
 Meat and, to a lesser extent, cheese can be salted and stored for years, but
 the inevitable saltiness makes it a poor substitute for fresh food. Ship's
 biscuits and flour for bread can be stored in barrels for long periods, but
 are notoriously prey to weevils. Beer likewise can be store for a while 
 thanks to the preservative effect of hops. Other foods are harder to keep
 fresh, and the solutions were put into port regularly, carry animals for
 slaughter, or go without. It is, however, now possible to preserve food
 in jars or metal canisters: they are cooked in the container and then quickly
 sealed to keep out the air.

 Historically, the process was pioneered by French confectioner Nicolas Appert
 (1749-1841). He spotted that food boiled in seal containers only spoiled
 once the air was admitted, and earn himself a substantial prize once he went
 into production: a labourious business as each tin had to be hand made."

Requires        = Lime Juice and Sauerkraut
Building Needed = Naval College
Leads To        = None
Stream          = Naval, Military

 * Enhances national prestige
 * +2 to morale in battles


--==Puddling Furnace==--

"This furnace keeps the pig iron and fuel seperated, preventing impurities
 from reaching the pool of molten metal.

 As a result, the puddling furnace makes a very good quality end product. 
 It does not, however, turn raw ore into refined metal: it needs refined
 iron of reasonable quality to produce the best results. The metal is placed
 in the heart of the furnace along with oxidizing agents and melted by 
 blowing flames from the fire onto it: the puddle formed in the open hearth
 is manually stirred by the operators - a risky job for anyone! The iron
 produced can be worked further into wrought iron, a strong, malleable, 
 material with many uses.

 Historically, English ironmaster Henry Cort (1740-1800) developed the 
 process, partly in response to the poor quality of iron he dealt with
 in his job working for the Royal Naval Dockyards. Unfortunately, he was
 not much of a businessman and he did not gain great wealth from his 
 work: he died a ruined man."

Requires        = None
Building Needed = Ironmaster's Work
Leads To        = None
Stream          = Metal Industry, Industry

 * -15% Recruitment cost for artillery
 * +20% Coin Wealth generated by metalworking buildings
 * Enhances national prestige


--==Punch Card Loom==--

"A loom that makes patterned materials thanks to a mechanism which follows
 instructions coded into a set of holed cards.

 Patterns are created in woven cloth by lifting different warp threads as  
 the shuttle passes through the loom. Even on a manual loom intricate designs
 can be created by lifting threads in the right order, but this relies on
 the skill of the weaver. The punch-card loom mechanizes the lifting of warp
 threads. A series of punch cards is drawn through the machine as the cloth
 is woven; each card has an intricate pattern of holes that allow levers to 
 drop through as the card is "read." The lever trips a mechanism that raises
 the corresponding warp thread at the right time to create a pattern. 
 Providing the cards are in the correct order and the holes are properly
 punched, the machine can dependably and repeatably produce any desired 
 design with no need for a master weaver.

 Joseph Marie Jacquard (1752-1834) is credited as the father of the punched
 card loom, although his work draws on machines that used a paper roll for
 the instructions. The loom cards are direct ancestors of the computer punched
 card, once the bane of every computer department!"

Requires        = Flying Shuttle
Building Needed = Water-Powered Cloth Mill
Leads To        = Power Loom
Stream          = Textile Industry, Industry

 * +15% Coin Bonus to town wealth from textile industry buildings
 * Enhances national prestige


--==Quicklime Shells==--

"This unpleasant and ungentlemenly artillery projectile showers the target 
 with quicklime, a compound that causes burns and blindness.

 Quicklime is a dangerous, caustic product that gets very, very hot when it
 is slaked with water. It does have entirely innocent uses: plaster, mortar
 and whitewash for buildings, and in glass making; but as a weapon it is 
 frightening indeed. The smallest amount will cause painful, even fatal,
 burns on exposed flesh. The eyes are especially vulnerable because they are
 moist with tears. Quicklime shells carry an explosive charge so as to burst
 above enemy lines, but they are still dangerous to the gunners using them.

 Historically, quicklime had a long history of use in warfare, daring back
 to Classical antiquity. This did not make it an acceptable weapon in the
 eyes of many military gentlemen who, quite rightly, realised that what
 could be used against the enemy could also be used against them. Further,
 liuke all chemical weapons, it was entirely dependent on the wind to send 
 the caustic agent in the right direction once released. It was true that,
 short of running away, there was no practical defence against perfidous
 and odious chemical weapons."

Requires        = Carcass Shot
Building Needed = Ordnance Board
Leads To        = None
Stream          = Ordnance, Military

 * Enables quicklime shells. This replaces carcass shot for howitzers and
   mortars


--==Reformed Naval Administration==--

"The desire to keep a well-supplied, healthy and effective fleet at sea
 requires a tremendous amount of administration and paperwork, paperwork,
 paperwork!

 Traditionally, many naval nations have relied on treating a navy as one more
 part of the royal household, or a series of temporary arrangements that draw
 on the merchant fleets in times of war. A reformation of the navy's shore
 administration replaces the ad hoc arrangements of previous centuries with
 a properly trained and salaried secretariat, men who understood the worlds
 of business, account books and legal matters better than they know the sea.
 It is they who organise and run the naval service not, as was once the case,
 admirals and officers too old or crippled to walk the quarterdeck. The 
 change, while bemoaned by sea officers, is undoubtedly necessary to ensure
 that a fleet can remain at sea, with crews, food and equipment as required,
 and shore facilities for repair when they are needed, wherever they are
 needed.

 Historically, maintaining maritine power at sea was not an option for any
 nation that engaged in overseas trade. The only guarantee that sea lnads 
 would be open for merchant vessels was the guns of a powerful navy. A nation
 without warships was, sooner or later, a nation without its own trading
 fleet."

Requires        = Improved Naval Architecture
Building Needed = Naval Board
Leads To        = None
Stream          = Naval, Military

 * Enhances national prestige
 * Leads to Naval College


--==Reorganised Procurement==--

"As armies grow in size and complexity, foraging and looting rarely support
 military operations for long periods. Supply must be put on a formal 
 lodging.

 Traditionally, the colonel of each regiment was responsible for making sure
 that his men are adequately clothed and shod, and carry weapons and  
 ammunition to see them through a campaign. However, as armies increase in
 size military officers actually began to compete with each other for
 scarce resources, and this only serves to drive up prices - and the profits
 of the unscrupulous and unpatriotic. It also turns the centralised 
 co-ordination of, and sharing of, campaign supplies into an administrative
 triangle. It is true that it does not matter if an army has many types of
 shoes, as long as everyone has a pair. But something as seemingly simple as
 a common size of cannon ball can become problematic if every colonel of
 every regiment is allowed to organise and order his own weapons.

 In addition to laying down standards for drill and military evolutions, 
 during the 18th Century the army staffs of various nations (such as they
 were) also began to sort out the tangle of supply. The whole business was,
 in many nations, riddled with corruption and preferential treatment for
 friends, with bribes and kickbacks as well. While a certain amount of 
 patting money into friends' pockets was considered acceptable, there were
 limits."

Requires        = New Model Bayonet Drill
Building Needed = Military Academy
Leads To        = None
Stream          = Military, Military

 * -5% recruitment cost for all land units
 * Leads to Army Board, Gunnery School


--==Riding the Winds==--

"Let the wind carry your spirit vision over all nearby settlements and look 
 within, so seeing the plans of your enemies.

 Walls and fortifications may keep out enemies and their prying eyes, but
 are little use against the forces of nature. Channelling the spirit force
 of the wind to move through the world and see everything is a powerful 
 thing. No word or deed can escape the vision granted. The mind's eye can
 see all information about an enemy.

 The Native American belief in the spirit world was more than religious: it
 was central to their continued existance as a people. The spirits existed
 in everything and, therefore, everything was connected and had a purpose and
 place in the world. From the mightest oak to the smallest insect, from the
 flow of the river to the swirl of the storm, all had spirits. It was
 believed that people should exist in harmony with the spirits of nature 
 rather than see them as something to be tamed and controlled."

Requires        = THE WARPATH DOWNLOADABLE CONTENT!
                  None
Building Needed = Sweat Lodge
Leads To        = Spirit Medicine
Stream          = Mystic, Native

 * Learn more about the content of enemy settlements and armies
 * Enables buildling of Spiritual Circle


--==Rifled Cannon==--

"Rifling a barrel increases the accuracy of a weapon, and this principle can
 be applied to large cannons as well as small arms.

 Ordinary naval cannons are smoothbore weapons, meaning that the barrel is a
 simple tube to contain the explosion. The limitations of casting mean that
 cannons are quite crude and windage, the gap between the barrel and shot,
 is always a problem. A shot often "rattles" down the barrel when fired, 
 making it inherently inaccurate. The loss of accuracy with a smoothbore 
 makes its maximum range of academic interest only, simply because it becomes
 a matter of luck rather than judgement to hit anything far away!

 A rifled cannon solves these problems. By using machines to bore out the
 barrel from a blank casting, one inaccuracy is removed. Another machine cuts
 a helical pattern of grooves into the barrel wall. This imparts a spin to
 any shot as it travels down the barrel, and a spinning projectile flies true.
 This makes the effective range of a rifled cannon shot much greater than one
 from a smoothbore, although the maximum range for both is similar.

 Historically, rifled cannons used manufacturing techniques developed for
 making accurate steam pistons and cylinders."

Requires        = Carronades, Machined Rifling
Building Needed = Naval College
Leads To        = Sheet Lead Cartridges
Stream          = Naval, Military

 * Enables rifled naval cannons
 * Enhances national prestige


--==Rights of Man==--

"A theory promoting the rights of the individual, and introducing the view
 that "Men are born free and remain free and equal in rights.

 Every man deserve rights, regardless of his nationality, class and any other
 categorization placed upon him by his fellow man. These rights should extend
 to anything that does no injury to others. Any law imposed should only have
 the power to prevent things, and nothing else. These are the new ideas 
 implicit in the Rights of Man. Theorists believe law is an expression of the
 general will and as such should not be controlled by a single individual.

 Historically, Thomas Paine (1737-1809), an English revolutionary who was
 involved in both the American and French Revolutions, wrote the "Rights of 
 Man". His work supported and advanced the ideals behind both revolutions: he
 had a strong belief in the need for freedom of speech. He stated that a man
 should never be punished for his views and should be free to voice them to
 the masses. In a time when some of his fellows were prosecuted for publishing
 radical theories this was a dangerous view point indeed. Paine is still
 regarded as a hero to this day."

Requires        = Seperation of Powers
Building Needed = Classical University
Lead To         = None
Stream          = Philosophy

 * +10% to technology research rate
 * +5 Coin per turn to town wealth in the region
 * Enhances national prestige
 * Leads to Modern University


--==Ring Bayonet==--

"This long blade has a ring which fits around the outside of a musket barrel,
 allowing the weapon to be fired while it is attached.

 The ring bayonet serves to turn a musket into a short, and rather heavy, 
 pike. This is considerably more threatening to enemies using the weapon as
 a clumsy club in a hand-to-hand fight. The bayonet is a push fit, and it is 
 the tightness on the ring around the bayonet that keeps it in place, most of
 the time. Ring bayonets can be pulled off in the heat of combat by becoming
 wedged in enemy flesh, and they can be pushed back along the barrel. They
 are, however, a considerable advance over the plug bayonet.

 There is some dispute over the origin of the ring bayonet, and it may be the
 case that several military men in different countries developed it at almost
 the same time. Its advantage over the plug bayonet - the user could still
 give fire - made sure that it was popular. A ring bayonet would not offset
 from the barrel, making it awkward to reload a musket with one fitted."

Requires        = Plug Bayonet
Building Needed = Barracks
Leads To        = Military Syllabus
Stream          = Military, Military

 * Enables ring bayonets. This replaces plug bayonets


--==Screw Breech==--

"This cunning mechanism does away with the need to load a wepaon by ramming
 charge and shot down the muzzle, making the whole business quicker.

 Instead, a handle underneath the rear of the barrel causes the screw section
 of the breech to drop away, allowing the user to put a ball and a charge 
 into the barrel. The handle is then turned back; the breech closes and seals
 the firing chamber. The gun then fires like any other flintlock. Better yet,
 the screw breech doesn't require the user to stand in order to be able to
 use a ramrod to proper effect.

 Historically, Major Patrick Ferguson (1744-1780) was the first to produce
 a practical military weapon with a screw breech. The mechanism was expensive
 to manufacture, so using it on a rifle was a sensible idea. In expert hands,
 Ferguson's rifle was a superb weapon with a high rate of fire, but is was
 delicate compared to a flintlock. Ferguson's tactics of skirmishing and
 sniping at the enemy didn't fit the prevailing mind set of the British Army
 of the time. After Ferguson was wounded and no longer an advocate for his
 rifle or tactics, his unit was disbanded with unseemly haste."

Requires        = Machined Rifling
Building Needed = Army Staff College
Leads To        = None
Stream          = Military, Military

 * Enhances National Prestige
 * Recruits the best infantry units
 * Available only to the British


--==Seasoning==--

"The practice of setting green timber aside after it is felled to dry 
 naturally, so that it can be then used in shipbuilding.

 Seasoning takes time, as wood will dry out at its own pace once the 
 tree has been felled and brought to a lumber yard. Large sheds are required,
 where the timber can be left in dry conditions for a year or more until it
 is ready for use. Some, as it dries, will warp and prove unsuitable for
 further work. In the case of oak, the wood actually gains strength over 
 time as it dries out and settles into its final form.

 Historically, ships and warships in particular, needed an enormous amount 
 of lumber, of many different kinds. It could take a century for a tree to
 grow large enough for use, so shipwrights needed to use their materials
 carefully. In an attempt to save money and timber, the British Royal Navy
 had a policy of recycling parts from old ships (which sounds commendably
 "green" nowadays) but this had the effect of transferring old rot to new
 builds. The French perferred to build ships out of unseasoned wood,
 maintaining that ships that had flexibility to "work" sailed better."

Requires        = Nothing
Building Needed = Admiralty
Leads To        = Cooper Bottoms
Stream          = Naval, Military

 * -10% Upkeep Costs for all naval units
 * +5% Recruitment Costs for all naval units
 * Enhances National Prestige


--==Secular Humanism==--

"Secular Humanism is the attempt to create a functioning society that  
 excludes religious beliefs as a governing principle.

 Secular humanists hold that things should not be taken on blind faith, and
 religion should be taken into consideration only for each individual and
 not society as a whole. Although humanists seek to remove religion from its
 deeply ingrained position in society, they do treat it with the same careful
 deliberation they apply to all their investigations. Everything is looked at
 in a critical, careful, and most importantly, "scientific" way.

 The doctrine of secular humanism also seeks to improve society through
 reason, an open exchange of ideas and tolerance. If a society is built up 
 of individuals who feel fulfilled it will function better on the whole 
 than one which concentrates on the greater good.

 Historically, the term "secularism" was invented by George Holyoake (1817-
 1906) in an attempt to explain as inoffensively as possible this concept 
 about religion and its place in society. Before that, it was termed
 "Owenite" after Robert Owen (1771-1858) and his trenchant opposition to
 organised religion. Holyoake had spent six months imprisoned for blasphemy,
 after expelling the concept in a public lecture."

Requires        = None
Building Needed = Modern University
Leads To        = None
Stream          = Philosophy

 * -50% to religious unrest
 * -1 Happiness. Clamour for reform
 * +6 Coins per turn to town wealth in the region
 * Enhances National Prestige
 * Enables building of Royal Academy


--==Seed Planting Drill==--

"A horse-drawn machine that plants seeds in regimented lines, and then covers
 them with earth. 

 The seed drill replaces the old method of a farm hand simply walking the 
 fields and scattering seed by hand. Instead of wasting seed or allowing them
 to be eaten by birds and scavengers, the drill plants them in a controlled
 manner. Seeds are poured into a hopper, and then a cunningly mechanical
 contrivance assures that each is properly buried at the right depth. Wastage
 is reduced, the plants have the correct amount of room, and crop yields
 are increased.

 The inventor, Jethro Tull (1674-1741), was a practical man and a believer 
 in empirical studies to determine the truth. He was of the opinion that 
 plants gained much of their nutrition from the soil, and that it made sense
 to both improve it and remove weeds with an eye to increasing harvests. His
 seed drill was the only one of his inventions that aided the Agricultural
 Revolution in Britain. This (forcibly) freed workers from the rural economy
 and drove them to seek work in the new mills of the Industrial Revolution."

Requires        = None
Building Needed = Clearances
Leads To        = None
Stream          = Agriculture, Industry

 * -15% to cost of constructing farm buildings
 * -15% to cost of constructing plantations
 * Enhances national prestige


--==Selective Breeding==-

"Crossbreeding animals to produce hybrids by applying the scientific method
 increases their desirable and profitable characteristics.

 The simple ideas are often the most effective: by seperating a farm's 
 herds by sex, animals cannot breed as nature intended and the inclination
 takes thems. The farmer can select the male animal used to impregnate his 
 flock or herd, and choose the good characteristics he wants the next
 generation to inherit! By repeatedly selecting the "father of the flock"
 for his good and profitable qualities, the worth of the whole flock 
 increases over each generation.

 Robert Bakebell (1725-1795) was the first to try this simple scheme at his
 farm in Leicestershire, England. His new breed Dishley Longhorn cattle
 and English Leicester sheep were only popular during his lifetime, but the
 pattern had been set. New crossbreeds replaced them, and the size and 
 yields of farm animals increased dramatically. Perhaps a touch ironically,
 the modern trend is to preserve ancient farming bloodstock types, in the
 hope that they may have benefits for today's farmers."

Requires        = Improved Animal Husbandry
Building Needed = Clearances
Leads To        = None
Stream          = Agriculture, Industry

 * +15% Coin Wealth generated by farms
 * Leads to Clearances


--==Seperation of Powers==--

"A theory proposing that, in order to have a fair and just society, all powers
 of rulership must never be in the hands of just one person or group.

 "Unlimited power is apt to corrupt the minds of those who possess it..." 
 Kings have long had the freedom to do as they will, often resulting in 
 injustice, cruelty and tyranny. This is the very reason for the development
 of a theory that proposes splitting power between different and possibly
 competing departments of government.

 Historically, the French political commentator Charles de Secondat (1689-
 1755) began France's move away from the "States general" (the division of
 the French people into the three estates of clergy, the artistocracy and
 everyone else) under the absolute authority of the King, towards a  
 seperation of powers. He was also responsible for the divison of government
 into legislative, executive and judicial parts. One branch makes law, the
 second enforces them, and the third oversees the process of justice."

Requires        = Government by Consent
Building Needed = Classical University
Lead To         = National Debt, Rights of Man
Stream          = Philosophy

 * -1 Happiness. Clamour for reform
 * +1 Happiness (Middle Classes)
 * +4 Coin per turn to town wealth in the region
 * Enhances national prestige


--==Sextant==--

"This precision navigation tool allows a skilled user to calculate his
 latitude.

 The basic purpose is to measure the height of a star or other heavenly
 object above the horizon. If a measurement of the sun's height at noon is
 taken, then the measured angle relates directly to the latitude of the
 observer using the sextant. Skilled navigators can also use the moon or 
 any star listed in a naval almanac for the same purpose. If a navigator
 uses his sextant horizontally, he can measure the angle between and two
 prominent landmarks and so, by triangulation, accurately fix his own
 position on a chart. This is a huge advance on any method of dead reckoning,
 even if it does not help in establishing longitude.

 A sextant is a delicate thing, and requires skilled repairs if damaged.

 Historically, the sextant was a development of earlier devices like the
 backstaff and the astrolabe. The sextant is so called because the measuring
 arc is exactly one-sixth of a circle. Earlier attempts at similar 
 instruments were the octant (one-eighth) and the quadrant (one-quarter); both
 used the same basic sighting method, but the arc was either too small to be
 practical or made the device unwieldly."

Requires        = None
Building Needed = Admiralty
Leads To        = Longitude Watch
Stream          = Naval, Military

 * Enhances National Prestige
 * +5% Movement range for ships on the campaign map


--==Sharp Shooting==--

"A steady hand, a sharp eye and training improve marksmanship, a useful skill
 to impart to warriors.

 Although sharpshooting involves bullets rather than arrows, the idea is the
 same; pick your target, aim carefully, and let fly. When outmatched, any
 tactical advantage that can be gained through the use of carefully positioned
 marksmen is welcome. A tribe that can pass skills from warrior to warrior
 makes the best use of its people too.

 Early firearms used by the Native Americans were single-shot, muzzle-loading
 flintlock pistols. Those guns inspired awe and fear,but were, in fact, 
 primative, inaccurate and unwieldy. It was only after the arrival of 
 repeating breech-loaders that the bow became largely obsolete, and by then
 the natives were the masters of firearms in both hunting and warfare."

Requires        = THE WARPATH DOWNLOADABLE CONTENT!
                  Hunting Techniques
Building Needed = Warrior Lodge
Leads To        = None
Stream          = Military, Native

 * Increases the marksmanship of units in battle by +5


--==Sheet Lead Cartridges==--

"These lead containers hold standard gunpowder charges for cannons, keeping
 them dry in the often wet conditions aboard ship.

 Powder is traditionally kept in the magazine deep in the bowels of the ship,
 carefully isolated from any stray sparks or naked flames. Traditionally, 
 when going into action, the master gunner had his crew prepare small bags,
 each containing the right amount of powder for a given weight of cannon. 
 The bags were then distributed to the gun captains, making loading a 
 quicker and safer process.

 However, cloth bags will still get wet in the normal course of events 
 aboard ship, or sparks falling on them can cause explosions. This has
 brought about the development of other containers for gunpowder charges.
 The most successful in the experiments are cylinder-shaped cartridges
 made of soft sheet lead, which can be filled with powderand then
 carefully bent closed by hand. These can be prepared before battle, and
 are largely immune to both sparks and damp. The whole lead cylinder is
 rammed into the barrel, followed by a shot. A sharp spike rammed into 
 the touchhole pierces the cartridge, allowing the primer to fire the main
 shot. The result is a reliable and safe loading procedure."

Requires        = Rifled Cannons
Building Needed = Naval College
Leads To        = None
Stream          = Naval, Military

 * -5% reduction to navan cannons' reloading time
 * -5% reduction to misfires for naval cannons
 * Enhances national prestige


--==Shortened Carbine==--

"Shortened carbines are smoothbore muzzle-loading flintlocks, issued to
 cavalry units instead of ordinary muskets.

 The carbine fires a lighter ball than an infantry musket: a pound of lead
 can make 15-17 pounds. Being handmade, these balls often have bubbles and
 other flaws in them, and can burst apart after hitting flesh, making far
 larger wounds than their apparent size would indicate.

 Originally, a carbine had the same length barrel as an infantry musket.
 This made reloading while mounted rather difficult, and it was realised
 that cutting down the barrel would make a handier weapon with only a 
 small decrease in accuracy and killing power.

 The term carbine is still in use: at the time of writing, the M4 carbine
 carried by modern US soldiers is a development of the M16, itself a 
 shortened form of the AR-15 rifle designed in the late 1950s. The number
 of spherical bullets made from a pound of lead is also used today as a 
 way of indicating the bore of shotguns: a 12-bore would fire a solid 
 lead ball weighing around 1/12 of a pound."

Requires        = Diamond Formation
Building Needed = Army Board
Leads To        = None
Stream          = Military, Military

 * -5% to carbine reloading time


--==Shrapnel Shot==--

"This explosive projectile inflicts casualties by liberally peppering 
 enemies with shot and iron splinters as it bursts above them.

 Canister shells are intended to turn cannons into enormous shotguns or
 blunderbusses, treating men as so many targets to be shredded with musket
 balls. They have a limited range and utility.

 The shrapnel explosive round, however, is a long range weapon, and has
 much in common with a mortal shell or hand grenade. Once loaded and the
 fuse lit, it is fired at the enemy with the intention of bursting like a
 mortar shell. Unlike a mortar, it does not rely solely on explosive 
 power: there is the added refinement that the shell casing is designed
 to splinter into killing fragments and there are musket balls within. If
 a shrapnel shell bursts above an enemy unit, the casualties can be  
 terrible indeed.

 This deadly weapon was developed by the eponymous Henry Shrapnel (1761-
 1842), an officer in the British Royal Artillery. His "spherical case"
 shell was such an obvious advance in artillery killing power that he
 was rapidly promoted, given a generous state pension and immortalised
 by having his name become a new word for any kind of fragment deliberately
 built into a bomb or shell."

Requires        = Carcass Shot
Building Needed = Engineer School
Leads To        = Percussion Shells
Stream          = Ordnance, Military

 * Enables shrapnel shot for cannons


--==Social Contract==--

"The concept of a moral, and sometimes political, agreement that is made 
 when a person becomes a member of society.

 Theorists hold that humans reside in the "state of nature." In this state,
 men are free to do as they wish, without the constraints of the "greater 
 good." However, some will seek to improve themselves, by working the land
 to create property. To protect this property man must leave the state of 
 nature and seek society and the laws it provides. This is when a social
 contract is required, to describe what is expected of a member of society.

 The social contract put forth by French Enlightenment think Rousseau (1712-
 78) sought to dispel the disorder that comes from man's rise from the
 state natural. It also addressed the key problem presented to man in a
 community, how can we live together and still keep our individual freedom?
 Rousseau suggested that in order for individuals to live in harmony they
 must give their will to the "general will." By laying aside ego men can
 begin to live as a community."

Requires        = Nothing
Building Needed = School
Leads To        = Government by Consent
Stream          = Philosophy

 * +10% to Technology research rate
 * +2 Coin per turn to Town Wealth in the region
 * Enhances National Prestige


--==Socket Bayonet==--

"A blade fitted with a collar that attaches to a musket barrel and then locks
 in place, turning the weapon into a useful short pike.

 The socket bayonet is a development of earlier bayonets, and corrects their
 defective methods of attaching the blade to the musket. Previous designs
 simply jammed the bayonet into the barrel or relied on a tight fit around 
 the barrel. The socket bayonet has a collar with an L-shaped slot that fits 
 over a lug on barrel, and then turns to lock it in place. The blade is also
 offset from the barrel centreline, so that a soldier can still fire and
 then reload his piece without cutting off his own fingers!

 Historically, this improvement has stood the test of time. Socket bayonets
 are still issued for modern rifles and carbines, and still used in combat. 
 The "twist and lock" mechanism is still used for civilian purposes and 
 diverse light bulbs and vacuum cleaner tubes. There is, however, no really
 satisfactory explaination as to why the French military decided to offset
 the bayonet above the barrel, right into the sight line of the user!"

Requires        = None
Building Needed = Drill School
Leads To        = None
Stream          = Military, Military

 * Enables Socket Bayonets. These replace ring bayonets
 * Enhances National Prestige
 * Leads to Military Academy


--==Spinning Jenny==--

"This device is, at heart, a powered spinning wheel that allows the bulk 
 creation of thread for weaving.

 Manual spinning is a slow, tedious business, and one that cannot be speeded
 up, only given to more hands to do. The spinning jenny mechanises the 
 process, by turning the spindle on its side and having it roll to and fro
 as the thread is spun. A single worker can, using the jenny, produce eight
 threads at a time, rather than just one. Quality may suffer, but this is 
 a secondary consideration, as is the well-being of the workers. They are 
 often children, who have hands small enough to reach into the machinery
 while it is running and would otherwise be idle and undoubtedly given to
 all manner of mischief.

 The device is usually credited to James Hargreaves (1720-1778), a weaver
 and carpenter from Lancashire in England. While his invention was clever,
 he was not a businessman or lawyer, and he suffered much lost income as a 
 result of not using patent law properly."

Requires        = None
Building Needed = Weaver's Cottage
Leads To        = Spinning Mule
Stream          = Textile Industry, Industry

 * +10% Wealth Bonus to Town Wealth from textile industry buildings
 * Enhances national prestige


--==Spinning Mule==--

"This machine produces very high quality yarns efficiently, cheaply and in
 the quantities required for mechanical weaving.

 A clever contraption, the spinning mule is a hybrid of two other textile
 machines, the spinning jenny and the water frame, hence the term "mule". It
 is a machine that produces thin, strong yard at high speed, that can be 
 used for both wrap and woof on a loom. It is the answer to every mill owner's
 prayers, giving both the quality and quantity needed to keep up with the
 demand for thread from powered looms.

 The spinning mule was the invention of Samuel Crompton (1753-1827), an 
 inventor from Lancashire in northern England, who was so hard up that he
 was forced to sell the rights for his invention before he patented it. This
 did not make him a rich man. Initially used for cotton, the mule was 
 eventually adapted for other yarns such as wool. Crompton did eventually
 receive a grant from the British Parliament for his work to aid the textile
 industry: his attempts to run his own business were always less than
 sparkling."

Requires        = Spinning Jenny, Division of Labour
Building Needed = weaver's Cottage
Leads To        = None
Stream          = Textile Industry, Industry

 * +5% Wealth generated by textile workshops and factories
 * Enhances national prestige
 * Leads to Water-Powered Cloth Mill


--==Spirit Medicine==--

"Spirit medicine increases unit morale by protecting warriors from evil
 spirits.

 Spirits are in everything: they affect the lives of men for both good 
 and evil. A warrior needs constant protection from the ill will of evil
 spirits and enemies. This is provided by a shaman who communes with the
 spirits. The efforts of a shaman can increase individual unit morale by
 helping them discover their spirit medicine.

 Each native tribe had its own system of beliefs, the common theme being 
 a belief in the spirits of the earth. Many tribes sought knowledge and
 power by embarking on vision quests, presided over by shamans. They 
 sought spirit medicine, and this usually took the form of birds and 
 animals that present themselves in times of need."

Requires        = THE WARPATH DOWNLOADABLE CONTENT!
                  Riding the Winds
Building Needed = Spiritual Circle
Leads To        = Dreamwalking
Stream          = Mystic, Native

 * +1 Happiness (Lower Classes)
 * Enables building of Shamanic Gateway


--==Spirit of the Forest==--

"The Spirit improves any bonuses already gained from the Call of the Wild.

 By making the correct offerings to the Spirit of the Forest, a tribe can
 establish a link with the Creator, and so gain access to more of the 
 Earth's bounty. Untouched woodlands and fields can yield just as much 
 worth as worked farmland, because the spirits are at peace.

 Animal spirits played a key role in tribal religious beliefs, and some 
 were thought to have negative effects. The Apache believed that some animals
 contained the ghosts of witches and other restless spirits; owls, bears,
 snakes, and coyotes were the keepers of such ghosts. Coyotes also played 
 the role of tricksters in Apache religion, and featured heavily in their
 beliefs about the world's creation. Shamans who had power and control over
 coyotes were held in high regard as they had the stability to cure the
 illnesses that these malevolent spirits could cause."

Requires        = THE WARPATH DOWNLOADABLE CONTENT!
                  Call of the Wild
Building Needed = Ancestral Grounds
Leads To        = None
Stream          = Mystic, Native

 * +20% Wealth generated by farms
 * Enables building of Sweat Lodge


--==Square Formation==--

"A defensive posture for musket-armed infantry units, creating an impassible
 wall of steel to fend off cavalry attacks.

 As the name suggests, this is four two- or three rank lines of infantry 
 arranged as a hollow square, with everyone facing outwards. It is a version
 of the obsolete pike "hedgehog", making any cavalry charge a suicidal 
 advance. Bayonets are fixed to muskets when appropriate and possible.

 Forming a square requires good order in the ranks. The outer companies of
 an infantry unit in line have to "fold back" to form the sides and back of
 the square, without losing cohesion in the process. The unit colours take
 up station in the centre, a final rallying point should the square be broken.
 It is also possible to form larger squares with more than one unit.

 The square is, of course, a tempting target for enemy artillery. Whether it 
 is better to form square in the face of cavalry and risk an artillery 
 barrage, or stay in line to mitigate artillery fire and risk a cavalry 
 charge can be a tactical conundrum!

 Theoreticians argued infantry could defeat a cavalry charge by firepower
 along. Brigadier General Richard Kane (later Military Governor of Gibraltar)
 remarked, "If a body of Foot have by Resolution and keep their Order, there
 is no Body of Horse dare venture within their Fire..." but for him that fire
 was to be delivered from a square, not a line. He was arguing for discipline
 as the key to success."

Requires        = Nothing
Building Needed = Barracks
Leads To        = Cadenced Marching
Stream          = Military, Military

 * Enables infantry square formation
 * Enhances national prestige


--==Steam Engine==--

"This mechanical engine harnesses pressurised steam to provide motive power
 for all manner of machinery.

 The power comes from letting steam into a cylinder beneath a piston, and
 then cooling it rapidly. The partial vacuum created sucks the piston down
 the cylinder; more steam then enters and is cooled, creating a backwards-and-
 forwards stroke that can be converted by cams into rotary motion. The engine
 itself remains stationary, but its power can be transferred by axles, gears
 and belts to other machines. Some steam engines are simply harnessed to pumps
 and the reciprocating motion of the piston is used to lift water out of 
 mines.

 A steam engine requires water and fuel, but it can be installed anywhere. As
 long as a fire burns and the boiler has water, it will provide profitable 
 power for a mill or mine.

 The practical steam engine was the brainchild of Scotsman James Watt (1736-
 1819), who improved the earlier machines of Thomas Newcomen and others. It
 was Watt who first used the term "horsepower" as a measure of an engine's
 output - something that still brings joy to all modern petrolheads! He was
 also honoured by giving his name to the SI unit of derived power, the watt."

Requires        = Machine Tools
Building Needed = Ironmaster's Work
Leads To        = None
Stream          = Metal Industry, Industry

 * +15% Coin Wealth generated by industrial buildings
 * Enhances national prestige
 * Leads to Industrial Iron, Silver Mining Complex, Steam-Powered Cloth Mill,
   Steam-Powered Sugar Mill, Steam Drydock, Steam Engine Factory


--==Steam-Pumped Land Drainage==--

"The use of steam pumps to drain marshy and low-lying land for agriculture.

 There is always a growing demand for food and a finite amount of land 
 where it can be grown. With new steam-powered pumping machines and cunningly
 laid out ditches, it becomes possible to drain land previously considered
 impossible to use. Water runs downhill, but where there is no "downhill", it
 must be lifted and carried away by man's artifice. A steam pump can raise 
 water at a rate no normal - or man-powered contraption can possible match.

 In Europe, the Dutch were (naturally enough, given their geography) the
 experts on drainage, the windmills to move water into higher channels
 were it could flow away. Those, however, relied entirely on the wind. This
 steam-powered beam engine, used to drain mine workings, had no such 
 weaknesses, and continued to pump as long as it had water and fuel. In
 Britain, the beam engine not only allowed the drainage of land, but also 
 eased the problems of canal construction and routing."

Requires        = Advanced Irrigation, Basic Steam Pump
Building Needed = Clearances
Leads To        = None
Stream          = Agriculture, Industry

 * +0.5% to the population growth impact of farms
 * Reduces the chance of food shortages
 * Enhances national prestige


--==Threshing Machine==--

"A machine used to "seperate the wheat from the chaff" in a very literal
 fashion.

 The harvesting of any cereal crop is only one part of the work. Threshing
 is the backbreaking process of seperating the grain from the stalks: work
 that takes as long as the gathering-in of the crop itself. The horse- 
 driven machine takes the grain, seperates it from husk and stalk, and 
 then collects it. The work of many men is done in seemingly no time at all,
 and with less wastage.

 Historically, Scottish inventor Andrew Meikle's (1719-1811) threshing
 machine was not an immediate success, but the design soon improved. Its
 inner workings can be deduced from its other name of "thrashing machine!"

 It was not popular among the rural working classes, as many lost their jobs.
 The 1830 Swing Riots included machine breaking by the dispirited and
 desperate rural poor, mirroring the urban Luddite riots that targeted mills.
 "Captain Swing", the mysterious leader and figurehead of the rioters, 
 probably never existed as a single individual, making "him" impossible to
 trace and catch!"

Requires        = None
Building Needed = Great Estates
Leads To        = None
Stream          = Agriculture, Industry

 * Reduces the chance of food shortages
 * +25% Coin Wealth generated by farms
 * Enhances national prestige


--==Top Gallants==--

"Top gallants are extra sails at the top of the mast, giving the ship more
 sail area and therefore a higher speed.

 All sailing ships rely on the wind for motive power. The only practical  
 way to make a better speed through the water at a particular wind velocity
 is to put on more sail. Each mast is designed to take a main sail and a 
 topsail, but it is possible with top gallants to add an extra sail above
 the topsail. Naturally, this requires more yards, ropes and skilled sailors
 to set the sails. Adding a top gallant is also something of a strain on the
 fabric of the ship: the extra strain on a mast can, in high winds, rip it
 right out of a hull. This catastrophic damage to the whole ship can also
 cause casualties among the crew.

 The speed and handling of a ship can also be improved by careening the hull:
 a process that takes days. This, however, is not something that will 
 instantly give more speed, unlike setting the top gallents."

Requires        = Improved Coppering
Building Needed = Naval College
Leads To        = None
Stream          = Naval, Military

 * Enhances national prestige
 * +10% increase of speed in battle for ships with top gallants
 * +10% increase to movement range on campaign map for ships with top gallants


--==Utilitarianism==--

"The theory that an action and its worth should be judgedon utility and its
 benefit to others.

 The many building blocks of society fit together in complex patterns. 
 Understanding this puzzle makes a man wise indeed. Theorists are now using
 utilitarianism, in an attempt to understand these complexities. This school
 of thought holds that human will, by its very nature, seeks to serve its 
 own interests. Utilitarianism proposes that in order for a society to 
 function successfully people must begin to consider the utility of their 
 actions and how they affect society as a whole.

 Historically, utilitarianism concentrated on the needs of the many 
 outweighing the needs of the few. The leading mind in this field was Jeremy
 Bentham (1748-1832), who maintained that nature had placed mankind under the
 governance of two sovereign masters, pain and pleasure. He believed that 
 these two factors made mankind infinitely governable, as long as leaders
 exploited these weaknesses without exploiting those they govern."

Requires        = None
Building Needed = College
Leads To        = None
Stream          = Philosophy

 * -1 Happiness. Clamour for reform
 * +3 Coins per turn to town wealth in the region
 * -20% to cost of constructing cultural buildings
 * Enhances National Prestige
 * Leads to Classical University


--==Wealth of Nation==--

"The Wealth of Nations stresses the importance of the division of labour, 
 pursuit of self interest and freedom of trade.

 This is a set of theories aimed at advancing political economy and promoting
 the pursuit of self-interest. The concept encourages people to consider 
 the importance of the division of labour (so that productivity can be 
 maximised) and the freedom of trade. Theorists state that all goods should
 be fairly priced and selling levels agreed mutually between buyers and 
 sellers, with little outside influence from government or any other party.

 Historically "The Wealth of Nations" was a new and innovative piece of work
 written by Adam Smith, aimed at increasing the average reader's understanding
 of economies. As one of the greatest minds of his time, Smith, along with a
 number of other great men created "Scottish Enlightenment". Their influence
 was far reaching in the work of their contempories. Smith is widely held to
 be the father of modern economics."

Requires        = Joint Stock Companies
Building Needed = Classical University
Lead To         = Free Trade Doctrine
Stream          = Philosophy

 * -1 Happiness. Clamour for reform
 * +25% Coin Bonus to the growth in trade route income
 * +8 Coin per turn to town wealth in the region
 * +5% Coin Wealth generated by all building
 * Enhances national prestige


--==Wedge Formation==--

"A cavalry formation used to break through an enemy line by shock and impact.

 There are many conflicting schools of thought with regard to the proper use
 of cavalry, not least on the matter of how to attack the enemy. There are 
 those officers who hold that fire is the proper weapon for a cavalry soldier:
 that the carbine and pistol are the correct weapons of a horseman. There are
 those who maintain that the proper role of cavalry is to close the enemy and
 attack them with cold steel: the sabre, sword and lance.

 The wedge formation is the product of the second group of theorists. By
 forming units into a narrow wedge, a charge can bring the maximum weight of
 effort against the smallest possible section of an enemy line. In theory,
 the attack should be able to force its way into and then through the target,
 breaking it in the process and spreading chaos in the enemy ranks.

 Historically, this tactic was not without its appeal to educated officers,
 who studied the military history of the Romans and Greeks. Alexander the
 Great had used such a tactic, and if it was good enough for him..."

Requires        = Carbines
Building Needed = Drill School
Leads To        = Diamond Formation
Stream          = Military, Military

 * Enables cavalry wedge formation


--==Winter Clothes==--

"Unforgiving weather is no threat to victory when warriors are clad in heavy 
 winter clothing.

 Warriors cannot fight well in extreme weather conditions, and thick furs 
 are the surest way to protect against the biting cold. Hunting skills 
 directly aid the business of war, as plundered pelts will protect against
 unfriendly weather, much like they did for their original owners.

 For the tribes of the Great Plains, buffalo were crucial to sustaining 
 their way of life. Once a beast was killed, nothing was wasted: the bones 
 made farming tools; the horns; cooking utensils; the bladder made a food 
 bag; sinews could be used to string bows; even the poor creature's scrotum
 could be turned into a rattle! Buffalo hide was used for clothes, and the
 beard and hair for decoration. The buffalo was not only a feast, but 
 provided the cutlery, storage facilities and a new cloak for the cooks!"

Requires        = THE WARPATH DOWNLOADABLE CONTENT!
                  None
Building Needed = Games Field
Leads To        = None
Stream          = Military, Native

 * Makes units resistant to cold in battle
 * Enables building of Warrior Lodge


--==Written Language==--

"The adoption of the written word improves diplomacy; treaties can be 
 recorded clearly for posterity.

 Increased contact with other cultures bring with it knowledge of written
 language; in trade and treaties, bargains struck with Europeans and others
 can be enforced. Not every man's word can be trusted, and the ability to 
 keep written contracts reveals any later trickery.

 During the 18th century the Iroquois Confederacy was an ally to the British,
 fighting alongside them against the French and Huron tribes. The Mohawks
 created a system of writing for the Mohawk language, and provided education
 for their children. The Mohawk chief Joseph Brant was one of these students,
 and in 1772 he even translated the Gospel of Mark into the Mohawk
 language."

Requires        = THE WARPATH DOWNLOADABLE CONTENT!
                  None
Building Needed = High Chief's Lodge
Leads To        = Money Economy
Stream          = Economy and Culture, Native

 * +20 to Diplomatic Relations
 * Enables buildilng of Council of Tribes

*~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~*
[A.09] Infrastructure

Infrastructure is just an optional upgrade that you can purchase for each
specific region, and the purchase of Infrastructure will only effect the
region in which it was built in. There is only a single set of infrastructure
in the game, and that is roads. Roads are needed to move your armies across
the province faster as well as provide more funds for the state, seeing that
the faster goods are delivered, the more money you can make. 

--==Basic Roads==--

"These are roads where a considerable effort has been made to improve the
 surface, and provide proper drainage for water.

 Constructing roads allow local goods to reach nearby markets, and gives some
 useful work to paupers and work-shy individuals who would otherwise be moved
 on or require expensive charity. At the very least, the larger rocks have
 been moved out of the road, pounded into pieces and the resulting rubble
 used as a roadbed. Drainage dishes means that the road ceases to be a
 convenient gutter for rainwater, and a muddy hell for anyone trying to use 
 it.

 Historically, there was often a military imperative for building roads. 
 Troops and artillery require good roads for strategic deployments and rapid
 reaction. In Scotland, General Wade completed a network of roads to "Roman"
 standards during the 1720s so that armies could quickly move into the
 rebellious Highlands - the Jacobite supporters of the ousted Stuart
 dynasty were a constant threat. His achievement was celebrated in a (now
 defunct) verse of the then-new British anthem.

 Lord, grant that Marshal Wade
 May, by thy mighty aid,
 Victory bring,
 May he sedition hush,
 And, like a torrent, rush
 Rebellious Scots to Crush,
 God save the King"

 * +3 per Turn to Town Wealth in the region
 * Improves campaign map movement speed


--==Cobbled Roads==--

"These are hardwearing roads paved with small stones, able to take much heavy
 traffic.

 Building a cobbled road is an incredibly labourous business. Each small 
 paving stone must be shaped, placed, and mortared into position. If done
 properly, the road also requires foundations, a careful camber to carry rain
 water, and extensive drainage on either side. The end result is a fine road
 that is extremely durable, but not entirely comfortable for carts, carriages
 or foot traffic: cobbles can be hellishly bumpy!

 Historically, the expense of cobbles, and the fine-looking result of cobbling
 a street, meant that there were only used in or near towns for high status 
 routes where the great and the good could not be expected to wallow in mud
 like poor people. Cobbles, however, did serve the poor in another way, they
 were the perfect size for rioters! Levered out of place, they were the ideal
 thrown weapon (along with the half-house brick or "brickbat") for a bit of
 informal demonstrating with any nearby unwelcome representatives of law and
 order."

 * Requires Basic Roads
 * +4 per Turn to Town Wealth in the region
 * Improves campaign map movement speed


--==Metalled Roads==--

"A metalled road is surfaced with small broken stones, providing a good, 
 strong and long-lasting route for military and civilian traffic.

 The road is actually constructed in layers of increasing large stones (going
 down through a cross section), with each layer being compressed by rolling.
 The end result is a solid path that can drain cleanly. This method is often 
 used for key strategic and commercial routes between cities and defence
 points. Tolls are often charged to private users of such excellent roads
 and turnpikes.

 Historically, "metalled roads" were only covered in "tarmac" in 1820, when
 the idea of using tar to stabilise the top layer was tried by John Loudon
 McAdam (1756-1836), although "tarmac" itself was not called that until 1901!

 Road building produced some other interesting characters, such as Blind Jack
 of Knaresborough, Yorkshire. Although completely sightless thanks of 
 childhood smallpox, John "Jack" Metcalf (1717-1810) was, at various times, a
 fiddle player, and army recruiter, and a haulier. When a turnpike was built
 near his birthplace he used his local experience to create a masterpiece of 
 a road, including a section on a raft of logs across a bog. His blindness 
 was no handicap in bringing road projects in on time and to cost, although
 he is always at a loss to explain to others how he managed his finances so
 well."

 * Requires Cobbled Roads
 * Enhances National Prestige
 * +5 per Turn to Town Wealth in the region
 * Improves campaign map movement speed

*~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~*
[B.01] Fighting Infantry

Enemy infantry will come in two varieties, melee and ranged infantry. Now,
depending on the type of infantry, it will determine how you would want to 
fight them. 

--==Fighting Melee Infantry Using Infantry==--

Melee infantry are basically close combat troops, and if you let them enter
close range, you will be in a bayonet fight. If you only have infantry to
play with, then this will be difficult.

With infantry, melee will be even stevens, however, ranged infantry, such
as musket infantry, will have a slight advantage. You can shoot at them as
they move closer, and technological advances will help you greatly. Abilities
such as Fire by Rank and Platoon Firing will give you more time and decrease
the amount of enemy infantry charging at you. Advances in bayonets will be
extremely useful in reusing the same infantry regiment after the engagement.

While taking potshots with one infantry regiment might be hard, you should
have at least a few regiments against one melee regiment. This is because it
is up to the enemy to fight you, since they will lack firepower otherwise. 
As such, have infantry on the flanks. If the regiment looks like it is going
to attack a regiment for certain, post other regiments along the path and
shoot the flanks. This will take down their numbers.

If you are forced to head into melee combat, send more regiments with 
bayonets into battle. It is extremely stupid to let a regiment duke it out
with another regiment melee style, because melee infantry are exceptionally
good at what they do. Do not give them the chance. Otherwise, have ranged
infantry shoot at the melee fighters whilst they are taking on your own
infantry. 

Remember to switch your infantry back to normal fighting mode after the
engagement. This is where technological improvements come in. The better
your bayonet research is, the more useful infantry is. For example, plug
bayonets will put your infantry at a disadvantage, though plug bayonets
are more useful.


--==Fighting Melee Infantry Using Cavalry==--

Cavalry have it two fold, again, there is ranged and close combat cavalry.
Ranged cavalry have it easy, they can easily move quickly behind the enemy
melee regiment and attack from the back. This will be a much more delicate
operation, though it is superior in the form of hit and run techniques. 
Also, attacking from the back has a severe impact in the terms of morale and
it is useful to have your enemies running and fleeing, though you want to
chase the survivors. 

Using close combat cavalry is far more tricky. The most important factor
when you are using cavalry to head into close combat is what type of unit
you are using. Basic Regiments of Horse are useless in combat, but if you
use Life Guards for example, it is a far different story. It is even greater
if you use General's Bodyguard to do the mission.

Close combat cavalry is exceptional in close quarters because they can move
extremely quickly around the battlefield, and that means you can attack the
enemy from the back. You will want to attack from either the left or right
flanks, or if you can manage it, attack from behind. Cavalry in close combat
have the advantage over their infantry counterparts, they can easily take 
down three to four soldiers with loss of one of their own. Also note that
you should charge into battle with cavalry, give the enemy a bigger morale
shock than they would like. 


--==Fighting Melee Infantry Using Artillery==--

You can never attack melee infantry using artillery alone, you will always
need some backup. That being said, most cannons will have an extremely good
run attack melee infantry because you have more time to target them. The
more technological advances in Ordnance you have, the better. Items such as
explosive shells will deal far greater blows to enemy infantry than normal,
conventional cannon balls. 

With the damage done, you want to move your cannon out of harms way, and
move them back behind your own regiments of infantry and cavalry. This is
because once melee units move close to artillery, you will suffer the loss
of the entire artillery regiment.

If you have access to the puckle guns, it would be advised that you will
use them, because if you manage to hit them from the side, you will be able
to inflict massive losses on them. That, said, those guns are best as 
support, you always need some defence. 


--==Fighting Ranged Infantry Using Infantry==--

Ranged infantry using your own infantry is a difficult venture. Melee 
infantry will hvae the advantage if you manage to attack the enemy from 
the back or the flanks. Remember that if you manage to get a full strength
melee infantry regiment to a regiment of line infantry, the battle is yours
for certain unless you stuff up. 

If you want to use melee infantry, move them through woods and hide them
there, if they have that ability, and wait until the enemy moves right 
next to them, and strike from the rear, causing mass panic. Melee infantry
might not be the best weapon ever, but it can cause a lot of damage if you
use their abilities and their talents well.

However, for most of the game, you will be using ranged infantry for this
game. And as such, you will need to learn how to counter line infantry with
line infantry. For this, technology will again prove to be important. Light
infantry are exceptional, they have much longer range, and as such, they
can pick off normal conventional infantry with ease. They are the best against
ranged infantry.

If you do not have access to them, only normal infantry, then you will need
several regiments. The more regiments that fire on an enemy regiment, the more
damage you can dish out and the less your own regiments will take. You want
to have upgrades such as Fire by Rank and Platoon Firing to dish out more
damage to enemies. Because originally, only the first line fires, and that
is a problem. 

If you have access to advanced infantry, such as grenadiers, then it will
be even better for you. Grenades are exceptionally useful, since ranged 
infantry stand in formation, and by standing in formation, they are making
themselves great targets for splash damage. 


--==Fighting Ranged Infantry Using Cavalry==--

The trick here is to use close combat cavalry. Ranged cavalry such as
Dragoons will be at a disadvantage, reasons later. Close Combat cavalry 
have it easy, and if you research formation upgrades, it will make it even
more useful.

Ranged infantry, as a general rule of thumb, are not excellent in melee
combat, and as such, a charging formation of close ranged cavalry will
cause disaster for that regiment. You will want to attack the enemy from the
back, at worse, from the sides. Never attack head on, because of the obvious
reason that the enemy's field of fire is straight at you, and you don't want
any losses. 

If you are going to use melee cavalry, in particular, heavy cavalry, it is
best to speed them up so they are galloping, rather than prancing. This
will give them their charge bonus, as well as dishing out more firepower. 
With that, put them in diamond formation as well, that will add more omph
to your melee cavalry. 

If you are using ranged cavalry, you will need to attack from the rear or
from the flanks. You are going to be using hit and run, and the way to do
this is by exploiting the time it takes for a regiment to turn. It takes a
fairly long period of time for an entire regiment to turn 90 degrees and
because of this, you can easily attack from the sides, or better, the rear,
hit until they are about 30 degrees from firing positions, and then mount
up and flee. 

The benefit of ranged cavalry, in particular, those who can dismount is
that they can move extremely quickly, flank the enemy, shoot, mount up and
then move off before the enemy can fire again, or flank them again. 

Never stand and fight with ranged cavalry. You do not want to take them on
in a volley of musketballs, because they will win, and win with relative
ease. That is why ranged cavalry is at a disadvantage, as well as the fact
that they will have shorter range on average, and on a one on one battle, it
will result in your loss. 


--==Fighting Ranged Infantry Using Artillery==--

With Artillery, you have the upper hand, you will easily outrange the enemy
for a great deal, and with explosive upgrades, it will be an extremely useful
weapon against stationary infantry. 

However, when they get too close, you will want to retreat, because they
will be able to shoot down your gunners and that will mean that you have
the guns, just no one to staff them. Remember to take into account the time
it takes to pack up artillery and move them away from the enemy, but use
normal cannons, howitzers and mortars are ineffective because they have a 
pretty big minimum range, and that makes things a little more difficult. 

*~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~*
[B.02] Fighting Cavalry

Cavalry is a tricky beast, and they are going to be one of the hardest units
that you will be fighting to take down. Luckily, there aren't too many of them
in a regiment, which makes fighting them that bit easier on your numbers. 
Again, there are two types of cavalry, ranged cavalry and melee cavalry, and
it is the latter that is hard to beat. 

--==Fighting Ranged Cavalry Using Infantry==--

This is where you want to bring out your shooters. You either upgrade and
have decent line infantry, and fight them head on. This is a tough battle,
it would be better to attack and hit the enemy cavalry from the side. You 
would want to surround and hit cavalry from the side and the back, hitting 
them from the front is a nigh impossible task. 

You will probably want to morale kill them, constant shooting will do 
that. If you are fighting melee cavalry, you really want to have a lot of
infantry with you, you want to shoot them down quicksmart. If you have to
go into melee, you need more than a single regiment for a battle, I'd advise
you sending in three regiments in order to make sure that the enemy stays 
down in battle. 

Ranged cavalry is easier to beat, you can sneak in a regiment or two from
the back and melee them. If they are units like dragoons, they would have
dismounted, and this makes them extremely vulnerable. However, they are still
powerful units, so you really don't want to be wandering around, waiting for
them to turn up.

Infantry is the worst way to deal with cavalry, it is messy and it will often
lead to a hell of a lot of casualties. I'd advise you use something else, 
something more, powerful.


--==Fighting Ranged Cavalry Using Cavalry==--

If you are fighting ranged cavalry, you want to use melee cavalry because 
they can cover good ground and really make sure that those sharpshooters get
what is coming to them. Attack from the back to get the most fear out of 
the enemy, but a normal flank attack would be more than sufficient.

The worst about fighting ranged cavalry is having your units slowly 
advancing towards the target, you really want to move quickly, even if it
means that your troops get more tired. Cavalry that uses guns are more
likely to get a kill, so you want to make sure that that doesn't happen.

Ranged Cavalry will not be good unless you get them from the rear lines, 
or at worst, from the flanks. Do not waste your cavalry on the frontlines
fighting each other, it costs too much money to use cavalry like that and
as such, don't bother using cavalry. 

--==Fighting Ranged Cavalry Using Artillery==--

Ranged Cavalry using Artillery is rather fun. Cavalry with range will be on
the losing fight with artillery, and the more powerful the artillery, the
more destruction it will rain on them. The artillery will be needed because
they easily are more accurate then the ranged cavalry. However, if they decide
to advance, there is no way you can pack up and move back in time, so either
have spear artillery formations sort of like this 

>  |||

Where the | are the cavalry units and > your artillery formation. That way,
you can shoot back, giving enough time to move your useless artillery back
with covering fire. 

Also, remember that the enemy cannot get too close, if they do, they may
fall within the minimum range of the artillery, and they will be shot at and
that isn't a good solution. Artillery, if used in this way, should be guarded
and make sure that the enemy doesn't get too close, because you will have shot
up artillery instead.

--==Fighting Melee Cavalry Using Infantry==--

Melee Cavalry with infantry, I can already tell you, will be an uphill battle
and you will be losing a lot of men for this. Cavalry excel in melee 
conditions and you will be fighting at a disadvantage. Think about it this 
way, you are on the ground, and you are fighting someone who is higher up
than you and moving a lot faster than you. Losing battle.

If you insist, the only way is to mass line infantry and shoot them down and
hope that their line breaks before they reach your infantry. Otherwise, you
will need to prep your frontline infantry and send them into melee, and 
fight them. 

If you have a melee combat with cavalry, you need several regiments to even 
make it an even fight. You need at least two regiments to make a colonial
cavalry unit flee, so if you are fighting higher up units such as Guards, you
are going to need a lot of firepower. As I said, do not use infantry to deal
with cavalry, it is an impossible fight. 

However, your best bet is to use the Square formation. This will pretty much
make it impossible for melee cavalry to beat your units. However, this is only
effective if you are using line infantry, good line infantry in a square 
formation can drain up a melee division long enough until you can rush other
units into the sector to fight them. With square formation, you will be able
to hold the cavalry in that area, and you will take fewer losses, far fewer
losses than you would if you were fighting like normal infantry.

--==Fighting Melee Cavalry Using Cavalry==--

Cavalry on cavalry is slightly more fair, and it is an easier fight. The thing
is that you actually have a chance to win without losing tons of regiments.
I will refrain from mentioning ranged cavalry, they are basically a faster
version of infantry. General advise is, don't use ranged cavalry. 

Melee Cavalry is a decent counter to melee cavalry, mainly because you will
actually have a fighting chance. Attack from the usual locations, the rear
and the flanks, and if you double speed them, they will attack with a hell of
a lot of force. Again, you shouldn't take them on alone, you should bring in
a few regiments of shooters to give you a little backup. 

Melee cavalry is a hard enemy to fight, but a combination, with your own
cavalry leading the charge would be an ideal method. 

--==Fighting Melee Cavalry Using Artillery==--

This is a poor idea, you can maybe dish out and kill a few troops of the
regiment if you are using your own artillery, but the problem is that the
inaccuracy, which is bound to happen if the enemy isn't travelling straight
towards you, will cost you a lot of space.

Basically, you are trading space for firing cannonballs, but you will not be
accurate enough to ensure that you knock out the regiment unless it is 
travelling in a straight line towards you, where accuracy is set in stone. 
Never use artillery alone. However, the newer guns such as the organ gun
will be much more effective, seeing it is basically like a machine gun.

So, you are asking, by now, how the hell do I fight melee cavalry? Well, it is
simple. Frontline infantry shoots them as they approach, with artillery as
cover. From there, your cavalry will charge in from the back and ambush
them. I find that dealing with each regiment with your full force is much
easier than having your entire army all over the place.

*~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~*
[B.03] Fighting Artillery

Artillery is relatively easy to fight, but the question is, how many losses
you can sustain before you take it out. They don't put up much of a fight, but
they will fire at you, and I'll teach you how to remove them, safely.

--==Fighting Artillery Using Infantry==--

This is generally not a good idea. Infantry, unless you manage to move out of
the range of fire of the artillery, will be fired upon and by the time that
you reach the artillery, a fair amount of your units will have fallen along
the way. 

If you insist on using artillery, then you need to attack from the side or
rears, never attack from the front. Attacking from the front means that you
will be hit by cannonfire, and although inaccurate, it will whittle down your
numbers, and more importantly, your morale.

March from the sides, double speed your troops, and although this would 
exhaust them, they'll thank you when you aren't sending them into the 
grinder. Attack from the side, and they only have 18 men, so it won't take too
long to get rid of that unit. If they run, you can easily catch them. 

And as a note, do not try to outrange artillery. Don't try it, they have you
outranged easily. 

--==Fighting Artillery Using Cavalry==--

This is the best option by far. Cavalry have a hell of a lot of speed, and
you can easily move from the flanks and rear and demolish them. Don't use
ranged cavalry, it is far better to use melee cavalry. Even if that means 
you need to use your general's bodyguard, it is a better option than sending
in your troops to get rid of a single artillery emplacement.

Ranged cavalry is a bit harder to use, but follow the rule that since that
they have the speed, they can move in and out of the artillery's range with
impunity, and as such, they can move quickly and take artillery out. The 
greatest worry is that ranged artillery stands still in front of the 
artillery and shoots them, and that will lead to a ravaged regiment. 

--==Fighting Artillery Using Artillery==--

This is like the game Scorched Earth, it is basically a game of two units
lobbing cannonballs around. The more technologically advanced your artillery
research and units are, the more likely they are to actually hit. 

This is a game of hit and miss. Since they are normally at the limits of the
artillery range, it is a game of trial and error, and it is more or less 
sheer luck that will hit the other artillery. Hitting the other artillery 
normally means disabling a gun, which is better than individually targeting
the gunners. Have fun seeing how gets the first hit.

*~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~*
[B.04] Assaulting a Fortress

Fortresses are a pain to take down manually, and this is the only method to do
it because late in the game, when you need to deal with star fortresses, even
if you outnumber the enemy, you seem to lose a lot of troops. So you need to
take command. I suggest some cavalry regiments, 5 artillery regiments and a 
nice size of infantry forces.

Now, what you want to do is to have your artillery in range of the fortress
and bomb it. There will normally be infantry on the top of the walls so 
constant bombardment will either kill some of them and you will break a hole
for your troops to move into.

The enemy will send cavalry and infantry at you, and this is easy to counter,
you have the advantage, they are going to chase you off, so adjust your 
artillery and target the infantry. Use all your infantry and cavalry to 
attack the defenders and either rout them or kill them completely. In the
meantime, when the threat has passed, get rid of the walls and try to wipe
out the enemy infantry. 

When you can no longer do serious harm with your artillery, you will need
to move in. If some of the fortress walls still stand, move in your 
infantry to move up those walls as they scale it. Move your cavalry through
the offical, or demolished entrances, and take out the enemy artillery if
they are still remaining. If they remain, they will stay on top of the 
fortress walls and try to shoot you, so see if your artillery can shoot 
back. 

When your infantry scale the walls, you probably need to find and get rid 
of the remaining infantry. Use the buildings inside the fortress by rushing
your infantry to capture those buildings, using that cover to take out the
enemy. 

To capture the fortress, killing everyone isn't enough, you need to move and
have your forces near the enemy flagpole. The enemy has about 2 minutes to
get you out of the area, and if you manage to keep and defend that position,
you capture the fortress. This is the same with cities as well. Try to make
sure that the enemy is fully killed, they still might pose a threat even if
they aren't in the area. 

*~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~*
[B.05] Reader Strategies

This is the part of the guide that is submitted by you, the reader. I welcome
all strategies and inputs, after all, I can only play the game so many times
before even I get bored of it. Anyone who sends it in will have their name
here in all of its glory. I'll keep it verbatim, so make sure that you can 
actually spell please. 

This strategy specifically deals with playing as Great Britain and the 
Ottoman Empire, and was submitted by Zach Beechler. This was before CA will
send out a patch that will allow AI invasions. No more Fortress Great 
Britain.

"The biggest non-performance related problem I had was being able to afford an
 army large enough to not only defend against annoying raids, but also destroy
 my opponents outright.  The small nations somehow can afford one or two full 
 stacks, while a great, intercontinental power (Britain, France, Portugal, 
 etc.) has trouble affording even one.  To solve this problem, I tried out 
 every nation with a trade port and found a way to gain as much cash as 
 possible.  Playing as the Ottoman Turks on Hard, around 1730, even with low 
 taxes in all regions, I had so much money that I couldn't spend it all.  The 
 key is the first 10 or so turns.  Factions without a trade port are at an 
 extreme disadvantage in the long run, and will not be able to do the 
 following until they are able to clear out pirate fleets.

 The first 4 turns should be spent building as many trade ships as possible.  
 The first finished batch should make a beeline straight to Madagascar, 
 Brazil, or the East Indies as the computer seems to flood the Ivory coast 
 first. The second fleet should go to one of the other locations.  Also, 
 try to take as many trading spots as possible, because two trade ships on two
 spots gives more money than two ships on one spot.  As far as protecting the 
 trade ships themselves, I've never had the computer attack the ships, just 
 the trade route.  Periodically adding trade ships to your existing spots will
 help as the game progresses, but grabbing as many as possible before the 
 competition is the key.

 The next step is to use the first few turns grabbing as many trade treaties 
 as possible, even if you have to pay or plan on going to war with them soon. 
 The cash increase is definitely worth it over a few turns; just wait to 
 attack until you get your investment back.  The Italian nations are great 
 trade partners, as they hardly ever cancel trade rights, they aren't 
 aggressive, and won't ask for too much money up front.

 At this point, you might have more partners than trade goods.  Creating an 
 army in your home theater and shipping it to America or India should be the 
 next objective.  Or, if you're the Turks, conquer Georgia to gain access to 
 furs then spread east through Persia to India.  The Pirate nation in America 
 is a good target for nations that don't have an American presence, while 
 attacking the Mughals or Marathas is better than Mysore.  The reasoning, is 
 that Mysore does not have a developed trade port, while the other nations do.
 The southern region of the subcontinent is a great foothold, as it's one of 
 the richest, starts with a port, and the Marathas cannot raid your 
 plantations due to Mysore blocking their path.  Another option is to attack 
 Spain, Portugal, France, or the Netherlands in Europe.  Taking over all of a 
 nation's European regions will destroy the nation, leaving their colonies 
 open as easy pickings later.

 As far as technology goes, I tend to research the Enlightenment ones first 
 (for the faster research bonus), first tier farm upgrades, and Military 
 Syllabus (for reduced army maintenance).  The Enlightenment will allow for 
 large plantations, and the farm upgrades will help increase town growth, 
 which will allow the ports in the American mainland to grow faster.  Nothing 
 like owning Georgia and Florida with no way to export their goods. 

 Doing these things while neglecting your army during the first few turns will
 help make your nation fantastically wealthy later.  The only problem is that 
 some nations will be bothered by your expansion, so presenting state gifts 
 to your best trade partners is a good move to secure long-lasting trade 
 routes, even if your treasury takes a short-term hit.  Oddly, no one cares if
 the Ottoman Empire expands explosively in Europe, and the Ottomans don't care
 if you do either.  Of course, a nation already at war should focus enough on 
 their starting army to survive.

 One final note:  The AI appears to be broken completely, as I've NEVER seen 
 any nation except the Pirates move troops across water, and that was when the
 Pirates took over the Dutch Island region ONCE.  This means that Britain's 
 army never left, and no one ever attacked the island.  I guess since CA is a 
 british company (which explains why all the flavor text is about Britain or 
 France), they wanted to give their home nation a boost by making it 
 unattackable."

The next of your reader strategies was sent in by Paul Slade, detailing on
naval strategies.

"I've just read through your guide, and I find it most impressive, you clearly
 put a lot of effort in and, therefore, it is something to be proud of. 
 Anyway, compliments aside, I just thought that it may be good for you to add
 to this guide a small piece of useful advice. The Ivory Coast, one of the 
 trade theatres, is a source of ivory, something that is extremely valuable. 
 I've had Ivory earning me 20,000 a turn at peak times. This is very useful 
 for any campaign, especially the British. With the strong fleet that is a 
 requirement for the British, it is relatively easy to protect trade fleets, 
 and funds from the ivory coast can be used to buy off other empires if 
 needed, and stop them attacking your trading fleets. I would also believe 
 that any country capable of making Fluyts or Galleons would be useful here, 
 as both those ships are perfectly capable of self defence, but I can't 
 express on that point as I have yet to play as a country capable of building 
 the stated ships. Finally, I would like to add that the earlier you start, 
 the better. I started getting Ivory quite early on, and the only competition 
 was from Portugal, which is only a small empire, and so was simple to 
 destroy, meaning I had a monopoly on Ivory at the end. On a final note, I 
 found it quite useful to have a fleet stationed by the ivory coast at all 
 times, as the Indiaman, the British trade ship, is very m