==============================================================================


                        Civilization II for PC-Windows
                              FAQ/Strategy Guide

                      By: AlaskaFox (Ronan Hunt-Murphy)
                                 Version 1.6
                                July 07, 2004
                         

==============================================================================

Contents
========
1.  Disclaimer/Legal           -LGL-
2.  Contact Information        -CTI-
3.  Version History            -VER-
4.  Game Requirements          -REQ-
5.  Civ1-Civ2 Changes          -CHG-
6.  Game Setup                 -STU-
7.  Getting Started            -STR-
8.  Cities                     -CTY-
9.  Units                      -UNT-
10. Units In-Depth             -UID-
11. Improvements               -IMP-
12. Wonders                    -WON-
13. Terrain                    -TER-
14. Governments                -GVT-
15. Discovery Effects          -DSC-
16. Strategies                 -STG-
17. Frequently Asked Questions -FRQ-
18. Outro/Credits              -OUT-


Using this Guide
================
To correctly use the Table of Contents to quickly find what you are looking
for press Ctrl+F and type in the code next to the section to jump to it.
On Mac browsers, use Command+F for the same results.

For example, type -LGL- into the search box, and it will quickly jump to the
Disclaimer/Legal section.


------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                             1. Disclaimer/Legal
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-LGL-

This Game Guide/FAQ is created for personal use only. You must not use it 
for anything that gains profit. Specifically Magazines, Game Guides, 
Commercial Web Sites, unless you have my written permission. 

You’re also not allowed to rip off part/s of this Game Guide/FAQ and put
it on your own Game Guide/FAQ. Anyone doing this is guilty of plagiarism",
the act of stealing and passing off of ideas and words of another as one’s 
own without crediting the source.

You also cannot use this Game Guide/FAQ as a guide for you to make your own
Game Guide/FAQ, you must do everything there is to do in the game yourself
or have others give info about your game and give them proper credit. You 
can copy the layout though. 

You can put this Game Guide/FAQ on your non-commercial or non-profit web 
site provided that not a single character has been edited or removed and you 
MUST have permission from me in order to do so. You can also, print a copy of
the entire FAQ/Guide or a part of it, provided you only use it for personal
purposes.
 
Remember "You don’t have to steal, just ask." - B.O.F.III


------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                           2. Contact Information
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-CTI-

If you wish to ask me a question or make a suggestion, go to:
http://denim.bbboy.net/alaskafox-viewforum?forum=4
and post a message, stating your query. I will try to get to it as soon as 
possible. If I get an email regarding Civilization, it will
most likely be ignored and deleted. This is due to the vast amount of junk,
spam and stupid questions I get in my email.


------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                             3. Version History
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-VER-

Version 1.6
===========
-Started: July 7, 2004
-Guide Changed to only concern Civilization II
 i.e. Test of Time & Fantastic Worlds
 elements removed
-Entire Guide Reformatted
-"First Things, First" renamed "Getting Started"
-"Technical Stuff" renamed "Game Requirements"
-New Strategies Added
-File Size: xxxk

Version 1.5
===========
-Started: September 16, 2002
-Layout Updated to match newer FAQs
-Removed email address
-Use my message board instead
-File Size: 186k

Version 1.4
===========
-Started: February 21, 2002
-Frequently Asked Questions Section Added
-5 FAQs Added
-Layout Updated
-File Size: 182k

Version 1.3
===========
-Started: September 09, 2001
-Terrain Added
-Wonders: 2 Descriptions Added
-File Size: 180k

Version 1.2
===========
-Started: August 08, 2001
-Improvements: Descriptions Added
-File Size: 175k

Version 1.1
===========
-Started: July 18, 2001
-Discovery Effects Added
-Strategies: 1 Early Game Strategy Added
-Ascii art at bottom added
-File Size: 151k

Version 1.0
===========
-Started: June 11, 2001
-First Submitted: July 17, 2001
-Technical Stuff Added
-Changes I, II Added
-Game Setup Added
-First Things, First Added
-Cities Added
-Units, Units In-Depth Added
-Improvements, Wonders Added
-Governments Added
-Disclaimer, Email Notice Added
-Outro, Credits Added
-File Size: 129k



------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                             4. Game Requirements
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-REQ-


Requirements
============
This is what you'll need to play Civilization II:

Minimum:     166 MHz Pentium®. 
Recommended: 200 MHz Pentium with MMX.

Minimum:     16 Mb of RAM. 
Recommended: 32 Mb or more.

Minimum:     4x speed CD-ROM drive.
Minimum Installation: 60 Mb.
Minimum:     SVGA (16 bit) graphics card

Required:    Mouse
Required:    DirectX 6.0 (included in installation, if necessary)
Required:    Compatable Sound Card

For Multiplayer Games you'll need:

Minimum:      28k Modem
Recommended:  56k Modem

Access to the Internet with the Winsock protocol and a 28.8 kps connection


------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                             5. Civ1-Civ2 Changes
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-CHG-


These are the changes from the original Civilization to Civilization II:

A New Look
==========
-Uses an Isometric Grid instead of a square one(diamond terrain)
-Shield indicates Unit civilization
-Coloured Health Bar
-Changes in Architecute of Cities

New Combat Features
===================
-Hit Points
-Firepower
-Spacebar restores units
-New versions of old units(e.g. Settlers -> Engineers)

New Production Features
=======================
-Waste Production Shields
-50% Penalty for Changing Production
-New Improvements(e.g. Supermarket)

New Terrain Features
====================
-Rivers appear everywhere
-Special Terrain yields two resources
-When adjacent squares are upgraded, city square is also.

New Movement Features
=====================
-Rivers have same movement as roads
-Alpine Troops, Explorers treat every square as road
-2 settlers work together to finish jobs quicker
-Settlers/Engineers can use Transform Command

New Government Features
=======================
-Fundamentalism has been added
-In Monarchy the first 3 units cost no shield support
-No corruption occurs under Communism
-All spy units are veteran under Communism
-The first unit away from city doesn't cause unrest in a Republic
-After a revolution, you can change to as many government types that turn

New Diplomacy Features
======================
-AI remembers past actions
-New diplomatic states: cease fire, neutrality, alliance
-Cease fires expire after 16 turns

New Wonder Features
===================
-Pyramids now are a granary in all your cities
-Lighthouse never lets Triremes be lost at sea
-Great Wall now acts as a City Wall in each city and, forces peace
-Magellan's Expedition gives a +2 movement bonus to all ships
-Michaelangelo's Chapel counts as a Chatedral in all cities
-United Nations gives democracies a 50% chance to overrule senate
-SETI Program counts as a Research Lab in all cities
-Colossus expires with Flight
-Great Library expires with Electronics
-Great Wall expires with Metallurgy
-JS Bach's Catherdral now requires Theology to build.

Other New Features
==================
-Computer opponents now have to "Build" wonders
-Civlopedia/Advance Tree changed
-Disbanding adds 50% production to city




------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                6. Game Setup
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-STU-

This is the part where I tell you how to setup a new game.
Menu screens are listed numerically e.g 1-0, 3-2

Civilization II
================

[1-0]
Start a New Game: Begins a new game -> 1-2
Start on a Premade World: Play on a custom Map -> 1-2
Customise World: Choose how you want your world to look -> 1-1
Begin Scenario: Begin a pre-set scenario -> 1-2
Load a Game: Load a previously saved game -> To game
View Hall of Fame: View previous high scores

[1-1]
Select Size of World:
Small(for short, quick games)
Normal(the standard size)
Large(for longer games)
Custom(select the height and width of your map)
-> 1-1b 

[1-1b]
Select Land Mass:
Small(less land, more Ocean)
Normal(default)
Large(more land, less Ocean)
-> 1-1c

[1-1c]
Select Land Form:
Archipelago(numerous small continents)
Varied(a mix between Archipelago and Continents)
Continents(One or Two Large continents)
-> 1-1d

[1-1d]
Select Climate:
Arid(more dry squares e.g. Plains, Desert)
Normal(equal numbers of arid/wet squares)
Wet(more wet squares e.g. Forest, Swamp. Also increase river numbers)
-> 1-1e

[1-1e]
Select Temperature:
Cool(more cold squares e.g. Tundra, Glacier)
Temperate(an average number of each terrain type)
Warm(more warm squares e.g. Desert, Jungle)
-> 1-1f

[1-1f]
Select Age:
3 Billion Years(terrain squares appear in clusters)
4 Billion Years(not as clustered as 3 Billion Years)
5 Billion Years(randomised terrain locations)
-> 1-2

[1-2]
Difficulty Levels:
Chieftan: The easiest level, provides advice
Warlord:  A slight bit more difficult
Prince:   More difficult, slower advances
King:     Difficult, unstable citizens, slow advances
Emperor:  Very Difficult, slow advances
Diety:    Extremely Difficult
-> 1-3

[1-3]
Select Number of Civilizations:
Between 3 and 7
(lower means each Civilization is large, whereas higher means smaller civs)
-> 1-4

[1-4]
Select Ammount of Barbarians:
Villages Only: No roaming barbarians
Roving Bands: Few Barbarians
Restless Tribes: Standard Level
Raging Hordes: The world is full of them
-> 1-5

[1-5]
Select Game Rules:
Standard Rules: The normal Rules -> 1-6
Customise Rules: Select them yourself -> 1-5b

[1-5b]
Customise Rules:
Simplified Combat: Units either lose all damage or none in combat
Flat World: you can't circumnavigate the world
Select Computer Opponents: This will bring through numerous screens selecting
     your opponents.
Accelerated Start-up: If you select this cities and units will be built
Bloodlust: No player can built spaceships, to win you must conquer the world
Don't Restart Eliminated Opponents: When they die, they die!
-> 1-6

[1-6]
Select Gender:
Male/Female: This is sorta obvious
-> 1-7

[1-7]
Select Your Tribe:
Select which tribe you want to be e.g Celts
-> 1-8

[1-8]
Select City Style:
This only effects the way your cities look
Bronze Age Monolith / Classical Forum / Far East Pavillion / Medieval Castle

-> To Game



------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                              7. Getting Started
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-STR-

Your First City
===============
You'll see a screen with a flashing man on a terrain square surrounded
by other black terrain. This man is your settler, he's there to settle,
to build new cities and irrigate the land, and build roads. But, we
don't need to do some of them yet. The first thing to do, is look for a
place to build your first city(your capital). I usually build my first
city beside the sea, but sometimes that's not possible, so we'll look
for a good spot(seaside, or inland).

Seaside Cities
==============
When building cities beside the sea, look in the sea for Whales or Fish.
These will help your city grow, as they will provide well-needed food and
production. Also, more mineral squares on the land close by would be a
help.

Inland Cities
=============
When building an inland city you must have a river closeby, or under the
city. If you don't it will be difficult to irrigate around it. Also, a few
mineral squares would be a valuable help.

Improving your Capital
======================
Next we want your city to improve, so you should build a unit to defend
the city, and another to search the surrounding area for villages(goody
huts), and sites for other cities, and to discover your opposition.
If you don't have the development pottery already, I highly recommend
you discover it, so that you can build a Granary in your cities.
A Granary is useful because it helps the population increase quicker.
If you got two settlers at the start, or found one in a hut, it would be
wise to get the settler to irrigate(press "i") the plains/grassland around
your cities(I say cities because your Explorer should have found an
advanced tribe by now). You should also get that settler to build Roads(R)
in the sqaures around your cities(even if they do lead nowhere) for extra
trade, and a road between your cities. It is recommended that you build
all the new city improvemnets as the come onstream(that's another unusual
expression, that one).

What to do next...
==================
According to the Manual (you should read it, it's that thing you threw 
in the corner with the box) there are four priorities you should keep 
in mind early in the game.
These are:
-Defense: You've already covered this by building your defensive unit
-Research: You should discover new advances to build better units, improve
           your city, allow you to build Wonders of the World
-Growth: You've covered that with your second settler irrigating your city
-Exploration: You've also covered this one with that unit you sent out
So there's one I didn't cover yet

Research
========
Well, I've already told you to learn pottery, so... You should have!
The first goal I try to achieve is building the Great Library, so next
time the "What discovery shall our wise men pursue, sire?" screen comes up
click on Goal, and on this screen choose Improvements(if it isn't up already)
and select Great Library, and it will tell you what you need to research
next to progress towards it.(In Test of Time there's an option "AutoResearch"
which lets you automatically research until you reach that advance).
If you wish to discover something else first, you don't need to follow
my advice in Research.

Chatting with Opponents
=======================
Hopefully you should have met some other tribes by now, and have a peace
agreement with them. But if you haven't, here what to do when talking to
other leaders. When they wish to talk to you, click OK. When they
offer a Peace Treaty click Accept offer, you don't want enemies this
early in the game. If you wish you can ask them for a Permanent Strategic
Alliance, they may reject if their attitude is poor, but this early, they
nearly always say yes. When they discover something you can then ask to
exchange knowledge, or if you think they have more of the map than you,
you can ask to share world maps(their attitude must be very high for them
to accept this).

I'll end this tutorial section here, because I don't want to be deciding
your game outcome for you. Where's the fun in that?


------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                  8. Cities
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-CTY-

This section covers everything about cities, not just the basics(as above).


Choosing A Site
===============
When deciding a site for your cities there are a few things you must have:
Water - River / Ocean
Minerals - Any Square containing Special Resources
There are also things that are helpful to have/not have:
Many plains/grassland - easiest to irrigate
Some Forests - provide well needed shields
Lots of sheilded grassland - (Test of Time only) this helps production
No swamps - this may be difficult, but it makes roadbuilding,irrigation
            easier
Few hills/mountains - you don't want any hills in the squares adjacent to
                      the city, they raise attack rates against you


The City Display
================

Population Roster
-----------------
Position: In the Top Left of the screen
Basically, this tells you the Population of your city. If you look closely
at the citizens in the Population Roster you can see that they appear
different. Thats right, not everyone in your city looks the same. The
way they look changes on their mood or if they are assigned a role.
Usually, the first set of people in your roster are happy people(sometimes
there may not be happy people in your city, but thats your fault!).
The next group are the content people. The next group are the unhappy
people(try and have as few of these as possible), if the number of unhappy
people exceeds the number of happy people in your city, the city enters
civil disorder. The last group are Specialists:

Specialists
-----------
Position: Part of the Population Roster
If you click on a square in the city radius that is producing, you will
get a specialist instead of one of your citizens. Specialists have three
roles:(to change roles, click on the picture of the specialist)
Entertainers
Every Entertainer adds 2 more luxury icons to the resource bar(explained
later). The main role of Entertainers is to make your citizens happy, and
to stop the city falling into disorder.
Taxmen
Each Taxman adds 3 more tax icons to the resource bar. The main role of
Taxmen is to gain more tax from your people, to gain more money. This is
something you may need to do near the beginning of the game, if you are
losing money.
Scientists
Each Scientist adds 3 science icons to the resource bar. This helps if
you are in a government type which has a slow advancement rate.

Food Storage Box
----------------
Position: Top Right
When your citizens work in city squares they create food, if they have more
food than is needed for themselves it is added to the Food Storage Box.
When the Food Storage Box fills, an extra citizen is added to the Population
Roster.  If you have built the Granary in your city, you will get a
population increase when the box is full, but it will only be reset halfway.
If your citizens do not have enough food, they will take it from the Food
Storage Box, and when it empties any settlers or engineers supported by
the city will be disbanded. If after this happens, there is still a shortage
there will be a population decrease.

Reosurce Bars
-------------
Position: Top Middle
In Test of Time click the box to bring up a more detailed view.
The resource bars show all the resources generated by the city's workers
each turn. There are 4 Resource Bars:
Food
This shows how much food is generated each turn. Each citizen of your
city eats two food each turn, and Settlers and Engineers use food as
support. The surplus/loss of food is shown to the right. If there is a
surplus it will be added to the Food Storage Box. If there is a loss it will
be taken from the Food Storage Box.
Trade
This contains the Trade Bar and the Apportionment Bar. The Trade Bar lists
the ammount of trade goods produced on the left, and if there is any
corruption it will listed to the right.
Apportionment Bar
This shows how much Trade is divided between Taxes, Luxuries, and Research.
Tax is represented by gold coins, luxuries by cups, and research by beakers.
These numbers depend on your tax rate, any developments in the city, any
wonders in the city, and any specialist citizens.
Shields:
The bottom bar represents the Production of your workers each turn. The
shields on the left are used up supporting units. Sometimes, in the centre
of the bar there may be waste shileds. Production is listed on the right,
the more shields here the better. These go towards building the Improvement/
Unit in the Production Box(below). If your city cannot support your units
they will be disbanded at the end of the turn.

Resource Map
------------
Position: Left
This shows the terrain squares being used in the cities production. Depending
on the terrain, the ammount of production will vary. The citizens can
produce food, production shields, and/or trade. When your population 
increases another square(if available) will be use for resources. To change
your citizens to specialists you must click one of the producing squares.
To change producing squares you click the one you want to change, and then
the one you want to change it to.

Production Box
--------------
Position: Right
This shows a picture and name of the improvemnet you're producing. It shows
how many shields of the total, that have been produced so far, and in Test
of Time, tells how many turns are remaining. To change the unit/improvement
click the Change Box and select from the pop-down menu what you want to
produce. If you want to finish the current production by the next turn,
click buy and if you wish purchase the improvement. In Civilization II, the
buy screen tells how many turns are remaining before the current improvement
is finished. On the Production Menu you can select Auto: this makes the
Military Advisor, or Domestic Advisor decide which units/improvements are
to be built. Help brings up the revelant civilopedia entry for whatever is
highlighted. Cheat(only when cheats are enabled) builds a unit/improvement/
wonder instantly.

Unit Roster
-----------
Position: Left
This shows which units are supported by the city. Food and Shield icons
below the Units show the support needed by the unit. Clicking on the Unit
brings up a window telling it's exact location, and what you wish to do
with the unit: No changes, Centre map on unit, Centre map on unit and
close city screen, order Unit to return home, Disband Unit. I shouldn't
need to explain these.

Improvement Roster
------------------
Position: Bottom Left
This lists all the improvements/wonders currently in the city. If the
improvement can be sold, a gold coin icon appears next to the improvement.
Click the improvemnt to sell the improvemnt. You can only sell one
improvemnt per city each turn.

General Information Box
-----------------------
Position: Bottom Middle
Info:
This shows the units currently in the city and the supplies
and demands of the city, also any pollution in the city. If you click on
one of the units the Unit Information screen will appear. The orders on this
screen available are: No changes, Clear orders, Sleep / Board next ship,
Disband, Activate Unit, Activate Unit and close City Display
Happiness:
This shows the happiness of the citizens in the city. In Civ2: The first row
shows the happiness of the citizens before any adjustments. The second shows
the happiness after luxuries. The third after city improvements. The fourth
row shows the citizens happiness after martial law and field duty. The
fifth row adds the effects of any wonders you control, and is the view
shown in the Population Roster.
Map:
This shows a small map of the world,
showing all of its supported units' locations.
View:
This shows a view of your city, with all the Wonders
and Improvements.

Getting the best from your surroundings
=======================================
Try and build a road in every square, and when you acquire railroads build
them instead. Try to irrigate all plains/grassland, and when you acquire
Refrigeration change them to farmalnds. In the beginning, leave forests
as they are because they provide shields. Mine all hills and mountains.
Build Harbours and Offshore Platforms to harvest the sea. Build Supermarkets,
Factories, Hydro Plants, Electric Plants, and Solar Plants to increase land
prodcution.

City Defense
============
The terrain you build your city on also has a defensive value, as well as
providing you with food, production and trade. The best defensive
terrain squares are: Hills, Mountains, Jungle. But(there's always a but),
the production of these terrain squares is not as good as other squares.
If you don't want to build on poor-production squares, Grassland or
Plains with rivers through them are recommended. This has good production
and has a 50 percent defense bonus. Improvements can also increase city
defense: City Wall triples the defense factors of military units in the
city, Barracks allow damaged units to heal quicker. Coastal Fortress
raise the city defense against coastal attacks in seaside cities. SDI
Defense protects your city against Nuclear Attacks. There are alos certain
units you should have stationed in your city: A Spy/Diplomat will protect
from espionage, A Destroyer can be brought out to destroy incoming ships,
because when a city is attacked from sea, all units attack is lowered to
one.

City Growth
===========
As mentioned above, you should irrigate the land surrounding your city to
increase crop yield. You should develop Explosives and Refrigeration, so
you can build Settlers and irrigate the land to farmland. Also, Farmland
is useless without a Supermarket in the city, so you should build one as
early as possible. Harbours should be built in seaside cities to gain
increased food from the sea. Also, your population can increase, if your
city has a "We love the ---- day", while your government type is either a
Republic or a Democracy.

Tax/Trade
=========
This section is all about ways to increase trade. It's not really all
about Tax. Trade is gained - basically - from the terrain surrounding
your cities. Trade is represented by the arrow icon. Oceans/Sea gain
large ammounts of trade. In the beginning, it seems that your city
does not produce enough trade, in order to raise Trade production,
you should get settlers to build roads (and railroads when you get
them) all around your city. Improvements to increase Trade are:
a Marketplace increases overall trade, a Bank increases the Tax
section of Trade, as does a Stock Exchange. A Library increases
Research, as does a University and a Research Lab. A Temple, a
Cathedral, and a Colosseum increase Luxuries. The Colossus Wonder
also improves Trade in a city, as does Capitalisation.
Other ways to increase Tax are building Caravans or Freight, and
sending them to cities far, far away. You can also increase your
cash by building Adam Smith's Trading Company which pays for all
one-cost improvement maintenance. Also, selling and rebuilding
improvements can increase your bank account.
Oh yeah, I better tell you how to change Tax Rates. First, click
on Kingdom, then on Tax Rates(at the top of your screen). You
now can increase and decrese whichever rates you wish, clicking
the boxes to the right, temporarily sets one of the sliders.

Happiness
=========
You have enough because your playing the game, but what about your
citizens? Are they happy enough? You can check by looking at your
population roster. You always should have more happy people than
unhappy people, if you don't, you're in trouble! The temperament
of your citizens is based on improvements, military units, and
government types. It is also based on which difficulty level you
are playing. In chieftan level, your first 6 citizens start out
content, in Warlord it's 5, and so on until Deity, where only
one citizen starts out content. As I was saying, your governement
also can cause unhappiness. Under a Despotism citizen unhappiness
increases with the number of cities you have. In Republics and
Democracies every ground or naval unit not in a friendly city may
create unhappiness. If your cities have more unhappy people than
happy people, they go into Civil Disorder, while in disorder your
cities won't produce tax, food, production. And if you don't
sort out the problem your government will collapse. If your
city has no unhappy citizens, and at least as many happy ones as
content ones, you will have a "We love the --- day". In Anarchy
this has no effect, in Despotism your city collects resources as
if it was a Monarchy. In a Monarchy/Communism/Fundamentalism your
city produces as if it was a Democracy. In a Republic or a 
Democracy your city gains an extra citizen.
To increase happiness there are many thing you can do:
-Increase Luxuries in your tax rate
-Build Temples, Cathedrals, Colosseums
-Build Wonders: Hanging Gardens, Oracle, Michaelangelo's Chapel,
                Shakespeare's Theatre, JS Bach's Cathdral
                Cure for Cancer
-Have Entertainers in your cities

Terrain Basics
==============
Rivers: Rivers work just like roads when travelling along them.
        The movement cost is 1/3. You cannot build roads on
        Rivers until you have discovered Bridge Building.
        Rivers are needed for irrigation. Rivers produce
        an extra trade icon.
Tundra: A Musk Ox provides additional food.
        Fur provides Fur, more trade
Swamps: Peat - more shields, Spice - Spice, more food, tade
Jungle: Gems - more Trade, Fruits - more Food, Fruits
Plains: Buffalo - more shields, Grain - more Food, Grain
Hills:  Coal - more shields, Wine - Grapes, more trade
Mountains: Gold - more trade, Iron - more shields
Ocean:  Fish - more food, Whales - more food, trade
Desert: Oasis - more food, Oil - petrol, more shields
Forest: Pheasant - more food, Silk - more trade
Pollution: decreases production output, caused by large production
           rates.
Villages: Villages are the home of minor tribes, when you come across
          these, be sure to enter the square with the hut. There are
          numerous outcomes that can happen upon entering a village:
          A new city is formed, gain knowledge, gain gold, gain
          military unit, gain settlers, nothing, Find Barabarians.


------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                   9. Units
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-UNT-


This Section will discuss the Basics of Units, whereas the next Section
will discuss Units Individually.

Introduction
============
Units are the "little men" you use to build, settler, fight, and transport.
Everything that moves, in other words. There are three basic unit principles
(A) Ground  (B) Sea(Naval) (C) Air
Ground units must stay on the ground. Sea units can only occupy sea squares
and city squares. Air units can occupy any square(well, in TOT, that's not
exactly true, but I'll discuss that later), but must return to a city to
re-fuel.

Statistics
==========
Units have many statistics, but I will discuss the major ones first.

Attack Strength
This shows the attacking power of a unit(well, duh!). Units with a high
attack strength are better at attacking than ones with a low att. strength.

Defense Strength
This shows the defensive capabilities of a unit. I.E. How well it can
defend itself. Units with high defense strengths are good at defending
cities.

Movement Points
This indicates how many squares the unit can move each turn. This is
subject to terrain.

Hit Points
This indicates how much damage a unit can substain before dying. A units'
current hit points is represented by a coloured bar above their heads.
If it is green, the unit has over two-thirds hp(hit points) remaining.
If it is yellow, the unit has between a third and two thirds hp. If the
bar is red, the unit has less than a third hp remaining, and needs to
be healed.

Firepower
This indicates how much damage a unit inflicts in each round of combat.
The higher the better in attacking units.

Range
Only Air units have range. This is the ammount of moves they can be out
of a city without needing to refuel.

Holds
Only certain naval units have "holds". "Holds" are used to carry ground
units, and in some cases missiles or air units. The more "holds" a sea 
unit has the more units it can carry.


Modes/Status
============
How do I heal a unit, you ask. Units are healed when they are in sleep mode,
when you skip a turn, and when they are fortified in a city.

Active Status
Active status is the normal status for a unit, you can move them only
when they are active.

Sleep Status
Sleep Status is used to heal units and for them to board ships, to send
a unit to sleep press the 'S' button. Sleeping units wake up when an
enemy unit comes close to them. They then turn to Active Status

Fortified Status
Fortified units are used to defend cities. To fortify units press the
'F' button. Fortifying a unit increases its defense.


Specialties
===========
There are many special features, and most are unique to certain units.

Two Space Visibilty
Most units only have one space of visibility, i.e. they can only see
opposing units and cities in the immediate surrounding squares.

Ignore Zones of Control
This might be a good place to explain Zones of Control

 ______________________________________________________________________
|Zones of Control                                                      |
|Ground units cannot move directly from one square adjacent to an enemy|
|army or city to another such square. In other words, if your unit is  |
|either beside a non-allied opponent unit or city, then it cannot move |
|to another square next to an opponent. This ascii art should help:    |
|     ######      Key:                                                 |
|     #EXXe#      ----                                                 |
|     ##XUC#      e: Enemy Unit                                        |
|     ##YYY#      E: Enemy City                                        |
|     ######      C: Your City                                         |
|                 U: Your unit(the one you're moving)                  |
|                 X: Moves not allowed                                 |
|                 Y: Moves allowed                                     |
|The squares marked X are restricted to move into, unless you already  |
|have a unit in that square. The squares marked Y are free to move to. |
 ----------------------------------------------------------------------

Ignore Zones of Control
Now you get the idea of Zones of Control, you can see that there are certain
squares you cannot move to, units with the ability Ignore ZOC, avoid these
rules, and can enter any squares of its type(e.g. Ground units with Ignore
ZOC cannot enter sea squares).

Can make amphibious assaults
Just like the US Navy SEALs, there are ground units that can attack from
ships. Units with this ability can also capture opposing cities from ships.

Submarine advantages
Submarines are invisible to all ships except ones with a certain ability,
explained later.

Can attack air units
Most ground units cannot attack air units, but as you progress you will
get units which allow you to attack the steel birds of the sky.

Ships must stay near land
Only a trireme has this ability. It is the first ship you can build, if
you are not adjacent to a land sqaure at the turns end, there is a 50%
chance of your ships loss. This does not mean you cannot move away from
land at any time, it just means that if the ship does not end the turn
beside land, it may be lost at sea.

Negates City Walls
City Walls improve your city defense. Some units bypass that addition to
defense, citys which can do this, have the ability "Negates City Walls".

Can carry air units
When you discover flight, you will need somewhere to refuel your planes
for long journeys which cross the sea. Units with this ability can hold
and move your air units.

Can make paradrops
Units with the Paradrop ability can move to a square within 10 spaces
without the use of a movement point, by the use of the 'P' button.
This can only be done once each turn.

Alpine-Treat all squares as road
Road squares only take a third of a move to go through, and units with
this ability can move their alloted movement points times three.

x2 on defense versus Horse
This ability is misleading. The unit with it gets a 50% defense bonus
against any unit with the movement rate of two, not just units on 
horseback.

Free support for Fundamentalism
This is also misleading. Units with this ability can only be build under
fundamentalist governments.

Destroyed after attacking
Exactly what it syas on the tin. Only missiles have this ability.

x2 defense versus air
Units with this ability get a 100% defense bonus against all air and
missile units.

Unit can spot submarines
Units with this ability can see adjacent units with the Submarine Advantages
ability.

Settles
Only Settlers and Engineers can perform this function. They can build roads
and RailRoads with 'R', Irrigate with 'I', mine with 'M' and transform
terrain with 'T'

May transport ground units
Many ships have this ability. The "holds" ammount, shows the number of
units the ship can hold.


------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                              10. Units In-Depth
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-UID-



Settlers
========
Advance Required:    None
Obsolescence:        Explosives
Domain:              Ground
Movement:            1
Attack:              0
Defense:             1
Hit Points:          20
Fire Power:          1
Cost to Build:       40 Shields
AI Role:             Settle
Ability:             Settles

Description:
When cities grew to a size where the resources were insufficient to
adequately insure a decent standard of living for the populace,
adventerous groups of citizens set out on their own search of
a place to build a new city. Once a suitable site was found, the
settlers would build their new homes, and develop the land surrounding
the city. Eventually, the whole process repeated, and the new city
would send out settlers of its own. This process allowed civilizations
to grow throughout history, from the empires of the ancient world to
the discovery and settlement of the New World.

Comments:
Settlers are your primary tool in the early game, they let you build new
cities and expand current ones. They also let you build roads between your
cities.


Engineers
=========
Advance Required:    Explosives
Obsolescence:        None
Domain:              Ground
Movement:            2
Attack:              0
Defense:             2
Hit Points:          20
Fire Power:          1
Cost to Build:       40 Shields
AI Role:             Settle
Ability:             Settles, Ignores ZOC

Description:
As technology progressed throughout the centuries, people began to
specialize in a single skill or field of knowledge. The early pioneers
who acted in the multiple roles of farmers, builders, and just about
any other occupation required by their situation, were replaced by
engineers specifically trained in a single discipline. Specilized
training provided engineers the time and the skill necessary to
accomplish feats of construction and environmental manipulation never
before experienced in history.

Comments:
Engineers are the advanced form of Settlers, they settle twice as fast as
Settlers.


Warriors
========
Advance Required:    None
Obsolescence:        Feudalism
Domain:              Ground
Movement:            1
Attack:              1
Defense:             1
Hit Points:          10
Fire Power:          1
Cost to Build:       10 Shields
AI Role:             Defend
Ability:             None

Comments:
Use these to explore the surrounding lands at the beginning of the game, as
they are the cheapest unit in the game.


Phalanx
=======
Advance Required:    Bronze Working
Obsolescence:        Feudalism
Domain:              Ground
Movement:            1
Attack:              1
Defense:             2
Hit Points:          10
Fire Power:          1
Cost to Build:       20 Shields
AI Role:             Defend
Ability:             None

Description:
The phalanx was a military formation developed in Greece, and perfected
in Macedonia. It consisted of a large group of soldiers in ranks and
files, usually from 8 to 32 men deep, armed with spears, swords, and
large shields. The first five ranks of men pointed their weapons
forward, forming a bristling barrier of spearpoints, while the others
kept their spears upright to deflect incoming missiles. An enemy had
difficulty approaching this formation. The attacking army was faced with
a densely packed body of warriors, who were often advancing on the
run. This usually caused the attackers to give ground rather than risk
being impaled. Unfortunately, the phalanx lacked maneuverability,
and became less prevalent when enemy forces became more professional
and learned to outflank the formation.

Comments:
Build a few of these to defend each of you cities in the early-game.


Archers
=======
Advance Required:    Warrior Code
Obsolescence:        Gun Powder
Domain:              Ground
Movement:            1
Attack:              3
Defense:             2
Hit Points:          10
Fire Power:          1
Cost to Build:       30 Shields
AI Role:             Defend
Ability:             None

Description:
The bow and arrow, invented in prehistoric times, greatly improved
the hunting skills of early man, allowing him to kill his targets
from a distance. The bow was eventaully adapted for use in battle,
and was first used by Egyptian, Persian and Assyrian armies as
early as 5000 BC. The range provided by the bow allowed small
forces of archers torout armies of a superior number who were armed
with hand-to-hand weapons. Archers were often used to soften enemy
resistance prior to sending in mounted and skirmishing forces.
Refinements in design and construction allowed the bow to remain
an effective weapon until it was finally replaced by firearms in
the 1500's.

Comments:
If you plan on mounting an early attack on an opponent, Archers will
be your number one choice because of their low cost.


Legion
======
Advance Required:    Iron Working
Obsolescence:        Gun Powder
Domain:              Ground
Movement:            1
Attack:              4
Defense:             2
Hit Points:          10
Fire Power:          1
Cost to Build:       40 Shields
AI Role:             Defend
Ability:             None

Description:
The Roman Legions, created during the early wars of the Republic and
tested during the three Punic Wars against Carthage, were the
fighting force that conquered and held the Roman Empire for five
centuries. Each legion was composed of 6000 men, divided into 60
smaller groups known as centuries. Nearly unstoppable on the attack,
the legion was relatively weak on defense. The legion's demise
as a military unit was accelerated by the destruction of the
Emperor's Valens' army by gothic knights in the 4th Century. 

Comments:
As well as Archers, Legions(or is it Legionaires?) should be used in
early combat situations.


Pikeman
=======
Advance Required:    Feudalism
Obsolescence:        Gun Powder
Domain:              Ground
Movement:            1
Attack:              1
Defense:             2
Hit Points:          10
Fire Power:          1
Cost to Build:       20 Shields
AI Role:             Defend
Ability:             x2 on Defense vs. Horse

Description:
The growing deployment of knights on the battlefield demanded that
foot soldiers develop new means of fighting that would lessen their
vulnerability against mounted opponents. One of the best ways to do
this was to lengthen the reach of the infantrymen by arming them
with long sturdy spears known as pikes. Massed infantry armed with
pikes, in conjunction with archers, managed to even the battlefield
odds. Armies equipped in this manner managed to hold their own until
the invention of gunpowder made knights a thing of the past.

Comments:
These replace Warriors and Phalanx(es). They will become the new defenders
of your city.


Musketeers
==========
Advance Required:    Gun Powder
Obsolescence:        Conscription
Domain:              Ground
Movement:            1
Attack:              3
Defense:             3
Hit Points:          20
Fire Power:          1
Cost to Build:       30 Shields
AI Role:             Defend
Ability:             None

Description:
One of the most important developments in the history of warfare was
the invention of firearms. Originally developed in the 14th Century,
firearms eveolved quickly, and by the late 17th Century flintlock
muskets had become commonplace in battle. Musketeers, who were
relatively inexpensive to equip and train, proved a deadly foe for
the knights who had dominated the battlefield for so many years.
Armies were often comprised of a cobination of musketeers, cannon,
and knights, each complimenting the strengths and weaknesses of
one another. Large forces of musketeers within a fortress or behind
city walls proved an exceedingly difficult obstacle to an attacking
army. Muskets were the primary firearm in use until they were
replaced by repeating rifles in the Mid-19th Century.

Comments:
Musketeers replace Pikemen as your city defenders, and also become
one of your primary attackers.


Fanatics
========
Advance Required:    Fundamentalism
Obsolescence:        None
Domain:              Ground
Movement:            1
Attack:              4
Defense:             4
Hit Points:          20
Fire Power:          1
Cost to Build:       20 Shields
AI Role:             Defend
Ability:             Free support under fundamentalism

Description:
Certain circumstances, such as strong religious beliefs or a 
totalitarian system of governement, can "inspire" citizens or
factions to nationalism that approaches maniacal fervor.
Fanatical Groups can often suceed in seemingly hopeless situations,
fighting and defeating superior enemy forces. Often, fanatics
pursue military and terrorist activity for years, even decades,
before they can be caught or stopped. Their strength for both attack
and defense comes from their willingness to fight for the ideals they
believe in, and, if necessary, sacrifice their lives in the name of
their cause.

Comments:
I don't really use Fanatics, but they're a cheap army under a
fundamentalist government.


Partisans
=========
Advance Required:    Guerrila Warfare
Obsolescence:        None
Domain:              Ground
Movement:            1
Attack:              4
Defense:             4
Hit Points:          20
Fire Power:          1
Cost to Build:       50 Shields
AI Role:             Defend
Ability:             Treats all squares as road, Ignores ZOC

Description:
Partisans are militant groups who pledge their support to a leader or
a system of government. Partisans differ from fanatics in their
methods. Whereas fanatics are usually radicals prone to use terrorist
tactics, partisans are usually trained soldiers who practice the more
organised tactics of guerrila warfare. Partisan groups have existed
at various times throughout history. Parisans were particularly
active in the Nazi occupied countries of Europe during World War II,
where their acts of sabotage against their conquerors often kept
german troops busy quelling partisan uprisings while they should have
been fighting on the front lines. Because of their unflagging
dedication to their cause, partisans make formidable opponents.

Comments:
Partisans a.k.a. The most annoying unit in the game. I never build
these. But everytime you capture an opponent city in the late game,
these appear and try to take it back.


Alpine Troops
=============
Advance Required:    Tactics
Obsolescence:        None
Domain:              Ground
Movement:            1
Attack:              5
Defense:             5
Hit Points:          20
Fire Power:          1
Cost to Build:       50 Shields
AI Role:             Defend
Ability:             Treat all squares as road

Description:
In the colder regions of the world, where winter months tend to leave
the ground snow covered, skiing often became one of the most reliable
means of transportation. In the alpine countries of Europe, it became
commonplace to train special groups of soldiers to take advantage
of the snow covered, mountainous terrain by travelling on skis.
This proved to be a huge advantage, especially if the enemy forces
were not likewise equipped. In November 1939, for example, during
the Russo-Finnish War, the Finns managed to cut off the supply and
communication lines of the vastly superior Russian army through the
use of their extremely mobile ski troops, and the Finns continued
to hold an advantage throughout the winter months. Alpine Troops
continue to be trained and utilized in military forces of the
present day.

Comments:
One of the most useful units in the late game, because of their
maneuvarability. They are guaranteed to move 3 squares each turn,
no matter what terrain.


Riflemen
========
Advance Required:    Conscription
Obsolescence:        None
Domain:              Ground
Movement:            1
Attack:              5
Defense:             4
Hit Points:          20
Fire Power:          1
Cost to Build:       40 Shields
AI Role:             Defend
Ability:             None

Description:
Two developments in the 19th Century made early firearms such as the 
muskets obsolete. The first was the use of a spiral grrove, or
"rifling", inside the barrel of a gun. Second, was the development of
the repeating rifle, which could fire multiple shots before it
required reloading. The rifle was a better weapon than its ancestors,
with much more accuracy over a greater range than the musket.
Riflemen were first employed in large numbers during the American
Civil War. The rifle gave a strong defensive advantage, since riflemen
could fire several times while the attackers advanced. This was normally
enough to hold any position. Riflemen held the advantage on the
battlefield until the appearance of armoured attack vehicles.

Comments:
Riflemen replace Musketeers as the defenders of your city. You always
should have at least 2 of these in each city.


Marines
=======
Advance Required:    Amphibious Warfare
Obsolescence:        None
Domain:              Ground
Movement:            1
Attack:              8
Defense:             5
Hit Points:          20
Fire Power:          1
Cost to Build:       60 Shields
AI Role:             Attack
Ability:             Can make amphibious assaults

Description:
The marines are the branch of the military service that operates
seperately, but is under the ultimate control of the secretary of
the navy. The Marine Corps is a combined branch of the military;
their training prepares them to carry out integrated land, sea, 
and air operations. The first marines were comissioned during
the American Revolution, only to be inactivated after the war.
The Marine Corps was then permanently reestablished by Congress
in July 1798. Legendary for their toughness, rigid codes of
behaviour, and adaptability, they have played an important role
in almost every major war and conflict of the 19th and 20th
centuries.

Comments:
These will be your primary attack force in the late game, put them
on a transport and attack from it.


Paratroopers
============
Advance Required:    Combined Arms
Obsolescence:        None
Domain:              Ground
Movement:            1
Attack:              6
Defense:             4
Hit Points:          20
Fire Power:          1
Cost to Build:       60 Shields
AI Role:             Defend
Ability:             Can make paradrops

Description:
Although the idea of the parachute was suggested in the 16th Century
drwaings of Leonardo da Vinci, the first parachute was not invented
until the late 1700's. For years, parachutes were standard emergency
equipment for balloonists. Claire Chennault, an American pioneer of
aviation pursuit tactics during World War I, was the first to suggest
using parachutes to drop troops behind enemy lines. This idea was
widely used. Paratroopers were flown behind enemy lines in transport
planes and dropped from low altitude, allowing them to attack the
enemy from behind. Today, paratroopers are usually highly-trained
special forces personnel, trained to covertly infiltrate enemy
territory.

Comments:
Paratroopers are one of the best units in the game, after attacking
a city with your forces and taking out the defense, you then Paradrop
in and take the city.


Mechanized Infantry
===================
Advance Required:    Labor Union
Obsolescence:        None
Domain:              Ground
Movement:            3
Attack:              6
Defense:             6
Hit Points:          30
Fire Power:          1
Cost to Build:       50 Shields
AI Role:             Defend
Ability:             None

Description:
The introduction of armored tanks meant that armies could quickly
break through enemy defensive positions and move agressiveley forward
on the battlefield. Such a quick advance, however, left the ground
won in the advance largely undefended. Mechanized Infantry, which was
first used during World War II, was designed to be able to move in
quickly and defend the area behind the tanks. Infantry were mounted
in armored vehicles, such as half-tracks and Armored Personnel Carriers
(APCs), to carry them quickly and safely along with the rapidly
advancing armored divisions.

Comments:
Get these early because they can turn the game around for whoever gets
them. They have good attack and defense and are not too expensive.


Horsemen
========
Advance Required:    Horseback Riding
Obsolescence:        Chivalry
Domain:              Ground
Movement:            2
Attack:              2
Defense:             1
Hit Points:          10
Fire Power:          1
Cost to Build:       20 Shields
AI Role:             Attack
Ability:             None

Description:
The necessity for speed and mobility in times of war was recognised
even in ancient times. The infantrymen of some ancient armies would
ride horses to get from one engagement to another, dismounting to
fight when they reached the battlefield. Because of their speed,
horsemen could also be used as scouts to pinpoint enemy positions.
In the second century BC, the Chinese invention of the stirrup
allowed this concept of mobility to go one step further. Stirrups
provided the stability and leverage necessary to allow soldiers to
fight from horseback, leading to the earliest examples of cavalry
units. Continuous developments in arms and armor eventually led
to knights, dragoons, and finally the advanced cavalry of the
18th and 19th Century.

Comments:
I don't really use Horsemen, because of their poor attack against
Pikemen. And, anyway, the early game is not where the wars should
happen, it is for discovery and learning.


Chariot
=======
Advance Required:    The Wheel
Obsolescence:        Polytheism
Domain:              Ground
Movement:            2
Attack:              3
Defense:             1
Hit Points:          10
Fire Power:          1
Cost to Build:       30 Shields
AI Role:             Attack
Ability:             None

Description:
The chariot was the first true fighting vehicle. It was used by ancient
armies to transport archers and other troops to the battlefield,
where they would disembark and fight. The chariot was turned into a
fearsome offensive weapon by the Assyrians, whose archers and spearmen
fought from inside the chariot itself. Few enemies were able to
withstand the onslaught of Assyrian Chariots. This devasting form
of attack was soon adopted by many of the Assyrian's enemies, who
used the chariot against them with good effect.

Comments:
I never use chariots. Like I said above, I don't fight in the early game.


Elephant
========
Advance Required:    Polytheism
Obsolescence:        Monotheism
Domain:              Ground
Movement:            2
Attack:              4
Defense:             1
Hit Points:          10
Fire Power:          1
Cost to Build:       40 Shields
AI Role:             Attack
Ability:             None

Description:
The elephant is the largest living land mammal, reaching a size of
10 to 13 feet in height depending on the species. Descended from the
ancient mammoths and mastodons, elephants can be trained to serve
humans in many fields of endeavor. One such use of elephants in ancient
times was as beasts of war. Elephants were used in battle against
Alexander the Great in 326 BC, and they were used both as pack animals
and in battle by Hannibal of Carthage in his famous alpine crossing in
218 BC. Although generally impractical as mounts due to their slow speed,
the mere mental impact of seeing such massive beasts included in the
advancing enemy ranks could provide the attacker with an element of
surprise.

Comment:
They may have good attack strength, but if they get attacked they die
easily. 


Crusaders
=========
Advance Required:    Monotheism
Obsolescence:        Leadership
Domain:              Ground
Movement:            2
Attack:              5
Defense:             1
Hit Points:          10
Fire Power:          1
Cost to Build:       40 Shields
AI Role:             Attack
Ability:             None

Description:
Between 1095 and 1270, European Christians waged a series of wars known
as the Crusades. These holy wars, sanctioned by the Pope, were fought to
free the Christian Holy Lands from Muslim control. The crusaders
themselves were a mixed lot, with many different backgrounds and reasons
for fighting. However, most of them joined the ranks out of religious
fervor, and a feeling that their personal salvation was guaranteed when
fighting for such a holy cause. Despite the fact that the crusaders fought
with all the strength of their religious conviction, the Crusades
accomplished very little in a military sense; however, the European
economy and a desire for exploration was greatly increased.

Comments:
I use rarely, but when I do they come in truckloads. If you are at war,
and you can build these, go ahead.


Knights
=======
Advance Required:    Chivalry
Obsolescence:        Leadership
Domain:              Ground
Movement:            2
Attack:              4
Defense:             2
Hit Points:          10
Fire Power:          1
Cost to Build:       40 Shields
AI Role:             Attack
Ability:             None

Description:
Knights were heavily armored, mounted men-at-arms in medieval Europe.
Like the samurai of ancient Japan, knights followed a strict code
that covered their behaviour both in battle and in their personal
pursuits. Fighting astride powerful horses, armored knights had a
distinct advantage over enemies on foot and remained the dominant
force on the battlefield when battles were primarily fought hand-to-
hand. Occasionally, brilliant tactics allowed kinghts to be
outmaneuvered, but it wasn't until the development of gunpowder that
knights were rendered obsolete.

Comment:
How I love knights, its not like the are a mean fighting unit, it's
just that I am enthralled by the medieval era. If you are waging a
war in the mid-game, use knights for their high attack strength.


Dragoons
========
Advance Required:    Leadership
Obsolescence:        Tactics
Domain:              Ground
Movement:            2
Attack:              5
Defense:             2
Hit Points:          20
Fire Power:          1
Cost to Build:       50 Shields
AI Role:             Attack
Ability:             None

Description:
Dragoons wer mounted soldiers armed with short muskets who fought,
both on horseback and on foot, during the time of the American
Revolution. The name comes from the French word for "dragon", and
refers to the "fire breathing weapons" used by these troops.
British general John Burgoyne utilized a force of Hessian dragoons
to attack an American Supply base at the Battle of Bennington in 1777.
Despit their large numbers, the dragoon mercenaries were severely
routed by several detachments from the New Hampshire militia.

Comment:
These replace Knights as your primary mid-game attack unit. In a war,
you'll need many of these to survive.


Cavalry
=======
Advance Required:    Tactics
Obsolescence:        Mobile Warfare
Domain:              Ground
Movement:            2
Attack:              8
Defense:             3
Hit Points:          20
Fire Power:          1
Cost to Build:       60 Shields
AI Role:             Attack
Ability:             None

Description:
Cavalry are mounted soldiers trained to fight on horseback. Because of
their speed, cavalry units were often used for reconnaissance missions
and hit-and-run raids on enemy installations and troops. Although
warriors figthing from horseback with a variety of weapons dates back
to ancient Egypt, horse mounted cavalry as we generally think of it
today actually began in the late 1700's. Under Napoleon, the cavalry
became an elite force, freqeuntly deployed simultaneously with foot
soldiers, to mask the movements of the main battle force. Cavalry were
used extensively in the American Civil War, and in other conflicts
throughout the mid to late 19th Century. When the repeating rifle
replaced earlier single-shot firearms, horse-mounted troops became
easy targets for infantrymen. The South African War from 1899 to 1902,
was the last major conflict wherecavalry played a major role. Today,
the roles once performed by horse-mounted cavalry have been assumed
by troops utilizing armored assault vehicles and aircraft.

Comments:
Cavalry have a great attack stregth, so use it to your adavantage.


Armor
=====
Advance Required:    Mobile Warfare
Obsolescence:        None
Domain:              Ground
Movement:            3
Attack:              10
Defense:             5
Hit Points:          30
Fire Power:          1
Cost to Build:       80 Shields
AI Role:             Attack
Ability:             None

Description:
The rise in the use of semi-automatic and automatic firearms in the late
19th and early 20th century led to the demise of horse-mounted cavalry.
Attackers lost a significant adavantage in both scouting and
deployment as a result of the cavalry's vulnerability. It was only with
the development of tanks, armored mobile attack vehicles equipped with
jigh-caliber guns, that a weapon was found which could once more be used
to punch a hole through enemy field forces. First appearing in World
War I, armored attack vehicles moved quickly and struck with power,
while still possessing an effective defense strength. Tanks are a powerful
weapon against any ground unit.

Comments:
These replace Cavalry, and are a much better attack force. You will use
these in many of your late-game attacks.


Catapult
========
Advance Required:    Mathematics
Obsolescence:        Metallurgy
Domain:              Ground
Movement:            1
Attack:              6
Defense:             1
Hit Points:          10
Fire Power:          1
Cost to Build:       40 Shields
AI Role:             Attack
Ability:             None

Description:
The catapult was on of the earliest forms of atillery. It was a large
mechanical arm that propelled heavy stones and other missiles from a
great distance, battering down wallsand inflicting damage on buildings
and defenders. Though cumbersome and nearly useless on the battlefield,
the catapult was an effective weapon for attacking cities and fortified
enemies.

Comments:
These are used in early-game combat situations but always must be
accompanied by a good defensive unit, because of their vulnerability.


Cannon
======
Advance Required:    Metallurgy
Obsolescence:        Machine Tools
Domain:              Ground
Movement:            1
Attack:              8
Defense:             1
Hit Points:          20
Fire Power:          1
Cost to Build:       40 Shields
AI Role:             Attack
Ability:             None

Description:
Closely following the invention of Gunpowder, the development of the
cannon caused a revolution in seige warfare. Invented by a German Monk
in the 14th century, early cannons used gunpowder charges to fire rocks
or metal balls. The cannon forced a redesign of most fortifications
because the straight, high walls surrounding most cities could be easily
destroyed by direct fire. This was the fate of the walls of
Constatinople, which had held against countless seiges for over a
thousand years. The cannon quickly assumed an important position on the
battlefield.

Comments:
Cannons replace Catapults, and when used should always be accompanied
by a defensive unit.


Artillery
=========
Advance Required:    Machine Tools
Obsolescence:        Robotics
Domain:              Ground
Movement:            1
Attack:              10
Defense:             1
Hit Points:          20
Fire Power:          2
Cost to Build:       50 Shields
AI Role:             Attack
Ability:             None

Description:
Artillery is a general term covering several varities of large caliber
weapons including mortars and field guns. Mortars fire an explosive
projectile in a high arc, and are particularly effective against small
concealed targets. Feild guns, long-range weapons that fire their
prokectiles in a flat arc, are used primarily for their ability to
penetrate hard targets. Powerful enough to batter opposing forces even
behind the strongest fortifications, artillery is also able to move
quickly from one firing position to another. This is an important
capability when fighting a moving battle or avoiding enemy fire.

Comments:
These replace Cannon, and are another good improvement. They have an
increased attack rate, as well as increased Firepower.


Howitzer
========
Advance Required:    Robotics
Obsolescence:        None
Domain:              Ground
Movement:            2
Attack:              12
Defense:             2
Hit Points:          30
Fire Power:          2
Cost to Build:       70 Shields
AI Role:             Attack
Ability:             Ignores city walls

Description:
The howitzer is a specially designed piece of atillery. As originally
designed, the howitzer was a cross between the short-ranged mortar and
the long-ranged field gun. When fired in a high arc, the howitzer shell
was able to achieve the mortar's effectiveness against small,
concealed targets. When fired in a flat trajectory, the shell had more
range than the mortar and the penetration power of the field gun.
Howitzers were easier to transport than other types of heavy artillery
due to their smaller size, and could be mounted on wheels and towed
by a truck. Modern light howizters fire a variety of specialised
ammunition, and their accuracy now makes them more effiecent and lethal
than older heavy howitzers and field guns.

Comments:
The howitzer replaces the artillery. The howitzer has the highest attack
strength of any ground unit. It also has the added bonus of being able to
move two squares a turn.


Fighter
=======
Advance Required:    Flight
Obsolescence:        Stealth
Domain:              Air
Movement:            10
Range:               1
Attack:              4
Defense:             3
Hit Points:          20
Fire Power:          2
Cost to Build:       60 Shields
AI Role:             Air Superiority
Ability:             Ignores ZOC, Ignores City Walls, Can attack aircraft

Description:
The earliest military aircraft were used primarily in a reconnaissance
role. In 1915, during World War I, aircraft designer Anthony Fokker
developed a gear system that allowed a plane-mounted machine gun to
fire through the propellor, giving birth to the first fighter aircraft.
The fighter's mission was to shoot down enemy reconaissance and fighter
planes. Later, as the use of bombers became more widespread, fighters
were called upon to act as interceptors against enemy bombing runs and
escorts for friendly bombers. The best way to ensure the safe passage
of friendly bombers to their selected targets is the destruction of
enemy fighters.

Comments:
When you discover flight, build these! Send them out, attack, return.
And again...and again...and again....


Bomber
======
Advance Required:    Advanced Flight
Obsolescence:        Stealth
Domain:              Air
Movement:            8
Range:               2
Attack:              12
Defense:             1
Hit Points:          20
Fire Power:          2
Cost to Build:       120 Shields
AI Role:             Air Superiority
Ability:             Ignores ZOC, Ignores City Walls

Description:
The bombing of strategic targets from the air dates back to the
beginning of World War I, when the Germans used Zepplins to bomb
Paris and London. Because zepplins proved to be extremely vulnerable,
they were withdrawn from war in favour of airplanes. By the end of
World War I, planes were being designed specifically as bombers. The
bomber's job is to carry bombs into enemy territory, normally beyond
the range of artillery, and destroy targets of military and economic
value. Bombers were often designed for specific missions, such as
attacking ships, bombing vehicles and railroads, daylight precision
bombing, and carpet bombing.

Comments:
These will be your primary attack force for a lengthy period until
you discover stealth, but until you do, use these to capture cities.


Helicopter
==========
Advance Required:    Combined Arms
Obsolescence:        None
Domain:              Air
Movement:            6
Range:               Infinite
Attack:              10
Defense:             3
Hit Points:          20
Fire Power:          2
Cost to Build:       100 Shields
AI Role:             Air Superiority
Ability:             Ignores ZOC, Ignores City Walls, Can spot submarines

Description:
The concept that was to become the modern helicopter was first
explored by artist/engineer Leonardo da Vinci. He made sketches of
rotor-driven aircraft in the early 16th century. It was not until 1939,
however, that the first practical helicopter design was developed.
Helicopters have a distinct adavntage over fixed-wing aircraft in that
they can take off and land vertically. This makes it possible for
helicopters to operate in many places that would be too small to
accomodate a runway. Today, helicopters are used in civilian roles as
rescue vehicles and by law enforcement agencies. All branches of the
military utilize many different types of helicopters, from giant cargo
and troop carriers to fast and maneuvarble gunships used asair support
for ground troop operations.

Comments:
This, in my humble opinion, is the best unit in the game. It has an
attack of 10, it can take enemy cities, and it doesn't need to refuel.


Stealth Fighter
===============
Advance Required:    Stealth
Obsolescence:        None
Domain:              Air
Movement:            14
Range:               1
Attack:              8
Defense:             4
Hit Points:          20
Fire Power:          2
Cost to Build:       80 Shields
AI Role:             Air Superiority
Ability:             Ignores ZOC, Ignores City Walls, Can attack aircraft

Description:
Starting in the second world war, radar technology came into widespread
use both for detection and targeting of aircraft. Beacuse of this,
aeronautical engineers beagn searching for ways to make aircraft less
"visible" to electronic tracking and weapon systems. The earliest stealth
technologies consisted of coating aircraft with materials that would
absorb rather than deflect a radar signal. In the late 1970s, designs
incorporating this technology, as well as a unique fuselage shape
designed to defelct radar away from its source, were prototyped. The
first true stealth fighter, the Lockheed F-117A, flew for the first time
on June 18, 1981. This fighter, incorporating the latest anti-radar and
anti-thermal innovations, is capable of entering enemy territory,
delivering its payload, and returning to base with little chance of
detection. These unique, black aircraft served wellin the Persian Gulf
War in 1991, and have served as a basis for further development of
stealth aircaft technology.

Comments:
These replace Fighters, and have twice the attack strength and a greater
range, which makes them a formidable unit in the late-game.


Stealth Bomber
==============
Advance Required:    Stealth
Obsolescence:        None
Domain:              Air
Movement:            12
Range:               2
Attack:              14
Defense:             5
Hit Points:          20
Fire Power:          2
Cost to Build:       160 Shields
AI Role:             Air Superiority
Ability:             Ignores ZOC, Ignores City Walls

Description:
Concurrent with the development of a stealth fighter, aeronautical 
engineers began to apply stealth technology to a full-scale bomber.
The B-1B Bomber, which went into service in 1986 as a replacement
for the B-52, incorporated some of these innovations. The radar
signature of the B-1B was reduced to a mere 1 percent that of the B-52
due to its low cross-section and its minimal use of radar-reflective,
hard-edged services. Soon afterthe B-1B entered service, the U.S. Air
Force comissioned Northrop to develop a true stealth bomber as an
eventual replacement. First revealed to the public in 1988, the B-2
Stealth Bomber uses a flying wing similar in shape to the F-117A
Stealth Fighter. The flying wing design reduces the profile of the
B-2 by incorporating its engines into the body of the plane. The
engine exhausts and intakes are shielded to prevent infrared tracking.
The B-2 also makes use of curved surfaces and radar-absorbing materials
to enhance its "invisibilty", and make it far less detectable than the
B-1B. As of the late 1980s, it was announced that the 132 B-2's would
be constructed, and would enter service sometime in the 1990s.

Comment:
These are absolutely magnificent, if you haven't got these in the late
game, get them, and lots of them. Whats better than a 14 attack strength?
You may say a missile, but they can't be re-used. You'll get to attack the
city every turn until its falls into your hands.


Trireme
=======
Advance Required:    Map Making
Obsolescence:        Navagation
Domain:              Sea
Movement:            3
Attack:              1
Defense:             1
Hit Points:          10
Fire Power:          1
Cost to Build:       40 Shields
Holds:               2
AI Role:             Sea Transport
Ability:             Must stay near land, Transports ground units

Description:
The trireme was the first ship designed for war. Introduced by the
Greeks, triremes were powered by three banks of oars on each side,
manned by well-trained oarsmen. These oarsmen were highly paid
professionals or patriotic citizens, not slaves and prisoners as
depicted in fiction. A huge bronze "beak", mounted on the bow of the
ship was used to ram and sink enemy ships. Because of its long, narrow
hull, the trireme was very unstable in all but the calmest waters, and
as a consequence its crew rarely ventured out of sight of land for long
periods of time, lest the ship be caught in a storm and sunk.

Comments:
Don't bother building these, because you can discover ones that can
stray from land, a short time later.


Caravel
=======
Advance Required:    Navigation
Obsolescence:        Magnetism
Domain:              Sea
Movement:            3
Attack:              2
Defense:             1
Hit Points:          10
Fire Power:          1
Cost to Build:       40 Shields
Holds:               3
AI Role:             Sea Transport
Ability:             Transports ground units

Description:
The caravel was a small sailing ship with three or four masts, a broad
bow, and a high narrow stern. Though often used as a warship, the caravel
could also carry over 100 metric tons of cargo. Caravels were commonly
used by the Spanish and Portuguese for both commerce and exploration.
Christopher Colombus' three ships, the "Nina", "Pinta", and "Santa Maria"
were all caravels.

Comments:
These replace triremes, and are much, much better. They can stray away
from land and even have a better attack. These will be used to explore
other islands in the early-game.


Galleon
=======
Advance Required:    Magnetism
Obsolescence:        Industrialization
Domain:              Sea
Movement:            4
Attack:              0
Defense:             2
Hit Points:          20
Fire Power:          1
Cost to Build:       40 Shields
Holds:               4
AI Role:             Sea Transport
Ability:             Transports ground units

Description:
By the late 15th century, oar-powered vessels had all but disappeared
from the world's oceans, to be replaced by sailing vessels of various
types. The galleon was one such vessel. Galleons were three- or
four-masted ships, built high in both the forecastle and the stern.
Developed in the 15th and 16th century, these versatile ships were
mainly used as cargo vessels, although they were sometimes outfitted
as light warships as well. Ships of this type served European nations
well in to the 1700s.

Comment:
These replace the caravel, with a higher hold capacity, but they have
no attack rate. They are only used for exploration.


Frigate
=======
Advance Required:    Magnetism
Obsolescence:        Electricity
Domain:              Sea
Movement:            4
Attack:              4
Defense:             2
Hit Points:          20
Fire Power:          1
Cost to Build:       50 Shields
Holds:               2
AI Role:             Naval Superiority
Ability:             Transports ground units

Description:
The frigate was a fast and powerful sailing warship that eveolved
to fill several important naval roles, primarily to raid enemy
shipping. These three masted ships were lighter and faster than the
European great ship or man-of-war, and usually carried 36 or fewer
guns. The frigate was powerful enough to overcome most of its
prospective opponents and fast enough to escape those it could not
outgun. Because of their speed and strength, frigates were often employed
as escorts for merchant vessels during times of war. The frigate remained
the most useful and domininant naval vessel until the development of
the Ironclad.

Comments:
These also replace the Caravel, and become the ruler of the seas in
all battles. If you plan on waging a naval war, these'll be your
primary assault force.


Ironclad
========
Advance Required:    Steam Engine
Obsolescence:        Electricity
Domain:              Sea
Movement:            4
Attack:              4
Defense:             4
Hit Points:          30
Fire Power:          1
Cost to Build:       60 Shields
Holds:               0
AI Role:             Naval Superiority
Ability:             None

Description:
Ironclads were the forerunners of future generations of armored naval
vessels. Instead of simple wooden hulls found on other ships at the time,
Ironclads were covered with strong metal plating. This plating made
them nearly impervious to large-caliber exlosive shells that would
easily penetrate and destroy wooden vessels. Ironclads made their first
appearance during the American Civil War, and quickly gained dominance
over other ships of that era. Perhaps the most famous naval battle of
the Civil War was the battle between the confederate ironclad "Merrimack",
and the union ironclad "Monitor", which lasted for several hours before
the "Merrimack" was forced to withdraw.

Comments:
Only build these if you are deep in war, because better ships will come
along quickly(if you're a democracy, anyway).


Destroyer
=========
Advance Required:    Electricity
Obsolescence:        None
Domain:              Sea
Movement:            6
Attack:              4
Defense:             4
Hit Points:          30
Fire Power:          1
Cost to Build:       60 Shields
Holds:               0
AI Role:             Naval Superiority
Ability:             Can spot enemy submarines

Description:
Destroyers are small escort ships that serve a variety of useful
functions. These light, fast vessels were used extensively in World
War II to provide air and sea cover for carrier groups. One of the
primary functions of the destroyeris to locate and destroy enemy
submarines. Using their sonar equipment to locate the subs, and their
batteries of depth charges and torpedoes to destroy them, the destroyer
forces of World War II were the key to the sucess of many crucial
naval operations. Modern destroyers are still used in much the same
role, as escorts for larger vessels and as submarine hunters. In
addition to five-inch guns, the arsenal of today's destroyer includes
antisubmarine helicopters, anti-ship cruise missiles, and the Phalanx
system for defence against anti-ship missiles.

Comments:
Destroyers are not build for their sheer power, you build them to
patrol the seas. You use other slower ships for their attack power. 


Cruiser
=======
Advance Required:    Steel
Obsolescence:        Rocketry
Domain:              Sea
Movement:            5
Attack:              6
Defense:             6
Hit Points:          30
Fire Power:          2
Cost to Build:       80 Shields
Holds:               2
AI Role:             Naval Superiority
Ability:             Can spot enemy submarines

Description:
The cruiser is the modern equivalent of the frigate. Although much
more powerful than its sailing forebearer, it is designed for much
the same type of mission: to act as a sea raider and escort. Cruisers
can conduct shore bombardments, though their firepower cannot match
the destructive forces of the battleship. The cruisers defensive
capabilities are also inferior to those of the battleship. These
shortcomings are balanced by the cruisers lower cost and higher speed.
Cruisers serve an important role in scouting missions, convey escorts,
and the attack of the transport vessels.

Comment:
These are a good attacker until you get the battleship, and will do
you proud in attack.


AEGIS Cruiser
=============
Advance Required:    Rocketry
Obsolescence:        None
Domain:              Sea
Movement:            5
Attack:              8
Defense:             8
Hit Points:          30
Fire Power:          2
Cost to Build:       100 Shields
Holds:               0
AI Role:             Naval Superiority
Ability:             x2 defense vs air, can spot submarines

Description:
Cruisers have long served in the role of escort and defensive vessels,
screening carrier task forces and amphibious assaults from enemy
ships and aircraft. In recent years, the abilities of the cruiser have
been upgarded significantly. In addition to their traditional five-inch
guns, cruisers also carry batteries of Harpoon and Tomahawk missiles.
The latest development in cruiser armament is the AEGIS surface-to-air
missile system, which allows cruisers to target and fire their missiles
more accurately and more effectively than ever before. The cruisers
of today are highly capable of intercepting and destroying enemy
submarines, surface ships, aircraft, and missiles.

Comment:
AEGIS cruisers are a hepful addition to your navy because of their
rounded stats and lower cost.


Battleship
==========
Advance Required:    Automobile
Obsolescence:        None
Domain:              Sea
Movement:            4
Attack:              12
Defense:             12
Hit Points:          40
Fire Power:          2
Cost to Build:       160 Shields
Holds:               0
AI Role:             Naval Superiority
Ability:             None

Description:
The battleship was once the most powerful vessel on the seas. Heavily
armored and difficult to destroy, its massive guns could accurately
fire heavy projectiles at tagets miles away. The battleship had two
primary functions: clearing the seas of enemy ships and bombarding
enemy coastal targets, usually in preperation for an invasion. The
battleship's importance began to decline in World War II, when the
increasing number of aircraft carriers greatly extended the range
of naval conflicts. Ship-to-ship combat became less frequent than
long-range air attacks against enemy battle groups. The last of
the U.S. Navy's battleships was decomissioned shortly after the
Vietnam war, but the four battleships in the Iowa class were
remodelled and recomissioned in the 1980s.

Comment:
The BEST naval unit! No doubt about it, what other unit has a 12 attack
and a 12 defense? If it had a higher movement rate this would be
unstoppable.


Submarine
=========
Advance Required:    Combustion
Obsolescence:        None
Domain:              Sea
Movement:            3
Attack:              10
Defense:             2
Hit Points:          30
Fire Power:          2
Cost to Build:       60 Shields
Holds:               0
AI Role:             Naval Superiority
Ability:             Invisible to enemy ships, Transports missiles

Description:
A submarine is a submersible warship, designed to attack enemy vessels
while remaining hidden underwater. Although defensively weak,
submarines are feared because of their ability to make a stealthy
approach and attack without warning. Often the presence of a submarine
is not detected until the first of the sub's torpedoes strikes its
target. Submarine warfare was first used extensively by the Germans
during World War I. Developments after the war, such as sonar, made
the submarine even more effective. During World War II, submarines
were used extensively by all the world's naval powers. Today's
submarines in addition to their role as fast attack vessels, also
carry nuclear weapons that can be fired from underwater positions
just off the coast of an enemy country.

Comment:
Submarines are excellent units, because of their invisibilty and
their ability to carry missiles. Although the submarine is
invisible, unfortunately the missiles can be seen.


Carrier
=======
Advance Required:    Advanced Flight
Obsolescence:        None
Domain:              Sea
Movement:            5
Attack:              1
Defense:             9
Hit Points:          40
Fire Power:          2
Cost to Build:       160 Shields
Holds:               0
AI Role:             Naval Superiority
Ability:             Transports air units

Description:
The aircaft carrier first came into widespread use during World War II.
Carriers act as floating airfields, carrying fighters and bombers
far from friendly territory to be launched against enemy targets. This
allows an air strike against targets both on land and on sea that
would otherwise be far out of range. Carriers also have the capability
to launch nuclear weapons. The range of the aircraft launched from
carriers forever changed the methodology of naval battles. Opposing
fleets could now engage in battle without either fleet ever entering
the other's visual range, ending the dominance of the battleship as
the strongest vessel on the sea.

Comments:
Whats better than a ship which holds missiles? A one that works as
an airport, too. These are indespensible units and should be the
launching pad of your attacks.


Transport
=========
Advance Required:    Industrialization
Obsolescence:        None
Domain:              Sea
Movement:            5
Attack:              0
Defense:             3
Hit Points:          30
Fire Power:          1
Cost to Build:       50 Shields
Holds:               8
AI Role:             Sea Transport
Ability:             Transports ground units

Description:
A troop transport ship, which in peacetime serves as a cargo or
passenger vessel, is the principle means used by modern powers to
move large quantities of military equipment and personnel over large
distances. Because transports lack offensive weaponry, they require
armed vessels as escorts during times of war. A properly escorted
transport can move large military forces to a new area quickly to
act as reinforcements or as an attacking force.

Comment:
This is what you've been waiting for, a high-defense sea transport,
with a high holds rate. Put on your tanks, deliver to enemy soil,
attack.... What more can I say?


Cruise Missile
==============
Advance Required:    Rocketry
Obsolescence:        None
Domain:              Air
Movement:            12
Range:               1
Attack:              18
Defense:             0
Hit Points:          10
Fire Power:          3
Cost to Build:       60 Shields
AI Role:             Attack
Ability:             Destroyed after attacking, Ignores ZOC & City Walls

Description:
One of the most effective weapons in modern military arsenals is the
cruise missile. Cruise missiles such as the AGM-86 and the Tomahawk
can be launched against a strategic target hundreds of miles away,
travelling low to avoid radar and other means of detection, and
hitting its target with unnerving accuracy. They can also be used
against short-range, tactical targets such as ships. In this role,
it is often possible, for a single $1 million missile to seriously
damage or even destroy $80 million warships. These versatile
weapons can be launched from air, sea, or land with equal effectiveness.

Comment:
These are excellent, high attack, no-pollution, missiles. I always use
these because I don't like Nuking people, because I'll just have to
clean up the pollution.


Nuclear Missiles
================
Advance Required:    Rocketry
Obsolescence:        None
Domain:              Air
Movement:            16
Range:               1
Attack:              99
Defense:             0
Hit Points:          10
Fire Power:          1
Cost to Build:       160 Shields
AI Role:             Attack
Ability:             Destroyed after attacking, Ignores ZOC

Description:
The deployment of atomic bombs at Nagasaki and Hiroshima at the end
of World War II changed the world's standards for measuring military
power. Nuclear weapons can eradicate ground forces and armored
divisions, and flatten cities with their awesome explosive power.
In the years following World War II, arsenals of nuclear weapons
were built up rapidly by opposing nations, each fearing the
capabilities of the other. This massive arms build up has acted
as a detterent to a full-scale war, since all the governments involved
are aware of the consequences should such a war take place. The threat
imposed by the huge nuclear arsenals of the world powers may one day
be eradicated by the deveopment of the development of the Strategic
Defense Initiave, or SDI, a system designed to destroy enemy missiles
in flight before they can reach their targets.

Comment:
I hate using these, the pollution they cause is terrible and takes an
age to clean up. There are easier ways of attacking cities...


Diplomat
========
Advance Required:    Writing
Obsolescence:        Espionage
Domain:              Ground
Movement:            2
Attack:              0
Defense:             0
Hit Points:          10
Fire Power:          1
Cost to Build:       30 Shields
AI Role:             Diplomacy
Ability:             Ignores ZOC

Description:
Diplomats serve their homeland in a variety of ways. Their primary
function is to maintain contact with other civilizations, and report
on any deveopments of interest. Diplomats are also capable of
engaing in less reputable activities, including sabotage of enemy
production; the theft of civilization adavances; and the subversion
of enemy troops and cities. Although they have no cobat value,
diplomats are nevertheless powerful weapons if utilized properly.

Comment:
Diplomats are very good units: They steal technology and can subvert
enemy cities, although nowhere as good as spys, they will do for the
time-being.


Spy
===
Advance Required:    Espionage
Obsolescence:        None
Domain:              Ground
Movement:            3
Attack:              0
Defense:             0
Hit Points:          10
Fire Power:          1
Cost to Build:       60 Shields
AI Role:             Diplomacy
Ability:             Ignores ZOC

Description:
One of the most effective ways to comile information about an enemy
(or potential enemy) is by infiltarting the enemy's ranks. This is
the job of the spy. Spies can bring back all sorts of information
concerning the size and strength of an enemy army. They can also
find dissidents within the enemy's forces and influence them to
defect. In times of crisis, spies can also be used to steal
technology and to sabotage the enemy in various ways. Counterintelligence
opeartives can feed false information to enemy spies, protecting
important domestic secrest and preventing attempts at subversion.
Nearly every society has very strict laws concerning espionage, and
the penalty for being caught is often death. However, the benefits
that can be gained through espionage are generally felt to outweigh
the risks.

Comments:
These are one of my favourite units, buying enemy cities from under their
feet is excellent, and can also be a cheap way of doing it.


Caravan
=======
Advance Required:    Trade
Obsolescence:        Corporation
Domain:              Ground
Movement:            1
Attack:              0
Defense:             1
Hit Points:          10
Fire Power:          1
Cost to Build:       50 Shields
AI Role:             Trade
Ability:             Ignores ZOC

Description:
Trade has been a major source of income to civilizations throughout
history. Journeying to distant lands, caravans exchanged their loads
of goods for money or other items of value. In addition, the traders
who accompanied the caravans often brought back new knowledge about the
advances made by the civilizations with whom they did business.
Marco Polo, for example, went with traders to China. He remained
there for many years, and brought back much valuable information to
the west.

Comments:
I don't really build these unless I really need the money. If you
need money build a few, if not, concentrate on more important
matters.


Freight
=======
Advance Required:    Corporation
Obsolescence:        None
Domain:              Ground
Movement:            2
Attack:              0
Defense:             1
Hit Points:          10
Fire Power:          1
Cost to Build:       50 Shields
AI Role:             Trade
Ability:             Ignores ZOC

Description:
Freight units are the modern day equivalent of the trade caravans in
the ancient world. Whereas in early history raw materials, trade
good, food, and manufactured itemswere transported by camel or wagon,
modern shipments are transported by a variety of methods including
trucks and railroads. The speed and convenience of modern transportation
methods allows civilizations to set up supply routes and move larger
quantities of mercahndise and trade goods farther and faster than ever.

Comments:
I don't build these, either, because I'm either democracy or fundamentalist
by the time I get them, and have lots of money.


Explorer
========
Advance Required:    Seafaring
Obsolescence:        Guerilla Warfare
Domain:              Ground
Movement:            1
Attack:              0
Defense:             1
Hit Points:          10
Fire Power:          1
Cost to Build:       30 Shields
AI Role:             Attack
Ability:             Ignores ZOC, treats all squares as road

Description:
Since the dawn of history, there has been a need for humans to
investigate their surroundings and expand their knowledge of the world
around them. Even the eralist civilizations sent people in search of
wealth and resources in distant lands. With the advent of extensive
sea travel, explorers such as Christopher Colombus and Amerigo Vespucci
mapped and chartered territories far from their homelands. These early
explorers opened the New World to trade and colonization.

Comment:
These are good units to use to explore the world as you start out,
because they treat all squares as road.


------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                               11. Improvements
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-IMP-


Palace
======
Advance Required: Masonry
Building Cost:    100
Upkeep Cost:      0

Eliminates corruption and waste in the city,
and decreases it in all nearby cities.

Description:
When populations began to organize their communities into cities, their
governments became more structured and formalized. At an early stage,
the ruler of the city established headqaurters from which the business of
running the city was conducted. In many cases, these buildings also
served as the living quarters of the ruler. In wealthy cities, these
facilities often expanded into immense, sprawling palaces. These richly
adorned, imposing buildings were a source of civic pride, and helped
to reinforce the aura of power surrounding the ruler.


Barracks
========
Advance Required: None
Building Cost:    40
Upkeep Cost:      1

City produces Veteran ground units. Ground units can
be completely repaired in a single turn.

Description:
Warfare has been a recurring phenomenon throughout the history of mankind,
and it continues to plague the world today. Although war is not a
desirable situation, it is important that even the most peaceful of
societies be prepared for the possibility of war. When warring nations
are closely matched in technology and manpower, battles are usually won
by the army with the best training. Military schools and academies
exist all over the world, established for the purpose of training
military personnel in the latest methods, tactics, and technology. Men
and women who graduate from such facilities possess higher than average
command and military and technology skills, making them more effective in
combat situations.


Granary
=======
Advance Required: Pottery
Building Cost:    60
Upkeep Cost:      1

Only half of city's food store is depleted when
city increases in size.

Description:
Early humans were nomadic, settling in specific regions for brief periods
of time. When food supply was exhausted in one area, the nomads would
move on to search for more. Cities became possible only when the
development of agriculture made the supply of food more abundant and
dependable. However, cities still needed a way to keep the food supply
stable throughout all four seasons. To do so, the citizens had to come
up with a way to store seasonal crops for later use. The granary was
designed for the storage and protection of surplus food. Food storage
technology meant that a smaller percentage of the population could
produce and store enough food for everyone, allowing the remainder
to pursue other jobs and activities.


Temple
======
Advance Required: Ceremonial Burial
Building Cost:    40
Upkeep Cost:      1

Up to two discontented citizens are made content.

Description:
In ancient times, almost every city had a temple dedicated to the city's
patron god. Many cities also had temples dedicated to other gods as well.
In modern times, temples are though of as places of worship, like churches
and cathedrals. Ancient socities, however, considered temples to be the
local dwelling place for the god or goddess to whom they were dedicated.
The faithful citizens brought gifts of food, rare metals, and spices
to the temple as a sign of homage and respect. The presence of a temple
in the city had a comforting effect on the population, and wise rulers
often constructed one as soon as the city began to grow.


MarketPlace
===========
Advance Required: Currency
Building Cost:    80
Upkeep Cost:      1

Increases tax and luxury output by 50%.

Description:
As cities grew and prospered, trade between the farmers, artisans, and
craftsmen who lived in the vicinity contributed to the economic health
of the city. It soon became apparent that the best way for conducting
trade within the city was to have a central location, or marketplace,
where the people offering goods and services, or seeking them, could
meet and conduct business. As a city's marketplace grew larger and
more active, the economic vitality of the city grew as well.


Library
=======
Advance Required: Writing
Building Cost:    80
Upkeep Cost:      1

Increases science output by 50%.

Description:
The development of writing meant that the accumulated knowledge of a
society could be written down and stored rather than memorized and passed
along by word of mouth. The accumulated written material was stored in
a library. The libraries of the ancient world, especially those at 
Alexandria and Pergamum, became the leading centers of science and
scholarship. The librarians actively collected the books of the world,
accelerating the spread of knowledge.


Courthouse
==========
Advance Required: Code of Laws
Building Cost:    80
Upkeep Cost:      1

Decreases corruption by 50%. Makes city more resistant
to bribery by enemy diplomats and spies. Under Democracy,
one content citizen becomes happy.

Description:
As kingdoms and empires expanded, it became increasingly difficult for
the rulers to maintain control over the more distant regions of their
realm. To ensure that the far-flung cities of the empire contributed
their expected share of duties and taxes to the government, local
magistrates and courts were established. In the courthouse, the ruler's
representatives listened to the grievances of the people and defined
and enforced the laws the governed social interaction. This reduced crime,
and thereby kept th local population productive.


City Walls
==========
Advance Required: Masonry
Building Cost:    80
Upkeep Cost:      0

Units in city are tripled on defense versus ground attacks.

Description:
Before the establishment of centralized governments capable of supporting
strong, national armies, individual cities were left to fend for
themselves when it came to defense. As a result, many cities constructed
city walls to protect against raiders and bandits. City walls represented
a major investment in both time and materials, requiring years to complete
and constant repairs to maintain their strength and integrity. However,
these walls turned the city into a fortress capable of withstanding
all but the most determined attack.


Aqueduct
========
Advance Required: Construction
Building Cost:    80
Upkeep Cost:      2

Allows city to increase beyond size 8.

Description:
A major obstacle to population growth and expansion in early cities was
the scarcity of water. In many cases, the solution to this problem was
an aqueduct. Aqueducts were large, elevated "stone" canals through which
water from nearby hills and mountains was channeled into the city.
Aqueducts allowed cities to grow much larger by significantly
increasing the ammount of available water. At the same time aqueducts
reduced the chance of contracting water-borne diseases, by reducing
the dependance on stagnant ponds and wells as water sources. Aqueducts
also allowed cities to be built in normally inhospitable environments,
such as deserts, by providing an outside water source. Modern day Los
Angeles, for example, obtains it water from the Colorado River, through
a series of aqueducts over 200 miles long.


Bank
====
Advance Required: Banking
Building Cost:    120
Upkeep Cost:      3

Increases tax and luxury output by an
additional 50% (cumulative w/ Marketplace).

Description:
A highly developed banking system is one of the cornerstones of an
advanced civilization. Banks lend money to individuals or groups,
providing capital for industrial and real estate development. Banks
also contribute to the economic growth of a city or region by stimulating
the development of production facilities. Individual citizens can also
benefit by investing their own surplus money in the bank and earning
interest on it.


Cathedral
=========
Advance Required: Monotheism
Building Cost:    120
Upkeep Cost:      3

Makes four unhappy citizens content (Three after Communism).

Description:
Throughout the Dark Ages that followed the fall of the Roman Empire,
the Christian Church was a major force in the revival of European
Civilization. In recognition of the expanding influence of the church,
great cathedrals were built in the largest towns and cities, to act as
centers of religious study and worship. In addition to their religious
significance, cathedrals acted as the center of social and cultural
activity in the town. They brought great pride, stability, and tradition
to the citizens of the community.


University
==========
Advance Required: University
Building Cost:    160
Upkeep Cost:      3

Increases science output by an additional
50% (cumulative w/ Library).

Description:
Universities are institutions of higher learning. Early universities,
established in the Midlle Ages, were usually built in cities that had
a large or important cathedral. Studies at these institutions focusing
on matters concerning the church. The curricula expanded to include
classical art, literature, and languages. Modern universities provide
the opportunity to study a wide array of subjects. They have also
become centers for research into many fields, serving as the source for
major advances in computers, medicine, physics, and a variety of other
subjects.


Mass Transit
============
Advance Required: Mass Production
Building Cost:    160
Upkeep Cost:      4

Eliminates pollution caused by population.

Description:
Within a few decades of the invention of the automobile, the horse-drawn
carriage disappeared from city streets. Along with all the advantages
offered by the automobile, this new means of transport became a significant
source of air polution. As larger cities became more crowded, the number
of cars increased, making travel difficult and adding to the pollution
problem as automobile traffic clogged the streets. The development of
mass transit systems, including busses, trolleys, subways, and light
rail, led to a reduction in traffic and, as a result, a reduction in
air pollution.


Colosseum
=========
Advance Required: Construction
Building Cost:    100
Upkeep Cost:      4

Three unhappy citizens are made content
(four w/ Electronics).

Description:
The original colloseum provided entertainment for the common people
of roman society by presenting them with spectacles and events as a
temporary escape from day-to-day life. This concept has been revived in
the 20th Century. Modern-day stadiums and civic centers provide an arena
for entertainment ranging from concerts to professional sporting events.
Although the violent spectacle of gladitorial combat is a thing of the
past, today's colloseums still provide entertainment and diversion
for the masses.


Factory
=======
Advance Required: Industrialization
Building Cost:    200
Upkeep Cost:      4

Increases resource production in city by 50%.

Description:
Early examples of factory-like production, where a number of individuals
work cooperatively toproduce goods for sale or trade, can be found as
far back as ancient Greece or Rome. Modern factories, however, eveolved
from the concept of specialized labor, where each worker performed a
single step in the overall production of an item. This specialization
allows factories to increase the speed and effiency of the
manufacturing process, far surpassing earlier means of production.
The development of the factory system as a means of production played
a key role in the industrial revolution.


Manufacturing Plant
===================
Advance Required: Robotics
Building Cost:    320
Upkeep Cost:      6

Increases resource production by an additional 50%
(cumulative w/ Factory).

Description:
Manufacturing Plants are large industrial complexes that produce goods
of all types, although they are generally used to produce durable
consumer goods such as automobiles. Essentially, a manufacturing plant
is a large, sophisticated factory that employs a specialization of
labor, complex machinery, and assembly lines to gain effiency and
economies of scale. This combination of manpower and automation
increases productivity and reduces production costs.


SDI Defense
===========
Advance Required: Laser
Building Cost:    200
Upkeep Cost:      4

Protects everything within three spaces of
the city from nuclear attack.

Description:
Historically, research in the area of warfare has seen the development
of powerful new weapons closely followed by the development of defenses
to counteract the weapons' destructive power. The development of nuclear
weapons seemed the exception to this rule: for the first time, mankind
had created a weapon to which there was apparently no defense.
SDI(Strategic Defense Initiave), however, could be the answer to this
problem. Using laser-equipped orbital satellites or ground-launched
ABMs(Anti-Ballistic Missiles) to intercept and destroy enemy nuclear
missiles in mid-air, the SDI Defense offers the first hope of negating
the threat posed by nuclear missiles.


Recycling Center
================
Advance Required: Recycling
Building Cost:    200
Upkeep Cost:      2

Decreases the pollution caused by factories.

Description:
The continula growth in city populations leads to an ineveitable increase
in garbage. Eventaully, existing landfills and garbage dumps are filled,
forcing new dumping sites to be established. This leads to the gradual
but steady destruction of the local environment. To reverse this problem,
many areas have established recycling centers, where much of the garbage
is sorted and reduced to reusable components through various means.
These components are then used to manufacture new products. In this
way, much of the trash produced is turned into raw materials for
production, rather than contributing to the ever-increasing pollution
problem.


Power Plant
===========
Advance Required: Refining
Building Cost:    160
Upkeep Cost:      4

Increases factory output by 50%.

Description:
Power plants burn coal and other fossil fuels to produce the heat and
steam necessary to run generators that produce electrical power. When
electricity became widely and cheaply available, it meant that industries
could convert from steam to electrical power to run their machinery.
One central power plant could supply the electrical needs of a
relatively large geographical area. However, increasing demands for
electricity, by both consumer and commercial customers, led to a rise
in the number of power plants. This in turn, led to problems with air
pollution. As more plants went on line, more fossil fuels were burned
to generate power. Because modern society depends so heavily on
electricity, researchers are constantly searching for alternate forms
of energy to satisfy ever-increasing demands.


Hydro Plant
===========
Advance Required: Electronics
Building Cost:    240
Upkeep Cost:      4

Increases factory output by 50%.  Cleaner
than Power Plant, and generally safer than
Nuclear Plant.

Description:
One alternative to power generation utilizing coal or petroleum fuels is
the hydroelectric power plant. This facility utilizes the energy of
rapidly moving water to turn the turbines of its generators and produce
electricity. In locations where a source of moving water is available,
hydro plants offer a clean, safe alternative to coal, petroleum, and
nuclear power generation. Hydro Plants have their own set of environmental
dangers, however. The disruption of a river's normal flow and the massive
flooding of the land behind the facility's dam can destroy the habitat
of the wildlife inhabiting the river basin.


Nuclear Plant
=============
Advance Required: Nuclear Power
Building Cost:    160
Upkeep Cost:      2

Increases factory output by 50%.  Cleaner
than Power Plant (same as Hydro Plant), but
there is a risk of Nuclear Meltdown unless
civilization has discovered Fusion.

Description:
Nuclear power plants utilize radioactive materials and the process of
nuclear fission to generate the heat and setam needed to run electrical
geneartors to create electricity. Because nuclear power doesn't cause
the air pollution associated with the burning of coal or petroleum
products, this means of generating power is considered a viable
alternative energy source. However, the toxic nature of the byproducts
produced by the fission creates serious problems of its own. No method
of safely disposing of this toxic waste has been found, and the volatile
nature of the fission reaction can lead to a meltdown of the reactor
core if the reaction is not properly controlled. Because of these
problems, the future of nuclear power is uncertain. 


Stock Exchange
==============
Advance Required: Economics
Building Cost:    160
Upkeep Cost:      4

Increases tax & luxuries output by an additional
50% (cumulative with Marketplace & Bank for a grand
total of 150%).

Description:
In a free market economy, corporations often raise operating and development
capital by selling "shares" in the corporation to private investors.
These shares, which allow investors to share in the company's profits, were
originally sold by brokers and privately hired auctioneers. Early
European stock exchanges, such as the Paris Bourse, allowed anyone to
buy or sell stock. However, it was quickly discovered that a formalized
system was necessary in order to enforce transactions. Thereafter, 
membership in the exchange was required in order to buy and sell. The
first formal stock exchange in the U.S. was established in 1971 in
Philadelphia, and the New York stock exchange was established a year later.
Today, stock exchanges are loacted in many major cities and commercial
centers around the world. Private investment in corporations is vital
to capitalistic economies, allowing corporations to grow more quickly
than would otherwise be possible. The profits and new jobs created as a
result improve the economy as a whole.


Sewer System
============
Advance Required: Sanitation
Building Cost:    120
Upkeep Cost:      2

Allows city to grow beyond size 12.

Description:
One of the byproducts of large urban centers is a vast ammount of human
waste.[sic, lol] As the city continues to grow, steps need to be taken
to move the sewage away from inhabited areas and "treat" it so that it
does not become a health hazard to humans or harm the local ecosystem.
Sewer systems carry wastewater to treatment plants where the raw sewage
is broken down through filtration and chemical purposes to remove solids
and harmful bacteria. The treated byproduct is then release into rivers
and other waterways, where it is eventaully washed safely into the ocean.


Supermarket
===========
Advance Required: Refrigeration
Building Cost:    80
Upkeep Cost:      3

Allows squares in the city's radius with
the "farmland" improvement (irrigated twice)
to produce 50% more food.

Description:
Supermarkets are large, self-service reatil stores that sell a wide variety
of food items and household goods to the general public. The first true
supermarket, King Kullen, was established in 1930 in the borough of Queens,
New York City, by Michael Cullen. Improved storage techniques and
refrigeration allowed supermarkets to stock and sell perishable foods in
large quantities, reducing the price to the consumer. The combination of
ready availablity and low prices made the supermarket an instant sucess
in the U.S. during the years of the Great Depression. The supermarket
continues to grow in popularity in countries around the world.


Superhighways
=============
Advance Required: Automobile
Building Cost:    200
Upkeep Cost:      5

All squares in the city's radius with roads
(or railroads) produce 50% more trade.

Description:
Early in his career, President Eisenhower, travelled by road, from coast
to coast, across the United States. This trip, which took nearly a month
because of the poor system of roads, convinced him that it was necessary
to make all areas of the country easily accessible. Not only were these
improvements important to the growing number of people travelling by
automobile, they could prove invaluable for the movement of troops and
military equipment should the need arise. In 1956, Eisenhower established
a federal-aid program known as the Highway Trust Fund to accelerate the
construction of a network of interstate roads. By 1991 the Interstate
Highway System in the U.S. consisted of over 42,000 miles of highways.
Unlike local roadways, superhighways were designed to bypass large
population centers, and were accessible in limited locations at planned
entrance and exit interchanges. These highly efficient roadways allow
motorists today to travel from one end of the country to the other
withouth having to slow down for intersections or traffic signals.


Research Lab
============
Advance Required: Computers
Building Cost:    160
Upkeep Cost:      3

Increases science output by an additional 50%
(cumulative with Library and University for a
grand total of 150%).

Description:
Historically, libraries and universities have acted as the primary centers
of research for new ideas and technologies. The growth of private
industry in the modern age has also given birth to hundreds of
privately-owned research facilities. These private laboratories, usually
dedicated to research in a single field related to their founding company,
have made tremendous advances in many fields including physics, biology,
chemistry, and medicine. The growth of privately-funded research has vastly
increased the speed at which mankind achieves new advances in science and
technology.


SAM Missile Battery
===================
Advance Required: Rocketry
Building Cost:    100
Upkeep Cost:      2

Units in city are doubled on defense against
air units and non-nuclear missile units.

Description:
The use of airplanes in warfare began in earnest during World War I. By the
end of World War II, the use of fighter aircraft and bombers was commonplace
and the importance of air warfare continued to grow, as did the importance
of effective anti-aircraft defenses. During the 1950's,the refinement of
rocket technology allowed for the construction of compact missiles which
were used to deliver explosive warheads to their targets swiftly and
accurately. Batteries of surface-to-air missiles, or SAMs, were built to
protect cities and ground installations against airborne attacks. The
long range and high accuracy of SAM batteries provided a much more effective
defense than the anti-aircaft guns of World War II.


Coastal Fortress
================
Advance Required: Metallurgy
Building Cost:    80
Upkeep Cost:      1

Units in city are doubled on defense against
shore bombardment by enemy ships.

Description:
The construction of defensive structures such as city walls and fortified
castles dates back to ancient times. City walls were designed primarily
to repel an attack launched by ground-based forces, and they performed
adequately in such a situation. However, coastal ciites were also
vulnerable to attack from sea bombardments, since even a city wall left
sea ports relatively unprotected. The best way to protect the port
was to keep the enmy out of range of the city. This was accomplished by
constructing fortresses to cover the approach to the city. These
coastla fortresses, built at the mouth of the city's harbor or on barrier
islands, would hold enemy vessesl at bay, turning away or thinning out
the attacking force and minimizing damage to the city's port.


Solar Plant
===========
Advance Required: Enviromentalism
Building Cost:    320
Upkeep Cost:      4

Increases factory output by 50%.  Cleaner
than all other forms of power.

Description:
One of the greatest natural sources of energy on available on Earth is the
Sun. Solar energy can be converted directly into electrical power without
the need for mechanical generators through the use of photoelectric cells.
Alternatively, large solar collecters known as heliostats can be used to
focus solar energy into a water boiler, generating steam to run
conventional electrical turbines. Unfortunately, at our current level of
technology, both of these systems are prohibitively expensive to
construct. However, because of the dwindling supply of fossil fuels and
increasing concern over the pollution produced by conventional and nuclear
power plants, scientists are constantly working on a viable way to
harness the clean and endless supply of energy provided by our sun.


Harbor
======
Advance Required: Seafaring
Building Cost:    60
Upkeep Cost:      1

All ocean squares in the city's radius
produce one extra unit of food.

Description:
Just because a city is built in a coastal region doesn't guarantee that
the city is readily acessible by ship. In order for a port city to establish
a steady trade, fishing, or other shipping industry, the city must have
a harbor. A harbor is a protected body of water that opens into an ocean
or lake that shelters shipsfrom waves and high winds. Although some coastal
cities are established in areas where a natural harbor exists, most seaports
are forced either to improve the existing natural harbor, or to build a
man-made harbor to shelter ships and provide channels deep enough to
accomodate large vessels.


Offshore Platform
=================
Advance Required: Miniturization
Building Cost:    160
Upkeep Cost:      3

All ocean squares in the city's radius
produce one shield.

Description:
Mankind's dependance on wood and coal as a main source of fuel ended when
the first commercial oil well went into production in Pennsylvania in
1859. Crude oil could be refined into many different byproducts, and
soon replace wood and coal in many parts of the world. The growing
dependance on oil caused the petroleum industry to grow rapidly and wells
were drilled all over the world. Most wells were initially drilled on
land, but after World War II it was found that many of the largest
oil deposits could be found below the sea floor. Shallow water drilling
from platforms supported by pylons resting on the seabed proved very
sucessful. Today, large floating platforms can drill for oil at water
depths of more than 3300 feet.


Airport
=======
Advance Required: Radio
Building Cost:    160
Upkeep Cost:      3

City produces veteran air units.
Any air unit spending its entire turn in the city
is completely repaired.

Description:
Since the middle of the 20th century, the airplane has been one of the
chief means of long-distance transport in the world. Nearly every major
metropolitan area today has at least one airport, with facilitites to
handle passengers and ticketing, as well as facilities for refuelling
and repairing the aircraft that land there. Beginning in the 1940's,
the growing role of airplanes as combat vehicles led to the widespread
construction of military air bases.  Nearly 400 of these facilities in
the U.S. alone act as bases and maintenance facilities for the aircraft
assigned to all branches of the military.


Police Station
==============
Advance Required: Communism
Building Cost:    60
Upkeep Cost:      2

Decreases unhappiness caused by troops away from city by 1.

Description:
The concept of a police force operating independantly of the military
goes back to the Praetorian Guard of ancient Rome. In the Middle Ages,
noblemen protected their estates by appointing constables to enforce
the law and arrest and guard criminals, but the first modern, organized
police force was the London Metropolitan Police. Established in 1829,
this organization became the model for law enforcement organizations
in the United States and many other industrialized nations around the
world. The presence of a police force serves to uphold the laws  of
society, and to control civil unrest. A strong, visble police force
strengthens confidence of the community by keeping the citizens safe.


Port Facility
=============
Advance Required: Amphibious Warfar
Building Cost:    80
Upkeep Cost:      3

City produces veteran naval units.
Any ship spending its entire turn in the city is
completely repaired.

Description:
Seagoing vessels have been used for both commercial activity and military
purposes for thousands of years. Cities built on rivers and on the coasts
of seas and oceans built facilities to recieve cargo and to house military
vessels stationed in the area. Many of the larger cities built large port
facilities that included shipyards for the construction of new vessesls,
large warehouse and docking facilities, and dry-docks for the repair of
damaged vessels. Heavily damaged ships can be repaired much more quickly
when such facilities are available.


SS Structural
=============
Advance Required: Space Flight
Building Cost:    80
Upkeep Cost:      -

Part of Spaceship

Description:
The structural parts of a spaceship are the frame to which all other parts
of the spaceship are attached. All spaceship components and modules must
be connected to a structural section in order to function. Components and
modules not connected to the frame are outlined in red on the spaceship
display.


SS Component
============
Advance Required: Plastics
Building Cost:    160
Upkeep Cost:      -

Part of Spaceship

Description:
Spaceship components provide the motive power of a spaceship. There are
two types: propulsion and fuel. Propulsion components are the spaceship
engines, and each fuel component provides enough fuel to run one engine.
Every propulsion component requires a fuel component in order to function.
At minimum, a spaceship requires one of each type of component. The more
engines the spaceship possesses, the faster it will arrive at its
destination.


SS Module
=========
Advance Required: Superconductor
Building Cost:    320
Upkeep Cost:      -

Part of Spaceship

Description:
Modules are the central components of a spaceship. There are three types:
habitation, life support, and solar panels. Each habitation module
provides living space for 10,000 colonists. Each life support module
provides enough food, water, and other basic requirements to support
the colonists in one habitation module. Both habitation and life
support modules require power in order to operate, and each solar
panel module provides enough energy to run two other modules. At minimum,
every spaceship requires one of each type of module in order to be
sucessful in its mission.


------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                 12. Wonders
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-WON-


Capitilization
==============
Advance Required: Corporation
Obsolescense:     None
Cost:             600

Converts production into trade.




Pyramids
========
Advance Required: Masonry
Obsolescense:     -
Cost:             200

Counts as a Granary in every one of your cities.

Description:
Built by the fourth dynasty of Egyptian rulers, the Pyramids represent the
pinnacle of ancient Egyptian cultural achievment. Constructed on the Giza
Plateau outside modern-day Cairo, these structures were burial tombs and
monuments for the Pharaohs, and may have taken generations and tens of
thousands of workers to complete. The Pyramids are the only one of the
generally accepted man-made wonders of the ancient world that remains in
existance today.


Hanging Gardens
===============
Advance Required: Pottery
Obsolescense:     RailRoad
Cost:             200

One extra happy citizen in every city.

Description:
The Hanging Gardens were a very distinctive feature of ancient Babylon.
They were a great source of pride to the people and were often described
in accounts written by visitors to the city. Possibly built by King
Nebuchadnezzar II in 600 BC, the gardens are believed to have been a
remarkable feat of engineering: an ascending series of tired gardens
containing all manner of trees, shrubs and vines. The gardens were said to
have looked like a large green mountain constructed of mud bricks, rising
from the center of the city.


Colossus
========
Advance Required: Bronze Working
Obsolescense:     Flight
Cost:             200

City produces one extra trade arrow in each square that
already produces one.


Lighthouse
==========
Advance Required: Mapmaking
Obsolescense:     Magnetism
Cost:             200

Triremes can move across oceans w/o danger, and all other
types of ship have their movement rate increased by one.
Also, all new ships you produce receive veteran status.


Great Library
=============
Advance Required: Literacy
Obsolescense:     Electricity
Cost:             300

Civilization receives any civilization advance
already discovered by two other civilizations.


Oracle
======
Advance Required: Mysticism
Obsolescense:     Theology
Cost:             300

Doubles the effect of all of your temples.


Great Wall
==========
Advance Required: Masonry
Obsolescense:     Metallurgy
Cost:             300

Enemy civilizations must offer cease-fire/peace
in negotiations.  Combat strength doubled against
barbarians.


Sun Tzu's War Academy
=====================
Advance Required: Feudalism
Obsolescense:     Mobile Warfare
Cost:             300

All new ground units produced gain Veteran status.
Any unit which wins a combat gains Veteran status.


King Richard's Crusade
======================
Advance Required: Engineering
Obsolescense:     Industrialization
Cost:             300

Every square in the city's radius produces an extra
resource "shield".


Marco Polo's Embassy
====================
Advance Required: Trade
Obsolescense:     Communism
Cost:             200

You receive a free embassy with every rival Civilization (so
your intelligence report will always be complete and you will
receive updates when other civilizations discover technologies).


Michaelangelo's Chapel
======================
Advance Required: Montheism
Obsolescense:     -
Cost:             400

Counts as a Cathedral in each of your cities.


Copernicus' Observatory
=======================
Advance Required: Atronomy
Obsolescense:     -
Cost:             300

Increases science output of city by 50%.


Magellan's Expedition
=====================
Advance Required: Navigation
Obsolescense:     -
Cost:             400

Movement rate of all ships is increased by two.


Shakespeare's Theatre
=====================
Advance Required: Medicine
Obsolescense:     -
Cost:             300

All unhappy citizens in city are content.


Leonardo's Workshop
===================
Advance Required: Invention
Obsolescense:     Automobile
Cost:             400

Whenever one of your units becomes obsolete because of a new
technology you have discovered, it is immediately replaced
by an equivalent modern unit.


J.S. Bach's Cathedral
=====================
Advance Required: Theology
Obsolescense:     -
Cost:             400

Decreases unhappy citizens on same continent by 2 per city.


Isaac Newton's College
======================
Advance Required: Theory of Gravity
Obsolescense:     -
Cost:             400

Doubles science output of city.


Adam Smith's Trading Company
============================
Advance Required: Economics
Obsolescense:     -
Cost:             400

Pays the maintenance for all city improvements which
ordinarily cost 1 gold per turn.  City improvements
requiring more than 1 gold per turn maintenance are not
affected.


Darwin's Voyage
===============
Advance Required: Railroad
Obsolescense:     -
Cost:             400

Two free civilization advances.


Statue of Liberty
=================
Advance Required: Democracy
Obsolescense:     -
Cost:             400

Eliminates the period of unrest between governments.
Also allows any form of government to be chosen, even if
the proper advance has not been discovered.


Eiffel Tower
============
Advance Required: Steam Engine
Obsolescense:     -
Cost:             300

When you first obtain control of the Eiffel Tower,
Every civilization's attitude toward you is immediately shifted 25 points
in your favor (on a hundred point scale).  Attitudes continue to improve
gradually over time.  Other civilizations are also quicker to forget your
past transgressions.


Women's Sufrage
===============
Advance Required: Industrialization
Obsolescense:     -
Cost:             600

Counts as a Police Station in every one of your cities.
(Decreases unhappiness caused by troops away from city by 1).


Hoover Dam
==========
Advance Required: Electronics
Obsolescense:     -
Cost:             600

Provides Hydro power to every city on every continent.


Manhattan Project
=================
Advance Required: Nuclear Fission
Obsolescense:     -
Cost:             600

Allows nuclear weapons to be built.


United Nations
==============
Advance Required: Communism
Obsolescense:     -
Cost:             600

Free embassy with every other civilization
Enemy civ's cannot refuse your peace treaties.
As a democracy, you can declare war 50% of the time(peacekeeping missions).


Apollo Program
==============
Advance Required: Space Flight
Obsolescense:     -
Cost:             600

Allows construction of spaceship improvements.


SETI Program
============
Advance Required: Computers
Obsolescense:     -
Cost:             600

Counts as a research lab in every one of your cities; effectively
doubles your science output.


Cure for Cancer
===============
Advance Required: Genetics
Obsolescense:     -
Cost:             600

One extra happy citizen in each city.


------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                 13. Terrain
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-TER-


NOTE: Irrigation time and mining time are the time it takes for settlers
      to irrigate/mine. Engineers work at twice the speed of settlers.
NOTE: Movecost indicates the cost it takes to move through the square, 1
      is default. The higher the number the slower the square.




DESERT
======
Movecost:      1
Defense Bonus: -
Food:          0
Shields:       1
Trade:         0
Irrigation Effects: +1 food
Irrigation Time: 5 turns
Mining Effects: +1 shield
Mining Time: 3 turns
Transform To: Plains


PLAINS
======
Movecost:      1
Defense Bonus: -
Food:          1
Shields:       1
Trade:         0
Irrigation Effects: +1 food
Irrigation Time: 5 turns
Mining Effects: Changes to Forest
Mining Time: 15 turns
Transform To: Grassland


GRASSLAND
=========
Movecost:      1
Defense Bonus: -
Food:          2
Shields:       1
Trade:         0
Irrigation Effects: +1 food
Irrigation Time: 5 turns
Mining Effects: Changes to Forest
Mining Time: 10 turns
Transform To: Hills


FOREST
======
Movecost:      2
Defense Bonus: 50%
Food:          1
Shields:       2
Trade:         0
Irrigation Effects: Change to Plains
Irrigation Time: 5 turns
Mining Effects: -
Mining Time: -
Transform To: Grassland


HILLS
=====
Movecost:      2
Defense Bonus: 100% bonus
Food:          1
Shields:       0
Trade:         0
Irrigation Effects: +1 food
Irrigation Time: 10 turns
Mining Effects: +3 shields
Mining Time: 10 turns
Transform To: Plains


MOUNTAINS
=========
Movecost:      3 
Defense Bonus: 200% bonus
Food:          0
Shields:       1
Trade:         0
Irrigation Effects: -
Irrigation Time: -
Mining Effects: +1 shield
Mining Time: 10 turns
Transform To: Hills


TUNDRA
======
Movecost:      1
Defense Bonus: -
Food:          1
Shields:       0
Trade:         0
Irrigation Effects: +1 food
Irrigation Time: 10 turns
Mining Effects: -
Mining Time: -
Transform To: Desert


GLACIER
=======
Movecost:      2
Defense Bonus: -
Food:          0
Shields:       0
Trade:         0
Irrigation Effects: -
Irrigation Time: -
Mining Effects: +1 shield
Mining Time: 15 turns
Transform To: Tundra


SWAMP
=====
Movecost:      2
Defense Bonus: 50% bonus
Food:          1
Shields:       0
Trade:         0
Irrigation Effects: Change to Grassland
Irrigation Time: 15 turns
Mining Effects: Change to Forest
Mining Time: 15 turns
Transform To: Plains


JUNGLE
======
Movecost:      2
Defense Bonus: 50% bonus
Food:          1
Shields:       0
Trade:         0
Irrigation Effects: Change to Grassland
Irrigation Time: 15 turns
Mining Effects: Change to Forest
Mining Time: 15 turns
Transform To: Plains


OCEAN
=====
Movecost:      1
Defense Bonus: -
Food:          1
Shields:       0
Trade:         2
Irrigation Effects: -
Irrigation Time: -
Mining Effects: -
Mining Time: -
Transform To: -



Oasis
=====
Found on: Desert
Food: 3
Shields: 1
Trade: 0

Buffalo
=======
Found on: Plains
Food: 1
Shields: 3
Trade: 0

Grassland(Shield)
=========
Found on: Grassland
Food: 2
Shields: 1
Trade: 0

Pheasant
========
Found on: Forest
Food: 3
Shields: 2
Trade: 0

Coal
====
Found on: Hills
Food: 1
Shields: 2
Trade: 0

Gold
====
Found on: Mountains
Food: 0
Shields: 1
Trade: 6

Game
====
Found on: Tundra
Food: 3
Shields: 1
Trade: 0

Ivory
=====
Found on: Glacier
Food: 1
Shields: 1
Trade: 4

Peat
====
Found on: Swamp
Food: 1
Shields: 4
Trade: 0

Gems
====
Found on: Jungle
Food: 1
Shields: 0
Trade: 4

Fish
====
Found on: Ocean
Food: 3
Shields: 0
Trade: 2

Desert Oil
==========
Found on: Desert
Food: 0
Shields: 4
Trade: 0

Wheat
=====
Found on: Grassland
Food: 3
Shields: 1
Trade: 0

Silk
====
Found on: Jungle
Food: 1
Shields: 2
Trade: 3

Wine
====
Found on: Hills
Food: 1
Shields: 0
Trade: 4

Iron
====
Found on: Mountains
Food: 0
Shields: 4
Trade: 0

Furs
====
Found on: Tundra
Food: 2
Shields: 0
Trade: 3

Glacier Oil
===========
Found on: Glacier
Food: 0
Shields: 4
Trade: 0

Spice
=====
Found on: Jungle
Food: 3
Shields: 0
Trade: 4

Fruit
=====
Found on: Forest
Food: 4
Shields: 0
Trade: 1

Whales
======
Found on: Ocean
Food: 2
Shields: 2
Trade: 3


------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                               14. Governments
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-GVT-


The form of government you choose for your civilization will
affect the way resources are distributed in your cities, the
rate at which your citizens can produce and sustain new units
and city improvements, and the extent to which your citizens
have a say in the way you govern them.

Some forms of government, such as Despotism, Monarchy, and
later Communism and Fundamentalism, allow you to expand
rapidly, to produce and sustain large numbers of military
units, and to control your affairs completely.

Democracy and the Republic, on the other hand, give your
citizens the freedom to produce vast amounts of trade, which
increases your wealth and knowledge rapidly. On the other
hand, your citizens may grow unhappy when you send military
units out of your cities; also, your Senate may try to
interfere in your conduct of foreign affairs.

To change your civilization's government, you must have a
Revolution--select "Revolution" from the Kingdom Menu.  This
will entail a brief period of Anarchy.



Anarchy
=======
Anarchy represents not so much a government type as the
lack of any stable government. Anarchy occurs when your
civilization's government falls, or when you decide to
have a Revolution. After a few turns of Anarchy, you will
be able to reconstitute your government.

Anarchy is similar to Despotism, except that the corruption
rate is VERY HIGH (see entry for Despotism).  However, no
taxes are collected during a period of Anarchy, and no
scientific research is conducted.


Despotism
=========
UNIT SUPPORT
Each unit above the city size costs one shield per turn.
Settlers eat one food per turn.

HAPPINESS
Up to three military units in each city will institute
"martial law", converting an unhappy citizen into a content
citizen.

CORRUPTION AND WASTE
Despotism has a HIGH rate of corruption and waste.  The
level of corruption in a particular city is based on its
distance from your capital.

SPECIAL
Under a Despotism, none of the science/tax/luxury rates may
be set higher than 60%.  ALSO, ANY SQUARE WHICH WOULD ORDINARILY
PRODUCE THREE OR MORE OF A RESOURCE (FOOD, SHIELDS, TRADE) PRODUCES
ONE LESS.

HINTS
Because of Despotism's high rate of corruption, it is almost
always an inferior form of government.  Try to switch to a
Monarchy as soon as possible.


Monarchy
========
UNIT SUPPORT
Each unit beyond the third costs one shield per turn.
Settlers eat one food per turn.

HAPPINESS
Up to three military units in each city will institute
"martial law", converting an unhappy citizen into a content
citizen.

CORRUPTION AND WASTE
Monarchy has a MODERATE rate of corruption and waste.  The
level of corruption in a particular city is based on its
distance from your capital.

SPECIAL
Under a Monarchy, none of the science/tax/luxury rates may
be set higher than 70%.

HINTS
Monarchy is an excellent form of government for a young
civilization.


Communism
=========
UNIT SUPPORT
Each unit beyond the third costs one shield per turn.
Settlers eat one food per turn.

HAPPINESS
Up to three military units in each city will institute
"martial law", converting *TWO* unhappy citizens into
content citizens (so a total of SIX unhappy citizens can
be suppressed).

CORRUPTION AND WASTE
Under Communism, state control of the economy eliminates
organized crime.  Your cities, therefore, experience no
corruption.

SPECIAL
All SPY units produced under Communist governments are
given VETERAN status.  Under Communism, none of the
science/tax/luxury rates may be set higher than 80%.

HINTS
Communism is best for large, far-flung empires which need
to maintain a large military.  Use your powerful spies to
steal technology from the capitalist pigs.


Fundamentalism
==============
UNIT SUPPORT
Can support up to TEN units for free; additional
units cost one shield each.  Settlers eat one
food per turn.  ONLY Fundamentalisms may produce
FANATIC units.

HAPPINESS
Under Fundamentalism, NO CITIZEN IS EVER UNHAPPY!

CORRUPTION AND WASTE
Fundamentalism has a LOW rate of corruption.
However, Fundamentalism has the special disadvantage that
all SCIENCE is HALVED.

SPECIAL
Improvements which convert unhappy citizens to
content citizens (Temples, etc.)
produce "tithes" equal to the number of citizens they would
otherwise convert.  They also require no maintenance.
The diplomatic penalties for "terrorist acts" committed by
your Diplomats and Spies are reduced.
Under Fundamentalism, none of the science/tax/luxury rates may
be set higher than 80%.

HINTS
Fundamentalism eliminates all happiness problems and provides
an excellent revenue.  Scientific research tends to languish.


Republic
========
UNIT SUPPORT
Each unit costs one shield per turn.  Settlers eat TWO
food per turn.

HAPPINESS
Each military unit AFTER THE FIRST which is not in a friendly
city (or a fortress within 3 spaces of a friendly city)
causes one citizen in its home city to become unhappy.

CORRUPTION AND WASTE
The Republic has a LOW rate of corruption and waste.  The
level of corruption in a particular city is based on its
distance from your capital.

SPECIAL
Under a Republic, each square which ordinarily produces at
least one unit of trade produces an extra unit.
None of the science/tax/luxury rates may be set higher
than 80%.

HINTS
Switching to a Republic can give an astounding boost to your
science and tax revenues, although you'll probably have to
divert some of your trade to luxuries.  It becomes more
difficult (and expensive) to keep an army in the field, but
building the Womens Suffrage wonder can help with this
problem.


Democracy
=========
UNIT SUPPORT
Each unit costs one shield per turn.  Settlers eat TWO
food per turn.

HAPPINESS
Each unit which is not in a friendly
city (or a fortress within 3 spaces of a friendly city)
causes TWO citizens in its home city to become unhappy.

CORRUPTION AND WASTE
Democracies experience NO corruption or waste.

SPECIAL
Under a Democracy, each square which ordinarily produces at
least one unit of trade produces an extra unit.
The units and cities of a Democracy are immune to BRIBERY
of all forms.
The science/tax/luxury rates may be set to any level
desired.

HINTS
Democracies can produce spectacular amounts of revenue and
scientific research.  However, because of the severe
happiness restrictions on military units, this form of
government tends to be viable only for large, advanced
civilizations.  Increasing your luxuries rate and building
Wonders can help alleviate this problem.



------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                            15. Discovery Effects
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-DSC-


Courtesy of Scenario Design League @ http://www.apolyton.net/civ2/

Advance              | Triggered Effects of Discovery
-----------------------------------------------------------------------	
Alphabet              Increases literacy demographics by 8%.	
Automobile            Increases population based pollution.  Automobile 
                      works with Electronics to change city pictures to 
                      the modern style. Automobile works with Electronics 
                      to change the look of people to the modern style.	
Bridge Building       Allows settlers units to construct roads (and
                      railroads) in river squares.	
Ceremonial Burial     Ceremonial Burial allows temples to make one person
                      content.  Temples do not function without this 
                      advance.	
Chivalry              Changes the types of Barbarians produced by Goody
                      Huts. Changes the types of sea-based random 
                      Barbarians units produced.	
Communism             Allows the government type of the same name. 
                      Reduces the effect of Cathedrals by one. 
                      Cities produce more partisans.	
Conscription          Changes the types of Barbarians produced by Huts.	
Construction          Construction allows settler units to build
                      Fortresses.	
Democracy             Allows the government type of the same name. Allows
                      Courthouses to make one content citizen happy 
                      under Democracy.	
Electronics           An additional citizen in each city is make content 
                      by colisseums after the discovery of Electronics.
                      Automobile works with Electronics to change city
                      pictures to the modern style.
Environmentalism      Decreases population based pollution.	
Explosives            Allows terrain transformation orders.	
Fundamentalism        Allows the government type of the same name. 
                      Allows the production of Fanatics.	
Fusion Power          Eliminates the threat of Nuclear Power Plant 
                      meltdown. Adds 25% to spaceship mass/thrust paradigm.	
Guerrilla Warfare     Allows the production of Partisan units. Captured
                      cities produce partisan defenders. Changes the 
                      types of Barbarians units produced by Goody Huts. 
                      Changes the types of land-based random Barbarians 
                      units produced.	
Gunpowder             Sells all Barracks when discovered. Increases 
                      Barracks maintenance cost by 1. Changes the 
                      types of Barbarians produced by Goody Huts. 
                      Changes the types of land-based random Barbarians
                      units produced.	
Industrialization     Changes city picture to industrial in any 
                      non-fantasy game. Changes the look of people to
                      industrial. Changes the types of land-based 
                      random Barbarians units produced. Increases 
                      population based pollution.  Oil appears as a 
                      trade item.	
Invention             Free advances can no longer be gained from goody 
                      huts. Invention works with Philosophy to change 
                      city pictures to the renaissance style.
                      Invention works with Philosophy to change the look 
                      of people to the renaissance style.
Iron Working          Changes the types of Barbarians produced by Goody
                      Huts. Changes the types of sea-based random 
                      Barbarians units produced.	
Leadership            Changes the types of Barbarians produced by Huts.	
Literacy              Doubles literacy demographics.	
Magnetism             Changes the vessel type of sea-based random
                      Barbarians. Increases annual income demographics.	
Map Making            Allows civilizations to exchange maps.	
Mass Production       Increases population based pollution.	
Medicine              Decreases your people's disease percentage by half.	
Metallurgy            Changes the types of Barbarians produced by Huts.	
Mobile Warfare        Sells all barracks and increases barracks 
                      maintenance cost by 1. Changes the types of 
                      land-based random Barbarians units produced. 
                      Ends piracy. Barbarians no longer appear by sea.	
Monarchy              Allows the government type of the same name.	
Monotheism            Monotheism allows Cathedrals to make three people
                      content. Note that Cathedrals do not function 
                      without the discovery of Monotheism or Theology 
                      and Mysticism.  Changes the types of Barbarians
                      produced by Goody Huts.	
Mysticism             Doubles the effect of temples.	
Navigation            Navigation reduces the chances of triremes
                      floundering. Changes the vessel type of sea-based
                      random Barbarians.	
Nuclear Fission       Uranium to appears as a trade item. 	
Nuclear Power         Nuclear Power increases the movement allowance of
                      ships by 1.	
Philosophy            The civilization that first discovers Philosophy 
                      gains a free advance. Invention works with 
                      Philosophy to change the look of people to the
                      renaissance style.	
Plastics              Increases population based pollution.	
Polytheism            Changes the types of Barbarians produced by Huts.	
Radio                 Allows engineers to construct airbases.	
Railroad              Railroad allows settlers and engineers to build
                      railroads.   All city squares are automatically
                      upgraded to railroad. 	
Refrigeration         Refrigeration allows settlers and engineers to 
                      double-irrigate lands. All city squares are
                      automatically upgraded to farmland 
                      (double-irrigation).	
Republic              Allows the government type of the same name.	
Sanitation            Decreases population based pollution.	
Seafaring             Seafaring reduces the chances of triremes floundering. 
Tactics               Changes the types of sea-based random 
                      Barbarians units produced.	
Theology              Improves the effectiveness of Cathedrals by one.	
Trade                 Enables the display of demanded trade 
                      goods of foreign cities.	
University            Doubles literacy demographics.	
Writing               Increases literacy demographics by 8%.	
Future Technology     Reoccurring technology.  
                      Increases game score.	


------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                16. Strategies
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-STG-


Beginning Phase
===============
You start out on an undiscovered world, with either one of two settlers.
If you have two you're lucky. One will be used to build your first city,
and the other will never be used to build cities, always to irrigate
and build roads, because it doesn't need support. With your building
settler look for an area to build your first city. Beside the sea is
always good, but if you are far inland build on/near a river. Also,
you will want to have extra food/resources, so try to build near a
wheat square, a whale square or a pheasant square for abundant food.
This will increase population quickly. Do not spend too much time
looking for a location for your firs city, about 3 or 4 turns is
enough, because you need to build your city early to start building
and researching.
Next, build a defense unit in the city, then a settler unit(even if they
gave you two, you need to build a second city), and then an exporing
unit. Use the settler(s) to irrigate the terrain around your first city,
and build roads to the location of the new city. With the explorer,
explore the surrounding terrain, and always inspect goody huts. You
may get extra technologies.
In the city, you should be building a granary. Also, go to the Tax Rate
menu, and change your tax rate so that you make a profit(of anything,
even 1) each turn, and then give everything else to science.
When the Advances screen comes up: Research Code of Laws, Writing, and
Literacy. As soon as you've discovered Literacy, start building the
Great Library in your most-productive city(should be your first).
At the next advance screen, go to goal and select Monarchy. Research
all the things you need to get it. After you've switched to Monarchy.
Start to research the things you need for Leonardo's Workshop, and then
everything you need for King Richard's Crusade. That will bring you into
the mid-game....
While researching, you should be building temples, libraries, marketplaces,
anything, in your cities. And each city should have at least a 2-defense
unit defending it. Your free settler(if you didn't get one at the start,
you should have got one from a hut), should be irrigating around your
cities.
Hopefully, your explorer will have met with a foreign leader(as long as
you're not on an island), and you can exchange technology with them.
If they are a powerful nation at this stage, try and make an alliance
with them.
One last point, you should try to build the oracle, it's not extremely
important, but it helps with your population's happiness.

Settlers
========
Settlers are your best friends. Well, mine anyway, because I have no other
friends! Settlers have two purposes - building cities and altering land (or
terraforming to you Alpha Centauri junkies). As mentioned in the previous
strategy, if you have two settlers at the start, you're blessed. If you
don't, wait until you have a few improvements in your city (Granary, etc.)
built before creating your first settler. Then have him irrigate the land
around the city and build roads in all the squares. Once you have that done
build a road toward where you will build your next city, and irrigate some
of the squares around where it will be built. Once you have that done,
build your second city. Now you can repeat this process over and over until
you have lots of cities and a bustling population.

Improvements
============
The best improvements to build at the start are in order:
-Granary
-Temple
-Library
-Barracks
-Marketplace
-Courthouse
-Aqueduct (you'll need technology advances to get this one, but when you do
           build it immediately)

Happiness
=========
When your citizens are happy, your city will be more productive. So, you'll
have to introduce measures to keep them happy. One way is to increase the
luxury rate, but this is counter-productive as in order to increase this, you
have to lower science or production. Only do this if you're a democratic
state or if you have nothing left to build that will make the citizens
content. There are numerous improvements which add to citizens happiness,
these are:
Temple    - Up to two discontented citizens are made content
Cathedral - Up to four discontented citizens are made content
Colosseum - Up to three discontented citizens are made content
Police St - Decreases unhappiness caused by troops away from city by 1
There are also wonders which do 'wonders' for your peoples' happiness:
Hanging Gardens - One extra happy citizen in every city
Oracle          - Doubles the effect of all of your temples
Michaelangelo's - Counts as a Cathedral in each of your cities
Shakespeare's T - All unhappy citizens in city are content
J.S. Bach's Cth - Decreases unhappy citizens on same continent by 2 per city
Women's Suffrge - Counts as a Police Station in every one of your cities
Cure for Cancer - One extra happy citizen in each city
However, there is also a third way to decrease unhappiness. You can turn one
of your citizens (productive or non-productive) into an entertainer, which
will increase the happiness of one citizen.

Wonders of the World
====================
There are more than 7 Wonders you can build in Civ2, but which ones should you
build? I'm going to give them all a rating out of ten (with ten being the best
obviously)
Pyramids              - 4: You should already have built granaries in your 
                           cities. And this early in the game, you won't have
                           many cities.
Hanging Gardens       - 7: A good wonder to build if your citizens are
                           discontent, but it expires a bit too early for
                           my liking
Colossus              - 6: If you're stuck for money, it's good. But otherwise
                           don't bother
Lighthouse            - 8: Allows you to explore the oceans before everyone
                           else, and gives your ships veteran status.
Great Library         -10: The best wonder. Gives you technolgies without you
                           even having to discover them.
Oracle                - 8: More happy citizens, what more could you want?
Great Wall            - 9: Helps against barbarians, and gets you peace with
                           everyone.
Sun Tzu's War Academy - 8: Veteran status is very helpful if you like fighting
King Richard's Crusade- 9: Building this can allow you to build everything
                           else a lot quicker
Marco Polo's Embassy  - 8: Helps you find those other civilizations that seem
                           to be non-existant
Michaelangelo's Chapel- 6: A waste of time and effort. Just build individual
                           Cathedrals instead
Copernicus Observatory- 6: Adds to your science output, but just for one city
Magellan's Expedition - 9: All your ships can move two squares more every turn
                           A major advantage.
Shakespeare's Theatre - 4: Another waste of time. If you have so many unhappy
                           citizens that you need to build this, it'll never
                           be built, as the citizens will be too busy giving
                           out
Leonardo's Workshop   - 9: Excellent wonder. Updates all your obsolete units
J.S. Bach's Cathedral - 8: If all your cities are on the one continent, this
                           is a 10.
Isaac Newton's College- 7: See Copernicus' Observatory.
Adam Smiths Trading Co- 7: Has it's advantages, but comes a bit too late in
                           the game to be super-beneficial
Dawin's Voyage        - 7: Good, but only if you're not a democracy.
Statue of Liberty     - 9: Allows you to choose any government, and gets rid
                           of unrest.
Eiffel Tower          - 8: Other civilizations will love you.
Women's Suffrage      - 6: Just build individual Police Stations instead
Hoover Dam            - 8: Gives Hydro Power everywhere, which allows you to
                           build even more.
Manhattan Project     - 1: Let someone else build it. I hate Nukes.
United Nations        -10: The best late-game wonder. Allows for Peacekeeping
                           missions under democracy. You can gain peace with
                           anyone whenever you want.
Apollo Program        - 7: Allows you to build your spaceship. Only build it
                           if you're far ahead.
SETI Program          - 8: Far far better than Newton's College.
Cure for Cancer       - 8: The late-game Oracle.


------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                       17. Frequently Asked Questions
------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Introduction
============
This section is for all questions about Civilization. Unlike the other
sections, it contains its own Table of Contents to help you find
the question you're looking for. If you have a question that is not
listed here, don't hesitate to post it on my message boards.

Contents
========
a) What is Civil Disorder
b) Civil Disorder in Democracy
c) Why did my city disband my improvement?
d) Help, you never continued your beginner's guide!
e) Where can I get the Scenarios?
f) Ask away - post it on the message board!


Question A
==========
Q.
Late in the game (under Communism), I had "civil disorder" in a couple of
my cities. What causes "CIVIL DISORDER" in one city and NOT in another???
A.
The main cause of Civil disorder under comunism is unhappiness. In order to
make your citizens happy, you can enforce martial law under communism by
having troops in your city. Each one of these will make 2 unhappy citiens
content. Another way is to increase luxuries, or you could change one
citizen to an Entertainer.
(Q - Adrian)


Question B
==========
Q.
How do you keep Democracy from falling from Civil Disorder?
A.
All you need to do here is raise your luxury % to around 20%, and then you
will be able to use Democracy the way it's meant to be used.
(Q - Adrian)


Question C
==========
Q.
What causes a city to NOT be able to sustain an improvement?
And, what measures can be taken to prevent that from happening?
A.
The cause of not being able to support an improvement is lack of money.
In order to combat this, get more money. This can be done in a number of
ways: change citizens to Tax collecters, increase Tax %, or change your
type of governement.
(Q - Adrian)


Question D
==========
Q.
What did you mean by "I'll stop there because I don't want to decide your
outcome."?
A.
Simple really, if I kept telling you what to do I would be playing the
game for you. And where's the fun in that?
(Q - Adrian)


Question E
==========
Q.
You list Scenarios in your Guide. Where can I get these?
A.
The scenarios I have listed are only available through the Fantastic Worlds
Add-On disc by Microprose which can be bought in some retail outlets, or
online.
(Q - KCougar10)



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                              18. Outro/Credits
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Next Version:
-More FAQs
-More Strategies
-Whatever you request

Credits:
-"A" Tadeo for the Disclaimer
-CJayC for putting this FAQ on his site, www.gamefaqs.com
-Microprose/Sid Meier for this Game
-Microsoft for Windows and Notepad
-DELL for my 1.8Ghz PC
-Toshiba for my 2.6Ghz Laptop
-You for reading it


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| ___ | |__| ___ |__ \   | ___ | __| || ||  |
|_| |_|____|_| |_|___/_|\_\| |_|_| |____|_/\_\TM

                    ©Ronan Hunt-Murphy - AlaskaFox 2001-4