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    FAQ/Strategy Guide by AlaskaFox

    Version: 1.6 | Updated: 07/07/04 | Printable Version | Search This Guide

    ==============================================================================
    
    
                            Civilization II for PC-Windows
                                  FAQ/Strategy Guide
    
                          By: AlaskaFox (Ronan Hunt-Murphy)
                                     Version 1.6
                                    July 07, 2004
                             
    
    ==============================================================================
    
    Contents
    ========
    1.  Disclaimer/Legal           -LGL-
    2.  Contact Information        -CTI-
    3.  Version History            -VER-
    4.  Game Requirements          -REQ-
    5.  Civ1-Civ2 Changes          -CHG-
    6.  Game Setup                 -STU-
    7.  Getting Started            -STR-
    8.  Cities                     -CTY-
    9.  Units                      -UNT-
    10. Units In-Depth             -UID-
    11. Improvements               -IMP-
    12. Wonders                    -WON-
    13. Terrain                    -TER-
    14. Governments                -GVT-
    15. Discovery Effects          -DSC-
    16. Strategies                 -STG-
    17. Frequently Asked Questions -FRQ-
    18. Outro/Credits              -OUT-
    
    
    Using this Guide
    ================
    To correctly use the Table of Contents to quickly find what you are looking
    for press Ctrl+F and type in the code next to the section to jump to it.
    On Mac browsers, use Command+F for the same results.
    
    For example, type -LGL- into the search box, and it will quickly jump to the
    Disclaimer/Legal section.
    
    
    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                 1. Disclaimer/Legal
    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    -LGL-
    
    This Game Guide/FAQ is created for personal use only. You must not use it 
    for anything that gains profit. Specifically Magazines, Game Guides, 
    Commercial Web Sites, unless you have my written permission. 
    
    You’re also not allowed to rip off part/s of this Game Guide/FAQ and put
    it on your own Game Guide/FAQ. Anyone doing this is guilty of plagiarism",
    the act of stealing and passing off of ideas and words of another as one’s 
    own without crediting the source.
    
    You also cannot use this Game Guide/FAQ as a guide for you to make your own
    Game Guide/FAQ, you must do everything there is to do in the game yourself
    or have others give info about your game and give them proper credit. You 
    can copy the layout though. 
    
    You can put this Game Guide/FAQ on your non-commercial or non-profit web 
    site provided that not a single character has been edited or removed and you 
    MUST have permission from me in order to do so. You can also, print a copy of
    the entire FAQ/Guide or a part of it, provided you only use it for personal
    purposes.
     
    Remember "You don’t have to steal, just ask." - B.O.F.III
    
    
    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                               2. Contact Information
    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    -CTI-
    
    If you wish to ask me a question or make a suggestion, go to:
    http://denim.bbboy.net/alaskafox-viewforum?forum=4
    and post a message, stating your query. I will try to get to it as soon as 
    possible. If I get an email regarding Civilization, it will
    most likely be ignored and deleted. This is due to the vast amount of junk,
    spam and stupid questions I get in my email.
    
    
    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                 3. Version History
    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    -VER-
    
    Version 1.6
    ===========
    -Started: July 7, 2004
    -Guide Changed to only concern Civilization II
     i.e. Test of Time & Fantastic Worlds
     elements removed
    -Entire Guide Reformatted
    -"First Things, First" renamed "Getting Started"
    -"Technical Stuff" renamed "Game Requirements"
    -New Strategies Added
    -File Size: xxxk
    
    Version 1.5
    ===========
    -Started: September 16, 2002
    -Layout Updated to match newer FAQs
    -Removed email address
    -Use my message board instead
    -File Size: 186k
    
    Version 1.4
    ===========
    -Started: February 21, 2002
    -Frequently Asked Questions Section Added
    -5 FAQs Added
    -Layout Updated
    -File Size: 182k
    
    Version 1.3
    ===========
    -Started: September 09, 2001
    -Terrain Added
    -Wonders: 2 Descriptions Added
    -File Size: 180k
    
    Version 1.2
    ===========
    -Started: August 08, 2001
    -Improvements: Descriptions Added
    -File Size: 175k
    
    Version 1.1
    ===========
    -Started: July 18, 2001
    -Discovery Effects Added
    -Strategies: 1 Early Game Strategy Added
    -Ascii art at bottom added
    -File Size: 151k
    
    Version 1.0
    ===========
    -Started: June 11, 2001
    -First Submitted: July 17, 2001
    -Technical Stuff Added
    -Changes I, II Added
    -Game Setup Added
    -First Things, First Added
    -Cities Added
    -Units, Units In-Depth Added
    -Improvements, Wonders Added
    -Governments Added
    -Disclaimer, Email Notice Added
    -Outro, Credits Added
    -File Size: 129k
    
    
    
    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                 4. Game Requirements
    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    -REQ-
    
    
    Requirements
    ============
    This is what you'll need to play Civilization II:
    
    Minimum:     166 MHz Pentium®. 
    Recommended: 200 MHz Pentium with MMX.
    
    Minimum:     16 Mb of RAM. 
    Recommended: 32 Mb or more.
    
    Minimum:     4x speed CD-ROM drive.
    Minimum Installation: 60 Mb.
    Minimum:     SVGA (16 bit) graphics card
    
    Required:    Mouse
    Required:    DirectX 6.0 (included in installation, if necessary)
    Required:    Compatable Sound Card
    
    For Multiplayer Games you'll need:
    
    Minimum:      28k Modem
    Recommended:  56k Modem
    
    Access to the Internet with the Winsock protocol and a 28.8 kps connection
    
    
    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                 5. Civ1-Civ2 Changes
    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    -CHG-
    
    
    These are the changes from the original Civilization to Civilization II:
    
    A New Look
    ==========
    -Uses an Isometric Grid instead of a square one(diamond terrain)
    -Shield indicates Unit civilization
    -Coloured Health Bar
    -Changes in Architecute of Cities
    
    New Combat Features
    ===================
    -Hit Points
    -Firepower
    -Spacebar restores units
    -New versions of old units(e.g. Settlers -> Engineers)
    
    New Production Features
    =======================
    -Waste Production Shields
    -50% Penalty for Changing Production
    -New Improvements(e.g. Supermarket)
    
    New Terrain Features
    ====================
    -Rivers appear everywhere
    -Special Terrain yields two resources
    -When adjacent squares are upgraded, city square is also.
    
    New Movement Features
    =====================
    -Rivers have same movement as roads
    -Alpine Troops, Explorers treat every square as road
    -2 settlers work together to finish jobs quicker
    -Settlers/Engineers can use Transform Command
    
    New Government Features
    =======================
    -Fundamentalism has been added
    -In Monarchy the first 3 units cost no shield support
    -No corruption occurs under Communism
    -All spy units are veteran under Communism
    -The first unit away from city doesn't cause unrest in a Republic
    -After a revolution, you can change to as many government types that turn
    
    New Diplomacy Features
    ======================
    -AI remembers past actions
    -New diplomatic states: cease fire, neutrality, alliance
    -Cease fires expire after 16 turns
    
    New Wonder Features
    ===================
    -Pyramids now are a granary in all your cities
    -Lighthouse never lets Triremes be lost at sea
    -Great Wall now acts as a City Wall in each city and, forces peace
    -Magellan's Expedition gives a +2 movement bonus to all ships
    -Michaelangelo's Chapel counts as a Chatedral in all cities
    -United Nations gives democracies a 50% chance to overrule senate
    -SETI Program counts as a Research Lab in all cities
    -Colossus expires with Flight
    -Great Library expires with Electronics
    -Great Wall expires with Metallurgy
    -JS Bach's Catherdral now requires Theology to build.
    
    Other New Features
    ==================
    -Computer opponents now have to "Build" wonders
    -Civlopedia/Advance Tree changed
    -Disbanding adds 50% production to city
    
    
    
    
    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                    6. Game Setup
    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    -STU-
    
    This is the part where I tell you how to setup a new game.
    Menu screens are listed numerically e.g 1-0, 3-2
    
    Civilization II
    ================
    
    [1-0]
    Start a New Game: Begins a new game -> 1-2
    Start on a Premade World: Play on a custom Map -> 1-2
    Customise World: Choose how you want your world to look -> 1-1
    Begin Scenario: Begin a pre-set scenario -> 1-2
    Load a Game: Load a previously saved game -> To game
    View Hall of Fame: View previous high scores
    
    [1-1]
    Select Size of World:
    Small(for short, quick games)
    Normal(the standard size)
    Large(for longer games)
    Custom(select the height and width of your map)
    -> 1-1b 
    
    [1-1b]
    Select Land Mass:
    Small(less land, more Ocean)
    Normal(default)
    Large(more land, less Ocean)
    -> 1-1c
    
    [1-1c]
    Select Land Form:
    Archipelago(numerous small continents)
    Varied(a mix between Archipelago and Continents)
    Continents(One or Two Large continents)
    -> 1-1d
    
    [1-1d]
    Select Climate:
    Arid(more dry squares e.g. Plains, Desert)
    Normal(equal numbers of arid/wet squares)
    Wet(more wet squares e.g. Forest, Swamp. Also increase river numbers)
    -> 1-1e
    
    [1-1e]
    Select Temperature:
    Cool(more cold squares e.g. Tundra, Glacier)
    Temperate(an average number of each terrain type)
    Warm(more warm squares e.g. Desert, Jungle)
    -> 1-1f
    
    [1-1f]
    Select Age:
    3 Billion Years(terrain squares appear in clusters)
    4 Billion Years(not as clustered as 3 Billion Years)
    5 Billion Years(randomised terrain locations)
    -> 1-2
    
    [1-2]
    Difficulty Levels:
    Chieftan: The easiest level, provides advice
    Warlord:  A slight bit more difficult
    Prince:   More difficult, slower advances
    King:     Difficult, unstable citizens, slow advances
    Emperor:  Very Difficult, slow advances
    Diety:    Extremely Difficult
    -> 1-3
    
    [1-3]
    Select Number of Civilizations:
    Between 3 and 7
    (lower means each Civilization is large, whereas higher means smaller civs)
    -> 1-4
    
    [1-4]
    Select Ammount of Barbarians:
    Villages Only: No roaming barbarians
    Roving Bands: Few Barbarians
    Restless Tribes: Standard Level
    Raging Hordes: The world is full of them
    -> 1-5
    
    [1-5]
    Select Game Rules:
    Standard Rules: The normal Rules -> 1-6
    Customise Rules: Select them yourself -> 1-5b
    
    [1-5b]
    Customise Rules:
    Simplified Combat: Units either lose all damage or none in combat
    Flat World: you can't circumnavigate the world
    Select Computer Opponents: This will bring through numerous screens selecting
         your opponents.
    Accelerated Start-up: If you select this cities and units will be built
    Bloodlust: No player can built spaceships, to win you must conquer the world
    Don't Restart Eliminated Opponents: When they die, they die!
    -> 1-6
    
    [1-6]
    Select Gender:
    Male/Female: This is sorta obvious
    -> 1-7
    
    [1-7]
    Select Your Tribe:
    Select which tribe you want to be e.g Celts
    -> 1-8
    
    [1-8]
    Select City Style:
    This only effects the way your cities look
    Bronze Age Monolith / Classical Forum / Far East Pavillion / Medieval Castle
    
    -> To Game
    
    
    
    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                  7. Getting Started
    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    -STR-
    
    Your First City
    ===============
    You'll see a screen with a flashing man on a terrain square surrounded
    by other black terrain. This man is your settler, he's there to settle,
    to build new cities and irrigate the land, and build roads. But, we
    don't need to do some of them yet. The first thing to do, is look for a
    place to build your first city(your capital). I usually build my first
    city beside the sea, but sometimes that's not possible, so we'll look
    for a good spot(seaside, or inland).
    
    Seaside Cities
    ==============
    When building cities beside the sea, look in the sea for Whales or Fish.
    These will help your city grow, as they will provide well-needed food and
    production. Also, more mineral squares on the land close by would be a
    help.
    
    Inland Cities
    =============
    When building an inland city you must have a river closeby, or under the
    city. If you don't it will be difficult to irrigate around it. Also, a few
    mineral squares would be a valuable help.
    
    Improving your Capital
    ======================
    Next we want your city to improve, so you should build a unit to defend
    the city, and another to search the surrounding area for villages(goody
    huts), and sites for other cities, and to discover your opposition.
    If you don't have the development pottery already, I highly recommend
    you discover it, so that you can build a Granary in your cities.
    A Granary is useful because it helps the population increase quicker.
    If you got two settlers at the start, or found one in a hut, it would be
    wise to get the settler to irrigate(press "i") the plains/grassland around
    your cities(I say cities because your Explorer should have found an
    advanced tribe by now). You should also get that settler to build Roads(R)
    in the sqaures around your cities(even if they do lead nowhere) for extra
    trade, and a road between your cities. It is recommended that you build
    all the new city improvemnets as the come onstream(that's another unusual
    expression, that one).
    
    What to do next...
    ==================
    According to the Manual (you should read it, it's that thing you threw 
    in the corner with the box) there are four priorities you should keep 
    in mind early in the game.
    These are:
    -Defense: You've already covered this by building your defensive unit
    -Research: You should discover new advances to build better units, improve
               your city, allow you to build Wonders of the World
    -Growth: You've covered that with your second settler irrigating your city
    -Exploration: You've also covered this one with that unit you sent out
    So there's one I didn't cover yet
    
    Research
    ========
    Well, I've already told you to learn pottery, so... You should have!
    The first goal I try to achieve is building the Great Library, so next
    time the "What discovery shall our wise men pursue, sire?" screen comes up
    click on Goal, and on this screen choose Improvements(if it isn't up already)
    and select Great Library, and it will tell you what you need to research
    next to progress towards it.(In Test of Time there's an option "AutoResearch"
    which lets you automatically research until you reach that advance).
    If you wish to discover something else first, you don't need to follow
    my advice in Research.
    
    Chatting with Opponents
    =======================
    Hopefully you should have met some other tribes by now, and have a peace
    agreement with them. But if you haven't, here what to do when talking to
    other leaders. When they wish to talk to you, click OK. When they
    offer a Peace Treaty click Accept offer, you don't want enemies this
    early in the game. If you wish you can ask them for a Permanent Strategic
    Alliance, they may reject if their attitude is poor, but this early, they
    nearly always say yes. When they discover something you can then ask to
    exchange knowledge, or if you think they have more of the map than you,
    you can ask to share world maps(their attitude must be very high for them
    to accept this).
    
    I'll end this tutorial section here, because I don't want to be deciding
    your game outcome for you. Where's the fun in that?
    
    
    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                      8. Cities
    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    -CTY-
    
    This section covers everything about cities, not just the basics(as above).
    
    
    Choosing A Site
    ===============
    When deciding a site for your cities there are a few things you must have:
    Water - River / Ocean
    Minerals - Any Square containing Special Resources
    There are also things that are helpful to have/not have:
    Many plains/grassland - easiest to irrigate
    Some Forests - provide well needed shields
    Lots of sheilded grassland - (Test of Time only) this helps production
    No swamps - this may be difficult, but it makes roadbuilding,irrigation
                easier
    Few hills/mountains - you don't want any hills in the squares adjacent to
                          the city, they raise attack rates against you
    
    
    The City Display
    ================
    
    Population Roster
    -----------------
    Position: In the Top Left of the screen
    Basically, this tells you the Population of your city. If you look closely
    at the citizens in the Population Roster you can see that they appear
    different. Thats right, not everyone in your city looks the same. The
    way they look changes on their mood or if they are assigned a role.
    Usually, the first set of people in your roster are happy people(sometimes
    there may not be happy people in your city, but thats your fault!).
    The next group are the content people. The next group are the unhappy
    people(try and have as few of these as possible), if the number of unhappy
    people exceeds the number of happy people in your city, the city enters
    civil disorder. The last group are Specialists:
    
    Specialists
    -----------
    Position: Part of the Population Roster
    If you click on a square in the city radius that is producing, you will
    get a specialist instead of one of your citizens. Specialists have three
    roles:(to change roles, click on the picture of the specialist)
    Entertainers
    Every Entertainer adds 2 more luxury icons to the resource bar(explained
    later). The main role of Entertainers is to make your citizens happy, and
    to stop the city falling into disorder.
    Taxmen
    Each Taxman adds 3 more tax icons to the resource bar. The main role of
    Taxmen is to gain more tax from your people, to gain more money. This is
    something you may need to do near the beginning of the game, if you are
    losing money.
    Scientists
    Each Scientist adds 3 science icons to the resource bar. This helps if
    you are in a government type which has a slow advancement rate.
    
    Food Storage Box
    ----------------
    Position: Top Right
    When your citizens work in city squares they create food, if they have more
    food than is needed for themselves it is added to the Food Storage Box.
    When the Food Storage Box fills, an extra citizen is added to the Population
    Roster.  If you have built the Granary in your city, you will get a
    population increase when the box is full, but it will only be reset halfway.
    If your citizens do not have enough food, they will take it from the Food
    Storage Box, and when it empties any settlers or engineers supported by
    the city will be disbanded. If after this happens, there is still a shortage
    there will be a population decrease.
    
    Reosurce Bars
    -------------
    Position: Top Middle
    In Test of Time click the box to bring up a more detailed view.
    The resource bars show all the resources generated by the city's workers
    each turn. There are 4 Resource Bars:
    Food
    This shows how much food is generated each turn. Each citizen of your
    city eats two food each turn, and Settlers and Engineers use food as
    support. The surplus/loss of food is shown to the right. If there is a
    surplus it will be added to the Food Storage Box. If there is a loss it will
    be taken from the Food Storage Box.
    Trade
    This contains the Trade Bar and the Apportionment Bar. The Trade Bar lists
    the ammount of trade goods produced on the left, and if there is any
    corruption it will listed to the right.
    Apportionment Bar
    This shows how much Trade is divided between Taxes, Luxuries, and Research.
    Tax is represented by gold coins, luxuries by cups, and research by beakers.
    These numbers depend on your tax rate, any developments in the city, any
    wonders in the city, and any specialist citizens.
    Shields:
    The bottom bar represents the Production of your workers each turn. The
    shields on the left are used up supporting units. Sometimes, in the centre
    of the bar there may be waste shileds. Production is listed on the right,
    the more shields here the better. These go towards building the Improvement/
    Unit in the Production Box(below). If your city cannot support your units
    they will be disbanded at the end of the turn.
    
    Resource Map
    ------------
    Position: Left
    This shows the terrain squares being used in the cities production. Depending
    on the terrain, the ammount of production will vary. The citizens can
    produce food, production shields, and/or trade. When your population 
    increases another square(if available) will be use for resources. To change
    your citizens to specialists you must click one of the producing squares.
    To change producing squares you click the one you want to change, and then
    the one you want to change it to.
    
    Production Box
    --------------
    Position: Right
    This shows a picture and name of the improvemnet you're producing. It shows
    how many shields of the total, that have been produced so far, and in Test
    of Time, tells how many turns are remaining. To change the unit/improvement
    click the Change Box and select from the pop-down menu what you want to
    produce. If you want to finish the current production by the next turn,
    click buy and if you wish purchase the improvement. In Civilization II, the
    buy screen tells how many turns are remaining before the current improvement
    is finished. On the Production Menu you can select Auto: this makes the
    Military Advisor, or Domestic Advisor decide which units/improvements are
    to be built. Help brings up the revelant civilopedia entry for whatever is
    highlighted. Cheat(only when cheats are enabled) builds a unit/improvement/
    wonder instantly.
    
    Unit Roster
    -----------
    Position: Left
    This shows which units are supported by the city. Food and Shield icons
    below the Units show the support needed by the unit. Clicking on the Unit
    brings up a window telling it's exact location, and what you wish to do
    with the unit: No changes, Centre map on unit, Centre map on unit and
    close city screen, order Unit to return home, Disband Unit. I shouldn't
    need to explain these.
    
    Improvement Roster
    ------------------
    Position: Bottom Left
    This lists all the improvements/wonders currently in the city. If the
    improvement can be sold, a gold coin icon appears next to the improvement.
    Click the improvemnt to sell the improvemnt. You can only sell one
    improvemnt per city each turn.
    
    General Information Box
    -----------------------
    Position: Bottom Middle
    Info:
    This shows the units currently in the city and the supplies
    and demands of the city, also any pollution in the city. If you click on
    one of the units the Unit Information screen will appear. The orders on this
    screen available are: No changes, Clear orders, Sleep / Board next ship,
    Disband, Activate Unit, Activate Unit and close City Display
    Happiness:
    This shows the happiness of the citizens in the city. In Civ2: The first row
    shows the happiness of the citizens before any adjustments. The second shows
    the happiness after luxuries. The third after city improvements. The fourth
    row shows the citizens happiness after martial law and field duty. The
    fifth row adds the effects of any wonders you control, and is the view
    shown in the Population Roster.
    Map:
    This shows a small map of the world,
    showing all of its supported units' locations.
    View:
    This shows a view of your city, with all the Wonders
    and Improvements.
    
    Getting the best from your surroundings
    =======================================
    Try and build a road in every square, and when you acquire railroads build
    them instead. Try to irrigate all plains/grassland, and when you acquire
    Refrigeration change them to farmalnds. In the beginning, leave forests
    as they are because they provide shields. Mine all hills and mountains.
    Build Harbours and Offshore Platforms to harvest the sea. Build Supermarkets,
    Factories, Hydro Plants, Electric Plants, and Solar Plants to increase land
    prodcution.
    
    City Defense
    ============
    The terrain you build your city on also has a defensive value, as well as
    providing you with food, production and trade. The best defensive
    terrain squares are: Hills, Mountains, Jungle. But(there's always a but),
    the production of these terrain squares is not as good as other squares.
    If you don't want to build on poor-production squares, Grassland or
    Plains with rivers through them are recommended. This has good production
    and has a 50 percent defense bonus. Improvements can also increase city
    defense: City Wall triples the defense factors of military units in the
    city, Barracks allow damaged units to heal quicker. Coastal Fortress
    raise the city defense against coastal attacks in seaside cities. SDI
    Defense protects your city against Nuclear Attacks. There are alos certain
    units you should have stationed in your city: A Spy/Diplomat will protect
    from espionage, A Destroyer can be brought out to destroy incoming ships,
    because when a city is attacked from sea, all units attack is lowered to
    one.
    
    City Growth
    ===========
    As mentioned above, you should irrigate the land surrounding your city to
    increase crop yield. You should develop Explosives and Refrigeration, so
    you can build Settlers and irrigate the land to farmland. Also, Farmland
    is useless without a Supermarket in the city, so you should build one as
    early as possible. Harbours should be built in seaside cities to gain
    increased food from the sea. Also, your population can increase, if your
    city has a "We love the ---- day", while your government type is either a
    Republic or a Democracy.
    
    Tax/Trade
    =========
    This section is all about ways to increase trade. It's not really all
    about Tax. Trade is gained - basically - from the terrain surrounding
    your cities. Trade is represented by the arrow icon. Oceans/Sea gain
    large ammounts of trade. In the beginning, it seems that your city
    does not produce enough trade, in order to raise Trade production,
    you should get settlers to build roads (and railroads when you get
    them) all around your city. Improvements to increase Trade are:
    a Marketplace increases overall trade, a Bank increases the Tax
    section of Trade, as does a Stock Exchange. A Library increases
    Research, as does a University and a Research Lab. A Temple, a
    Cathedral, and a Colosseum increase Luxuries. The Colossus Wonder
    also improves Trade in a city, as does Capitalisation.
    Other ways to increase Tax are building Caravans or Freight, and
    sending them to cities far, far away. You can also increase your
    cash by building Adam Smith's Trading Company which pays for all
    one-cost improvement maintenance. Also, selling and rebuilding
    improvements can increase your bank account.
    Oh yeah, I better tell you how to change Tax Rates. First, click
    on Kingdom, then on Tax Rates(at the top of your screen). You
    now can increase and decrese whichever rates you wish, clicking
    the boxes to the right, temporarily sets one of the sliders.
    
    Happiness
    =========
    You have enough because your playing the game, but what about your
    citizens? Are they happy enough? You can check by looking at your
    population roster. You always should have more happy people than
    unhappy people, if you don't, you're in trouble! The temperament
    of your citizens is based on improvements, military units, and
    government types. It is also based on which difficulty level you
    are playing. In chieftan level, your first 6 citizens start out
    content, in Warlord it's 5, and so on until Deity, where only
    one citizen starts out content. As I was saying, your governement
    also can cause unhappiness. Under a Despotism citizen unhappiness
    increases with the number of cities you have. In Republics and
    Democracies every ground or naval unit not in a friendly city may
    create unhappiness. If your cities have more unhappy people than
    happy people, they go into Civil Disorder, while in disorder your
    cities won't produce tax, food, production. And if you don't
    sort out the problem your government will collapse. If your
    city has no unhappy citizens, and at least as many happy ones as
    content ones, you will have a "We love the --- day". In Anarchy
    this has no effect, in Despotism your city collects resources as
    if it was a Monarchy. In a Monarchy/Communism/Fundamentalism your
    city produces as if it was a Democracy. In a Republic or a 
    Democracy your city gains an extra citizen.
    To increase happiness there are many thing you can do:
    -Increase Luxuries in your tax rate
    -Build Temples, Cathedrals, Colosseums
    -Build Wonders: Hanging Gardens, Oracle, Michaelangelo's Chapel,
                    Shakespeare's Theatre, JS Bach's Cathdral
                    Cure for Cancer
    -Have Entertainers in your cities
    
    Terrain Basics
    ==============
    Rivers: Rivers work just like roads when travelling along them.
            The movement cost is 1/3. You cannot build roads on
            Rivers until you have discovered Bridge Building.
            Rivers are needed for irrigation. Rivers produce
            an extra trade icon.
    Tundra: A Musk Ox provides additional food.
            Fur provides Fur, more trade
    Swamps: Peat - more shields, Spice - Spice, more food, tade
    Jungle: Gems - more Trade, Fruits - more Food, Fruits
    Plains: Buffalo - more shields, Grain - more Food, Grain
    Hills:  Coal - more shields, Wine - Grapes, more trade
    Mountains: Gold - more trade, Iron - more shields
    Ocean:  Fish - more food, Whales - more food, trade
    Desert: Oasis - more food, Oil - petrol, more shields
    Forest: Pheasant - more food, Silk - more trade
    Pollution: decreases production output, caused by large production
               rates.
    Villages: Villages are the home of minor tribes, when you come across
              these, be sure to enter the square with the hut. There are
              numerous outcomes that can happen upon entering a village:
              A new city is formed, gain knowledge, gain gold, gain
              military unit, gain settlers, nothing, Find Barabarians.
    
    
    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                       9. Units
    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    -UNT-
    
    
    This Section will discuss the Basics of Units, whereas the next Section
    will discuss Units Individually.
    
    Introduction
    ============
    Units are the "little men" you use to build, settler, fight, and transport.
    Everything that moves, in other words. There are three basic unit principles
    (A) Ground  (B) Sea(Naval) (C) Air
    Ground units must stay on the ground. Sea units can only occupy sea squares
    and city squares. Air units can occupy any square(well, in TOT, that's not
    exactly true, but I'll discuss that later), but must return to a city to
    re-fuel.
    
    Statistics
    ==========
    Units have many statistics, but I will discuss the major ones first.
    
    Attack Strength
    This shows the attacking power of a unit(well, duh!). Units with a high
    attack strength are better at attacking than ones with a low att. strength.
    
    Defense Strength
    This shows the defensive capabilities of a unit. I.E. How well it can
    defend itself. Units with high defense strengths are good at defending
    cities.
    
    Movement Points
    This indicates how many squares the unit can move each turn. This is
    subject to terrain.
    
    Hit Points
    This indicates how much damage a unit can substain before dying. A units'
    current hit points is represented by a coloured bar above their heads.
    If it is green, the unit has over two-thirds hp(hit points) remaining.
    If it is yellow, the unit has between a third and two thirds hp. If the
    bar is red, the unit has less than a third hp remaining, and needs to
    be healed.
    
    Firepower
    This indicates how much damage a unit inflicts in each round of combat.
    The higher the better in attacking units.
    
    Range
    Only Air units have range. This is the ammount of moves they can be out
    of a city without needing to refuel.
    
    Holds
    Only certain naval units have "holds". "Holds" are used to carry ground
    units, and in some cases missiles or air units. The more "holds" a sea 
    unit has the more units it can carry.
    
    
    Modes/Status
    ============
    How do I heal a unit, you ask. Units are healed when they are in sleep mode,
    when you skip a turn, and when they are fortified in a city.
    
    Active Status
    Active status is the normal status for a unit, you can move them only
    when they are active.
    
    Sleep Status
    Sleep Status is used to heal units and for them to board ships, to send
    a unit to sleep press the 'S' button. Sleeping units wake up when an
    enemy unit comes close to them. They then turn to Active Status
    
    Fortified Status
    Fortified units are used to defend cities. To fortify units press the
    'F' button. Fortifying a unit increases its defense.
    
    
    Specialties
    ===========
    There are many special features, and most are unique to certain units.
    
    Two Space Visibilty
    Most units only have one space of visibility, i.e. they can only see
    opposing units and cities in the immediate surrounding squares.
    
    Ignore Zones of Control
    This might be a good place to explain Zones of Control
    
     ______________________________________________________________________
    |Zones of Control                                                      |
    |Ground units cannot move directly from one square adjacent to an enemy|
    |army or city to another such square. In other words, if your unit is  |
    |either beside a non-allied opponent unit or city, then it cannot move |
    |to another square next to an opponent. This ascii art should help:    |
    |     ######      Key:                                                 |
    |     #EXXe#      ----                                                 |
    |     ##XUC#      e: Enemy Unit                                        |
    |     ##YYY#      E: Enemy City                                        |
    |     ######      C: Your City                                         |
    |                 U: Your unit(the one you're moving)                  |
    |                 X: Moves not allowed                                 |
    |                 Y: Moves allowed                                     |
    |The squares marked X are restricted to move into, unless you already  |
    |have a unit in that square. The squares marked Y are free to move to. |
     ----------------------------------------------------------------------
    
    Ignore Zones of Control
    Now you get the idea of Zones of Control, you can see that there are certain
    squares you cannot move to, units with the ability Ignore ZOC, avoid these
    rules, and can enter any squares of its type(e.g. Ground units with Ignore
    ZOC cannot enter sea squares).
    
    Can make amphibious assaults
    Just like the US Navy SEALs, there are ground units that can attack from
    ships. Units with this ability can also capture opposing cities from ships.
    
    Submarine advantages
    Submarines are invisible to all ships except ones with a certain ability,
    explained later.
    
    Can attack air units
    Most ground units cannot attack air units, but as you progress you will
    get units which allow you to attack the steel birds of the sky.
    
    Ships must stay near land
    Only a trireme has this ability. It is the first ship you can build, if
    you are not adjacent to a land sqaure at the turns end, there is a 50%
    chance of your ships loss. This does not mean you cannot move away from
    land at any time, it just means that if the ship does not end the turn
    beside land, it may be lost at sea.
    
    Negates City Walls
    City Walls improve your city defense. Some units bypass that addition to
    defense, citys which can do this, have the ability "Negates City Walls".
    
    Can carry air units
    When you discover flight, you will need somewhere to refuel your planes
    for long journeys which cross the sea. Units with this ability can hold
    and move your air units.
    
    Can make paradrops
    Units with the Paradrop ability can move to a square within 10 spaces
    without the use of a movement point, by the use of the 'P' button.
    This can only be done once each turn.
    
    Alpine-Treat all squares as road
    Road squares only take a third of a move to go through, and units with
    this ability can move their alloted movement points times three.
    
    x2 on defense versus Horse
    This ability is misleading. The unit with it gets a 50% defense bonus
    against any unit with the movement rate of two, not just units on 
    horseback.
    
    Free support for Fundamentalism
    This is also misleading. Units with this ability can only be build under
    fundamentalist governments.
    
    Destroyed after attacking
    Exactly what it syas on the tin. Only missiles have this ability.
    
    x2 defense versus air
    Units with this ability get a 100% defense bonus against all air and
    missile units.
    
    Unit can spot submarines
    Units with this ability can see adjacent units with the Submarine Advantages
    ability.
    
    Settles
    Only Settlers and Engineers can perform this function. They can build roads
    and RailRoads with 'R', Irrigate with 'I', mine with 'M' and transform
    terrain with 'T'
    
    May transport ground units
    Many ships have this ability. The "holds" ammount, shows the number of
    units the ship can hold.
    
    
    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                  10. Units In-Depth
    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    -UID-
    
    
    
    Settlers
    ========
    Advance Required:    None
    Obsolescence:        Explosives
    Domain:              Ground
    Movement:            1
    Attack:              0
    Defense:             1
    Hit Points:          20
    Fire Power:          1
    Cost to Build:       40 Shields
    AI Role:             Settle
    Ability:             Settles
    
    Description:
    When cities grew to a size where the resources were insufficient to
    adequately insure a decent standard of living for the populace,
    adventerous groups of citizens set out on their own search of
    a place to build a new city. Once a suitable site was found, the
    settlers would build their new homes, and develop the land surrounding
    the city. Eventually, the whole process repeated, and the new city
    would send out settlers of its own. This process allowed civilizations
    to grow throughout history, from the empires of the ancient world to
    the discovery and settlement of the New World.
    
    Comments:
    Settlers are your primary tool in the early game, they let you build new
    cities and expand current ones. They also let you build roads between your
    cities.
    
    
    Engineers
    =========
    Advance Required:    Explosives
    Obsolescence:        None
    Domain:              Ground
    Movement:            2
    Attack:              0
    Defense:             2
    Hit Points:          20
    Fire Power:          1
    Cost to Build:       40 Shields
    AI Role:             Settle
    Ability:             Settles, Ignores ZOC
    
    Description:
    As technology progressed throughout the centuries, people began to
    specialize in a single skill or field of knowledge. The early pioneers
    who acted in the multiple roles of farmers, builders, and just about
    any other occupation required by their situation, were replaced by
    engineers specifically trained in a single discipline. Specilized
    training provided engineers the time and the skill necessary to
    accomplish feats of construction and environmental manipulation never
    before experienced in history.
    
    Comments:
    Engineers are the advanced form of Settlers, they settle twice as fast as
    Settlers.
    
    
    Warriors
    ========
    Advance Required:    None
    Obsolescence:        Feudalism
    Domain:              Ground
    Movement:            1
    Attack:              1
    Defense:             1
    Hit Points:          10
    Fire Power:          1
    Cost to Build:       10 Shields
    AI Role:             Defend
    Ability:             None
    
    Comments:
    Use these to explore the surrounding lands at the beginning of the game, as
    they are the cheapest unit in the game.
    
    
    Phalanx
    =======
    Advance Required:    Bronze Working
    Obsolescence:        Feudalism
    Domain:              Ground
    Movement:            1
    Attack:              1
    Defense:             2
    Hit Points:          10
    Fire Power:          1
    Cost to Build:       20 Shields
    AI Role:             Defend
    Ability:             None
    
    Description:
    The phalanx was a military formation developed in Greece, and perfected
    in Macedonia. It consisted of a large group of soldiers in ranks and
    files, usually from 8 to 32 men deep, armed with spears, swords, and
    large shields. The first five ranks of men pointed their weapons
    forward, forming a bristling barrier of spearpoints, while the others
    kept their spears upright to deflect incoming missiles. An enemy had
    difficulty approaching this formation. The attacking army was faced with
    a densely packed body of warriors, who were often advancing on the
    run. This usually caused the attackers to give ground rather than risk
    being impaled. Unfortunately, the phalanx lacked maneuverability,
    and became less prevalent when enemy forces became more professional
    and learned to outflank the formation.
    
    Comments:
    Build a few of these to defend each of you cities in the early-game.
    
    
    Archers
    =======
    Advance Required:    Warrior Code
    Obsolescence:        Gun Powder
    Domain:              Ground
    Movement:            1
    Attack:              3
    Defense:             2
    Hit Points:          10
    Fire Power:          1
    Cost to Build:       30 Shields
    AI Role:             Defend
    Ability:             None
    
    Description:
    The bow and arrow, invented in prehistoric times, greatly improved
    the hunting skills of early man, allowing him to kill his targets
    from a distance. The bow was eventaully adapted for use in battle,
    and was first used by Egyptian, Persian and Assyrian armies as
    early as 5000 BC. The range provided by the bow allowed small
    forces of archers torout armies of a superior number who were armed
    with hand-to-hand weapons. Archers were often used to soften enemy
    resistance prior to sending in mounted and skirmishing forces.
    Refinements in design and construction allowed the bow to remain
    an effective weapon until it was finally replaced by firearms in
    the 1500's.
    
    Comments:
    If you plan on mounting an early attack on an opponent, Archers will
    be your number one choice because of their low cost.
    
    
    Legion
    ======
    Advance Required:    Iron Working
    Obsolescence:        Gun Powder
    Domain:              Ground
    Movement:            1
    Attack:              4
    Defense:             2
    Hit Points:          10
    Fire Power:          1
    Cost to Build:       40 Shields
    AI Role:             Defend
    Ability:             None
    
    Description:
    The Roman Legions, created during the early wars of the Republic and
    tested during the three Punic Wars against Carthage, were the
    fighting force that conquered and held the Roman Empire for five
    centuries. Each legion was composed of 6000 men, divided into 60
    smaller groups known as centuries. Nearly unstoppable on the attack,
    the legion was relatively weak on defense. The legion's demise
    as a military unit was accelerated by the destruction of the
    Emperor's Valens' army by gothic knights in the 4th Century. 
    
    Comments:
    As well as Archers, Legions(or is it Legionaires?) should be used in
    early combat situations.
    
    
    Pikeman
    =======
    Advance Required:    Feudalism
    Obsolescence:        Gun Powder
    Domain:              Ground
    Movement:            1
    Attack:              1
    Defense:             2
    Hit Points:          10
    Fire Power:          1
    Cost to Build:       20 Shields
    AI Role:             Defend
    Ability:             x2 on Defense vs. Horse
    
    Description:
    The growing deployment of knights on the battlefield demanded that
    foot soldiers develop new means of fighting that would lessen their
    vulnerability against mounted opponents. One of the best ways to do
    this was to lengthen the reach of the infantrymen by arming them
    with long sturdy spears known as pikes. Massed infantry armed with
    pikes, in conjunction with archers, managed to even the battlefield
    odds. Armies equipped in this manner managed to hold their own until
    the invention of gunpowder made knights a thing of the past.
    
    Comments:
    These replace Warriors and Phalanx(es). They will become the new defenders
    of your city.
    
    
    Musketeers
    ==========
    Advance Required:    Gun Powder
    Obsolescence:        Conscription
    Domain:              Ground
    Movement:            1
    Attack:              3
    Defense:             3
    Hit Points:          20
    Fire Power:          1
    Cost to Build:       30 Shields
    AI Role:             Defend
    Ability:             None
    
    Description:
    One of the most important developments in the history of warfare was
    the invention of firearms. Originally developed in the 14th Century,
    firearms eveolved quickly, and by the late 17th Century flintlock
    muskets had become commonplace in battle. Musketeers, who were
    relatively inexpensive to equip and train, proved a deadly foe for
    the knights who had dominated the battlefield for so many years.
    Armies were often comprised of a cobination of musketeers, cannon,
    and knights, each complimenting the strengths and weaknesses of
    one another. Large forces of musketeers within a fortress or behind
    city walls proved an exceedingly difficult obstacle to an attacking
    army. Muskets were the primary firearm in use until they were
    replaced by repeating rifles in the Mid-19th Century.
    
    Comments:
    Musketeers replace Pikemen as your city defenders, and also become
    one of your primary attackers.
    
    
    Fanatics
    ========
    Advance Required:    Fundamentalism
    Obsolescence:        None
    Domain:              Ground
    Movement:            1
    Attack:              4
    Defense:             4
    Hit Points:          20
    Fire Power:          1
    Cost to Build:       20 Shields
    AI Role:             Defend
    Ability:             Free support under fundamentalism
    
    Description:
    Certain circumstances, such as strong religious beliefs or a 
    totalitarian system of governement, can "inspire" citizens or
    factions to nationalism that approaches maniacal fervor.
    Fanatical Groups can often suceed in seemingly hopeless situations,
    fighting and defeating superior enemy forces. Often, fanatics
    pursue military and terrorist activity for years, even decades,
    before they can be caught or stopped. Their strength for both attack
    and defense comes from their willingness to fight for the ideals they
    believe in, and, if necessary, sacrifice their lives in the name of
    their cause.
    
    Comments:
    I don't really use Fanatics, but they're a cheap army under a
    fundamentalist government.
    
    
    Partisans
    =========
    Advance Required:    Guerrila Warfare
    Obsolescence:        None
    Domain:              Ground
    Movement:            1
    Attack:              4
    Defense:             4
    Hit Points:          20
    Fire Power:          1
    Cost to Build:       50 Shields
    AI Role:             Defend
    Ability:             Treats all squares as road, Ignores ZOC
    
    Description:
    Partisans are militant groups who pledge their support to a leader or
    a system of government. Partisans differ from fanatics in their
    methods. Whereas fanatics are usually radicals prone to use terrorist
    tactics, partisans are usually trained soldiers who practice the more
    organised tactics of guerrila warfare. Partisan groups have existed
    at various times throughout history. Parisans were particularly
    active in the Nazi occupied countries of Europe during World War II,
    where their acts of sabotage against their conquerors often kept
    german troops busy quelling partisan uprisings while they should have
    been fighting on the front lines. Because of their unflagging
    dedication to their cause, partisans make formidable opponents.
    
    Comments:
    Partisans a.k.a. The most annoying unit in the game. I never build
    these. But everytime you capture an opponent city in the late game,
    these appear and try to take it back.
    
    
    Alpine Troops
    =============
    Advance Required:    Tactics
    Obsolescence:        None
    Domain:              Ground
    Movement:            1
    Attack:              5
    Defense:             5
    Hit Points:          20
    Fire Power:          1
    Cost to Build:       50 Shields
    AI Role:             Defend
    Ability:             Treat all squares as road
    
    Description:
    In the colder regions of the world, where winter months tend to leave
    the ground snow covered, skiing often became one of the most reliable
    means of transportation. In the alpine countries of Europe, it became
    commonplace to train special groups of soldiers to take advantage
    of the snow covered, mountainous terrain by travelling on skis.
    This proved to be a huge advantage, especially if the enemy forces
    were not likewise equipped. In November 1939, for example, during
    the Russo-Finnish War, the Finns managed to cut off the supply and
    communication lines of the vastly superior Russian army through the
    use of their extremely mobile ski troops, and the Finns continued
    to hold an advantage throughout the winter months. Alpine Troops
    continue to be trained and utilized in military forces of the
    present day.
    
    Comments:
    One of the most useful units in the late game, because of their
    maneuvarability. They are guaranteed to move 3 squares each turn,
    no matter what terrain.
    
    
    Riflemen
    ========
    Advance Required:    Conscription
    Obsolescence:        None
    Domain:              Ground
    Movement:            1
    Attack:              5
    Defense:             4
    Hit Points:          20
    Fire Power:          1
    Cost to Build:       40 Shields
    AI Role:             Defend
    Ability:             None
    
    Description:
    Two developments in the 19th Century made early firearms such as the 
    muskets obsolete. The first was the use of a spiral grrove, or
    "rifling", inside the barrel of a gun. Second, was the development of
    the repeating rifle, which could fire multiple shots before it
    required reloading. The rifle was a better weapon than its ancestors,
    with much more accuracy over a greater range than the musket.
    Riflemen were first employed in large numbers during the American
    Civil War. The rifle gave a strong defensive advantage, since riflemen
    could fire several times while the attackers advanced. This was normally
    enough to hold any position. Riflemen held the advantage on the
    battlefield until the appearance of armoured attack vehicles.
    
    Comments:
    Riflemen replace Musketeers as the defenders of your city. You always
    should have at least 2 of these in each city.
    
    
    Marines
    =======
    Advance Required:    Amphibious Warfare
    Obsolescence:        None
    Domain:              Ground
    Movement:            1
    Attack:              8
    Defense:             5
    Hit Points:          20
    Fire Power:          1
    Cost to Build:       60 Shields
    AI Role:             Attack
    Ability:             Can make amphibious assaults
    
    Description:
    The marines are the branch of the military service that operates
    seperately, but is under the ultimate control of the secretary of
    the navy. The Marine Corps is a combined branch of the military;
    their training prepares them to carry out integrated land, sea, 
    and air operations. The first marines were comissioned during
    the American Revolution, only to be inactivated after the war.
    The Marine Corps was then permanently reestablished by Congress
    in July 1798. Legendary for their toughness, rigid codes of
    behaviour, and adaptability, they have played an important role
    in almost every major war and conflict of the 19th and 20th
    centuries.
    
    Comments:
    These will be your primary attack force in the late game, put them
    on a transport and attack from it.
    
    
    Paratroopers
    ============
    Advance Required:    Combined Arms
    Obsolescence:        None
    Domain:              Ground
    Movement:            1
    Attack:              6
    Defense:             4
    Hit Points:          20
    Fire Power:          1
    Cost to Build:       60 Shields
    AI Role:             Defend
    Ability:             Can make paradrops
    
    Description:
    Although the idea of the parachute was suggested in the 16th Century
    drwaings of Leonardo da Vinci, the first parachute was not invented
    until the late 1700's. For years, parachutes were standard emergency
    equipment for balloonists. Claire Chennault, an American pioneer of
    aviation pursuit tactics during World War I, was the first to suggest
    using parachutes to drop troops behind enemy lines. This idea was
    widely used. Paratroopers were flown behind enemy lines in transport
    planes and dropped from low altitude, allowing them to attack the
    enemy from behind. Today, paratroopers are usually highly-trained
    special forces personnel, trained to covertly infiltrate enemy
    territory.
    
    Comments:
    Paratroopers are one of the best units in the game, after attacking
    a city with your forces and taking out the defense, you then Paradrop
    in and take the city.
    
    
    Mechanized Infantry
    ===================
    Advance Required:    Labor Union
    Obsolescence:        None
    Domain:              Ground
    Movement:            3
    Attack:              6
    Defense:             6
    Hit Points:          30
    Fire Power:          1
    Cost to Build:       50 Shields
    AI Role:             Defend
    Ability:             None
    
    Description:
    The introduction of armored tanks meant that armies could quickly
    break through enemy defensive positions and move agressiveley forward
    on the battlefield. Such a quick advance, however, left the ground
    won in the advance largely undefended. Mechanized Infantry, which was
    first used during World War II, was designed to be able to move in
    quickly and defend the area behind the tanks. Infantry were mounted
    in armored vehicles, such as half-tracks and Armored Personnel Carriers
    (APCs), to carry them quickly and safely along with the rapidly
    advancing armored divisions.
    
    Comments:
    Get these early because they can turn the game around for whoever gets
    them. They have good attack and defense and are not too expensive.
    
    
    Horsemen
    ========
    Advance Required:    Horseback Riding
    Obsolescence:        Chivalry
    Domain:              Ground
    Movement:            2
    Attack:              2
    Defense:             1
    Hit Points:          10
    Fire Power:          1
    Cost to Build:       20 Shields
    AI Role:             Attack
    Ability:             None
    
    Description:
    The necessity for speed and mobility in times of war was recognised
    even in ancient times. The infantrymen of some ancient armies would
    ride horses to get from one engagement to another, dismounting to
    fight when they reached the battlefield. Because of their speed,
    horsemen could also be used as scouts to pinpoint enemy positions.
    In the second century BC, the Chinese invention of the stirrup
    allowed this concept of mobility to go one step further. Stirrups
    provided the stability and leverage necessary to allow soldiers to
    fight from horseback, leading to the earliest examples of cavalry
    units. Continuous developments in arms and armor eventually led
    to knights, dragoons, and finally the advanced cavalry of the
    18th and 19th Century.
    
    Comments:
    I don't really use Horsemen, because of their poor attack against
    Pikemen. And, anyway, the early game is not where the wars should
    happen, it is for discovery and learning.
    
    
    Chariot
    =======
    Advance Required:    The Wheel
    Obsolescence:        Polytheism
    Domain:              Ground
    Movement:            2
    Attack:              3
    Defense:             1
    Hit Points:          10
    Fire Power:          1
    Cost to Build:       30 Shields
    AI Role:             Attack
    Ability:             None
    
    Description:
    The chariot was the first true fighting vehicle. It was used by ancient
    armies to transport archers and other troops to the battlefield,
    where they would disembark and fight. The chariot was turned into a
    fearsome offensive weapon by the Assyrians, whose archers and spearmen
    fought from inside the chariot itself. Few enemies were able to
    withstand the onslaught of Assyrian Chariots. This devasting form
    of attack was soon adopted by many of the Assyrian's enemies, who
    used the chariot against them with good effect.
    
    Comments:
    I never use chariots. Like I said above, I don't fight in the early game.
    
    
    Elephant
    ========
    Advance Required:    Polytheism
    Obsolescence:        Monotheism
    Domain:              Ground
    Movement:            2
    Attack:              4
    Defense:             1
    Hit Points:          10
    Fire Power:          1
    Cost to Build:       40 Shields
    AI Role:             Attack
    Ability:             None
    
    Description:
    The elephant is the largest living land mammal, reaching a size of
    10 to 13 feet in height depending on the species. Descended from the
    ancient mammoths and mastodons, elephants can be trained to serve
    humans in many fields of endeavor. One such use of elephants in ancient
    times was as beasts of war. Elephants were used in battle against
    Alexander the Great in 326 BC, and they were used both as pack animals
    and in battle by Hannibal of Carthage in his famous alpine crossing in
    218 BC. Although generally impractical as mounts due to their slow speed,
    the mere mental impact of seeing such massive beasts included in the
    advancing enemy ranks could provide the attacker with an element of
    surprise.
    
    Comment:
    They may have good attack strength, but if they get attacked they die
    easily. 
    
    
    Crusaders
    =========
    Advance Required:    Monotheism
    Obsolescence:        Leadership
    Domain:              Ground
    Movement:            2
    Attack:              5
    Defense:             1
    Hit Points:          10
    Fire Power:          1
    Cost to Build:       40 Shields
    AI Role:             Attack
    Ability:             None
    
    Description:
    Between 1095 and 1270, European Christians waged a series of wars known
    as the Crusades. These holy wars, sanctioned by the Pope, were fought to
    free the Christian Holy Lands from Muslim control. The crusaders
    themselves were a mixed lot, with many different backgrounds and reasons
    for fighting. However, most of them joined the ranks out of religious
    fervor, and a feeling that their personal salvation was guaranteed when
    fighting for such a holy cause. Despite the fact that the crusaders fought
    with all the strength of their religious conviction, the Crusades
    accomplished very little in a military sense; however, the European
    economy and a desire for exploration was greatly increased.
    
    Comments:
    I use rarely, but when I do they come in truckloads. If you are at war,
    and you can build these, go ahead.
    
    
    Knights
    =======
    Advance Required:    Chivalry
    Obsolescence:        Leadership
    Domain:              Ground
    Movement:            2
    Attack:              4
    Defense:             2
    Hit Points:          10
    Fire Power:          1
    Cost to Build:       40 Shields
    AI Role:             Attack
    Ability:             None
    
    Description:
    Knights were heavily armored, mounted men-at-arms in medieval Europe.
    Like the samurai of ancient Japan, knights followed a strict code
    that covered their behaviour both in battle and in their personal
    pursuits. Fighting astride powerful horses, armored knights had a
    distinct advantage over enemies on foot and remained the dominant
    force on the battlefield when battles were primarily fought hand-to-
    hand. Occasionally, brilliant tactics allowed kinghts to be
    outmaneuvered, but it wasn't until the development of gunpowder that
    knights were rendered obsolete.
    
    Comment:
    How I love knights, its not like the are a mean fighting unit, it's
    just that I am enthralled by the medieval era. If you are waging a
    war in the mid-game, use knights for their high attack strength.
    
    
    Dragoons
    ========
    Advance Required:    Leadership
    Obsolescence:        Tactics
    Domain:              Ground
    Movement:            2
    Attack:              5
    Defense:             2
    Hit Points:          20
    Fire Power:          1
    Cost to Build:       50 Shields
    AI Role:             Attack
    Ability:             None
    
    Description:
    Dragoons wer mounted soldiers armed with short muskets who fought,
    both on horseback and on foot, during the time of the American
    Revolution. The name comes from the French word for "dragon", and
    refers to the "fire breathing weapons" used by these troops.
    British general John Burgoyne utilized a force of Hessian dragoons
    to attack an American Supply base at the Battle of Bennington in 1777.
    Despit their large numbers, the dragoon mercenaries were severely
    routed by several detachments from the New Hampshire militia.
    
    Comment:
    These replace Knights as your primary mid-game attack unit. In a war,
    you'll need many of these to survive.
    
    
    Cavalry
    =======
    Advance Required:    Tactics
    Obsolescence:        Mobile Warfare
    Domain:              Ground
    Movement:            2
    Attack:              8
    Defense:             3
    Hit Points:          20
    Fire Power:          1
    Cost to Build:       60 Shields
    AI Role:             Attack
    Ability:             None
    
    Description:
    Cavalry are mounted soldiers trained to fight on horseback. Because of
    their speed, cavalry units were often used for reconnaissance missions
    and hit-and-run raids on enemy installations and troops. Although
    warriors figthing from horseback with a variety of weapons dates back
    to ancient Egypt, horse mounted cavalry as we generally think of it
    today actually began in the late 1700's. Under Napoleon, the cavalry
    became an elite force, freqeuntly deployed simultaneously with foot
    soldiers, to mask the movements of the main battle force. Cavalry were
    used extensively in the American Civil War, and in other conflicts
    throughout the mid to late 19th Century. When the repeating rifle
    replaced earlier single-shot firearms, horse-mounted troops became
    easy targets for infantrymen. The South African War from 1899 to 1902,
    was the last major conflict wherecavalry played a major role. Today,
    the roles once performed by horse-mounted cavalry have been assumed
    by troops utilizing armored assault vehicles and aircraft.
    
    Comments:
    Cavalry have a great attack stregth, so use it to your adavantage.
    
    
    Armor
    =====
    Advance Required:    Mobile Warfare
    Obsolescence:        None
    Domain:              Ground
    Movement:            3
    Attack:              10
    Defense:             5
    Hit Points:          30
    Fire Power:          1
    Cost to Build:       80 Shields
    AI Role:             Attack
    Ability:             None
    
    Description:
    The rise in the use of semi-automatic and automatic firearms in the late
    19th and early 20th century led to the demise of horse-mounted cavalry.
    Attackers lost a significant adavantage in both scouting and
    deployment as a result of the cavalry's vulnerability. It was only with
    the development of tanks, armored mobile attack vehicles equipped with
    jigh-caliber guns, that a weapon was found which could once more be used
    to punch a hole through enemy field forces. First appearing in World
    War I, armored attack vehicles moved quickly and struck with power,
    while still possessing an effective defense strength. Tanks are a powerful
    weapon against any ground unit.
    
    Comments:
    These replace Cavalry, and are a much better attack force. You will use
    these in many of your late-game attacks.
    
    
    Catapult
    ========
    Advance Required:    Mathematics
    Obsolescence:        Metallurgy
    Domain:              Ground
    Movement:            1
    Attack:              6
    Defense:             1
    Hit Points:          10
    Fire Power:          1
    Cost to Build:       40 Shields
    AI Role:             Attack
    Ability:             None
    
    Description:
    The catapult was on of the earliest forms of atillery. It was a large
    mechanical arm that propelled heavy stones and other missiles from a
    great distance, battering down wallsand inflicting damage on buildings
    and defenders. Though cumbersome and nearly useless on the battlefield,
    the catapult was an effective weapon for attacking cities and fortified
    enemies.
    
    Comments:
    These are used in early-game combat situations but always must be
    accompanied by a good defensive unit, because of their vulnerability.
    
    
    Cannon
    ======
    Advance Required:    Metallurgy
    Obsolescence:        Machine Tools
    Domain:              Ground
    Movement:            1
    Attack:              8
    Defense:             1
    Hit Points:          20
    Fire Power:          1
    Cost to Build:       40 Shields
    AI Role:             Attack
    Ability:             None
    
    Description:
    Closely following the invention of Gunpowder, the development of the
    cannon caused a revolution in seige warfare. Invented by a German Monk
    in the 14th century, early cannons used gunpowder charges to fire rocks
    or metal balls. The cannon forced a redesign of most fortifications
    because the straight, high walls surrounding most cities could be easily
    destroyed by direct fire. This was the fate of the walls of
    Constatinople, which had held against countless seiges for over a
    thousand years. The cannon quickly assumed an important position on the
    battlefield.
    
    Comments:
    Cannons replace Catapults, and when used should always be accompanied
    by a defensive unit.
    
    
    Artillery
    =========
    Advance Required:    Machine Tools
    Obsolescence:        Robotics
    Domain:              Ground
    Movement:            1
    Attack:              10
    Defense:             1
    Hit Points:          20
    Fire Power:          2
    Cost to Build:       50 Shields
    AI Role:             Attack
    Ability:             None
    
    Description:
    Artillery is a general term covering several varities of large caliber
    weapons including mortars and field guns. Mortars fire an explosive
    projectile in a high arc, and are particularly effective against small
    concealed targets. Feild guns, long-range weapons that fire their
    prokectiles in a flat arc, are used primarily for their ability to
    penetrate hard targets. Powerful enough to batter opposing forces even
    behind the strongest fortifications, artillery is also able to move
    quickly from one firing position to another. This is an important
    capability when fighting a moving battle or avoiding enemy fire.
    
    Comments:
    These replace Cannon, and are another good improvement. They have an
    increased attack rate, as well as increased Firepower.
    
    
    Howitzer
    ========
    Advance Required:    Robotics
    Obsolescence:        None
    Domain:              Ground
    Movement:            2
    Attack:              12
    Defense:             2
    Hit Points:          30
    Fire Power:          2
    Cost to Build:       70 Shields
    AI Role:             Attack
    Ability:             Ignores city walls
    
    Description:
    The howitzer is a specially designed piece of atillery. As originally
    designed, the howitzer was a cross between the short-ranged mortar and
    the long-ranged field gun. When fired in a high arc, the howitzer shell
    was able to achieve the mortar's effectiveness against small,
    concealed targets. When fired in a flat trajectory, the shell had more
    range than the mortar and the penetration power of the field gun.
    Howitzers were easier to transport than other types of heavy artillery
    due to their smaller size, and could be mounted on wheels and towed
    by a truck. Modern light howizters fire a variety of specialised
    ammunition, and their accuracy now makes them more effiecent and lethal
    than older heavy howitzers and field guns.
    
    Comments:
    The howitzer replaces the artillery. The howitzer has the highest attack
    strength of any ground unit. It also has the added bonus of being able to
    move two squares a turn.
    
    
    Fighter
    =======
    Advance Required:    Flight
    Obsolescence:        Stealth
    Domain:              Air
    Movement:            10
    Range:               1
    Attack:              4
    Defense:             3
    Hit Points:          20
    Fire Power:          2
    Cost to Build:       60 Shields
    AI Role:             Air Superiority
    Ability:             Ignores ZOC, Ignores City Walls, Can attack aircraft
    
    Description:
    The earliest military aircraft were used primarily in a reconnaissance
    role. In 1915, during World War I, aircraft designer Anthony Fokker
    developed a gear system that allowed a plane-mounted machine gun to
    fire through the propellor, giving birth to the first fighter aircraft.
    The fighter's mission was to shoot down enemy reconaissance and fighter
    planes. Later, as the use of bombers became more widespread, fighters
    were called upon to act as interceptors against enemy bombing runs and
    escorts for friendly bombers. The best way to ensure the safe passage
    of friendly bombers to their selected targets is the destruction of
    enemy fighters.
    
    Comments:
    When you discover flight, build these! Send them out, attack, return.
    And again...and again...and again....
    
    
    Bomber
    ======
    Advance Required:    Advanced Flight
    Obsolescence:        Stealth
    Domain:              Air
    Movement:            8
    Range:               2
    Attack:              12
    Defense:             1
    Hit Points:          20
    Fire Power:          2
    Cost to Build:       120 Shields
    AI Role:             Air Superiority
    Ability:             Ignores ZOC, Ignores City Walls
    
    Description:
    The bombing of strategic targets from the air dates back to the
    beginning of World War I, when the Germans used Zepplins to bomb
    Paris and London. Because zepplins proved to be extremely vulnerable,
    they were withdrawn from war in favour of airplanes. By the end of
    World War I, planes were being designed specifically as bombers. The
    bomber's job is to carry bombs into enemy territory, normally beyond
    the range of artillery, and destroy targets of military and economic
    value. Bombers were often designed for specific missions, such as
    attacking ships, bombing vehicles and railroads, daylight precision
    bombing, and carpet bombing.
    
    Comments:
    These will be your primary attack force for a lengthy period until
    you discover stealth, but until you do, use these to capture cities.
    
    
    Helicopter
    ==========
    Advance Required:    Combined Arms
    Obsolescence:        None
    Domain:              Air
    Movement:            6
    Range:               Infinite
    Attack:              10
    Defense:             3
    Hit Points:          20
    Fire Power:          2
    Cost to Build:       100 Shields
    AI Role:             Air Superiority
    Ability:             Ignores ZOC, Ignores City Walls, Can spot submarines
    
    Description:
    The concept that was to become the modern helicopter was first
    explored by artist/engineer Leonardo da Vinci. He made sketches of
    rotor-driven aircraft in the early 16th century. It was not until 1939,
    however, that the first practical helicopter design was developed.
    Helicopters have a distinct adavntage over fixed-wing aircraft in that
    they can take off and land vertically. This makes it possible for
    helicopters to operate in many places that would be too small to
    accomodate a runway. Today, helicopters are used in civilian roles as
    rescue vehicles and by law enforcement agencies. All branches of the
    military utilize many different types of helicopters, from giant cargo
    and troop carriers to fast and maneuvarble gunships used asair support
    for ground troop operations.
    
    Comments:
    This, in my humble opinion, is the best unit in the game. It has an
    attack of 10, it can take enemy cities, and it doesn't need to refuel.
    
    
    Stealth Fighter
    ===============
    Advance Required:    Stealth
    Obsolescence:        None
    Domain:              Air
    Movement:            14
    Range:               1
    Attack:              8
    Defense:             4
    Hit Points:          20
    Fire Power:          2
    Cost to Build:       80 Shields
    AI Role:             Air Superiority
    Ability:             Ignores ZOC, Ignores City Walls, Can attack aircraft
    
    Description:
    Starting in the second world war, radar technology came into widespread
    use both for detection and targeting of aircraft. Beacuse of this,
    aeronautical engineers beagn searching for ways to make aircraft less
    "visible" to electronic tracking and weapon systems. The earliest stealth
    technologies consisted of coating aircraft with materials that would
    absorb rather than deflect a radar signal. In the late 1970s, designs
    incorporating this technology, as well as a unique fuselage shape
    designed to defelct radar away from its source, were prototyped. The
    first true stealth fighter, the Lockheed F-117A, flew for the first time
    on June 18, 1981. This fighter, incorporating the latest anti-radar and
    anti-thermal innovations, is capable of entering enemy territory,
    delivering its payload, and returning to base with little chance of
    detection. These unique, black aircraft served wellin the Persian Gulf
    War in 1991, and have served as a basis for further development of
    stealth aircaft technology.
    
    Comments:
    These replace Fighters, and have twice the attack strength and a greater
    range, which makes them a formidable unit in the late-game.
    
    
    Stealth Bomber
    ==============
    Advance Required:    Stealth
    Obsolescence:        None
    Domain:              Air
    Movement:            12
    Range:               2
    Attack:              14
    Defense:             5
    Hit Points:          20
    Fire Power:          2
    Cost to Build:       160 Shields
    AI Role:             Air Superiority
    Ability:             Ignores ZOC, Ignores City Walls
    
    Description:
    Concurrent with the development of a stealth fighter, aeronautical 
    engineers began to apply stealth technology to a full-scale bomber.
    The B-1B Bomber, which went into service in 1986 as a replacement
    for the B-52, incorporated some of these innovations. The radar
    signature of the B-1B was reduced to a mere 1 percent that of the B-52
    due to its low cross-section and its minimal use of radar-reflective,
    hard-edged services. Soon afterthe B-1B entered service, the U.S. Air
    Force comissioned Northrop to develop a true stealth bomber as an
    eventual replacement. First revealed to the public in 1988, the B-2
    Stealth Bomber uses a flying wing similar in shape to the F-117A
    Stealth Fighter. The flying wing design reduces the profile of the
    B-2 by incorporating its engines into the body of the plane. The
    engine exhausts and intakes are shielded to prevent infrared tracking.
    The B-2 also makes use of curved surfaces and radar-absorbing materials
    to enhance its "invisibilty", and make it far less detectable than the
    B-1B. As of the late 1980s, it was announced that the 132 B-2's would
    be constructed, and would enter service sometime in the 1990s.
    
    Comment:
    These are absolutely magnificent, if you haven't got these in the late
    game, get them, and lots of them. Whats better than a 14 attack strength?
    You may say a missile, but they can't be re-used. You'll get to attack the
    city every turn until its falls into your hands.
    
    
    Trireme
    =======
    Advance Required:    Map Making
    Obsolescence:        Navagation
    Domain:              Sea
    Movement:            3
    Attack:              1
    Defense:             1
    Hit Points:          10
    Fire Power:          1
    Cost to Build:       40 Shields
    Holds:               2
    AI Role:             Sea Transport
    Ability:             Must stay near land, Transports ground units
    
    Description:
    The trireme was the first ship designed for war. Introduced by the
    Greeks, triremes were powered by three banks of oars on each side,
    manned by well-trained oarsmen. These oarsmen were highly paid
    professionals or patriotic citizens, not slaves and prisoners as
    depicted in fiction. A huge bronze "beak", mounted on the bow of the
    ship was used to ram and sink enemy ships. Because of its long, narrow
    hull, the trireme was very unstable in all but the calmest waters, and
    as a consequence its crew rarely ventured out of sight of land for long
    periods of time, lest the ship be caught in a storm and sunk.
    
    Comments:
    Don't bother building these, because you can discover ones that can
    stray from land, a short time later.
    
    
    Caravel
    =======
    Advance Required:    Navigation
    Obsolescence:        Magnetism
    Domain:              Sea
    Movement:            3
    Attack:              2
    Defense:             1
    Hit Points:          10
    Fire Power:          1
    Cost to Build:       40 Shields
    Holds:               3
    AI Role:             Sea Transport
    Ability:             Transports ground units
    
    Description:
    The caravel was a small sailing ship with three or four masts, a broad
    bow, and a high narrow stern. Though often used as a warship, the caravel
    could also carry over 100 metric tons of cargo. Caravels were commonly
    used by the Spanish and Portuguese for both commerce and exploration.
    Christopher Colombus' three ships, the "Nina", "Pinta", and "Santa Maria"
    were all caravels.
    
    Comments:
    These replace triremes, and are much, much better. They can stray away
    from land and even have a better attack. These will be used to explore
    other islands in the early-game.
    
    
    Galleon
    =======
    Advance Required:    Magnetism
    Obsolescence:        Industrialization
    Domain:              Sea
    Movement:            4
    Attack:              0
    Defense:             2
    Hit Points:          20
    Fire Power:          1
    Cost to Build:       40 Shields
    Holds:               4
    AI Role:             Sea Transport
    Ability:             Transports ground units
    
    Description:
    By the late 15th century, oar-powered vessels had all but disappeared
    from the world's oceans, to be replaced by sailing vessels of various
    types. The galleon was one such vessel. Galleons were three- or
    four-masted ships, built high in both the forecastle and the stern.
    Developed in the 15th and 16th century, these versatile ships were
    mainly used as cargo vessels, although they were sometimes outfitted
    as light warships as well. Ships of this type served European nations
    well in to the 1700s.
    
    Comment:
    These replace the caravel, with a higher hold capacity, but they have
    no attack rate. They are only used for exploration.
    
    
    Frigate
    =======
    Advance Required:    Magnetism
    Obsolescence:        Electricity
    Domain:              Sea
    Movement:            4
    Attack:              4
    Defense:             2
    Hit Points:          20
    Fire Power:          1
    Cost to Build:       50 Shields
    Holds:               2
    AI Role:             Naval Superiority
    Ability:             Transports ground units
    
    Description:
    The frigate was a fast and powerful sailing warship that eveolved
    to fill several important naval roles, primarily to raid enemy
    shipping. These three masted ships were lighter and faster than the
    European great ship or man-of-war, and usually carried 36 or fewer
    guns. The frigate was powerful enough to overcome most of its
    prospective opponents and fast enough to escape those it could not
    outgun. Because of their speed and strength, frigates were often employed
    as escorts for merchant vessels during times of war. The frigate remained
    the most useful and domininant naval vessel until the development of
    the Ironclad.
    
    Comments:
    These also replace the Caravel, and become the ruler of the seas in
    all battles. If you plan on waging a naval war, these'll be your
    primary assault force.
    
    
    Ironclad
    ========
    Advance Required:    Steam Engine
    Obsolescence:        Electricity
    Domain:              Sea
    Movement:            4
    Attack:              4
    Defense:             4
    Hit Points:          30
    Fire Power:          1
    Cost to Build:       60 Shields
    Holds:               0
    AI Role:             Naval Superiority
    Ability:             None
    
    Description:
    Ironclads were the forerunners of future generations of armored naval
    vessels. Instead of simple wooden hulls found on other ships at the time,
    Ironclads were covered with strong metal plating. This plating made
    them nearly impervious to large-caliber exlosive shells that would
    easily penetrate and destroy wooden vessels. Ironclads made their first
    appearance during the American Civil War, and quickly gained dominance
    over other ships of that era. Perhaps the most famous naval battle of
    the Civil War was the battle between the confederate ironclad "Merrimack",
    and the union ironclad "Monitor", which lasted for several hours before
    the "Merrimack" was forced to withdraw.
    
    Comments:
    Only build these if you are deep in war, because better ships will come
    along quickly(if you're a democracy, anyway).
    
    
    Destroyer
    =========
    Advance Required:    Electricity
    Obsolescence:        None
    Domain:              Sea
    Movement:            6
    Attack:              4
    Defense:             4
    Hit Points:          30
    Fire Power:          1
    Cost to Build:       60 Shields
    Holds:               0
    AI Role:             Naval Superiority
    Ability:             Can spot enemy submarines
    
    Description:
    Destroyers are small escort ships that serve a variety of useful
    functions. These light, fast vessels were used extensively in World
    War II to provide air and sea cover for carrier groups. One of the
    primary functions of the destroyeris to locate and destroy enemy
    submarines. Using their sonar equipment to locate the subs, and their
    batteries of depth charges and torpedoes to destroy them, the destroyer
    forces of World War II were the key to the sucess of many crucial
    naval operations. Modern destroyers are still used in much the same
    role, as escorts for larger vessels and as submarine hunters. In
    addition to five-inch guns, the arsenal of today's destroyer includes
    antisubmarine helicopters, anti-ship cruise missiles, and the Phalanx
    system for defence against anti-ship missiles.
    
    Comments:
    Destroyers are not build for their sheer power, you build them to
    patrol the seas. You use other slower ships for their attack power. 
    
    
    Cruiser
    =======
    Advance Required:    Steel
    Obsolescence:        Rocketry
    Domain:              Sea
    Movement:            5
    Attack:              6
    Defense:             6
    Hit Points:          30
    Fire Power:          2
    Cost to Build:       80 Shields
    Holds:               2
    AI Role:             Naval Superiority
    Ability:             Can spot enemy submarines
    
    Description:
    The cruiser is the modern equivalent of the frigate. Although much
    more powerful than its sailing forebearer, it is designed for much
    the same type of mission: to act as a sea raider and escort. Cruisers
    can conduct shore bombardments, though their firepower cannot match
    the destructive forces of the battleship. The cruisers defensive
    capabilities are also inferior to those of the battleship. These
    shortcomings are balanced by the cruisers lower cost and higher speed.
    Cruisers serve an important role in scouting missions, convey escorts,
    and the attack of the transport vessels.
    
    Comment:
    These are a good attacker until you get the battleship, and will do
    you proud in attack.
    
    
    AEGIS Cruiser
    =============
    Advance Required:    Rocketry
    Obsolescence:        None
    Domain:              Sea
    Movement:            5
    Attack:              8
    Defense:             8
    Hit Points:          30
    Fire Power:          2
    Cost to Build:       100 Shields
    Holds:               0
    AI Role:             Naval Superiority
    Ability:             x2 defense vs air, can spot submarines
    
    Description:
    Cruisers have long served in the role of escort and defensive vessels,
    screening carrier task forces and amphibious assaults from enemy
    ships and aircraft. In recent years, the abilities of the cruiser have
    been upgarded significantly. In addition to their traditional five-inch
    guns, cruisers also carry batteries of Harpoon and Tomahawk missiles.
    The latest development in cruiser armament is the AEGIS surface-to-air
    missile system, which allows cruisers to target and fire their missiles
    more accurately and more effectively than ever before. The cruisers
    of today are highly capable of intercepting and destroying enemy
    submarines, surface ships, aircraft, and missiles.
    
    Comment:
    AEGIS cruisers are a hepful addition to your navy because of their
    rounded stats and lower cost.
    
    
    Battleship
    ==========
    Advance Required:    Automobile
    Obsolescence:        None
    Domain:              Sea
    Movement:            4
    Attack:              12
    Defense:             12
    Hit Points:          40
    Fire Power:          2
    Cost to Build:       160 Shields
    Holds:               0
    AI Role:             Naval Superiority
    Ability:             None
    
    Description:
    The battleship was once the most powerful vessel on the seas. Heavily
    armored and difficult to destroy, its massive guns could accurately
    fire heavy projectiles at tagets miles away. The battleship had two
    primary functions: clearing the seas of enemy ships and bombarding
    enemy coastal targets, usually in preperation for an invasion. The
    battleship's importance began to decline in World War II, when the
    increasing number of aircraft carriers greatly extended the range
    of naval conflicts. Ship-to-ship combat became less frequent than
    long-range air attacks against enemy battle groups. The last of
    the U.S. Navy's battleships was decomissioned shortly after the
    Vietnam war, but the four battleships in the Iowa class were
    remodelled and recomissioned in the 1980s.
    
    Comment:
    The BEST naval unit! No doubt about it, what other unit has a 12 attack
    and a 12 defense? If it had a higher movement rate this would be
    unstoppable.
    
    
    Submarine
    =========
    Advance Required:    Combustion
    Obsolescence:        None
    Domain:              Sea
    Movement:            3
    Attack:              10
    Defense:             2
    Hit Points:          30
    Fire Power:          2
    Cost to Build:       60 Shields
    Holds:               0
    AI Role:             Naval Superiority
    Ability:             Invisible to enemy ships, Transports missiles
    
    Description:
    A submarine is a submersible warship, designed to attack enemy vessels
    while remaining hidden underwater. Although defensively weak,
    submarines are feared because of their ability to make a stealthy
    approach and attack without warning. Often the presence of a submarine
    is not detected until the first of the sub's torpedoes strikes its
    target. Submarine warfare was first used extensively by the Germans
    during World War I. Developments after the war, such as sonar, made
    the submarine even more effective. During World War II, submarines
    were used extensively by all the world's naval powers. Today's
    submarines in addition to their role as fast attack vessels, also
    carry nuclear weapons that can be fired from underwater positions
    just off the coast of an enemy country.
    
    Comment:
    Submarines are excellent units, because of their invisibilty and
    their ability to carry missiles. Although the submarine is
    invisible, unfortunately the missiles can be seen.
    
    
    Carrier
    =======
    Advance Required:    Advanced Flight
    Obsolescence:        None
    Domain:              Sea
    Movement:            5
    Attack:              1
    Defense:             9
    Hit Points:          40
    Fire Power:          2
    Cost to Build:       160 Shields
    Holds:               0
    AI Role:             Naval Superiority
    Ability:             Transports air units
    
    Description:
    The aircaft carrier first came into widespread use during World War II.
    Carriers act as floating airfields, carrying fighters and bombers
    far from friendly territory to be launched against enemy targets. This
    allows an air strike against targets both on land and on sea that
    would otherwise be far out of range. Carriers also have the capability
    to launch nuclear weapons. The range of the aircraft launched from
    carriers forever changed the methodology of naval battles. Opposing
    fleets could now engage in battle without either fleet ever entering
    the other's visual range, ending the dominance of the battleship as
    the strongest vessel on the sea.
    
    Comments:
    Whats better than a ship which holds missiles? A one that works as
    an airport, too. These are indespensible units and should be the
    launching pad of your attacks.
    
    
    Transport
    =========
    Advance Required:    Industrialization
    Obsolescence:        None
    Domain:              Sea
    Movement:            5
    Attack:              0
    Defense:             3
    Hit Points:          30
    Fire Power:          1
    Cost to Build:       50 Shields
    Holds:               8
    AI Role:             Sea Transport
    Ability:             Transports ground units
    
    Description:
    A troop transport ship, which in peacetime serves as a cargo or
    passenger vessel, is the principle means used by modern powers to
    move large quantities of military equipment and personnel over large
    distances. Because transports lack offensive weaponry, they require
    armed vessels as escorts during times of war. A properly escorted
    transport can move large military forces to a new area quickly to
    act as reinforcements or as an attacking force.
    
    Comment:
    This is what you've been waiting for, a high-defense sea transport,
    with a high holds rate. Put on your tanks, deliver to enemy soil,
    attack.... What more can I say?
    
    
    Cruise Missile
    ==============
    Advance Required:    Rocketry
    Obsolescence:        None
    Domain:              Air
    Movement:            12
    Range:               1
    Attack:              18
    Defense:             0
    Hit Points:          10
    Fire Power:          3
    Cost to Build:       60 Shields
    AI Role:             Attack
    Ability:             Destroyed after attacking, Ignores ZOC & City Walls
    
    Description:
    One of the most effective weapons in modern military arsenals is the
    cruise missile. Cruise missiles such as the AGM-86 and the Tomahawk
    can be launched against a strategic target hundreds of miles away,
    travelling low to avoid radar and other means of detection, and
    hitting its target with unnerving accuracy. They can also be used
    against short-range, tactical targets such as ships. In this role,
    it is often possible, for a single $1 million missile to seriously
    damage or even destroy $80 million warships. These versatile
    weapons can be launched from air, sea, or land with equal effectiveness.
    
    Comment:
    These are excellent, high attack, no-pollution, missiles. I always use
    these because I don't like Nuking people, because I'll just have to
    clean up the pollution.
    
    
    Nuclear Missiles
    ================
    Advance Required:    Rocketry
    Obsolescence:        None
    Domain:              Air
    Movement:            16
    Range:               1
    Attack:              99
    Defense:             0
    Hit Points:          10
    Fire Power:          1
    Cost to Build:       160 Shields
    AI Role:             Attack
    Ability:             Destroyed after attacking, Ignores ZOC
    
    Description:
    The deployment of atomic bombs at Nagasaki and Hiroshima at the end
    of World War II changed the world's standards for measuring military
    power. Nuclear weapons can eradicate ground forces and armored
    divisions, and flatten cities with their awesome explosive power.
    In the years following World War II, arsenals of nuclear weapons
    were built up rapidly by opposing nations, each fearing the
    capabilities of the other. This massive arms build up has acted
    as a detterent to a full-scale war, since all the governments involved
    are aware of the consequences should such a war take place. The threat
    imposed by the huge nuclear arsenals of the world powers may one day
    be eradicated by the deveopment of the development of the Strategic
    Defense Initiave, or SDI, a system designed to destroy enemy missiles
    in flight before they can reach their targets.
    
    Comment:
    I hate using these, the pollution they cause is terrible and takes an
    age to clean up. There are easier ways of attacking cities...
    
    
    Diplomat
    ========
    Advance Required:    Writing
    Obsolescence:        Espionage
    Domain:              Ground
    Movement:            2
    Attack:              0
    Defense:             0
    Hit Points:          10
    Fire Power:          1
    Cost to Build:       30 Shields
    AI Role:             Diplomacy
    Ability:             Ignores ZOC
    
    Description:
    Diplomats serve their homeland in a variety of ways. Their primary
    function is to maintain contact with other civilizations, and report
    on any deveopments of interest. Diplomats are also capable of
    engaing in less reputable activities, including sabotage of enemy
    production; the theft of civilization adavances; and the subversion
    of enemy troops and cities. Although they have no cobat value,
    diplomats are nevertheless powerful weapons if utilized properly.
    
    Comment:
    Diplomats are very good units: They steal technology and can subvert
    enemy cities, although nowhere as good as spys, they will do for the
    time-being.
    
    
    Spy
    ===
    Advance Required:    Espionage
    Obsolescence:        None
    Domain:              Ground
    Movement:            3
    Attack:              0
    Defense:             0
    Hit Points:          10
    Fire Power:          1
    Cost to Build:       60 Shields
    AI Role:             Diplomacy
    Ability:             Ignores ZOC
    
    Description:
    One of the most effective ways to comile information about an enemy
    (or potential enemy) is by infiltarting the enemy's ranks. This is
    the job of the spy. Spies can bring back all sorts of information
    concerning the size and strength of an enemy army. They can also
    find dissidents within the enemy's forces and influence them to
    defect. In times of crisis, spies can also be used to steal
    technology and to sabotage the enemy in various ways. Counterintelligence
    opeartives can feed false information to enemy spies, protecting
    important domestic secrest and preventing attempts at subversion.
    Nearly every society has very strict laws concerning espionage, and
    the penalty for being caught is often death. However, the benefits
    that can be gained through espionage are generally felt to outweigh
    the risks.
    
    Comments:
    These are one of my favourite units, buying enemy cities from under their
    feet is excellent, and can also be a cheap way of doing it.
    
    
    Caravan
    =======
    Advance Required:    Trade
    Obsolescence:        Corporation
    Domain:              Ground
    Movement:            1
    Attack:              0
    Defense:             1
    Hit Points:          10
    Fire Power:          1
    Cost to Build:       50 Shields
    AI Role:             Trade
    Ability:             Ignores ZOC
    
    Description:
    Trade has been a major source of income to civilizations throughout
    history. Journeying to distant lands, caravans exchanged their loads
    of goods for money or other items of value. In addition, the traders
    who accompanied the caravans often brought back new knowledge about the
    advances made by the civilizations with whom they did business.
    Marco Polo, for example, went with traders to China. He remained
    there for many years, and brought back much valuable information to
    the west.
    
    Comments:
    I don't really build these unless I really need the money. If you
    need money build a few, if not, concentrate on more important
    matters.
    
    
    Freight
    =======
    Advance Required:    Corporation
    Obsolescence:        None
    Domain:              Ground
    Movement:            2
    Attack:              0
    Defense:             1
    Hit Points:          10
    Fire Power:          1
    Cost to Build:       50 Shields
    AI Role:             Trade
    Ability:             Ignores ZOC
    
    Description:
    Freight units are the modern day equivalent of the trade caravans in
    the ancient world. Whereas in early history raw materials, trade
    good, food, and manufactured itemswere transported by camel or wagon,
    modern shipments are transported by a variety of methods including
    trucks and railroads. The speed and convenience of modern transportation
    methods allows civilizations to set up supply routes and move larger
    quantities of mercahndise and trade goods farther and faster than ever.
    
    Comments:
    I don't build these, either, because I'm either democracy or fundamentalist
    by the time I get them, and have lots of money.
    
    
    Explorer
    ========
    Advance Required:    Seafaring
    Obsolescence:        Guerilla Warfare
    Domain:              Ground
    Movement:            1
    Attack:              0
    Defense:             1
    Hit Points:          10
    Fire Power:          1
    Cost to Build:       30 Shields
    AI Role:             Attack
    Ability:             Ignores ZOC, treats all squares as road
    
    Description:
    Since the dawn of history, there has been a need for humans to
    investigate their surroundings and expand their knowledge of the world
    around them. Even the eralist civilizations sent people in search of
    wealth and resources in distant lands. With the advent of extensive
    sea travel, explorers such as Christopher Colombus and Amerigo Vespucci
    mapped and chartered territories far from their homelands. These early
    explorers opened the New World to trade and colonization.
    
    Comment:
    These are good units to use to explore the world as you start out,
    because they treat all squares as road.
    
    
    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                   11. Improvements
    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    -IMP-
    
    
    Palace
    ======
    Advance Required: Masonry
    Building Cost:    100
    Upkeep Cost:      0
    
    Eliminates corruption and waste in the city,
    and decreases it in all nearby cities.
    
    Description:
    When populations began to organize their communities into cities, their
    governments became more structured and formalized. At an early stage,
    the ruler of the city established headqaurters from which the business of
    running the city was conducted. In many cases, these buildings also
    served as the living quarters of the ruler. In wealthy cities, these
    facilities often expanded into immense, sprawling palaces. These richly
    adorned, imposing buildings were a source of civic pride, and helped
    to reinforce the aura of power surrounding the ruler.
    
    
    Barracks
    ========
    Advance Required: None
    Building Cost:    40
    Upkeep Cost:      1
    
    City produces Veteran ground units. Ground units can
    be completely repaired in a single turn.
    
    Description:
    Warfare has been a recurring phenomenon throughout the history of mankind,
    and it continues to plague the world today. Although war is not a
    desirable situation, it is important that even the most peaceful of
    societies be prepared for the possibility of war. When warring nations
    are closely matched in technology and manpower, battles are usually won
    by the army with the best training. Military schools and academies
    exist all over the world, established for the purpose of training
    military personnel in the latest methods, tactics, and technology. Men
    and women who graduate from such facilities possess higher than average
    command and military and technology skills, making them more effective in
    combat situations.
    
    
    Granary
    =======
    Advance Required: Pottery
    Building Cost:    60
    Upkeep Cost:      1
    
    Only half of city's food store is depleted when
    city increases in size.
    
    Description:
    Early humans were nomadic, settling in specific regions for brief periods
    of time. When food supply was exhausted in one area, the nomads would
    move on to search for more. Cities became possible only when the
    development of agriculture made the supply of food more abundant and
    dependable. However, cities still needed a way to keep the food supply
    stable throughout all four seasons. To do so, the citizens had to come
    up with a way to store seasonal crops for later use. The granary was
    designed for the storage and protection of surplus food. Food storage
    technology meant that a smaller percentage of the population could
    produce and store enough food for everyone, allowing the remainder
    to pursue other jobs and activities.
    
    
    Temple
    ======
    Advance Required: Ceremonial Burial
    Building Cost:    40
    Upkeep Cost:      1
    
    Up to two discontented citizens are made content.
    
    Description:
    In ancient times, almost every city had a temple dedicated to the city's
    patron god. Many cities also had temples dedicated to other gods as well.
    In modern times, temples are though of as places of worship, like churches
    and cathedrals. Ancient socities, however, considered temples to be the
    local dwelling place for the god or goddess to whom they were dedicated.
    The faithful citizens brought gifts of food, rare metals, and spices
    to the temple as a sign of homage and respect. The presence of a temple
    in the city had a comforting effect on the population, and wise rulers
    often constructed one as soon as the city began to grow.
    
    
    MarketPlace
    ===========
    Advance Required: Currency
    Building Cost:    80
    Upkeep Cost:      1
    
    Increases tax and luxury output by 50%.
    
    Description:
    As cities grew and prospered, trade between the farmers, artisans, and
    craftsmen who lived in the vicinity contributed to the economic health
    of the city. It soon became apparent that the best way for conducting
    trade within the city was to have a central location, or marketplace,
    where the people offering goods and services, or seeking them, could
    meet and conduct business. As a city's marketplace grew larger and
    more active, the economic vitality of the city grew as well.
    
    
    Library
    =======
    Advance Required: Writing
    Building Cost:    80
    Upkeep Cost:      1
    
    Increases science output by 50%.
    
    Description:
    The development of writing meant that the accumulated knowledge of a
    society could be written down and stored rather than memorized and passed
    along by word of mouth. The accumulated written material was stored in
    a library. The libraries of the ancient world, especially those at 
    Alexandria and Pergamum, became the leading centers of science and
    scholarship. The librarians actively collected the books of the world,
    accelerating the spread of knowledge.
    
    
    Courthouse
    ==========
    Advance Required: Code of Laws
    Building Cost:    80
    Upkeep Cost:      1
    
    Decreases corruption by 50%. Makes city more resistant
    to bribery by enemy diplomats and spies. Under Democracy,
    one content citizen becomes happy.
    
    Description:
    As kingdoms and empires expanded, it became increasingly difficult for
    the rulers to maintain control over the more distant regions of their
    realm. To ensure that the far-flung cities of the empire contributed
    their expected share of duties and taxes to the government, local
    magistrates and courts were established. In the courthouse, the ruler's
    representatives listened to the grievances of the people and defined
    and enforced the laws the governed social interaction. This reduced crime,
    and thereby kept th local population productive.
    
    
    City Walls
    ==========
    Advance Required: Masonry
    Building Cost:    80
    Upkeep Cost:      0
    
    Units in city are tripled on defense versus ground attacks.
    
    Description:
    Before the establishment of centralized governments capable of supporting
    strong, national armies, individual cities were left to fend for
    themselves when it came to defense. As a result, many cities constructed
    city walls to protect against raiders and bandits. City walls represented
    a major investment in both time and materials, requiring years to complete
    and constant repairs to maintain their strength and integrity. However,
    these walls turned the city into a fortress capable of withstanding
    all but the most determined attack.
    
    
    Aqueduct
    ========
    Advance Required: Construction
    Building Cost:    80
    Upkeep Cost:      2
    
    Allows city to increase beyond size 8.
    
    Description:
    A major obstacle to population growth and expansion in early cities was
    the scarcity of water. In many cases, the solution to this problem was
    an aqueduct. Aqueducts were large, elevated "stone" canals through which
    water from nearby hills and mountains was channeled into the city.
    Aqueducts allowed cities to grow much larger by significantly
    increasing the ammount of available water. At the same time aqueducts
    reduced the chance of contracting water-borne diseases, by reducing
    the dependance on stagnant ponds and wells as water sources. Aqueducts
    also allowed cities to be built in normally inhospitable environments,
    such as deserts, by providing an outside water source. Modern day Los
    Angeles, for example, obtains it water from the Colorado River, through
    a series of aqueducts over 200 miles long.
    
    
    Bank
    ====
    Advance Required: Banking
    Building Cost:    120
    Upkeep Cost:      3
    
    Increases tax and luxury output by an
    additional 50% (cumulative w/ Marketplace).
    
    Description:
    A highly developed banking system is one of the cornerstones of an
    advanced civilization. Banks lend money to individuals or groups,
    providing capital for industrial and real estate development. Banks
    also contribute to the economic growth of a city or region by stimulating
    the development of production facilities. Individual citizens can also
    benefit by investing their own surplus money in the bank and earning
    interest on it.
    
    
    Cathedral
    =========
    Advance Required: Monotheism
    Building Cost:    120
    Upkeep Cost:      3
    
    Makes four unhappy citizens content (Three after Communism).
    
    Description:
    Throughout the Dark Ages that followed the fall of the Roman Empire,
    the Christian Church was a major force in the revival of European
    Civilization. In recognition of the expanding influence of the church,
    great cathedrals were built in the largest towns and cities, to act as
    centers of religious study and worship. In addition to their religious
    significance, cathedrals acted as the center of social and cultural
    activity in the town. They brought great pride, stability, and tradition
    to the citizens of the community.
    
    
    University
    ==========
    Advance Required: University
    Building Cost:    160
    Upkeep Cost:      3
    
    Increases science output by an additional
    50% (cumulative w/ Library).
    
    Description:
    Universities are institutions of higher learning. Early universities,
    established in the Midlle Ages, were usually built in cities that had
    a large or important cathedral. Studies at these institutions focusing
    on matters concerning the church. The curricula expanded to include
    classical art, literature, and languages. Modern universities provide
    the opportunity to study a wide array of subjects. They have also
    become centers for research into many fields, serving as the source for
    major advances in computers, medicine, physics, and a variety of other
    subjects.
    
    
    Mass Transit
    ============
    Advance Required: Mass Production
    Building Cost:    160
    Upkeep Cost:      4
    
    Eliminates pollution caused by population.
    
    Description:
    Within a few decades of the invention of the automobile, the horse-drawn
    carriage disappeared from city streets. Along with all the advantages
    offered by the automobile, this new means of transport became a significant
    source of air polution. As larger cities became more crowded, the number
    of cars increased, making travel difficult and adding to the pollution
    problem as automobile traffic clogged the streets. The development of
    mass transit systems, including busses, trolleys, subways, and light
    rail, led to a reduction in traffic and, as a result, a reduction in
    air pollution.
    
    
    Colosseum
    =========
    Advance Required: Construction
    Building Cost:    100
    Upkeep Cost:      4
    
    Three unhappy citizens are made content
    (four w/ Electronics).
    
    Description:
    The original colloseum provided entertainment for the common people
    of roman society by presenting them with spectacles and events as a
    temporary escape from day-to-day life. This concept has been revived in
    the 20th Century. Modern-day stadiums and civic centers provide an arena
    for entertainment ranging from concerts to professional sporting events.
    Although the violent spectacle of gladitorial combat is a thing of the
    past, today's colloseums still provide entertainment and diversion
    for the masses.
    
    
    Factory
    =======
    Advance Required: Industrialization
    Building Cost:    200
    Upkeep Cost:      4
    
    Increases resource production in city by 50%.
    
    Description:
    Early examples of factory-like production, where a number of individuals
    work cooperatively toproduce goods for sale or trade, can be found as
    far back as ancient Greece or Rome. Modern factories, however, eveolved
    from the concept of specialized labor, where each worker performed a
    single step in the overall production of an item. This specialization
    allows factories to increase the speed and effiency of the
    manufacturing process, far surpassing earlier means of production.
    The development of the factory system as a means of production played
    a key role in the industrial revolution.
    
    
    Manufacturing Plant
    ===================
    Advance Required: Robotics
    Building Cost:    320
    Upkeep Cost:      6
    
    Increases resource production by an additional 50%
    (cumulative w/ Factory).
    
    Description:
    Manufacturing Plants are large industrial complexes that produce goods
    of all types, although they are generally used to produce durable
    consumer goods such as automobiles. Essentially, a manufacturing plant
    is a large, sophisticated factory that employs a specialization of
    labor, complex machinery, and assembly lines to gain effiency and
    economies of scale. This combination of manpower and automation
    increases productivity and reduces production costs.
    
    
    SDI Defense
    ===========
    Advance Required: Laser
    Building Cost:    200
    Upkeep Cost:      4
    
    Protects everything within three spaces of
    the city from nuclear attack.
    
    Description:
    Historically, research in the area of warfare has seen the development
    of powerful new weapons closely followed by the development of defenses
    to counteract the weapons' destructive power. The development of nuclear
    weapons seemed the exception to this rule: for the first time, mankind
    had created a weapon to which there was apparently no defense.
    SDI(Strategic Defense Initiave), however, could be the answer to this
    problem. Using laser-equipped orbital satellites or ground-launched
    ABMs(Anti-Ballistic Missiles) to intercept and destroy enemy nuclear
    missiles in mid-air, the SDI Defense offers the first hope of negating
    the threat posed by nuclear missiles.
    
    
    Recycling Center
    ================
    Advance Required: Recycling
    Building Cost:    200
    Upkeep Cost:      2
    
    Decreases the pollution caused by factories.
    
    Description:
    The continula growth in city populations leads to an ineveitable increase
    in garbage. Eventaully, existing landfills and garbage dumps are filled,
    forcing new dumping sites to be established. This leads to the gradual
    but steady destruction of the local environment. To reverse this problem,
    many areas have established recycling centers, where much of the garbage
    is sorted and reduced to reusable components through various means.
    These components are then used to manufacture new products. In this
    way, much of the trash produced is turned into raw materials for
    production, rather than contributing to the ever-increasing pollution
    problem.
    
    
    Power Plant
    ===========
    Advance Required: Refining
    Building Cost:    160
    Upkeep Cost:      4
    
    Increases factory output by 50%.
    
    Description:
    Power plants burn coal and other fossil fuels to produce the heat and
    steam necessary to run generators that produce electrical power. When
    electricity became widely and cheaply available, it meant that industries
    could convert from steam to electrical power to run their machinery.
    One central power plant could supply the electrical needs of a
    relatively large geographical area. However, increasing demands for
    electricity, by both consumer and commercial customers, led to a rise
    in the number of power plants. This in turn, led to problems with air
    pollution. As more plants went on line, more fossil fuels were burned
    to generate power. Because modern society depends so heavily on
    electricity, researchers are constantly searching for alternate forms
    of energy to satisfy ever-increasing demands.
    
    
    Hydro Plant
    ===========
    Advance Required: Electronics
    Building Cost:    240
    Upkeep Cost:      4
    
    Increases factory output by 50%.  Cleaner
    than Power Plant, and generally safer than
    Nuclear Plant.
    
    Description:
    One alternative to power generation utilizing coal or petroleum fuels is
    the hydroelectric power plant. This facility utilizes the energy of
    rapidly moving water to turn the turbines of its generators and produce
    electricity. In locations where a source of moving water is available,
    hydro plants offer a clean, safe alternative to coal, petroleum, and
    nuclear power generation. Hydro Plants have their own set of environmental
    dangers, however. The disruption of a river's normal flow and the massive
    flooding of the land behind the facility's dam can destroy the habitat
    of the wildlife inhabiting the river basin.
    
    
    Nuclear Plant
    =============
    Advance Required: Nuclear Power
    Building Cost:    160
    Upkeep Cost:      2
    
    Increases factory output by 50%.  Cleaner
    than Power Plant (same as Hydro Plant), but
    there is a risk of Nuclear Meltdown unless
    civilization has discovered Fusion.
    
    Description:
    Nuclear power plants utilize radioactive materials and the process of
    nuclear fission to generate the heat and setam needed to run electrical
    geneartors to create electricity. Because nuclear power doesn't cause
    the air pollution associated with the burning of coal or petroleum
    products, this means of generating power is considered a viable
    alternative energy source. However, the toxic nature of the byproducts
    produced by the fission creates serious problems of its own. No method
    of safely disposing of this toxic waste has been found, and the volatile
    nature of the fission reaction can lead to a meltdown of the reactor
    core if the reaction is not properly controlled. Because of these
    problems, the future of nuclear power is uncertain. 
    
    
    Stock Exchange
    ==============
    Advance Required: Economics
    Building Cost:    160
    Upkeep Cost:      4
    
    Increases tax & luxuries output by an additional
    50% (cumulative with Marketplace & Bank for a grand
    total of 150%).
    
    Description:
    In a free market economy, corporations often raise operating and development
    capital by selling "shares" in the corporation to private investors.
    These shares, which allow investors to share in the company's profits, were
    originally sold by brokers and privately hired auctioneers. Early
    European stock exchanges, such as the Paris Bourse, allowed anyone to
    buy or sell stock. However, it was quickly discovered that a formalized
    system was necessary in order to enforce transactions. Thereafter, 
    membership in the exchange was required in order to buy and sell. The
    first formal stock exchange in the U.S. was established in 1971 in
    Philadelphia, and the New York stock exchange was established a year later.
    Today, stock exchanges are loacted in many major cities and commercial
    centers around the world. Private investment in corporations is vital
    to capitalistic economies, allowing corporations to grow more quickly
    than would otherwise be possible. The profits and new jobs created as a
    result improve the economy as a whole.
    
    
    Sewer System
    ============
    Advance Required: Sanitation
    Building Cost:    120
    Upkeep Cost:      2
    
    Allows city to grow beyond size 12.
    
    Description:
    One of the byproducts of large urban centers is a vast ammount of human
    waste.[sic, lol] As the city continues to grow, steps need to be taken
    to move the sewage away from inhabited areas and "treat" it so that it
    does not become a health hazard to humans or harm the local ecosystem.
    Sewer systems carry wastewater to treatment plants where the raw sewage
    is broken down through filtration and chemical purposes to remove solids
    and harmful bacteria. The treated byproduct is then release into rivers
    and other waterways, where it is eventaully washed safely into the ocean.
    
    
    Supermarket
    ===========
    Advance Required: Refrigeration
    Building Cost:    80
    Upkeep Cost:      3
    
    Allows squares in the city's radius with
    the "farmland" improvement (irrigated twice)
    to produce 50% more food.
    
    Description:
    Supermarkets are large, self-service reatil stores that sell a wide variety
    of food items and household goods to the general public. The first true
    supermarket, King Kullen, was established in 1930 in the borough of Queens,
    New York City, by Michael Cullen. Improved storage techniques and
    refrigeration allowed supermarkets to stock and sell perishable foods in
    large quantities, reducing the price to the consumer. The combination of
    ready availablity and low prices made the supermarket an instant sucess
    in the U.S. during the years of the Great Depression. The supermarket
    continues to grow in popularity in countries around the world.
    
    
    Superhighways
    =============
    Advance Required: Automobile
    Building Cost:    200
    Upkeep Cost:      5
    
    All squares in the city's radius with roads
    (or railroads) produce 50% more trade.
    
    Description:
    Early in his career, President Eisenhower, travelled by road, from coast
    to coast, across the United States. This trip, which took nearly a month
    because of the poor system of roads, convinced him that it was necessary
    to make all areas of the country easily accessible. Not only were these
    improvements important to the growing number of people travelling by
    automobile, they could prove invaluable for the movement of troops and
    military equipment should the need arise. In 1956, Eisenhower established
    a federal-aid program known as the Highway Trust Fund to accelerate the
    construction of a network of interstate roads. By 1991 the Interstate
    Highway System in the U.S. consisted of over 42,000 miles of highways.
    Unlike local roadways, superhighways were designed to bypass large
    population centers, and were accessible in limited locations at planned
    entrance and exit interchanges. These highly efficient roadways allow
    motorists today to travel from one end of the country to the other
    withouth having to slow down for intersections or traffic signals.
    
    
    Research Lab
    ============
    Advance Required: Computers
    Building Cost:    160
    Upkeep Cost:      3
    
    Increases science output by an additional 50%
    (cumulative with Library and University for a
    grand total of 150%).
    
    Description:
    Historically, libraries and universities have acted as the primary centers
    of research for new ideas and technologies. The growth of private
    industry in the modern age has also given birth to hundreds of
    privately-owned research facilities. These private laboratories, usually
    dedicated to research in a single field related to their founding company,
    have made tremendous advances in many fields including physics, biology,
    chemistry, and medicine. The growth of privately-funded research has vastly
    increased the speed at which mankind achieves new advances in science and
    technology.
    
    
    SAM Missile Battery
    ===================
    Advance Required: Rocketry
    Building Cost:    100
    Upkeep Cost:      2
    
    Units in city are doubled on defense against
    air units and non-nuclear missile units.
    
    Description:
    The use of airplanes in warfare began in earnest during World War I. By the
    end of World War II, the use of fighter aircraft and bombers was commonplace
    and the importance of air warfare continued to grow, as did the importance
    of effective anti-aircraft defenses. During the 1950's,the refinement of
    rocket technology allowed for the construction of compact missiles which
    were used to deliver explosive warheads to their targets swiftly and
    accurately. Batteries of surface-to-air missiles, or SAMs, were built to
    protect cities and ground installations against airborne attacks. The
    long range and high accuracy of SAM batteries provided a much more effective
    defense than the anti-aircaft guns of World War II.
    
    
    Coastal Fortress
    ================
    Advance Required: Metallurgy
    Building Cost:    80
    Upkeep Cost:      1
    
    Units in city are doubled on defense against
    shore bombardment by enemy ships.
    
    Description:
    The construction of defensive structures such as city walls and fortified
    castles dates back to ancient times. City walls were designed primarily
    to repel an attack launched by ground-based forces, and they performed
    adequately in such a situation. However, coastal ciites were also
    vulnerable to attack from sea bombardments, since even a city wall left
    sea ports relatively unprotected. The best way to protect the port
    was to keep the enmy out of range of the city. This was accomplished by
    constructing fortresses to cover the approach to the city. These
    coastla fortresses, built at the mouth of the city's harbor or on barrier
    islands, would hold enemy vessesl at bay, turning away or thinning out
    the attacking force and minimizing damage to the city's port.
    
    
    Solar Plant
    ===========
    Advance Required: Enviromentalism
    Building Cost:    320
    Upkeep Cost:      4
    
    Increases factory output by 50%.  Cleaner
    than all other forms of power.
    
    Description:
    One of the greatest natural sources of energy on available on Earth is the
    Sun. Solar energy can be converted directly into electrical power without
    the need for mechanical generators through the use of photoelectric cells.
    Alternatively, large solar collecters known as heliostats can be used to
    focus solar energy into a water boiler, generating steam to run
    conventional electrical turbines. Unfortunately, at our current level of
    technology, both of these systems are prohibitively expensive to
    construct. However, because of the dwindling supply of fossil fuels and
    increasing concern over the pollution produced by conventional and nuclear
    power plants, scientists are constantly working on a viable way to
    harness the clean and endless supply of energy provided by our sun.
    
    
    Harbor
    ======
    Advance Required: Seafaring
    Building Cost:    60
    Upkeep Cost:      1
    
    All ocean squares in the city's radius
    produce one extra unit of food.
    
    Description:
    Just because a city is built in a coastal region doesn't guarantee that
    the city is readily acessible by ship. In order for a port city to establish
    a steady trade, fishing, or other shipping industry, the city must have
    a harbor. A harbor is a protected body of water that opens into an ocean
    or lake that shelters shipsfrom waves and high winds. Although some coastal
    cities are established in areas where a natural harbor exists, most seaports
    are forced either to improve the existing natural harbor, or to build a
    man-made harbor to shelter ships and provide channels deep enough to
    accomodate large vessels.
    
    
    Offshore Platform
    =================
    Advance Required: Miniturization
    Building Cost:    160
    Upkeep Cost:      3
    
    All ocean squares in the city's radius
    produce one shield.
    
    Description:
    Mankind's dependance on wood and coal as a main source of fuel ended when
    the first commercial oil well went into production in Pennsylvania in
    1859. Crude oil could be refined into many different byproducts, and
    soon replace wood and coal in many parts of the world. The growing
    dependance on oil caused the petroleum industry to grow rapidly and wells
    were drilled all over the world. Most wells were initially drilled on
    land, but after World War II it was found that many of the largest
    oil deposits could be found below the sea floor. Shallow water drilling
    from platforms supported by pylons resting on the seabed proved very
    sucessful. Today, large floating platforms can drill for oil at water
    depths of more than 3300 feet.
    
    
    Airport
    =======
    Advance Required: Radio
    Building Cost:    160
    Upkeep Cost:      3
    
    City produces veteran air units.
    Any air unit spending its entire turn in the city
    is completely repaired.
    
    Description:
    Since the middle of the 20th century, the airplane has been one of the
    chief means of long-distance transport in the world. Nearly every major
    metropolitan area today has at least one airport, with facilitites to
    handle passengers and ticketing, as well as facilities for refuelling
    and repairing the aircraft that land there. Beginning in the 1940's,
    the growing role of airplanes as combat vehicles led to the widespread
    construction of military air bases.  Nearly 400 of these facilities in
    the U.S. alone act as bases and maintenance facilities for the aircraft
    assigned to all branches of the military.
    
    
    Police Station
    ==============
    Advance Required: Communism
    Building Cost:    60
    Upkeep Cost:      2
    
    Decreases unhappiness caused by troops away from city by 1.
    
    Description:
    The concept of a police force operating independantly of the military
    goes back to the Praetorian Guard of ancient Rome. In the Middle Ages,
    noblemen protected their estates by appointing constables to enforce
    the law and arrest and guard criminals, but the first modern, organized
    police force was the London Metropolitan Police. Established in 1829,
    this organization became the model for law enforcement organizations
    in the United States and many other industrialized nations around the
    world. The presence of a police force serves to uphold the laws  of
    society, and to control civil unrest. A strong, visble police force
    strengthens confidence of the community by keeping the citizens safe.
    
    
    Port Facility
    =============
    Advance Required: Amphibious Warfar
    Building Cost:    80
    Upkeep Cost:      3
    
    City produces veteran naval units.
    Any ship spending its entire turn in the city is
    completely repaired.
    
    Description:
    Seagoing vessels have been used for both commercial activity and military
    purposes for thousands of years. Cities built on rivers and on the coasts
    of seas and oceans built facilities to recieve cargo and to house military
    vessels stationed in the area. Many of the larger cities built large port
    facilities that included shipyards for the construction of new vessesls,
    large warehouse and docking facilities, and dry-docks for the repair of
    damaged vessels. Heavily damaged ships can be repaired much more quickly
    when such facilities are available.
    
    
    SS Structural
    =============
    Advance Required: Space Flight
    Building Cost:    80
    Upkeep Cost:      -
    
    Part of Spaceship
    
    Description:
    The structural parts of a spaceship are the frame to which all other parts
    of the spaceship are attached. All spaceship components and modules must
    be connected to a structural section in order to function. Components and
    modules not connected to the frame are outlined in red on the spaceship
    display.
    
    
    SS Component
    ============
    Advance Required: Plastics
    Building Cost:    160
    Upkeep Cost:      -
    
    Part of Spaceship
    
    Description:
    Spaceship components provide the motive power of a spaceship. There are
    two types: propulsion and fuel. Propulsion components are the spaceship
    engines, and each fuel component provides enough fuel to run one engine.
    Every propulsion component requires a fuel component in order to function.
    At minimum, a spaceship requires one of each type of component. The more
    engines the spaceship possesses, the faster it will arrive at its
    destination.
    
    
    SS Module
    =========
    Advance Required: Superconductor
    Building Cost:    320
    Upkeep Cost:      -
    
    Part of Spaceship
    
    Description:
    Modules are the central components of a spaceship. There are three types:
    habitation, life support, and solar panels. Each habitation module
    provides living space for 10,000 colonists. Each life support module
    provides enough food, water, and other basic requirements to support
    the colonists in one habitation module. Both habitation and life
    support modules require power in order to operate, and each solar
    panel module provides enough energy to run two other modules. At minimum,
    every spaceship requires one of each type of module in order to be
    sucessful in its mission.
    
    
    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                     12. Wonders
    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    -WON-
    
    
    Capitilization
    ==============
    Advance Required: Corporation
    Obsolescense:     None
    Cost:             600
    
    Converts production into trade.
    
    
    
    
    Pyramids
    ========
    Advance Required: Masonry
    Obsolescense:     -
    Cost:             200
    
    Counts as a Granary in every one of your cities.
    
    Description:
    Built by the fourth dynasty of Egyptian rulers, the Pyramids represent the
    pinnacle of ancient Egyptian cultural achievment. Constructed on the Giza
    Plateau outside modern-day Cairo, these structures were burial tombs and
    monuments for the Pharaohs, and may have taken generations and tens of
    thousands of workers to complete. The Pyramids are the only one of the
    generally accepted man-made wonders of the ancient world that remains in
    existance today.
    
    
    Hanging Gardens
    ===============
    Advance Required: Pottery
    Obsolescense:     RailRoad
    Cost:             200
    
    One extra happy citizen in every city.
    
    Description:
    The Hanging Gardens were a very distinctive feature of ancient Babylon.
    They were a great source of pride to the people and were often described
    in accounts written by visitors to the city. Possibly built by King
    Nebuchadnezzar II in 600 BC, the gardens are believed to have been a
    remarkable feat of engineering: an ascending series of tired gardens
    containing all manner of trees, shrubs and vines. The gardens were said to
    have looked like a large green mountain constructed of mud bricks, rising
    from the center of the city.
    
    
    Colossus
    ========
    Advance Required: Bronze Working
    Obsolescense:     Flight
    Cost:             200
    
    City produces one extra trade arrow in each square that
    already produces one.
    
    
    Lighthouse
    ==========
    Advance Required: Mapmaking
    Obsolescense:     Magnetism
    Cost:             200
    
    Triremes can move across oceans w/o danger, and all other
    types of ship have their movement rate increased by one.
    Also, all new ships you produce receive veteran status.
    
    
    Great Library
    =============
    Advance Required: Literacy
    Obsolescense:     Electricity
    Cost:             300
    
    Civilization receives any civilization advance
    already discovered by two other civilizations.
    
    
    Oracle
    ======
    Advance Required: Mysticism
    Obsolescense:     Theology
    Cost:             300
    
    Doubles the effect of all of your temples.
    
    
    Great Wall
    ==========
    Advance Required: Masonry
    Obsolescense:     Metallurgy
    Cost:             300
    
    Enemy civilizations must offer cease-fire/peace
    in negotiations.  Combat strength doubled against
    barbarians.
    
    
    Sun Tzu's War Academy
    =====================
    Advance Required: Feudalism
    Obsolescense:     Mobile Warfare
    Cost:             300
    
    All new ground units produced gain Veteran status.
    Any unit which wins a combat gains Veteran status.
    
    
    King Richard's Crusade
    ======================
    Advance Required: Engineering
    Obsolescense:     Industrialization
    Cost:             300
    
    Every square in the city's radius produces an extra
    resource "shield".
    
    
    Marco Polo's Embassy
    ====================
    Advance Required: Trade
    Obsolescense:     Communism
    Cost:             200
    
    You receive a free embassy with every rival Civilization (so
    your intelligence report will always be complete and you will
    receive updates when other civilizations discover technologies).
    
    
    Michaelangelo's Chapel
    ======================
    Advance Required: Montheism
    Obsolescense:     -
    Cost:             400
    
    Counts as a Cathedral in each of your cities.
    
    
    Copernicus' Observatory
    =======================
    Advance Required: Atronomy
    Obsolescense:     -
    Cost:             300
    
    Increases science output of city by 50%.
    
    
    Magellan's Expedition
    =====================
    Advance Required: Navigation
    Obsolescense:     -
    Cost:             400
    
    Movement rate of all ships is increased by two.
    
    
    Shakespeare's Theatre
    =====================
    Advance Required: Medicine
    Obsolescense:     -
    Cost:             300
    
    All unhappy citizens in city are content.
    
    
    Leonardo's Workshop
    ===================
    Advance Required: Invention
    Obsolescense:     Automobile
    Cost:             400
    
    Whenever one of your units becomes obsolete because of a new
    technology you have discovered, it is immediately replaced
    by an equivalent modern unit.
    
    
    J.S. Bach's Cathedral
    =====================
    Advance Required: Theology
    Obsolescense:     -
    Cost:             400
    
    Decreases unhappy citizens on same continent by 2 per city.
    
    
    Isaac Newton's College
    ======================
    Advance Required: Theory of Gravity
    Obsolescense:     -
    Cost:             400
    
    Doubles science output of city.
    
    
    Adam Smith's Trading Company
    ============================
    Advance Required: Economics
    Obsolescense:     -
    Cost:             400
    
    Pays the maintenance for all city improvements which
    ordinarily cost 1 gold per turn.  City improvements
    requiring more than 1 gold per turn maintenance are not
    affected.
    
    
    Darwin's Voyage
    ===============
    Advance Required: Railroad
    Obsolescense:     -
    Cost:             400
    
    Two free civilization advances.
    
    
    Statue of Liberty
    =================
    Advance Required: Democracy
    Obsolescense:     -
    Cost:             400
    
    Eliminates the period of unrest between governments.
    Also allows any form of government to be chosen, even if
    the proper advance has not been discovered.
    
    
    Eiffel Tower
    ============
    Advance Required: Steam Engine
    Obsolescense:     -
    Cost:             300
    
    When you first obtain control of the Eiffel Tower,
    Every civilization's attitude toward you is immediately shifted 25 points
    in your favor (on a hundred point scale).  Attitudes continue to improve
    gradually over time.  Other civilizations are also quicker to forget your
    past transgressions.
    
    
    Women's Sufrage
    ===============
    Advance Required: Industrialization
    Obsolescense:     -
    Cost:             600
    
    Counts as a Police Station in every one of your cities.
    (Decreases unhappiness caused by troops away from city by 1).
    
    
    Hoover Dam
    ==========
    Advance Required: Electronics
    Obsolescense:     -
    Cost:             600
    
    Provides Hydro power to every city on every continent.
    
    
    Manhattan Project
    =================
    Advance Required: Nuclear Fission
    Obsolescense:     -
    Cost:             600
    
    Allows nuclear weapons to be built.
    
    
    United Nations
    ==============
    Advance Required: Communism
    Obsolescense:     -
    Cost:             600
    
    Free embassy with every other civilization
    Enemy civ's cannot refuse your peace treaties.
    As a democracy, you can declare war 50% of the time(peacekeeping missions).
    
    
    Apollo Program
    ==============
    Advance Required: Space Flight
    Obsolescense:     -
    Cost:             600
    
    Allows construction of spaceship improvements.
    
    
    SETI Program
    ============
    Advance Required: Computers
    Obsolescense:     -
    Cost:             600
    
    Counts as a research lab in every one of your cities; effectively
    doubles your science output.
    
    
    Cure for Cancer
    ===============
    Advance Required: Genetics
    Obsolescense:     -
    Cost:             600
    
    One extra happy citizen in each city.
    
    
    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                     13. Terrain
    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    -TER-
    
    
    NOTE: Irrigation time and mining time are the time it takes for settlers
          to irrigate/mine. Engineers work at twice the speed of settlers.
    NOTE: Movecost indicates the cost it takes to move through the square, 1
          is default. The higher the number the slower the square.
    
    
    
    
    DESERT
    ======
    Movecost:      1
    Defense Bonus: -
    Food:          0
    Shields:       1
    Trade:         0
    Irrigation Effects: +1 food
    Irrigation Time: 5 turns
    Mining Effects: +1 shield
    Mining Time: 3 turns
    Transform To: Plains
    
    
    PLAINS
    ======
    Movecost:      1
    Defense Bonus: -
    Food:          1
    Shields:       1
    Trade:         0
    Irrigation Effects: +1 food
    Irrigation Time: 5 turns
    Mining Effects: Changes to Forest
    Mining Time: 15 turns
    Transform To: Grassland
    
    
    GRASSLAND
    =========
    Movecost:      1
    Defense Bonus: -
    Food:          2
    Shields:       1
    Trade:         0
    Irrigation Effects: +1 food
    Irrigation Time: 5 turns
    Mining Effects: Changes to Forest
    Mining Time: 10 turns
    Transform To: Hills
    
    
    FOREST
    ======
    Movecost:      2
    Defense Bonus: 50%
    Food:          1
    Shields:       2
    Trade:         0
    Irrigation Effects: Change to Plains
    Irrigation Time: 5 turns
    Mining Effects: -
    Mining Time: -
    Transform To: Grassland
    
    
    HILLS
    =====
    Movecost:      2
    Defense Bonus: 100% bonus
    Food:          1
    Shields:       0
    Trade:         0
    Irrigation Effects: +1 food
    Irrigation Time: 10 turns
    Mining Effects: +3 shields
    Mining Time: 10 turns
    Transform To: Plains
    
    
    MOUNTAINS
    =========
    Movecost:      3 
    Defense Bonus: 200% bonus
    Food:          0
    Shields:       1
    Trade:         0
    Irrigation Effects: -
    Irrigation Time: -
    Mining Effects: +1 shield
    Mining Time: 10 turns
    Transform To: Hills
    
    
    TUNDRA
    ======
    Movecost:      1
    Defense Bonus: -
    Food:          1
    Shields:       0
    Trade:         0
    Irrigation Effects: +1 food
    Irrigation Time: 10 turns
    Mining Effects: -
    Mining Time: -
    Transform To: Desert
    
    
    GLACIER
    =======
    Movecost:      2
    Defense Bonus: -
    Food:          0
    Shields:       0
    Trade:         0
    Irrigation Effects: -
    Irrigation Time: -
    Mining Effects: +1 shield
    Mining Time: 15 turns
    Transform To: Tundra
    
    
    SWAMP
    =====
    Movecost:      2
    Defense Bonus: 50% bonus
    Food:          1
    Shields:       0
    Trade:         0
    Irrigation Effects: Change to Grassland
    Irrigation Time: 15 turns
    Mining Effects: Change to Forest
    Mining Time: 15 turns
    Transform To: Plains
    
    
    JUNGLE
    ======
    Movecost:      2
    Defense Bonus: 50% bonus
    Food:          1
    Shields:       0
    Trade:         0
    Irrigation Effects: Change to Grassland
    Irrigation Time: 15 turns
    Mining Effects: Change to Forest
    Mining Time: 15 turns
    Transform To: Plains
    
    
    OCEAN
    =====
    Movecost:      1
    Defense Bonus: -
    Food:          1
    Shields:       0
    Trade:         2
    Irrigation Effects: -
    Irrigation Time: -
    Mining Effects: -
    Mining Time: -
    Transform To: -
    
    
    
    Oasis
    =====
    Found on: Desert
    Food: 3
    Shields: 1
    Trade: 0
    
    Buffalo
    =======
    Found on: Plains
    Food: 1
    Shields: 3
    Trade: 0
    
    Grassland(Shield)
    =========
    Found on: Grassland
    Food: 2
    Shields: 1
    Trade: 0
    
    Pheasant
    ========
    Found on: Forest
    Food: 3
    Shields: 2
    Trade: 0
    
    Coal
    ====
    Found on: Hills
    Food: 1
    Shields: 2
    Trade: 0
    
    Gold
    ====
    Found on: Mountains
    Food: 0
    Shields: 1
    Trade: 6
    
    Game
    ====
    Found on: Tundra
    Food: 3
    Shields: 1
    Trade: 0
    
    Ivory
    =====
    Found on: Glacier
    Food: 1
    Shields: 1
    Trade: 4
    
    Peat
    ====
    Found on: Swamp
    Food: 1
    Shields: 4
    Trade: 0
    
    Gems
    ====
    Found on: Jungle
    Food: 1
    Shields: 0
    Trade: 4
    
    Fish
    ====
    Found on: Ocean
    Food: 3
    Shields: 0
    Trade: 2
    
    Desert Oil
    ==========
    Found on: Desert
    Food: 0
    Shields: 4
    Trade: 0
    
    Wheat
    =====
    Found on: Grassland
    Food: 3
    Shields: 1
    Trade: 0
    
    Silk
    ====
    Found on: Jungle
    Food: 1
    Shields: 2
    Trade: 3
    
    Wine
    ====
    Found on: Hills
    Food: 1
    Shields: 0
    Trade: 4
    
    Iron
    ====
    Found on: Mountains
    Food: 0
    Shields: 4
    Trade: 0
    
    Furs
    ====
    Found on: Tundra
    Food: 2
    Shields: 0
    Trade: 3
    
    Glacier Oil
    ===========
    Found on: Glacier
    Food: 0
    Shields: 4
    Trade: 0
    
    Spice
    =====
    Found on: Jungle
    Food: 3
    Shields: 0
    Trade: 4
    
    Fruit
    =====
    Found on: Forest
    Food: 4
    Shields: 0
    Trade: 1
    
    Whales
    ======
    Found on: Ocean
    Food: 2
    Shields: 2
    Trade: 3
    
    
    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                   14. Governments
    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    -GVT-
    
    
    The form of government you choose for your civilization will
    affect the way resources are distributed in your cities, the
    rate at which your citizens can produce and sustain new units
    and city improvements, and the extent to which your citizens
    have a say in the way you govern them.
    
    Some forms of government, such as Despotism, Monarchy, and
    later Communism and Fundamentalism, allow you to expand
    rapidly, to produce and sustain large numbers of military
    units, and to control your affairs completely.
    
    Democracy and the Republic, on the other hand, give your
    citizens the freedom to produce vast amounts of trade, which
    increases your wealth and knowledge rapidly. On the other
    hand, your citizens may grow unhappy when you send military
    units out of your cities; also, your Senate may try to
    interfere in your conduct of foreign affairs.
    
    To change your civilization's government, you must have a
    Revolution--select "Revolution" from the Kingdom Menu.  This
    will entail a brief period of Anarchy.
    
    
    
    Anarchy
    =======
    Anarchy represents not so much a government type as the
    lack of any stable government. Anarchy occurs when your
    civilization's government falls, or when you decide to
    have a Revolution. After a few turns of Anarchy, you will
    be able to reconstitute your government.
    
    Anarchy is similar to Despotism, except that the corruption
    rate is VERY HIGH (see entry for Despotism).  However, no
    taxes are collected during a period of Anarchy, and no
    scientific research is conducted.
    
    
    Despotism
    =========
    UNIT SUPPORT
    Each unit above the city size costs one shield per turn.
    Settlers eat one food per turn.
    
    HAPPINESS
    Up to three military units in each city will institute
    "martial law", converting an unhappy citizen into a content
    citizen.
    
    CORRUPTION AND WASTE
    Despotism has a HIGH rate of corruption and waste.  The
    level of corruption in a particular city is based on its
    distance from your capital.
    
    SPECIAL
    Under a Despotism, none of the science/tax/luxury rates may
    be set higher than 60%.  ALSO, ANY SQUARE WHICH WOULD ORDINARILY
    PRODUCE THREE OR MORE OF A RESOURCE (FOOD, SHIELDS, TRADE) PRODUCES
    ONE LESS.
    
    HINTS
    Because of Despotism's high rate of corruption, it is almost
    always an inferior form of government.  Try to switch to a
    Monarchy as soon as possible.
    
    
    Monarchy
    ========
    UNIT SUPPORT
    Each unit beyond the third costs one shield per turn.
    Settlers eat one food per turn.
    
    HAPPINESS
    Up to three military units in each city will institute
    "martial law", converting an unhappy citizen into a content
    citizen.
    
    CORRUPTION AND WASTE
    Monarchy has a MODERATE rate of corruption and waste.  The
    level of corruption in a particular city is based on its
    distance from your capital.
    
    SPECIAL
    Under a Monarchy, none of the science/tax/luxury rates may
    be set higher than 70%.
    
    HINTS
    Monarchy is an excellent form of government for a young
    civilization.
    
    
    Communism
    =========
    UNIT SUPPORT
    Each unit beyond the third costs one shield per turn.
    Settlers eat one food per turn.
    
    HAPPINESS
    Up to three military units in each city will institute
    "martial law", converting *TWO* unhappy citizens into
    content citizens (so a total of SIX unhappy citizens can
    be suppressed).
    
    CORRUPTION AND WASTE
    Under Communism, state control of the economy eliminates
    organized crime.  Your cities, therefore, experience no
    corruption.
    
    SPECIAL
    All SPY units produced under Communist governments are
    given VETERAN status.  Under Communism, none of the
    science/tax/luxury rates may be set higher than 80%.
    
    HINTS
    Communism is best for large, far-flung empires which need
    to maintain a large military.  Use your powerful spies to
    steal technology from the capitalist pigs.
    
    
    Fundamentalism
    ==============
    UNIT SUPPORT
    Can support up to TEN units for free; additional
    units cost one shield each.  Settlers eat one
    food per turn.  ONLY Fundamentalisms may produce
    FANATIC units.
    
    HAPPINESS
    Under Fundamentalism, NO CITIZEN IS EVER UNHAPPY!
    
    CORRUPTION AND WASTE
    Fundamentalism has a LOW rate of corruption.
    However, Fundamentalism has the special disadvantage that
    all SCIENCE is HALVED.
    
    SPECIAL
    Improvements which convert unhappy citizens to
    content citizens (Temples, etc.)
    produce "tithes" equal to the number of citizens they would
    otherwise convert.  They also require no maintenance.
    The diplomatic penalties for "terrorist acts" committed by
    your Diplomats and Spies are reduced.
    Under Fundamentalism, none of the science/tax/luxury rates may
    be set higher than 80%.
    
    HINTS
    Fundamentalism eliminates all happiness problems and provides
    an excellent revenue.  Scientific research tends to languish.
    
    
    Republic
    ========
    UNIT SUPPORT
    Each unit costs one shield per turn.  Settlers eat TWO
    food per turn.
    
    HAPPINESS
    Each military unit AFTER THE FIRST which is not in a friendly
    city (or a fortress within 3 spaces of a friendly city)
    causes one citizen in its home city to become unhappy.
    
    CORRUPTION AND WASTE
    The Republic has a LOW rate of corruption and waste.  The
    level of corruption in a particular city is based on its
    distance from your capital.
    
    SPECIAL
    Under a Republic, each square which ordinarily produces at
    least one unit of trade produces an extra unit.
    None of the science/tax/luxury rates may be set higher
    than 80%.
    
    HINTS
    Switching to a Republic can give an astounding boost to your
    science and tax revenues, although you'll probably have to
    divert some of your trade to luxuries.  It becomes more
    difficult (and expensive) to keep an army in the field, but
    building the Womens Suffrage wonder can help with this
    problem.
    
    
    Democracy
    =========
    UNIT SUPPORT
    Each unit costs one shield per turn.  Settlers eat TWO
    food per turn.
    
    HAPPINESS
    Each unit which is not in a friendly
    city (or a fortress within 3 spaces of a friendly city)
    causes TWO citizens in its home city to become unhappy.
    
    CORRUPTION AND WASTE
    Democracies experience NO corruption or waste.
    
    SPECIAL
    Under a Democracy, each square which ordinarily produces at
    least one unit of trade produces an extra unit.
    The units and cities of a Democracy are immune to BRIBERY
    of all forms.
    The science/tax/luxury rates may be set to any level
    desired.
    
    HINTS
    Democracies can produce spectacular amounts of revenue and
    scientific research.  However, because of the severe
    happiness restrictions on military units, this form of
    government tends to be viable only for large, advanced
    civilizations.  Increasing your luxuries rate and building
    Wonders can help alleviate this problem.
    
    
    
    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                15. Discovery Effects
    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    -DSC-
    
    
    Courtesy of Scenario Design League @ http://www.apolyton.net/civ2/
    
    Advance              | Triggered Effects of Discovery
    -----------------------------------------------------------------------	
    Alphabet              Increases literacy demographics by 8%.	
    Automobile            Increases population based pollution.  Automobile 
                          works with Electronics to change city pictures to 
                          the modern style. Automobile works with Electronics 
                          to change the look of people to the modern style.	
    Bridge Building       Allows settlers units to construct roads (and
                          railroads) in river squares.	
    Ceremonial Burial     Ceremonial Burial allows temples to make one person
                          content.  Temples do not function without this 
                          advance.	
    Chivalry              Changes the types of Barbarians produced by Goody
                          Huts. Changes the types of sea-based random 
                          Barbarians units produced.	
    Communism             Allows the government type of the same name. 
                          Reduces the effect of Cathedrals by one. 
                          Cities produce more partisans.	
    Conscription          Changes the types of Barbarians produced by Huts.	
    Construction          Construction allows settler units to build
                          Fortresses.	
    Democracy             Allows the government type of the same name. Allows
                          Courthouses to make one content citizen happy 
                          under Democracy.	
    Electronics           An additional citizen in each city is make content 
                          by colisseums after the discovery of Electronics.
                          Automobile works with Electronics to change city
                          pictures to the modern style.
    Environmentalism      Decreases population based pollution.	
    Explosives            Allows terrain transformation orders.	
    Fundamentalism        Allows the government type of the same name. 
                          Allows the production of Fanatics.	
    Fusion Power          Eliminates the threat of Nuclear Power Plant 
                          meltdown. Adds 25% to spaceship mass/thrust paradigm.	
    Guerrilla Warfare     Allows the production of Partisan units. Captured
                          cities produce partisan defenders. Changes the 
                          types of Barbarians units produced by Goody Huts. 
                          Changes the types of land-based random Barbarians 
                          units produced.	
    Gunpowder             Sells all Barracks when discovered. Increases 
                          Barracks maintenance cost by 1. Changes the 
                          types of Barbarians produced by Goody Huts. 
                          Changes the types of land-based random Barbarians
                          units produced.	
    Industrialization     Changes city picture to industrial in any 
                          non-fantasy game. Changes the look of people to
                          industrial. Changes the types of land-based 
                          random Barbarians units produced. Increases 
                          population based pollution.  Oil appears as a 
                          trade item.	
    Invention             Free advances can no longer be gained from goody 
                          huts. Invention works with Philosophy to change 
                          city pictures to the renaissance style.
                          Invention works with Philosophy to change the look 
                          of people to the renaissance style.
    Iron Working          Changes the types of Barbarians produced by Goody
                          Huts. Changes the types of sea-based random 
                          Barbarians units produced.	
    Leadership            Changes the types of Barbarians produced by Huts.	
    Literacy              Doubles literacy demographics.	
    Magnetism             Changes the vessel type of sea-based random
                          Barbarians. Increases annual income demographics.	
    Map Making            Allows civilizations to exchange maps.	
    Mass Production       Increases population based pollution.	
    Medicine              Decreases your people's disease percentage by half.	
    Metallurgy            Changes the types of Barbarians produced by Huts.	
    Mobile Warfare        Sells all barracks and increases barracks 
                          maintenance cost by 1. Changes the types of 
                          land-based random Barbarians units produced. 
                          Ends piracy. Barbarians no longer appear by sea.	
    Monarchy              Allows the government type of the same name.	
    Monotheism            Monotheism allows Cathedrals to make three people
                          content. Note that Cathedrals do not function 
                          without the discovery of Monotheism or Theology 
                          and Mysticism.  Changes the types of Barbarians
                          produced by Goody Huts.	
    Mysticism             Doubles the effect of temples.	
    Navigation            Navigation reduces the chances of triremes
                          floundering. Changes the vessel type of sea-based
                          random Barbarians.	
    Nuclear Fission       Uranium to appears as a trade item. 	
    Nuclear Power         Nuclear Power increases the movement allowance of
                          ships by 1.	
    Philosophy            The civilization that first discovers Philosophy 
                          gains a free advance. Invention works with 
                          Philosophy to change the look of people to the
                          renaissance style.	
    Plastics              Increases population based pollution.	
    Polytheism            Changes the types of Barbarians produced by Huts.	
    Radio                 Allows engineers to construct airbases.	
    Railroad              Railroad allows settlers and engineers to build
                          railroads.   All city squares are automatically
                          upgraded to railroad. 	
    Refrigeration         Refrigeration allows settlers and engineers to 
                          double-irrigate lands. All city squares are
                          automatically upgraded to farmland 
                          (double-irrigation).	
    Republic              Allows the government type of the same name.	
    Sanitation            Decreases population based pollution.	
    Seafaring             Seafaring reduces the chances of triremes floundering. 
    Tactics               Changes the types of sea-based random 
                          Barbarians units produced.	
    Theology              Improves the effectiveness of Cathedrals by one.	
    Trade                 Enables the display of demanded trade 
                          goods of foreign cities.	
    University            Doubles literacy demographics.	
    Writing               Increases literacy demographics by 8%.	
    Future Technology     Reoccurring technology.  
                          Increases game score.	
    
    
    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                    16. Strategies
    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    -STG-
    
    
    Beginning Phase
    ===============
    You start out on an undiscovered world, with either one of two settlers.
    If you have two you're lucky. One will be used to build your first city,
    and the other will never be used to build cities, always to irrigate
    and build roads, because it doesn't need support. With your building
    settler look for an area to build your first city. Beside the sea is
    always good, but if you are far inland build on/near a river. Also,
    you will want to have extra food/resources, so try to build near a
    wheat square, a whale square or a pheasant square for abundant food.
    This will increase population quickly. Do not spend too much time
    looking for a location for your firs city, about 3 or 4 turns is
    enough, because you need to build your city early to start building
    and researching.
    Next, build a defense unit in the city, then a settler unit(even if they
    gave you two, you need to build a second city), and then an exporing
    unit. Use the settler(s) to irrigate the terrain around your first city,
    and build roads to the location of the new city. With the explorer,
    explore the surrounding terrain, and always inspect goody huts. You
    may get extra technologies.
    In the city, you should be building a granary. Also, go to the Tax Rate
    menu, and change your tax rate so that you make a profit(of anything,
    even 1) each turn, and then give everything else to science.
    When the Advances screen comes up: Research Code of Laws, Writing, and
    Literacy. As soon as you've discovered Literacy, start building the
    Great Library in your most-productive city(should be your first).
    At the next advance screen, go to goal and select Monarchy. Research
    all the things you need to get it. After you've switched to Monarchy.
    Start to research the things you need for Leonardo's Workshop, and then
    everything you need for King Richard's Crusade. That will bring you into
    the mid-game....
    While researching, you should be building temples, libraries, marketplaces,
    anything, in your cities. And each city should have at least a 2-defense
    unit defending it. Your free settler(if you didn't get one at the start,
    you should have got one from a hut), should be irrigating around your
    cities.
    Hopefully, your explorer will have met with a foreign leader(as long as
    you're not on an island), and you can exchange technology with them.
    If they are a powerful nation at this stage, try and make an alliance
    with them.
    One last point, you should try to build the oracle, it's not extremely
    important, but it helps with your population's happiness.
    
    Settlers
    ========
    Settlers are your best friends. Well, mine anyway, because I have no other
    friends! Settlers have two purposes - building cities and altering land (or
    terraforming to you Alpha Centauri junkies). As mentioned in the previous
    strategy, if you have two settlers at the start, you're blessed. If you
    don't, wait until you have a few improvements in your city (Granary, etc.)
    built before creating your first settler. Then have him irrigate the land
    around the city and build roads in all the squares. Once you have that done
    build a road toward where you will build your next city, and irrigate some
    of the squares around where it will be built. Once you have that done,
    build your second city. Now you can repeat this process over and over until
    you have lots of cities and a bustling population.
    
    Improvements
    ============
    The best improvements to build at the start are in order:
    -Granary
    -Temple
    -Library
    -Barracks
    -Marketplace
    -Courthouse
    -Aqueduct (you'll need technology advances to get this one, but when you do
               build it immediately)
    
    Happiness
    =========
    When your citizens are happy, your city will be more productive. So, you'll
    have to introduce measures to keep them happy. One way is to increase the
    luxury rate, but this is counter-productive as in order to increase this, you
    have to lower science or production. Only do this if you're a democratic
    state or if you have nothing left to build that will make the citizens
    content. There are numerous improvements which add to citizens happiness,
    these are:
    Temple    - Up to two discontented citizens are made content
    Cathedral - Up to four discontented citizens are made content
    Colosseum - Up to three discontented citizens are made content
    Police St - Decreases unhappiness caused by troops away from city by 1
    There are also wonders which do 'wonders' for your peoples' happiness:
    Hanging Gardens - One extra happy citizen in every city
    Oracle          - Doubles the effect of all of your temples
    Michaelangelo's - Counts as a Cathedral in each of your cities
    Shakespeare's T - All unhappy citizens in city are content
    J.S. Bach's Cth - Decreases unhappy citizens on same continent by 2 per city
    Women's Suffrge - Counts as a Police Station in every one of your cities
    Cure for Cancer - One extra happy citizen in each city
    However, there is also a third way to decrease unhappiness. You can turn one
    of your citizens (productive or non-productive) into an entertainer, which
    will increase the happiness of one citizen.
    
    Wonders of the World
    ====================
    There are more than 7 Wonders you can build in Civ2, but which ones should you
    build? I'm going to give them all a rating out of ten (with ten being the best
    obviously)
    Pyramids              - 4: You should already have built granaries in your 
                               cities. And this early in the game, you won't have
                               many cities.
    Hanging Gardens       - 7: A good wonder to build if your citizens are
                               discontent, but it expires a bit too early for
                               my liking
    Colossus              - 6: If you're stuck for money, it's good. But otherwise
                               don't bother
    Lighthouse            - 8: Allows you to explore the oceans before everyone
                               else, and gives your ships veteran status.
    Great Library         -10: The best wonder. Gives you technolgies without you
                               even having to discover them.
    Oracle                - 8: More happy citizens, what more could you want?
    Great Wall            - 9: Helps against barbarians, and gets you peace with
                               everyone.
    Sun Tzu's War Academy - 8: Veteran status is very helpful if you like fighting
    King Richard's Crusade- 9: Building this can allow you to build everything
                               else a lot quicker
    Marco Polo's Embassy  - 8: Helps you find those other civilizations that seem
                               to be non-existant
    Michaelangelo's Chapel- 6: A waste of time and effort. Just build individual
                               Cathedrals instead
    Copernicus Observatory- 6: Adds to your science output, but just for one city
    Magellan's Expedition - 9: All your ships can move two squares more every turn
                               A major advantage.
    Shakespeare's Theatre - 4: Another waste of time. If you have so many unhappy
                               citizens that you need to build this, it'll never
                               be built, as the citizens will be too busy giving
                               out
    Leonardo's Workshop   - 9: Excellent wonder. Updates all your obsolete units
    J.S. Bach's Cathedral - 8: If all your cities are on the one continent, this
                               is a 10.
    Isaac Newton's College- 7: See Copernicus' Observatory.
    Adam Smiths Trading Co- 7: Has it's advantages, but comes a bit too late in
                               the game to be super-beneficial
    Dawin's Voyage        - 7: Good, but only if you're not a democracy.
    Statue of Liberty     - 9: Allows you to choose any government, and gets rid
                               of unrest.
    Eiffel Tower          - 8: Other civilizations will love you.
    Women's Suffrage      - 6: Just build individual Police Stations instead
    Hoover Dam            - 8: Gives Hydro Power everywhere, which allows you to
                               build even more.
    Manhattan Project     - 1: Let someone else build it. I hate Nukes.
    United Nations        -10: The best late-game wonder. Allows for Peacekeeping
                               missions under democracy. You can gain peace with
                               anyone whenever you want.
    Apollo Program        - 7: Allows you to build your spaceship. Only build it
                               if you're far ahead.
    SETI Program          - 8: Far far better than Newton's College.
    Cure for Cancer       - 8: The late-game Oracle.
    
    
    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                           17. Frequently Asked Questions
    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    
    Introduction
    ============
    This section is for all questions about Civilization. Unlike the other
    sections, it contains its own Table of Contents to help you find
    the question you're looking for. If you have a question that is not
    listed here, don't hesitate to post it on my message boards.
    
    Contents
    ========
    a) What is Civil Disorder
    b) Civil Disorder in Democracy
    c) Why did my city disband my improvement?
    d) Help, you never continued your beginner's guide!
    e) Where can I get the Scenarios?
    f) Ask away - post it on the message board!
    
    
    Question A
    ==========
    Q.
    Late in the game (under Communism), I had "civil disorder" in a couple of
    my cities. What causes "CIVIL DISORDER" in one city and NOT in another???
    A.
    The main cause of Civil disorder under comunism is unhappiness. In order to
    make your citizens happy, you can enforce martial law under communism by
    having troops in your city. Each one of these will make 2 unhappy citiens
    content. Another way is to increase luxuries, or you could change one
    citizen to an Entertainer.
    (Q - Adrian)
    
    
    Question B
    ==========
    Q.
    How do you keep Democracy from falling from Civil Disorder?
    A.
    All you need to do here is raise your luxury % to around 20%, and then you
    will be able to use Democracy the way it's meant to be used.
    (Q - Adrian)
    
    
    Question C
    ==========
    Q.
    What causes a city to NOT be able to sustain an improvement?
    And, what measures can be taken to prevent that from happening?
    A.
    The cause of not being able to support an improvement is lack of money.
    In order to combat this, get more money. This can be done in a number of
    ways: change citizens to Tax collecters, increase Tax %, or change your
    type of governement.
    (Q - Adrian)
    
    
    Question D
    ==========
    Q.
    What did you mean by "I'll stop there because I don't want to decide your
    outcome."?
    A.
    Simple really, if I kept telling you what to do I would be playing the
    game for you. And where's the fun in that?
    (Q - Adrian)
    
    
    Question E
    ==========
    Q.
    You list Scenarios in your Guide. Where can I get these?
    A.
    The scenarios I have listed are only available through the Fantastic Worlds
    Add-On disc by Microprose which can be bought in some retail outlets, or
    online.
    (Q - KCougar10)
    
    
    
    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                  18. Outro/Credits
    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    
    Next Version:
    -More FAQs
    -More Strategies
    -Whatever you request
    
    Credits:
    -"A" Tadeo for the Disclaimer
    -CJayC for putting this FAQ on his site, www.gamefaqs.com
    -Microprose/Sid Meier for this Game
    -Microsoft for Windows and Notepad
    -DELL for my 1.8Ghz PC
    -Toshiba for my 2.6Ghz Laptop
    -You for reading it
    
    
      ___  _     ___  ______ _____ ____ ____ _  _
     / _ \| |   / _ \/ __/ |/ / _ \| __|    | \/ /
    | ___ | |__| ___ |__ \   | ___ | __| || ||  |
    |_| |_|____|_| |_|___/_|\_\| |_|_| |____|_/\_\TM
    
                        ©Ronan Hunt-Murphy - AlaskaFox 2001-4