King of Fighters '98 Shingo Guide
                        Version 1.0, by Brian Lui.

v13.1 19/06/01  Additions and improvements.
v6.0  17/06/01  Unreleased; major improvements made.
v1.0  16/06/01  First released version.  Typed up in 90 minutes.

The latest version of this guide can be found at:

Please feel free to email me at _imavrean@hotmail.com_ any suggestions
or other comments you may have.

ASCII text, spaced 72 characters per line, regular spacing.  See tildes:


1.	Introduction
  1.1     Purpose of this Document
  1.2     Who are you?
  1.3     Changes from '97
  1.4     Who is Shingo?
2.      Moves
  2.1     Normals
  2.2     Command Attacks & Throws
  2.3     Specials
  2.4     DMs
  2.5     The Critical Hit
  2.6     The Counter
3.      Gameplay
  3.1     Combos
  3.2     Advanced vs. Extra
  3.3     Strategy
  3.5     Matchups
4.      Miscellaneous
  4.1     Acknowledgements/Credits
  4.2     Legal
  4.3     Epilogue

1.   Introduction

1.1  Purpose of this Document


I write short FAQs with substance, unlike some SF3: Third Strike FAQs.
You will find what you need here.  I am a good player, trained in both
the cutthroat arcade dens in Hong Kong, and in the ways of precise New
York sharpshooting play.  I communicate my ideas well.

Other FAQs I have written are for Iori in KOF 98, and the main Zombie
Revenge FAQ, to give an indication of the quality of my work.

KOF 2000 gameplay is unbalanced.  That is why I am writing a FAQ for
KOF98 in the year 2001.

This guide's purpose is:
To provide a guide for Shingo Yabuki in KOF '98 so that you can win your
To encourage a higher level of Shingo Yabuki play.
To enhance customer satisfaction by providing:
  Value for money
  Continuous Improvement
To continuously improve the usefulness of this FAQ through Total Quality
To manage this FAQ more efficiently through use of Just-In-Time process
flow control.
To work on an efficient supply chain so that the channel distribution of
this FAQ can be maximized.
To use mass customization (market-of-one) technology to maximize the
reach and richness of this FAQ.

1.2  Who are you?

To reduce clutter, I have not included basic mechanics.  You should be
familiar with the following: different types of jumps (hop, shadow jump,
shadow hop), combo/cancelling system, rolls, dodges, command attacks, crossups,
empty hop (grapplers), MAXing up, DM/SDMs, guard crush, counter message, basic
juggling, CD attacks, CD counters, AB rolls,
throw escape, and you should know what Shingo's special moves look like.
You should have played Shingo before and generally have an idea of which
moves of his have priority and what the timing is for simple combos of
his.  You should know the QCF, QCB, etc. system of move notation.

1.3  Changes from '97

Some of Shingo's moves have changed.  He has gained a new kick dance
(close unblockable move) type move.  He has a new and mostly useless
counter move.  His play style, however, is still the same.

1.4  Who is Shingo?

Why did Kyo give Shingo his gloves?
Can Shingo produce flames?
Who is Shingo's girlfriend?
What is Shingo's relationship with Benimaru?  Friends? Friendly rivals?
Is Shingo afraid of Goro?

I don't know.  This is a gameplay FAQ.

2.   Moves

When describing Shingo's moves I'll rate each one's usefulness on a
scale of one to five "stars," a technique pioneered by Andrew Park and
Greg Kasavin in their excellent '97 Kim and Yashiro guides respectively
(both are available at http://www.gamefaqs.com).

2.1  Normals

Standing A
A high hitting punch that misses crouchers.  Can be comboed off of.  Use
crouching A instead. The close version is an elbow that also misses
crouchers.  Also bad.
Usefulness: [*----]

Far B
A quick long ranged poke.  Good for zoning.  Use when opponent is too
close for an Aragami.  Liberal use of this will be sure to annoy your
Usefulness: [****-]

Close B
Kick to the shins that must be blocked low, and can be comboed from.
Also links to other light attacks.  Useful in some combos but I prefer
using the low B, low A link.
Usefulness: [***--]

Far C
A downwards punch, hits crouchers, is not an overhead.  WILL leave you
open if blocked.  Is slow to start up, and cannot be comboed from.  Not
a good move.
Usefulness: [-----]

Close C
A comboable uppercut.  Comes out instantly, just like Kyo's, so your
jump attacks don't have to hit so deep in order to land a combo!  Good
move overall.  Your main combo attack.
Usefulness: [*****]

Far D
A high roundhouse which has a bit of lag coming out. Not really that
useful since it has short range.
Usefulness: [**---]

Close D
A comboable roundhouse kick that will hit crouchers.  Has a bit of lag
coming out.  Use this in combos when the close C would miss (for
example, against a Mai landing from a dp+K).
Usefulness: [***--]

Stand CD
A cancellable shoulder charge with high priority against ground attacks.
It has short range and a bit of lag before it comes out though.  Use for
pressure situations.
Usefulness: [**---]

Low A
Typical comboable punch.
Usefulness: [***--]

Low B
Typical sweep that can be linked into a low A.  Great low poke as well
since it has good priority and comes out fast.
Usefulness: [****-]

Low C
UPPERCUT!  Like Kyo's, this will hit or trade with anything that comes
from the air.  Use and abuse! Can be comboed.
Usefulness: [*****]

Low D
A very slow but comboable sweep. Could be useful in isolated situations
such as a perfectly spaced cancel into HCF + K.
Usefulness: [**---]

Jumping A
An elbow attack.  Not that useful although it is a decent move.
Usefulness: [*----]

Jumping B
A knee.  Stuff everything your opponent wants to do! Combos into stand C
easily even if you don't hit deep.  Great priority but poor horizontal
range, so don't use for air to air.
Usefulness: [****-]

Jumping C
Typical punch.  Good for combos, comes out quickly.  I prefer jumping B
or D though.
Usefulness: [***--]

Jumping D
A side kick with great horizontal range.  A good crossup attack. Good
air to air and air to ground priority (although it comes out more slowly
than the jumping B).  An all around great move and you should use it a
Usefulness: [*****]

Jumping CD
A short ranged punch that knockes down.  Comes out fairly quickly but
has pitiful range. Decent priority, use for air to air if the jumping D
will be too slow.
Usefulness: [***--]

2.2  Command Attacks and Throws

Fwd + B
A two hit kick which can be comboed off the second hit.  NOT an
overhead. Can be chained into.  Very slow to start up. It won't combo
from a low A/stand B/stand A link though, and has weird properties when
chained from a heavy attack, so I prefer not to use it in combos.

You could use this to punish a HUGE mistake by the combo fwd + B -> qcf,
qcf + P.
Usefulness: [**---]

Fwd/Back + C (close)
Typical throw.

Fwd/Back + D (close)
Typical throw.

2.3  Specials

Aragami (QCF + A)
THE Shingo move!  Gives you critical hits, has great priority, the hit
frames 'stay' on the move forever, can be comboed from a light attack!
A great poke at maximum distance, although if you do it too close you
could be hit by a fast retaliation such as Benimaru's sweep.

If you get a critical hit against a grounded opponent with it when the
Aragami is not part of a combo, the opponent will be stunned and you can
quickly follow up with more attacks.

Great against hops, try it and see.  Not so good against jump attacks.
The priority on this thing is insane. It stuffs almost everything - will
usually cleanly hit an Athena Shining Crystal Bit DM, Kyo's qcf, qcf + P
DM, Terry's Burn Knuckle, etc.  Just be careful of things like Athena's
sweep which will crouch under the hit frames.
Usefulness: [*****]*

Dokugami (QCF + C)
A longer ranged punched, but can be retaliated against if blocked.  At
times, if you are close, it will do two hits, the first one being
unblockable.  However, this occurs too rarely to be useful, and you'll
want to use this in combos only. It doesn't have great priority.
Usefulness: [**---]

Okonomiyaki (DP + P)
A very high priority anti-air move.  Use the C version most of the time,
because it gives you two hits on a 'counter'.  You'd use the A version
only against a vertical hop because they might block.You're screwed
whether you miss a DP + A or DP + C anyway, so go for the extra damage.
It will beat or trade with anything.  If you see or anticipate a jump,
use this.  Use the Aragami or low C against hops.
Usefulness: [***--]

Shingo KICK (HCF + K)
Shingo Kick!  A whirly kick with lots of hit area. It has great priority
once it comes out but takes a while to come out.  Does a LOT of damage.
If you hit early with it, it will knock down; if you hit late, with the
tip of your foot, it will not knock down.  This move is never an

Hitting late and getting a critical hit may entitle you to a free qcf+P.
This move is safe if blocked at the end of the move, but not at the
start of the move - that is, you will need to space this move carefully
in order to be safe.

Good against jumpers once it comes out, but pitiful before it does come

Use this in conjunction with the qcf + A and you will outprioritize your
opponent anywhere.  The D version of the move goes further than the B
Usefulness: [*****]

Twilight Wheel Unpainted (QCB + K)
A jump kick.  The D version does three jump kicks.  Both versions leave
you wide open if blocked.  For the D version, however, occasionally the
last hit will become unblockable, but it happens very rarely and you
shouldn't rely on it.  Combos only.
Usefulness: [***--]

Candle of Luminescent Victory (DP + K)
A three hit attack which sets up a juggle opportunity. It is a 'kick
dance' type move which means it can only be performed up close, but it
is unblockable (the first hit is, at least).  It can be comboed from
anything but will not connect if you are too far away.  Great move.

Also, don't do this move on Choi or Chin.  If they crouch, the third hit
misses completely and you are left open.
Usefulness: [*****]

Shingo's Counter (QCB + P)
Shingo does a downwards elbow attack that changes into a counter move
(like Kyo's QCB + P). It's funny and comical, just like Shingo.  Does
tiny amounts of damage, sometimes no damage at all!  The elbow combos,
too, and is safe if blocked, for those situations where a blocked
Aragami might leave you vulnerable.  Counters only ground normal moves
and has a bit of startup, though.  Will not combo from a light attack.
Usefulness: [**---]

2.4  DMs

Shingo Shoulder (QCF, QCF + P)
A really powerful shoulder charge. Punishable if blocked. Does good
damage and sets up a juggle opportunity.  Only use the DM version in

The SDM version can be cancelled into another move such as the qcb, hcf
+ P DM.  It will guard crush thus setting up the next move to hit. Thus
it is safe, but you will be wasting a lot of DM stocks.

You can make Shingo do the shoulder ram earlier by pressing punch before
he has arrived at his opponent.  This makes it possible to combo the SDM
version from a fwd + B by doing the shoulder charge earlier.
Usefulness: [***--]

Push Wall Against the Sky (QCB, HCF + P)
A combo only move consisting of several punches.  DM does 4 hits, SDM
does 7.  Punishable if blocked.  Generally the other DM is more useful.
However, this move goes through fireballs, so if a fireballer is
annoying you, show them not to.
Usefulness: [**---]

2.5  The Critical Hit

Shingo randomly gets critical hits on all his specials, DMs, and the fwd
+ B.  Critical hits increase the damage done, make the action pause for
a while, and may allow a larger combo.

A critical hit after a QCF + A by itself *may* lead to a combo
opportunity, it depends how early you hit with it. A critical hit after
a HCF + K that doesn't knoc down will mostly lead to a combo.

Unfortunately, a critical hit after the second hit of the fwd + B
prevents you from connecting the QCF, QCF + P DM or SDM afterwards.

2.6  The Counter

If the 'Counter!' message appears and your oppoent is launched into the
air (e.g. from a HCF + K, jump CD), then you can follow up with a quick
juggle.  This is most useful in a 'Counter!' HCF + K as you can tag on a
quick QCF + A afterwards.  Counters also do increased damage.

3.   Gameplay

3.1  Combos

I do not list too many combos.  Combo freaks annoy me.  There's nothing
I hate more than having people ask "WHAT IS SHINGO'S 5000% COMBO??" or

Look, if you're a good player, you can stick with two combos and win. If
you have no sense of strategy, even if you know Kyo's MAX corner combos,
you will never achieve it in a real fight.

Jumping combos

Jump D, C, QCF + A           - A generally safe combo.

Jump B, C, QCF + A           - Ditto, but more priority.

Jump D/B, C, QCF + C         - Only use if it will connect. There are          
                         better combos.

Crossup D, C, DP + K ->      - Most damaging non-DM combo.  The HCB + B
any special except HCF + K     does most damage out of the corner, and
                               HCB + D does most damage in the corner.

Jump D/B, C, QCF x 2 + P,    - This combo requires lots of dexterity.
QCF + A or DP + P or QCB + K

Ground combos

C/D, QCF + A                 - Pretty self-explanatory combos.  Refer to
C/D, QCF + C                   the 'Jumping combos' section for more.
C/D, DP + K -> any
C/D, QCF x 2 + P -> any

Low B, low A, QCF + P        - Your standard low B combo.
Low B, low A, DP + K -> any  - You have to be close or corner for this.
Close B, DP + K -> any       - A more damaging combo that hits low.
Fwd + B, QCF x 2 + P -> any  - An easy DM combo but hard to connect.
Fwd + B, QCF + A             - A safer fwd + B combo.
(MAX)Fwd + B, QCF x 2 + P, P - Stop the shoulder charge to make it hit.
                               Will not combo if you get a critical on
                               the second hit of the fwd + B.

3.2  Advanced vs. Extra

Choose Advanced.  You can't pressure with Extra mode.

3.3  Strategy

Shingo is effective at everywhere except full screen range.

General Play Style
If you have stock, Shingo should almost always MAX up.  The chief
disadvantage of MAXing up is that your combos push back further, so that
they may sometimes miss.  Iori, for example, should never MAX up because
his C, fw + A, qcb + P x 3 combo becomes very unreliable. Shingo,
however, has no such disadvantage.  MAXing up gives Shingo extra damage
(needed because his individual moves and combos do not do that much
damage), and gives him the SDM shoulder charge option.

Shingo can be played either aggressively, or as a zoning type character.
 Because his moves all move him forward, including the useful QCF + A
and HCF + K, he can be played very well as a pressuring type character,
especially since he now has an unblockable DP + K.  This is the typical
Shingo play style and is quite effective.

On the other hand, he is also a very good zoning type player, able to
control as much space as he wants to by virtue of his QCF + A.  This is
the way I prefer to play him, because there are lots of other characters
who can pressure just as well (Kyo comes to mind), but very few that can
zone as well.  The only examples I can think of would be King (stand D,
stand C, slide, low C) or Chizuru (low C, fw+B, qcb+A).

The March of One Thousand Aragamis
Whenever you are at maximum Aragami range, don't even think about it.
Do an Aragami. There is no downside at all to this.  It eats hops, most
attacks, recovers before rolls, and jumps won't reach you.  As long as
you are not behind on life with the clock ticking down, you can do this
15 times or more in a match and laugh all the way to the bank.  Then,
the 16th time, dash in and DP + K.

I can't stress enough how useful this is.  It eats so-called
'high-priority' moves for dinner.  It beats ALL hops at that range.  If
they're close than ideal range, use a far B or two to get them out to
the right range.  Then Aragami them! When they're pushed out of QCF + A
range, that, luckily enough for you, is prime range for a HCF + B.  And
after a HCF + B, that's prime range for a far B.  Laugh as your opponent
takes ages to figure out when he can break the pattern (by doing a jump
attack as the HCF + K is starting up)!

You're Grounded!
Shingo can effectively prevent his opponent from jumping or hopping,
with judicious use of QCF + A, DP + C, and crouch C.  Do it and watch
those Ioris and Kyos shrink to a tiny fraction of their size!  Of
course, if you want to encourage jumps, you can just crouch block for a
second or two.

Shingo KICK!
Once the kick comes out, it trades favourably with or cleanly hits all
hops and jumps.  Extreme priority and damage, and keeps the pressure on.
It also leaves you favourably spaced afterwards for either dash-in DP +
K, far B, or dash-in low B and resultant pressure tactics.  This move
also shuts down Iori's fireball.  Do this move from almost full screen
away (D version) and watch as your opponent dashes head-on into it!

Against Turtlers
If they have bad anti-air, mix up hop B combos with empty hop into DP +
K, and empty hop into low B.  That should take care of them.  If they
have decent anti-air, do a low B.  Follow up with either a dash-in DP +
K (if you think they'll block), or a dash-in low B if you think they'll
retaliate with something. Of course, sprinkle Aragamis around to
discourage them from doing anything silly.  You could even use the SDM
Shoulder Charge trick if you have lots of stocks left.  Turtlers
shouldn't be a problem for Shingo.

You want the opponent in the corner.  Then he will eat or block as many
Aragamis as you want him to.  Out of the corner, your preferred pressure
tactics are hop D, crossup D, hop B, low B, QCF + A, HCF + B, DP + K.
Mix these up randomly.  Do a low B, then dash in and DP + K.  Next time,
do a low B, then do a QCF + A.  Or do a low B, then hop B, then a
crossup D.  The world is your clam.


Anti-airs (In order of usefulness): crouch C, DP + C.
Anti-hops: QCF + A, crouch C, DP + C.
Anti-crossups: DP + C, roll forwards, crouch C.
Anti-pokes: QCF + A.
Anti-ground pressuring (e.g. Kyo's low B stuff): low B, QCF + A.
Anti-fireballs: Um, anticipate and jump.
Anti-slides: hop B, vertical hop D, HCF + K, low B.
Anti-rolls: low B, DP + K, QCF + A.
Anti-dashes: QCF + A.

You can play a very good turtle game just by using crouch C against hops
and jumps, low B into combo for rolls, and QCF + A against dash or
whenever in range.

When you are getting up, you have several options.  DP + C is risky if
blocked but good if you think they will hop.  Mashing on low B is also
pretty good. If your timing is good you can risk a DP + K but it is a
big risk.  Crouch C comes out a bit too slowly. Stand C seems to have
rather poor hit frames.  Normal throw is also an option.  Blocking is
naturally good as well.

It's up to you.  Shingo doesn't have anything special for his wake-ups.

Ground Games (Meaty attacks)
When your opponent is getting up, just do stuff as referred to in the
pressure section.  A noticable difference: it is much easier to cross-up
during this time, so you may wish to try that.

The obvious needs to be said; don't stay close on the ground against
grapplers, don't Aragami against an Iori with stock, a Ralf with stock,

Jump D/hop D is your crossup.  It's not that hard to do.  Learn its
range well.  Also, learn the right range at which a hyper hop D will
crossup a crouching opponent (same theory as Kyo's hyper hop dn + C).

Anti-CD counters
Some people have special moves designed to avoid a CD counter and
retaliate.  For example, Iori can do CD -> DP + K (the DP + K will avoid
the retaliatory CD counter and hit), Yashiro can do CD -> QCB + K, or
Ryo can do CD -> QCF + K.  Shingo doesn't have a good CD counter
anticipation, because his own CD is very short ranged.  However, the
Aragami will often pass through CD counters, so if you know they will do
a CD counter, you might want to try low D -> QCF + A or close C -> QCF +
A.  Although in the close C case, your Aragami will sometimes also miss.

Start of the Match
I recommend a QCF + A or HCF + B when the round starts.

3.5  Matchups

I've only listed the people that I have played against often. I would
not be able to offer qualified advice for other characters.

Don't jump against him.  Stay outside of his low B range, and do as many
Aragamis as he will let you.  He really can't do anything about it since
his jump is so slow.  He may get desperate enough to use the counter
move (HCF + K), so if you see this happening, dash in and kick dance!
This match-up is in Shingo's favour.

If he does a fireball from full screen, give it to him with the Shingo
Kick (D version). That should keep him from throwing fireballs at all.
Abuse Aragami until he does a sweep.  Then block the next sweep and dash
in for a combo.  Don't jump because his jump D will outprioritise you,
but he has no good jump attack against your crouch C. Roll away from his
crossup attack if you are too late to do a crouch C. Your Aragami will
stop all of his special moves cold, but be careful when he wakes up,
because his DM will outprioritise you. You may want to block.

Typical.  Watch out for his QCF + A poke, be certain that he's finished
his chain before you hit him with an Aragami.  If he does he df + D too
much, hop in with light kick and do a combo.  Be sparing on the use of
the Shingo Kick because if he is playing aggressively, you probably will
get hit out of it.  Use crouch C, even against his jump dn + C command

An Aragami will always connect after his HCB + P spinning hand thingy.
It's safe to poke with Aragami at max range against him.  Use Shingo
Kick a lot.

If he is the 'throw you at all costs' type, hop D will work.  Otherwise,
if he is a poke style player with jump D and stand D, your Aragami WILL
outprioritise his stand D and jump D.  Poke at max range and he won't be
able to throw you afterwards.  Don't use Shingo Kick because he can
throw you after. Do lots of Aragamis to discourage him from doing a
dash-in throw.

Your Aragami Outprioritises His Heavy Punch Attacks.  Do properly spaced
Shingo Kicks.  Don't be afraid to jump. Or if you don't have the guts to
match his C attacks, block a low C, and then immediately do an Aragami
to get the inevitable stand C that will follow.

A bad match-up for Shingo. Shingo doesn't have a good way to get around
the Psycho Ball, and Athena's sweep will hit Shingo out of Aragamis.
Shingo Kick is very dangerous because of her Shining Crystal Bit DM.
Stay at mid-close range, and anticipate either a sweep or Psycho Ball.
Then either use the QCB, HCF + P DM or jump and combo.

If he slides, block and punish.  Jump C, Jump D, jump CD are the main
moves. You should block one, and, anticipating the next, do a jump D to
hit him out of it.  If you manage to ground him, pepper him with lots of
light attacks like low B, and tick into the DP + K.  Don't do Shingo
Kick because you'll either eat a jump CD, or get command thrown

Use A version Okonomiyaki (the uppercut) instead of crouch C for
anti-air.  This is because he can vary his jump attack timing with his
QCF + K.  A properly spaced Shingo Kick is safe to use. Abuse Aragami
often.  Don't be afraid to jump.

His jump D will give you headaches. Try to anticipate and use DP + C,
because crouch C mostly trades.  Luckily, you can outpoke him with
Aragami, and Shingo Kick is mostly safe to use (although if you time it
badly you'll eat a DM for your troubles).  Use the DP + K often.  Don't
jump much because he will outprioritise you with jump D, jump CD, and
crouch C.

O. Yashiro
Same as Yashiro, except beware of his Scum Spider grab thing; hop and
combo him. Use hop B a lot more because you don't want to stay on the
ground too much.

Jou Higatch
Annoying, and his jump D has huge priority (nothing your crouch C can't
handle, though).

Aragami his fireballs! Show him who has the most priority!

'95 Ryo


Don't let him play his guessing games with you.  Aragami him once, and
as SOON as he slides, do hop B, C, DP + K, HCB + B to discourage.  Once
he slides less, he is much easier to deal with.  Against jump CD, block.
Aragami his teleports.  DP + C against hop D or crossup attempts. If he
does a C, fwd + A, HCB + P chain, roll between the fwd + A and HCB + P
and combo him.  You need to MAX up to do damage quickly.

4.   Miscellaneous

4.1  Acknowledgements and Credits

Please tell me if you would like a 'credit'.

* Me.
* That fat kid at Chinatown Fair arcade in New York who always wins
  against me on every single game I play.
* Hong Kong KOF players.  They're the best.
* Art, for critical hit and shoulder charge DM stuff.
* Yasakani, for lots of stuff that I left out.

4.2  Legal

This FAQ is provided 'as is'.  Any damages caused by this FAQ shall be
restricted to one (1) Aragami or two (2) crouch C attacks.  If you copy
this FAQ without citing it, you will be a tortfeasor.  You do not want
to be a tortfeasor.  If you actually manage to make any money from a KOF
98 FAQ, then more power to you.
Shingo Yabuki and King of Fighters '98 is copyright of SNK.  Which
probably won't be of much use to their hemorrharging balance sheet.

4.3  Epilogue

Thank you for reading.  I hope this FAQ was useful to your gameplay.  It
is a lot of information and you will need time to digest it.  (A sure
sign of a FAQ written by a clueless newbie or fanboy is that the win
poses, background, story sections put together are longer than the move
description and strategy.  Another sign is if the strategy section is
one paragraph long.)

I have not padded this FAQ with all of that non gameplay related stuff
just to increase the size of this FAQ.  That kind of gamesmanship does
not sit well with me.  For example, one FAQ writer who shall remain
unnamed has, as of June 15, 2001, 557K of FAQs up at GameFAQs (104K +
46K + 44K + 59K + 47K + 65K + 58K + 88K + 46K) for the game Street
Fighter III: 3rd Strike *alone*. These FAQs are without exception
useless and composed 80% of fluff, legal disclaimers, and stupid ASCII
art, and filled with ridiculousness such as the phrase 'If Ryu was used
honorably' in a Q FAQ.  You won't find any of that in my FAQs.

You can trust my FAQs because they are accurate.  Maybe I should brand
all my FAQs so I get more value from them, or something.

I upload this FAQ only to GameFAQs. Two reasons.  1) It is easier to
keep track of the latest version, and 2) Zipf's Law.