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    Poker Game Guide by Kadamony

    Updated: 03/03/03 | Search Guide | Bookmark Guide

                             |===========================|
                             |=|        Xenosaga       |=|
                             |=|       EPISODE  I      |=|
                             |=|  Der Wille zur Macht  |=|
                             |===========================|
                             |=| Poker Mini-Game Guide |=|
                             |===========================|
    
    
    Xenosaga(TM) EPISODE I Der Wille zur Macht 
       is Copyright (c)  2001  NAMCO LTD.
    
    This guide is Copyright (C)  2003  James Doyle / "Kadamony",
       see chapter 8 for licensing information.
    
    This is version 1.0.  The latest version will always be available
    at GameFAQs, http://www.gamefaqs.com.
    
    ===============================================
      0 :: INTRODUCTION AND TABLE OF CONTENTS
    ===============================================
    
    This is a guide to the Poker mini-game, and especially the "High & Low"
    game that takes place after a winning Poker hand.  It is meant as a
    guide to earning money quickly and securely in Xenosaga, a game in which
    money can be hard to come by later in the game.
    
    This guide was written March 2, 2003, after experiencing the immense
    power of the AG-05 AGWS in annihilating the final boss. 
    
    To quickly access a chapter, use your text editor's search feature
    and search for the chapter number, followed by a space and two colons.
    For example, to go to chapter 9, you would search specicifically 
    for "9 ::".
    
    * CONTENTS:
    
      0:  Introduction and Table of Contents
          - Right here
      1:  Money In Xenosaga
          - Why you want to play Poker to make money
      2:  Accessing the Poker Game
          - How to first get access to the Poker game, and where to play it
      3:  How to Play Poker
          - An introduction to the game of Poker, inside and outside of
            Xenosaga
      4:  Poker in Xenosaga
          - How to use the Poker game
      5:  Making Lots of Money
          - Using the "High & Low" game to get rich
      6:  Cashing Out
          - Getting G for your Coins, and otherwise spending your winnings
      7:  The Mathematical Evidence
          - An in-depth look at the mathematics behind "High & Low"
      8:  Copyright Information
          - Licensed under the GNU Free Document License
    
    * Revision History:
    
     2 March 2003 - Version 1.0, Initial revision
    
    
    
    ==============================
      1 :: MONEY IN XENOSAGA
    ==============================
    
    Xenosaga differs from most console RPGs in that defeating enemies rarely
    yields much money.  There are a handful of creatures around the Xenosaga
    world that drop money, but the vast majority is earned through other 
    mechanisms.  Throughout the game, money is earned by investing in companies
    through e-mail, or by successfully completing a long side-quest to track
    down a hacker.  Some money is earned from bosses, and a little bit is 
    available from selling "Barter Items", such as "Scrap Iron".  However, you
    can't get much money this way, and you can't do it very quickly.
    
    Near the end of the game, a new AGWS unit is available for sale at the Dock
    Colony, for 300000 G.  This AGWS unit is extremely powerful, able to take
    out almost any enemy in the game all on its own.  The AG-05 unit comes 
    built in with 6000 HP, and is capable of equipping the most powerful 
    AGWS weapons available in the game.  However, it can be quite difficult to
    earn enough money to pay for all of this.  
    
    This guide presents a mechanism for earning money through the Poker game
    available through the "Casino Passport" item, first acquired at Durandal.
    This Poker game is heavily weighted in favor of the player, such that over
    time it provides a consistent and guaranteed source of cash, which is 
    otherwise lacking in the game.  This guide attempts to explain how gambling
    can be profitable, and the quickest way to take advantage of this game
    to make as much money as you want.
    
    In addition to cold hard G, you can acquire thousands of Xenocard boosters,
    making it trivial to create any deck you want in a matter of under an
    hour.
    
    
    
    =====================================
      2 :: ACCESSING THE POKER GAME
    =====================================
    
    The Poker game is first accessible when you arrive at the Durandal, after
    completing the Cathedral Ship.  In order to access the Poker game, you must
    first acquire the "Casino Passport", which is available inside the Casino
    in the Residential Area of the Durandal.  
    
    * Getting the Casino Passport
    
    After arriving at the Durandal and being allowed to leave the Isolation
    Area, enter the Durandal Train.  Select "Residential Area" as your 
    destination, and enter the Train.  When you exit the train, proceed
    westward until you come to a wall.  Turn to the north, and continue down
    a hallway, past some vending machines.  When you reach the north wall,
    make a right turn, and enter the first door to the north.  This is the
    casino.  At the far right of the casino, up the staircase and behind the
    table, lies a treasure chest containing the "Casino Passport".
    
    * Use the Casino Passport at EVS Save Points
    
    The actual physical casino at the Durandal has very little to do with 
    the Poker game, other than being the location of the passport and 
    containing an EVS-enabled UMN Plate (save point).  You can play Poker
    from any EVS-enabled save point in the game.  To do so, enter the main
    menu, and select "Items".  Use the R1 button to scroll over to "Special
    Items", and select the Casino Passport.  If you hear a buzzing sound, 
    you are not properly positioned on the EVS-enabled save point.  Exit
    the menu and try again when you hear a sound indicating you have touched
    the save point.  *** This will not work if the save point does not have
    the blue EVS plate on top of it! ***
    
     - EVS-enabled UMN Plates -
    
    1.  Onboard the Elsa, to the starboard side of the ship, just outside the
        bridge.
    2.  The Durandal casino inside the residential area.
    3.  The "Our Treasure" Inn in Sector 26 of the Kukai Foundation (except
        during the Gnosis attack).
    
    
    
    ==============================
      3 :: HOW TO PLAY POKER
    ==============================
    
    The common card game of Poker takes on many forms.  The form used in this
    game is a simple one, known as "Five-Card Draw".  Ordinarily a game of 
    Poker is played between several players at a table, with each betting on 
    the value of his hand.  After each player has decided whether or not to
    invest in his hand, the hands are revealed and the player with the highest
    valued hand takes all of the money that had been bet.  This game uses a 
    slightly different version, to allow play by a single player.  It is a form
    commonly used in American casinos, known as "Video Poker".  In Video Poker,
    there are no opponents, and the goal is simply to make your hand as highly
    valued as possible.  Depending on the value of your hand, you will either
    lose your initial bet or be returned some multiple of it.
    
    * The Deck of Cards         
    
    A Poker hand consists of five cards taken from a standard 52-card deck.  The
    deck contains 13 denominations of cards in four different suits -- the 
    shape of the icon appearing on the card.
    
    Denominations of a standard deck:  
      [A]   [K]    [Q]     [J]    [T]  [9] [8] [7] [6] [5] [4] [3] [2]
      (Ace) (King) (Queen) (Jack) (10)
    
    The Ace is normally considered either the highest -or- the lowest 
    denomination, with the King being the next highest and the [2] being the
    lowest.  The King, Queen, and Jack appear with a picture on them, while
    the Ace and the numbered Ten through Two cards appear with a number of
    suit symbols equal to their denomination, with an Ace considered 1.
    
    Suits in a standard deck:
      <Clubs> <Diamonds> <Hearts> <Spades>
    
    Clubs are represented by a clover symbol.  Diamonds are represented by
    a geometrical diamond.  Hearts are represented by a heart, and Spades by
    a pointed leaf-shaped object.  Clubs and Spades are black, and Diamonds
    and Hearts are red.
    
    Xenosaga ** does not use a standard deck **.
    In Xenosaga, the Ace does not exist, and is a [1] card.  As such, it is
    always considered the lowest card, and the [K] is now the highest card.
    
    * The Value of a Poker Hand
    
    A Poker hand is more highly valued based on the presence of less probable
    card patterns.  For example, having five cards of seperate denominations
    and suits is the most common result, and thus the least valuable.  Having
    five cards all of the same suit is significantly rarer, and thus is a
    highly valued hand.
    
    The hand ranks are as follows:
    
    No Pairs:                         [x0]
    
    A hand consisting of five cards of seperate denominations, without being
    all in sequence or all of the same suit.  In ordinary poker, the higest
    card is considered the "value" of the hand for purposes of comparing with
    the other players.  Thus, [7] [4] [3] [8] [2] would be considered worth
    an [8].  If another player had [9] [3] [7] [4] [5], the other player would
    win due to having a hand valued at [9].  In the case of a tie, the second-
    highest card is compared.  Such a hand is considered "9-high".
    In Xenosaga, such a hand is always a loser, and returns 0x the bet.
    
    One Pair:                         [x1]
    
    A hand consisting of two cards of the same denomination, and no other
    pattern of note.  Such a hand beats a hand without a pair, but loses to
    any other patterned hand.  In the case of two hands with One Pair, the
    higher-valued denomination wins.  In Xenosaga, any pair is valued the
    same, and returns 1x the bet.
    
    Two Pairs:                        [x2]
    
    A hand consisting of four cards of two denominations, with no other
    pattern.  Such a hand beats a single pair, but loses to any other patterned
    hand.  Again, the highest valued pair is used as a tiebreaker if another
    hand also has Two Pairs.  In Xenosaga, two of any pair is valued at
    2x the bet.
    
    Three of a Kind:                  [x3]
    
    A hand consisting of three cards of the same denomination, and no other
    pattern of note.  Such a hand beats a hand with only pairs, but loses to
    other patterned hands.  In Xenosaga, three of a kind is valued at 3x the bet.
    
    Straight:                         [x5]
    
    A hand consisting of five cards in numerical sequence, with no other pattern.
    For instance, [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] would be considered a straight.  A straight
    cannot "wrap", so a [K] is always the highest card in a straight and cannot
    be the bottom of a [4] [3] [2] [1] [K].  The highest card in a straight
    breaks any ties, and a straight beats any paired or three of a kind hand.
    In Xenosaga, all straights pay out 5x the bet.
    
    Flush:                            [x7]
    
    This hand type is a bit different than the others, in the the denomination
    of the card isn't considered (unless there is a straight).  A flush is
    a hand with five cards all of the same suit.  Ties are broken by the highest
    denomination card.  Flushes beat straights, pairs, and threes of a kind.
    In Xenosaga, a flush is worth 7x the initial bet.
    
    Full House:                       [x10]
    
    A hand consisting of both a three of a kind -and- a pair.  Such a hand
    beats anything except four of a kind or a straight flush.  It pays out
    10x the initial bet.
    
    Four of a Kind:                   [x20]
    
    Four cards of the same denomination consititutes a Four of a Kind.  Such
    a hand beats anything except a straight flush.  It pays out 20x the initial
    bet.
    
    Straight Flush:                   [x50]
    
    A straight flush is a hand with both a straight -and- a flush, with five
    cards in sequence all of the same suit.  It is the highest possible hand
    and beats anything, with ties broken by the highest valued denomination.
    
    Royal Flush:                      [x100]
    
    A royal flush is just a certain straight flush--that which consists of the
    highest cards available, the [K] [Q] [J] [T] [9], all of the same suit.
    (Normally it would be [A] [K] [Q] [J] [T], but Xenosaga doesn't have an [A]).
    While technically it is not a different hand type, since it cannot be
    beaten (only tied), it receives special payout in Xenosaga, of 100x the bet.
    
    * Playing your hand
    
    In Five-card Draw Poker, you are dealt five cards to start with.  If you
    have one of the patterned hand types listed above, you are welcome to keep
    it and receive your prize.  However, you usually don't get more than just
    a pair (if anything) on your initial deal.  You have one opportunity to
    improve your hand by discarding unwanted cards and replacing them with
    new cards dealt at random.  After this second deal, known as the "Draw",
    you are stuck with whatever you are left with.  As such, it is usually
    a good idea to hang on to cards that form a pattern and discard other 
    cards in an attempt to improve your pattern.  
    
     - Hang on to pairs
    
    Holding [2] [2] [3] [8] [J], you would likely keep the two [2]s and
    discard the rest, hoping to draw another [2] to get a three of a kind,
    or perhaps another pair for two pairs.  If you're really lucky, you might
    draw two more [2]s or even a brand new three of a kind for a full house.
    
     - High cards are irrelevant
    
    In Xenosaga, you are not competing against other players, but rather 
    attempting to acquire as valuable a pattern as possible.  As such, you
    don't have to worry about breaking ties, and a pair of [1]s is just as
    valuable as a pair of [K]s.  Don't hang on to high cards in an attempt
    to match them up; pitch them to allow for more chances to improve your
    pairs.
    
     - When to go for a straight or flush
    
    If you are not dealt any pairs, you often want to throw away the entire
    hand and get a new one, since you have nothing you want to work with.
    However, sometimes you will be dealt no pairs, but several cards that
    look like they might make up a superior pattern, such as a straight
    or a flush.  In that case, you can choose to hang on to the partially
    completed pattern in an attempt to finish it off.  For example, holding
    [2] [3] [4] [5] [8], you might discard the [8] in an attempt to draw
    either a [1] or a [6].  Either card would complete a straight.  However,
    the odds are against you, in that only two denominations will complete
    your straight, while eleven will not.  Still, four others will get you
    at least one pair, so it's not all that bad a deal.  Avoid drawing to
    inside straights, however, such as [2] [3] [5] [6] [T], since only one
    card is capable of completing the straight, the [4].  Similarly, straights
    that are blocked off by an extreme card, such as [K] [Q] [J] [T] [5],
    have only one card that will complete them, and are thus bad news.
    It's better to discard the entire jumble and hope for at least a pair
    then to hold on to a faint hope at a better pattern.
    
    Flushes pay out extremely highly, but are relatively rare.  However,
    sometimes you are dealt four cards of the same suit, and one card of
    a different suit.  In that case, you can choose to pitch only the
    extraneous card and holding on to the almost-flush.  Still, be aware
    that although it might appear you have 1 in 4 odds to complete the flush,
    it's actually a bit lower than that, since 4 cards of that suit have 
    already been removed from the deck.  Assuming 4 Diamonds and a Club
    are your initial hand, there are only 9 Diamonds and 38 other cards left
    in the deck, for about 19.1%, a bit lower than 25%.  If your fifth
    card makes a pair with a card in the almost-flush, it's usually not
    a good idea to break up that pair in a futile atempt at a flush, when
    you could go for a three of a kind or two pair instead.
    
     - High Valued Hands
    
    Extremely high valued hands such as Straight Flushes are extremely rare,
    and generally occur more by fluke than by actually attempting to 
    complete them.  Still, holding [K] [Q] [J] [8] [4] with the high
    cards all being of the same suit, it is very, very tempting to take
    that tiny chance at getting the missing [9] and [T].  It's probably
    not a very good move from a probability standpoint, but it can be fun
    as long as it's not ridiculous, such as trying for a royal flush holding
    two of the required cards, or done regularly with only three.  Still,
    in general you should go for the common patterns, especially due to
    the presence of the "High & Low" game (to be discussed in extreme detail
    later).
    
    
    
    ==============================
      4 :: POKER IN XENOSAGA
    ==============================
    
    * About Coins
    
    In Xenosaga, you can't directly gamble away G, the currency of the 
    Xenosaga universe.  Instead, you must buy "Coins", which can be gambled
    at either the Slot machine or the Poker game.  Coins can be used to buy
    a variety of "prizes", which will be detailed below.  To buy coins,
    access the Casino using the Casino Passport (see chapter 2), and select
    "Exchange".  You can then select "Purchase Coins" from the menu.
    
    Coins are available in the following packages:
    
     - 10 Coins   [ 100 G]
     - 100 Coins  [ 950 G]
     - 500 Coins  [4500 G]
     - 1000 Coins [8000 G]
    
    While it might seem like a better deal to purchase the Coins in bulk,
    it really is a waste of G.  These are horrifically high prices for Coins,
    which can easily be acquired by simply winning the Poker game.  If you have
    a bit of money to spare, you can start with 100 Coins so you don't have to
    worry about coming back for more, but if you want to be cost-efficient,
    you can buy just 10 and start at the low-stakes machines.  You may have to
    buy a few batches of 10 before you win, but once you hit a x16 on the 
    "High & Low" game, you will not need to buy another Coin ever again.  Still,
    you will soon be racking in a virtually unlimited amount of cash, so if
    you want to get started immediately on the high-stakes (well, if you call
    100 Coins high) game, feel free to buy a larger package.
    
    * The Poker Game
    
    Heading back to the main Casino menu, once you have Coins, select "Poker"
    to begin the Poker game.  The Poker game can be played in 4 different
    levels of stakes:
    
     - LEVEL-1:   5 Coins
     - LEVEL-2:  10 Coins
     - LEVEL-3:  30 Coins
     - LEVEL-4: 100 Coins
    
    Since the Poker game is biased heavily in your favor, you will want to
    play for as high of stakes as you can afford.  However, if you initially
    purchased just a few Coins, you might want to start out at a lower level,
    such that you don't run out of coins and have to buy more.
    
    -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
    "But if this is such as sure way of gaining money, how come I can run out
     of coins?"
    
    Consider the old saying - "The House Always Wins".  This is an old axiom
    about casinos -- they turn a profit.  In order to do such, they have to 
    be making money on the gambling taking place within.  Yet, it is still 
    possible to show up at a casino and go home a winner.  How is this possible?
    Statistical sample size is the answer.  In a casino, the games are set up
    such that the probabilities favor the house ever so slightly.  Thus, any
    game can be won or lost by anyone, and 5 or 10 or even 50 games can go
    either way, but over the long haul the casino WILL make money.  This is
    the principle of the law of averages.  
    
    In Xenosaga, the probabilities favor you.  And it's not just a slight
    favoring, it's hugely, immensely in your favor.  And yet, after two or three
    or even ten hands it's possible you might lose some money.  Due to the
    overwhelming odds, the law of averages will kick in pretty soon after that,
    and you'll be sure to turn a profit over even a short time.  Still, a 
    couple hands here and there can go against you.  Once you have about 1000
    Coins, you will never have to worry about running out again, and you should
    get there very quickly.
    
    Over time, you WILL make a ton of money with the Xenosaga Poker game.
    -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
    
    Once you select a level, you will be presented with a screen detailing
    how many Coins you have, what the payout levels are, and a dialog box
    asking you if you want to play that level of Poker.  Select "Yes", and you
    will be given your hand.
    
    Below each card is a "DRAW" button, with a seperate draw button in the 
    middle of the screen.  The "DRAW" buttons below the cards are used to toggle
    whether or not you wish to keep each card.  By selecting one, it changes
    to "HOLD".  Now, the card will not be pitched when you go to make your draw.
    If you mistakenly choose to HOLD a card, you can select the "HOLD" button
    to toggle it back to "DRAW".  When you eventually select the main "DRAW"
    button in the center, all the cards that are marked "DRAW" will be 
    jettisoned, and new cards will be dealt in their place. 
    
    After the second deal, your hand will be evaluated, and, if you have at
    least a Pair, the value of your hand will light up on the chart.  If you
    do not have at least a Pair, you have lost, and will be given the option
    to play again.
    
    If you won at least a 1x payout, you will be given the option to play a
    "Double or Nothing" game, entitled "High & Low".  By playing "High & Low",
    you can multiply your payout by anywhere from 2 to 16 times--or you can
    lose it all.
    
    * High & Low
    
    When you win at least a 1x payout in the Poker portion of the Poker game,
    you will be given the option to play "High & Low".  If you choose to do
    so, you will enter a different screen, in which five card slots appear
    at the top of the screen, and a set of indicators from 2x - 16x appear
    where the payouts normally are.
    
    This game is very similar to the old television game show "Card Sharks".
    In this game, you will be presented with a faced card.  You are given the
    opportunity to guess whether the next card will be of a higher or lower 
    denomination than the currently faced card.  You also can choose to stop 
    at any time, even after seeing the card.  If you choose to go on, you will 
    be dealt another card.  If it fits the guess you made, you will double your
    payout, and if not, you have lost it all.  When the same denomination is 
    drawn, you win regardless of your guess.  You can continue this until you 
    choose "Stop", lose, or reach a payout multiplier of 16x (4 consecutive 
    correct guesses).  
    
    Whatever the result, when you are done, you will be returned to the regular
    Poker mode, to start anew.  You can play High & Low any time you earn any
    payout in the Poker mode.
    
    This is the portion of the game where the real money is made.  See
    chapter 5 below about playing High & Low and making huge amounts of money.
    
    
    
    =================================
      5 :: MAKING LOTS OF MONEY
    =================================
    
    Video poker alone isn't going to get you much.  If you never go for
    double or nothing, you'll settle around the amount of money you started
    with, occasionally winning a 1x, a 2x, and often losing.  Every once in
    a while, you'll get a 10x payout or more, and if you're ridiculously 
    lucky, you might get 100x back from a Royal Flush once in a blue moon.
    
    Still, even 100x is only 10000 Coins, which isn't going to get you anywhere.
    
    Wouldn't it be nice if there was a way to routinely rake in huge amounts
    of Coins, such as 1600 from a simple pair, or 3200 from two pair?  Imagine
    getting 4800 from a three-of-a-kind!  That's half as much as a Royal Flush,
    and it comes up thousands and thousands of times more often.
    
    Still, you are only allowed to gamble 100 Coins at a time, and even if you
    were able to bet more, you'd have no guarantees of actually winning 
    consistently over time at the simple Poker game.
    
    The solution to all of this is to use the "High & Low" game, which is
    ridiculously balanced to favor you--at an expected rate of payout of
    5.5 times what you put in!  That means that over time, your pairs will
    be worth 550 EACH--and you certainly get enough pairs to make that 
    worthwhile.  
    
    Playing the "High & Low" game feels a bit dangerous, especially when the
    amounts get big, and the card isn't a nice friendly one such as a [Q] or
    a [3], where it is extremely likely that the direction you pick will turn
    up.  Still, in order to secure really fast, effective, and consistent
    payouts, you must risk it all.
    
    And here's the key to this entire guide:
    
    **********************************************************
    RISK IT ALL.  EVERY TIME.  NO MATTER WHAT CARD IS SHOWING.
    **********************************************************
    
         NEVER ACCEPT ANYTHING SHORT OF A 16x PAYOUT.
         ============================================
    
    Yes, you heard right, even on a full house already gone to 8x and a [7]
    showing, I am saying you must go on.  The odds are in your favor every time,
    even with the worst possible card faced, the dreaded [7].
    
    It might feel frustrating to lose an 8x full house, but for every one you
    lose, there will be even more 16x payouts that you would have otherwise
    missed.
    
    Remember, the odds are in your favor--always, every time, no matter what.
    
    Here's the table of odds, assuming you pick logically, meaning LOW on
    [K][Q][J][T][9][8], HIGH on [1][2][3][4][5][6], and whatever you like on
    [7]--so long as it is not STOP!
    
    [K] 100.00%
    [Q]  92.31%
    [J]  84.62%
    [T]  76.92%
    [9]  69.23%
    [8]  61.54%
    [7]  53.85%  <-- Yes, even this is in your favor over the long haul,
    [6]  61.54%      which is what we're playing for.
    [5]  69.23%
    [4]  76.92%
    [3]  84.62%
    [2]  92.31%
    [1] 100.00%
    
    If you do not go on every time, all you're doing is slowing down your
    gains.  It's irrelevant if you blow this 1600--you're playing for hundreds
    of thousands, not a few measly Coins here and there.  In fact, I've done
    some calculations below (see chapter 7 if you dare), and it turns out that
    if you always go on, you will get a 16x payout about 1/3 of the time.  The
    other 2/3 you will lose it all.  That's 5.5x on average, which is a
    ridiculous expected payout for a gambling machine.  No real gambling machine
    ever pays out above 1x on average, it would be suicide for the casino.
    0.95x is a great payout.  This one pays out 5.5!  It would be a steal at
    1.1, but now it's just ridiculous.  
    
    You can make about 200000 Coins per hour if you follow this simple system,
    and that's just with pairs and threes-of-a-kind.  In order to make 200000
    Coins without "High & Low", you'd need to score 20 Royal Flushes without
    losing.  And even one Royal Flush is so unlikely as to be irrelevant.
    But--if you get one, remember--KEEP GOING, EVEN ON [7]!
    
    I have personally used this system to rack up tons of Coins, and it never
    fails.  You'd have to lose 16 times in a row between successes just to break
    even on one single pair paid out through a 16x.  That doesn't happen often;
    far more often you pull through another 1600 from another pair, and then
    a 4800 from a three-of-a-kind.  Yes, it's frustrating to lose 8000 from a
    x8 full house, but you'll get that 8000 right back in two minutes--far better 
    to take the ODDS-ON bet to get to 16000.  And more often than not, those 8000
    full houses will become 16000 full houses.  Even when a [7] is showing.
    
    You're playing for the long haul, not the short term.  As such, it is your
    goal to maximize expected payouts, just like a casino does.  A casino doesn't
    mind the occasional player who hits the jackpot, since it's a certainty 
    that for each jackpot, there are numerous losses going right into their
    pockets.  And here, you get to be the casino--you get to experience what
    it's like to have the odds in your favor.
    
    If you still aren't convinced, read chapter 7 on the mathematics behind
    "High & Low", or just follow my system for 15 minutes.  You'll see in
    no time that it works.
    
    
    
    ========================
      6 :: CASHING OUT
    ========================
    
    So you've made a lot of Coins, probabaly hundreds of thousands, playing
    Poker and High & Low.  Now, the question remains--how do you get cold hard
    G out of it?  You can only spend Coins on selected items at the casino
    prize store, none of which are the famed AG-05 AGWS.  
    
    Cashing out proves to be an extremely tedious process.  The quickest way
    to do it is to go to the EVS save point on board the Elsa, which is directly
    next to a UMN Silver Plate, where you can sell items for G.  Empty your
    inventory of Med Kits, Ether Packs, Revives, and Cure-Alls, and go back to
    the Casino using the Casino Passport.  Select "Exchange", and this time
    select "Prize Exchange".  You'll be presented with the items in the table
    below.  The first item, the Recovery Set, will be your source for G. 
    Claim 99 Recovery Sets, for 9900 Coins by hitting the Circle button
    99 times.  The easiest way to do this is not to count, but to determine
    your finishing point, e.g. if you have 328740 Coins, you will jam on Circle
    until you are down to 319740, 9900 less than you started with.  Then,
    exit the casino and go back to the Silver Plate.  Sell off all your
    Med Kits, Ether Packs, Revives, and Cure-Alls again, which should net you
    990 for the Med Kits, 1980 for the Ether Packs, 2970 for the Revives, and
    4950 for the Cure-Alls.  The total for all of that comes to 10890 G, for
    and exchange rate of 9900 Coins to 10890 G, or nearly 1:1.
    
    This takes time, though, since you constantly have to reload the Elsa,
    then the shop, then the Elsa, then the menu, then the Casino, then the
    Elsa, not to mention all the button jamming.  Overall, it takes about
    1 minutes to transfer one set of 99 Recovery Sets, or about 1 minute
    per 10000 G.  That's 300000 G, enough for the AG-05, transfered out in
    about half an hour.  Still, it's tedious work, much less exciting than
    playing Poker and High & Low.
    
    If you're interested in Xenocard, you can cash out booster packs extremely
    cheaply, at only 100 Coins each, and you don't even have to go through
    the selling.  With hundreds and thousands of booster packs, you will easily
    get every (non-promotional) card in the game, even rares, in sets of three,
    allowing you to make any deck you want.  Later in the game, you can even
    get several promotional cards from the Casino.  Finally, you can check out
    some nice production sketches for next to nothing, considering how quickly
    you can acquire Coins.
    
    Just remember to buy a full set of Recovery Sets after you finish selling
    them, so that you don't find yourself in a dungeon without Revives or
    Cure-Alls that might be essential.
    
    * The list of prizes
    
     Cost  Name                  What it does                               Avail. 
    ==============================================================================
      100  Recovery Set          1x Med Kit, Ether Pack, Revive, Cure-All     *
      150  Escape and Rest Set   1x Escape Pack, Bio Sphere                   *
    10000  Golden Dice           Access- Fluctuating damage based on HP       1
    15000  Bravesoul             Access- Strength+ when HP low                1
    18000  Revive DX             Item- Revives with max HP                    1
    12000  Stim DX               Item- PATK+50% for one fight                 1
     2000  Design Sketch 01      Shion 1                                      1
     2000  Design Sketch 02      Shion 2                                      1
     2000  Design Sketch 03      Shion 3                                      1
     2000  Design Sketch 04      chaos 1                                      1
     2000  Design Sketch 05      chaos 2                                      1
     2000  Design Sketch 06      chaos 3                                      1
     2000  Design Sketch 07      Jr. 1                                        1
     2000  Design Sketch 08      Jr. 2                                        1
     2000  Design Sketch 09      Jr. 3                                        1
     2000  Design Sketch 10      Jr. 4                                        1
     2000  Design Sketch 11      MOMO 1                                       1
     2000  Design Sketch 12      MOMO 2                                       1
     2000  Design Sketch 13      MOMO 3                                       1
     2000  Design Sketch 14      KOS-MOS 1                                    1
     2000  Design Sketch 15      KOS-MOS 2                                    1
     2000  Design Sketch 16      Ziggy 1                                      1
     2000  Design Sketch 17      Ziggy 2                                      1
     2000  Design Sketch 18      Ziggy 3                                      1
     2000  Design Sketch 19      Gaignun 1                                    1
     2000  Design Sketch 20      Gaignun 2                                    1
     2000  Design Sketch 21      Elsa                                         1
     2000  Design Sketch 22      AG-01                                        1
     2000  Design Sketch 23      Cockpit                                      1
     2000  Design Sketch 24      VX-9000                                      1
     2000  Design Sketch 25      AG-04                                        1
     2000  Design Sketch 26      VX-20000                                     1
     2000  Design Sketch 27      VX-4000                                      1
     2000  Design Sketch 28      AG-05                                        1
     2000  Design Sketch 29      Shion CG                                     1
     2000  Design Sketch 30      KOS-MOS CG                                   1
      400  Starter Set           Xenocard- Starter Deck                       *
      100  Card Pack #1          Xenocard- Booster Pack 1                     *
      100  Card Pack #2          Xenocard- Booster Pack 2                     *
     1000  PM Card F             Xenocard- AG-05 Promotional Cards            1^
     1000  PM Card G             Xenocard- Third Armament Promotional Cards   1^
     1000  PM Card H             Xenocard- Testament Promotional Cards        1^
     1000  PM Card I             Xenocard- AG-04 Promotional Cards            1^
     1000  PM Card J             Xenocard- Phase Transition Cannon Pro. Cds.  1^
     1000  PM Card K             Xenocard- Invoke Promotional Cards           1^
     1000  PM Card L             Xenocard- Destiny Promotional Cards          1^
     1000  PM Card M             Xenocard- Dammerung Promotional Cards        1^
     1000  PM Card N             Xenocard- So Weak! Promotional Cards         1^
     1000  PM Card O             Xenocard- Rhine Maiden Promotional Cards     1^
     1000  PM Card P             Xenocard- Unknown Armament Promotional Cds.  1^
     1000  PM Card Q             Xenocard- Proto Dora Promotional Cards       1^
    
    Key:  (1) 1 time only purchase, (*) Unlimited purchase,
          (^) Only available after Song of Nephilim completion
    
    
    
    =======================================
      7 :: THE MATHEMATICAL EVIDENCE
    =======================================
    
    *** NOTE:  This portion of the guide goes into extremely boring detail
               about the mathematics of the "High & Low" game.  Skip unless
               you have a fondness for goofy counting problems, or you just
               don't believe me when I say how great the payout is.
    
    At last, the heavy part of this guide.  I've made the claim that the
    "Hi & Low" machine is hugely weighted in favor of the player, with an
    expected payout of about 5.5 times what you put in to it.  I've used this
    fact to argue that you should always play on until you get the 16x 
    multiplier, regardless of the [7]s and [8]s and [9]s along your way.  I owe 
    it to the reader to present some evidence of this besides my own personal 
    experience.
    
    How, then, do we caluculate the expected payout of something as complicated
    as a series of decisions like this?  
    
    * Scratch Off Game
    
    The answer is that there actually IS NO DECISION at all taking place in the
    "Hi & Low" game!  A winning layout is ALWAYS a winning layout, and a losing
    layout always loses, assuming the player chooses logically, according to
    probability, whether the next card will be high or low.  For example, 
    consider the layout:
    
    [K] [6] [9] [4] [8] 
    
    Assuming the player doesn't go against the odds, this will always win!  It's
    like a lottery scratch-off game, in that the results are pre-determined,
    and you are simply slowly revealing whether you have a winner or loser.
    A sane player will always pick "Low" on the [K], "High" on the [6], "Low"
    on the [9], and "High" on the [4].  Thus, the logical player always wins
    with this layout.
    
    [K] [6] [T] [J] [2]
    
    Similarly, this layout should always lose.  There is no reason a sane player
    would ever pick "High" on the [T], and thus the player will always lose to
    the [J].  
    
    Because of this, we can analyze all of the possible layouts and determine
    how many winners there are and how many losers.
    
    This is a slight oversimplification, however.  The truth is, that a [7] card
    presents a dilemma.  Either "High" or "Low" present equal probabilities of
    winning.  Thus, a layout like:
    
    [K] [2] [7] [4] [9]
    
    might be a winner, if the player picks "Low", or it might be a loser if the
    player picks "High".  Thankfully, this does not present a real problem from
    a mathematical sense.  Regardless of which option the player picks on the
    [7], there are an equal number of winning and losing layouts.  We can 
    simplify the mathematics by assuming the player always picks "High" on a
    [7], but the math will work out the same regardless of what system you use
    to pick your [7]s.  
    
    * Sampling - With or Without Replacement?
    
    There is one more simplification I will do in order to make the math 
    immensely less difficult.  However, this simplification, unlike the [7]
    issue, actually does slightly affect the results.
    
    When a card is selected from a deck of cards, it is removed from that deck
    and placed face up on the table.  If the [K] of Spades is picked, there is
    no longer a [K] of Spades left in the deck, and so it cannot be picked 
    again.  This concept is known as "Sampling Without Replacement".  This
    makes any mathematical analysis of the problem ridiculously complicated,
    since every card selected modifies the probabilities of every other card
    in the deck.  For instance, when the [K] is showing as the first card,
    the probability of the second card being a [K] is only 3/51, while any other
    card has a probability of 4/51.  This is because there are only 3 [K]s left
    in the deck, and 4 of every other card.
    
    We can create a model, however, where the card that is selected is still
    available in the deck to be selected.  This will not get us an EXACT 
    mathematically sound analysis of the game, but it will provide us with
    an extremely close approximation.  Since the whole point of this chapter
    is to show that the "Hi & Low" game is weighted heavily in your favor,
    and not to determine the exact probability to the ninth decimal place,
    I will use this model, "Sampling With Replacement", to make the math
    bearable.  Now, there is always a 1/13 chance of drawing a [K], regardless
    of which cards are showing.
    
    This simplification will provide us with a valid approximation as to the
    expected payout of the "Hi & Low" machine without requiring a degree in
    statistics.
    
    * Counting
    
    In order to determine the probability of a winning layout, we need to be
    able to count two things:  The total number of layouts and the number of
    winning layouts.  
    
    Counting the total number of layouts in our "Sampling With Replacement"
    model is easy:  There are five slots, which can contain any of 13 cards
    each.  Thus, there are 13^5 total possible layouts.  (Some of these layouts
    aren't really valid, such as [2] [2] [2] [2] [2], but these are very few
    and are a result of our model being used instead of the actual game without
    replacement.)
    
    Total Layouts
    
    13 * 13 * 13 * 13 * 13 = 371293
    
    Now, all we need to do is to count the winning layouts.  This is a bit
    more difficult, since a winning layout isn't readily visible through
    simple mathematical methods.  However, something else that will give us
    the same result in the end, would be to count the number of LOSING layouts.
    This is MUCH easier to do, since we can determine the number of layouts
    that start with a losing combination, such as [T] [J], and subtract those
    all off.
    
    We need to do this in four seperate steps, since a losing layout can occur
    at any of the four decision points.  However, once a layout is a loser, 
    there is no point in checking it again, it has already lost.  
    
    So, starting at the beginning, we need to find out how many layouts are
    losers after the first round.  Then, we can count the number of remaining
    layouts, and check ONLY THOSE to see if they lose in further rounds.
    
    * Subtract Losing Layouts
    
    There are four decisions that need to be made successfully in order to
    pay out.  We need to determine the chance of surviving all four decisions.
    You can note from the tables below that even with the worst card, a 7,
    showing, there is still a greater than 50% chance of surviving the round.
    
    -----------------------------
    ROUND 1:  [*] [F] [ ] [ ] [ ] 
    -----------------------------
    
    To explain the following table:
    * The "Card" column indicates the faced card (represented by [*] above).
    * The "#L" and "#W" column indicates the number of different cards that will 
      lose or win when flipped (represented by [F] above).
    * The "#[L,W] Layouts" column indicates the total number of layouts that
      will win or lose this round, given that initially faced card.  This is 
      determined by multiplying the number of losers by 13^3, and the same
      for the losers, to represent any card in the blank slots to be revealed
      later (represented by [ ] above).
    * The "Total Losers" column keeps track of a running total of losing layouts
      with each card faced.
    * The "Win%" column shows the approximate chance of winning this round given
      the faced card.  This is ALWAYS GREATER THAN 50%, even with a [7]!
    
    Card   #L  #W     #[L,W] Layouts  Total Losers    Win%
    [K]     0  13     [    0, 28561]        0        100.00%
    [Q]     1  12     [ 2197, 26364]     2197         92.31%
    [J]     2  11     [ 4394, 24167]     6591         84.62%
    [T]     3  10     [ 6591, 21970]    13182         76.92%
    [9]     4   9     [ 8788, 19773]    21970         69.23%
    [8]     5   8     [10985, 17576]    32955         61.54%
    [7]     6   7     [13182, 15379]    46137         53.85%
    [6]     5   8     [10985, 17576]    57122         61.54%
    [5]     4   9     [ 8788, 19773]    65910         69.23%
    [4]     3  10     [ 6591, 21970]    72501         76.92%
    [3]     2  11     [ 4394, 24167]    76895         84.62%
    [2]     1  12     [ 2197, 26364]    79092         92.31%
    [1]     0  13     [    0, 28561]    79092        100.00%
    
    That leaves 79092 layouts that lose on the first of four decisions.
    Result:  292201 winning layouts, for a 78.70% chance of surviving round 1.
    
    -----------------------------
    ROUND 2:  [#] [*] [F] [ ] [ ] 
    -----------------------------
    
    Now, we have to examine the possible cards that are left for round 2.
    What did we advance with?  We can analyze all possible winning combinations
    from the previous round:
    
    If the faced card is a...     ... we can advance with any of these.
    [K]                                    KQJT987654321
    [Q]                                     QJT987654321
    [J]                                      JT987654321
    [T]                                       T987654321
    [9]                                        987654321
    [8]                                         87654321
    [7]                                    KQJT987
    [6]                                    KQJT9876
    [5]                                    KQJT98765
    [4]                                    KQJT987654
    [3]                                    KQJT9876543
    [2]                                    KQJT98765432
    [1]                                    KQJT987654321
    
    Now, we can add up the number of occurences of each card to determine
    the frequency of this card being used to start the next round.  As you can
    see from the table, [8] and [7] are a bit more likely to be showing up here
    than numbers at the extreme ends.
    
    [K] 8,  [Q] 9,  [J] 10, [T] 11, [9] 12, [8] 13, 
    [7] 13, [6] 12, [5] 11, [4] 10, [3] 9,  [2] 8, 
    [1] 7
    
    This time, there are only 3 cards left to flip.  We can calculate the number
    of losing layouts with each card showing, but then we have to multiply by
    the number of cases in which this card will be showing to get the total
    number of times this combination occurs.  
    
    The new "xOccur" column represents this.  Also, the "Total Losers" column
    is now multiplied by "xOccur", to count all of the losers regardless of
    what the first card is.
    
    Card   #L  #W     #[L,W] Layouts  xOccur.  Total Losers    Win%
    [K]     0  13     [   0, 2197]        8          0        100.00%
    [Q]     1  12     [ 169, 2028]        9       1521         92.31%
    [J]     2  11     [ 338, 1859]       10       4901         84.62%
    [T]     3  10     [ 507, 1690]       11      10478         76.92%
    [9]     4   9     [ 676, 1521]       12      18590         69.23%
    [8]     5   8     [ 845, 1352]       13      29575         61.54%
    [7]     6   7     [1014, 1183]       13      42757         53.85%
    [6]     5   8     [ 845, 1352]       12      52897         61.54%
    [5]     4   9     [ 676, 1521]       11      60333         69.23%
    [4]     3  10     [ 507, 1690]       10      65403         76.92%
    [3]     2  11     [ 338, 1859]        9      68445         84.62%
    [2]     1  12     [ 169, 2028]        8      69797         92.31%
    [1]     0  13     [   0, 2197]        7      69797        100.00%
    
    That leaves 69797 layouts that lose on the second of four decision.
    We had 292201 winning layouts from the first round, giving us a chance of
    76.11% of surviving specifically round 2, and a 59.90% chance of making it
    all the way to round 3.
    Result:  222404 winning layouts, for 59.90% chance of surviving round 2.
    
    -----------------------------
    ROUND 3:  [#] [#] [*] [F] [ ] 
    -----------------------------
    
    For this round, we again have to determine the number of combinations that 
    will start with each specific card.  This time, however, it's not as 
    simple, since the third card likelihood is derived from the second card
    likelihood (remember that certain cards are less likely to be showing since
    we tend to lose with them, ending the game).
    
    How often is a King showing for the third card?  Well, we know that a King
    shows up 8 times out of 13 as a winner, and the other 5 times it ended our
    game.  However, EVERY time a 7 shows up it wins--there is no case where
    a 7 is a loser if you always pick according to the odds.  Because of this,
    we're a lot more likely to be seeing 7s at this point than extreme numbers,
    since often the extreme numbers ended our game.
    
    We need to count how many combinations there are that have left us with
    each card, and it's not so easy this time.  The number of combinations
    from round 2 for cards that would make our card a winner are added up
    to figure out the total number of combinations that would leave us with
    this card faced.
    
    K: Wins on K7654321, for 8+13+12+11+10+9+8+7 = 				 78.
    Q: Wins on KQ7654321, for 8+9+13+12+11+10+9+8+7 = 			 87.
    J: Wins on KQJ7654321, for 8+9+10+13+12+11+10+9+8+7 = 			 97.
    T: Wins on KQJT7654321, for 8+9+10+11+13+12+11+10+9+8+7 =		108.
    9: Wins on KQJT97654321, for 8+9+10+11+12+13+12+11+10+9+8+7 =		120.
    8: Wins on KQJT987654321, for 8+9+10+11+12+13+13+12+11+10+9+8+7 =	133.
    7: Wins on KQJT987654321, for 8+9+10+11+12+13+13+12+11+10+9+8+7 =	133.
    6: Wins on KQJT98654321, for 8+9+10+11+12+13+12+11+10+9+8+7 =		120.
    5: Wins on KQJT9854321, for 8+9+10+11+12+13+11+10+9+8+7 =		108.
    4: Wins on KQJT984321, for 8+9+10+11+12+13+10+9+8+7 = 			 97.
    3: Wins on KQJT98321, for 8+9+10+11+12+13+9+8+7 = 			 87.
    2: Wins on KQJT9821, for 8+9+10+11+12+13+8+7 = 				 78.
    1: Wins on KQJT981, for 8+9+10+11+12+13+7 =				 70.
    
    This time, the math isn't so obvious, so to verify that this actually works,
    I'll list out all 78 non-losing combinations that end with a king faced.
    
    KKK K7K K6K K5K K4K K3K K2K K1K 
        Q7K Q6K Q5K Q4K Q3K Q2K Q1K
        J7K J6K J5K J4K J3K J2K J1K
        T7K T6K T5K T4K T3K T2K T1K
        97K 96K 95K 94K 93K 92K 91K
        87K 86K 85K 84K 83K 82K 81K
    7KK 77K 
    6KK 67K 66K
    5KK 57K 56K 55K
    4KK 47K 46K 45K 44K
    3KK 37K 36K 35K 34K 33K
    2KK 27K 26K 25K 24K 23K 22K
    1KK 17K 16K 15K 14K 13K 12K 11K
    
    Feel free to list out combinations for any other card, or just trust
    my math above.
    
    Now, to do the tables for round 3, since we know the number of appearances
    for each card.
    
    Card   #L  #W     #[L,W] Layouts  xOccur.  Total Losers    Win%
    [K]     0  13     [  0, 169]         78          0        100.00%
    [Q]     1  12     [ 13, 156]         87       1131         92.31%
    [J]     2  11     [ 26, 143]         97       3653         84.62%
    [T]     3  10     [ 39, 130]        108       7865         76.92%
    [9]     4   9     [ 52, 117]        120      14105         69.23%
    [8]     5   8     [ 65, 104]        133      22750         61.54%
    [7]     6   7     [ 78,  91]        133      33124         53.85%
    [6]     5   8     [ 65, 104]        120      40924         61.54%
    [5]     4   9     [ 52, 117]        108      46540         69.23%
    [4]     3  10     [ 39, 130]         97      50323         76.92%
    [3]     2  11     [ 26, 143]         87      52585         84.62%
    [2]     1  12     [ 13, 156]         78      53599         92.31%
    [1]     0  13     [  0, 169]         70      53599        100.00%
    
    That leaves 53599 layouts that lose on the third of four decisions.
    We had 222404 winning layouts from the second round, giving us a chance of
    75.90% of surviving specifically round 3, and a 45.46% chance of making it
    all the way to round 4, the final round
    Result:  168805 winning layouts, for 45.46% chance of surviving round 3.
    
    -----------------------------
    ROUND 4:  [#] [#] [#] [*] [F] 
    -----------------------------
    
    To calculate the number of combinations with each card faced for the final
    round, we can use the same method we used for round 3, plugging in the
    round 3 numbers in place of the round 2 numbers.
    
    So, for example, the King calculation would look like:
    K: Wins on K7654321, for 78+133+120+108+97+87+78+70 = 			 771.
    
    Here's the table, with the "Wins on" line eliminated to save space:
    K: 78+133+120+108+97+87+78+70 = 					 771.
    Q: 78+87+133+120+108+97+87+78+70 =					 858.
    J: 78+87+97+133+120+108+97+87+78+70 =					 955.
    T: 78+87+97+108+133+120+108+97+87+78+70 =				1063.
    9: 78+87+97+108+120+133+120+108+97+87+78+70 =				1183.
    8: 78+87+97+108+120+133+133+120+108+97+87+78+70 =			1316.
    7: 78+87+97+108+120+133+133+120+108+97+87+78+70 =			1316.
    6: 78+87+97+108+120+133+120+108+97+87+78+70 =				1183.
    5: 78+87+97+108+120+133+108+97+87+78+70 =				1063.
    4: 78+87+97+108+120+133+97+87+78+70 =					 955.
    3: 78+87+97+108+120+133+87+78+70 =					 858.
    2: 78+87+97+108+120+133+78+70 = 					 771.
    1: 78+87+97+108+120+133+70 =						 693.
    
    Now, we can finally trim off the last round losers, leaving us with the
    number of winning combinations.  (We've already trimmed all of the layouts
    that lost before the last round.)
    
    Card   #L  #W     #[L,W] Layouts  xOccur.  Total Losers    Win%
    [K]     0  13     [ 0, 13]          771          0        100.00%
    [Q]     1  12     [ 1, 12]          858        858         92.31%
    [J]     2  11     [ 2, 11]          955       2768         84.62%
    [T]     3  10     [ 3, 10]         1063       5957         76.92%
    [9]     4   9     [ 4,  9]         1183      10689         69.23%
    [8]     5   8     [ 5,  8]         1316      17269         61.54%
    [7]     6   7     [ 6,  7]         1316      25165         53.85%
    [6]     5   8     [ 5,  8]         1183      31080         61.54%
    [5]     4   9     [ 4,  9]         1063      35332         69.23%
    [4]     3  10     [ 3, 10]          955      38197         76.92%
    [3]     2  11     [ 2, 11]          858      39913         84.62%
    [2]     1  12     [ 1, 12]          771      40684         92.31%
    [1]     0  13     [ 0, 13]          693      40684        100.00%
    
    That leaves 40684 layouts that lose on the fourth of four decisions.
    We had 168805 winning layouts from the third round, giving us a chance of
    75.90% of surviving specifically round 4, and a 34.51% chance of making it
    all the way through all four rounds and coming out a winner.
    Result:  128121 winning layouts, for 34.51% chance of paying out.
    
    
    * Conclusion
    Assuming our sampling simplification is a reasonable approximation for the
    actual probabilities of the "Hi & Low" portion of the Poker game, we see
    that the approximate chances of paying out 16x is 34.51%.  That's very
    near 1/3 of the time.  So, assuming you always play "Hi & Low" on every
    winning poker hand, and always continue on to the end regardless of what
    numbers show up, you will multiply your poker winnings by 16 approximately
    one third of the time, and go home empty two thirds of the time.  Using
    simple probability, the expected multiplied payout of "Hi & Low" is:
    
    (16 * .3451) + (0 * .6549) = 5.5216.
    
    That means over the long run you will win 5.5 times what you put in.
    This is a HUGE bias in favor of you, the player.  In a real-life casino,
    you will be lucky to get a machine that pays out a bit below 1.  Any
    casino that paid out any multiplier over 1 would go broke in no time,
    and if a casino could pay out the inverse of the "Hi & Low" game, (1/5.5216)
    or 0.1811, they would rack up fortunes as fast as you can!  Of course,
    nobody in their right mind would play on a machine such as that.  Thankfully
    for you, the Durandal casino isn't in its right mind!
    
    
    
    ===================================
      8 :: COPYRIGHT INFORMATION
    ===================================
    
    Copyright (c)  2003  James Doyle / "Kadamony"
    Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document
    under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.2
    or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation;
    with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover Texts.
    A copy of the license is available at: http://www.gnu.org/licenses/fdl.txt
    
    

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