XENOSAGA EPISODE I: DER WILLE ZUR MACHT
References Guide, v1.0
By Vaeran (stemn at erols dot com)

=====================
REVISION(IST) HISTORY
=====================

+  v1.0 08/02/03: 130 entries. First version up! Let's see how long this can
   can stand on its own before the revisions start pouring in.

==============
AUTHOR'S BLURB
==============

Half of the fun of the Xeno series is learning new nuances to the characters,
places and things named in the games when you discover that they're actually
references to everything from mythology and religion to anime series. (The
other half of the fun, of course, is experimenting with various substances
in an attempt to get your mind into such a state that the plot forms a cohesive
and logical whole.) There's a whole lot of these references though, some of
them rather obscure, so I thought it'd be nice to save people some research
time by compiling them all here.

Some entries will end up repeating what the game's U.M.N. Database feature has 
to say, but are included anyway for the sake of completeness. Please note that
this guide is only for sources outside the Xeno universe -- if you want to know
what terms in Xenosaga Episode I relate to Xenogears, there's a great FAQ by
EChang on GameFAQs that already covers that. Be aware that this guide is 
shamelessly spoileriffic through pretty much the entire game. If you haven't
beaten it yet and don't want the plot given away, you should probably hold off
on reading this. Don't say I didn't warn you.

If there's something I overlooked that ought to have an entry here, or if
some essential piece of information is missing from any of the existing
entries, or if I've made any mistakes, please email me and let me know. It'd
save me some time if you can include a link to a reputable source in your
email, but it isn't necessary. If I decide to follow your advice, I'll make
sure that you get credit in the next update. Also, please keep in mind that
I'd like this to remain a quick reference guide rather than a comprehensive
Xeno-encyclopedia -- while I could go on for pages about Nigredo, Albedo and
Rubedo, I'd much rather just boil the concepts down to a few vital sentences,
and let people study up further on their own if they so choose.

As for using this guide, I don't honestly mind if you post it on your own site,
just please do not alter it in any way. And if you could take a second to drop
me a note letting me know you're going to post it, that'd be nice. If you're
reading this at a site other than www.gamefaqs.com, the most recent version can
always be found there, so please check that before emailing me about something.

That's enough preamble, then. Sit back, relax, and enjoy the fruits of my 
Googling.

     -- Vaeran

===================================
XENOSAGA EPISODE I REFERENCES GUIDE
===================================

308TH VULGATA DIVISION
======================
A division of U-TIC's forces, or at least it was back when Margulis first
met Cherenkov. Vulgata is Latin for "common", and now usually refers to the 
Latin Vulgata (or Vulgate) Bible from the fourth century. It was the most 
commonly used version in the Middle Ages.

666
===
This number is tattooed on Jr.'s right hand, as he is U.R.T.V. Unit #666. In
the Bible's Book of Revelations, it is said that this is the number of the
Beast (the Antichrist), whose followers will bear it on their right hand or
forehead.

ABEL
====
Wilhem mentions something called "Abel's Ark" during the closing scenes of 
Episode I. Abel was the son of Adam and Eve, and was slain by his jealous 
brother Cain in the field. Abel isn't really known for any kind of Ark in the
Bible, though - that's more Noah's department. Guess we'll have to wait for
Episode II to see what he means.

ABYSS
=====
The intersection of two black holes, where Proto Merkabah was thought to have
been lost forever. As the U.M.N. Database states, this can also be a reference
to hell.

AGWS BATTLE
===========
An AGWS combat minigame, playable over the U.M.N. Maybe I'm reading too deeply
into this, but the controls here are startlingly similar to those in "Virtual 
On", a popular arcade mecha combat game by SEGA. No, seriously, they are.

AMBIX
=====
You fight this mecha-type boss on the U-TIC battleship. More commonly called an
alembic, this was a device used in alchemy and early chemistry to distill
liquids. It's also the name of a venerable and respected (in its field, anyway)
scientific journal on alchemy.

ANDREW
======
One of the Zohar Emulators, stored in the Durandal's isolation area. One of
the twelve apostles of Jesus Christ, Andrew was the one who brought forth the 
few loaves of bread and two fish with which Jesus was able to feed five 
thousand people. It is said that when Andrew was thrown to the lions during the
persecution of Christians in Greece, the lions would not attack him.

See also: Bartholomew, Boanerges, James, John, Judas, Marienkind, Matthew,
Peter, Philip, Simon, Thaddeus, Thomas.

"AND THE SEA GAVE UP THE DEAD..."
=================================
Joachim Mizrahi says this in a flashback. He's quoting the Bible, and the full
passage is: "And the sea gave up the dead which were in it, and death and hell
delivered up the dead which were in them, and they were judged every man
according to their works." (Revelations 20:13)

"AND WHOSOEVER WAS NOT FOUND..."
================================
Joachim Mizrahi says this in a flashback. He's quoting the Bible, and the full
passage is: "And whosoever was not found written in the Book of Life was cast
into the lake of fire." (Revelations 20:15) His next line, "Rejoice, all ye!
The time for feasting has come!" does not appear to be a Bible passage.

ARCHETYPE
=========
A term used to refer to the prototype KOS-MOS. Another term from psychologist
Carl Jung, an archetype is an image stored in the collective unconscious of
humankind, and inherited into all our brains to be expressed in different ways
depending on the individual.

ARIADNE
=======
A planet whose sudden and as-yet unexplained disappearance apparently had
something to do with the Zohar. In Greek mythology, Ariadne was the daughter of
King Minos of Crete, who fell in love with Theseus and helped him to slay the
Minotaur by giving him a magic sword and a ball of string to find his way back
out of the Labyrinth. Theseus then abandoned her on an island, and she was wed
to the god Dionysus instead.

See also: Labyrinthos, Minotaur.

ARMAROS
=======
A Gnosis-type enemy, encountered in Proto Merkabah. One of the Grigori (or
Watcher) angels who were cast out from heaven for teaching celestial secrets to
humans, and taking mortal women as their mates. Armaros was the one to teach
humans magic and enchantments. Fittingly, the XS enemy Armaros looks vaguely 
angelic.

See also: Azazel, Baraqijal, Nephilim.

ATALYA
======
A planetary member of the Federation, apparently located not far from where the
Woglinde was destroyed. In the Torah, Atalya was the wicked daughter of Achav,
a king of Israel. Through various political machinations, Atalya eventually
came to murder an entire royal family (though not her own) and usurp power for
six years before being overthrown.

ATHRA 26 SERIES
===============
A Gnosis-type enemy, encountered in the Song of Nephilim. I've found two
meanings for this: Athra is one of Adam's direct descendants, and is also the
name in Zoroastrianism for the spiritual energy that fills the universe and was
the catalyst of its creation.

AZAZEL
======
A Gnosis-type enemy, encountered in Proto Merkabah. One of the Grigori (or
Watcher) angels who were cast out from heaven for teaching celestial secrets to
humans, and taking mortal women as their mates. Azazel taught humans to make
weapons and armor.

See also: Armaros, Baraqijal, Nephilim.

BAKERY SMILE SIGN
=================
Bakery Smile is located in Sector 26/27 of the Kukai Foundation. Hey, are those
cheese wedges on the sign? Nope, that's none other than video game legend and
compulsive overeater Pacman! For those who don't know, Namco is the company
that brought us both Xenosaga and Pacman. Bless their hearts.

BARTHOLOMEW
===========
One of the Zohar Emulators, stored in the Durandal's isolation area. Also 
called Nathanael, Bartholomew was one of the twelve apostles of Jesus Christ.
Like many of the apostles, not much is said about him in the Bible. Upon
meeting him for the first time, Jesus is said to have remarked "This man is a
true Israelite. There is no guile in him."

See also: Andrew, Boanerges, James, John, Judas, Marienkind, Matthew, Peter,
Philip, Simon, Thaddeus, Thomas.

BARAQIJAL
=========
A Gnosis-type enemy, encountered in Proto Merkabah. One of the Grigori (or
Watcher) angels who were cast out from heaven for teaching celestial secrets to
humans, and taking mortal women as their mates. Baraqijal taught humans the
art of astrology.

See also: Armaros, Azazel, Nephilim.

BASILISK
========
A Gnosis-type enemy, encountered in the Encephalon. The basilisk is a terrible
monster from Greek mythology, a serpent so deadly that if stabbed with a spear,
its poison can travel up the shaft and kill the man who attacked it. It is said
that the only way to kill a basilisk is to show it its own reflection,
whereupon it will immediately die of fright.

BOANERGES
=========
One of the Zohar Emulators, stored in the Durandal's isolation area. Boanerges
means "sons of thunder", and was a surname given by Jesus Christ to two of his
apostles, James son of Zebedee and his brother John (not John the Baptist) due
to their powerful conviction in their faith. As there is another Zohar Emulator
called John, this one is likely meant to represent James the Greater to
distinguish him from the other James. 

See also: Andrew, Bartholomew, James, John, Judas, Marienkind, Matthew, Peter,
Philip, Simon, Thaddeus, Thomas.

BUGBEAR
=======
A Gnosis-type enemy, encountered in the Encephalon. From Celtic mythology, a
bugbear is a spirit that appears in the form of an old man, and comes in the
night to give children nightmares or steal them away from their homes. The
bugbear was said to only prey upon naughty children (heh), and could also 
appear as an omen of death.

CASPASE
=======
The officer in charge of the Realian lab onboard the Woglinde. Caspase is a set
of proteins which assist in apoptosis, or the programmed death of specific
cells in an organism.

CERBERUS
========
A Gnosis-type enemy, encountered in the Cathedral Ship. In Greek mythology,
Cerberus was the three-headed dog who stood guard over the entrance to Hades,
the land of the dead. Newly deceased souls could pass by Cerberus into the 
depths, but none could leave. Of course there were several famous exceptions to
this, as Greek heroes got to bend all the rules.

CHAOS
=====
The enigmatic protector of the Elsa, who knows a whole lot about what's going
on but no one ever bothers to ask him. While not a reference to any one thing
in particular, the concept of chaos is seen often in creation myths as the
original state of the universe before (insert deity here) came along to bring
order to it.

See also: KOS-MOS.

CHERENKOV, ANDREW
=================
A strange and tragic U-TIC operative whose past we still don't fully
understand. Cherenkov is a type of nuclear radiation named after the Russian
physicist who discovered it, Pavel Alekseyevich Cherenkov. The "Cherenkov
Effect" is a faint blue glow from radioactive substances when charged particles
move beyond a certain speed, somewhat like the visual equivalent of an
aircraft's sonic boom.

CYCLOPS
=======
You fight this Gnosis-type boss on the Woglinde. From Greek mythology, cyclopes
("cyclops" is singular) were humanoid giants with a single eye set in the
middle of their foreheads. Not necessarily evil, some of the cyclopes were
employed by Zeus to forge weapons and armor for the gods.

DÄMMERUNG
=========
The gigantic mobile headquarters of Vector Industries. Its name is German for
"twilight", which is nothing special in itself, but is more important as a
reference to German composer Richard Wagner's opera "Götterdämmerung" (Twilight
of the Gods), the fourth and final part of the epic "Der Ring des Nibelungen".
The opera shows the fall of the gods, and the the birth of an independent world
for the humans, free from being merely pawns and victims of the gods'
conflicts.

See also: Floßhilde, Rhine Maiden, Wellgunde, Woglinde.

DEFCON 1
========
A high-alert level to which the Woglinde's personnel shift when the Gnosis
attack. DefCon stands for Defensive Condition, and is a five-level system used
by the United States military to categorize levels of combat readiness. DefCon
5 is normal peacetime conditions, while DefCon 1 is the highest alert status.

DELPHYNE
========
A Gnosis-type enemy, encountered in Proto Merkabah. From Greek mythology,
Delphyne was a drakaina, a maiden who was half-beast. When her brother Typhon
cut out Zeus' sinews, he set her to guard them, until Hermes and Aegipan took
them back. She also guarded a fountain by the oracle at Delphi until Apollo
killed her and took over. Pretty lousy resumé for a guard.

DER WILLE ZUR MACHT
===================
The title of Xenosaga Episode I. It translates from German as "The Will to 
Power", and is the name of one of the works of German philosopher Friedrich
Nietzsche, published posthumously. One of the central tenets of his belief 
system, Nietzche's concept of the will to power is that all living beings have
a natural drive to dominate and exert their will over others, and that social
and religious constructions of morality interfere with and oppose this drive.
Nietzsche maintained that actions taken in furtherance of this desire for
conquest were not evil or wrong, simply an affirmation of nature, and that the
greatest human would be one who surpassed societal morality and fully embraced
the will to power.

See also: Wilhelm.

DIRLEWANGER
===========
A bio-type enemy, encountered in the Encephalon. The SS-Sturmbrigade
Dirlewanger was a Nazi military unit, named for its commander Oskar
Dirlewanger, who was infamous for his brutality and mass murder of civilians.

DOMINION TANK
=============
An ether attack for Shion, formed from the legs of the super robot Erde Kaiser.
Dominion are the fourth-highest order of angels in the Judeo-Christian
hierarchy.

See also: Erde Kaiser, Kelbim Dragon, Seraphim Bird, Throni Blade.

DURANDAL
========
The colony-sized flagship of the Kukai Foundation. It is named for the sword
wielded by the hero Roland, which was supposedly forged by the Roman god Vulcan
and originally wielded by Hector of Troy. As Roland lay dying, he tried to
smash Durandal upon a rock to prevent its capture by the enemy, but the sword
was unbreakable and cut straight through the stone. This probably goes towards
explaining why the ship is shaped like it is, which I had previously chalked up
to Jr. just overcompensating.

ELSA
====
Captain Matthews' small but sturdy ship. Elsa is the heroine of Richard
Wagner's opera "Lohengrin", a young noble girl falsely accused of murdering her
brother.

See also: Lohengrin Class.
     
ERDE KAISER
===========
Shion's ultimate ether attack, which summons the giant robot she helped the
Robot Academy professor build.  Its name means "Earth Emperor" in German. The
entire sequence with the crazy professor is a nod to the old "super robot" 
anime shows that were huge in the 1970s, such as "Voltron" or "Mazinger Z".
These almost always involved colorful transforming robots that fought for
justice with burning passion, built by genius scientists (who were usually the
hero's father, but close enough).

See also: Dominion Tank, Kelbim Dragon, Seraphim Bird, Throni Blade.

"EXCEPT A CORN OF WHEAT..."
===========================
Albedo tells MOMO that this is something Jr. once said. He's quoting the Bible,
and the full passage is: "Verily, verily, I say unto you, except a corn of
wheat fall into the ground and die, it abideth alone: but if it die, it
bringeth forth much fruit." (John 12:24)

FALLEN ONE
==========
This is one of Albedo's attacks, when you fight him in Proto Merkabah. This
could be taken to mean a fallen angel in general, but more likely it is an
allusion specifically to Satan, a powerful angel who was cast out of heaven
after defying God.

FAIRY
=====
A Gnosis-type enemy, encountered in the Cathedral Ship. Also commonly spelt
faerie, the origins of this mythological creature are difficult to trace.
Depending on where in Europe you ask, a fairy can be anything from a
mischievous but benevolent little sprite, to a hulking monstrous giant.

FEBRONIA
========
A mysterious Realian woman living in the church in the Encephalon. Though most
now believe this story to be fictional, St. Febronia was supposedly a nun
living in Mesopotamia in the third century. Persecuted for her Christian faith,
she was offered a chance to be spared if she renounced her religion and married
Emperor Diocletian's wavering son to convince him to also turn away from
Christianity. She refused, and was tortured and killed for her resistance.

FIFTH JERUSALEM
===============
The current capital of the Federation. Jerusalem is a city in Israel,
considered holy by the Christian, Jewish and Muslim faiths. Jesus Christ was
crucified on a hill outside Jerusalem.

FLOßHILDE
=========
One of the three ships that escorts the Dämmerung to the huge Gnosis battle
right before Song of Nephilim.  Wellgunde is one of the three Rhinemaidens from
Richard Wagner's opera "Der Ring des Nibelungen".

See also: Dämmerung, Rhine Maiden, Wellgunde, Woglinde.

"FRAILTY, THY NAME IS WOMAN"
============================
Albedo makes this remark as MOMO looks on in horror at the dead Kirschwassers.
He is quoting William Shakespeare's play "Hamlet". Hamlet speaks this line in
disgust, referring to how quickly his mother found comfort in his uncle's bed
after the death of his father.

GARGOYLE
========
Cherenkov transforms into this huge Gnosis in the Cathedral Ship. Not actually
a monster, gargoyles were intentionally hideous stone carvings of beasts placed
on the outside of Gothic buildings, the idea being that they would scare evil
spirits away.

GEDALYA
=======
An independent state within the Federation. From the Torah, Gedalya was a good-
hearted man who was appointed as governor over the small group of Jews who
were allowed to remain in Israel after the exile. The king of a neighboring
nation, who hated the Jews, goaded a man into killing Gedalya, and now a fast 
day is observed in his honor after Rosh HaShana.

GIGAS
=====
You fight this Gnosis-type boss in the Kukai Foundation. Synonymous with giant,
a gigas is a creature usually identical to a normal human, only many times
larger. Giants have appeared in mythology from cultures all over the world.

GNOSIS
======
The monstrous, ethereal antagonists in Episode I. Gnosis (Greek for 
"knowledge") is a term for any one of the many varying sects of Gnosticism, a 
pre-Christian religion that had its twilight around the fifth century A.D. 
Gnosticism regards the material world as fundamentally evil and false, and
teaches that knowledge of its nature (as opposed to faith, the keystone of most
other religions) is essential to transcending it and returning to the spiritual
realm after death. 

See also: Jaldalbaoth, Sophie Peithos.

GOBLIN
======
A Gnosis-type enemy, encountered onboard the Woglinde. Another mythological
monster common all over Europe, goblins at least have a more solid description
than fairies: small, gnome-like creatures whose behavior ranged from merely
mischievous to seriously malicious.

GODWIN, MARY
============
One of Jr. and Gaignun's personal aides, along with her older sister Shelley.
This is probably a shot in the dark, but Mary Shelley was the British author of
"Frankenstein", a novel about a scientist who disrupts the natural order by
creating a man from parts of corpses. Maybe the idea here is that Betty (the
woman-turned-Gnosis in the Durandal's isolation area) is supposed to represent
Frankenstein's monster.

GODWIN, SHELLEY
===============
One of Jr. and Gaignun's personal aides, along with her younger sister Mary.

See entry for Godwin, Mary.

GOLEM
=====
A Gnosis-type enemy, encountered onboard the Woglinde. From Jewish lore, a
golem is a creature made of ordinarily inanimate substance (such as stone) and
made to move through magic.

GREENSLEEVES
============
Track 7 on disc 2 of the XSI soundtrack, which I believe plays when Shion is
talking to Febronia. This is an arrangement of an English folk melody from
around the 16th century, though its composer is unknown. While often heard
without lyrics (as in XSI), the original composition did have them, about a man
who longs in vain for a beautiful woman who will not return his love. Hello,
Allen.

GREMLIN
=======
A Gnosis-type enemy, encountered in the Encephalon. Gremlins are mischievous
creatures that work their trickery exclusively on the machines and tools of 
humans. Not a proper mythological being, the "gremlin" was a joke coined by the
British military in World War I to explain various technical mishaps.

"HALLELUJAH!"
=============
Joachim Mizrahi shouts this in a flashback. In Judeo-Christian tradition, this
is a word of praise to God. The word is formed from the Hebrew "hallel"
(praise) and "Ya-H" (the shortened form of the name of God).

HYDRA
=====
A Gnosis-type enemy, encountered in the Cathedral Ship. From Greek mythology,
the hydra was a serpentine creature with many heads. When one head was cut off,
two more would grow in its place. The hydra was eventually slain by the hero
Hercules.

IDENTITY DIFFUSION
==================
Shion mentions this when MOMO is angsting about her creator/father, Dr.
Mizrahi. The Database explains it well enough: as psychologist Erik Erikson put
forth, this is the least adaptive identity type formed from adolescent
exprerience, in which the sense of self is unstable due to unresolved
conflicts.

IOSYS
=====
A mecha-type enemy, encountered in Proto Merkabah. Something of a pun, iosis is
Greek for "reddening", and I/O System (abbreviated to I/O Sys) is a computer
term. Why they gave such an important name to a random enemy is beyond me.

See also: Rubedo, Xanthosis.

"IT WAS VERY DARK, AND THE WIND..."
===================================
Jr. makes this comment to himself as he's out in space in his AGWS, searching
for traces of the planet Ariadne. He's quoting the narration from L. Frank
Baum's "The Wonderful Wizard of Oz", as a tornado is whisking the heroine
Dorothy's house away to the land of Oz. The full quote is "It was very dark,
and the wind howled horribly around her, but Dorothy found she was riding quite
easily. After the first few whirls around, and one other time when the house
tipped badly, she felt as if she were being rocked gently, like a baby in a
cradle."

JALDABAOTH
==========
A Gnosis-type enemy, summoned by Sophie Peithos. More commonly called 
Ialdabaoth or The Demiurge (Greek for "craftsman"), this is the equivalent of
the Christian Satan in the Gnostic belief system, created by the Aeon Sophia
Pistis. Ialdabaoth then in turn created the material world. One fascinating
difference (of many) between Gnosticism and Christianity is that this is seen
as a sin and a folly, as he did this in ignorance of the greater spiritual
world and arrogantly pronounced himself the one true god.

See also: Gnosis, Pleroma, Sophie Peithos.

JAMES
=====
One of the Zohar Emulators, stored in the Durandal's isolation area. While
Jesus had two apostles named James, this likely specifically refers to James
son of Alphaeus, as James son of Zebedee was already covered under Boanerges.
Fitting his common nickname of James the Less (poor guy), next to nothing is
known about him.

See also: Andrew, Bartholomew, Boanerges, John, Judas, Marienkind, Matthew,
Peter, Philip, Simon, Thaddeus, Thomas.

JOHN
====
One of the Zohar Emulators, stored in the Durandal's isolation area. Not to be
confused with John the Baptist, John son of Zebedee was one of the twelve
apostles of Jesus Christ. The only one of the twelve to have attended Christ's
crucifixion, John went on to write several books of the Bible, including the
Book of Revelations.
 
See also: Andrew, Bartholomew, Boanerges, James, Judas, Marienkind, Matthew,
Peter, Philip, Simon, Thaddeus, Thomas.

JUDAS
=====
One of the Zohar Emulators, stored in the Durandal's isolation area. One of
Jesus Christ's disciples, Judas Iscariot is the one who betrayed Christ to the
Romans for thirty pieces of silver, leading to Christ's crucifixion. He was
immediately filled with remorse for his act, threw away the silver and hanged
himself in the temple.

See also: Andrew, Bartholomew, Boanerges, James, John, Marienkind, Matthew,
Peter, Philip, Simon, Thaddeus, Thomas.

KELBIM DRAGON
=============
Formed from the torso of the Erde Kaiser. "Kelbim" is a mistranslation of
"Cherubim", which refers to the second-highest order of angels in the Judeo-
Christian hierarchy.

See also: Dominion Tank, Erde Kaiser, Seraphim Bird, Throni Blade.

KOBOLD
======
A Gnosis-type enemy, encountered in the Encephalon. From German folklore, 
kobolds are small spirits who live underground and, like goblins, like to play
tricks on humans.
	
KOS-MOS
=======
An android developed as an anti-Gnosis weapon. "Kosmos" is the Greek word for
order, which is of course the opposite of chaos. From this we derive the 
English word cosmos, which refers to the universe as a whole.

See also: chaos.

LABYRINTHOS
===========
The central base of the U-TIC Organization. In Greek mythology, the Labyrinthos
(or simply Labyrinth) was a giant maze constructed by the inventor Daedalus to
contain the monstrous Minotaur of Crete.

See also: Ariadne, Minotaur.

LAMECH MODEL 3
==============
An old model of Realian, produced before the Miltian Conflict. Lamech was a
Biblical figure, a direct descendant of Cain, and the first man to violate the
law of marriage by taking two wives. When the floods came, Cain's bloodline
ended with Lamech.

See also: Abel.

LION'S HEART
============
A U.M.N. Network auction house that deals in artifacts. This could be a
reference to any number of things, among them Regulus, the star located at the
heart of the lion constellation Leo, or perhaps Richard the Lionheart, king of
England during the Crusades. None seem to fit terribly well, though.

LOHENGRIN CLASS
===============
The Elsa belongs to this class of ship, but this is unfortunately the only 
class the game mentions. "Lohengrin" is the name of another opera by Richard
Wagner. Its heroine, Elsa, is falsely accused of murder, but a knight in 
shining armor comes to her defense, offering to marry her on the condition that
she does not ask of his name or past. She agrees, but eventually curiosity gets
the better of her and she questions him before their marriage. True to his
word, he answers her, but then sadly returns to his homeland, leaving his bride
to die of sorrow at his departure.

See also: Elsa.

LOST JERUSALEM
==============
The term for planet Earth after its unexplained disappearance.

See entry for Fifth Jerusalem.

MAKAROV
=======
The antique pistol that Gaignun buys for Jr. through the Lion's Heart. Also
called the Pistolet Makarova or just "PM", this is indeed a real weapon. 
Designed by Russian gunsmith Nikolai Fedorovich Makarov after World War II, the
reliable weapon is still in service today.

MANTICORE
=========
A Gnosis-type enemy, encountered onboard the Woglinde. From the mythology of
various parts of Asia, a manticore is a fearsome predator, resembling a lion
with the head of a human, and poison in its barbed tail. The manticore was said
to eat its victims completely, including their bones and all their possessions,
and was used to explain villagers who vanished without a trace.

MARIENKIND
==========
The central Zohar Emulator stored in the Durandal's isolation area. As Shelley
says, it means "the child of Mary". One would think this was plainly a
reference to Jesus Christ, but the U.M.N. Database disagrees: it apparently
refers to a Grimm's fairytale of the same name, about a little girl who
receives the keys to the doors of heaven from Mary. Probably works as a
reference to both.

See also: Andrew, Bartholomew, Boanerges, James, John, Judas, Matthew, Peter,
Philip, Simon, Thaddeus, Thomas.

MATTHEW
=======
One of the Zohar Emulators, stored in the Durandal's isolation area. Andrew was
one of the twelve apostles of Jesus Christ, not much is known about him either,
aside from the fact that he wrote one of the Gospels of the Bible.

See also: Andrew, Bartholomew, Boanerges, James, John, Judas, Marienkind, 
Peter, Philip, Simon, Thaddeus, Thomas.

MINOTAUR
========
You fight this Gnosis-type boss onboard the Woglinde. A half-man, half-bull
monster from Greek mythology, the Minotaur was born from the wife of King Minos
of Crete, as punishment for Minos' deception of the god Poseidon. Ordering a 
massive Labyrinth built to imprison the creature, Minos had it sealed away, and
sent in sacrifices of young men and women for it to feed upon. With the help of
Minos' daughter Ariadne, the hero Theseus slew the Minotaur and escaped the
Labyrinth.

See also: Ariadne, Labyrinthos.
 
"MIRROR, MIRROR, ON THE WALL..."
================================
Part of young Albedo's seemingly insane ramblings in a flashback. He is 
quoting Disney's "Snow White and the Seven Dwarves", in which the vain and
wicked queen demands daily of her magic mirror, "Mirror, mirror, on the wall, 
who's the fairest one of all?" The original Snow White tale was penned by the 
Brothers Grimm, but this famous quote is from the Disney adaptation.

MITHRIL ROD
===========
A weapon for MOMO. A mythical silvery metal invented by author J.R.R. Tolkien
for his medieval fantasy stories, mithril has since become a staple of weapons
and armor in many RPGs.

MIZRAHI, JOACHIM
================
The brilliant scientist with questionable morals, who is now despised after his
death for the things he created. St. Joachim is honored as the father of the
Virgin Mary, though no historical record exists of his life. Mizrahi (plural:
Mizrahim) refers to a Jew of African or Arab descent, who are aften looked down
upon by others of the Jewish faith.

MIZRAHI, JULI
=============
The widow of Dr. Joachim Mizrahi, and member of the Contact Subcommittee.

See entry for Mizrahi, Joachim.

MOMO
====
A 100-Series Observational Realian and member of your party. Her entire
character is essentially an homage to the "magical girl" genre of anime, of
which "Sailor Moon" is a well-known example. MOMO, however, seems to 
specifically be a take on Sakura Kinomoto, from CLAMP's "Cardcaptor Sakura", as
her clothing bears a striking resemblance to Sakura's school uniform, and Dr.
Mizrahi even calls her Sakura at one point.  The constant flashing of MOMO's
panties is probably poking fun at the creepier fans who tend to oversexualize
magical girl heroines (and the animation studios that happily encourage them to
continue doing so).

NATARAJA
========
The NATARAJA is a computer system used to connect to KOS-MOS' Encephalon.
Nataraja, the dancer is one of the many forms of Shiva, a major Hindu deity.
The many-armed dancer embodies all of Shiva's facets, including the twin powers
of creation and destruction.

NEPHILIM
========
The mysterious young girl who appears to Shion. Nephilim is a collective term
for the monstrous giants born from the union of the Grigori angels and mortal
women. They had spiritual powers and terrible appetities, and eventually turned
on each other for food after exhausting the land around them. The Nephilim are
also credited with building the Tower of Babel before destroying themselves.

See also: Armaros, Azazel, Baraqijal.

NERO
====
As Jr. gazes at space, he wonders if it resembles "the lake of darkness where
Nero does his fishing". Nero was the fifth emperor of Rome, and Jr. is
paraphrasing William Shakespeare's "King Lear." The line to which he alludes is
spoken by Edgar: "Frateretto calls me, and tells me Nero is an angler in the
lake of darkness. Pray, innocent, and beware of the foul fiend." (Unrelated,
but the popular story that Nero fiddled while Rome burned has no basis in 
historical fact.)

NIGREDO
=======
Another name for U.R.T.V. unit #669, Gaignun Kukai. Nigredo, Latin for 
"blackening", is the first step in the alchemical process that is often also
used as a symbol for psychological individuation. The phase of nigredo can be 
one of deep depression, as we are forced to look at the aspects of ourselves
that we don't like, and that we keep hidden in the shadows. This humbling of
the ego is necessary for the reshaping that will follow.

See also: Piasora, Albedo; Rubedo.

OGRE
====
A Gnosis-type enemy, encountered in the Cathedral Ship. Monsters from fairy
tales, ogres were similar to giants, though typically smaller and far less 
pleasant, as their diet consisted of human flesh.

ORMUS
=====
Track 1 on disc 2 of the XSI soundtrack, which plays inside the church in the 
Encephalon. One of many, many spellings (others include Ahura Mazdah, Hormuz
and Ohrmazd) of the name of the supreme Zoroastrian god, who represented truth
and goodness. Ormus created the world as a place to battle against Ahriman,
lord of evil.

See also: Zarathustra.

PENFIELD MAPPING
================
A process used in creating the Encephalon simulation inside KOS-MOS, probably
to link up the sensors to her simulated body. Named for American neurosurgeon
Wilder Penfield, this is not actually a process, but a discovery. In trying to
cure epileptic seizures, Penfield accidentally made discoveries about the human
brain that led to a detailed map of what areas of the brain correspond to which
parts of the body.

PETER
=====
One of the Zohar Emulators, stored in the Durandal's isolation area. One of 
the apostles of Jesus Christ, Peter was the first to recognize Christ as the
messiah. And in accordance to the prophecy of Jesus' death, Peter denied
knowing him three times the night of the Last Supper, even though he had sworn
he would not.

See also: Andrew, Bartholomew, Boanerges, James, John, Judas, Marienkind,
Matthew, Philip, Simon, Thaddeus, Thomas.

PHILIP
======
One of the Zohar Emulators, stored in the Durandal's isolation area. One of the
apostles of Jesus Christ, Philip is said to be the founder of the Ethiopian
Orthodox Church, when he converted and baptized an Ethiopian man who returned
to his country to preach the Christian faith.

See also: Andrew, Bartholomew, Boanerges, James, John, Judas, Marienkind,
Matthew, Peter, Simon, Thaddeus, Thomas.

PHOTON TORPEDO
==============
An anti-matter weapon employed by Federation warships. This is most likely a
reference to the long-running American science fiction series "Star Trek",
whose ships use an identical weapon.

PIASORA, ALBEDO
===============
The gleefully psychotic U.R.T.V. villain, who is the only one in the cast that
responds properly to everything Jr. says (with constant laughter). Albedo,
Latin for "whitening", is the second phase of alchemical psychology, following
nigredo. In albedo, greater perspective and insight into the workings of our
mind is gained, as we become able to see our emotions from a vantage point
outside of subjective immersion. Albedo is a phase of tranquility and
purification, bringing light to the shadows of nigredo.

See also: Nigredo, Rubedo.

PIETA
=====
The Durandal's main computer. Pieta, Italian for "pity", is the image of the
Virgin Mary holding the lifeless body of Christ in her arms. Perhaps the most
famous depiction of the Pieta is the lifesize marble sculpture by Michelangelo
Buonarroti, completed in 1499.

PLEROMA
=======
U-TIC's asteroid base, where MOMO was being held. Meaning "fullness" in Greek,
the pleroma is the great spiritual world in Gnostic beliefs. This is the home
of the supreme being and the divine Aeons, which were like the pantheons of
Greek and Roman gods in that each was a cosmic representation of a concept,
such as Wisdom, Life or Truth.

See also: Gnosis, Jaldabaoth, Sophie Peithos.

PRIMER WALKING
==============
A technique used to trace Zohar energy; the Durandal uses this to locate the
Woglinde wreckage. As the Database says, this is a technique used in DNA
sequence analysis. (If anyone can provide more information on this, please
make sure it's in very small words and possibly accompanied by comforting
stick figure illustrations. Science and I don't get along well.)

PROTO MERKABAH
==============
A mammoth space station created by Joachim Mizrahi, and raised from the Abyss
by Albedo. Merkabah refers to a mystical inner journey undertaken by Kabbalists
through which they believed they could see the fullness of the glory of God.
The Merkabah was visualized as a chariot on which one rode through the palaces
of the heavens.

See also: Zohar.

RATATOSK
========
A Gnosis-type enemy, summoned by Sophie Peithos. In Norse mythology, Ratatosk
was a squirrel who lived in Yggdrasil, the world tree, and carried messages
between all the worlds.

RHINE MAIDEN
============
The incredibly powerful anti-Gnosis weapon installed on the Woglinde II,
Wellgunde and Floßhilde (and likely the original Woglinde as well, but I guess
we'll never really know), which evens the battle against the Gnosis army.
"Rhinemaiden" is a collective term that refers to the mermaids Woglinde,
Wellgunde and Floßhilde in Wagner's multi-part opera "Der Ring des Nibelungen".
The Rhinemaidens live (of course) in the Rhine river, and protect magical gold
which, if made into a ring by one who had renounced love, would grant the
wearer the power to rule the world.

See also: Dämmerung.

RIANON SE
=========
You fight this Gnosis-type boss in the Song of Nephilim. More commonly spelled
Rhiannon (and called Epona outside of Wales), this is the Celtic goddess of the
horse and other animals.

RUBEDO
======
If not Jr.'s real name, then at least a little more real than Gaignun Kukai, 
Jr. The final phase of the alchemical/psychological process, rubedo (Latin for
"reddening") follows the albedo phase. Rubedo takes the lessons learned from
nigredo and albedo and puts them into action. The albedo-purified unconscious
mind is beautiful but abstract; rubedo fills the whiteness with blood and life,
and brings the now-complete process into the realm of the conscious mind.

See also: 666; Piasora, Albedo; Iosys; Nigredo.

SAKURA
======
Joachim Mizrahi calls MOMO this in a flashback. It's a common Japanese girl's
name, and means "cherry blossom".  

See entry for MOMO.

SERAPHIM BIRD
=============
An ether attack for Shion, formed from the head of the super robot Erde Kaiser.
In Judeo-Christian teachings, the seraphim are the highest order in the
hierarchy of angels.

See also: Dominion Tank, Erde Kaiser, Kelbim Dragon, Throni Blade.

SERAPHIM SISTERS
================
A popular singing duo, who were performing on planet Keltia at the time of the
Woglinde incident.

See entry for Seraphim Bird.

SIMEON
======
Albedo's gigantic mecha. Simeon was a Biblical figure who, along with his
brother Levi, slaughtered an entire tribe to avenge their sister's honor.

SIMON
=====
One of the Zohar Emulators, stored in the Durandal's isolation area. Simon was
one of the apostles of Jesus Christ but very little is known about him. Even
the exact reason why he was called "Simon the Zealot" is unclear; either for
his religious fervor, or his membership in a Jewish revolutionary group called
the Zealots.

See also: Andrew, Bartholomew, Boanerges, James, John, Judas, Marienkind,
Matthew, Peter, Philip, Thaddeus, Thomas.

SONG OF NEPHILIM
================
A huge pyramid-shaped fortress built by Dr. Mizrahi.

See entry for Nephilim.

SOPHIE PEITHOS
==============
The final boss of the game, this huge Gnosis fuses itself to Proto Merkabah's
reactor. Another mistranslation, this should read Sophia Pistis. From Gnostic
beliefs, Sophia Pistis is the Aeon (or divine representation) of Wisdom. Sophia
longed to understand the supreme being, and so attempted to create life by
herself in imitation of him, but succeeded only in giving birth to the
abomination Ialdabaoth.

See also: Gnosis, Jaldabaoth.

STRIBOG
=======
A Gnosis-type enemy, encountered in the Cathedral Ship. The Slavic god of the
wind, Stribog was seen as malevolent deity who reveled in causing suffering
with harsh winter winds.

SVAROZIC
========
A Gnosis-type enemy, encountered in the Cathedral Ship. The Slavic god of fire,
Svarozic is recognized by some sects as the supreme god.

THADDEUS
========
One of the Zohar Emulators, stored in the Durandal's isolation area. Also
called Jude, Thaddeus was another apostle of Christ about whom we know very
little. One story we do have is that while traveling to preach with Simon, the
city of Suanir tried to force them to make a sacrifice to the local gods.
Instead the two apostles exorcised demons from the temple, which resulted in
the angered people beating them to death.

See also: Andrew, Bartholomew, Boanerges, James, John, Judas, Marienkind,
Matthew, Peter, Philip, Simon, Thomas.

THOMAS
======
One of the Zohar Emulators, stored in the Durandal's isolation area. Thomas was
one of the twelve apostles of Jesus Christ, and is often known as Thomas the
Doubter for his (understandably) skeptic reaction to the news of Christ's
resurrection.

See also: Andrew, Bartholomew, Boanerges, James, John, Judas, Marienkind,
Matthew, Peter, Philip, Simon, Thaddeus.

THRONI BLADE
============
An ether attack for Shion, formed from the legs of the super robot Erde Kaiser.
"Throni" is a mistranslation, as it should be "Throne", which refers to the
third-highest order of Judeo-Christian angels.

See also: Dominion Tank, Erde Kaiser, Kelbim Dragon, Seraphim Bird.

TIAMAT
======
You fight this Gnosis-type boss in the church in the Encephalon. From
Babylonian mythology, Tiamat was an enormous female dragon who was regarded as
the mother of the gods and all creation. When she plotted to kill her children,
the powerful god Marduk slew her, and from her body made the earth and sky.

TROLL
=====
A Gnosis-type enemy, encountered in the Encephalon. From Scandinavian
mythology, trolls are ugly, powerful monsters who prey on humans, much like
ogres. Trolls cannot abide the sun, and will turn to stone if exposed to its
light.

U.M.N. / UNUS MUNDUS NETWORK
============================
The inconceivably expansive information and transportation network for the
entire Federation. As mentioned in the Database, the term comes from a concept
by the psychiatrist Carl Jung, for the realm where all concepts become one, and
the psyche merges with matter.

UNICORN
=======
A Gnosis-type enemy, encountered in the Cathedral Ship. The unicorn is a 
mythological creature that seems to have its roots in Greek mythology, though
similar beasts have appeared in lore from other cultures. Usually depicted as a
beautiful white horse with a single long horn, the unicorn is a benevolent
creature whose horn is said to have healing powers.

UZUKI, SHION
===========
A brilliant Vector employee and Chief Engineer of the KOS-MOS Project. Here's
more guesswork: as "Shion" is not a usual Japanese name, it could be the
Japanese reading of the English word "scion", which means descendant or heir.
What Shion is the heir of, if anything, remains to be seen.

VIRGIL
======
A bigoted anti-Realian soldier on board the Woglinde, he is later revealed to 
have become a Gnosis after death. Virgil was a Roman poet, author of "The 
Aeneid" (among other works). More relevant to Xenosaga, though, he was used as
a character in Dante's "Divine Comedy" centuries after his death, in which he 
serves as Dante's guide through the many levels of hell.

WELLGUNDE
=========
One of the three ships that escorts the Dämmerung to the huge Gnosis battle 
right before Song of Nephilim. Wellgunde is one of the three Rhinemaidens from
Wagner's opera "Der Ring des Nibelungen".

See also: Dämmerung, Floßhilde, Rhine Maiden, Woglinde.

WELLS' ALIENS
=============
Shion makes the comment to Allen, "You're usually so hardheaded with your logic
and preconceptions, I was a little worried that you'd become like one of Wells'
Aliens."  She's referring to H.G. Wells, a science fiction writer in the late
19th and early 20th centuries, whose aliens tended to be nasty, Earth-
conquering types. The 1938 broadcast version of his "War of the Worlds" fooled
many into thinking that Martians really were attacking earth, except of course
those who had read the book. See, reading -is- fundamental.

WILHELM
=======
The CEO of Vector Industries, an enigmatic man who seems somehow to have his
hand in everything. Wilhelm is also the middle name of German philosopher
Friedrich Nietzsche, from whose works the episode's title is taken. Because of
this connection, perhaps the title refers to Wilhelm, rather than the more
obvious Albedo.

See also: Der Wille zur Macht.

WOGLINDE
========
The Federation ship on which Vector is performing its final tests on KOS-MOS,
which is destroyed early in the game. Woglinde is one of the three Rhinemaidens
from Wagner's opera "Der Ring des Nibelungen".

See also: Dämmerung, Floßhilde, Rhine Maiden, Wellgunde.

WOGLINDE II
===========
The Woglinde's sister ship, one of the three that arrives escorting the
Dämmerung to the Gnosis battle before Song of Nephilim.

See entry for Woglinde.

WYRM
====
A Gnosis-type enemy, encountered in the Kukai Foundation. Synonymous with
dragon, wyrms have been found in legends from cultures all over the world.
Though they vary in description, most mythos agree that they're huge, powerful
reptilian creatures, who usually possess the powers of flight and fiery breath.
	
XANTHOSIS
=========
A mecha-type enemy, encountered in Proto Merkabah. Greek for "yellowing", this
is equivalent to citrinitas, a fourth stage of the alchemical/
psychological process that is often disregarded in most works on the matter, in
favor of the other three. While there is no character in Episode I named
Citrinitas, notice that the three U.R.T.V. units we meet are 666, 667 and 669.
No points for guessing who's going to show up in Episode II.

See also: Iosys; Nigredo; Piasora, Albedo; Rubedo.

X-BUSTER
========
One of KOS-MOS' tech attacks. Probably just a coincidence, but this is also the
name of the android X's arm cannon from the video game series Rockman X
(Megaman X in the US). Who says there couldn't be a Rockman fan on Xenosaga's
development team?

ZARATHUSTRA
===========
Track 8 on disc 2 of the XSI soundtrack, though I can't recall exactly where in
the game it plays. Also called Zoroaster, he was the founder of the Zoroastrian
religion. "Thus Spoke Zarathustra: A Book for All and None" is another work by
philosopher Friedrich Nieztsche.

ZIGGURAT 8
==========
Full "name" of the cyborg Ziggy. A ziggurat is an ancient Mesopotamian temple,
though not used for human worship. Rather, they are meant to be the homes of
the gods in the human world, a bridge between heaven and earth.

ZOHAR
=====
The ancient and powerful artifact which is unearthed in the opening sequence,
and becomes the focal point for the entire Xenosaga. Its full name Sepher Ha-
Zohar ("the Book of Radiance"), the Zohar is a crucial part of Jewish
mysticism, written in the 13th century. It includes a commentary on the Torah,
central Kabbalistic teachings (including the Merkabah), and philosophy on good
and evil, the soul, and the nature of the universe. The Zohar teaches that all
things have, beyond their mundane identity, a spiritual and hidden significance
that is key to understanding God.

See also: Proto Merkabah.

===================
HELP WANTED SECTION
===================

Here are a couple areas in particular I'm having trouble with. Anyone is more
than welcome to send me suggestions that don't fit any of these, but the
following are the ones that keep me awake at night:

+  Many of the characters' tech attacks and ethers involve various arcane 
   circles and designs. Not really my field of expertise, and I'm at something
   of a loss as to how I'd go about looking them up. Anyone recognize any?
+  Margulis. I can find nothing on this man, or at least anything that looks 
   significant enough to be the inspiration for his name.
+  So when WAS Zarathustra played, anyway?

======================
THANKS ARE OWING TO...
======================

+  Pepsi
+  www.google.com
+  The continued expansion of Yasunori Mitsuda's cosmic superconsciousness.
+  Tristan, for setting me straight on the Lucifer vs. Satan issue. Mwah.

Copyright 2003 Colin Phillips.
All other trademarks and copyrights contained in this document are owned by 
their respective trademark and copyright holders.