hide results

    FAQ/Driving Guide by Wolf Feather

    Version: 3.0 | Updated: 02/21/03 | Printable Version | Search This Guide

    
                           PPPPP RRRR  OOOOO
                           P   P R  R  O   O
                           PPPPP RRRRR O   O
                           P     R   R O   O
                           P     R   R OOOOO
    
                        RRRR   AAA   CCC  EEEEE
                        R  R  A   A C   C E
                        RRRRR AAAAA C     EEEE
                        R   R A   A C   C E
                        R   R A   A  CCC  EEEEE
    
                  DDDD  RRRR  IIIII V   V EEEEE RRRR
                  D   D R  R    I   V   V E     R  R
                  D   D RRRRR   I   V   V EEEE  RRRRR
                  D   D R   R   I    V V  E     R   R
                  DDDD  R   R IIIII   V   EEEEE R   R
    
    
    
    PRO RACE DRIVER: DRIVING GUIDE
    by
    Jamie Stafford/Wolf Feather
    FEATHER7@IX.NETCOM.COM
    
    
    
    
    
    Initial Version Completed: December 25, 2002
    Version 3.0 Completed:     February 21, 2003
    
    ==============================================
    ==============================================
    ==============================================
    
    MILESTONE
    This guide was originally submitted December 25, 2002,
    exactly two years after the submission of my first-ever game
    guide (Midnight Club: Street Racing - Capture the Flag
    Guide).  This marks my 99th guide in these two years of
    writing, and when my first guide was submitted, I never
    dreamed that I would become such an authority figure on
    PlayStation and PlayStation2 racing games.  Due to support
    from readers and other guide writers, I have launched my own
    Web site with my guides as well as an e-mail list to inform
    others of my writing projects.
    
    I would like to take this opportunity to thank the hundreds
    of readers who have e-mailed me with suggestions, comments,
    criticisms, and even simply short notes of thanks.  It is
    truly for the readers that I continue to write game guides,
    and reader feedback and input is definitely welcome.  I
    eagerly look forward to the next two (and hopefully more)
    years of writing game guides - which will almost certainly be
    concentrated within my specialty of auto racing games.
    
    ==============================================
    
    JOIN THE FEATHERGUIDES E-MAIL LIST
    To be the first to know when my new and updated guides are
    released, join the FeatherGuides E-mail List.  Go to
    http://www.coollist.com/group.cgi?l=featherguides for
    information about the list and to subscribe for free.
    
    ==============================================
    ==============================================
    ==============================================
    
    CONTENTS
    Spacing and Length
    Permissions
    Introduction
    Getting Started
    Career Mode
    Mandatory Pit Stops
    Race Circuits in Pro Race Driver
    Bonus Codes
    General Tips
    Car Tuning
    Braking
    Cornering
    Rumble Strips
    Concrete Extensions
    Tires
    Drafting/Slipstreaming
    Wet-weather Racing/Driving
    Circuit Histories
    Circuit History: A1 Ring
    Circuit History: Adelaide
    Circuit History: Bathurst
    Circuit History: Brands Hatch
    Circuit History: Bristol
    Circuit History: Canberra
    Circuit History: Catalunya
    Circuit History: Charlotte
    Circuit History: Dijon Prenois
    Circuit History: Donington Park
    Circuit History: Eastern Creek
    Circuit History: Fuji
    Circuit History: Hockenheim
    Circuit History: Knockhill
    Circuit History: Las Vegas
    Circuit History: Magny-Cours
    Circuit History: Mantorp Park
    Circuit History: Mexico
    Circuit History: Monza
    Circuit History: Norisring
    Circuit History: Nurburgring
    Circuit History: Oran Park
    Circuit History: Oschersleben
    Circuit History: Oulton Park
    Circuit History: Phillip Island
    Circuit History: Rockingham
    Circuit History: Sandown
    Circuit History: Sears Point
    Circuit History: Silverstone
    Circuit History: T1 Circuit AIDA
    Circuit History: Vallelunga
    Circuit History: Vancouver
    Circuit History: Zandvoort
    Circuit History: Zolder
    Driving Instructions
    Driving Instructions: A1 Ring
    Driving Instructions: Adelaide
    Driving Instructions: Bathurst
    Driving Instructions: Brands Hatch Grand Prix
    Driving Instructions: Brands Hatch Indy
    Driving Instructions: Bristol
    Driving Instructions: Canberra
    Driving Instructions: Catalunya
    Driving Instructions: Charlotte
    Driving Instructions: Dijon Prenois
    Driving Instructions: Donington Park
    Driving Instructions: Eastern Creek
    Driving Instructions: Fuji
    Driving Instructions: Hockenheim Long
    Driving Instructions: Hockenheim Short
    Driving Instructions: Knockhill
    Driving Instructions: Las Vegas
    Driving Instructions: Magny-Cours
    Driving Instructions: Mantorp Park
    Driving Instructions: Mexico
    Driving Instructions: Monza
    Driving Instructions: Norisring
    Driving Instructions: Nurburgring
    Driving Instructions: Oran Park
    Driving Instructions: Oschersleben
    Driving Instructions: Oulton Park
    Driving Instructions: Phillip Island
    Driving Instructions: Rockingham Oval
    Driving Instructions: Rockingham Road
    Driving Instructions: Sandown
    Driving Instructions: Sears Point
    Driving Instructions: Silverstone
    Driving Instructions: T1 Circuit AIDA
    Driving Instructions: Vallelunga
    Driving Instructions: Vancouver
    Driving Instructions: Zandvoort
    Driving Instructions: Zolder
    Diagrams
    Online Resources
    Completely Subjective Section
    Thanks
    Contact Information
    
    ==============================================
    ==============================================
    ==============================================
    
    SPACING AND LENGTH
    For optimum readability, this driving guide should be
    viewed/printed using a monowidth font, such as Courier.
    Check for font setting by making sure the numbers and letters
    below line up:
    
    12345678901234567890123456
    ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ
    
    This guide is approximately *****150 pages long***** in the
    Macintosh version of Microsoft Word98 using single-spaced
    Courier 12-point font.  Therefore, it is probably NOT a good
    idea to print this guide in its entirety!!!!!
    
    ==============================================
    
    PERMISSIONS
    Permission is hereby granted for a user to download and/or
    print out a copy of this driving guide for personal use.
    
    This driving guide may only be posted on: FeatherGuides,
    GameFAQs.com, f1gamers.com, PSXCodez.com, Cheatcc.com, Games
    Domain, gamesover.com, Absolute-PlayStation.com,
    RobsGaming.com, InsidePS2Games.com, CheatPlanet.com,
    RedCoupe, The Cheat Empire, a2zweblinks.com, Gameguru,
    CheatHeaven, IGN, GameReactors.com, cheatingplanet.com,
    neoseeker.com, and vgstrategies.com.  Please contact me for
    permission to post elsewhere on the Internet.
    
    Plagiarism is NOT tolerated!!!!!
    
    ==============================================
    ==============================================
    ==============================================
    
    INTRODUCTION
    Pro Race Driver is definitely an above-average simulation-
    style auto racing game.  It can best be compared with Gran
    Turismo 3 in relation to the number of circuits in the game
    (some of which must be unlocked), although Gran Turismo 3
    definitely has the upper hand in terms of the photorealistic
    graphics and the sheer number of vehicles.  However, whereas
    Gran Turismo 3 has literally HUNDREDS of races and race
    series, there is no connecting thread or storyline to the
    game, and this is where Pro Race Driver truly shines.
    
    Pro Race Driver's Career Mode has the player enacting the
    racing life of Ryan McKane.  The game's opening film
    (available in French or in English) shows a young Ryan and
    his older brother at a race and watching their near-legendary
    father die in a horrifyingly terrible accident.  Fifteen
    years later, Ryan gets his first shot at a big-time auto
    racing series (Americas Series).  All this is done with nice
    cinematic cutscenes which sometimes includes cutscenes with
    rival drivers and team managers based upon the on-track
    racing actions.
    
    With forty-two licensed cars as well as thirty-eight licensed
    circuits from around the world, Ryan will have A LOT to
    overcome (including - and perhaps ESPECIALLY - his own ego)
    to become a legendary race car driver in his own right,
    surpassing even the racing community's high expectations of
    his deceased father.
    
    Please note that some of the information in this guide comes
    from my General Racing/Driving Guide, Total Immersion Racing:
    Game Guide, and World-famous Racing Circuits Guide - which
    can all be found in full at FeatherGuides
    (http://feathersites.angelcities.com) and at GameFAQs
    (http://www.GameFAQs.com/); the General Racing/Driving Guide
    and the World-famous Racing Circuits Guide are exclusive to
    these two sites.
    
    ==============================================
    ==============================================
    ==============================================
    
    GETTING STARTED
    There is certainly A LOT to Pro Race Driver, and it may be a
    bit difficult for the player to decide exactly where to
    begin.  Without question, once past the opening cutscenes for
    the game, the player should set the game options and
    controller setting to the desired liking.  Once this is done,
    the player should probably go into Free Time, the room where
    the drivers simply 'hang around' when there is nothing
    officially racing-related to do.
    
    To get a good feel for how the game works and plays, the
    player should go to Free Race.  Here, there are two 'sets' of
    circuits on the Tracks of the World menu selection screen.
    The top of this screen shows race venues using the order of
    the racing series in which they are used; circuits selected
    from within a race series will also have only series-specific
    vehicles on the upcoming vehicle selection screen (note that
    some race venues are used in multiple race series).  The
    bottom of the Tracks of the World screen lists ALL the race
    circuits available in the Freestyle section; when a race
    venue is selected from Freestyle, then the initially-
    available and unlocked cars appropriate for the selected
    circuit(s) are available from the vehicle selection screen.
    
    Vehicle selection is done by picking the car key for the
    vehicle the player wishes to drive; only those vehicles
    specific to the chosen race venue or series will be
    available.  Next, options can be made, such as the
    transmission type, the vehicle color (unfortunately, this is
    not available for all cars, likely due to vehicle licensing
    issues), etc.  Finally, it is time to head to the circuit!!!
    
    Now the player is shown the garage at the circuit.
    Unfortunately, Pro Race Driver does not include qualifying
    (which is the one major downfall of this game), so the player
    is stuck with wherever she or he is placed on the starting
    grid by the CPU; this can be noted before the race by
    selecting Grid Positions.  Selecting Car Setup/Test Drive
    will allow the player to change the various aspects of each
    car, from downforce to gear ratios (combined or individually)
    to brake bias to ride height to tires and beyond (there are
    not as many tuning options in Pro Race Driver as in Gran
    Turismo 3, but there are definitely more than enough to keep
    the player quite interested); car set-up changes can be
    tested using Test Drive, but the player will unfortunately be
    the only one on the circuit, so there is no opportunity to
    determine how the vehicle will handle in traffic.  When
    ready, the player can go to Race to line up on the starting
    grid for the race itself - bonne chance!!!!!
    
    After competing in several races at favorite race venues, the
    player should probably go back to the Tracks of the World
    screen and become familiar with the three Americas Series
    venues: Mexico, Sears Point, and Vancouver.  This is because
    the Americas Series is where Ryan McKane will always begin
    when a new Career Mode profile is created.  Mexico and
    Vancouver are current CART circuits, whereas Sears Point is
    perhaps best known in the States as one of the two road
    courses used by NASCAR.
    
    Once the player clears the Americas Series in Career Mode,
    the player will then have access to all the other Tier 1
    racing series (TOCA, Southern European, etc.).  Before
    progressing to each of the other racing series, the player
    would benefit greatly from returning to Free Race and
    participating in races at the circuits used in the series the
    player wishes to participate in next.  This is important even
    if the player is very familiar with given race venues from
    other racing games, as each game has its own idiosyncrasies
    in relation to circuit design, car handling, etc.  This is
    ESPECIALLY important for those highly familiar with F1-based
    racing games, as F1 cars have FAR more power, agility, and
    braking ability than any of the cars used in Pro Race Driver.
    
    One other benefit of participating in races at the circuits
    used in the series the player wishes to participate in next
    is to conduct car tuning for each circuit.  There are thirty-
    two slots available in Pro Race Driver for saving car set-
    ups, and set-ups are all available for Free Race Mode AND
    Career Mode.  So long as the player uses the same model of
    vehicle in Free Race Mode and in Career Mode for a given
    circuit, the car set-up can be saved and loaded at will.
    This way, when the player finally begins to work through
    Career Mode, there will not be a need to spend a lot of time
    trying to find the appropriate car set-up for each race
    venue.
    
    ==============================================
    
    CAREER MODE
    This is the main feature of Pro Race Driver, and where the
    player will likely spend the majority of gameplay (although
    Free Race Mode certainly has its own appeal).  After a
    cutscene to introduce Ryan McKane and his entry into high-
    level auto racing, he is thrust directly into the Americas
    Series, which races at Mexico, Sears Point, and Vancouver.
    However, he must first pass a test drive at Mexico - and the
    target time is set high enough that Ryan can have one or two
    off-course excursions and still successfully land the drive
    for the season.  This is a series of six races - two races
    per venue - and the player must attain at least thirty
    championship points in order to unlock ALL the Tier 1 races
    and gain a $100,000 bonus for the season.
    
    Once the Americas Series has been successfully completed,
    Ryan can then go to any of the other racing series in Tier 1.
    This is done via e-mail, with various racing teams from
    various racing series offering either a test drive or a
    direct ride for their series.  Before selecting a
    team/series, the player should probably exit Career Mode and
    return to Free Race to participate in 'meaningless' races at
    the race venues in a series in which the player wishes to
    compete, in order to become more familiar with the rendition
    of each of those circuits in Pro Race Driver.  When ready,
    the player can return to Career Mode, select the appropriate
    e-mail, and enter the desired series with a better idea of
    what to expect from each circuit in the chosen race series.
    (See the Race Circuits in Pro Race Driver section later in
    this guide for a list of all the race circuits used in each
    series.)
    
    Each Career Mode race series awards points to most or all of
    the competitors.  The number of competitors WHO FINISH A RACE
    receiving points and the number of points each of these
    competitors receives varies by race series.  These points are
    all combined throughout the series, so that the driver with
    the most points at the end of a race series will be that
    season's series champion.  Should Ryan McKane become a
    season's series champion, he will be shown (in a cutscene)
    accepting that series' championship trophy.
    
    At times, depending on how Ryan performs in a series, there
    will be individual challenges from other drivers.  If
    accepted, these are head-to-head events in identical cars
    (differing only by color).  Should Ryan win, he will be able
    to keep the cars for later usage in the game.
    
    Also based upon in-series performance, Ryan may receive e-
    mails concerning one-time races, or Single-day Events.  These
    events also award points, which count toward the total career
    points.
    
    A minimum of 132 career points in the Tier 1 race series are
    required to unlock the Tier 2 race series and their
    associated race venues; a minimum of 162 career points in the
    Tier 2 race series are required to unlock the Lola
    Championship.  The trick here, however, is that if a race
    series is run multiple times, only the highest single-season
    point total is counted toward the overall career points.
    Therefore, unless a player really enjoys a particular race
    series, a series should not be repeated unless the player
    believes that she or he has an excellent chance at bettering
    the current series 'high score' in terms of single-season
    points (or unless the player is Michael Schumacher
    himself!!!!!).
    
    When the Tier 2 race series are unlocked, Ryan McKane
    automatically has only one series offer: DTM.  This begins
    with a test drive at Hockenheim Short.  Once again, the
    target time is set high enough that Ryan can make one or two
    mistakes and still best the target time with plenty of time
    to spare.  However, it is still a good idea to go to Free
    Race Mode and compete in a few races in the DTM series (using
    series-specific vehicles) before embarking upon the DTM
    series in Career Mode.
    
    Note that there are two types of test drives to earn a ride
    for a series.  The first type is similar to those mentioned
    above: Ryan must complete a lap at a given circuit within a
    specified amount of time, and has a certain number of
    attempts in which to accomplish this task.  The second type
    of test drive is actually a one-lap race (similar to the
    Single Day Events); in this case, Ryan must finish the race
    at or better than the specified position, and within the
    allotted number of attempts.  Except for when first entering
    a new tier of events, there may not even be a need for a test
    drive of either type, depending on how Ryan was able to
    perform in the previous series' season.
    
    Fortunately, it is possible to obtain enough career points to
    advance to Tier 2 without competing in all the Tier 1 race
    series.  Unfortunately, however, once in Tier 2, the game
    will not permit a return to Tier 1 without first beating the
    Lola series.
    
    Success in Tier 1 is largely based upon car set-up (tuning).
    Success in Tier 2 is a combination of car set-up with
    PRECISION throttle and braking management (especially
    throttle management) as well as navigation of the overly-
    aggressive CPU-controlled competition.
    
    Most race series and Single Day Events in Pro Race Driver use
    the pre-2003 FIA points system.  In this points system, only
    the top six drivers WHO ACTUALLY FINISH A RACE will receive
    points in the order shown below (some race series will use a
    different points system; those who do not finish a race
    receive no points even if they are in the Top 6 in the final
    race results):
    
       Place    Points
       -----    ------
       1st      10
       2nd      6
       3rd      4
       4th      3
       5th      2
       6th      1
       Others   0
    
    Note that at the end of a series, should Ryan McKane be tied
    with another driver for the championship, the CPU still
    credits Ryan with winning the series championship 'outright.'
    In other words, the trophy presentation cutscene for that
    series is still played.  (There are apparently no tiebreaker
    rules such as most wins, better qualifying positions, etc.)
    
    ==============================================
    
    MANDATORY PIT STOPS
    Some Career Mode races - as well as those Free Race Mode
    races for which the player specifies pit stops - have a
    mandatory pit stop rule.  In these races, the mandatory pit
    stop MUST be made in the middle 60% of the race.  This means
    that should the player need to stop to repair damage before
    the first 20% of the race has been completed, that stop will
    NOT count as the mandatory pit stop and the player will be
    required to make a return trip to Pit Lane in the middle 60%
    of the race.
    
    There are several tactics concerning when to make the
    mandatory pit stop.  One is to do it as soon as the middle
    60% window opens (at the end of Lap 2 in a typical 5-lap
    mandatory-pit-stop race in Career Mode); this way, the
    mandatory pit stop is done; however, many competitors will
    also use this tactic, so Pit Lane could be rather busy with
    cars entering and exiting their pit stalls, and it makes the
    on-track action even more important.
    
    Another tactic is to wait until the final lap of the 60%
    window (at the end of Lap 4 in a typical 5-lap mandatory-pit-
    stop race in Career Mode).  The advantage to this is that
    there will be few (if any) other cars in Pit Lane at the same
    time, and since most CPU-controlled competitors 'prefer' to
    make the mandatory pit stop earlier in the 60% window, there
    will be a much higher chance that the player will not need to
    deal with any traffic (unless lapping backmarkers, which will
    be rather unlikely in Career Mode's Tier 1 and Tier 2 race
    series), and thus should be able to run a number of fast lap
    times to attain or extend the overall lead once all of the
    mandatory pit stops have been made.
    
    A second advantage of waiting to conduct the mandatory pit
    stop close to the end of the 60% window concerns vehicle
    damage.  If the mandatory pit stop is conducted early in the
    60% window and the vehicle later becomes severely damaged, it
    may be necessary to return to Pit Lane to make repairs, which
    almost always results in losing the race (and quite likely
    not gaining even a single point for the race).  If the
    mandatory pit stop is conducted near the end of the 60%
    window, then the player should hopefully have a far enough
    lead over the rest of the field (once all mandatory pit stops
    have been completed) that she or he can still finish first,
    or at least finish somewhat high in the points.
    
    There is one major 'flaw' in making a pit stop, however,
    whether mandatory or not.  When the player's car enters Pit
    Lane, the CPU automatically takes over car control and does
    not relinquish this control until the car is once again
    squarely on the actual raceway (not the Pit Exit lane, but
    the actual raceway itself).  Where this could be a problem is
    if one or more competitors already on the main raceway come
    up FAST behind the player's car and slam into the player's
    vehicle; the CPU-controlled competition, therefore, will do
    everything possible to maintain its own racing line
    irregardless of the player's control or lack of control when
    rejoining the race after a pit stop.
    
    ==============================================
    ==============================================
    ==============================================
    
    RACE CIRCUITS IN PRO RACE DRIVER
    This is a list of the race circuits available - by series -
    in Pro Race Driver.  Those circuits/series which must be
    unlocked (by progressing through Career Mode) are so noted;
    only the Tier 1 series and circuit are originally available
    in the game.  While Free Race Mode allows racing at any of
    the unlocked circuits in any of the unlocked series, Ryan
    McKane will ALWAYS begin with the Americas Series when a new
    Career Mode profile is created.  (Also, Ryan will ALWAYS
    begin with DTM once Tier 2 becomes available.)
    
    Series                        Circuits Used
    ---------------------------   ------------------------------
    Americas Series               Mexico
                                  Sears Point
                                  Vancouver
    AAS (American All Stars)      Charlotte
                                  Bristol
                                  Sears Point
                                  Las Vegas
    V8 Supercars (Initially       Phillip Island
       locked)                    Adelaide
                                  Eastern Creek
                                  Canberra
                                  Bathurst
                                  Sandown
                                  Oran Park
    TOCA                          Brands Hatch Indy
                                  Oulton Park
                                  Silverstone
                                  Donington Park
                                  Knockhill
                                  Brands Hatch Grand Prix
    Alfa GTV Cup                  Monza
                                  Vallelunga
                                  Catalunya
    Pacific Challenge             Fuji
                                  T1 Circuit AIDA
                                  Bathurst
    Southern European Challenge   Dijon Prenois
                                  Magny-Cours
                                  Catalunya
    Northern European Challenge   Mantorp Park
                                  Zolder
                                  Oschersleben
                                  A1 Ring
    DTM (initially locked)        Hockenheim Short
                                  Nurburgring
                                  Oschersleben
                                  Norisring
                                  Zandvoort
                                  Hockenheim Long
    Euro Tour (initially locked)  Rockingham Oval
                                  A1 Ring
                                  Rockingham Road
                                  Brands Hatch Indy
                                  Catalunya
    Lola (initially locked)       ???
    Freestyle                     All above circuits which are
                                     initially-available or have
                                     been unlocked by progressing
                                     through Career Mode
    Single Day Events             These take place at circuits
                                     where Ryan has already raced
    Head-to-head Challenges       These take place at circuits
                                     where Ryan has already raced
    
    ==============================================
    
    BONUS CODES
    There are several bonus codes available for Pro Race Driver.
    These are entered in the Bonus folder of the Options file
    cabinet.  Codemasters provides two bonus codes simply for
    registering for both the game and Code M (Codemasters' online
    newsletter concerning its current and upcoming games,
    combined with its special members-only section of the
    Codemasters Web site); without giving anything away
    (hopefully), these two bonus codes definitely make the game a
    little more challenging, especially on tight street circuits
    such as Vancouver.
    
    Note that the physics engine for Pro Race Driver is not
    really conducive for oval track racing, especially in the
    American All Stars (AAS) racing series (in Tier 2).  The
    second of the codes received for registering (as listed in
    the above paragraph) can be activated to make the American
    All Stars series MUCH easier - and can also allow for
    relatively easy wins, making it QUITE possible to win EVERY
    race in the series :-)
    
    Unfortunately, the North American version of the game has one
    severe problem: THERE ARE NO NUMBERS ON THE CODE-ENTRY SCREEN
    TO INPUT THE NUMBER-BASED CODES GIVEN ON THE PRO RACE DRIVER
    TIP LINE >:-(   The only codes which CAN be entered into the
    North American version of the game are the text-based codes
    received by registering with Codemasters as indicated above.
    
    ==============================================
    
    GENERAL TIPS
    Save game progress at every opportunity.  In Career Mode,
    this occurs after every head-to-head event and Single Day
    Event, and after every TWO races within a race series.
    
    Pro Race Driver does not use rules; in other words, there are
    no official repercussions (such as ten-second penalties or
    immediate disqualifications) for unsportsmanlike or dangerous
    driving, shortcutting corners, etc.  Many corners (especially
    chicanes) do have barriers to ensure that all drivers
    (including the player) keep to the racing line, and there are
    plenty of sand traps and gravel traps to significantly slow
    cars which go off-line at many corners, but this is really
    the extent of the implementation of any 'rules' in Pro Race
    Driver.  Note, however, that it is DEFINITELY possible (and
    highly likely) to anger the CPU-controlled competition
    through blocking, swapping paint, etc.; some drivers may even
    develop a deep-rooted grudge against the player and take
    extreme measures to attempt to knock the player's vehicle out
    of the way or foil the player's chances of winning a race
    and/or a championship in the given car class.
    
    The PlayStation2 features 256 levels of button sensitivity
    (for the X, Square, Circle, and Triangle buttons), and Pro
    Race Driver makes definite use of this feature (but
    fortunately NOT to the extreme of Total Immersion Racing).
    Pressing harder on the accelerator button (set to the X
    button as the default) will provide faster acceleration;
    pressing harder on the brake button (set to the Square button
    as the default) will provide harder braking.  (However, in
    the quest for harder braking, it is important to never brake
    too hard, as this will cause wheel-lock and cause the vehicle
    to slide and NOT decelerate.)
    
    Pro Race Driver seems to be best suited to a player who
    prefers a slightly- to somewhat-loose car, meaning that the
    back end tends to swing about.  This means that drift-style
    racing is quite feasible for those skilled in this highly-
    specialized driving technique, and that plenty of
    countersteering will be required at most race venues.
    However, there are certainly enough tuning parameters that a
    player with good knowledge of car tuning can truly adapt
    virtually any vehicle in the game to a given circuit.
    
    Auto racing is largely dependent upon racing line, braking
    zones, braking strength, and acceleration strength.  Pro Race
    Driver very much places these four prime elements of auto
    racing into play.  Certainly, a car's set-up can affect a
    player's race, but the way that the player uses these four
    areas to make the most of a car's set-up is key to success...
    moreso than in many other auto racing games due to the
    construction of the physics engine.
    
    It IS possible to take a corner so quickly that a car goes up
    on two wheels.  While this is a bit difficult to do, it is
    also possible to cause a vehicle to flip and roll.
    
    Pro Race Driver allows for a total of 32 car set-ups to be
    saved on the memory card in Memory Card Slot 1.  If there is
    more than one Career Mode game saved on the memory card, the
    saved car set-ups can ALL be accessed from within ANY of the
    Career Mode game saves.  In other words, car set-ups are NOT
    career-independent.
    
    Before progressing to each of the racing series in Career
    Mode, the player would benefit greatly from going to Free
    Race and participating in races at the circuits used in the
    series the player wishes to participate in next.  This is
    important even if the player is very familiar with given race
    venues from other racing games, as each game has its own
    idiosyncrasies in relation to circuit design, car handling,
    etc.  This is ESPECIALLY important for those highly familiar
    with F1-based racing games, as F1 cars have FAR more power,
    agility, and braking ability than any of the cars used in Pro
    Race Driver.
    
    Before beginning any Tier 2 series in Career Mode, it is best
    to go to Free Race Mode and compete in a Tier 2 series (such
    as DTM) using that series' racecars.  This is important
    because these cars have MUCH more power and attain MUCH
    higher speeds than those for Tier 1.  What makes this
    especially important in Pro Race Driver is that this game
    apparently does NOT use a one-size-fits-all physics engine,
    unlike games such as Total Immersion Racing, Gran Turismo 3,
    Le Mans 24 Hours, or Tokyo Extreme Racer Zero despite the
    vast differences in the games' many cars.  Therefore, trying
    to drive a Tier 2 vehicle in the same manner as a Tier 1 car
    will result in near-complete destruction of the vehicle.
    
    For those players who have driven these circuits in other
    racing games and/or with other vehicles, it is important to
    remember that braking zones and acceleration points do not
    generally 'convert' well from one racing game to another and
    from one vehicle (type) to another.
    
    ==============================================
    ==============================================
    ==============================================
    
    CAR TUNING
    In order to be successful in Pro Race Driver, the player must
    have a strong sense of car tuning.  While a car may perform
    okay in its default/stock set-up, each vehicle needs to be
    tuned specifically for each circuit in order to truly get the
    best possible performance and thus have the best possible
    chance at winning each race.
    
    Gears
       Transmission   Gear selection can be set to automatic (the
                      CPU handles all shifting duties) or manual
                      (the player must handle all shifting
                      duties).  If the player uses automatic
                      transmission, then the shoulder buttons
                      originally assigned to gear shifting (for
                      manual transmission) are instead used to
                      provide the player with a view of each side
                      of the vehicle; this can be important to
                      see the extent of the damage to the vehicle
                      when using a chase camera view in gameplay.
                      When using a driver (in-car) view in
                      gameplay, these buttons (if automatic
                      transmission has been selected) instead
                      allow Ryan McKane to glance to either side
                      of the car; this can be useful in passing
                      other vehicles.
       Ratios         In Pro Race Driver, each individual gear
                      can be set independently, or all gears can
                      be highlighted at once for overall
                      adjustments.  Shortening gear ratios
                      (moving the curved lines to the left) will
                      provide better acceleration at the
                      sacrifice of top-end speed; this is ideal
                      for tight, technical circuits such as
                      Bristol.  Lengthening gear ratios (moving
                      the curved lines to the right) will
                      provide better/faster top-end speed at the
                      sacrifice of acceleration (i.e., slower
                      acceleration, especially from a standing
                      start and when exiting the pit stall);
                      longer gear ratios are crucial to circuits
                      with few corners and/or many long
                      straightaways, such as Hockenheim Long and
                      Monza.
    Downforce         Downforce controls how the air passes over
                      and around the vehicle, and helps to keep a
                      car firmly on the ground (the opposite
                      effect of wings from an airplane).  Raising
                      downforce will provide better pavement grip
                      and easier cornering, but at the sacrifice
                      of top-end speed; this is best for tight,
                      technical circuits such as Zandvoort.
                      Lowering downforce will reduce pavement
                      grip and provide better/faster top-end
                      speed, but cornering will be more
                      difficult (and the vehicle may have a much
                      greater tendency to slide while cornering,
                      especially at high speeds); this is best
                      for circuits with few corners and/or many
                      long straightaways, such as Hockenheim
                      Long and Monza.
    Suspension
       Stiffness      Softening a vehicle's suspension will allow
                      for a much smoother ride overall and will
                      also help with cornering, but the car is
                      then more prone to flipping when cornering
                      at high speeds or performing sudden evasive
                      maneuvers.  Hardening a vehicle's
                      suspension will cause the driver to feel
                      virtually every possible bump in the
                      pavement and will also make cornering more
                      difficult (especially at high speeds).
       Ride Height    Ride height controls airflow underneath a
                      vehicle.  Raising ride height will allow
                      for more air to pass underneath the
                      vehicle, thus slowing the car moderately
                      due to aerodynamic friction and also
                      assisting slightly in cornering.  Lowering
                      ride height will reduce the amount of air
                      passing underneath the vehicle, thus
                      slightly augmenting top-end speed while
                      also making cornering moderately more
                      difficult.
    Anti-roll         Anti-roll devices are designed to prevent
                      the vehicle from flipping.  Strengthening
                      the anti-roll devices will reduce the
                      chances that the car may flip during high-
                      speed cornering and evasive maneuvers; this
                      will also make cornering more difficult in
                      general.  Softening the anti-roll devices
                      will make flipping a stronger possibility,
                      but will also make cornering easier.
    Brake Bias        Braking can be applied more toward the
                      front or the rear of the vehicle.  However,
                      moving the brake bias more toward one end
                      of the car makes wheel-lock a stronger
                      possibility for those wheels.
    Tires             In Pro Race Driver, the pit crew will
                      automatically apply the type of tire
                      appropriate for the racing conditions;
                      however, the player can override the
                      pit crew's decision.  Slicks are for
                      dry-conditions racing.  Intermediates
                      are for use when the pavement is damp but
                      not really wet (as in a slow, gentle
                      drizzle).   Wets are used during hard
                      rain and in the period immediately
                      following actual rainfall.
    
    It is VERY rare that the player can only adjust the tuning of
    one aspect of the car without causing one or more parts of
    the car set-up to be out of balance.  For example, for racing
    at Monza, the downforce and ride height should both be
    lowered as much as possible; to counterbalance the cornering
    difficulty inherent with these downforce and ride height
    settings, anti-roll and suspension stiffness should both also
    be lowered as much as possible to lessen (although not
    necessarily eliminate) the difficulty in cornering.
    
    Pro Race Driver allows for a total of 32 car set-ups to be
    saved on the memory card in Memory Card Slot 1.  If there is
    more than one Career Mode game saved on the memory card, the
    saved car set-ups can ALL be accessed from within ANY of the
    Career Mode game saves.  In other words, car set-ups are NOT
    career-independent.
    
    ==============================================
    ==============================================
    ==============================================
    
    BRAKING
    The first step in driving fast is knowing when, where, and
    how much to slow down (braking).  In some games, a brake
    controller can be acquired or purchased, allowing the player
    to customize the brake strength by axle or by adjusting the
    bias of the brakes toward the front or the rear of the car.
    
    The use of a brake controller will affect the braking zone,
    as will other factors.  Specifically, the car's speed on
    approaching a corner, the amount of fuel in the car at a
    given moment, the drivetrain of the car, the weight of the
    car, and even the car's center of gravity can all affect the
    braking zone.  Similarly, the driving conditions - sunny,
    overcast, damp, wet, icy, snowy etc. - will affect the
    braking zone for each corner (as well as the car's ability to
    attain high speeds).
    
    Except for purely arcade-style games, the braking zone will
    differ somewhat for each car depending upon its strengths and
    weaknesses.  It certainly helps for the player to try a Free
    Run or a Time Trial (if these modes exist in a given game) to
    learn the circuit(s) - including the braking zones.
    
    When looking for braking zones, try to find a particular
    stationary object near the entry of each corner; it helps
    tremendously if this object is far enough away from the
    circuit that it will not be knocked over during a race.  To
    begin, try using the brakes when the front of the car is
    parallel with the chosen stationary object.  If this does not
    slow the car enough before corner entry or if the car slows
    too much before reaching the corner, pick another stationary
    object on the following lap and try again.
    
    Whenever changes are made to the car - whether to the brake
    controller or to other aspects of tuning and/or parts - it
    would be a good idea to go back into Free Run mode and check
    that the braking zones still hold; if not, adjust as
    necessary using the method in the paragraph above.
    
    For those races which include fuel loads, the car will become
    progressively lighter during a race.  The lesser weight can
    often mean a slightly shorter braking zone; however, if tire
    wear is excessive (especially if there have been numerous
    off-course excursions), that might dictate a longer braking
    zone.
    
    Cars with a higher horsepower output will inherently attain
    faster speeds, and will therefore require a longer braking
    zone than cars with a lower horsepower output.  Try a
    Volkswagon New Beetle, a Mini Cooper, a Dodge Viper, a Panoz
    Esperante GT-1, a Corvette C5R, and an F-2002 (all in
    stock/base configuration) along the same area of a circuit
    and note how their braking zones differ.
    
    A final note on braking: To the extent possible, ALWAYS brake
    in a straight line.  If braking only occurs when cornering,
    the car will likely be carrying too much speed for the
    corner, resulting in the car sliding, spinning, and/or
    flipping.  (Some games purposely do not permit the car to
    flip, but a slide or spin can still mean the difference
    between winning and ending up in last position at the end of
    a race.)
    
    If nothing else, players should strive to become of the
    'breakers' they possibly can.  This will essentially force a
    player to become a better racer/driver in general once the
    player has overcome the urge to constantly run at top speed
    at all times with no regard for damages to self or others.
    Also, slowing the car appropriately will make other aspects
    of racing/driving easier, especially in J-turns, hairpin
    corners, and chicanes.
    
    ==============================================
    
    CORNERING
    Ideally, the best way to approach a corner is from the
    outside of the turn, braking well before entering the corner.
    At the apex (the midpoint of the corner), the car should be
    right up against the edge of the pavement.  On corner exit,
    the car drifts back to the outside of the pavement and speeds
    off down the straightaway.  So, for a right-hand turn of
    about ninety degrees, enter the corner from the left, come to
    the right to hit the apex, and drift back to the left on
    corner exit.  See the Diagrams section at the end of this
    guide for a sample standard corner.
    
    For corners that are less than ninety degrees, it may be
    possible to just barely tap the brakes - if at all - and be
    able to clear such corners successfully.  However, the same
    principles of cornering apply: approach from the outside of
    the turn, hit the apex, and drift back outside on corner
    exit.
    
    For corners more than ninety degrees but well less than 180
    degrees, braking will certainly be required.  However, for
    these 'J-turns,' the apex of the corner is not the midpoint,
    but a point approximately two-thirds of the way around the
    corner.  J-turns require great familiarity to know when to
    begin diving toward the inside of the corner and when to
    power to the outside on corner exit.  See the Diagrams
    section at the end of this guide for a sample J-turn.
    
    Hairpin corners are turns of approximately 180 degrees.
    Braking is certainly required before corner entry, and the
    cornering process is the same as for standard corners:
    Approach from the outside, drift inside to hit the apex
    (located at halfway around the corner, or after turning
    ninety degrees), and drifting back to the outside on corner
    exit.  See the Diagrams section at the end of this guide for
    a sample hairpin corner.
    
    If there are two corners of approximately ninety degrees each
    AND both corners turn in the same direction AND there is only
    a VERY brief straightaway between the two corners, they may
    be able to be treated like an extended hairpin corner.
    Sometimes, however, these 'U-turns' have a straightaway
    between the corners that is long enough to prohibit a
    hairpin-like treatment; in this case, drifting to the outside
    on exiting the first of the two corners will automatically
    set up the approach to the next turn.  See the Diagrams
    section at the end of this guide for a sample U-turn.
    
    FIA (the governing body of F1 racing, World Rally
    Championship, and other forms of international motorsport)
    seems to love chicanes.  One common type of chicane is
    essentially a 'quick-flick,' where the circuit quickly edges
    off in one direction then realigns itself in a path parallel
    to the original stretch of pavement, as in the examples in
    the Diagrams section at the end of this guide.  Here, the
    object is to approach the first corner from the outside, hit
    BOTH apexes, and drift to the outside of the second turn.
    
    FIA also seems to like the 'Bus Stop' chicane, which is
    essentially just a pair of quick-flicks, with the second
    forming the mirror image of the first, as shown in the
    Diagrams section at the end of this guide.  Perhaps the most
    famous Bus Stop chicane is the chicane (which is actually
    called the 'Bus Stop Chicane') at Pit Entry at Spa-
    Francorchamps, the home of the annual Grand Prix of Belgium
    (F1 racing) and the host of The 24 Hours of Spa (for
    endurance racing).
    
    Virtually every other type of corner or corner combination
    encountered in racing (primarily in road racing) combines
    elements of the corners presented above.  These complex
    corners and chicanes can be challenging, such as the Ascari
    chicane at Monza.  See the Diagrams section for an idea of
    the formation of Ascari.
    
    However, in illegal street/highway racing, the positioning of
    traffic can 'create' the various corners and corner
    combinations mentioned here.  For example, weaving in and out
    of traffic creates a virtual bus stop chicane (see the
    Diagrams section at the end of this guide).  Slowing may be
    necessary - it often is - depending on the distance between
    the vehicles.  See the Sample Circuit Using Some of the Above
    Corner Types Combines in the Diagrams section at the end of
    this guide; note that this is a diagram for a very technical
    circuit.
    
    At some race venues, 'artificial chicanes' may be created by
    placing cones and/or (concrete) barriers in the middle of a
    straightaway.  One such game which used this type of chicane
    is the original Formula1 by Psygnosis, an F1-based
    PlayStation game from 1995, which used this at Circuit
    Gilles-Villeneuve along Casino Straight (shortly after
    passing the final grandstands at the exit of Casino Hairpin).
    
    One thing which can change the approach to cornering is the
    available vision.  Blind and semi-blind corners require
    ABSOLUTE knowledge of such corners.  Here is where gamers
    have an advantage over real-world drivers:  Gamers can
    (usually) change their viewpoint (camera position), which can
    sometimes provide a wider, clearer view of the circuit, which
    can be especially important when approaching semi-blind
    corners; real-world drivers are obviously inhibited by the
    design of their cars and racing helmets.  Great examples of
    real-world blind and semi-blind corners would be Mulsanne
    Hump at Le Mans, Turns 14 and 15 at Albert Park, and each of
    the first three corners at A1-Ring.
    
    Also important to cornering - especially with long, extended
    corners - is the corner's radius.  Most corners use an
    identical radius throughout their length.  However, some are
    increasing-radius corners or decreasing-radius corners.
    These corners may require shifting the apex point of a
    corner, and almost always result in a change of speed.
    Decreasing-radius corners are perhaps the trickiest, because
    the angle of the corner becomes sharper, thus generally
    requiring more braking as well as more turning of the
    steering wheel.  Increasing-radius corners are corners for
    which the angle becomes more and more gentle as the corner
    progresses; this means that drivers will generally accelerate
    more, harder, or faster, but such an extra burst of speed can
    backfire and require more braking.  See the Diagrams section
    at the end of this guide for sample images of a decreasing-
    radius corner and an increasing-radius corner.
    
    For traditional road racing circuits, increasing-radius and
    decreasing-radius corners may not be too much of a problem;
    after several laps around one of these circuits, a driver
    will know where the braking and acceleration points are as
    well as the shifted apex point (should a shift be required).
    However, for stage-based rally racing, where the roads are
    virtually unknown and the driver knows what is ahead only
    because of the navigator's instructions (which - based upon
    notes - may or may not be absolutely correct), the unknown
    can cause drivers to brake more often and/or more heavily.
    For rally-based games, such as the Need for Speed: V-Rally
    series (PlayStation/PSOne) or for World Rally Championship
    (PlayStation2), there is often specialized vocabulary used:
    'tightens' generally designates that a corner has a
    decreasing radius, whereas 'widens' or 'opens' indicates that
    a corner has an increasing radius.  This need for 'extra'
    braking is also tempered by the fact that in much of rally
    racing, corners are either blind or semi-blind, due to trees,
    buildings, cliffs, embankments, and other obstacles to clear
    vision all the way around a corner.
    
    One particularly interesting aspect of cornering is one which
    I honestly do not know if it works in reality (I am not a
    real-world racer, although I would certainly LOVE the chance
    to attend a racing school!!!), but which works in numerous
    racing/driving games I have played over the years.  This
    aspect is to use the accelerator to help with quickly and
    safely navigating sharp corners.  This works by first BRAKING
    AS USUAL IN ADVANCE OF THE CORNER, then - once in the corner
    itself - rapidly pumping the brakes for the duration of the
    corner (or at least until well past the apex of the corner).
    The action of rapidly pumping the accelerator appears to
    cause the drive wheels to catch the pavement just enough to
    help stop or slow a sliding car, causing the non-drive wheels
    to continue slipping and the entire car to turn just a little
    faster.  Using this rapid-pumping technique with the
    accelerator does take a little practice initially, and seems
    to work best with FR cars; however, once perfected, this
    technique can pay dividends, especially with REALLY sharp
    hairpin corners, such as at Sebring International Raceway.
    
    ==============================================
    
    RUMBLE STRIPS
    Depending on car set-up and weather conditions, rumble strips
    (sometimes also called 'alligators') can be either useful or
    dangerous.  The purpose of rumble strips is to provide a few
    extra centimeters of semi-racing surface to help keep cars
    from dropping wheels off the pavement, which can slow cars
    and throw grass and other debris onto the racing surface
    (which makes racing a little more dangerous for all involved,
    especially in corners).  Generally, rumble strips are found
    on the outside of a corner at corner entry and corner exit,
    and also at the apex of a corner - these locations provide a
    slightly better racing line overall.
    
    If a car is set with a very stiff suspension (i.e., there is
    not much room for the suspension to move as the car passes
    over bumps and other irregularities in the racing surface),
    hitting rumble strips can cause the car to jump.  Even if
    airborne for only a few milliseconds, at speed, it could be
    just enough so that the driver loses control of the car.
    Obviously, if one or more wheels are not in contact with the
    ground, the car is losing speed, which could be just enough
    of a mistake for other cars to pass by, and the lack of
    contact with the ground could result in excessive wheelspin
    which risks to flat-spot the tire(s) when contact is regained
    with the ground.
    
    When the racetrack is damp or wet, however, it is generally
    best to avoid using the rumble strips.  Since rumble strips
    are painted (usually red and white), ANY amount of moisture
    will make the rumble strips extremely slick as the water
    beads on the paint, so that hitting a rumble strip in the
    process of cornering (especially at the apex of a corner)
    will cause the tire(s) to lose traction and often send the
    car spinning.
    
    ==============================================
    
    CONCRETE EXTENSIONS
    Similar to rumble strips are concrete extensions.  These are
    generally (much) wider than rumble strips, and may or may not
    be painted (at FIA-approved F1 circuits, for example, these
    are generally painted green).  Also, whereas rumble strips
    protrude slightly above the level of the racing surface,
    concrete extensions are at the same level as the racing
    surface.
    
    Concrete extensions can be used in the same manner as rumble
    strips.  However, if painted, concrete extensions should be
    avoided for the same reasons listed above for rumble strips n
    the event of wet or damp racing conditions.
    
    Players should note that in some games - especially where
    challenges or license tests are involved - concrete
    extensions are often NOT designated as part of the official
    track, resulting in an 'Out of Bounds' designation.  This is
    true, for example, in EA Sports' F1-based series (F1 2000, F1
    Championship Season 2000, F1 2001, and F1 2002) and in the
    Gran Turismo series.
    
    ==============================================
    
    TIRES
    As a 2000/2001 Michelin commercial campaign (shown in the
    States) stated, the tires are the only safety features on the
    road which actually TOUCH the road.  Implicit in this series
    of commercials is the message that special care must be given
    to tires.  In the case of Michelin, this means that choosing
    Michelin tires is far safer than choosing any other brand of
    tires (note that this series of commercials had been running
    since LONG before the Firestone/Ford controversy erupted in
    2000).
    
    In the case of racing/driving games, this same implicit
    message - that the tires are the only safety features on the
    road which actually TOUCH the road - means that special care
    must be given to the tires to keep them from wearing out too
    quickly.  Of course, some games (usually arcade-style games,
    such as the Ridge Racer series) do not use tire wear.  Other
    games do offer an array of tires, but simply to provide
    higher levels of pavement grip as higher levels of tires are
    acquired or purchased (such as Tokyo Xtreme Racer Zero).
    Other games have races which are simply too short to make
    tire wear a viable issue; an example of this type of game
    would be Downforce.  In general, tire wear is not an issue in
    rally racing games.
    
    Some games simply provide Levels of tires.  Here, the
    assumption is that Level 1 tires provide the least amount of
    pavement grip, with higher levels providing more pavement
    grip than previous levels.  However, many games (especially
    simulation-based games such as Le Mans 24 Hours and the Gran
    Turismo series) offer several choices of actual tire
    compounds.
    
    For non-racing cars intended for mundane street use, Normal
    tires are standard issue.  While Normal tires may work well
    on the highway and on city streets, they are virtually
    worthless in an actual racing situation.  Normal tires do not
    provide adequate grip to be effective in racing.  This is
    most noticeable when trying to corner at relatively high
    speeds with a vehicle with Normal tires.
    
    Simulation tires supposedly give a more accurate feel of what
    it is like to drive a racing-tuned car.
    
    Sports tires are a little better than Normal tires.  When
    first playing a racing/driving game which offers Sports
    Tires, one of the best things you can do to improve your
    chance of success is to upgrade to Sports Tires as soon as
    possible.  This will improve cornering ability, and provide a
    little more grip for acceleration (especially from a standing
    start).
    
    Racing tires come in an array of 'flavors,' with each tire
    compound giving a varying level of grip countered by an
    inverse level of durability.  Not all racing games offer such
    a variety of tire compounds from which to choose.
       Super-slick    Least grip, maximum durability
       Slick
       Medium-slick
       Medium         Average grip, average durability
       Medium-soft
       Soft
       Super-soft     Maximum grip, least durability
    Note that in some games, Slick and Super-slick are more
    likely to be called Hard Tires.
    
    Dirt Tires are required for dirt-based rally events.  In some
    racing games (primarily Gran Turismo 2 and Gran Turismo 3),
    some non-racing cars can also be equipped with Dirt Tires -
    and in some cases can easily outperform rally-dedicated
    vehicles if given proper tuning considerations.
    
    Intermediate Tires are often used in games with varying
    weather effects, such as Le Mans 24 Hours.  Whereas Normal,
    Sport, Super-soft, Soft, Medium-soft, Medium, Medium-slick,
    Slick, and Super-slick Tires are designed specifically for
    dry racing conditions, Intermediate Tires are generally used
    when the pavement is damp.  A good indicator as to whether
    Intermediate Tires or Wet Tires (see the following paragraph)
    should be used is whether there is a large spray of water -
    often called a 'rooster tail' - coming up from underneath the
    car at high speeds on the straightaways.  If there is not a
    rooster tail, or if the rooster tail is fairly small, then
    Intermediate Tires should be a good choice.  Unfortunately,
    EA Sports has never included Intermediate Tires in its F1-
    based games, despite the fact that Intermediate Tires are
    used in real-world F1 racing; Intermediate Tires very much
    came into play, for example, at the 2002 Grand Prix of Great
    Britain.
    
    Wet Tires are designed for truly wet conditions.  A good
    indicator as to whether Intermediate Tires (see the preceding
    paragraph) or Wet Tires should be used is whether there is a
    large spray of water - often called a 'rooster tail' - coming
    up from underneath the car at high speeds on the
    straightaways.  If there is a large rooster tail, then Wet
    Tires are definitely needed.
    
    Some racing games have an on-screen tire indicator.  This can
    range from a set of brackets or an image of the car with the
    tires highlighted in a particular color to a small line with
    an arrow indicating the condition of the tires.  If the color
    system is used with a bracket or an image of the car with the
    tires highlighted, then the following colors are often used
    to indicate tire conditions:
    
       At the beginning of a race and immediately after a Pit
       Stop, the tires are brand new ('stickers') and need to be
       brought up to temperature as quickly as possible so that
       they can provide the best possible grip.  This is noted by
       dark blue tire indicators.  During this period, sharp
       turns or extremely-fast cornering will almost certainly
       cause the car to slide, and perhaps even spin.  However,
       slides and spins will bring the tires up to optimum
       temperature even faster, so you may wish to purposely
       induce slides when entering corners, IF the tire
       indicators are dark blue.
    
       Once the tire indicators are green, the tires have reached
       their optimum performance temperature, thus providing you
       with the best possible grip for that set of tires.  The
       amount of time the tire indicators remain in the green
       color range depends on your driving style, the amount of
       time off-course (in the grass or sand) or banging the
       barriers (or other cars), and the initial selection of
       tire compound.  Note that in some games, new tires put on
       in a Pit Stop and tires on the car at the beginning of a
       race start with green indicators (bypassing the 'stickers'
       condition mentioned above).
    
       As the tire indicators switch to yellow, you need to start
       taking better care of your tires.  You may experience
       slides when cornering.
    
       Orange tire indicators are a warning to get to Pit Lane to
       change tires as soon as you possibly can.  You will be
       sliding around a lot more.
    
       Red tire indicators are effectively Game Over.  Unless you
       have a HUGE (multi-lap) lead or a significant horsepower
       advantage over your competitors, you will not have a
       chance of winning the race, especially if you stop to
       change tires.  Essentially, you are driving on pure ice,
       and the only way to 'reliably' get around the circuit is
       to ride the rails (barriers) alongside the circuit.
    
       Note that not all four tire indicators will be the
       same color at all times.  If even ONE tire shows a red
       indicator, you need to limp back to Pit Lane to change
       tires as soon as possible.
    
    Even if a game does not have a tire wear indicator, players
    will inherently KNOW when the tires are worn due to the
    amount of slipping around, primarily when cornering and
    during extreme braking and acceleration.  Some games, such as
    F1 2002, will have team radio communications which state that
    the tires are wearing down.
    
    If available in a given game, traction control affects tire
    durability.  With a low traction control setting, the tires
    will spin for a while (especially on a standing start or when
    under strong acceleration out of a corner) before they
    actually grip the pavement; the friction of the pre-grip
    spinning wears away at the tires.  With a high traction
    control setting, wheel spin is reduced or even eliminated,
    thus extending the durability of the tires.
    
    One of the best ways to reduce the durability of the tires is
    to corner at high speeds.  The game manual for Gran Turismo 3
    gives an excellent, highly-detailed description of what
    occurs with the tires when cornering; this explanation should
    be read at least once by EVERY serious gaming racer.  In
    short, cornering at high speeds causes a high percentage of
    the tire to be used for speed, and a low percentage to be
    used for the actual cornering.  To combat this and thus
    extend the durability of the tires, try to brake in a
    STRAIGHT line before reaching a turn, thus reducing overall
    speed and providing a lower percentage of the tires to be
    used for speed, and a greater percentage used for cornering.
    
    Note that if the percentage of the tires used for speed is
    too high compared to the percentage used for cornering, the
    car will slide and/or spin.
    
    Perhaps one of the best things to do to learn to take care of
    the tires is to play a racing game (such as F1 2002) in which
    vehicle damage is available.  Playing with the damage option
    on will certainly make the effects of worn tires quite
    visual.  As tire grip wears away (due to a long stint,
    multiple off-track excursions, etc.), the car may begin
    sliding around, potentially resulting in car damage (broken
    and missing parts), which REALLY makes driving a nightmare at
    high speeds.  Many racing/driving games do not make this
    damage visibly clear, so it is easy to underestimate the
    condition of the tires; similarly, without any car damage
    (generally due to licensing concerns, but also because damage
    modeling requires MUCH more from the game programmers), cars
    in these games can simply 'ride the rails' around corners
    when tire conditions are less than optimal.
    
    ==============================================
    
    DRAFTING/SLIPSTREAMING
    One very useful racing technique is drafting, also known as
    slipstreaming.  In some forms of motorsport, especially in
    oval track racing such as NASCAR and IRL, drafting is
    essential to making passes; NASCAR even raises drafting to an
    art form at its restrictor plate races by forcing cars to
    draft off each other simply to stay in contact with the
    leaders.
    
    Drafting works because of the aerodynamic vacuum which occurs
    behind a vehicle moving at a high rate of speed.  As air
    flows around Car A, there is an area around which the air is
    forced as it flows off Car A's rear end.  If Car B can get
    close enough to Car A, its front end can get into this vacuum
    area.  Since vacuums prefer to fill their void with anything
    possible, Car B is drawn closer and closer to Car A.  If the
    driver of Car B does not do anything or does not react fast
    enough, then Car B will eventually crash in to the back of
    Car A.  However, once sufficient vacuum-assisted momentum has
    been gained, Car B can pull out to the side, exiting the
    vacuum with added momentum/speed, and rocket past Car A.
    
    By using Car A's natural high-speed vacuum in this manner,
    Car B will emerge from the draft with a major advantage in
    terms of speed without ever pressing harder on the
    accelerator.  Often, drafting results in an additional
    5MPH/8KPH over Car A; while this may not seem like a lot of
    extra speed, it is often enough to make a successful pass.
    
    Drafting is a great tactic for oval and tri-oval courses.
    However, its effectiveness at road racing venues is
    essentially limited to just long straightaways.  In this
    case, it is highly important that Car B safely make the
    drafting pass well before the braking zone for the next
    corner, as the added speed will require earlier and/or
    stronger braking.  Also, cars with variable downforce -
    especially cars with wings, such as CART and F1 cars - seem
    better able to make use of the draft.
    
    Specific to F1 2002, there is a draft/slipstream meter on the
    right side of the screen during races and other events (such
    as challenges) in the game.  This can be useful, with the
    meter lighting up from bottom to top as Car B approaches the
    rear end of Car A.  When the meter is fully lit, the player
    should quickly pull out of the draft/slipstream or risk an
    accident.
    
    ==============================================
    
    WET-WEATHER RACING/DRIVING
    Almost everything written to this point in the guide focuses
    solely upon dry-weather racing/driving conditions.  In fact,
    most racing/driving games deal ONLY with dry-weather
    conditions.  However, simulation-based games will include at
    least a few wet-conditions situations.  This can range from
    Gran Turismo 3 - which uses two circuits (hosting a total of
    eight races between Simulation Mode and Arcade Mode) where
    the roadway has A LOT of standing water, as if the races take
    place just following a major prolonged downpour - to F1 2002
    - where in most situations, players can purposely select the
    desired weather conditions for a given race.
    
    In wet-weather racing/driving conditions, it is IMPERATIVE to
    use tires designed for wet-conditions usage.  For example, in
    F1 2002, in a full 53-lap race at Monza, I purposely tried
    running as long as I could with Dry Tires, then switched to
    Rain Tires when I could no longer handle the car's inherent
    sliding about... and my lap times instantly dropped by more
    than five seconds.
    
    In games which offer Intermediate Tires, such as Le Mans 24
    Hours, the period when the racing circuit is simply damp (at
    the start of a period of rain, or when the circuit is drying
    after a period of rain) can be tricky in terms of tires.
    Intermediate Tires are certainly best for these racing
    conditions, but the time in Pit Lane spent changing to
    Intermediate Tires can mean losing numerous race positions,
    especially if the weather conditions change again a short
    time later and require another trip to Pit Lane to change
    tires yet again.
    
    Tires aside, simulation-style games simply will not allow a
    player to drive a circuit the same way in wet-weather
    conditions as in dry-weather conditions.  The braking zone
    for all but the gentlest of corners will need to be extended,
    or else the car risks to hydroplane itself off the pavement.
    
    Throttle management is also key in wet-conditions racing.
    Due to the water on the circuit, there is inherently less
    tire grip, so strong acceleration is more likely to cause
    undue wheelspin - which could in turn spin the car and create
    a collision.  If a car has gone off the pavement, then the
    sand and/or grass which collect on the tires provide
    absolutely NO traction at all, so just the act of getting
    back to the pavement will likely result in numerous spins.
    
    In general, cornering is more difficult in wet conditions
    than in dry conditions.  To help ease this difficulty in
    cornering, simulation-style games will sometimes allow the
    player to change the car's tuning during a race (if not, the
    player will be forced to try to survive using the tuning set-
    up chosen before the beginning of the race).  Tuning is
    covered in more detail in another section below, but the main
    aspect to change for wet-weather conditions is to raise the
    downforce at the front and/or rear of the car; this will help
    improve cornering ability, but will result in slower top-end
    speed and slower acceleration.  If the car's brake strength
    can be adjusted, it should be lowered, as strong braking will
    raise the likelihood of hydroplaning off the pavement;
    lowering brake strength will also mean an additional
    lengthening of the braking zone for all but the gentlest
    corners of a given circuit.
    
    When the circuit is damp or wet, rumble strips and concrete
    extensions (which are usually painted) should be avoided as
    much as possible.  The water tends to bead on the paint used
    for rumble strips and concrete extensions, making them
    incredibly slippery, especially if a drive wheel is on a
    rumble strip or concrete extension while the player is in the
    process of turning the car; this will cause undue wheelspin
    in that particular drive wheel, usually resulting in the car
    spinning.
    
    ==============================================
    ==============================================
    ==============================================
    
    CIRCUIT HISTORIES
    The 'ancient' predecessor to this section was a guide created
    due to a personal inquiry for a guide for F1 2002, as I was
    wishing to learn more about the history of the race venues
    then used in F1 competition; this section takes that
    information (from my Circuit Histories Guide) and expands it
    to cover other racing venues (F1 and otherwise) worldwide.
    This is not intended to be a detailed history of all the race
    venues, but more of a general overview of the many circuits
    included in Pro Race Driver.
    
    The majority of information for this guide comes from
    circuits' official Web sites, Formula1.com
    (http://www.formula1.com/), NASCAR.com
    (http://www.NASCAR.com/), and Driver Network
    (http://www.drivernetwork.net/).  In some cases, historical
    information is taken directly from the circuits' own official
    Web sites.
    
    ==============================================
    
    CIRCUIT HISTORY: A1 RING
    The A1-Ring has been the host of F1's Grand Prix of Austria
    since 1997, but also hosts Truck Grand Prix, Classic Grand
    Prix, Deutsche Tourenwagen Masters, and motorbikes, among
    other racing series.
    
    The 2002 Grand Prix of Austria was surrounded by controversy
    following an extreme Ferrari public relations faux pas.
    Reubens Barrichello had truly dominated the entire race
    weekend, and was definitely on his way to his second-ever F1
    win.  In the closing laps of the race, teammate Michael
    Schumacher (P2) began closing in on Barrichello, but the
    assumption was that this move was to allow Ferrari's cars to
    be close enough for a photo opportunity for its sponsors.
    However, since Michael Schumacher and Juan Pablo Montoya
    (Schumacher's closest expected competition) were at that
    point very close in points in the Drivers' Championship,
    Barrichello - who that week had signed a contract extension
    as the NUMBER TWO TEAM DRIVER behind Michael Schumacher - was
    ordered to pull aside in the final meters of the race to
    allow his teammate to gain an extra four points in his lead
    over Montoya (P1 awards 10 points; P2 awards 6 points).
    While FIA could not do anything against the team or the
    drivers for the team orders, the fans in the stands (and
    myself watching live on television at 7AM in Arizona) were
    FURIOUS.  Michael Schumacher having officially 'won' the race
    was to take the top rung on the podium, but instead took the
    second rung and pushed the 'true' winner Reubens Barrichello
    to the top rung; the FIA took objection to this and
    sanctioned the team and the drivers at a special hearing
    later in the year.
    
    F1 winners at A1-Ring: Jacques Villeneuve (1997), Mika
    Hakkinen (1998 and 2000), Eddie Irvine (1999), David
    Coulthard (2001), and Michael Schumacher (the official winner
    in 2002 - see the note on the controversy above, as many
    consider that Reubens Barrichello won the race).
    
    See the official Web site (http://www.a1ring.at/) for more
    information.  Unfortunately, it does not appear to have any
    historical information on the circuit itself, nor can I find
    any such information online.  Also, the official Web site is
    entirely in German, a language I cannot read.
    
    ==============================================
    
    CIRCUIT HISTORY: ADELAIDE
    This 3.22-kilometer (2.01-mile) temporary street circuit was
    used for eleven years by Formula1 for the Grand Prix of
    Australia (which is now held at Albert Park in Melbourne).
    It is currently used by Australia's V8 Supercars series in
    the same configuration as the F1 series.
    
    Official history relating to the Clipsal 500 V8 Supercars
    race:
    
       Since the inaugural 1999 Sensational Adelaide 500
       attracted 162,000 patrons - a record for a national
       motorsport meeting in Australia, the event has not stopped
       growing in popularity and audience.
    
       The 2000 event attracted another record crowd for a
       national motorsport event, 164,000. The 2001 event raised
       the bar even higher, attracting a crowd of 166,800
       spectators and the 2002 event surpassed all expectations
       with a new record attendance of 171,200.
    
       The event has been awarded the AVESCO 'Motorsport Event of
       the Year' for each year - 1999, 2000, 2001, as well as the
       Yellow Pages Tourism Award as South Australia's best major
       festival or special event.
    
       Over its three-year history the Clipsal 500 Adelaide has
       provided economic benefit to SA totaling $44.9m, with
       visitor bed nights having increased forty two per cent to
       43,400, and the length of stay of visitors increasing from
       five to seven nights.
    
       This year [2002] 21,000 grandstand seats were built,
       providing  more than three thousand extra as compared with
       last year (2001).
    
       Corporate clients this year numbered over 8,000 per day.
       Increasing from the 2001 daily figure of 7,200.
    
       Employment as a result of the event has increased to 290
       full time job equivalents, while the media benefit (that
       is the value of international and national television,
       radio and press coverage) had grown by 32% over the past
       three years with the total value being $87.67m.
    
       A New Family Area was introduced to the event this year.
       The area, located in the Rymill Park Lake section of the
       circuit off Bartels Road (Adelaide Straight) was a
       designated 'dry zone' and provided a number of free
       attractions for children from 10am to 4pm each day,
       including face painting, a jumping castle, a horse & car
       carousel, and ladybird carousel. The area was complete
       with a Clipsal Vision Super screen for ease of viewing.
    
       This year two concerts were held at the event. The
       Saturday Night After Race Concert delivered the ultimate
       country show with a city appeal - featuring Lee Kernaghan
       and Beccy Cole, with the Sunday Night Concert featuring
       Australia's premiere male vocal group Human Nature, joined
       by special guest Deni Hines, and new South Australian
       talent, Candyce.
    
       The Clipsal 500 Adelaide track was modified for this
       year's event. The turn 8 / 9 chicane was removed making it
       a fast sweeper from Adelaide Straight on to Brabham
       Straight.
    
       The nominated charity to benefit from fundraising
       opportunities during the 2002 event was The Leukaemia
       Foundation of SA.
    
       The Clipsal 500 Adelaide television audience had grown,
       not only on Network 10 throughout Australia, but live in
       New Zealand and with a growing global audience which
       included South Africa, Japan, Singapore, Thailand, Russia,
       forty four countries in Europe, the United Kingdom, the
       Middle East, Canada, the Caribbean, Mexico, the United
       States and South America.
    
    See the official Web site (http://www.clipsal500.com.au/) for
    more information.
    
    This information on the 1994 F1 race at Adelaide is provided
    by ViperMask, one of the biggest F1 fans I have ever met.  It
    is edited only for formatting purposes.
    
       Adelaide.  This was the final race of the 1994
       F1 season (the season often referred to as "The Year
       in Hell.") and during the race; Michael Schumacher
       messed up and tapped the wall at a turn.  Damon Hill
       cut to the inside on the next turn, but Michael (who
       have catched up) steered right into Damon Hill, taking
       them both out (and with Michael's Benetton riding on 2
       wheels for 3 seconds!)  Michael won the championship
       because he was leading in the points that season.
       Damon Hill, and many others (including me) blamed
       Michael for trying to take Damon out.
    
    ==============================================
    
    CIRCUIT HISTORY: BATHURST
    From the official Web site of Bathurst 24 Hours (since there
    is no official Web site for the circuit itself;
    unfortunately, there is very little historical information
    available here):
    
       This unique circuit is located literally at the end of the
       main street of Bathurst, a city of 40,000 people with
       another 160,000 located within an 80-kilometer radius. It
       holds legendary status within Australian motorsport
       history, having hosted long distance races every year
       since 1963.
    
       ...
    
       The circuit runs 6.213 kms in an anti-clockwise direction.
       A lap time for FIA N-GT cars is expected to be in the 2
       min 10 sec to 2 min 15 sec region. Although it is usually
       a public road, the track is constructed to an extremely
       high standard for racing with excellent surfaces, width
       and safety. The main pit areas feature permanent lock-up
       garages (55) with overhead corporate hospitality suites.
       Additional temporary pit structures will be provided for
       the Bathurst 24hr situated along Mountain Straight. All
       pit garages will use the same pit exit lane to the
       circuit.
    
       ...
    
       Mount Panorama is the only active motor racing track in
       Australia, which is open to the public. It is 6.213 kms in
       length, 870 metres above sea level at its height, 670
       metres above sea level at its lowest point and has grades
       of up to 1 in 6.13 - downhill on the actual racing
       circuit.
    
    See the official Web site of Bathurst 24 Hours
    (http://www.bathurst24hr.com/) for more information.
    
    ==============================================
    
    CIRCUIT HISTORY: BRANDS HATCH
    Events at Brands Hatch include: MRO Powerbike, BRSCC
    Championship, Aston Martin Race Weekend, Champion of Brands,
    Historic Superprix, British F3, WSB Championship, Ferrari and
    Maserati Festival, British Touring Cars, MG Racing
    Spectacular, and Formula Ford Festival.
    
    Official circuit history (from the Octagon Motorsports Web
    site):
    
       Since its birth in 1926 as a local bicycle-racing venue,
       Brands Hatch has become synonymous with the best of
       British motor racing. Situated in a natural bowl, the
       circuit provided panoramic views of all the action, so its
       popularity as a racing venue grew rapidly. In 1950 Brands
       Hatch consisted of a mile-long oval tarmac circuit, but
       extensions and improvements meant that by 1960, Brands
       Hatch was ready to host Grand Prix events, and to write
       itself into the history books.
    
       In 1964, Jim Clarks won the European Grand Prix - not long
       after, he posted the first 100 mph lap of the circuit. A
       regular Grand Prix venue in the 70's and 80's, Brands
       Hatch also provided Nigel Mansell with his first World
       Championship win in 1985.
    
    Unofficial circuit history (from grandprix.com):
    
       It was back in 1926 that a group of cyclists on the main
       road from London to Folkestone noticed a natural
       amphitheater on land belonging to Brands Hatch farm, near
       the village of West Kingsdown. After discussions with the
       local farmer it was agreed that the field could be used
       for bicycle racing and time trials. Within a couple of
       years motorcycles had begun to use the dirt track and a
       three-quarter mile circuit was laid out in the little
       valley. It remained in operation throughout the 1930s but
       it was not until after World War II that a proper
       organization was established. That came with the formation
       of Brands Hatch Stadium Ltd. in 1947 and later that year
       the organizers convinced the BBC to film motorcycle races
       to be transmitted on the new television network.
    
       In April 1950, with a new tarmac surface and extended to a
       mile, the track opened for car racing with 500cc Formula 3
       becoming the mainstay of the racing calendar. In 1953 the
       Universal Motor Racing Cub was established and a racing
       school was set up at the circuit. The following year the
       track was lengthened to 1.24-miles - with the addition of
       the hairpin at Druids Bend - and widened and the racing
       changed direction, the track having previously been anti
       clockwise. A grandstand, acquired from the Northolt
       trotting track, was added in 1955. The Le Mans disaster
       that year was to provide a boost to Brands Hatch as many
       of the rival postwar tracks were closed down because they
       were not safe enough.
    
       Brands Hatch managed to keep up with requirements and in
       1956 hosted its first Formula 2 race with victory going to
       Roy Salvadori, who was in considerable pain having broken
       several ribs in a crash in an earlier sportscar event.
       There was a second F2 race a month later which was won by
       Colin Chapman driving one of his own Lotus 11s. A third F2
       race at the end of the season established Brands Hatch as
       a serious racing circuit although it was obviously too
       short to attract any major international events. As a
       result the track authorities applied for planning
       permission to build an extension through the woods behind
       the track. The Kent County Council agreed and the new
       track hosted its first major race in August 1960 with
       victory in the non-championship Silver City Trophy F1 race
       going to Jack Brabham in a Cooper-Climax.
    
       The following year the circuit's press officer John Webb
       negotiated the sale of Brands Hatch to Grovewood
       Securities. He was put in charge of Motor Circuit
       Developments, the company which took over the management
       of the track. Major upgrading followed with new facilities
       added and new circuits acquired by MCD, including Mallory
       Park (1962), Snetterton (1963) and Oulton Park (1964). In
       July of that year Brands Hatch hosted its first World
       Championship F1 race, the RAC having agreed to alternate
       the British GP between Brands Hatch and Silverstone.
    
       From the earliest days Brands had a number of fatal
       accidents, but in the winter of 1965-66 Paddock Hill Ben
       in particular had acquired a dreadful eputation, for
       within a matter of months George Crossman, Tony Flory and
       Stuart Duncan were killed there and two others were
       seriously hurt. The death of Jo Siffert in October 1971
       would lead to major safety work in 1972.
    
       In the 1970s Brands Hatch played an important role in the
       development of Formula Ford and in 1976 took over the
       running of the Formula Ford Festival. Two years later
       Brands Hatch hosted a race featuring Indycars, imported
       for the occasion from the United States of America. Webb's
       abilities as an organizer even enabled the track to host
       the 1983 European Grand Prix at 10 weeks notice after the
       unexpected cancellation of the New York GP.
    
       The last British GP at Brands Hatch was held in 1986 with
       victory going to Nigel Mansell in a Williams-Honda. That
       year John Foulston bought Brands Hatch, Oulton Park and
       Snetterton from Grovewood Securities and established a new
       company called Brands Hatch Leisure. The following year
       the company bought Cadwell Park but tragedy struck when
       Foulston was killed while testing a McLaren Indycar at
       Silverstone. BHL was taken over by his widow Mary
       Foulston, although John Webb remained in charge until his
       retirement in 1990. The running of the group was then
       taken over by Nicola Foulston.
    
       Without a Grand Prix Brands Hatch concentrated on Formula
       3000 but a huge multiple accident in 1988 raised questions
       of safety again and by 1991 the F3000 circus turned its
       back on the track. Nicola Foulston was unperturbed and
       continued to develop BHL as a business. In 1996 she
       floated the company on the London Stock Exchange.
    
       This was a big success and Foulston began to make
       preparations for a bid for the British Grand Prix. In 1999
       she announced that she had acquired the rights to hold the
       race in 2002. Planning permission was sought for
       rebuilding work but while this was still being discussed
       Foulston sold the company to the giant American
       advertising firm Interpublic for $195m, a premium of 36%
       on the price of the shares.
    
    See the official Web site of Octagon Motorsports
    (http://circuits.octagonmotorsports.com/) for more
    information on this and other Octagon Motorsports race venues
    in the United Kingdom.
    
    ==============================================
    
    CIRCUIT HISTORY: BRISTOL
    First used for NASCAR in 1961, Bristol Motor Speedway is the
    shortest track on the current NASCAR calendar at 0.533 miles
    (0.853 kilometers) - thus it is known as 'The World's Fastest
    Half-mile.'  Formerly asphalt, the  Bristol, Tennessee, USA,
    circuit was converted to concrete in 1992, and boasts
    attendance easily topping 150,000 for NASCAR events.  The
    banking is thirty-six degrees in the corners and sixteen
    degrees on the straightaways.
    
    World of Outlaws and NASCAR Craftsman Truck Series have also
    held races at Bristol Motor Speedway.  Racing schools at
    Bristol Motor Speedway include Buck Baker Racing School, Fast
    Track High Performance Driving School, Jarrett Favre Driving
    Adventure, Richard Petty Driving Experience, SpeedTech Auto
    Racing School, and Roy Hill's Drag Racing School.
    
    Here is the history of Bristol Motor Speedway as given on the
    official Web site of the circuit:
    
       Bristol Motor Speedway could very easily have opened in
       1961 under a different name.  The first proposed site for
       the speedway was in Piney Flats but, according to Carl
       Moore, who built the track along with Larry Carrier and
       R.G. Pope, the idea met local opposition.  So the track
       that could have been called Piney Flats International
       Speedway was built five miles down the road on 11-E in
       Bristol.
    
       The land that Bristol Motor Speedway is built on used to
       be a dairy farm.
    
       Larry Carrier and Carl Moore traveled to Charlotte Motor
       Speedway in 1960 to watch a race and it was then that they
       decided to build a speedway in Northeast Tennessee.
       However, they wanted a smaller model of CMS, something
       with a more intimate setting and opted to erect a half
       mile facility instead of mirroring the 1.5-mile track in
       Charlotte.
    
       Work began on what was then called Bristol International
       Speedway in 1960 and it took approximately one year to
       finish.  Many ideas for the track were scratched on
       envelopes and brown paper bags by Carrier, Moore and Pope.
    
       Purchase of the land on which BMS now sits, as well as
       construction of the track, cost approximately $600,000.
    
       The entire layout for BMS covered 100 acres and provided
       parking for more than 12,000 cars.  The track itself was a
       perfect half-mile, measuring 60 feet wide on the
       straightaways, 75 feet wide in the turns and the turns
       were banked at 22 degrees.
    
       Seating capacity for the very first NASCAR race at BMS -
       held on July 30, 1961 - was 18,000.  Prior to this race
       the speedway hosted weekly races.
    
       The first driver on the track for practice on July 27,
       1961 was Tiny Lund in his Pontiac.  The second driver out
       was David Pearson.
    
       Fred Lorenzen won the pole for the first race at BMS with
       a speed of 79.225 mph.
    
       Atlanta's Jack Smith won the inaugural event - the
       Volunteer 500 - at BMS on July 30, 1961.  However, Smith
       wasn't in the driver's seat of the Pontiac when the race
       ended.  Smith drove the first 290 laps then had to have
       Johnny Allen, also of Atlanta, take over as his relief
       driver.  The two shared the $3,225 purse.  The total purse
       for the race was $16,625.
    
       Nashville star Brenda Lee, who was 17 at the time, sang
       the national anthem for the first race at BMS.
    
       A total of 42 cars started the first race at BMS but only
       19 finished.
    
       In the fall of 1969 BMS was reshaped and remeasured.  The
       turns were banked at 36 degrees and it became a .533-mile
       oval.
    
       The speedway was sold after the 1976 season to Lanny
       Hester and Gary Baker.
    
       In the spring of 1978 the track name was changed to
       Bristol International Raceway.
    
       In August of 1978 the first night race was held on the
       oval.
    
       On April 1, 1982 Lanny Hester sold his half of the
       speedway to Warner Hodgdon.
    
       On July 6, 1983, Warner Hodgdon completed 100 percent
       purchase of Bristol Motor Speedway, as well as Nashville
       Speedway, in a buy-sell agreement with Baker.  Hodgdon
       named Larry Carrier as the track's general manager.
    
       On January 11, 1985, Warner Hodgdon filed for bankruptcy.
    
       After Warner Hodgdon filed for bankruptcy, Larry Carrier
       formally took possession of the speedway and covered all
       outstanding debts.
    
       In August of 1992 BMS became the first speedway to host a
       Winston Cup event that boasted a track surface that was
       all concrete.
    
       On Jan. 22, 1996, Larry Carrier sold the speedway to
       Bruton Smith at a purchase price of $26 million. At the
       time of the sale, the facility seated 71,000.
    
       On May 28, 1996 the track's name was officially changed to
       Bristol Motor Speedway.
    
       By August of 1996, 15,000 seats had been added bringing
       the seating capacity to 86,000.
    
       BMS continued to grow and by April of 1997 was the largest
       sports arena in Tennessee and one of the largest in the
       country, seating 118,000. The speedway also boasted 22 new
       skyboxes.
    
       For the August 1998 Goody's 500 the speedway featured more
       than 131,000 grandstand seats and 100 skyboxes.
    
       Improvements to the speedway since Smith took possession
       are in excess of $50 million.
    
       The seating capacity for the Food City 500 in March of
       2000 was 147,000 as the Kulwicki Terrace and Kulwicki
       Tower were completed.
    
    Some notable track facts (taken from the official Web site):
    - Kurt Busch won his first career Winston Cup race in the
      2002 running of the Food City 500.
    - Tony Stewart's initial Bristol win came in the 2001 Sharpie
      500.
    - Elliott Sadler's victory in 2001 Food City 500 was the
      first for Bristol victory for Stuart, Va.'s, famed Wood
      Brothers team.
    - In 21 of 40 years since Bristol opened, a driver who won a
      Winston Cup race at Bristol went on to win the series title
      later the same year.
    - Rusty Wallace snapped Jeff Gordon's four-year Food City 500
      winning streak in 1999 and got his 50th win in 2000.
    - WCS track qualifying record: Jeff Gordon, 127.216 mph,
      15.083 sec. 126.37 mph, 3/22/02.
    - WCS race record: Charlie Glotzbach, 101.074 mph (2:38:12),
      7/11/71.
    - Most Bristol wins (driver): Darrell Waltrip, 12 (seven
      consecutive).
    - Most Bristol wins (car owner): Junior Johnson, 21 (eight
      consecutive).
    - Most Bristol wins (manufacturer): Chevrolet, 36 (Ford is
      second with 23).
    - Most Bristol poles (driver): Cale Yarborough, nine.
    - Johnny Allen crossed the finish line first in the inaugural
      BMS race, but he was driving in relief of Jack Smith, who
      gets credit for Bristol's first victory.
    
    For NASCAR, race speed records are:
    - Winston Cup: C. Glotzbach at 101.074MPH (161.718KPH, set
      July 11, 1971)
    - Busch Series: H. Gant at 92.929MPH (148.686KPH, set April
      4, 1992)
    - Craftsman Trucks: R. Carelli at 83.992MPH (134.387KPH, set
      June 22, 1996)
    
    See the official Web site
    (http://www.bristolmotorspeedway.com/) for more information
    as well as photo galleries.
    
    ==============================================
    
    CIRCUIT HISTORY: CANBERRA
    No information or official Web site found.
    
    ==============================================
    
    CIRCUIT HISTORY: CATALUNYA
    The Circuit de Catalunya near Barcelona has hosted the Grand
    Prix of Spain since 1997.  The circuit hosts numerous forms
    of racing, including FIA Sportscar Championship, Spanish
    Formula-1 Grand Prix, 24 HOURS MOTORBIKE ENDURANCE, 24 HOURS
    CAR ENDURANCE, Catalunya Motorbike Championship, Spanish GT's
    Championship, Truck GP, and certainly F1 Racing; Catalunya
    even holds courses for the preparation of racing officials.
    Many teams also use the circuit for practice and testing.
    The circuit has three configurations: Grand Prix (7.563
    kilometers, or 4.727 miles), National (4.907 kilometers, or
    3.067 miles), and School (2.725 kilometers, or 1.703 miles).
    
    F1 winners at Catalunya: Jacques Villeneuve (1997), Mika
    Hakkinen (1998-2000), and Mika Hakkinen (2001 and 2002).
    
    See the official Web site (http://www.circuitcat.com) for
    more information.  Unfortunately, it does not have any
    historical information on the circuit, nor can I find any
    such information online.
    
    ==============================================
    
    CIRCUIT HISTORY: CHARLOTTE
    Named 'Charlotte' in Pro Race Driver, this is really now
    known as Lowe's Motor Speedway.  The complex sports both a
    superspeedway (which is highly famous amongst NASCAR fans)
    and a dirt track (which is highly famous amongst World of
    Outlaws fans).
    
    Here is the circuit history from the official Web site:
    
       Lowe's Motor Speedway was designed and built in 1959 b
       current chairman O. Bruton Smith. The late Curtis Turner,
       one of stock car racing's earliest driving stars, was
       Smith's business partner.
    
       At the time Smith, a native of Oakboro, N.C., was an
       automobile dealer and short-track stock car racing
       promoter at Concord Motor Speedway and the Charlotte
       Fairgrounds. Turner, a Virginian who amassed his money in
       the lumber industry, became one of the first drivers on
       the NASCAR circuit after the sanctioning body debuted in
       1949.
    
       Together, they built their dream of a 1.5-mile
       superspeedway on the outskirts of The Queen City and, on
       June 19, 1960, the first World 600 was run at the new
       facility.
    
       In 1961, like many superspeedways of the era, the track
       fell into Chapter 11 reorganization from which it
       eventually emerged despite lagging ticket sales.
    
       After his departure from the speedway in 1962, Smith
       pursued other business interests in Texas and Illinois.
       Working within Ford Motor Company's dealership program,
       Smith became quite successful and began purchasing shares
       of stock in Lowe's Motor Speedway. By 1975 Smith had again
       become the majority stockholder in the speedway, regaining
       control of its day-to-day operations.
    
       He hired current President H.A. 'Humpy' Wheeler as general
       manager and the two began to implement plans for needed
       improvements and expansion.
    
       During the ensuing 25 years, Smith and Wheeler
       demonstrated a commitment to customer satisfaction,
       building a facility that continuously established new
       industry standards.
    
       Thousands of grandstand seats and luxury suites were
       built. Food concessions and restroom facilities were added
       and modernized to increase the comfort of race fans.
    
       Smith Tower, a 135,000-square-foot, seven-story facility
       connected to the speedway's grandstands, was erected and
       opened in 1988. The building houses the speedway's
       corporate offices, ticket office, souvenir gift shop,
       leased office space and The Speedway Club, an exclusive
       dining and entertainment facility.
    
       Under the watchful eye of Smith and direction of Wheeler,
       in 1984 Lowe's Motor Speedway became the only sports
       facility in America to offer year-round living
       accommodations when it built 40 condominiums high above
       turn one. Twelve additional condominium units were added
       in 1991.
    
       Another innovation implemented by Smith and Wheeler was a
       $1.7 million, 1,200-fixture permanent lighting system
       developed by MUSCO Lighting of Oskaloosa, Iowa. The
       revolutionary lighting process uses mirrors to simulate
       daylight without glare, shadows or obtrusive light poles.
    
       The lighting system was installed in 1992, allowing Lowe's
       Motor Speedway to be the first superspeedway to host night
       auto racing.
    
       Ever cognizant of the competitors as well as the
       spectators, Smith and Wheeler added a new $1 million,
       20,000-square-foot Winston Cup garage area in 1994.
    
       Other additions and improvements include the development
       of the speedway's 2,000-plus acres. In addition to the
       speedway, the property, some of which is leased, includes
       an industrial park that serves as home to several
       motorsports-related businesses, a modern landfill facility
       operated by BFI and a natural wildlife habitat.
    
       In addition to the 1.5-mile quad oval, the Lowe's Motor
       Speedway complex includes a 2.25-mile road course and a
       six-tenths-mile karting layout in the speedway's infield;
       a quarter-mile asphalt oval utilizing part of the
       speedway's frontstretch and pit road; and a one-fifth-mile
       oval located outside turn three of the superspeedway.
    
       Three NASCAR Winston Cup events, two NASCAR Busch Series
       races, a pair of Automobile Racing Club of America events
       and a Goody's Dash Series race are among the events held
       each year on the 1.5-mile superspeedway. The FasTrack
       Driving School and the Richard Petty Driving Experience
       also use the track extensively throughout the year.
    
       Other events on the various tracks include a weekly,
       nationally televised short track series for Legends Cars;
       Sports Car Club of America national and regional
       competitions; American Motorcycle Association events; and
       World Karting Association regional, national and
       international races.
    
       In May 2000, a state-of-the-art four-tenths-mile clay
       oval-The Dirt Track @ Lowe's Motor Speedway-was complete
       across Highway 29 from the speedway. The stadium-style
       facility has nearly 15,000 seats and plays host to the
       Pennzoil World of Outlaws sprint cars, dirt late model
       stock cars, the AMA Grand National motorcycles, the
       Advance Auto Parts Modified Super DIRT Series and Monster
       Trucks.
    
       Lowe's Motor Speedway also annually presents two of the
       nation's largest car shows and swap meets-the Food Lion
       AutoFairs in April and September-and rents the facility
       more than 300 days per year. Corporations such as IBM,
       UNOCAL, Miller Brewing, Coca-Cola, Duracell, Wendy's and
       Lipton Tea have rented the speedway to film television
       commercials or to entertain employees and clients with
       food, music and race car rides.
    
       Motion pictures such as 'Days of Thunder,' 'Speedway' and
       'Stroker Ace' and even music videos like Tracy Lawrence's
       'If the Good Die Young' have been filmed at the speedway.
       Adding to rental dates are race team testing and
       automobile manufacturer research.
    
       Smith and Wheeler will quickly point out they have yet to
       complete their vision, and they continue to improve and
       expand the facility.
    
       More than 10,000 stadium-style seats, 20 new executive
       suites and 40 special 32-seat boxes were built in turn
       four in 1995. In May 1997, the Diamond Tower Terrace
       grandstand was opened along the backstretch to accommodate
       an additional 26,000 race fans for The Winston and Coca
       Cola 600. In May 1998, an 11,000-seat expansion of the new
       Diamond Tower Terrace was completed, bringing the total
       seating capacity of Lowe's Motor Speedway to approximately
       147,000. Then in May 1999, more than 10,000 new seats were
       completed in the Fourth Turn Terrace grandstand. A 10,860
       seat expansion of the Ford grandstand on the frontstretch
       was completed in May 2000, bringing the speedway's total
       seating capacity to 167,000.
    
       These additions are all part of a long-term project
       calling for additional grandstand seating, infrastructure
       improvements, spectator amenities and the development of
       adjacent land for possible commercial real estate
       ventures.
    
       Building on the basic philosophy of keeping spectator and
       competitor comfort a high priority, Lowe's Motor Speedway
       continues to be a leading promoter and marketer of
       motorsports activities in the United States.
    
    See the official Web site
    (http://www.charlottemotorspeedway.com/) for more
    information.
    
    ==============================================
    
    CIRCUIT HISTORY: DIJON PRENOIS
    This French circuit hosts numerous events: F3, GT, F.Renault
    Coupe 206CC, Porsche Carrera Cup, an historic Ferrari
    weekend, Historics Grand Prix, Euro 3000, and F3000.
    Motorcycle events here include 125cc Open, 250cc Open, 600
    Supersport, Super Production, Hornet Cup, Aprilia Cup, Coupe
    Ducati Club, and Side Car.
    
    Historical information (translated and abridged):
    
       1968: Beginning of the 'Automobile Stadium Project'
    
       May 26, 1972: Inauguration of Circuit Dijon-Prenois at
       3.289km (2.056 miles)
    
       June 4, 1972: First race - European Prototype Championship
    
       1974: Host of the first Grand Prix of France (F1); winner:
       Ronnie Peterson
    
       1975: Host of Grand Prix of Switzerland (F1); winner: Clay
       Regazzoni
    
       1977: Host of Grand Prix of France; winner: Mario Andretti
    
       1981: Host of Grand Prix of France; winner: Alain Prost
       (his first F1 win)
    
       1984: Final F1 Grand Prix race held at Dijon-Prenois;
       winner: Niki Lauda
    
    See the official Web site (http://www.circuit-dijon-
    prenois.com/) for more information.  However, the Web site is
    currently only available in French.
    
    ==============================================
    
    CIRCUIT HISTORY: DONINGTON PARK
    The Donington Park venue holds two circuits: the National
    Circuit and the International Circuit (the latter includes
    the parallel straightaways behind the Paddock Area).
    Donington Park is billed as a great place for car testing and
    launches, and also has days where the average drivers can
    take their cars and motorcycles to the tracks.  The Honda Ron
    Haslam Race School also used Honda Hornets, CBR600 and
    CBR900RR Fireblades to train people of all ages and abilities
    on motorcycles.  There is also the public Donington Grand
    Prix Collection museum, which contains more than 150 grand
    prix cars from the 1930s to the present.
    
    Race events include: Historic Sports Car Club Championships,
    British Formula 3 and British GT Championships, German
    Touring Car Masters, Donington Vintage and Historic Car
    Weekend, Cinzano British Motorcycle Grand Prix, Ford Racing
    Festival, Mini Racing Festival, MCN British Superbike
    Championship, BRSCC Car Championship, and British Truck
    Racing Championship.
    
    The official Web site (http://www.donington-park.co.uk/)
    unfortunately does not include any historical information.
    
    This information on the 1993 F1 race at Donington Park is
    provided by ViperMask, one of the biggest F1 fans I have ever
    met.  It is edited only for formatting purposes.
    
       You forgot about one of the GREATEST
       drives in Formula 1 history.  In 1993 the weather was
       absoulutely MISERABLE.  Ayrton Senna qualified 4th in
       a uncompetitive McLaren Ford with a 1 year old Ford
       engine.  When the race started, he dropped to 5th
       place but he was able to over take Michael Schumacher
       in the Benetton, Karl Wendlinger in the Sauber, Damon
       Hill in the Williams, and FINALLY Alain Prost in the
       Williams ALL IN THE FIRST LAP IN THE RAIN.  Also,
       during the post-race press conference, Prost said he
       had a bad set-up, and was blaming the car, so Senna
       said to him "So why don't you trade cars with me?"
       Which sparked a lot of laughs from everyone except
       Alain.  The following URL has the first lap of
       Donington.
    
       http://www.geocities.com/downward_spiral_soldier/senna-
       donington-1993.zip
    
    ==============================================
    
    CIRCUIT HISTORY: EASTERN CREEK
    This 3.93-kilometer (2.456-mile) circuit hosts V8 Supercars,
    many Formula series, a number of sports cars and sports
    sedans series, touring cars, production cars, and numerous
    national and support motorcycle series.  The pit straight
    even incorporates a drag strip, and the circuit permits the
    average driver to enter cars and motorbikes for drag racing
    events (so long as the vehicle is road-registered).
    
    See the official Web site (http://www.eastern-creek-
    raceway.com/) for more information.  This Web site
    unfortunately does not include historical information.
    
    ==============================================
    
    CIRCUIT HISTORY: FUJI
    This Japanese circuit is perhaps most notable to North
    American classic video game enthusiasts from its appearance
    in Atari's Pole Position series in the stand-up arcades of
    the 1980s.  There are a few of these classic Pole Position
    and Pole Position II arcade boxes still in existence,
    although the best bet for finding these games now is on the
    various gaming consoles.  However, those who prefer the
    version of the circuit in the Pole Position series will be
    rather disappointed at the chicanes added along the faster
    sections of the Fuji circuit.
    
    See the official Web site (http://www.fujispeedway.co.jp/)
    for information.  There is virtually NO information on the
    English-language portion of the site, and NO historical
    information.  The majority of information on the site is
    available only in the Japanese-language section.
    
    ==============================================
    
    CIRCUIT HISTORY: HOCKENHEIM
    The Hockenheim circuit was an EXCELLENT and very high-speed
    race venue until 2002, when the circuit was redesigned and
    severely shortened while accommodations were added to bring
    in even more spectators than before.  The former Hockenheim
    configuration ran almost entirely through the German forest.
    The circuit was designed in 1932, and hosts F1 and many other
    forms of motorsport.
    
    Notable F1 winners at Hockenheim: Niki Lauda (1977), Mario
    Andretti (1978),  (1981, 1986, and 1987), Alain Prost (1984,
    1993), Ayrton Senna (1988-1990), Nigel Mansell (1991 and
    1992), Michael Schumacher (1995, 2002), and Mika Hakkinen
    (1998).
    
    The official Web site (http://www.hockenheimring.de/) is
    unfortunately only available in German - which is a language
    I cannot read :-(
    
    ==============================================
    
    CIRCUIT HISTORY: KNOCKHILL
    The official Web site (http://www.knockhill.co.uk/) is
    unfortunately unavailable, loading only a single blank page
    at the time of the writing of this guide.
    
    ==============================================
    
    CIRCUIT HISTORY: LAS VEGAS
    Las Vegas Motor Speedway sports a superspeedway, 'bullring,'
    drag strip, and dirt track.  Amongst these four venues, more
    than four hundred different racing events were held on LVMS
    property in 2002.
    
    Circuit history from the official Web site:
    
       #  Sept. 15, 1996-Inaugural Indy Racing League Las Vegas
       500k, won by Richie Hearn.
    
       # Nov. 3, 1996-NASCAR Craftsman Truck Carquest 420k, won
       by Jack Sprague.
    
       # March 16, 1997-NASCAR Busch Grand National 300, won by
       Jeff Green. Oct. 11, 1997-Las Vegas 500k Indy Racing
       League, won by Eliseo Salazar.
    
       # Nov. 9, 1997 NASCAR Craftsman Truck Carquest 420k, won
       by Joe Ruttman.
    
       # Feb. 28, 1998-NASCAR Busch series Sam's Town 300, won by
       Jimmy Spencer.
    
       # March 1, 1998-Inaugural Las Vegas 400 NASCAR Winston
       Cup, won by Mark Martin.
    
       # Oct. 11, 1998-Pep Boys Indy Racing League Las Vegas
       500k, won by Arie Luyendyk.
    
       # Nov. 8, 1998-NASCAR Craftsman Truck Sam's Town 250, won
       by Jack Sprague.
    
       # March 6, 1999-NASCAR Busch Series Sam's Town 300, won by
       Mark Martin.
    
       # March 7, 1999-NASCAR Winston Cup Las Vegas 400, won by
       Jeff Burton.
    
       # September 24, 1999-Nascar Craftsman Truck Series Orleans
       250, won by Greg Biffle
    
       # September 25, 1999-Nascar Winston West Gold Coast 150,
       won by Kevin Richards
    
       # September 26, 1999-Pep Boys Indy Racing League
       Vegas.com., won by Sam Schmidt
    
       # March 5, 2000-NASCAR Busch Series Sam's Town 300, won by
       Jeff Burton
    
       # March 6, 2000-NASCAR Winston Cup Series Carsdirect.com
       400, won by Jeff Burton
    
       # April 7, 2000-Inaugural NHRA Summitracing.com Nationals,
       winners were Kenny Bernstein (TF), Jim Epler (FC), Jeg
       Coughlin Jr. (PS), Bob Panella (PST), Angelle Seeling
       (PSB)
    
       # April 21, 2000-NASCAR Winston West, Orleans 150, won by
       David Starr
    
       # April 21, 2000-IRL Vegas Indy 300, won by Al Unser Jr.
    
       # March 1, 2001-NASCAR Winston West NAPA 300, won by Mark
       Reed
    
       # March 3, 2001-NASCAR Busch Series Sam's Town 300, won by
       Todd Bodine
    
       # March 4, 2001-NASCAR Winston Cup UAW-DaimlerChrysler
       400, won by Jeff Gordon
    
       # April 8, 2001-NHRA Summitracing.com Nationals, won by
       Kenny Bernstein (TF), Tommy Johnson Jr. (FC), Jeg Coughlin
       Jr. (PS), Bob Panella (PST)
    
       # Oct. 14, 2001, NASCAR Craftsman Truck Orleans 350, won
       by Ted Musgrave
    
       # Oct. 28, 2001, Inaugural NHRA ACDelco Las Vegas
       Nationals, won by Darrell Russell (TF), Ron Capps (FC),
       Mark Pawuk (PS) and Shaun Gann (Bikes)
    
       # March 2, 2002, NASCAR Busch Series Sam's Town 300, won
       by Jeff Burton.
    
       # March 3, 2002, NASCAR Winston Cup UAW-DaimlerChrysler
       400, won by Sterling Marlin
    
       # April 7,2002, NHRA Summitracing.com Nationals, won by
       Larry Dixon (TF), Gary Densham (FC) and Ron Krisher (PS).
    
    See the official Web site (http://www.lvms.com/) for more
    information.
    
    ==============================================
    
    CIRCUIT HISTORY: MAGNY-COURS
    Characterized by its three parallel straightaways (which can
    be aurally difficult for drivers while on the middle
    straightaway), Nevers Magny-Cours has hosted F1 events since
    1991.  The 4.226-kilometer (2.641-mile) circuit is also used
    for Motorbikes Championship, FIA GT Championship, Formula
    Renault 2000 Eurocup, FIA Sportcar Championship, Formula
    Nissan, historical races, and various endurance races.
    
    F1 winners at Nevers Magny-Cours: Nigel Mansell (1991 and
    1992), Alain Prost (1993), Michael Schumacher (1994, 1995,
    1997, 1998, 2001, and 2002), Damon Hill (1996), Heinz-Harald
    Frentzen (1999), and David Coulthard (2000).
    
    Visit the official Web site (http://www.magnycours.com/) for
    more information.  Unfortunately, the site does not include
    any circuit history in either the French- or English-language
    versions of the site.
    
    This information on the 1996 F1 race at Magny-Cours is
    provided by ViperMask, one of the biggest F1 fans I have ever
    met.  It is edited only for formatting purposes.
    
       As for Magny-Cours, Heinz Harald Frentzen's win was a
       very special one.  He made a BEAUTIFUL drive in the
       wet, in the Jordan Mugen-Honda.  It was one of the
       races that made HHF into a superstar driver AND the
       Driver of the Year in 1999.
    
    ==============================================
    
    CIRCUIT HISTORY: MANTORP PARK
    The official Web site (http://www.mantorppark.com/) is
    currently available only in Swedish, so a circuit history is
    not available in English.
    
    ==============================================
    
    CIRCUIT HISTORY: MEXICO
    This 2.75-mile (4.40-kilometer) permanent road circuit began
    hosting CART events in 2001.  As such, there is no real
    history available for this circuit.
    
    Please see the official Web site
    (http://www.telmexgigantegranpremiomexico.com/) for
    information.
    
    ==============================================
    
    CIRCUIT HISTORY: MONZA
    Originally opened in 1922 to commemorate the twenty-fifth
    anniversary of the Milan Automobile Club, the Monza circuit
    (Autodromo Nazionale Monza), near Milan, Italy, has been the
    site of more F1 grand prix events than any other.  The Monza
    circuit has seen numerous configurations, including the
    famous banked section from 1955 to 1961.
    
    Monza has always been an incredibly fast race venue... and
    with this speed comes even greater danger.  Phil Hill's 1961
    race victory (his second consecutive win at Monza) was
    severely overshadowed by a collision between Jim Clark and
    Wolfgang von Trips which took the lives of the latter driver
    and over one dozen spectators.  A 1970 mechanical failure
    during Qualifying killed Jochen Rindt, so one may not be
    surprised that chicanes, guard rails, and reinforced fencing
    were added beginning in 1972 as an attempt to slow the cars
    and make Monza's events safer for all involved; however, the
    chicanes specifically were really just makeshift safety
    measures due to the increasing performance in virtually all
    realms of motorsport.  In more recent years, the opening lap
    of the 2000 Grand Prix of Italy was seriously marred by the
    death of a trackside race marshal due to all the flying
    debris at the Roggia Chicane (the second chicane of the
    circuit).  While there were no dangerous incidents at the
    2001 Grand Prix of Italy, that particular event happened to
    be scheduled for the first weekend following the world-
    shocking terrorist attacks on the United States (September
    11, 2001) AND the near-fatal accident at a new race venue in
    Germany (the previous afternoon) which forced the amputation
    of the legs of CART driver Alex Zanardi; these events cast a
    dark shadow over the race itself as well as the entire Grand
    Prix weekend.
    
    On a far more positive note, Williams driver Juan Pablo
    Montoya - truly making his first great impact upon the F1
    world following several years of astounding success in CART -
    broke Keke Rosberg's twenty-seven-year record for the fastest
    ever F1 qualifying lap.  Rosberg's then record-setting lap
    was 259.005KPH (161.878MPH) set at Silverstone; Montoya's new
    record-setting lap was 259.827KPH (162.392MPH).  What makes
    Montoya's achievement even more impressive is that Michelin-
    shod F1 vehicles (led by Williams and McLaren) have generally
    not been able to compete with Bridgestone-shod cars (led by
    Ferrari).
    
    The Monza circuit has seen all sorts of motorsport events,
    including motorcycles and touring cars, and currently is
    5.736 kilometers (3.585 miles) in length.  A recent Italian
    telefilm on the life of Enzzo Ferrari exclusively used the
    Monza circuit for its racing shots using time-appropriate
    vehicles.
    
    Notable F1 winners at Monza: Alberto Ascari (1951 and 1952),
    Juan Manuel Fangio (1953-1955), Stirling Moss (1956 and
    1957), Stirling Moss (1959), Jim Clark (1963), Jackie Stewart
    (1965 and 1969), Emerson Fittipaldi (1972), Mario Andretti
    (1977), Niki Lauda (1978 and 1984), Alain Prost (1981, 1985,
    and 1989), Nelson Piquet (1983, 1986, and 1987), Ayrton Senna
    (1990 and 1992), Michael Schumacher (1996, 1998, 2000, and
    2002), and Juan Pablo Montoya (2001).
    
    The official Web site of Autodromo Nazionale Monza
    (http://www.monzanet.it/) has plenty of great information,
    including a large track map of Monza's various configurations
    and plenty of images of racing action on Monza's banked
    turns.
    
    ==============================================
    
    CIRCUIT HISTORY: NORISRING
    The official Web site (http://www.autohausamnorisring.de/) is
    only available in German, so a circuit history is not
    available.
    
    ==============================================
    
    CIRCUIT HISTORY: NURBURGRING
    Originally 22.677 kilometers (14.173 miles) in length, the
    Nurburgring first opened in 1927 (following two years of
    construction) and is still going strong.  The opening events
    featured motorcycles (June 18, 1927), with cars featured the
    following day.  The 1939 German Grand Prix was the final race
    at Nurburgring for quite some time due to the beginning of
    World War II.  The circuit itself was damaged in the closing
    months of the war, but racing returned to Nurburgring in
    1947.  However, there were no races at Nurburgring in 1948,
    as the circuit was being brought up to safety standards.
    
    Nurburgring began hosting F1 events in 1951.  Estimates show
    that 400,000 spectators came to the track for the 1954 F1
    race.  In 1958, however, the F1 race saw the death of Peter
    Collins as his Ferrari went out of control.
    
    The 1968 world motorcycle championship at Nurburgring had a
    strange stoppage: a forest fire.  The F1 Grand Prix later
    that year had nearly impossible visibility due to intense
    rain and fog.
    
    In 1970, the Northern Loop of the circuit was called into
    question after numerous accidents.  Improvements were made
    for the following year, when 130,000 spectators witnessed
    Jackie Stewart winning the F1 Grand Prix.  More improvements
    were demanded in 1974 (first by motorcyclists, then by F1
    drivers).  When Nikki Lauda was seriously injured in 1976,
    the Northern Loop was decommissioned as an F1 venue.
    
    A new, shorter circuit was then designed and built, opening
    in 1984 at 4.542 kilometers (2.839 miles) in length.  Alan
    Prost won that year's European Grand Prix.  In 1986, however,
    the F1 race moved to Hockenheim.  1995 saw the return of F1
    to Nurburgring, and the historic race venue has produced
    excellent races ever since.
    
    Some of the notable F1 winners at Nurburgring: Alberto Ascari
    (1951 and 1952), Juan Manuel Fangio (1954-1956), Stirling
    Moss (1961), Jim Clark (1965), Jack Brabham (1966), Jackie
    Stewart (1968, 1971, and 1973), Alain Prost (1984), Michael
    Schumacher (1995, 2000, and 2001), Jacques Villeneuve (1996
    and 1997), Mika Hakkinen (1998), and Rubens Barrichello
    (2002).
    
    See the official Web site (http://www.nuerburgring.de/) for
    plenty more details about the Nurburgring.
    
    ==============================================
    
    CIRCUIT HISTORY: ORAN PARK
    Oran Park contains two separate circuits which are joined for
    form the Grand Prix circuit of 2.7 kilometers (1.7 miles)
    which is used for V8 Supercar.
    
    From the official Web site:
       Oran Park is a motorsport facility steeped in history. The
       facility was established by the Singer Car Club 40 years
       ago. In its early days it would host one race per day.
    
       The circuit initially consisted only of the current south
       circuit, with the extended Grand Prix figure-8 layout not
       being incorporated into the track until the 1970s.
    
       Oran Park has played to host to a number unique and
       exciting events. It has hosted Australian Grand Prix, been
       the home of truck racing and was the home of the final
       round of the Australian Touring Car Championship for quite
       some time. Oran Park was instrumental in running Sports
       Sedans racing, that captivated Sydney motor racing fans in
       the 1970s (and still proves very popular today).
    
       Oran Park is a multi-faceted faclity, and includes a
       number of separate tracks and a driver training facility.
    
       Oran Park boasts the famous Grand Prix circuit, which is a
       challenging figure-8 layout, with a combination of fast
       sweepers and tight, technical corners.
    
       The Grand Prix Circuit is able to be split up and used
       concurrently as South and North Circuits. The South Cicuit
       incorporates the long straight, while the North Circuit
       incorporates the figure-8 section of the track and is a
       short and challenging track.
    
       Additionally, Oran Park has a Skid Pan for driver
       training, two dirt circuits for off road events, a
       motorcross track, and a popular go-kart circuit.
    
    See the official Web site (http://www.oranpark.com/) for more
    information.
    
    ==============================================
    
    CIRCUIT HISTORY: OSCHERSLEBEN
    The official Web site (http://www.motopark.de/) is only
    available in German, so a circuit history is not available.
    
    ==============================================
    
    CIRCUIT HISTORY: OULTON PARK
    Located near Cheshire, England, this circuit hosts British
    Touring Car Championship, British Superbike Championship, and
    British GT Championship, along with numerous club series.
    
    Official circuit history from Octagon Motorsports:
    
       Oulton Park first established itself as the North West's
       premier motorsport venue in the 1950s. A decade later, it
       was hosting international meetings, and among the winners
       were household names such as Stirling Moss, Jack Brabham,
       Jackie Stewart and Graham Hill. The circuit has been
       extended over the years, and boasts the unique distinction
       of having three circuits in one. This allows Oulton Park
       to present a racing programme that includes something for
       just about every motorsport enthusiast. Unusually, it is
       also able to seat spectators within the perimeter of the
       circuit, providing unrivalled views of the action.
    
    See the official Web site of Octagon Motorsports
    (http://circuits.octagonmotorsports.com/) for more
    information on this and other Octagon Motorsports race venues
    in the United Kingdom.
    
    ==============================================
    
    CIRCUIT HISTORY: PHILLIP ISLAND
    In 1952, the Phillip Island Auto Racing Club was formed with
    the vision of building the first international grand prix
    circuit in Australia.  In December 1956, the circuit finally
    opened.
    
    Major events held at Phillip Island include Australian
    Superbike Championship, World Superbike Championship, V8
    Supercar Championship Series, Konica V8 Supercars, and
    Australian Motorcycle Grand Prix.
    
    See the official Web site
    (http://www.phillipislandcircuit.com.au/) for more
    information, including a highly-detailed circuit history.
    
    ==============================================
    
    CIRCUIT HISTORY: ROCKINGHAM
    Rockingham Motor Speedway hosts an 'oval' circuit plus an
    infield road circuit (i.e., a 'stadium circuit'), allowing
    for many types of racing at this British facility.  Events
    here include Ascar Oval Race Meeting, Classic Motorcycle Race
    Meeting, British Superbike Race Meeting, F3/GT, ASCAR Oval
    Race Meeting, CART Rockingham 500, Uniroyal Challenge with
    Formula Palmer Audi & VSR Club Race Meeting, and BRDC Winter
    Raceday.
    
    See the official Web site (http://www.rockingham.co.uk/) for
    more information.  Unfortunately, a circuit history is not
    given on the official Web site.
    
    ==============================================
    
    CIRCUIT HISTORY: SANDOWN
    The official Web site (http://www.sandownraceway.com.au/) is
    extremely slow and virtually unresponsive at the time of the
    initial writing of this game guide.
    
    ==============================================
    
    CIRCUIT HISTORY: SEARS POINT
    Sears Point Raceway is now officially known as Infineon
    Raceway.  This is the site of one of NASCAR's two road
    circuit events each year, providing a drastic change for the
    oval-dedicated stock car drivers.
    
    Circuit history from the official Web site:
    
       Since 1968, Infineon Raceway has provided the best in
       motorsports action. From the fender-rubbing action of
       NASCAR Winston Cup and ground pounding thunder of NHRA
       Drag Racing to the grassroots SCCA road races and AFM
       motorcycle events, Infineon Raceway has played host to
       many of racing's greatest moments and stars.
    
       Racing legends such as Mario Andretti, Al Unser, Dan
       Gurney, Kenny Roberts, Dale Earnhardt, Shirley Muldowney
       and Don 'The Snake' Prudhomme, as well as modern day stars
       including Jeff Gordon, Rusty Wallace, Ron Hornaday Jr.,
       Miguel DuHamel and John Force, have all left their
       indelible marks at this unique and historic facility.
    
       NASCARInfineon Raceway is arguably the world's busiest
       racing facility, with track activity scheduled an average
       of 340 days a year. It is one of the nation's only high
       performance automotive industrial parks.
    
       Under the ownership and vision of Speedway Motorsports
       Incorporated, Infineon Raceway is poised to reach new
       heights in facility development and in the quality of
       events it offers fans. What follows is a brief history of
       how Infineon Raceway came to be one of North America's
       most complete and versatile motorsports complex:
    
       In the Beginning
       Franklin Sears was born in Indiana in 1817. He spent his
       childhood in Missouri, and in 1844 ventured westward to
       Oregon. He left home with his friend, Granville Swift, a
       rifle, mule and $1.50 in his pocket.
    
       After one winter in Oregon, Sears was fed up with the rain
       and headed south. He volunteered for the U.S.-Mexican war
       and was named a hero of the Battle of San Pasquale. He
       spent much of the time in the thick of the battle and was
       a decorated solider during the war. Following the war in
       1851, he married Granville Swift's sister, Margaret, and
       settled on 600 acres of land south of Sonoma. He built his
       home of hand-hewn redwood. He was a blacksmith by trade
       but a large source of his income came from ranching.
    
       Sears eventually partnered with Granville Swift and bought
       15,000 acres of land that stretched from Infineon Raceway
       all the way to what is now Lakeville Highway.
    
       1968
       The 2.52-mile road racing course was constructed on 720
       acres by Marin County owners Robert Marshall Jr., an
       attorney from Point Reyes, and land developer Jim Coleman
       of Kentfield. The two conceived of the idea of a race
       track while on a hunting trip. Ground was broken in August
       and paving of the race surface was completed in November.
       The first official event at Infineon Raceway was an SCCA
       Enduro, held on December 1, 1968.
    
       1969
       The track was sold to Filmways Corp., a Los Angeles-based
       entertainment company for $4.5 million. From 1969 through
       early 1970, Infineon Raceway hosted a variety of events,
       including USAC IndyCar races, NASCAR stock car races, SCCA
       races, and drag races.
    
       1970
       Dan Gurney won a 150-mile USAC IndyCar road race with a
       field that included Mario Andretti, Mark Donahue and Al
       Unser. Not long after, the track closed in May and became
       a tax shelter for Filmways after losses of $300,000 were
       reported.
    
       1973
       Hugh Harn of Belvedere and Parker Archer of Napa arranged
       to lease the track through Filmways vice president Lee
       Moselle for $1 million. Bob Bondurant, owner and operator
       of the Bob Bondurant School of High Performance Driving,
       announced that he would move his school from Ontario
       Speedway in Southern California to Infineon Raceway. The
       Pacific Region of the Sports Club Car of America announced
       it would hold a driver's school and series of non
       spectator races at the track.
    
       1974
       Bob Bondurant and partner Bill Benck took over management
       and control of the leased raceway from Archer and Harn.
       American Motorcycle Association national motocross races
       in the hills north of Turn 7 become popular with Bay Area
       fans, but were phased out by the end of the decade because
       of rising insurance costs.
    
       1977
       AMAMoselle, a lawyer with no racing experience, comes
       aboard and hires Jack Williams, the 1964 NHRA top fuel
       drag racing champion, to be his operations chief, and Art
       Glattke to handle public relations. Moselle was under
       orders from Filmways to clear spectator restrictions with
       the county of Sonoma and to build a major-event schedule.
       A group calling itself Black Mountain Inc., which included
       Bob Bondurant, William J. Kolb of Del Mar and Howard
       Meister of Newport Beach, purchased the track from
       Filmways for a reported $1.5 million. Two months later, in
       May, Kenny Roberts did wheelies on the final two laps
       while he waved to a crowd of 20,000 for a runaway victory
       in the AMA-Sonoma Motorcycle Classic.
    
       1980
       The Black Mountain Group took on an additional partner --
       the Long Beach Grand Prix Association -- in hopes of
       improving marketing and public relations.
    
       1981
       The Long Beach Grand Prix, headed by Chris Pook, decided
       to rename the track Golden State International Raceway.
       The Black Mountain group obtained an injunction to keep
       Filmways from claiming the property after defaulting on
       payments. Black Mountain claimed Filmways gave false
       financial projections when it sold the property in 1979.
       Bondurant resigned as president of Golden State Raceway in
       a dispute with Pook over the Long Beach Grand Prix's
       management plan. Filmways regained ownership of the track
       and Williams, Rick Betts and John Andersen purchased the
       track from Filmways at an auction for $800,000. The track
      was renamed Infineon Raceway International Raceway.
    
       1983
       Ford became a major sponsor at the track. Williams named
       Dr. Frank N. Scott Jr. of Aptos and Harvey 'Skip' Berg of
       Tiburon as partners.
    
       1985
       The track was completely repaved, in part with funds
       donated from the 'Pave the Point' fund raising campaign.
       It was also in 1985 that the first shop spaces (Buildings
      A,B,C, and D -- in the main paddock area) were built.
    
       1986
       Berg, president of a real estate acquisition and
       management firm headquartered in Seattle, took control of
       the track and became major stockholder in Brenda Raceway
       Corp., which controlled the track until 1996. Berg named
       Darwin Doll, vice president and general manager of
       Michigan International Speedway, new track president.
    
       1987
       NHRA Top FuelOne of the most significant moves in the
       track's history occurred. Infineon Raceway signed a five
       year contract with the National Hot Rod Association for
       the California Nationals. The first event was held in the
       summer of 1988. Additional buildings constructed on the
       property brought shop space to more than 700,000 square
       feet.
    
       1988
       Berg hired Glen Long, an IBM executive, to be the track's
       new president. Mike Yurick was named general manager. The
       NHRA nationals were a resounding success, with an
       estimated 32 ,000 spectators on hand to watch Joe Amato
       edge Dick LaHaie in victory by one hundreth of a second
       margin.
    
       1989
       The NASCAR Winston Cup Series debuted at the raceway, with
       Ricky Rudd taking the inaugural victory. Infineon Raceway
       arrived.
    
       1991
       The Skip Barber Racing School replaced the Bob Bondurant
       School of High Performance Driving. The NASCAR Winston Cup
       race drew 70,000 spectators in its second year at the
       track. The 15-year association with International
       Motorsports Association (SportsCar) GTP series, was
       suspended. Steve Page, a marketing executive with the
       Oakland A's, succeeded Long as track president.
    
       1994
       More than $1 million was spent on a beautification project
       and construction of a 62-foot-high, four-sided electronic
       lap leader board in the center of the road course. A
       medical facility and an 18-nozzle Unocal gasoline filling
       station were constructed.
    
       1995
       A major $3 million renovation plan was kicked off that
       included posh tower VIP suites and a two-story driver's
       lounge/emergency medical facility. Trans-Am and SportsCar
       races returned to Infineon Raceway. The NASCAR Craftsman
       Truck Series is added to the major-events schedule.
    
       1996
       The Russell Racing School signs a 10-year contract with
       Infineon Raceway in February to headquarter its world
       renowned driving school in Sonoma. The Skip Barber Driving
       School moves to Laguna Seca. In May of 1996, the NASCAR
       Winston Cup race drew a record 102,000 spectators -- the
       largest single-day crowd for a Northern California sports
       event. Infineon Raceway owner Skip Berg sells the track to
       O. Bruton Smith, chairman of Speedway Motorsports, Inc. in
       November of 1996. Speedway Motorsports also owns Atlanta,
       Bristol, Charlotte, Las Vegas and Texas Motor Speedways in
       addition to Infineon Raceway.
    
       1997
       Kragen signs a contract through the year 2001 to joint
       sponsor the annual NASCAR Winston Cup event. The event
       will be renamed the Save Mart/Kragen 350 for the 1998
       season.
    
       1998
       Major renovations begin at Infineon Raceway with the
       creation of 'The Chute,' an 890-foot high-speed stretch
       that will be used for all NASCAR-sanctioned events. The
       stretch connects existing Turns 4 and 7 and is officially
       opened on May 5 by NASCAR star Jeff Gordon. The re-design
       of the road course shortens the circuit from 2.52 miles to
       1.949 miles but increases the Winston Cup race from 74 to
       112 laps, provding fans with more action. The Chute will
       be used for Winston Cup, Winston West, Southwest Series
       and Craftsman Truck Series events.
    
       In June, NASCAR marks its 10-year anniversary with
       Infineon Raceway and Vallejo native Gordon comes away for
       the victory in the Save Mart/Kragen 350 Winston Cup race.
    
       1999
       Jeff Gordon joins Rusty Wallace and Ernie Irvan as the
       only two-time winners at Infineon Raceway when the Vallejo
       native wins the Save Mart/Kragen 350 NASCAR Winston Cup
       race in June.
    
       The first-ever running of the American Le Mans Series
       takes place at Infineon Raceway in July as J.J. Lehto and
       Steve Soper guide BMW to the Prototype victory. This marks
       the return of exciting sports car racing to Infineon
       Raceway as a main event for the first time since 1997. The
       race is televised live by NBC.
    
       Progressive Insurance signs on as the title sponsor of the
       AMA Superbike event, which is won by Mat Mladin. The
       native of Australia would go on to capture his first-ever
       AMA Superbike championship. His only win of the year would
       come at Infineon Raceway. NHRA drag racing winners include
       Doug Kalitta (Top Fuel), Whit Bazemore (Funny Car) and Jim
       Yates (Pro Stock).
    
       2000
       Infineon Raceway gains unanimous approval from the Sonoma
       County Board of Supervisors by a 5-0 vote to begin work on
       a $35 million Modernization Plan that will transform the
       facility into one of the premier motorsports venues in the
       country. The comprehensive project will take two years to
       complete and inlcudes 64,000 Hillside Terrace seats,
       repaving of both the road course and drag strip and
       increased run-off around the entire track.
    
       Jeff Gordon becomes the first three-time NASCAR Winston
       Cup winner at Infineon Raceway, taking the Save
      Mart/Kragen 350.
    
       In other racing news, Allan McNish sets the fastest lap
       ever recorded at Infineon Raceway since the raceway opened
       in 1968. McNish, piloting an Audi R8 during the American
       Le Mans Series Grand Prix of Sonoma, covers a single lap
       at 112.440 mph. Doug Kalitta joins Gordon as a three-peat
       winner, claiming his third consecutive Top Fuel title at
       the Fram Autolite Nationals NHRA event.
    
       2001
       The 2001 season kicked off with the completion of the
       first phase of Infineon Raceway's $35 million
       Modernization Plan. The first phase of the project, which
       began in September, featured the completion of hillside
       terrace seats in Turns 2-4, a new entrance at Gate 7, the
       construction of two ring roads for shuttle and fan
       traffic, 40 permanent garages and increased run-off on the
       road course, among others.
    
       The 10-turn road course used for the NASCAR Dodge/Save
       Mart 350 featured a modified Chute lengthened by over 300
       feet to include a straightaway between Turns 4 and 4a and
       the creation of a pure straightaway between Turns 4a and
       7. Turn 7 boasts a 90-degree right-hand turn with 120 feet
       of runoff room for safety and creates a new passing zone
       on the track.
    
       The new Turn 7 proved crucial in the 2001 Dodge/Save Mart
       350, with Tony Stewart making the race winning pass in
       this turn as Robby Gordon and Kevin Harvick battled for
       position. Stewart took the checkered flag after 112 laps,
       robbing Jeff Gordon of his fourth consecutive win at
       Infineon Raceway. The NHRA FRAM Autolite Nationals offered
       more than just exciting racing action in 2001. After Kenny
       Bernstein, Del Worsham and Tom Martino claimed their
       titles, John Force and Gary Scelzi boarded Caterpillar
       bulldozers to begin destruction of the drag strip and
       signify the beginning the of second phase of the
       Modernization Plan. Phase Two of the plan focuses on fan
       and driver amenities, including more terraces seats,
       repaving of the drag strip and road course surfaces and
       the construction of a new permanent grandstand at the
       start/finish line of the road course. The Plan is
       scheduled to be completed for the 2002 season.
    
       2002
       The 2002 racing season was a time of major change at the
       Sonoma raceway. In June, track officials announced that
       the facility had been renamed Infineon Raceway as part of
       a 10-year strategic partnership with Infineon
       Technologies, one of the world's top semiconductor
       manufacturing companies. The agreement includes two annual
       events to be held at Infineon Raceway. The annual American
       Le Mans Series event will be renamed the Infineon Grand
       Prix of Sonoma, and beginning in 2003, Infineon Raceway
       will host the Infineon Mountain Bike Challenge, a world
       class competitive biking event. Infineon Raceway became
       just the second motor racing facility in the country to
       secure a major naming rights deal.
    
       The 2002 racing season also saw the near-completion of the
       facility's two-year, $50 million Modernization Plan. This
       renovation touched nearly every area of the property and
       includes the addition of many fan and racer amenities.
       Changes to the facility include: a new permanent
       grandstand at start/finish of the road course; hillside
       terrace seating at Turns 7-9; a completely refurbished
       drag strip complete with 660-foot concrete launch pad;
       expanded paddock area; and the new Infineon Raceway
       Karting Center.
    
       Infineon Raceway also hosted its full-slate of annual
       events, including the Dodge/Save Mart 350 NASCAR Winston
       Cup event and NHRA FRAM Autolite Nationals, with the
       addition of the inaugural NHRA Summit Sport Compact Drag
       Racing Series event. The new drag strip surface proved
       fruitful at the NHRA event, with track records reset in
       three classes and Pro Stock Motorcycle rider, Angelle
       Savoie, posting the second quickest time in history.
    
    
    See the official Web site (http://infineonraceway.com/) for
    more information.
    
    ==============================================
    
    CIRCUIT HISTORY: SILVERSTONE
    The world-famous Silverstone circuit - often spoken of in the
    same terms as Indianapolis Motor Speedway and Monza - has
    hosted F1 racing since 1950.  This 5.110-kilometer (3.194-
    mile) circuit is set at an airport site, and contains several
    configurations.  The Silverstone International circuit (used
    for the British TOCA series) shares much of the same pavement
    as the Grand Prix circuit used for the annual F1 Grand Prix
    of Great Britain; in fact, the pavement for the two circuits
    even cross at approximately two-thirds of the way around the
    International circuit.
    
    During World War II, the Royal Air Force chose the site now
    known as Silverstone for an airfield and a bomber-training
    base.  Following the war, other circuits such as Donnington
    Park and Brooklands could not be used for racing due to
    having been converted for wartime uses.  Thus, in 1948, the
    Silverstone site was used for its first race... with the
    circuit marked by hay bales.  The circuit was redone in 1949
    and assumed a configuration roughly equivalent to that in
    current use.
    
    F1 began in 1950, and held its first race at Silverstone.
    Guiseppe Farina won the first-ever F1 race in an Alfa Romeo.
    The British Racing Drivers' Club operated Silverstone until
    2001, when current owner Octagon Motorsports took control of
    the venue; this also ensures that the British Grand Prix will
    be held at Silverstone for at least the next fifteen years.
    
    The world's best F1 drivers have all placed themselves into
    the Silverstone record books, including Manuel Fangio,
    Stirling Moss, Mike Hawthorn, Jack Brabham, John Surtees, Jim
    Clark, Graham Hill, Jackie Stewart, James Hunt, John Watson,
    Niki Lauda, Alain Prost, Nigel Mansell, Ayrton Senna, Eddie
    Irvine, Jacques Villeneuve, Mika Hakkinen, Michael
    Schumacher, and David Coulthard.  The track record is held by
    Michael Schumacher, at 1:24.475 with an average speed of
    217.784KPH (136.115MPH).
    
    Silverstone hosts far more than just F1: Grand Prix
    motorcycles, SuperBikes, Karts, FIA GTs, European Le Mans,
    RallySprint, stages of the Rally of Great Britain, British
    Touring Car Championship, and British Formula 3 and GT.
    
    The official Web site is actually the site for Octagon
    Motorsports (http://www.octagonmotorsports.com/), which owns
    and operates Silverstone, as well as Snetterton, Cadwell
    Park, Brands Hatch, and Oulton Park.
    
    ==============================================
    
    CIRCUIT HISTORY: T1 CIRCUIT AIDA
    The official Web site (http://www.ti-circuit.co.jp/) is only
    available in Japanese, so there is no circuit history
    available.
    
    ==============================================
    
    CIRCUIT HISTORY: VALLELUNGA
    The official Web site (http://www.vallelunga.it/) has an
    automatic redirection to a blank page.  Therefore, no circuit
    history is available.
    
    ==============================================
    
    CIRCUIT HISTORY: VANCOUVER
    The Vancouver temporary street circuit primarily features one
    of the three Canadian rounds of the CART-FedEx Championship
    Series, but also includes CASCAR Super Series, Fran-Am,
    Barber Dodge Pro Series, and the SCCBC Sedan Invitational
    Race.
    
    Circuit history from the official Web site (written in 2002):
    
       From green flag to checkered flag, the challenging
       Vancouver course will take the world's most talented
       drivers on a heart-pounding 12-turn ride through the
       streets of downtown Vancouver. With the spectacular North
       Shore mountains as a backdrop, the twisting waterfront
       course is sure to test the limits of every CART driver and
       their million-dollar racing machines.
    
       Last year a packed house of more than 65,000 cheering fans
       were revved up for another Canadian victory following the
       first ever in Vancouver the year before by Team KOOL
       Green's 'Thrill from Westhill', Paul Tracy. Things
       couldn't have started any better as 26 cars took the green
       flag led by the all-Canadian front row of Team Players
       drivers Alex Tagliani and Patrick Carpentier.
    
       After 175 miles of racing and seven lead changes, it was
       Patrick Racing's 'Super Sub' Roberto Moreno who powered
       his Visteon Reynard Lola to his first victory of the
       season after passing fellow Brazilian Gil de Ferran with
       just nine laps to go. An emotional Moreno treated the
       crowd to some victory donuts before dedicating the race to
       the memory of hometown favorite Greg Moore.
    
       As always, the Vancouver race played a pivotal role in the
       race for the season championship. With his second place
       finish, Team Penske driver Gil de Ferran, took over top
       spot in the standings and never looked back on his way to
       repeating as CART FedEx Championship Series champion.
    
       Last year, more than 160,000 motorsport fans came to
       Concord Place to catch thrilling wheel-to-wheel action and
       the roar of the 800-horsepower engines.
    
    See the official Web site (http://www.molsonindy.com/) for
    more information.
    
    ==============================================
    
    CIRCUIT HISTORY: ZANDVOORT
    The official Web site (http://www.circuit-zandvoort.nl/) is
    only available in Dutch, so an official circuit history of
    not available.
    
    ==============================================
    
    CIRCUIT HISTORY: ZOLDER
    Circuit Zolder has been used in the past for F1's Grand Prix
    of Belgium, but is a 'sore point' amongst many current
    drivers due to the lack of modernized safety features.  For
    example, the 2002 season featured primarily sand and gravel
    in the recovery zones, whereas the majority of European
    racing venues are instead removing sand and gravel to be
    replaced by more pavement; such changes permit cars to slide
    off of the actual raceway, recover, and rejoin the race.
    
    Events held at Circuit Zolder include: German Touring Cars,
    World Championship Cyclo-Cross, Road World Championships, FIA
    Electro Solar Cup, Motorcycle Road Racing Grand Prix, Grand
    prix of the Nations, European Historic Grand Prix, Truck
    Super Prix, and 24 Hours of Zolder... among others.
    
    Circuit history from the official Web site:
    
       The name 'Terlamen' is derived from 'Terlaemen', the name
       of the local domain that is already quoted in 1293 and at
       the heart whereof the circuit has been constructed. The
       community of Heusden-Zolder is the owner of the circuit
       and of the greater part of the surrounding woods. The vzw
       Terlamen runs the circuit.
    
       In 1959, Auto-Moto-Club Bolderberg came
       with the idea to build a circuit where its
       members could practice their hobby. In
       1960, this idea was materialised in a small
       2,700-meters long circuit. Very soon, it
       became clear that this circuit was too small
       for national and international competitions.
       A permanent and larger circuit was
       required. On 14 July 1963, the 4,300-meters
       long circuit was officially inaugurated. After
       the works in 1994, the length was reduced
       up to 4,184 meters.
    
       Although not the largest, Circuit Zolder
       surely is one of the safest circuits of the
       world. Moreover, the track has been built in
       such a way that the drivers can demonstrate
       their true capacities. Since the circuit
       constitutes a closed complex, timings,
       races or other events can be organised
       without obstructing the circulation on the
       public road.
       Besides many Formula 1 races in the past
       and other internationally famous races such
       as the European Historic Grand Prix and the
       Truck Super Prix, Circuit Zolder hosts many
       national and regional competitions such as
       the New Race Festival, the 24 Hours of
       Zolder, the Belgian Masters and the Race
       Promotion Night as well. Every year, Circuit
       Zolder is the place-to-be for thousands of
       visitors.
    
    Please see the official Web site (http://www.circuit-
    zolder.be/) for more information.
    
    This information on the 1982 F1 race at Zolder is provided by
    ViperMask, one of the biggest F1 fans I have ever met.  It is
    edited only for formatting purposes.
    
       This is where Gilles Villeneuve died on May
       8th, 1982.  During practice, he was driving possessed
       due to his hatred for his team mate Didier Pironi
       (because Pironi broke a gentleman's agreement not to
       pass each other in Imola costing Gilles the win.)
       Unfortunately the MARCH of Jochen Mass was on a warm
       up lap or a slow down lap, so Gilles try to avoid him,
       yet Jochen moved trying to avoid Gilles.  Gilles ended
       up tapping the MARCH and somersaulting his Ferrari in
       a HORRIFIC crash.  Gilles was even thrown out of the
       car like a crash test dummy.  Gilles died in the
       hospital.  Gilles will always be remembered as one of
       the best drivers who never got a F1 World
       Championship.  But thankfully.  His son Jacques
       Villeneuve became a F1 world champion in 1997 for
       Williams Renault.
    
    ==============================================
    ==============================================
    ==============================================
    
    DRIVING INSTRUCTIONS
    The following large section is a list of detailed driving
    instructions to help players to quickly yet safely drive each
    circuit in Pro Race Driver.  Much of this information comes
    from my World-famous Racing Circuits Guide (in which the
    information is based upon a variety of racing games featuring
    the listed circuits), so there may be a few minor differences
    between what is printed here and the rendition of each
    circuit in Pro Race Driver.
    
    Please note that different games will provide different
    variations on the same circuit.  For example, compare Monte
    Carlo/Monaco (Temporary Street Circuit) in F1 2001 and Gran
    Turismo 3; the circuit in the former is very tight and
    narrow, just like the real-world circuit, whereas the latter
    presents a generally wider circuit.  Changes also occur
    within the same game series; compare the Le Mans circuit in
    Test Drive: Le Mans and Le Mans 24 Hours.  Note also that
    circuit owners are always considering changes (largely in the
    effort to improve safety in the event of crashes) and that it
    may take quite some time for games to reflect these changes;
    the Monza circuit's initial chicane was changed in 2000 in an
    attempt to slow cars somewhat, but it was not until F1 2001
    that EA Sports made the real-world circuit's alterations to
    its line of F1-based games.
    
    For those fairly new to racing games - especially those games
    with a heavy road racing emphasis, such as any F1-based game
    and games based on endurance racing - it may be a good idea
    to combine the driving details presented in this guide with
    information of driving tips presented both in the previous
    section of this guide and also in my General Racing/Driving
    Guide, also available EXCLUSIVELY on FeatherGuides and
    GameFAQs.
    
    ==============================================
    
    INSTRUCTIONS: A1 RING
    This course may only have seven corners, but it is still a
    highly-challenging technical course for the drivers.  The
    circuit itself is built on a steep hillside, with the Paddock
    area and the Pit Straight located at the lowest elevation of
    the course.  The significant elevation changes and poorly-
    placed barriers make this a particularly challenging circuit
    to safely navigate.  This is also the circuit where Ferrari
    made a major public relations blunder in 2002 by ordering
    race leader Rubens Barrichello to pull aside in the final few
    meters of the Austrian Grand Prix to allow teammate Michael
    Schumacher to win a race which Barrichello had completely
    dominated all weekend long (Practice, Qualifying, and Race).
    
    Pit Straight: Long and straight; main grandstands to the
    left, Pit Lane to the right.  Rather mundane, except that the
    entire Pit Straight has a slow uphill climb into the Castrol
    Curve.  The beginning of the Pit Straight (coming off
    Mobilkom Curve) is also a bit bumpy.
    
    Turn 1 (Castrol Curve): After a rather mundane Pit Straight,
    the Castrol Curve is anything but mundane.  This is a right-
    hand uphill corner which requires moderate braking.  The Pit
    Lane rejoins the main course on the right at the exit of the
    corner.  Because of the steep slope of the hill, it is all
    too easy to drive off the outside of the corner and into the
    massive sand trap.  If you lose your concentration and forget
    even to slow down, you will likely find yourself airborne
    once you hit the rumble strip; similarly, if you try to take
    this corner at top speed, you may find yourself looking up at
    the ground.
    
    Straightaway: There are a few fades in the straightaway as
    the course continues its uphill climb.  The end of the
    straightaway (approaching Remus Curve) has a suddenly steeper
    grade and demands total concentration.
    
    Turn 2 (Remus Curve): This is a TIGHT right-hand 'J' turn
    requiring heavy or even severe braking, as well as COMPLETE
    CONCENTRATION to navigate safely (even when not dealing with
    traffic).  The uphill climb of the circuit continues through
    most of the turn, plus Remus Curve is even slightly banked
    toward the OUTSIDE of the corner, making high or even
    moderate speeds absolutely impossible here.  Rolling the
    right-side tires up on the thin patch of grass on the inside
    of the Remus Curve will almost definitely result in loss of
    control of your vehicle.  Even worse, this is a blind corner
    due to the barrier.  Aggressive drivers will certainly end up
    overrunning the Remus Curve on exit and find themselves
    beached in the kitty litter.  If you use the accelerator too
    soon on exit, you WILL find yourself off-course.
    
    Straightaway: Located at the highest elevation of the course,
    this straightaway has a fade to the right, then another to
    the left.  After the second fade, prepare for braking before
    arriving at the Gosser Curve.  Make use of the distance-to-
    corner markers, or else you risk overrunning Gosser Curve.
    
    Turn 3 (Gosser Curve): Another tight right-hand corner, heavy
    braking will be required here to avoid sliding off the course
    and into yet another sand trap.  This is also a blind corner,
    due to the barrier on the inside of Gosser.  The circuit
    begins to slowly descend in elevation here.
    
    Straightaway: This is actually NOT a straightaway at all; the
    course map does not list the right-hand turn, but it is
    definitely more than just a fade.  If you overrun this, you
    will end up in the same sand trap as before - it is simply
    extended along the left side of the course from the outside
    of Gosser until well beyond this unofficial corner.
    
    Turn 4 (Niki Lauda Curve): This is a wide left-hand corner
    which will require moderate or heavy braking, especially
    since this is a blind corner due to the slope of the hill on
    the inside of the turn; even if you slow greatly before
    entering the corner, you will likely be tapping the brakes as
    you progress through Niki Lauda.  There is another wide patch
    of sand on the outside of the corner, stretching almost all
    the way to the entrance of the Gerhard Berger Curve.  A short
    straightaway separates Turns 4 and 5.  Note that the circuit
    turns to the left here; the patch of pavement which continues
    straight forward will lead you into a barrier.
    
    Turn 5 (Gerhard Berger Curve): This is almost identical to
    the Niki Lauda Curve, but with an additional sand trap which
    begins on the inside of the corner.
    
    Straightaway: Again more than a fade but not listed as an
    official corner, there is a 'turn' to the right shortly after
    exiting the Gerhard Berger Curve.  About two-thirds of the
    way along, the course enters a scenic forested area; this
    'transition' section is also rather bumpy.
    
    Turn 6 (Jochen Rindt Curve): This is a blind right-hand
    corner which can be taken with light braking, or just a small
    lift of the accelerator; the best way to judge this corner is
    by using the right-side barrier as a guide.  Another sand
    trap awaits those who run off the outside of the corner.  A
    short straightaway follows Jochen Rindt.
    
    Turn 7 (Mobilkom Curve): This is a right-hand corner which
    will require light or moderate braking.  The Pit Lane begins
    on the right just before the entry to Mobilkom, so be careful
    not to bump cars slowing before going to the pits.
    
    Pit Entry: Located just before the entrance to the Mobilkom
    Curve, the Pit Lane is to the right.  This is a very long pit
    lane, so plan to stay out of here as much as possible!!!
    
    ==============================================
    
    DRIVING INSTRUCTIONS: ADELAIDE
    The Adelaide venue is a temporary street circuit which was
    one of the true gems of F1 racing.  Unfortunately, the Grand
    Prix of Australia is now held instead at Albert Park in
    Melbourne (which is itself an excellent race venue), but,
    while Albert Park is definitely a beautiful place to hold a
    race, it does not have nearly the mystique and the charm that
    is found on the challenging streets of Adelaide.
    (Fortunately, Australia's excellent V8 SuperCar series still
    uses the Adelaide circuit.)
    
    Turns 1 and 2: At the end of the Pit Straight, this very
    tricky section begins with a TIGHT left-right chicane which
    requires moderate or heavy braking; cars will definitely pile
    up here if there is an incident on the opening lap of the
    race, as there is virtually nowhere to go should an accident
    block the raceway due to the closeness of the barriers
    (although they are fortunately NOT nearly as close as at
    Monaco).  After a VERY brief straightaway, there is a dogleg
    to the left.
    
    Turn 3: Shortly after passing underneath the pedestrian
    bridge, drivers need to begin braking for the blind right-
    hand Turn 3.  Because the white-painted barriers are so close
    to the circuit in this opening segment of the Adelaide street
    circuit, it can be VERY difficult to spot exactly where the
    circuit bends until one can see the very short escape road
    ahead... and by this time, it is really too late to safely
    make it through the right-hand right-angle corner.
    
    Turn 4: About one city block beyond Turn 3, this is a
    perpendicular left-hand corner requiring moderate braking.
    
    Turn 5: About one city block beyond Turn 4, this is a
    perpendicular right-hand corner requiring moderate braking.
    
    Turns 6 and 7: About one city block beyond Turn 5, this is a
    fast left-right chicane which can actually be taken at full
    throttle with the proper tight racing line.  If taken at full
    throttle, beware the barrier on exiting the chicane.  Begin
    braking at corner exit for Turn 8.
    
    Turn 8: This is a rough right-hand corner which requires
    moderate braking beginning with the exit of Turn 7.
    
    Turn 9: This is a rough right-hand corner which requires
    light braking and a wide racing line... but beware the
    grandstands on the left on corner exit.
    
    Straightaway: This is the single longest straightaway at
    Adelaide.  Powerful acceleration out of Turn 8 is required,
    and only the BAREST of tapping on the brakes is needed for
    Turn 9 to enable excellent passing opportunities along this
    immense straightaway and the entry to Turn 10.
    
    Turn 10: This tight and nasty right-hand J-turn requires
    heavy braking, especially given the incredibly-fast speeds
    attained along the previous straightaway.  This is an
    excellent to pass on braking entering this J-turn.
    
    Turn 11: Immediately following a left-hand dogleg, this is a
    J-turn to the left, requiring moderate braking.
    
    Turn 12: This final corner is tricky.  Pit Entry is
    immediately on the right on corner entry, whereas the main
    circuit uses the outside racing line.  The Pit Lane barrier
    is set back at corner exit, which means that passing can
    occur by essentially 'shortcutting' the corner... but then
    drivers risk ramming the Pit Lane barrier by 'shortcutting'
    the corner too much.
    
    ==============================================
    
    DRIVING INSTRUCTIONS: BATHURST
    This 'world-famous' counter-clockwise circuit (in Australia
    and New Zealand) hosted its first 24-hour race in November
    2002.  The circuit map certainly presents a mostly-technical
    circuit, but it simply does NOT do justice to just HOW
    technical this circuit is... and drivers must certainly have
    their hands full and their hearts in their throats while
    trying to race here at night in the new 24-hour event!!!!!
    What makes this circuit so difficult is that the most
    technical section consists of many tight and fast-approaching
    twists and turns combined with the continual ascents and
    descents in the highly-scenic mountains, so that when drivers
    finally exit the mountainous section, their nerves are
    extremely frayed.  While speed is obviously important in auto
    racing, the trick to Bathurst is to continually maintain a
    1,000,000,000% concentration level for the entire race.
    
    Pit Straight: This is nearly the shortest straightaway of the
    circuit, and is the farthest point from the highly-technical
    mountainous section.
    
    Turn 1 (Hell Corner): This may not seem like much on the
    circuit map, but due to the immense speeds attained on Pit
    Straight and the near-lack of recovery room for those who
    miss the braking zone, this left-hand right-angle corner is
    an extremely dangerous place.  It is important to begin
    braking rather early, especially on the first lap of a race,
    to try to avoid other cars' accidents (and debris) ahead.
    
    Straightaway (Mountain Straight): This straightaway leaves
    the vast, flat, open area of the valley and begins the ascent
    into the mountains.  More and more trees appear alongside
    either side of the straightaway as the elevation rises, and
    is in some respect reminiscent of the Spa-Francorchamps
    circuit in Belgium.  Mountain Straight has its own crest
    about halfway along the straightaway, then a long dip before
    renewing its ascent.
    
    Turn 2: This right-hand 105-degree angle seems rather gentle
    on the circuit map, but the ascent of the circuit truly gains
    momentum here; this fact combined with the inside barrier's
    proximity to the raceway itself makes this corner semi-blind
    and extremely difficult, so pristine knowledge of this corner
    is a necessity to keep from sliding off the pavement.  The
    main ascent of the mountains begins at the entry of Turn 2,
    so car power will certainly be a necessity... although that
    power must be continually tempered with both strong braking
    and feather-light throttle control.
    
    Note: From the exit of Turn 2 to the end of the mountainous
    section, there pavement is almost always directly bounded by
    barriers and/or sheer cliff faces.  This means that there is
    literally NOWHERE to go in case of an incident, and thus the
    raceway can quite easily become blocked.  This also means
    that missing a braking zone will result in the near-instant
    destruction of the front of a vehicle.
    
    Turn 3 (Cutting): This is a left-hand decreasing-radius
    hairpin corner with NO room for error; missing the braking
    zone will destroy the front of the car.  Cutting is a blind
    corner, so it is imperative to go VERY slowly here,
    especially since this is a prime place for accidents to occur
    as cars ram and bounce off the barriers here.
    
    Turn 4: This right-hand corner is rather gentle, but the
    circuit has a brief crest here which can potentially play
    havoc with light-weight, high-power vehicles.  This caveat
    aside, it should be possible to power through Turn 4 at full
    acceleration without incident (unless blocked by traffic).
    
    Turns 5-6: Here, minor braking will be needed to keep off the
    barriers (still adjacent to the raceway) as the grade of the
    ascent increases through the right-hand Turn 5.  Immediately
    afterward is the gentle left-hand Turn 6, which leads onto a
    brief straightaway.
    
    Turn 7: This long left-hand corner requires at least light
    braking at its midpoint, which is a major dip in elevation.
    This dip will play havoc with virtually any vehicle, but car
    control will be EXTREMELY difficult here if a car is even
    slightly loose (i.e., the rear of the car tends to swing
    about).
    
    Turn 8: This is a gentle left-hand corner which can be taken
    at full acceleration.
    
    Straightaway (Skyline): As the name suggests, this is the
    highest elevation of the Bathurst circuit (although the
    mountain continues to climb in elevation to the right of the
    raceway), and a nice view of the vast plains can be seen both
    ahead and to the left of the flow of traffic.  However,
    taking the time to admire this scenery will bring death and
    destruction in the Esses.
    
    Turns 9-15 (Esses): Simply put, this is a nail-biter.  The
    circuit makes a steep downhill descent among the tightest,
    twistiest turns; again, there is really nowhere to recover
    should a driver miss a braking zone.  This section is where
    strong braking is REALLY needed.  Those using manual
    transmission can use mountain-driving tactics and gear down
    one or two gears lower than usual, allowing for 'engine-
    braking' to occur to save the vehicle's true brakes.
    
    Turn 16 (Forest Elbow): This is a sharp left-hand corner on a
    steep downhill run which is semi-blind on approach.  There is
    STILL no recovery room for those who miss the corner, so it
    is imperative that all drivers brake early and HARD for
    Forest Elbow.
    
    Turn 17: After a brief straightaway, this is a gentle left-
    hand corner coming out of the mountainous area.  No braking
    should be required here.
    
    Straightaway (Conrod Straight): This is the single longest
    straightaway of the Bathurst circuit.  The descent is very
    gradual now as the circuit rejoins the vast desolate valley,
    the trees thinning quickly.  The barriers on either side of
    the raceway slowly begin to give way as well.  Fortunately,
    Chase can be easily seen ahead (in daytime conditions).
    
    Turns 18-20 (Chase): This is a gentle right-hand mini-kink
    followed by a sharp left-right.  There is no barrier on the
    inside of Chase to prevent cars from simply barreling
    straight ahead, but the entire area IS filled with kitty
    litter to severely slow those drivers attempting this tactic.
    Moderate or hard braking will be required for Turn 19, and
    drivers may need to tap the brakes again for Turn 20.
    
    Turn 21: After a short straightaway, this is a left-hand
    right-angle corner onto Pit Straight, with Pit Entry just
    before the entry of the corner on the left side of the
    pavement.  There is some recovery room for Turn 21, but not
    much.
    
    ==============================================
    
    DRIVING INSTRUCTIONS: BRANDS HATCH GRAND PRIX
    The Brands Hatch Grand Prix circuit is a fun circuit for
    racing.  Situated within a natural bowl, it is easy for many
    spectators to see the bulk of the racing action from many
    points along the circuit.  However, traffic is almost always
    a problem for drivers.  Interestingly, along almost the
    entire circuit, drivers can easily hear the other cars on
    other sections of the circuit, thus testifying to the compact
    nature of this venue.
    
    Pit Straight (Brabham Straight): This is the longest single
    straightaway of the circuit, so powerful acceleration is
    required out of Clark Curve to make passes or pull away from
    challengers.
    
    Turn 1 (Paddock Hill Bend): This long sweeping right-hand
    corner can be tricky at full acceleration, so a gentle
    tapping of brakes before entering Turn 1 is key.  This is
    nearly a double-apex corner, so take care with the racing
    line, especially since this begins the downhill descent of
    the circuit.  Taking this corner at full throttle is likely
    to cause the car to spin before achieving corner exit.
    
    Turn 2 (Druid's Bend): This right-hand hairpin is the
    tightest corner of the Brands Hatch Grand Prix circuit.
    Passing on braking here can be advantageous, but is NOT for
    the newcomers - especially on the opening lap of a race!!!
    There is plenty of sand to the outside of the hairpin for
    those who miss the braking zone.
    
    Turn 3 (Graham Hill Bend): Experts can handle this left-hand
    corner at full throttle if unencumbered by traffic, although
    slight braking is preferred here.  The course is at its
    lowest elevation here.
    
    Straightaway (Cooper Straight): This straightaway has a
    slight bend to the left.  While not nearly as long as Brabham
    Straight, it is a great place for low-downforce cars to gain
    race positions.
    
    Turn 4 (Surtees): This left-hand corner requires light
    braking to keep to the pavement, and flows quickly toward
    Pilgrim's Drop.
    
    Straightaway: Following Surtees, the circuit has its longest
    straightaway.  About halfway along this straightaway begins
    Pilgrim's Drop, which - despite the 'misnomer' - is a gentle
    descent into Hawthorne Bend.
    
    Turn 5 (Hawthorne Bend): This right-hand right-angle corner
    will require light to moderate braking, but really adept
    drivers should be able to get away with only a very slight
    tapping of the brakes through Hawthorne Bend as necessary.
    The entry to Hawthorne Bend marks the beginning of an uphill
    climb for the circuit; this makes this corner a bit more
    challenging than it would originally appear from the circuit
    map.
    
    Straightaway (Derek Minter Straight): This straightaway
    continues the gentle uphill climb of the circuit (which
    begins with the entry to Hawthorne Bend).
    
    Turn 6 (Westfield Bend): This is a long right-hand corner
    which can generally be taken with light or moderate braking;
    only TRUE experts can safely navigate Westfield Bend without
    ANY braking whatsoever (and this will really only be due to
    prime car tuning).  Driver who carry too much speed through
    Westfield Bend will likely find themselves beached in one of
    the wide sand traps to the outside of the corner.
    
    Turns 7-9 (Dingle Dell Corner): Shortly after Westfield Bend
    is a right-left-right chicane complex.  If unencumbered by
    traffic, it is possible to essentially shortcut Turn 8 and
    make a wide right-hand sweeping arc.  Otherwise, moderate
    braking will be required here to keep to the pavement (or
    only light braking if the traffic through the chicane is
    spread wide enough to allow making ample use of the rumble
    strips).
    
    Turn 10 (Stirling's Bend): This is a left-hand right-angle
    corner coming very quickly after Dingle Dell Corner (the
    right-left-right chicane).  Moderate braking is a requirement
    here, especially since there is VERY little grass on the
    outside of the pavement before the barrier will stop any
    runaway vehicles.  This opens onto Clearways, another long
    straightaway, so excellent acceleration out of Stirling's
    Bend will pay dividends for gaining race positions.
    
    Turn 11 (Clark Curve): Slight braking may be desired entering
    this long right-hand corner, but then it is imperative to
    power hard all the way to Turn 1!!!  Pit Entry is on the
    right entering Clark Curve.
    
    ==============================================
    
    DRIVING INSTRUCTIONS: BRANDS HATCH INDY
    The Brands Hatch Indy circuit is a small but fun circuit for
    racing.  Situated within a natural bowl, it is easy for many
    spectators to see the bulk of the racing action from many
    points along the circuit.  However, traffic is almost always
    a problem for drivers.  Interestingly, along almost the
    entire circuit, drivers can easily hear the other cars on
    other sections of the circuit, thus testifying to the compact
    nature of this venue.
    
    Pit Straight (Brabham Straight): This is the longest single
    straightaway of the circuit, so powerful acceleration is
    required out of Clark Curve to make passes or pull away from
    challengers.
    
    Turn 1 (Paddock Hill Bend): This long sweeping right-hand
    corner can be tricky at full acceleration, so a gentle
    tapping of brakes before entering Turn 1 is key.  This is
    nearly a double-apex corner, so take care with the racing
    line, especially since this begins the downhill descent of
    the circuit.  Taking this corner at full throttle is likely
    to cause the car to spin before achieving corner exit.
    
    Turn 2 (Druid's Bend): This right-hand hairpin is the
    tightest corner of the Brands Hatch Indy circuit.  Passing on
    braking here can be advantageous, but is NOT for the
    newcomers - especially on the opening lap of a race!!!  There
    is plenty of sand to the outside of the hairpin for those who
    miss the braking zone.
    
    Turn 3 (Graham Hill Bend): Experts can handle this left-hand
    corner at full throttle if unencumbered by traffic, although
    slight braking is preferred here.  The course is at its
    lowest elevation here.
    
    Straightaway (Cooper Straight): This straightaway has a
    slight bend to the left.  While not nearly as long as Brabham
    Straight, it is a great place for low-downforce cars to gain
    race positions.
    
    Turn 4 (Surtees): This left-hand corner requires light
    braking to keep to the pavement, and flows quickly into
    McLaren.
    
    Turn 5 (McLaren): This long sweeping right-hand corner can
    generally be taken at full acceleration.
    
    Turn 6 (Clark Curve): Slight braking may be desired entering
    this long right-hand corner, but then it is imperative to
    power hard all the way to Turn 1!!!  Pit Entry is on the
    right entering Clark Curve.
    
    ==============================================
    
    DRIVING INSTRUCTIONS: BRISTOL
    First used for NASCAR in 1961, Bristol Motor Speedway is the
    shortest track on the current NASCAR calendar at 0.533 miles
    (0.853 kilometers) - thus it is known as 'The World's Fastest
    Half-mile.'  Formerly asphalt, the  Bristol, Tennessee, USA,
    circuit was converted to concrete in 1992, and boasts
    attendance easily topping 150,000 for NASCAR events.  The
    banking is thirty-six degrees in the corners and sixteen
    degrees on the straightaways.  Passing is difficult at
    Bristol due to the compact nature of the circuit; the only
    easy part about racing at Bristol is the ability to be
    involved in accidents.
    
    ==============================================
    
    DRIVING INSTRUCTIONS: CANBERRA
    Canberra is a rather difficult street circuit.  This venue is
    not nearly as tight and compact as at Vancouver, but the
    corners are definitely FAR worse (and also more numerous),
    requiring much slower speeds.  It is important to keep to the
    left on Pit Straight to ensure avoiding Pit Lane... unless a
    pit stop is truly needed or required.
    
    Pit Straight: Pit Entry is on the right half of Pit Straight,
    so it is important for cars remaining on the main circuit to
    keep to the left to ensure they do not accidentally go into
    Pit Lane itself.  Also, the Pit Lane barrier is difficult to
    see on approach, so drivers should commit to either the far-
    left or the far-right until they have safely passed the
    beginning of this barrier.
    
    Turn 1: This is a severe-braking right-hand right-angle
    corner which will likely see a lot of bumping and grinding on
    the first lap of a race.  During a race, Pit Exit is at the
    apex of the corner, so it is important for those coming from
    Pit Straight to keep hard to the left, and those coming from
    Pit Lane to keep hard to the right.
    
    Turn 2: IMMEDIATELY after exiting Turn 1, this is a long
    sweeping left-hand corner on a slightly-wider raceway.  Full
    acceleration can be used here, and there is definitely plenty
    of room to make a well-timed pass.  However, drivers must be
    careful as traffic from Pit Lane merges with the higher-speed
    traffic coming off Pit Straight.
    
    Turns 3-6: This is an elongated right-left-left-right bus
    stop chicane.  Moderate or severe braking will be required
    for Turn 3 and Turn 5; careful throttle management will be
    needed for Turn 6 to ensure avoiding the outside barrier.
    
    Turns 7-9: This is a left-right-right complex which in total
    acts as nearly a hairpin corner.  Moderate braking will be
    needed here, with gentle throttle control throughout.  In
    fact, this section is easier if Turns 8 and 9 are treated as
    a hairpin corner, making a wide berth to hit both apexes just
    right.  Note that there is an access road BETWEEN Turn 8 and
    Turn 9, but this is NOT part of the official raceway;
    nonetheless, this can be rather confusing until the
    intricacies of this circuit have been committed to memory.
    
    Turn 10: This right-hand corner requires moderate braking.
    
    Straightaway: This is not 'straight' at all.  Instead, this
    'straightaway' is one long continuous sweeping bend to the
    left.  there are three bridges over this 'straightaway;' it
    is best to begin braking for Turn 11 once beyond the third
    bridge.
    
    Turn 11: This right-hand corner requires moderate braking.
    
    Turns 12 and 13: This is a VERY slow left-right chicane, so
    moderate or even severe braking will be required.  Due to the
    VERY slow speed required here for safe passage, this is a
    prime place for cars to pile up if one driver is too
    aggressive.
    
    Turns 14-16: This right-left-right chicane is just as slow as
    the previous chicane.  What makes this worse, however, is
    that the left-hand corner of this chicane is an actual
    hairpin in its own right!!!  Fortunately, once past the apex
    of the chicane's own hairpin turn, the right side of the
    raceway opens up, so those drivers using too much speed
    through the hairpin portion of the chicane will have a nice
    expanse of grass to greet them instead of the usual immovable
    barrier.
    
    Turns 17 and 18: Immediately after exiting the chicane, the
    raceway curves twice to the right.  These are gentle curves,
    but the second will still require light braking since the
    momentum of the vehicle will try to force it into the left-
    side barrier. This leads onto Pit Straight.
    
    ==============================================
    
    DRIVING INSTRUCTIONS: CATALUNYA
    The Catalunya circuit is challenging, especially the two
    hairpins and the final corners of the race.  This is the same
    circuit configuration used in modern F1 racing.
    
    Pit Straight: As usual, incredible speeds can be attained
    here.  Watch for cars rejoining the race from the right side
    of the straightaway about two-thirds of the way along its
    length.
    
    Turn 1 (Elf): This is a right-hand corner which requires
    moderate braking.  Be careful not to hug the inside of the
    corner too tightly, or you will damage your right-side tires
    on the barrier.  Strong acceleration out of Turn 1 creates
    great passing opportunities all the way to Repsol.
    Attempting to take Turn 1 at top speed will either cause you
    to lose control as you run up on the rumble strips, or send
    you too far off course to survive Turn 2 intact.
    
    Turn 2 (Elf): Immediately following Turn 1, the left-hand
    Turn 2 can usually be taken at top acceleration.  With strong
    acceleration out of Turn 1, this is a prime passing zone.
    
    Turn 3 (Seat): A sweeping right-hand increasing-radius corner
    which can be taken at full speed with a flawless racing line.
    This is also a good place to pass slower cars, especially if
    you have the inside line.
    
    Turn 4 (Repsol): This is a semi-blind right-hand hairpin
    corner which requires moderate or heavy braking.  The barrier
    on the inside of the corner rests almost directly against the
    track, and blocks your view around the corner.  This can
    actually be a good place to pass on braking, but only with
    extreme caution (and usually only if the car you wish to pass
    takes the wide line around the corner).  Don't come too hot
    into this corner or else you will find yourself in the sand.
    After clearing the first 90 degrees, you should be able to
    accelerate fairly well if not encumbered by traffic.
    
    Turn 5: After a very short straightaway, this is a semi-blind
    left-hand hairpin, a bit tighter than Turn 4.  Moderate or
    heavy braking will be needed here, or you will definitely
    find yourself in the kitty litter.
    
    Straightaway: This straightaway fades to the left.  Strong
    acceleration out of Turn 5 can create passing opportunities,
    especially in the braking zone for Wuth.
    
    Turn 6 (Wuth): With a good racing line, you should be able to
    brake lightly to clear this semi-blind, slightly-downhill,
    left-hand corner.  Beware the barrier on the inside of Wuth.
    The exit of Wuth has an immediate fade to the right, so do
    not commit too much to turning left here, or the front-left
    of the car will be shaking hands with the barrier.
    
    Turn 7 (Campsa): This right-hand corner can be taken at full
    speed with a flawless racing line.  Note that the official
    circuit is to the right; do not drive directly ahead onto
    another patch of pavement, or you will be assigned a Stop-Go
    Penalty.
    
    Turn 8 (La Cacsa): Severe braking is required for this left-
    hand corner.  While not suggested, you may be able to pass
    other cars on braking here.  As with Wuth, stay off the
    rumble strips and grass on the inside of the turn, or you
    will risk losing control of the car.  This is a 'J' turn, and
    the corner seems to go on forever before you reach the exit.
    
    Turn 9 (Banc Sabadeau): Shortly following Turn 8, moderate or
    heavy braking will be needed here for the right-hand, upward-
    sloping corner.  This is also a 'J' turn which is nearly a
    double-apex corner.  If you need a recovery area anywhere on
    the course, it will most likely be here.  It is possible to
    pass slower cars here by tightly hugging the inside of the
    turn, even running the right-side tires on the rumble strips
    or just slightly in the grass.
    
    Turn 10: Light braking may be needed for this right-hand
    corner.  The key here is to truly hug the inside of the turn
    and accelerate strongly through the exit.  Watch for slow
    cars here preparing to go to Pit Lane for servicing.
    
    Turn 11: Entering this right-hand corner, the Pit Lane begins
    on the right, so be on the lookout for very slow cars here.
    If you take this final corner too tightly, or make a VERY
    late decision to go to the pits, you will certainly damage
    the front of the car on a barrier.
    
    ==============================================
    
    DRIVING INSTRUCTIONS: CHARLOTTE
    One of the favorite circuits of NASCAR racing, Charlotte is a
    tri-oval, with Pit Straight actually curved slightly along
    its entire length.  The corners can accommodate two-wide
    racing if necessary, but single-file racing is best through
    the turns.
    
    ==============================================
    
    DRIVING INSTRUCTIONS: DIJON PRENOIS
    Located in southern France, Circuit Dijon Prenois is a small,
    hilly, and FUN circuit.  Pit Straight is 1.1km (0.7 miles) in
    length, whereas the rest of the circuit continually twists
    and turns in the hills.
    
    Pit Straight: This is really the only true straightaway of
    the entire circuit.  At 1.1km (0.7 miles) in length, this
    straightaway really should be taken at lower than optimal
    speeds, due to the necessity for high downforce on the rest
    of the circuit.
    
    Turns 1-2 (Villeroy): This is a double-apex right-hand
    corner.  Turn 1 can be taken with light braking, but moderate
    braking will be necessary for Turn 2.
    
    Turns 3-5 (Hourglass S'es): Careful, precision steering will
    be needed to keep the car on the pavement while still
    negotiating traffic at top speed through these right-left-
    right S-curves.  Turn 5 is sharper than the other corners.
    There is a continual rise in elevation throughout this
    section of the circuit.
    
    Turn 6 (Crossover): The shorter configuration of the circuit
    has simply a moderate left-hand corner here, but the main
    configuration uses a 135-degree left-hand corner heading
    toward the Parabolique.  Light to moderate braking will be
    required for Crossover, and plenty of sand on the outside of
    the corner awaits the not-so-focused drivers.
    
    Turn 7 (Parabolique): This is a right-hand heavy-braking
    near-hairpin corner which is made much more difficult due to
    the sudden steep climb in elevation beginning at the entry of
    the Parabolique.  This means that much of the corner is
    unsighted, thus drivers must have PRISTINE knowledge of this
    corner in order to truly power through the Parabolique at any
    great speed.  There is fortunately a sand trap on the outside
    of the Parabolique to collect runaway vehicles, but it is
    still possible to clear the kitty litter and severely damage
    the car against the barrier.
    
    Turn 8: This left-hand corner is a long moderate-braking
    corner at the crest of the circuit.  There is a wide sand
    trap on the outside of the turn for those who overshoot the
    corner, which is especially important since this is a semi-
    blind corner until the car is safely at the top of the rise.
    
    Turn 9 (Combe): This right-hand corner can be easily
    negotiated with only slight braking as needed.
    
    Turn 10 (Pouas Corner): This final corner is a long right-
    hand sweeping turn leading back onto the immense Pit
    Straight.  Slight tapping of the brakes may be necessary for
    Pouas Corner, especially in high-powered cars.  Pit Entry is
    on the right approximately 1/4 of the way along Pit Straight.
    
    ==============================================
    
    DRIVING INSTRUCTIONS: DONINGTON PARK
    This popular British venue is the host of many events, and
    has been included in other games.  The outside of almost
    every corner has a very small strip of grass between the
    pavement and the sand trap.  The Grand Prix configuration
    inverts the final chicane of the National configuration and
    adds two lengthy straightaways with two hairpin corners
    behind the paddock area.
    
    Turn 1: This right-hand J-turn requires moderate braking, and
    plenty of patience at the start of a race as traffic really
    jams up here.
    
    Turn 2: This is a long, gentle right-hand semi-corner,
    sloping downhill along its entire length.
    
    Turn 3: Continuing downhill, this left-hand corner will only
    require light braking, if the brakes are needed at all.  Due
    to the downhill slope, it may be difficult to see the apex of
    the corner as you approach.
    
    Turn 4: Immediately after Turn 3, the course turns uphill to
    the right here, with light or moderate braking required.
    
    Turn 5: After passing underneath the pedestrian bridge, the
    course turns to the left here.  No braking is required.
    
    Turn 6: This is really just a left-hand fade.
    
    Turn 7: Moderate braking is necessary as the course continues
    uphill through this right-hand turn.  The barrier on the left
    comes rather close to the pavement, so there is not much
    grass and sand to stop you if you miss your braking zone.
    
    Turn 8: This lengthy, sweeping right-hand J-turn will require
    light braking to keep out of the grass and sand as the course
    continues slowly uphill.  This corner opens out onto the
    longest straightaway at Donington.
    
    Turns 9-10: Shortly after passing underneath the big Dunlop
    tire, begin braking for the chicane.  This is a tight left-
    right combination with NO room for error.  The barrier on the
    inside of Turn 9 prevents shortcutting, and the sand trap to
    the inside of Turn 10 severely hinders anyone attempting to
    shortcut that corner.
    
    Turn 11: After a significant straightaway, this is a tight
    right-hand hairpin turn onto another significant straightaway
    behind the Paddock Suite.  Essentially, think of this as
    changing runways on an airport circuit (such as at Sebring)
    and you should do fairly well here.  Moderate braking is
    required here.  If you miss your braking zone, there is a
    wide patch of kitty litter to the outside of the corner.
    
    Turn 12: The final corner of the circuit is a left-hand tight
    hairpin.  Again, think of this as changing runways on an
    airport circuit.  Moderate braking will be needed here.
    
    ==============================================
    
    DRIVING INSTRUCTIONS: EASTERN CREEK
    This 3.93-kilometer (2.456-mile) circuit hosts V8 Supercars,
    many Formula series, a number of sports cars and sports
    sedans series, touring cars, production cars, and numerous
    national and support motorcycle series.  The pit straight
    even incorporates a drag strip, so racecars here can make use
    of this wider section to pass large packs of slower traffic.
    This is a high-speed technical circuit, and those with
    moderately- or extremely-loose cars will likely find
    themselves slamming the barriers and/or sliding through the
    many patches of kitty litter.
    
    Pit Straight: The longest straightaway at Eastern Creek, Pit
    Straight also doubles as a drag strip :-)   Pit Entry is
    approximately 1/3 of the way along Pit Straight.
    
    Turn 1: This is a long left-hand corner requiring light
    braking after the immense length of Pit Straight and the high
    speeds attained there.
    
    Turn 2: This left-hand hairpin corner requires moderate or
    even heavy braking on approach, and perhaps slight braking
    throughout.  This is a somewhat-tight corner, so it is easy
    to misjudge speed and end up slipping off the pavement and
    getting stuck in the grass on the outside of the corner.
    
    Turn 3: Almost immediately following Turn 2, this right-hand
    corner may require light braking to keep from slipping out
    into the kitty litter on corner exit.
    
    Turn 4: This right-hand corner needs moderate braking to keep
    to the pavement, although a wide sand-filled recovery area is
    available if necessary.
    
    Turn 5: Just after Turn 4, Turn 5 is a left-hand corner
    requiring moderate braking.
    
    Turns 6-7: Turn 6 is a quick right-hand flick leading
    immediately into the left-hand sweeping Turn 7.  Light
    braking can be useful for Turn 6, whereas moderate braking is
    required for and throughout Turn 7 to keep the vehicle on the
    pavement.
    
    Turn 8: Light or moderate braking is needed for this left-
    hand corner.
    
    Turn 9: This right-hand hairpin requires moderate or even
    heavy braking.
    
    Turns 10-11: Turn 10 is a quick right-hand flick leading
    immediately into the left-hand sweeping Turn 11.  Light
    braking can be useful for Turn 10, whereas moderate braking
    is required for and throughout Turn 11 to keep the vehicle on
    the pavement.  This leads onto Pit Straight.
    
    ==============================================
    
    DRIVING INSTRUCTIONS: FUJI
    This Japanese circuit is perhaps most notable to North
    American classic video game enthusiasts from its appearance
    in Atari's Pole Position series in the stand-up arcades of
    the 1980s.  There are a few of these classic Pole Position
    and Pole Position II arcade boxes still in existence,
    although the best bet for finding these games now is on the
    various gaming consoles.  However, those who prefer the
    version of the circuit in the Pole Position series will be
    rather disappointed at the chicanes added along the faster
    sections of the Fuji circuit.
    
    Turns 1-2 (Daiichi Corner) This is a double-apex right-hand
    near-hairpin corner.  Due to the immense length of Pit
    Straight, HARD braking will be required before even thinking
    of entering Daiichi Corner, and moderate braking will be
    required throughout this section.  There is a nice patch of
    kitty litter on the outside of Daiichi Corner, but drivers
    should not expect it to stop a runaway car before the vehicle
    slams hard into the wall when overshooting this section of
    the circuit.
    
    Turns 3 and 4 (Sumtory Corner): Ahead, a barrier can be seen;
    this blocks direct access to the smooth left-hand corner Pole
    Position enthusiasts know so well; instead, players are
    forced straight ahead into a tight left-right complex around
    the barrier, so moderate or hard braking will be needed here
    on entry.  It is possible to power out of Turn 3 and through
    Turn 4 without braking, unless the car has some severe grip
    problems and/or is extremely loose (i.e., the back end of the
    car tends to swing about).
    
    Turn 5 (100R): If the driver's car is properly tuned, there
    should be no trouble with powering through this wide right-
    hand sweeping turn, even when navigating traffic.  However,
    cars which are moderately or extremely loose will have plenty
    of trouble here, ESPECIALLY if encumbered by traffic.
    
    Turn 6 (Hairpin): This left-hand corner is aptly named.
    Unfortunately, Hairpin comes at the dip following 100R, which
    can make this corner extremely tricky as the car inherently
    loses traction; the proximity of the barrier is definitely
    too close for comfort here due to this drop in elevation (the
    elevation change is certainly not significant, but it is just
    enough to cause grip problems in many cars).
    
    Turn 7 (MC Corner): This long, sweeping, right-hand corner is
    another prime place for full-throttle acceleration.
    
    Turns 8-10 (Dunlop Corner): This right-left-right chicane
    will also disappoint Pole Position enthusiasts.  Heavy
    braking will be needed for Turn 8, with moderate braking
    required for Turn 9.  Turn 10 should be easily taken at full
    acceleration.  Fortunately, the barrier forcing cars to take
    the chicane is easily visible from a distance on approach.
    
    Turn 11 (Last Corner): This aptly-named corner is the final
    sweeping long right-hand corner of the Fuji circuit.
    Moderately- and extremely-loose cars will have difficulty
    here; otherwise, only a slight tapping of the brakes MAY be
    necessary for Last Corner.
    
    ==============================================
    
    DRIVING INSTRUCTIONS: HOCKENHEIM LONG
    Surrounded by multitudes of trees which make much of the
    circuit rather dark in wet or overcast races, this is the
    fastest course used for F1 racing in recent years.  If not
    for the Jim Clark, Brems, and Ayrton Senna chicanes, cars
    would be flying around the course in top gear all the way
    from the North Curve (Turn 1) to the entry of the Stadium
    (Turn 10).  Except for the right side of the Pit Straight,
    there is more than enough room to pull well off the pavement
    should a car have a serious problem on any part of the
    circuit.  Interestingly, Hockenheim's Stadium segment is very
    similar to an unnamed final segment at Silverstone.
    
    Important Note: These driving instructions are for the old
    Hockenheim circuit.
    
    Pit Straight: This is an extremely short straightaway
    compared to the rest of the course.
    
    Turn 1 (North Curve): This right-hand corner will require
    moderate braking to keep out of the expansive kitty litter.
    The Pit Lane rejoins the course from the right at the exit of
    North Curve.  Acceleration out of North Curve is of key
    importance due to the length of the ensuing straightaway.
    
    Straightaway: Immensely lengthy and lined with trees, speed
    is of the utmost importance here.  The entire straightaway is
    an extremely gentle fade to the right.  Drift to the left
    when you reach the grandstands.
    
    Turns 2 and 3 (Jim Clark Chicane): Former games in the series
    had a patch of pavement heading straight off Turn 2, allowing
    for shortcutting of the chicane; this is no longer possible,
    as a nasty barrier blocks any shortcutting attempts.
    Moderate or heavy braking will be required for Turn 2 (or
    light braking if not in traffic and using a FLAWLESS racing
    line which makes judicious use of the rumble strips), but
    full acceleration can be taken leading out of the chicane.
    
    Straightaway: Yet another long, sweeping straightaway which
    fades calmly to the right, so powerful acceleration out of
    the Jim Clark Chicane is imperative to keep from getting
    passed.  Drift to the left before entering the Brems Chicane,
    and begin braking much earlier than for the Jim Clark
    Chicane.
    
    Turns 4 and 5 (Brems Chicane): The original course
    configuration (used in older F1 racing games) did not have a
    chicane here, and the original pavement remains.  However,
    the official course suddenly cuts tightly to the right and
    then cuts tightly to the left to rejoin the old pavement.
    Moderate braking will be needed for Turn 4, and light braking
    for Turn 5.  This right-left chicane has a continual downhill
    slope, adding to the difficulty of the chicane.  Even with
    the Flags option disabled, the angle of the old pavement to
    the official chicane is such that it is impossible to blast
    through this segment at top speed without spinning the car
    through the kitty litter.
    
    Turn 6 (East Curve): This is a very wide right-hand corner
    which can be taken at top speed.  Strong acceleration out of
    Brems is key to assist in passing here.
    
    Straightaway: This is yet another long straightaway, but
    without any fades.  Drift to the right for the Ayrton Senna
    Chicane.
    
    Turns 7-9 (Ayrton Senna Chicane): DO NOT follow the old
    course pavement directly ahead unless you really WANT to
    collide with the brand-new barrier.  The official course
    turns to the left, cuts to the right, and eases left again.
    It is actually possible to speed into Turn 7 at top speed,
    lift off the throttle through Turn 8, and accelerate quickly
    out of the chicane - but this is certainly NOT recommended.
    
    Straightaway: The final long straightaway of the course has
    extra pavement on the left - this could potentially be a
    place to pass large numbers of cars.  This extra pavement
    begins shortly after the exit of the Ayrton Senna Chicane,
    and ends at the entry of the Stadium; thus, if you are on
    this 'extra' pavement entering the Stadium, you will have a
    better racing line for Turn 10, allowing you to navigate the
    corner with less.
    
    Turns 10-13 (The Stadium): This is similar to the final
    segment of the Silverstone circuit.  However, do not expect
    to drive The Stadium the same way you would the final segment
    at Silverstone.
    
       Turn 10 (Entrance to the Stadium: Agip Curve): Light
       braking may be required here, but you should be able to
       pass through the Agip Curve without any braking at all
       (especially if your racing line began with the 'extra'
       pavement on the left before the Stadium).  A short
       straightaway follows.
    
       Turn 11 (Continuing through the Stadium: Sachscurve): This
       is a left-hand wide hairpin turn, requiring moderate
       braking.  Be careful not to end up in the grass, either
       entering or exiting the corner, and beware the barrier.
    
       Straightaway (Continuing through the Stadium): This short
       straightaway has a fade to the left, followed by a fade to
       the right.
    
       Turns 12 and 13 (Exiting the Stadium: Opel): The first
       right-hand corner is somewhat tight, and heavy braking
       will be required here; the old course rejoins the current
       course from the left on exit, so if you run wide in this
       corner, you can likely recover here using the old
       pavement.  The final corner of the circuit is a right-hand
       turn which will require moderate braking.  The Pit Lane
       entry is to the right just before the official Turn 13.
    
    Pit Entry: The Pit Lane begins to the right at the entry of
    Turn 13 (the final corner of the Stadium).
    
    ==============================================
    
    DRIVING INSTRUCTIONS: HOCKENHEIM SHORT
    In 2002, the long, traditional Hockenheim circuit was
    dismantled and replaced by a much shorter version.  F1
    traditionalists worldwide were FURIOUS about this change, as
    the shorter circuit is no longer scenic and is really too
    compact for F1 racing (although still better than A1-Ring in
    Austria).  However, the new, severely-shortened version of
    Hockenheim still retains its characteristic Stadium section,
    so at least some measure of the old circuit's tradition and
    history remains.  Interestingly, the new, shorter circuit
    supposedly now handles more spectators than the old, longer
    circuit.
    
    Pit Straight: This is an extremely short straightaway
    compared to the rest of the course.
    
    Turn 1 (North Curve): This right-hand corner will require
    moderate braking to keep out of the expansive kitty litter.
    The Pit Lane rejoins the course from the right at the exit of
    North Curve.  Acceleration out of North Curve is of key
    importance due to the length of the ensuing straightaway.
    
    Turn 2: After a nearly-nonexistent straightaway comes the
    right-hand 120-degree Turn 2.  This corner requires some
    moderate braking, and it is very easy to slide off the
    pavement here.  Unfortunately, the barrier on the inside of
    the corner is really TOO close to the pavement, so a driver
    trying to pass to the inside of a slower car will have
    literally nowhere to go should the slower car suddenly cut
    inward in the corner.  Just at the exit of Turn 2 is a quick
    fade to the left.
    
    Turn 3: After a brief straightaway is the left-hand 45-degree
    Turn 3.  It is best to begin braking for Turn 4 at the exit
    of Turn 3.
    
    Turn 4: Almost immediately after Turn 3 is the right-hand
    135-degree Turn 4, leading back onto the old (longer)
    Hockenheim circuit just before entering The Stadium.
    Moderate or heavy braking will be required for Turn 4,
    although there is a significant amount of paved swing-out
    room so that those in need of a quick recovery can briefly
    slam on the handbrake to keep off the outside barrier.
    
    Turns 5-8 (The Stadium): This is similar to the final segment
    of the Silverstone circuit.  However, do not expect to drive
    The Stadium the same way you would the final segment at
    Silverstone.
    
       Turn 5 (Entrance to the Stadium: Agip Curve): Light
       braking may be required here, but you should be able to
       pass through the Agip Curve without any braking at all
       (especially if your racing line began with the 'extra'
       pavement on the left before the Stadium).  A short
       straightaway follows.
    
       Turn 6 (Continuing through the Stadium: Sachscurve): This
       is a left-hand wide hairpin turn, requiring moderate
       braking.  Be careful not to end up in the grass, either
       entering or exiting the corner, and beware the barrier.
    
       Straightaway (Continuing through the Stadium): This short
       straightaway has a fade to the left, followed by a fade to
       the right.
    
       Turns 7 and 8 (Exiting the Stadium: Opel): The first
       right-hand corner is somewhat tight, and heavy braking
       will be required here; the old course rejoins the current
       course from the left on exit, so if you run wide in this
       corner, you can likely recover here using the old
       pavement.  The final corner of the circuit is a right-hand
       turn which will require moderate braking.  The Pit Lane
       entry is to the right just before the official Turn 8.
    
    Pit Entry: The Pit Lane begins to the right at the entry of
    Turn 8 (the final corner of the Stadium).
    
    ==============================================
    
    DRIVING INSTRUCTIONS: KNOCKHILL
    This circuit is a nightmare for car set-ups, as there are
    many tight corners (some with their own significant elevation
    changes) connected by significant straightaways.
    
    Pit Straight: Pit Straight is on an uphill slope, which may
    make standing starts somewhat tricky.  It is also quite
    lengthy.  Pit Entry is on the left, where the slots of the
    starting grid are located; this is a very short Pit Lane.
    
    Turn 1: This heavy-braking right-hand corner is made even
    more difficult because it heads downhill.  It is very easy to
    foul up here and get caught out in the sand on the outside of
    Turn 1.
    
    Turn 2: Almost immediately after Turn 1, this left-hand
    corner requires at least a slight tapping of the brakes to
    keep to the pavement.
    
    Turn 3: Almost immediately after Turn 2, this right-hand
    corner requires moderate braking  to keep to the pavement.
    
    Turn 4: Shortly after Turn 3, this gentle right-hand corner
    can be taken at full acceleration, but care must be taken on
    the approach to Turn 5.
    
    Turns 5-6: This tricky left-right complex requires heavy
    braking on entry; slowing enough on entry allows for powerful
    acceleration through Turn 6 and onto the ensuing
    straightaway.
    
    Turn 7: This difficult right-hand corner is on an uphill
    climb; if there is no traffic in front to provide an idea of
    where the circuit is, it is virtually impossible to see the
    layout of the pavement due to the angle of the hill.  This
    opens onto a nice straightaway.
    
    Turn 8: This is another right-hand corner on an uphill climb;
    this time, the corner is nearly a hairpin.  Strong
    acceleration out of Turn 8 is required, as this opens onto
    the lengthy Pit Straight.
    
    ==============================================
    
    DRIVING INSTRUCTIONS: LAS VEGAS
    This is a tri-oval which is VERY wide: three-abreast racing
    is definitely feasible here; four-wide racing MIGHT be
    possible (primarily on the straightaways), but should never
    be attempted.  Due to the nice width of the circuit, passing
    is relatively easy - the difficult part could be getting
    enough of an aerodynamic tow (slipstreaming or drafting) to
    actually make a pass.  The gentle, lengthy nature of the
    corners means that this is a fast race venue.
    
    ==============================================
    
    DRIVING INSTRUCTIONS: MAGNY-COURS
    The Magny-Cours circuit is characterized by long, sweeping
    straightaways, and fairly quick corners. The Adelaide hairpin
    will almost definitely cause trouble, especially for
    aggressive drivers, and is one of the slowest corners in
    modern F1 racing.  This is a very fun course to drive
    (admittedly a very subjective statement), but its layout can
    produce problems from the standpoint of hearing other cars:
    Three of its main straightaways are almost exactly parallel
    to each other with little distance and no large obstacles
    between them, sometimes making it difficult to determine
    where other cars are truly located around you as you try to
    anticipate where the next group of traffic that you will need
    to navigate is located; listen attentively to the team radio
    for useful traffic information.  The circuit also has
    extremely wide areas along most of the main course for a car
    to pull aside should a major malfunction arise.
    
    Pit Straight: Following the tight High School chicane, strong
    acceleration through the Pit Straight creates good passing
    chances through Great Curve and into Estoril.  However, the
    tightness of the High School chicane and the incredibly close
    proximity of the Pit Lane barrier requires immense caution
    and headache-causing concentration as you come onto the Pit
    Straight.  The Start/Finish Line is about halfway down the
    Pit Straight; the Pit Lane rejoins the course from the left
    at this point.
    
    Turn 1 (Great Curve): In accordance with its name, this is a
    sweeping left-hand corner which can be taken flat-out unless
    encumbered by a lot of traffic.
    
    Turn 2 (Estoril): Either light or moderate braking will be
    needed for entering the VERY long right-hand 180-degree
    Estoril; in either case, you will almost certainly be tapping
    the brakes repeatedly through Estoril.  It is quite easy to
    roll the right-side tires off onto the grass, and it is just
    as easy to slip off onto the grass on the outside of Estoril
    - both can easily occur, whether navigating traffic or
    driving alone.
    
    Straightaway (Golf): The Golf Straight if by far the longest
    of the course and includes several fades to the right.
    
    Turn 3 (Adelaide): The right-hand Adelaide hairpin is
    EXTREMELY tight.  The key here is to brake EARLY, as you will
    be downshifting from your top gear to your lowest gear
    rapidly; if you begin braking too late, you will be off in
    the grass.  If you accelerate too soon out of Adelaide, you
    will be rolling through the kitty litter and losing valuable
    track position.  Even 30MPH is likely to be too fast here.
    
    Straightaway: Acceleration out of Adelaide is important for
    passing other cars here.  There are a few fades in the course
    here.
    
    Turns 4 and 5 (Nurburgring): This is a right-left chicane
    which will require light braking.  It is possible to fly
    through Nurburgring without braking by making use of the
    bright-green extension on the inside of Turn 5; however, this
    extension is significantly shorter than it was in F1
    Championship Season 2000.
    
    Turn 6 (180 Degrees): This is quite true - the official name
    of this corner is '180 Degrees' according to the official Web
    site of Magny-Cours.  This is a wide left-hand hairpin
    nestled well within the Estoril hairpin.  Running too wide
    here will put you out in the sand; running too close to the
    apex could put you up on the rumble strips and force you to
    lose control.  While this corner is not as slow as the
    Adelaide hairpin, you really do not want to try pushing very
    much faster here.
    
    Straightaway: The third of the three parallel-running
    straightaways, this 'straightaway' has several fades before
    the Imola chicane.
    
    Turns 7 and 8 (Imola): This right-left chicane should require
    light braking, except for cars with a flawless racing line.
    The bright-green extension on the inside of Turn 8 is longer
    than in F1 Championship Season 2000, which could well be used
    for top-speed navigation of the chicane.  A short
    straightaway out of Imola sets up the Water Castle curve.
    
    Turn 9 (Water Castle): Somewhere between a standard 'J' turn
    and a hairpin, this is an increasing-radius right-hand corner
    leading into the final straightaway of the circuit.
    
    Turns 10 and 11 (High School): There is a false line of
    pavement to the right as you near the official chicane; this
    false pavement runs directly up to an immovable barrier (I
    believe this is the Pit Entry for other forms of racing at
    the circuit).  The official chicane requires moderate braking
    on entering, and allows for a VERY short burst of
    acceleration on exit.  If you completely miss this chicane,
    you will blast through the sand trap and break the front end
    on a perpendicular barrier blocking any direct access to Pit
    Lane.
    
    Turn 12 (High School): On entry, the Pit Lane begins to the
    left.  The official corner is a TIGHT right-hand turn which
    requires moderate or even heavy braking; wheel lock is very
    much a possibility here, especially in wet conditions.  If
    you miss the corner, you will blast through the all-too-brief
    sand trap and ram directly against a barrier and bounce
    backward into any cars behind you.  Speed is an extreme
    concern here; it is virtually impossible to go too slow, but
    going too fast will definitely result in a crash (with great
    possibility of bouncing into follow-up crashes with other
    cars, or with another nearby barrier).
    
    Pit Entry: The Pit Lane begins to the left at the entry of
    Turn 12.  The Pit Lane has its own sharp right-hand turn
    almost immediately, so it is best to begin slowing (or
    rather, barely accelerating) as you leave the High School
    chicane.
    
    ==============================================
    
    DRIVING INSTRUCTIONS: MANTORP PARK
    Like Eastern Creek, Mantorp Park uses one of its
    straightaways as a drag strip.  This time, however, the width
    from standard road course to drag strip is more impressive,
    allowing road course racers MUCH more room for passing along
    the drag strip portion of the circuit.  This is a high-speed
    circuit, although strong braking will be required for many
    corners; fortunately, there is plenty of recovery room in
    almost all areas of the circuit.
    
    Pit Straight: Unlike Eastern Creek, Mantorp Park's Pit
    Straight does not double as a drag strip; instead, the drag
    strip is just to the right as cars pass along Pit Straight.
    The Pit Straight itself is relatively short, so any passing
    here requires INCREDIBLE power out of the final corner and/or
    outbraking a competitor into Turn 1.
    
    Turn 1: This is a left-hand corner requiring moderate
    braking.
    
    Turn 2: After a too-brief straightaway comes the right-hand
    hairpin at Turn 2.  Moderate braking will be needed here, and
    light braking may be required throughout, especially if a car
    is loose.
    
    Turn 3: Shortly after the hairpin is a gentle right-hand bend
    which can generally be handled at full acceleration.
    
    Turns 4-5: This is a double-apex right-hand section leading
    onto the drag strip portion of the circuit.  Moderate braking
    is needed for Turn 4, while full acceleration can be used in
    Turn 5.  However, those who miss the braking zone for Turn 4
    can turn in the sand trap and slide sideways onto the staging
    area for the drag strip, then power ahead at full
    acceleration without having lost too much time.
    
    Straightaway: This is the drag strip portion of the Mantorp
    Park road course.  This is a rather wide stretch of pavement,
    so there should be no problems with passing slower cars here.
    Not surprisingly, this is the longest straightaway of the
    road course.
    
    Turn 6: At the end of the drag strip, this right-hand
    increasing-radius hairpin corner requires moderate or heavy
    braking on approach, and judicious throttle management
    throughout to keep from sliding the car off the pavement.
    
    Turn 7: Light braking may be required for this left-hand
    bend.
    
    Turns 8-9: This is a double-apex right-hand increasing-radius
    section leading back toward Pit Straight.  Moderate or heavy
    braking is required for Turn 8, while gentle throttle
    management can alleviate the need for braking in Turn 9 IF
    the car has slowed enough for Turn 8.  Pit Entry is on the
    left side of the pavement at the entry of Turn 9.
    
    Turn 10: This is a left-hand right-angle corner requiring
    moderate braking.  This leads onto Pit Straight.
    
    ==============================================
    
    DRIVING INSTRUCTIONS: MEXICO
    This circuit reopened for use in a CART race in November
    2002, many months after its originally-scheduled grand
    opening.  Pit Straight is immensely lengthy, but the rest of
    the circuit consists of mainly high-speed twists and turns.
    Drivers who prefer slightly-loose cars AND are excellent at
    countersteering and/or drift-style racing should perform well
    at Mexico.
    
    Turns 1-3: The end of Pit Straight is a moderate braking zone
    for the right-left-right chicane that begins the difficult
    twisty portion of the circuit.  If not encumbered by traffic,
    shortcutting across the chicane (or at least making ample use
    of the rumble strips) will save a lot of time and allow the
    driver to maintain momentum for the following straightaway.
    
    Turns 4 and 5: This is a left-right complex which can be
    rather tricky.  Moderate braking is needed on entering Turn
    4, but the car must be slowed even more in order to safely
    handle Turn 5 without getting caught in the kitty litter to
    the outside of the corner.
    
    Turns 6-13: This is the S-curve section.  Interestingly, the
    corners begin with a right-hand tight corner, then the
    corners gradually decrease in radius and 'tightness' while
    the slight distances between the corners keeps growing
    gradually.  After the final corner of this section (the
    fourth left-hand corner), the S-curve section empties onto
    another long straightaway which runs through a popular Mexico
    City baseball stadium.
    
    Turn 14: Essentially the Curva Parabolica of Mexico, this
    right-hand wide hairpin corner can be taken at full
    acceleration with slight or no braking required.  On corner
    entry, however, there is a rather significant bump - if a car
    is not tuned correctly, this bump can cause a problem for
    drivers.  Pit Entry is on the right immediately before
    entering Turn 14.
    
    ==============================================
    
    DRIVING INSTRUCTIONS: MONZA
    This historic high-speed track hosts a highly partial pro-
    Ferrari crowd - affectionately known as the 'tifosi.'  The
    2000 Italian Grand Prix is the race in which a volunteer
    corner worker was killed at the Roggia Chicane, due to all
    the flying debris from the first-lap multi-car collision
    caused by Heinz-Herald Frentzen missing his braking zone.
    
    Pit Straight: Strong acceleration out of the Curva Parabolica
    can create prime passing opportunities along the Pit
    Straight, the longest straightaway at Monza.  The Pit Lane
    begins on the right shortly after exiting the Parabolica.
    
    Turns 1-3 (Rettifilio): The new chicane here is a tight
    right-left with a gentle right turn back into line with the
    original pavement.  The chicane is blocked by a barrier, but
    the inside of Turn 1 has a paved 'extension' which may be of
    benefit.  Even with Flags on, shortcutting the chicane TO THE
    RIGHT OF THE BARRIER can be done at top speed, thus lowering
    lap times; shortcutting to the left of the barrier results in
    a Stop-Go Penalty.
    
    Turn 4 (Biassono): This sweeping right-hand corner among the
    thick trees can be taken flat-out.  To the left is a long,
    wide area of sand, but the corner is so extremely gentle that
    the sand should not be needed for any reason unless you blow
    an engine or severely puncture a tire.
    
    Turns 5 and 6 (Roggia): Despite the flatness of the Monza
    circuit, this chicane is extremely difficult to see on
    approach unless traffic is present to mark the pavement for
    you, so it is very easy to overrun the chicane.  This is a
    very tight left-right chicane, so moderate or heavy braking
    is required; shortcutting through here at full throttle is
    possible by making use of the new, narrow, bright-green
    extensions on the inside of each corner, as the CPU us rather
    tolerant of shortcutting here (compared to previous
    incarnations of the game).  There is a large sand trap for
    those who miss the chicane altogether.
    
    Turn 7 (First Lesmo): This right-hand corner requires
    moderate braking.  There is a wide sand trap on the outside
    of the corner, just in case.  Beware the barrier on the
    inside of the corner.  About 150MPH is the maximum speed
    here, or you risk slipping off the course and into the kitty
    litter.  If you shortcut the first two chicanes of the game,
    this will be the first time you absolutely need to use the
    brakes.
    
    Turn 8 (Second Lesmo): This right-hand corner is a little
    tighter than First Lesmo, and also has a significant area of
    kitty litter on the outside of the corner.  Moderate braking
    will be needed here.  Again, beware the barrier on the inside
    of the corner.  Generally, about 140MPH is the maximum speed
    here to keep from sliding off the pavement.
    
    Straightaway/Turn 9 (Serraglio): This is really just a fade
    to the left, but the official course map lists this as a
    curve.  Counting this as a fade, this marks about the halfway
    point on the longest straightaway of the Monza circuit.
    There is sufficient room to pull off the course here on
    either side if necessary, except when passing underneath the
    first bridge.  The circuit is extremely bumpy between the two
    bridges.
    
    Turns 10-12 (Ascari): The Ascari chicane is more difficult
    than it seems.  Turn 10 is a left-hand corner requiring at
    least light braking.  This is followed immediately by a
    right-hand corner requiring moderate braking.  Turn 12 can be
    taken at full acceleration if you slowed enough in Turn 11.
    Wide areas of grass and sand are available for those
    overruninng any part of the chicane.  Still, unless
    encumbered by traffic, experts may be able to take Ascari at
    full throttle with a flawless racing line which makes use of
    the rumble strips as well as the bright-green 'extension' on
    the inside of Turn 10.  Unfortunately, F1 2001 does not
    provide the real course's paved swing-out area at the exit of
    Ascari.
    
    Straightaway (Rettilineo Parabolica): This is the second-
    longest straightaway at Monza and a prime passing zone,
    especially with powerful acceleration out of Ascari.
    
    Turn 13 (Curva Parabolica): This final corner is a very-wide
    increasing-radius right-hand hairpin. Light or moderate
    braking is required on entry, but after about one-third of
    the way around the hairpin, stand on the accelerator all the
    way through to Rettifilio.  The outside of the Curva
    Parabolica has an immense expanse of kitty litter, but this
    really should not be necessary unless you suddenly need to
    take evasive action to avoid someone else's accident.  After
    the Lesmo corners, the Curva Parabolica is the third and
    final place where braking is a definite MUST.
    
    Pit Entry: Shortly after exiting the Curva Parabolica, the
    Pit Lane begins on the right.  This is perhaps the shortest
    Pit Lane in all of F1; there is virtually NO room for
    deceleration once leaving the main course, so cars going in
    for servicing will begin slowing at the exit of the Curva
    Parabolica.
    
    ==============================================
    
    DRIVING INSTRUCTIONS: NORISRING
    Due to the track layout and the surrounding scenery,
    Norisring primarily has the feel of an inner-city street
    circuit.  The circuit itself is rather small and thus
    extremely easy to learn, yet it is VERY difficult to master.
    
    Pit Straight: The single longest straightaway at Norisring,
    Pit Straight is also the widest straightaway, allowing plenty
    of room for passing slower traffic.  Pit Entry is on the
    right side about 1/4 of the way along Pit Straight; the lane
    for Pit Entry actually begins at the exit of the final
    corner.
    
    Turn 1: Things start with a BANG at this left-hand SHARP
    hairpin corner.  What makes this corner so nasty is that
    there is virtually NO recovery room for those who miss the
    braking zone or do not brake hard enough - there is
    definitely a reason why SEVERE braking is required for this
    initial hairpin corner.
    
    Turns 2-3: Essentially an overglorified chicane, this is a
    right-left complex which leads the raceway around and behind
    the main grandstands.  Both corners here are perpendicular
    corners, but the sand on the inside of Turn 2 makes car
    control virtually impossible if touched.  The exit of Turn 3
    has a brick extension alongside a brick wall; this extension
    is more than wide enough to provide an extra lane for passing
    slower traffic and/or for making a wide sweeping run out of
    Turn 3.
    
    Turns 4-5: Turn 4 is a right-hand kink just before the left-
    hand hairpin at Turn 5.  It is important to begin braking
    before Turn 4, then slam HARD on the brakes for Turn 5.
    Fortunately, the exit of the hairpin is onto an unbelievably-
    wide straightaway (the same width as Pit Straight), so the
    braking required here is not quite as severe as for the
    initial hairpin corner at Turn 1.
    
    Turn 6: Very quickly after the second hairpin is the left-
    hand full-throttle kink onto Pit Straight.  Those vehicles
    going to Pit Lane will keep hard to the right here coming off
    the second hairpin and through Turn 6.
    
    ==============================================
    
    DRIVING INSTRUCTIONS: NURBURGRING
    From a driving standpoint, the hilly Nurburgring circuit is
    very much characterized by its tight corners, some of which
    are semi-blind turns.  Tire wear is a definite issue in long
    races here, especially in wet conditions.  Even more
    important, however, is braking early for almost every corner;
    perhaps only the narrow streets of Monaco require more
    braking than does the Nurburgring circuit.
    
    Pit Straight: This straightaway is fairly long, but the
    Start/Finish Line is near the exit of the final corner.  The
    Pit Lane rejoins the course near the end of the Pit Straight,
    just before the Castrol S.
    
    Turns 1 and 2 (Castrol S): Moderate braking is required
    before entering this right-left 'S' curve.  It is quite easy
    to miss seeing the entry to the Castrol S unless traffic is
    present to mark the corner for you.  Until you know the
    course really well, expect to find yourself driving straight
    ahead into the recovery area.  Turn 2 is actually somewhat of
    a double-apex left-hand corner, so do not go too wide
    initially on exit.  Also, be careful not to drive too wide
    exiting the Castrol S.  Caution must be taken here on the
    first lap of a race, as the traffic truly bunches up here.
    
    Turn 3: Light braking or a quick lift of the accelerator will
    be necessary for this left-hand corner.  However, hard
    braking will be required for the Ford Curve ahead.  Beginning
    at the top of Turn 3, the course moves downhill.
    
    Turn 4 (Ford Curve): This is a hard right-hand corner,
    practically a 'J' curve.  The course continues its downhill
    slope here, which significantly adds to the difficulty of the
    turn, especially in wet condditions.  Braking too late here
    means a trip through the kitty litter, while riding up on the
    inside rumble strips usually means losing control of the car.
    This is definitely NOT a place to pass unless absolutely
    necessary.
    
    Straightaway: The course fades to the left here.  If you can
    accelerate well out of the Ford Curve, you should be able to
    pass several cars here as you continue downhill.
    
    Turn 5 (Dunlop Curve): Severe braking for this hairpin is a
    must, unless you really want to drive through the sand.
    Again, rolling up on the rumble strips on the inside of the
    curve may cause you to lose control of the car; however, I
    have several times induced slight wheelspin of the right-side
    tires on the rumble strip, which helped to swing the car
    around the corner just a little faster.  The course continues
    gently uphill here toward the Audi S.
    
    Turns 6 and 7 (Audi S): Entering the left-right Audi S, the
    uphill slope of the course increases, making it very
    difficult to see the course more than a few feet ahead.  The
    exit of Turn 6 is the crest of this hill.  Unless traffic
    blocks your racing line, the entire Audi S section can be
    taken at top speed if you have a good racing line, so good
    acceleration out of the Dunlop Curve will be very beneficial
    for passing entering Turn 6 and/or exiting Turn 7.
    
    Turn 8 (RTL Curve): With the rise in the course entering the
    left-hand RTL Curve, this appears to be identical to Turn 6
    on approach.  However, you MUST use moderate braking entering
    the RTL Curve, or you will definitely be off in the grass on
    the outside of the curve.  After a short straightaway, this
    corner is followed by the gentler BIT Curve.
    
    Turn 9 (BIT Curve): This right-hand curve will require light
    or moderate braking, depending on how much acceleration was
    used in the brief straightaway following the RTL Curve.
    
    Turn 10 (Bilstein-Bogen): This is a gentle right-hand semi-
    corner which can be taken at full throttle.  From here to the
    Veedal S, the course makes its final and steepest upward
    slope.
    
    Turns 11 and 12 (Veedal S): This is an extremely tight left-
    right made even worse for the drivers by its placement at the
    very crest of the hill.  For those who overshoot the chicane,
    there is a newly-added barrier to collect you and your car.
    
    Turn 13 (Coca-Cola Curve): A 'J' turn to the right, moderate
    braking is required here to keep from sliding off the course.
    The entry of the Coca-Cola Curve is also where the Pit Lane
    begins, so cars may be slowing on approach to go to Pit Lane
    for servicing.  This is the final corner of the circuit.
    
    Pit Entry: The Pit Lane begins at the entry of the final
    corner.  It is extremely important to slow down before
    entering Pit Lane; if you come in too fast, you will
    certainly damage the front of the car on the barrier.  Keep
    tight to the right for Pit Entry, to allow those continuing
    the race to have the prime racing line to the left of the
    pavement.
    
    ==============================================
    
    DRIVING INSTRUCTIONS: ORAN PARK
    Like Suzuka in Japan, Oran Park includes a bridge where the
    raceway crosses over itself.  However, Oran Park is generally
    a slower-speed circuit than Suzuka, primarily due to the lack
    of long straightaways and the many moderate- and severe-
    braking corners.  Fortunately, the circuit is almost entirely
    flat; even the ascent to and the descent from the bridge is
    so gradual that elevation is really not an issue when working
    on car set-ups for Oran Park.
    
    Pit Straight: Pit Entry is about 1/3 of the way along Pit
    Straight, although the entry lane for Pit Entry begins at the
    exit of the final corner (on the right); this 'extra lane' is
    also quite useful as a swing-out area for the final corner,
    if necessary, but a barrier directly against the pavement
    here still requires some amount of moderate braking for the
    final corner.
    
    Turn 1: This is a gentle left-hand kink which itself can be
    taken at full acceleration.  However, it is best to begin
    braking well before Turn 1, since the nasty Turn 2 follows
    IMMEDIATELY.
    
    Turn 2: This tight left-hand corner requires moderate or even
    severe braking.  This 135-degree corner leads underneath the
    bridge, and because there is precious little recovery room,
    missing the braking zone for Turn 2 will obliterate a vehicle
    almost instantly.
    
    Turn 3: Shortly after passing underneath the bridge is the
    right-hand Turn 3, a nasty and tight 135-degree corner.  With
    the lack of a recovery area, moderate or severe braking is a
    MUST for Turn 3.
    
    Turn 4: A paved chicane area which is not used for the Grand
    Prix configuration appears on the right; immediately
    following this is Turn 4 itself.  This is yet another nasty
    and tight 135-degree corner leading onto the bridge.  There
    is a moderate recovery area to the outside of Turn 4, but
    moderate or heavy braking is still required to keep off the
    grass.
    
    Turn 5: INSTANTLY beyond the bridge is a junction; the Grand
    Prix circuit heads to the right here with yet another nasty
    right-hand corner requiring moderate or severe braking.  It
    is best to begin braking just as the car comes onto the
    bridge itself.
    
    Turns 6-7: Shortly beyond Turn 5, this is an overglorified
    right-left chicane.  Light or moderate braking will be needed
    here to keep to the pavement.
    
    Turn 8: Beyond the overglorified chicane, this is a left-hand
    corner which needs light or possibly moderate braking.
    
    Turns 9-10: Again, this is an overglorified right-left
    chicane.  Expert drivers can squeak through here with no
    braking whatsoever, but most drivers will likely need light
    braking to keep to the pavement here.  There is also a slight
    crest on entry here, and a dip exiting Turn 10, and these
    features can certainly play havoc with a car's handling
    (especially with lightweight cars).
    
    Turn 11: This final corner is on a slight incline as it leads
    onto Pit Straight.  Moderate braking is needed for this left-
    hand 135-degree corner.
    
    ==============================================
    
    DRIVING INSTRUCTIONS: OSCHERSLEBEN
    This is a primarily flat circuit, so ride height need not be
    a problem.  However, there are several slow hairpin corners
    plus plenty of other corners which require moderate braking.
    The recovery areas around the circuit are not very
    significant, so it really is best to keep to the pavement at
    all times.
    
    Pit Straight: This is the longest straightaway at
    Oschersleben.
    
    Turn 1: At the end of Pit Straight, this is a semi-gentle
    left-hand corner.  This corner itself does not require
    braking, but Turn 2 (which follows immediately after the exit
    of Turn 1) DOES require braking, so it is perhaps best to
    begin braking just at the entry of Turn 1 at the latest (of
    course, braking works best in a straight line).
    
    Turn 2: This right-hand 270-degree corner requires moderate
    or even severe braking to keep from sliding off the pavement.
    Once in the corner itself, careful throttle management is
    required to keep from overspinning the drive wheels and
    sending the car sliding off the raceway.
    
    Turn 3: After a short straightaway, this is a left-hand
    hairpin corner requiring moderate braking.  The entire turn
    is banked slightly, but it is definitely not enough to help
    to 'catch' a car which is carrying too much speed into and
    through Turn 3.
    
    Turns 4-6: This is a triple-apex left-hand complex with
    requires increasing braking with each corner.
    
    Turn 7: IMMEDIATELY following Turn 6, this right-hand hairpin
    requires moderate braking (if the vehicle is not already
    slowed enough after the triple-apex section) and feather-
    light acceleration to remain on the pavement.
    
    Turns 8-10: This right-left-right chicane requires increasing
    braking with each corner.  It is possible to completely
    bypass Turn 9, but this requires running through the kitty
    litter.  Careful acceleration is needed from the apex to the
    exit of Turn 10.
    
    Turns 11-12: At the end of the second-longest straightaway at
    Oschersleben is an overglorified right-left chicane.  It is
    important to use light or even moderate braking for Turn 11
    to avoid the sand trap.  By making judicious use of the
    rumble strips, drivers can save a few milliseconds of time -
    and may also even be able to make a pass.
    
    Turn 13: This is a 30-degree right-hand corner which requires
    light braking.
    
    Turn 14: After a VERY brief straightaway, this final turn is
    a right-hand 150-degree turn leading back onto Pit Straight.
    Pit Entry is to the left just before corner entry.
    
    ==============================================
    
    DRIVING INSTRUCTIONS: OULTON PARK
    Overtaking is often difficult at this tight venue.  This
    circuit is also somewhat rough on brakes in long races, in
    part due to the traffic jams (especially at the first corner
    at the beginning of a race).  The two lengthy straightaways
    (one with a tight chicane) can be a great place to pass if
    gearing and downforce are set correctly.
    
    Pit Straight: The Pit Straight here is rather long compared
    to most, so powerful acceleration is absolutely necessary.
    
    Turn 1 (Old Hall Corner): This right-hand corner begins a
    slow downhill run along The Avenue and Dentons.  Slight or
    moderate braking is required for the corner, put strong
    acceleration is needed on corner exit.
    
    Turn 2 (Cascades): This tricky left-hand corner requires
    moderate braking as the pavement leaves the Fosters circuit
    using this left-hand J-turn.  This opens out onto the longest
    straightaway of the circuit, so hard acceleration is needed
    here to gain race positions before the next corner.
    
    Straightaway (Lakeside): Named for the lake to the left of
    the pavement, strong acceleration is needed here.
    
    Turn 3 (Island Bend): This left-hand corner (more of a fade
    than a corner) can itself be taken flat-out, but moderate
    braking is really required due to the hairpin which follows
    almost immediately.
    
    Turn 4 (Shells Oils Corner): This right-hand hairpin is
    rather slow, making this a prime place for passing on braking
    on corner entry, and for passing on horsepower on corner
    exit.
    
    Turns 5-7 (Foulstons): This tight left-right-left chicane
    truly disrupts any sense of speed, but can be good for
    passing on braking FOR EXPERTS ONLY due to the signs blocking
    a clear run past the chicane.
    
    Straightaway (Hilltop): This long straightaway is a wonderful
    place for high-horsepower cars to pass slower traffic,
    especially if there are multiple cars all trying to draft off
    each other.
    
    Turn 8 (Knickelbrook): This right-hand corner can be taken at
    full throttle unless blocked by traffic.  A pristine racing
    line is needed (perhaps with the assistance of the rumble
    strips) to keep on the pavement.  There is a paved chicane on
    the inside of Knickelbrook, but it is not used for TOCA
    racing.
    
    Straightaway (Clay Hill): This long straightaway has a left-
    hand bend.
    
    Turn 9 (Druids Corner): This right-hand corner will require
    light braking to keep to the pavement as the car muscles its
    way along a slow uphill climb.
    
    Turn 10 (Lodge Corner): This right-hand J-turn requires
    moderate braking on entrance to keep out of the sand and
    grass.  Once safely though Lodge Corner, it is imperative to
    power hard along Pit Straight to make a few passes.
    ==============================================
    
    DRIVING INSTRUCTIONS: PHILLIP ISLAND
    The Phillip Island Grand Prix Circuit is host of both V8
    Supercars and some of the high-profile international
    motorcycle series.  The circuit combines high speeds with
    VERY slow hairpin corners, making car set-up a bit more of a
    compromise than usual in auto racing.
    
    Pit Straight: The final corner is gentle enough that braking
    should not be necessary, so Pit Straight is FAST.
    
    Turn 1: This gentle right-hand corner may not require any
    braking at all; however, depending on car set-up, moderate
    braking may be required.  In any event, there is plenty of
    sand to catch those who miss the braking zone.
    
    Turn 2: This is a long left-hand hairpin corner requiring
    moderate braking.  The speeds here are definitely slow, but
    not quite as slow as for the other hairpin corners of the
    circuit.
    
    Turn 3: This is a gentle left-hand corner which should
    require light braking at most.  However, toward the end of
    the corner, it is imperative to begin braking for Turn 4.
    
    Turn 4: The first of the REALLY slow hairpin corners, this
    right-hand corner requires moderate or even severe braking,
    depending on if/when braking began in Turn 3 itself.
    
    Turn 5: This is a barely-noticeable kink to the right, but
    this is listed as an official corner on the circuit map.
    
    Turn 6: This is another REALLY slow hairpin corner, this time
    to the left.  Moderate or severe braking will be required for
    Turn 6 as well.
    
    Turn 7: This is a barely-noticeable kink to the left, but
    this is listed as an official corner on the circuit map.
    
    Turn 8: Turn 8 is a high-speed sweep to the right, requiring
    only a light tapping of the brakes if necessary.
    
    Turn 9: Light or moderate braking is needed to keep to the
    pavement in this sweeping left-hand corner.
    
    Turn 10: This is the final hairpin corner of the circuit, and
    it is also very SLOW, requiring moderate or (most likely)
    severe braking on approach.
    
    Turn 11: Coming out of Turn 10, this left-hand corner may
    require light braking, but throttle management is the true
    key to remaining on the pavement in Turn 11.
    
    Turn 12: This final corner is a long sweeping left-hand arc
    back onto Pit Straight; Pit Entry is to the left just before
    corner entry.
    
    ==============================================
    
    DRIVING INSTRUCTIONS: ROCKINGHAM OVAL
    'Oval' is really a misnomer in the case of Rockingham Oval.
    This circuit is essentially shaped like a square with an
    adjacent triangle attached to its side.  If a car is tuned
    properly, NO braking will be required unless the driver
    cannot get low enough in a corner and drifts toward the wall.
    All corners are also banked, although Turn 3 is banked less
    than the other corners.  It may actually be beneficial to
    simply SLIDE through the corners, depending on car set-up and
    driver experience.
    
    Turns 1 and 2: These are left-hand perpendicular corners,
    although the corners themselves are long and semi-gentle.
    Pit Exit is from the left beyond the exit of Turn 2.
    
    Turn 3: This is a 45-degree corner.
    
    Turn 4: This is a 135-degree corner which is long and semi-
    gentle.  Pit Entry is to the left just before corner entry.
    
    ==============================================
    
    DRIVING INSTRUCTIONS: ROCKINGHAM ROAD
    This is a 'stadium circuit' (similar to the Indianapolis
    Grand Prix circuit used in F1 racing) nestled within the
    Rockingham Oval circuit. Turn 4 of the Rockingham Oval venue
    is used, as is the Pit Lane and Pit Exit lane; otherwise, the
    Rockingham Road circuit makes use of the vast infield area.
    
    Turns 1-3: Just beyond the Start/Finish Line, the Rockingham
    Road raceway has a left-right chicane off the oval portion
    and onto the oval's Pit Exit lane; a barrier prevents drivers
    from simply powering ahead along the oval.  Once on the
    oval's Pit Exit lane, the pavement makes a gentle curve to
    the left while merging once again with the oval portion of
    the venue.  (Note that the chicane itself can be
    straightlined, but moderate braking will still definitely be
    required.)
    
    Turns 4 and 5: This is a harsh double-apex left-hand hairpin
    off the oval and onto the infield portion of the circuit.
    This hairpin corner will require moderate or severe braking.
    
    Turns 6 and 7: After a short straightaway, this is a pair of
    right-hand perpendicular corners.  Moderate braking will
    again be needed here for each of these corners .
    
    Turns 8 and 9: This is a left-right chicane which requires
    light or moderate braking, depending on car set-up and
    traffic conditions.
    
    Turns 10 and 11: Again, this is a set of left-hand
    perpendicular corners.  Moderate braking is required for
    both, but this section can be treated as a single left-hand
    hairpin turn.
    
    Turn 12: This left-hand 135-degree corner requires moderate
    braking to keep on the pavement.
    
    Turn 13: Here is a TRUE hairpin corner to the right,
    requiring moderate or severe braking.  This is perhaps the
    best place to pass via outbraking an opponent.
    
    Turns 14 and 15: This is a pair of left-hand corners.  The
    first of these corners will require moderate braking, but the
    second corner can be handled nicely at full acceleration.
    
    Turn 16: This is also a true hairpin corner, this time to the
    left and leading back toward the oval portion of the circuit.
    Moderate or severe braking will be required here; the
    handbrake can be used here effectively if carrying too much
    speed into Turn 16.
    
    Turn 17 (Oval Turn 4): This is the final corner of the oval
    portion of the circuit.  Note that for the Rockingham Road
    circuit, however, Pit Entry is on the left at the APEX of
    this corner.
    
    ==============================================
    
    DRIVING INSTRUCTIONS: SANDOWN
    This circuit appears easy on the circuit map, but is a very
    different beast on the pavement; numerous test drives and
    practice sessions are definitely required to truly come to
    grips with Sandown.
    
    Turn 1: The initial corner is a left-hand near-perpendicular
    corner requiring moderate or severe braking after the lengthy
    Pit Straight.  There is fortunately A LOT of recovery room
    for those who miss the braking zone.
    
    Turns 2 and 3: This is a right-left chicane which should
    really require light braking.  However, it is quite feasible
    to straightline this chicane; those with extensive rally
    racing experience will already be quite adept at this tactic.
    
    Turn 4: IMMEDIATELY following Turn 3, this is a NASTY left-
    hand acute-angle corner which requires moderate or severe
    braking.  Most importantly, the 'recovery area' here is
    extremely tiny, so missing the braking zone for Turn 4 will
    definitely result in severe car damage against the barrier on
    the outside of the corner.
    
    Straightaway: This is the longest straightaway of the
    circuit, with a slight fade to the right just shortly beyond
    Turn 4.  The straightaway also crests at its end.
    
    Turns 5-8: This is a left-right-left-left complex which
    requires harder and harder braking with each corner.  The
    entire complex makes a left-hand 120-degree bend overall, but
    it is comprised of some rather fast-approaching corners with
    little recovery room.
    
    Turns 9 and 10: This is a right-left chicane requiring
    moderate braking on approach, but powerful acceleration
    through Turn 10 and all the way to the end of Pit Straight.
    
    Turn 11: With Pit Entry to the right at corner apex, this is
    a gentle left-hand bend onto Pit Straight which can be taken
    at full acceleration.
    
    ==============================================
    
    DRIVING INSTRUCTIONS: SEARS POINT
    Sears Point Raceway is one of only two road courses used in
    NASCAR racing.  This circuit is also notable in NASCAR due to
    the need for two Pit Lanes - one on each side of the raceway
    near the Start/Finish Line.  Road course and street course
    specialists will certainly love Sears Point, even if using a
    standard NASCAR-spec vehicle :-)
    
    Pit Straight: There really is NO 'Pit Straight' per se, since
    the main Pit Lane curves around the outside of final corner
    (a hairpin turn) while the secondary Pit Lane begins to the
    inside of this hairpin turn.  There is a semi-significant
    bend to the left about halfway between the final corner and
    Turn 1.
    
    Turn 1: This is a fast left-hand bend taken at full
    acceleration and beginning an uphill climb.
    
    Turn 2: Shortly after the first corner, this is another left-
    hand bend which can generally be handled at full
    acceleration.  However, due to Turn 3 which closely follows,
    it is best to begin braking for the next corner at the apex
    of Turn 2.
    
    Turn 3: This is a right-hand blind corner due to the
    hillside.  Those who miss the braking zone and/or forget to
    turn (the actual corner itself is VERY difficult to spot on
    approach) may be able to benefit from the wide paved recovery
    area.  Since the recovery area is paved, it is relatively
    easy to maintain a moderate level of speed and rejoin the
    race.  However, because the recovery area is paved, it is
    also quite easy to keep on sliding across the pavement and
    slam into the barrier.
    
    Turns 4 and 5: This is a left-right section which dips at the
    entry of Turn 4, crests, then begins a gentle downhill run
    toward Turn 6.  The elevation changes in this section can
    cause handling problems, especially for lightweight cars.
    
    Turn 6: This is a right-hand right-angle corner around a tire
    barrier (placed specifically to prevent shortcutting the
    corner).  Those with good drift-racing skills can implement
    those abilities here (and at Turn 7 as well) to pass one or
    two cars through the corner (but beware the barrier at the
    apex).  Like Turn 3, Turn 6 has a wide paved recovery area
    for those who overshoot the braking zone; this recovery area
    is the largest at Sears Point, so a GREAT amount of effort is
    required to slide all the way across it and slam into the
    distant barrier to damage the vehicle.
    
    Turn 7: This is a right-hand 135-degree corner around a tire
    barrier (placed specifically to prevent shortcutting the
    corner).  Those with good drift-racing skills can implement
    those abilities here (as at Turn 6) to pass one or two cars
    through the corner (but beware the barrier at the apex).
    
    Turn 8: Immediately at the exit of Turn 7, this is a quick
    left-hand bend which can be taken at full acceleration.
    
    Turns 9-14 (S-curves): The raceway keeps switching from left
    to right, all the way back to Pit Entry for the primary Pit
    Lane.  The overall trend of the raceway here is a gentle
    downhill slope, although some corners will require light
    braking to remain on the pavement.
    
    Turn 15: This is a tight right-hand hairpin corner with some
    paved swing-out room (but not very much).  Pit Entry for the
    primary Pit Lane is to the left well before this hairpin
    corner, while Pit Entry for the secondary Pit Lane is to the
    right on corner exit.
    
    ==============================================
    
    DRIVING INSTRUCTIONS: SILVERSTONE
    The Silverstone International circuit shares much of the same
    pavement as the Grand Prix circuit used for the annual F1
    Grand Prix of Great Britain; in fact, the pavement for the
    two circuits even cross at approximately two-thirds of the
    way around the International circuit.  Once the International
    circuit leaves the Grand Prix circuit, however, the ensuing
    S-curves are incredibly tight and tricky, although
    straightlining by making use of the rumble strips will often
    help to save time.
    
    Pit Straight: The Start/Finish Line is directly at the
    beginning of the Pit Straight.  There is no room for error on
    the right side of the track, as the Pit Lane barrier is
    directly against the pavement.
    
    Turn 1 (Copse): This is a moderate right-hand corner which
    can be taken at full speed with a pristine racing line, but
    be careful to not run off the course at the exit of the turn.
    The best racing line is to tightly hug the apex, but the Pit
    Lane barrier is right there against the pavement, so it is
    imperative to keep the right side of the vehicle from rubbing
    the barrier.  Copse exits onto a long straightaway.
    
    Straightaway: The Pit Lane rejoins the main course from the
    right about 1/3 of the way along the straight.
    
    Turns 2-3 (Maggots): This is a left-right S-curve. Turn 2 can
    be taken at full speed or with very quick tapping of the
    brakes, but Turn 3 requires moderate braking to keep to the
    pavement.
    
    Turn 4: This tight right-hand J-curve can easily surprise
    newcomers to this version of Silverstone; fortunately, there
    is plenty of sand to the outside of the corner to catch the
    unwary.  With the heavy braking required to safely clear this
    corner, this is a prime place to pass on braking.
    
    Turn 5-7 (Ireland): This tight set of S-curves can be taken
    at full throttle with no traffic by straightlining the
    corners using the rumble strips.  Otherwise, expect to be
    frustrated by slow traffic in this tight left-right-left
    complex.  There is a fade to the left on exiting Ireland.
    
    Turn 8: There is a fade to the left immediately before
    entering this tight right-hand hairpin, which makes the
    hairpin itself much more difficult.  Fortunately, pavement
    from the Silverstone Grand Prix circuit crosses the
    International circuit here, so those who go wide on the
    hairpin can generally make use of the Grand Prix pavement to
    recover and get back onto the International pavement.
    
    Straightaway (Farm Straight): From the right side, the Grand
    Prix pavement rejoins the International pavement.  Both
    circuits follow the same pavement for the remainder of the
    lap.  With good acceleration out of the hairpin, good passing
    opportunities can be made here.
    
    Turns 9-13: This final segment of the circuit is very similar
    to The Stadium at Hockenheim.  However, these similar
    segments cannot be approached in the same manner.
    
       Turn 9 (Bridge): Immediately after passing underneath the
       pedestrian bridge, you will enter a complex similar to The
       Stadium at Hokkenheim.  This is a right-hand corner which
       can likely be taken at full speed.
    
       Turn 10 (Priory): This left-hand corner will require
       moderate braking.
    
       Turn 11 (Brooklands): Another left-hand corner, this one
       requires heavy braking.  There is a small sand trap for
       those who miss the braking zone.
    
       Turn 12 (Luffield): This set of right-hand corners
       essentially forms a 'U' shape, and requires moderate or
       severe braking to avoid sliding off into the kitty litter.
       The entry to Pit Lane is on the right shortly leaving
       Luffield.
    
       Turn 13 (Woodcote): Barely a corner but more than a fade,
       the course eases to the right here.  The right-side
       barrier begins abruptly here (be careful not to hit it).
    
    Pit Entry: The Pit Lane begins to the right between Luffield
    and Woodcote.  The new Pit Lane has a gentle right-hand
    swing, so you can come into Pit Lane at top speed and have
    plenty of room to slow.
    
    ==============================================
    
    DRIVING INSTRUCTIONS: T1 CIRCUIT AIDA
    Aida is a fun and fairly quick circuit.  There are many high-
    speed areas, tempered with a few J-turns to slow the cars.
    Fortunately, there are NO CHICANES at Aida, which is
    absolutely great for aggressive drivers.
    
    Turn 1: After a moderate-length Pit Straight, Turn 1 is a
    right-hand J-turn requiring moderate braking and gentle
    throttle control throughout.  While passing on the outside
    line is indeed possible here, it is not suggested.
    
    Turn 2: Shortly after Turn 1, this is a gentle left-hand
    corner which can generally be taken at full acceleration with
    a pristine racing line making use of the rumble strips
    (especially on corner exit)... unless encumbered by traffic.
    
    Straightaway: This 'straightaway' has three fades - left-
    right-left - which can essentially be straightlined; those
    with experience in rally racing will already have this
    essential time-shaving skill in their arsenal of racing
    tactics.
    
    Turn 3: Immediately after the final fade of the preceding
    'straightaway,' the circuit makes a right-hand bend here as
    the venue makes a slow rise.  This corner requires moderate
    braking.  Note that the crest comes after corner exit, so
    while speed out of the corner is important, it is quite
    possible that there will be an incident jut over the rise -
    therefore, drivers must be prepared to quickly take evasive
    action coming over the crest.
    
    Turn 4: After a second mini-crest comes the right-hand Turn
    4.  Moderate braking is required here as is a tight racing
    line along the apex for this J-turn.
    
    Turns 5 and 6: Almost immediately after Turn 4 comes a pair
    of left-hand corners.  These are fairly gentle corners
    requiring only light braking, but the straightaway connecting
    Turn 5 and Turn 6 is simply too long to permit treating this
    section like one elongated hairpin corner.  Slow cars tend to
    REALLY slow for the Turns 4-5-6 complex, so powering out of
    the corners and braking heavily and late entering the corners
    will help with passing in this section.
    
    Turns 7 and 8: This section begins just beyond the pedestrian
    bridge over the raceway.  This is a set of left-right J-
    turns, each requiring moderate braking.  Again, slow cars
    tend to be REALLY slow here, so powering out of the corners
    and braking heavily and late entering the corners will help
    with passing in this section.
    
    Turns 9 and 10: This is a pair of VERY gentle right-hand
    corners requiring NO braking whatsoever, so long as the
    driver can keep a good racing line.  These corners
    essentially form one wide sweeping elongated hairpin turn to
    the right.
    
    ==============================================
    
    DRIVING INSTRUCTIONS: VALLELUNGA
    This Italian venue is primarily a high-speed circuit with
    semi-gentle curves that require only very light braking, if
    any braking is required at all.  However, on the back side of
    the circuit, there is a set of hairpin corners which requires
    moderate or hard braking, thus slowing things down
    considerably.  So long as drivers master this 'additional'
    section along the back side of the circuit, there should be
    no problems attaining success at Vallelunga :-)
    
    Turn 1: At the end of Pit Straight, this is a gentle left-
    hand bend.  There is pavement which continues straight ahead,
    but this is not used.  Little braking is needed here, if any.
    
    Turn 2: Shortly after Turn 1, the raceway makes a gentle
    right-hand bend.  Little braking is needed here, if any.
    
    Turn 3: If any, little braking is needed for this long,
    gentle, sweeping right-hand bend.
    
    Turn 4: This is a rather wide hairpin corner to the right,
    requiring moderate braking on approach and careful throttle
    management throughout.
    
    Turns 5 and 6: This right-left section should not require any
    braking whatsoever, except perhaps by the most powerful of
    cars.
    
    Turn 7: This begins the tricky section of the circuit.  This
    is a right-hand hairpin corner requiring moderate braking.
    Note that there is virtually NO recovery room should a driver
    miss the braking zone for Turn 7.
    
    Turn 8: After a brief straightaway, this is an even tighter
    hairpin corner, this time to the left.  Severe braking will
    be needed here, especially since there is NO recovery area to
    the outside of the corner until corner exit - and this is
    primarily a steep hillside which risks to cause a vehicle to
    flip onto its side or roof.
    
    Turns 9 and 10: This left-right section requires light
    braking for most cars, or moderate braking by high-power
    vehicles.
    
    Turn 11: This final corner is a right-hand hairpin requiring
    light braking.  Drivers must avoid shortcutting the corner
    even by a few centimeters, as a barrier protrudes all the way
    up to the pavement itself at the apex of this hairpin turn.
    Note that Pit Entry is to the left (the inside of the corner)
    just beyond the apex but before corner exit.
    
    ==============================================
    
    DRIVING INSTRUCTIONS: VANCOUVER
    Perhaps most popular for the annual CART race (one of three
    in Canada - the others being in Toronto and Montreal), this
    is a TIGHT street circuit.  This means that there are AT MOST
    two lanes of racing (and passing in most areas is very dicey
    at best), and that there is NOWHERE to go in case of a
    mistake or an accident.  Due to the barriers, ALL corners are
    semi-blind.
    
    Turn 1: This is a wide right-hand hairpin corner, with Pit
    Exit at the apex.  This is actually one of the two best
    passing zones at Vancouver, but passing here means keeping a
    VERY tight line on corner entry and hoping that the brakes do
    not lock up and cause the vehicle to slide across the
    pavement and into the outside barrier.
    
    Turn 2: Immediately after Turn 1, this is a left-hand right-
    angle corner.
    
    Turn 3: After a VERY short straightaway, this is a right-hand
    right-angle corner onto the long back straightaway.
    
    Straightaway: This is the longest straightaway at Vancouver.
    Passing here is possible, but definitely still tricky due to
    the narrow nature of the circuit.  The 'straightaway' has a
    semi-significant bend to the right about 1/3 of the way along
    its length, but this can be handled at full acceleration
    (even with side-by-side racing).
    
    Turn 4: This is the other prime passing area, a right-hand
    right-angle corner.  There is some extra room on the inside
    of the corner, so crossing over the rumble strips can be
    quite useful for passing.
    
    Turn 5: This is a right-hand hairpin corner, requiring
    moderate braking.  If there is no traffic here, some good
    speeds can be carried through Turn 5.
    
    Turns 6-9: This is a left-left-right-left complex which is
    rather tricky, especially since the raceway narrows between
    Turns 6 and 7.  Harder and harder braking will be required
    while passing through this section.
    
    Turns 10-12: This final section is the trickiest, both to see
    and to drive.  There is an overhead highway on the left side
    of the raceway approaching Turn 10; at the TINY break in the
    wall, the raceway makes a hard left-right-left onto Pit
    Straight.  GOING STRAIGHT AHEAD LEADS TO PIT LANE!!!!!
    Moderate or even severe braking is required to definitely be
    able to keep to the pavement without banging any of the
    barriers here at the tiny opening.
    
    ==============================================
    
    DRIVING INSTRUCTIONS: ZANDVOORT
    This is one of the trickiest race circuits on the planet.
    While not as technical as Monaco, the difficulty level is
    still definitely rather high.  There are really only two
    high-speed sections along the entire circuit; the rest of the
    circuit is filled with twists and turns combined with changes
    in elevation; for much of the circuit, there is NO room for
    error, as - similar to a street circuit - the barriers come
    almost directly up against the raceway itself.
    
    Pit Straight: This is one of only two sustained high-speed
    sections at Zandvoort.  Pit Entry is on the right about 1/3
    of the way along Pit Straight; the Pit Entry lane begins just
    after the exit of Turn 14.
    
    Turn 1: This right-hand hairpin requires moderate or even
    severe braking to keep out of the vast area of kitty litter
    on the outside of the corner.  Careful throttle management
    will also be needed throughout the corner once past the apex.
    
    Turn 2: After a quick fade to the left, Turn 2 is a right-
    hand corner requiring moderate braking.  This enters the main
    area where there are barriers almost directly against the
    pavement on both sides, so making any mistakes in this
    section of the circuit can be extremely costly, creating A
    LOT of work for the pit crew (and thus longer pit stops).
    
    Turn 3: IMMEDIATELY after Turn 2, this left-hand hairpin
    corner requires even more braking.  From the apex of Turn 3,
    the circuit begins a noticeable uphill trajectory, which can
    make corner exit slightly difficult.
    
    Turns 4-6: The raceway crests at the apex of Turn 4, a gentle
    right-hand bend, then dips at the apex of Turn 5, a gentle
    left-hand bend; the raceway then crests again at the apex of
    Turn 6, another gentle right-hand bend.  This is the second
    high-speed section at Vandvoort.  At one point, the right-
    side barrier does give way, but generally, the barriers are
    almost directly up against the raceway on both sides.
    
    Turn 7: Moderate or severe braking will be needed for this
    long right-hand corner.  There is a steeply-banked elongated
    sand trap on the outside of the corner to help slow runaway
    vehicles, but it is still possible to slam into the barrier
    on the other side of the kitty litter; also, should a car
    slide sideways into the sand, the sudden deceleration rate
    and the angle of the slope here risks to cause the car to
    roll onto its side and/or roof.
    
    Turns 8 and 9: The circuit map shows these as two distinct
    right-hand corners, but it is best to approach these as one
    270-degree decreasing-radius corner.  Moderate braking is
    needed entering Turn 8, but the braking pressure must be
    slowly increased to safely make it to the exit of Turn 9.
    There is a large sand trap to the outside of this section,
    but by the exit of Turn 9, the raceway is again bounded VERY
    closely by barriers.
    
    Turn 10: Moderate braking is required for this left-hand
    hairpin corner.  There is not much recovery room to the
    outside of Turn 10, then the barriers again closely protect
    the raceway.
    
    Turns 11 and 12: This is the absolute worst section of the
    circuit.  This is a NASTY right-left chicane: a right-hand
    perpendicular corner instantly followed by a left-hand
    hairpin turn around a large sand trap bisected by a barrier.
    There is NO shortcutting possible here, and those carrying
    too much speed into this chicane will DEFINITELY destroy the
    front of the vehicle on the barrier.
    
    Turns 13 and 14: These final two corners again appear as
    distinct turns on the race map, but should also be treated as
    one massive hairpin corner.  Turn 13 may require light
    braking by high-power vehicles, but ALL cars should be able
    to power through Turn 14 at full throttle.  This leads onto
    Pit Straight.
    
    ==============================================
    
    DRIVING INSTRUCTIONS: ZOLDER
    This circuit can be fun but tricky, especially in wet racing
    conditions.  It is generally a high-speed circuit, but the
    chicanes and few tight corners will certainly test a driver's
    guts.
    
    Turn 1: This left-hand corner will require light braking to
    remain on the raceway.  The outside of the corner begins with
    a good recovery area, but by corner exit, the outside barrier
    is almost directly against the pavement.  Pit Exit is at
    corner exit on the right.
    
    Turn 2: Turn 2 is a right-hand hairpin corner with a
    decreasing radius.  There is some good sand-filled recovery
    space on the outside of the corner.  Light braking will be
    required initially, but the braking pressure must be slowly
    increased in order to remain on the circuit itself.
    
    Turn 3: Light braking will be needed with most vehicles to
    keep them on the pavement for this right-hand corner.  There
    is little room for error on either side of the pavement
    through Turn 3.
    
    Turns 4-6: On approach, the back side of the paddock area is
    to the right of the raceway.  Then the circuit makes a left-
    right-left chicane which requires moderate braking.  Turning
    too soon will be costly, however, as the left-hand barrier
    does not give way until after the apex of Turn 4.  The inside
    of Turn 5 is filled with sand, so straightlining this chicane
    may not be very beneficial.  Fortunately, the swing rate of
    the corners is not very great, so turning left just a little
    bit can allow drivers to make ample use of the inside rumble
    strip for Turn 5, and then straightline Turn 6; however, if
    encumbered by traffic, this tactic will likely result in a
    collision with one or more competitors.
    
    Turn 7: This left-hand bend can be taken at full
    acceleration.  However, at corner exit, it is best to begin
    braking for the next corner.
    
    Turns 8-10: This is a rough right-left-right chicane with a
    much wider swing rate than the former chicane, so
    straightlining this chicane will never be a viable option.
    Due to the much greater angle of each corner, moderate or
    even severe braking will be required to slow enough for
    safely negotiate Turn 8 and properly set up the approach for
    Turn 9.  Most cars should be able to handle full acceleration
    from the apex of Turn 9 through Turn 10.
    
    Turn 11: Except for the most powerful of vehicles, this
    right-hand corner can be taken at full acceleration.  There
    is a nice recovery area to the outside of the corner,
    however, for those who may need to make use of its services.
    
    Turn 12: This left-hand bend can be handled at full
    acceleration without problems.
    
    Turns 13-15: Severe braking is required for Turn 13, a right-
    hand J-turn.  Exiting Turn 13 leads into a gentle left-right
    chicane which can be handled at full acceleration.
    
    Turns 16 and 17: After passing underneath an advertisement
    comes a 'junction.'  Pit Entry is directly ahead, whereas the
    main circuit makes a left-right chicane.  Moderate braking
    will be needed to slow enough to handle the chicane without
    getting bogged down in the sand trap.  Like the initial
    chicane of the circuit, the left-side barrier protrudes all
    the way to the apex of Turn 16, so it is not possible to turn
    early to have a better racing line.  Because of the
    'junction' setting here, those going to Pit Lane should
    remain hard to the right side of the circuit (perhaps even
    with the right-side tires just slightly OFF the pavement) to
    allow the best-possible racing line for those remaining on
    the circuit itself.
    
    ==============================================
    ==============================================
    ==============================================
    
    DIAGRAMS
    This section contains the diagrams referred to earlier in the
    guide.
    
    Ascari Chicane (at Monza):
       *
        *
         *
          *
           *
            ***
               *
                *****************
    
    Bus Stop Chicane (Variant I - Wide Chicane):
       *******************           *******************
                          *         *
                           *********
    
    Bus Stop Chicane (Variant II - Narrow Chicane):
       *******************           *******************
                          ***********
    
    Decreasing-radius Corner:
       ->*******************
                              *
                                 *
                                   *
                                    *
                                    *
                                   *
       <-*************************
    
    Hairpin Corner:
       ->*****************
                          *
       <-*****************
    
    Increasing-radius Corner:
       ->**********************
                                *
                                 *
                                 *
                                *
                              *
       <-*******************
    
    J-turn
       *******************
                          *
                         *
                        *
                       *
    
    Quick-flicks (Variant I - Wide Chicane):
       *************
                    *
                     *************
    
    Quick-flicks (Variant II - Narrow Chicane):
       *************
                    **************
    
    Sample Circuit Using Some of the Above Corner Types Combined:
        ******|******       *****
       *      |->    *     *     *
        *          **   ***     *
         *        *   **        *
        *         *  *    *     *
       *         *  *    * *     ********
       *          **    *   *            *
       *               *     ************
        *******       *
               *******
    
    Standard Corner:
       *******************
                          *
                          *
                          *
                          *
                          *
                          *
                          *
                          *
    
    U-turn:
       ->*****************
                          *
                          *
                          *
       <-*****************
    
    Virtual Bus Stop Chicane:
       +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
                         Car #1   ->->->->->->   Car #3
       Player Path: ->->->->->->->   Car #2   ->->->->->->->
       +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
    
    ==============================================
    ==============================================
    ==============================================
    
    ONLINE RESOURCES
    These sites are listed in the order of: game-related sites
    first, followed by the official Web sites for the circuits
    used in Pro Race Driver.
    
    http://www.proracedriver.com/
       The official Web site for Pro Race Driver, covering the
       PlayStation2, PC, and X-Box versions of the game in both
       English and Spanish.
    
    http://www.codemasters.com/
       The Web site for the developers of Pro Race Driver.
    
    http://www.codemasters.com/registration/
       Players can register their copies of Pro Race Driver
       online here and receive the two codes mentioned in the
       Bonus Codes section.
    
    http://www.octagonmotorsports.com/
       Octagon Motorsports is the owner of many of the circuits
       used in the TOCA (British touring cars) series, including
       Silverstone, Brands Hatch, and Oulton Park.
    
    http://www.circuit-dijon-prenois.com/
       The official Web site for Circuit Dijon Prenois.  However,
       this site is only available in French.
    
    http://www.fujispeedway.co.jp/index.html
       This is the official Web site for Fuji Speedway.  There is
       some English-language information (as well as Chinese-
       language information), but the core information on this
       site is only available in Japanese.
    
    http://www.bathurst24hr.com/
       Unable to find a Web site specifically for the Bathurst
       circuit, this is the Web site for the new Bathurst 24
       Hours, held for the first time in 2002.
    
    http://www.mantorppark.com/
       This is the official Web site for Mantorp Park.  However,
       the site is currently only available in Swedish; an
       English-language version of the site is in the works
       (according to an announcement - in English - posted
       on the site).
    
    http://www.autohausamnorisring.de/
       The official Web site for Norisring.  This site is only
       available in German.
    
    http://www.oranpark.com/
       The official Oran Park Web site.
    
    http://www.motopark.de/
       This is the official Web site for Oschersleben.  This site
       is only available in German.
    
    http://www.phillipislandcircuit.com.au/
       The official Web site of the Phillip Island Grand Prix
       Circuit.
    
    http://www.sandownraceway.com.au/
       This is the official Web site for Sandown International
       Motor Raceway.  However, the site is extremely slow and
       virtually unresponsive at the time of the initial writing
       of this game guide.
    
    http://www.bristolmotorspeedway.com/
       The official Web site for Bristol Motor Speedway.
    
    http://www.a1ring.at/
       The A1-Ring official Web site.
    
    http://www.clipsal500.com.au/
       The official Web site for Clipsal 500 Adelaide (the V8
       Supercars annual event).
    
    http://www.telmexgigantegranpremiomexico.com/
       The official Web site for the annual CART race at Mexico.
    
    http://www.monzanet.it/
       This is the official Web site for Monza.
    
    http://www.circuit-zandvoort.nl/
       The official Web site of Circuit Zandvoort in Holland.
       This site is only available in Dutch.
    
    http://www.circuit-zolder.be/
       Circuit Zolder's official Web site.
    
    http://www.donington-park.co.uk/
       The official Web site of Donington Park.
    
    http://www.eastern-creek-raceway.com/
       The official Eastern Creek Web site.
    
    http://www.hockenheimring.de/
       The official Web site for Hockenheim (the new shortened
       version).
    
    http://www.magnycours.com/
       The official Web site for Nevers Magny-Cours.
    
    http://www.nuerburgring.de/
       Nurburgring's official Web site.
    
    http://www.oranpark.com/
       The official Web site for Oran Park.
    
    http://www.charlottemotorspeedway.com/
       The official Web site for Charlotte Motor Speedway.
    
    http://www.lvms.com/
       Las Vegas Motor Speedway's official Web site.
    
    http://www.knockhill.co.uk/
       This is the official Web site for Knockhill; however, as
       of the initial writing of this guide, this link loads only
       a single blank page.
    
    http://www.rockingham.co.uk/
       The official Web site of Rockingham Motor Speedway.
    
    http://infineonraceway.com/
       This is the official Web site of Sears Point Raceway, now
       officially known as Infineon Raceway.
    
    http://www.ti-circuit.co.jp/
       This is the official Web site of T1 Circuit AIDA, but the
       site is only available in Japanese.
    
    http://www.vallelunga.it/
       This is the official Web site of the Vallelunga circuit,
       but the site redirects to a blank page.
    
    ==============================================
    
    COMPLETELY SUBJECTIVE SECTION
    Favorite Circuits
       Adelaide
       Bathurst
       Dijon Prenois
       Donington Park
       Fuji
       Hockenheim Short
       Mexico
       Monza
       Oschersleben
       Oulton Park
       Rockingham Road
       Sears Point
       Vallelunga
       Zandvoort
       Zolder
    
    Least-favorite Circuits
       A1 Ring
       Bristol
       Charlotte
       Hockenheim Long
       Las Vegas
       Norisring
       Rockingham Oval
    
    ==============================================
    
    THANKS
    Thanks to ikancu from the Pro Race Driver message board on
    GameFAQs (http://www.GameFAQs.com/) for his clarification on
    the accumulation of championship points in Career Mode for
    the purposes of unlocking new racing tiers.
    
    ==============================================
    ==============================================
    ==============================================
    
    CONTACT INFORMATION
    For questions, rants, raves, comments of appreciation, etc.,
    or to be added to my e-mail list for updates to this driving
    guide, please contact me at: FEATHER7@IX.NETCOM.COM; also, if
    you have enjoyed this guide and feel that it has been helpful
    to you, I would certainly appreciate a small donation via
    PayPal (http://www.paypal.com/) using the above e-mail
    address.
    
    To find the latest version of this and all my other
    PSX/PS2/DC/Mac game guides, visit FeatherGuides at
    http://feathersites.angelcities.com/
    
    ==============================================
    ==============================================
    ==============================================