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    Team Info Guide by Wolf Feather

    Version: Final | Updated: 02/17/03 | Search Guide | Bookmark Guide

    F1 2002: TEAM INFO GUIDE
    Wolf Feather/Jamie Stafford
    Initial Version Completed: October 7, 2002
    FINAL VERSION Completed:   February 17, 2002
    Spacing and Length
    Team Information
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    This guide is designed to provide readers with information
    about the various racing teams included in F1 2002.  While
    the information contained in this guide is not necessarily
    meant to assist with gameplay, it may be useful information
    to some readers.
    This section will present each team alphabetically and some
    team information.  Information is taken from the teams'
    official Web sites; some information is extremely brief,
    while other teams present essentially a book full of
       Full Team Name: Arrows Grand Prix International, Ltd.
       Web Site: http://www.arrows.com/
       Sponsors and Partners: Orange, Red Bull, Lost Boys,
          Bridgestone, Cosworth, Paul Costelloe
       Whilst working for the Shadow team in 1977, and frustrated
       by on-track results, Alan Rees, Jackie Oliver, Dave Wass
       and Tony Southgate decided to start their own Grand Prix
       team. On November 28th, after months of initial
       preparation, Alan Rees arrived at their new factory in
       Milton Keynes ready to face a big challenge. There wasn't
       even a telephone in the new place, but as soon as one was
       installed the next day it began to ring. People wanted to
       be part of the Arrows dream. The equipment arrived on
       December 5th and by January 28th, 1978, the first car (the
       FA1) was ready to be unveiled to the press at a snowy
       Silverstone. Ricardo Patrese was the team's first and only
       driver at that time.
       The car made it's debut at the 1978 Brazilian Grand Prix
       where Patrese qualified in 18th position, 2.7 seconds
       behind pole sitter Ronnie Peterson in the Lotus. He stayed
       out of trouble and finished 10th, four laps down on the
       winner, Carlos Reutemann. The next Grand Prix took place a
       month later in South Africa giving the team more time to
       prepare. Patrese wowed everyone with his pace, starting
       from seventh position (0.87 sec. behind Nikki Lauda in his
       Brabham) and taking the lead halfway through the race.
       Unfortunately his Ford engine gave up 14 laps before the
       finish, taking with it Arrows' hopes for an early win.
       There was also trouble brewing away from the track.
       When the new Shadow car was shown to the press, it was
       noticed that it looked exactly like the Arrows car. As
       most of the Arrows team-members were former Shadow
       employees, Shadow accused the Arrows team of plagiarism
       and sued. The High Court in London ruled in favour of
       Shadow, stating the Arrows FA1 was a copy of the Shadow,
       and Arrows was forced to build a new car. In a record
       breaking time of just four weeks, the new car was built
       and ready to race but there were still problems on the
       During the Italian Grand Prix that year there was a 10-car
       pile-up on the first lap of the race. Patrese was later
       accused of causing the accident as he hit the McLaren of
       James Hunt that in turn hit the Lotos of Ronnie Peterson,
       sending him into the barriers. Peterson was to later die
       from his injuries and Patrese was suspended for the next
       race because he was held indirectly responsible. Patrese
       lived with this accusation for many years before he was
       finally cleared of any blame.
       By the end of the debut season, Arrows had accumulated 11
       World Championship points and had beaten their old team,
       Shadow, in the Constructors' Championship.
       In 1979, Arrows fielded two cars in the World Championship
       and Patrese was joined by Jochen Mass. It wasn't until the
       last race of the year that they were able to score points
       but the next year, 1980, would see the cars competing more
       strongly. At the United States Grand Prix at Long Beach,
       Patrese finished second, behind Nelson Piquet, and by the
       end of the year the team had amassed enough points to take
       seventh place in the Constructors' Championship, equal to
       McLaren and ahead of Ferrari.
       In 1979, Arrows fielded two cars in the World Championship
       and Patrese was joined by Jochen Mass. It wasn't until the
       last race of the year that they were able to score points
       but the next year, 1980, would see the cars competing more
       strongly. At the United States Grand Prix at Long Beach,
       Patrese finished second, behind Nelson Piquet, and by the
       end of the year the team had amassed enough points to take
       seventh place in the Constructors' Championship, equal to
       McLaren and ahead of Ferrari.
       In 1980, Tony Southgate left the team and David Wass
       assumed the mantle of Chief Designer. At the 1981 San
       Marino Grand Prix the team came tantalisingly close to its
       first win but Patrese had to settle for second place, just
       4.5 seconds behind Piquet. New driver, Siegfried Stohr,
       who replaced Mass was unable to score any points so he too
       was replaced, this time by Jacques Villeneuve, the brother
       of Gilles. Patrese scored all 10 points the team achieved
       that year but then left the Arrows at the end of 1981 to
       join the Brabham team.
       The 1982 season started badly for Arrows with Mauro Baldi
       and Brian Henton unable to even qualify for the first
       Grand Prix and, after five races, Henton was replaced by
       Marc Surer. By the end of the season Arrows had only
       scored five points. This was not good enough for the team
       and plans were put in place to build for the future. Tough
       seasons in 1983 and 1984 followed but, by the beginning of
       1985, Arrows had a stronger car, an engine supplied by BMW
       and a solid driver line-up in Gerhard Berger and Thierry
       Boutsen. This combination gave Arrows 14 points that year
       and it looked like the team was on its way up.
       The 1982 season started badly for Arrows with Mauro Baldi
       and Brian Henton unable to even qualify for the first
       Grand Prix and, after five races, Henton was replaced by
       Marc Surer. By the end of the season Arrows had only
       scored five points. This was not good enough for the team
       and plans were put in place to build for the future. Tough
       seasons in 1983 and 1984 followed but, by the beginning of
       1985, Arrows had a stronger car, an engine supplied by BMW
       and a solid driver line-up in Gerhard Berger and Thierry
       Boutsen. This combination gave Arrows 14 points that year
       and it looked like the team was on its way up .
       The 1982 season started badly for Arrows with Mauro Baldi
       and Brian Henton unable to even qualify for the first
       Grand Prix and, after five races, Henton was replaced by
       Marc Surer. By the end of the season Arrows had only
       scored five points. This was not good enough for the team
       and plans were put in place to build for the future. Tough
       seasons in 1983 and 1984 followed but, by the beginning of
       1985, Arrows had a stronger car, an engine supplied by BMW
       and a solid driver line-up in Gerhard Berger and Thierry
       Boutsen. This combination gave Arrows 14 points that year
       and it looked like the team was on its way up.
       The 1982 season started badly for Arrows with Mauro Baldi
       and Brian Henton unable to even qualify for the first
       Grand Prix and, after five races, Henton was replaced by
       Marc Surer. By the end of the season Arrows had only
       scored five points. This was not good enough for the team
       and plans were put in place to build for the future. Tough
       seasons in 1983 and 1984 followed but, by the beginning of
       1985, Arrows had a stronger car, an engine supplied by BMW
       and a solid driver line-up in Gerhard Berger and Thierry
       Boutsen. This combination gave Arrows 14 points that year
       and it looked like the team was on its way up.
       Berger departed for Benetton in 1986 and his replacement,
       Christian Danner, scored the teams' only point that year.
       This was a big disappointment for Arrows but the arrival
       of new designer, Ross Brawn, produced a car that helped
       its drivers Eddie Cheever and Derek Warwick to pick up 11
       points. In 1987 the team was even stronger and often on
       the pace with the powerful factory-backed teams, finishing
       sixth in the Constructors? Championship. More good fortune
       was on the way.
       Berger departed for Benetton in 1986 and his replacement,
       Christian Danner, scored the teams' only point that year.
       This was a big disappointment for Arrows but the arrival
       of new designer, Ross Brawn, produced a car that helped
       its drivers Eddie Cheever and Derek Warwick to pick up 11
       points. In 1987 the team was even stronger and often on
       the pace with the powerful factory-backed teams, finishing
       sixth in the Constructors' Championship. More good fortune
       was on the way.
       With a more or less unchanged car in 1988, Arrows took
       fourth place in the Constructors' Championship. The team
       continued its good form in 1989. A long pit-stop in Brazil
       scuppered Warwick's chance of taking Arrows' first win but
       a podium finish for Cheever in Detroit did much to
       motivate the team.
       The team continued its good form in 1989. A long pit-stop
       in Brazil scuppered Warwick's chance of taking Arrows'
       first win but a podium finish for Cheever in Detroit did
       much to motivate the team. At the end of 1989 the Arrows
       team needed an injection of cash if it was to continue in
       Formula One and it was at this point that the Japanese
       Footwork Corporation bought a major share of Arrows,
       splitting the directorship of the team between Jackie
       Oliver, Alan Rees and Mr. Nagata from Footwork.
       The 1990 season began with two new drivers, Alex Caffi and
       Michele Alboreto, and a new engine from Porsche but again
       the results just wouldn't come their way. In 1991, the
       team was renamed 'Footwork' but the change of name didn't
       produce a change of fortune and the struggle continued. It
       wasn't until 1992, when Footwork teamed up with Mugen,
       that the results changed. Alboreto scored six points that
       year, taking seventh place for the team in the
       Constructors' Championship.
       The 1990 season began with two new drivers, Alex Caffi and
       Michele Alboreto, and a new engine from Porsche but again
       the results just wouldn't come their way. In 1991, the
       team was renamed 'Footwork' but the change of name didn't
       produce a change of fortune and the struggle continued. It
       wasn't until 1992, when Footwork teamed up with Mugen,
       that the results changed. Alboreto scored six points that
       ear, taking seventh place for the team in the
       Constructors' Championship.
       The 1990 season began with two new drivers, Alex Caffi and
       Michele Alboreto, and a new engine from Porsche but again
       the results just wouldn't come their way. In 1991, the
       team was renamed 'Footwork' but the change of name didn?t
       produce a change of fortune and the struggle continued. It
       wasn't until 1992, when Footwork teamed up with Mugen,
       that the results changed. Alboreto scored six points that
       year, taking seventh place for the team in the
       Constructors' Championship.
       Another tough season followed in 1993 because, although
       the Footwork Mugens, now driven by Derek Warwick and Aguri
       Suzuki, were qualifying higher up the grid, the race
       results were poor and only 4 points were scored.
       Footwork reduced its involvement in the team at this point
       so in early 1994 it was renamed 'Arrows Grand Prix
       International'. Warwick and Suzuki were replaced by F3000
       Champion Christian Fittipaldi and Gianni Morbidelli who
       together brought in nine points for the team that year.
       Fittipaldi headed off to the American Indycar series at
       the end of the year but a replacement was quickly found in
       Taki Inoue, a Japanese driver.
       A shortage of funds in 1995 forced Arrows to take on
       drivers who brought sponsorship money with them. Inoue
       didn't make the grade on the track but as he brought
       finance it was Morbidelli who the team had to begrudgingly
       let go. Max Papis arrived to take his place but for the
       last three races Morbidelli returned and duly rewarded the
       team for having faith in him by finishing on the podium in
       In March 1996, the Arrows team was bought by TWR Group
       owner, Tom Walkinshaw, who moved the entire operation to
       new headquarters in Leafield, Oxfordshire. Walkinshaw's
       dream was to turn Arrows into a top-line team. He set
       about his task and hired two promising young drivers, Jos
       Verstappen and Riccardo Rosset. The team proved itself to
       be fast in qualifying but needed to start producing strong
       race results so Arrows needed a driver with a proven
       Walkinshaw pulled off the coup of the year and signed
       newly-crowned F1 World Champion Damon Hill for the 1997
       season. With the new Yamaha engine and Bridgestone tyres,
       the team had a fighting chance and, at the Hungarian Grand
       Prix, the moment they had all been waiting for arrived -
       almost. Hill had put in a stunning performance and was
       leading the race when, on the penultimate lap, he slowed
       dramatically. Hydraulic problems had finally beaten him
       and on the very last lap Jacques Villeneuve got past to
       take the chequered flag. Although delighted with second
       place, the team was greatly disappointed after getting so
       close to a victory.
       In 1998, John Barnard, the famed ex-Ferrari designer
       joined the team along with two new drivers, Mika Salo and
       Pedro Diniz. Together they scored six points that season.
       A lack of money for testing and development meant that the
       black-liveried A19 quickly fell of the pace. The Hart
       designed Arrows V10 which the team built in the absence of
       a factory deal couldn't match the power of Mercedes,
       Renault, Ferrari and the like so did not allow the team to
       exploit the car. Apart from a great drive by Salo to claim
       fourth in Monaco, the year was disappointing. Barnard
       departed, replaced by Mike Coughlan who designed the A20
       for the 1999 season.
       Pedro de la Rosa and Tora Tagaki took the driver's seats
       in 1999 and, in his debut race, Pedro finished in sixth
       place, taking one World Championship point. Unfortunately
       this was to be the only point Arrows collected in 1999. At
       the beginning of the same season, the Arrows team needed
       another injection of cash and it was Nigerian Prince Ado
       Ibrahim Malik who offered the rescue package. In return
       for becoming a co-director with Walkinshaw, Malik sourced
       a 45% buyout of the team from Morgan Grenfell. However,
       Malik's continued failure to source sponsorship money was
       resulted in his departure at the end of that season.
       It was time to move onwards and upwards. Pedro de la Rosa
       was re-signed for 2000 and was joined by Jos Verstappen.
       In March 2000, telecommunications giant, Orange, joined
       Arrows as title sponsor. The increased investment, in
       addition to a new management structure, aided the team's
       ability to develop and create greater security for the all
       new OrangeArrows Team. The A21 chassis, powered by a
       Supertec V10 engine proved to be a strong combination and
       Vertappen and de la Rosa were both able to fight with the
       front-runners. Finishing seventh in the Constructors'
       Championship was a great result for the team and this
       impressive performance was duly awarded when Arrows was
       voted 'Most Improved Team of the Year, 2000' in a public
       opinion vote.
       In 2001, Arrows looked to build on its strong results from
       the previous year. Powered by a new Asiatech engine
       package, and with fresh faces in the race team and design
       office, the team was confident of success. Early signs
       were indeed positive, with the A22 proving its reliability
       in Australia, and Jos Verstappen giving possibly the drive
       of the season in rain-soaked Malaysia, which left the team
       desperately unlucky not have finished in the points.
       Despite other strong efforts, notably in Canada and
       Germany, the team's best result came in Austria, where a
       consistent drive by Verstappen saw him bring home a
       valuable point, in what otherwise proved to be a tough
       season for Arrows.
    BAR (British American Racing)
       Full Team Name: British American Racing Honda
       Web Site: http://www.britishamericanracing.com/
       Sponsors and Partners: Lucky Strike, Honda, Tiscali,
          Intercond, smugone.com, Sonax, Bridgestone, EDS,
          Koni Racing, Acorn, OZ Racing, Barco, Cartwright,
          PerkinElmer, Lincoln Electric, Sandvik Coromant,
          CRP Technology, DeVilbiss Automotive Refinishing,
          AMIK, Acer, NTT DoCoMo, Bottaro
       British American Racing (B.A.R) was formed in November
       1997 by Craig Pollock, Reynard Racing Cars and British
       American Tobacco. British American Racing purchased
       Tyrrell Racing shortly afterwards and moved to a state-of
       the-art 86,000 square foot headquarters in Brackley, near
       Northampton (UK). The facility boasts some of the most up
       to-date, technologically advanced engineering machinery
       available, including a purpose-built wind tunnel.
       B.A.R was launched to the world's media on 2 December
       1997. Jacques Villeneuve, the reigning Formula One World
       Champion, signed to drive for the fledgling team in July
       1998; Ricardo Zonta joined three months later and the
       inaugural driver line-up was complete. With everything in
       place, B.A.R staged its first team launch at Brackley in
       January 1999 - only 14 months after it was founded. The
       team competed in its first-ever Formula One race in
       Melbourne, Australia on 7 March 1999.
       Lessons learnt from a tough first season were put to good
       effect. The new Honda-powered BAR002 came 4th and 6th on
       its first competitive outing in 2000 and went on to finish
       the season equal on points with fourth-placed Benetton.
       British American Racing had finally arrived.
       However, after such a successful second year, Lucky Strike
       B.A.R Honda was unable to continue the momentum into 2001
       and the year petered out into mediocrity. Jacques
       Villeneuve had been joined by the highly experienced and
       versatile Olivier Panis to form one of the best driver
       line-ups in Formula One. However, despite grabbing the
       team's first podiums in Spain and Germany, not even the
       mercurial French-Canadian was able to really conquer a
       hard-to-handle car.
       2002 would have to be a completely fresh start and an all
       new car - the BAR004 - was only the tip of the iceberg.
       Honda designed a completely new engine - the RA002E - and
       announced that it has reached agreement for a new three
       year partnership with the team. In practical terms that
       means Honda is stepping up its involvement in the chassis
       programme and clearly focusing its resources on Formula
       One to underline its determination to win the World
       More good news emerged in the form of an additional
       commitment from technical partner Bridgestone. The Japanes
       tyre giant announced that it has also laid the foundations
       for a long-term partnership with Lucky Strike B.A.R Honda.
       Finally and perhaps of most significance, the team
       revealed that David Richards, founder of Prodrive, would
       take over the reins as Team Principal, following the
       departure of Craig Pollock.
       David Richards' first task was to make a detailed and
       extensive review of the team. As a result of this study a
       new structure was implemented to give clearer lines of
       reporting, more focused accountability and an overall
       leaner organisation. Malcolm Oastler and Andy Green both
       left the team and there was a reduction of some15% of the
       workforce at the Brackley based team.
       Richards commented: 'I have the greatest respect for the
       people who created this team, and the dedication they have
       shown to the task, but at the end of the day the
       organisation has not delivered. I know that Malcolm and
       Andy recognise that the results have been below their
       expectations and I appreciate their disappointment and
       thank them for their efforts.'
       'We need to build a team with a very clear structure, with
       the very best people and give them the responsibility to
       deliver against precisely determined goals. As I have said
       from the beginning, B.A.R has many extremely talented
       people and what we are now doing is giving them the
       framework within which they can fulfil their true
       Following the restructure, the new management team has
       immediately set about the task of turning B.A.R into a
       future World Championship contender, although they are
       under no illusions that it will take a couple of years
       before all the ingredients are in place to challenge the
       top 3 teams.
       Realistically, 2002 has been all about laying a
       foundation, paving the way for the achievement of solid
       longer-term objectives. A great deal of hard work lies
       ahead and B.A.R will rely heavily on the excellent
       relationship it has with its partners Honda and
       Bridgestone to achieve its ambitions.
       With this in mind B.A.R signed Jenson Button in July in a
       four-year deal. 2003 looks like being a very interesting
       year indeed.
       Full Team Name: Scuderia Ferrari
       Web Site: http://www.shellmotorsport.com/
       Sponsors and Partners: Shell
       Scuderia Ferrari, formed in 1929 in Modena, has stamped
       it's charismatic identity on the history of the Formula
       One World Championship, the legend and achievements of
       it's scarlet racing cars standing above all others.
       Motor racing's most successful team, with countless
       sportscar wins and an unrivalled 113 Grand Prix victories
       to its credit, out of 586 Grand Prix starts the stable of
       the prancing horse is also its most historic, exuding
       boundless emotion. Ferrari has contested every World
       Championship since the title was inaugurated in 1950, and
       employed the talents of some of the sport's most colourful
       and talented personalities.
       Journeyman racing driver Enzo Ferrari was manager of the
       most successful of the many private teams racing Alfa
       Romeos in the 1930s, using the emotive cavallino rampante
       (prancing horse) emblem for his Modena-based team; the
       heraldic gift was presented by the Italian World War One
       flying ace Francesco Baracca's family. Ferrari eventually
       became Alfa Romeo's factory sporting director before
       resigning and setting up his own team in 1940; and with
       the designer GioacchinoColombo, the first racing car to
       carry the Ferrari name on it's engine, the 125S, was
       created. It competed in that year's Mille Miglia race.
       After World War Two, Ferrari was amongst those leading the
       revival of motor racing in Europe. Based in the Modena
       suburb of Maranello, the new marque initially enjoyed
       success in sportscar racing, scoring its debut race win in
       1947. The first Formula One design followed in 1948,
       penned by the gifted former Alfa designer, Aurelio
       The advent of the new World Championship saw Ferrari
       developing its V12 engine - a configuration that was to
       become synonymous with his name - the marque claiming its
       first Grand Prix win in 1951 with the Shell fuel and
       lubricated 4.5-litre 375. This set the stage for Ferrari's
       domination of the 1952 season, when Alberto Ascari won the
       first of his back-to-back world titles in Formula Two
       machinery (as set out by new regualtions). The unrivalled
       talent of Juan Manual Fangio was dominant at this time,
       and the World Championship crown did not return to
       Maranello until the Argentinean joined Ferrari in 1956.
       The final World Championship achieved by a front-engined
       car was to be Ferrari's honour in 1958. Fittingly,
       Britain's Mike Hawthorn claimed the title at the wheel of
       a car named after Ferrari's son, Dino, who had succumbed
       to leukaemia two years earlier. The following season's
       rear-engine revolution left Ferrari trailing the British
       teams, as Enzo was reluctant for change. However, in 1961,
       Ferrari's new designer Carlo Chiti created the famous
       (rear-engined) 156 shark nose which carried American Phil
       Hill to the World title in convincing style.
       John Surtees, a World Champion on two wheels, piloted the
       first monocoque-chassis Ferrari to the World title in
       1964, and just missed out on another crown in 1966, the
       debut season of the three-litre formula.
       1968 saw Grand Prix cars radically change in their
       appearance, when Ferrari introduced the use of ground
       effect rear wings. However, the late 1960s proved to be
       somewhat of a dry spell for the team.
       An all-new flat (boxer) 12 engine, designed by Mauro
       Forghieri put the prancing horse back in contention for
       the 1970 World Championships. With the support of it's new
       partner Fiat, Ferrari opened its own test facility at
       Fiorano in 1972, replicating sections of the world's most
       demanding circuits and featuring speed sensors and
       television cameras covering every metre of track. The end
       of the 1973 season saw the arrival of Luca di Montezemolo
       as racing director, and he persuaded the commendatore to
       hire the young Austrian driver Niki Lauda from the
       struggling BRM team. This partnership was to herald the
       full-scale revival of the marque's fortunes.
       Ferrari and Lauda dominated the 1975 season, claiming the
       Driver's title, and di Montezemolo moved on to other
       responsibilities within Fiat. 1976 started where the
       previous season left off, with Lauda convincingly
       dominating the championship. However, his near-fatal
       accident at the Nurburgring put him out of action for
       several months, and despite his heroic comeback at Monza,
       he relinquished the crown to James Hunt. The following
       year, he re-claimed the title.
       Lauda left Ferrari before the end of the year, and was
       replaced by the young Canadian, Gilles Villeneuve. Ferrari
       remained competitive throughout the end of the decade, and
       South African Jody Scheckter clinched the 1979 World crown
       (Ferrari's last) in his first season with the team.
       The face of Grand Prix racing changed yet again with teams
       embracing the turbo-charged engine and a ground-effect
       design philosophy that was to prove ultimately fatal.
       Ferrari was slow to embrace turbos, not fielding its first
       turbocharged mount until the 1981 season. British designer
       Harvey Postlethwaite replaced Forghieri in 1982, and his
       designs propelled the team to the brink of the
       championship, only for fate to cruelly strike down their
       drivers, Gilles Villeneuve and Frenchman Didier Pironi.
       The team managed to gather their emotions and won
       consecutive Constructors' titles. The pace of technical
       development stepped up a gear in 1986 with the opening of
       a wind tunnel and the appointment of design innovator John
       Barnard, from Mclaren, as technical director.
       At a dinner in 1987, the ailing Enzo Ferrari poignantly
       announced: 'I'm coming up to the finishing line,' and just
       a few weeks after a Papal visit to Maranello, he passed
       away on 14 August 1988 in Modena at the age of 90. The
       racing gods smiled on his emotional legacy when the
       scarlet cars scored a famous one-two in the Italian Grand
       Prix a month later.
       Barnard's first design for the marque featured a
       revolutionary semi-automatic gearbox and the car won on
       its debut in 1989. His temporary departure at the end of
       that season affected the team's planning for the 1990
       campaign, and Alain Prost narrowly failed to win the
       championship when he was punted off the track by Ayrton
       Senna at Suzuka. Barnard's return in 1992, along with the
       appointment of Montezemolo as company president and
       Frenchman Jean Todt as racing director, restored the
       team's momentum.
       The 1994 and 1995 seasons saw steady development of the
       team's performance with Gerhard Berger and Jean Alesi
       bringing the prancing horse back to the brink of success.
       The addition of the then World Champion Michael Schumacher
       - and Shell fuel and lubricants for the first time since
       1973 - to the marque's 1996 package saw Ferrari achieve
       three inspired victories in Spain, Belgium and Italy.
       With the new development V10 in the 1999 F399, and the
       unrivalled support of Shell, the famous stable of the
       prancing horse took the Constructors' Championship and
       narrowly missed out on the Drivers' Championship. However,
       the team returned with a vengeance in 2000 to win the
       Drivers' and the Constructors' Championship once again for
       the legendary marque.
       Full Team Name: Jaguar Racing
       Web Site: http://www.jaguar-racing.com/
       Sponsors and Partners: HSBC, Beck's, AT&T, EDS, DuPont,
          HP, Michelin, Castrol, Lear, 3D Systems, Aqua-Pura,
          Rolex, s.Olivier, Volvo Trucks
       Jaguar Racing extends a long and distinguished motorsport
       tradition with its entry into the 2002 Formula One World
       Championship. The company has been involved in motorsport
       since it was founded in 1922. Seven times it has won the
       world's toughest endurance race at Le Mans, been World
       Sports Car Champions three times and in 1956 won both Le
       Mans and the Monte Carlo Rally in the same year.
       The roll call of drivers who have raced Jaguars during the
       past 50 years reads like a Who's Who of motorsport. In the
       Fifties, Mike Hawthorn, Paul Frere, Duncan Hamilton and
       Stirling Moss were regulars with the Jaguar team. Jackie
       Stewart (and brother Jimmy), Sir Jack Brabham, Briggs
       Cuningham and Graham Hill all drove Jaguars during
       successful racing careers. In more recent times, Martin
       Brundle, Tom Walkinshaw, Derek Warwick, Patrick Tambay,
       John Watson, Eddie Cheever and Jan Lammers all drove for
       The lessons learned on the race tracks will benefit the
       Company's customers around the world as Jaguar prepares to
       expand its model range. This will extend the appeal of the
       marque to new sectors of the premium car market.
       Full Team Name: Jordan Grand Prix
       Web Site: http://www.f1jordan.com/
       Sponsors and Partners: Deutsche Post, Benson & Hedges,
          Damovo, Brother, Imation Corp., Hewlett-Packard,
          Virgin Mobile, Liqui Molly, MasterCard, Puma,
          Infineon, vielife, Powermarque, Sparco, Grundig,
          Laurent-Perrier, Honda, Bridgestone, Celerant
          Consulting, Schroth, Touchpaper, Imasaf, KPMG,
          Attenda, Tridion, Bang New Media
       Founded in 1991 by flamboyant Irishman Eddie Jordan
       Jordan Grand Prix has brought colour and a sense of humour
       to Formula One. In just over a decade in the sport, the
       team has also produced impressive results, notably three
       race wins, a further fourteen podiums, plus six front rows
       in qualifying.
       In 1998 the team broke the top four strangle-hold of
       Ferrari, Williams, McLaren and Benetton which had stood
       since 1989; in 1999 Jordan went one better - beating two
       former world champions, Williams and Benetton, to leave
       only the might of Ferrari and McLaren un-challenged. In
       2000, Jordan was the only team to join McLaren and Ferrari
       on the front row of the grid, but the team suffered
       reliability problems which, allied to much bad luck, saw
       it slip to sixth in the Championship. 2001 saw Jordan
       begin a long-term partnership with Honda Motor Company and
       move up to fifth in the World Championship.
       Jordan Grand Prix is based in England at a purpose built
       factory opposite Silverstone circuit in Northamptonshire
       which in 2001 expanded to house ever growing departments
       and staff numbers. The team's wind tunnel is housed in
       nearby Brackley, five miles from Jordan's headquarters.
       From just 43 employees in its first season, the team has
       grown to employ just over 200 staff whilst its budgets
       have increased 600 percent over the last decade. A new
       state of the art factory, adjacent to the current site, is
       scheduled for occupation in time for the 2004 season.
       Jordan enjoys financial backing from sponsors Deutsche
       Post and Benson and Hedges with a further twenty sponsors,
       plus equity investment from investment bank Warburg,
       Pincus*. In addition, from the start of the of the 2001
       season, the team has enjoyed competing with Honda works
       engines and now enters its second year of a long-term
       partnership with Honda in 2002. This support enables
       Jordan to invest in the very latest technologies necessary
       to become a powerful force within Formula One.
       For the 2002 season, Jordan will fight for the World
       Championship with Italy's Giancarlo Fisichella, who
       returns to Jordan on a three year deal after a four year
       absence, and 2001 British F3 Champion and Japan's young
       talent, Takuma Sato. Sato's initial two year contract
       alongside Fisichella gives Jordan vital continuity and a
       dynamic and strong long-term driver line up which will be
       key in the team's development with Honda.
       In 2002, Jordan announced a new racing team name and logo:
       DHL Jordan Honda.
      * Jordan Grand Prix was the first Formula One team to
        acquire equity investment from a financial institution.
        The deal was announced in November 1998.
       Full Team Name: McLaren International
       Web Site: http://www.mclaren.com/
       Sponsors and Partners: West, Mercedes, Mobil1, Michelin,
          BAE Systems, BS Catia, Computer Associates, Loctite,
          Siemens Mobile, Sun Microsystems, BOSS, SAP, Schuco,
          Warsteiner, Advanced Composites Group, Canon,
          Charmilles, Enkei, GS Battery, Kenwood, Mazak Machine
          Tools, Sports Marketing Surveys, Tag Heuer, Targetti
          Lightning, T-Mobil
       Over the next few weeks, we will take you through a
       complete history of the McLaren team, from the first ever
       Grand Prix car produced and driven by Bruce McLaren in
       1966 right through to the present day. In the first part
       of our series we look at how it all began and take you
       through to 1970.
       When Bruce McLaren died in a testing accident at Goodwood
       in 1970 at the young age of 33, he had already established
       a rich heritage which he was to leave to the World of
       motor racing. His team had been phenomenally successful in
       various forms of racing, he had been successful as a
       driver, and he had been much admired as a person and
       greatly loved in the sport.
       That heritage has survived throughout the years. Teddy
       Mayer ran the team for a decade after McLaren's death, Ron
       Dennis then took it over and in the last 20 years, the re
       named McLaren International has enjoyed incredible
       success, run with an attention to detail that the founder
       would have appreciated.
       McLaren's early links with Ford, for instance, are
       mirrored by those currently with Mercedes. To move into
       Grand Prix racing, McLaren established his team under the
       flight path at Colnbrook, near Heathrow. Entering the new
       Millenium, McLaren International's new Paragon Centre on
       the outskirts of Woking in Surrey is establishing new
       standards for racing and performance car construction.
       But it all began on the other side of the world. Bruce
       McLaren was born in Auckland, New Zealand on August 30,
       1937. His father, Leslie, ran a garage and having raced
       motorcycles, moved to racing cars after the war.
       Bruce McLaren himself had an extraordinary childhood; aged
       nine, he contracted Perthe's disease which affects the
       hip. After a month in hospital, he spent three years in a
       home for crippled children, his legs in plaster casts,
       lying in traction, immobile for months on end. Later he
       would be allowed a wheelchair but at one time there were
       fears that he would never walk again. He did so, of
       course, but with a limp; his left leg was 1 1/2 inches
       shorter than his right. All this time, however, he studied
       and was able to graduate to an engineering course at
       Seddon Memorial Technical College. But he was already
       intrigued by motor sport. His father bought an 750 cc
       Austin Ulster Seven but it scared him rigid. Bruce,
       however, persuaded his father that he should race it and
       an early rival was one Phil Kerr, who was to become a
       mainstay in the McLaren team.
       When the Austin was sold(it is now in Woking) Bruce raced
       his father's Austin Healey 100 in 1956/7, but when this
       expired, McLaren managed to buy a bob tailed centre seat
       Cooper, previous raced by Jack Brabham.
       All this time, Bruce was still a student but managed a
       kind of correspondence course with Brabham in England to
       sort out the car. Brabham then suggested bringing a pair
       of Formula Two Coopers to New Zealand for the winter and
       that Bruce would drive one of them. There was a fair
       amount of success, and Bruce went on to become New
       Zealand's first 'Driver to Europe' in 1958.
       McLaren sold his own car and instead bought a new Cooper
       when he arrived in England. It was the start of his
       international career, and he learned about European racing
       as he trailed the little Formula Two car from race to
       race. But it was finishing fifth overall and first in
       Formula Two in the German Grand Prix at the Nurburgring
       that really established him. He took a 1960cc Formula Two
       car home to New Zealand and won his national championship
       that winter.
       For 1959, McLaren was signed as a Cooper Formula One
       driver which he would remain for the next six years. His
       teammate was Jack Brabham and in that first year, he won
       the final Grand Prix of the year at Sebring. He was the
       youngest ever winner of a Grand Prix at 22, and his
       teammate won the World Championship.
       Bruce became engaged to Patty Broad that winter, and would
       marry her the following year. On his return to Europe, he
       was Brabham's teammate again, and once again, the Aussie
       won the World Championship. McLaren actually led the
       championship for a race and won in Argentina. He was
       second to Brabham in the championship.
       Brabham now left the team, leaving McLaren as team leader,
       but new engine regulations cost the team dearly in 1961.
       It was better in 1962 when McLaren was allowed some say in
       the design process and he won at Monaco, finishing third
       in the championship. The following year, however, was very
       difficult. Patty McLaren was injured in a water skiing
       accident, John Cooper was badly injured in a road
       accident, Bruce himself was thrown out of his
       uncompetitive car at the Nurburgring and was knocked out.
       McLaren began to look for alternatives.
       As usual, McLaren wanted to take a car down to New Zealand
       to race in the Tasman series, but his suggestion to slim
       down a pair of Coopers for himself and American Timmy
       Mayer, fell on deaf ears at Cooper. So late in 1963, Bruce
       McLaren and Mayer's brother Teddy registered the name
       Bruce McLaren Motor Racing Ltd was registered. The series
       was a success in that Bruce won the championship, but
       tragic because Mayer was killed. It had sewn the seeds,
       however. He would say that there was nothing like
       designing, building, running and racing your own cars. It
       was full circle. While he would continue as a Cooper
       Formula One driver for another two seasons scoring 13pts
       in 1964 and 10 the following year his own company was
       being established.
       While Formula One remained the major series, big banger
       sports cars were also fashionable on either side of the
       Atlantic. Bruce, via Mayer, bought the ex Mecom/Penske
       Zerez Special and raced it in Europe. That spawned the
       idea of their own car, the McLaren M1, and that was put
       into production by Peter Agg's Lambretta Trojan Group in
       Rye, Sussex. They would make and sell 200 McLarens during
       the next ten years. McLaren was also involved in the
       development of Ford's GT cars.
       McLaren was still Cooper's number one driver in 1965, but
       Charles Cooper died and son John sold the team to the
       Chipstead Motor Group. McLaren, helped by a former
       Concorde senior scientific officer called Robin Herd,
       began to seek other areas than sports cars
       McLaren's first ever Grand Prix car, the McLaren Ford M2B
       appeared at Monaco for the first Grand Prix for the new
       three litre Formula on May 22, powered by a slimmed down
       but still capacious Ford Indy V8. It was the Mallite
       monocoque successor to Robin Herd's M2A test car. It
       qualified tenth of sixteen runners, but completed just
       nine laps before retiring with an oil leak. Two non starts
       in Belgium and Holland sandwiched a sixth place at Brands
       Hatch for the British Grand Prix with the weak Serenessima
       V8 engine. The team, however, was waiting for the return
       of the Ford V8, and they did the last two races of the
       year, McLaren taking fifth Watkins Glen, but the engine's
       swansong resulted in retirement. Chris Amon, who should
       also have raced for the team, never did so. However, in
       its first year, McLaren's Formula One team attempted six
       out of nine races, raced in four of them, and scored
       points in two. At the same time, the team was also busy in
       the British Group 7 sports car series while McLaren and
       Amon won Le Mans in a 7.0 Ford GT Mark 2.
       For their second year, McLaren decided to race just one
       car in Formula One with the team boss in the cockpit.
       Initially, they would have a 2.1 BRM engine available, but
       a 3.0 V12 unit was on its way. So Robin Herd adapted the
       M4A, initially a Formula 2/3 car, to be used with the
       smaller engine, this being called the M4B.
       McLaren did just two Grands Prix in this car, it being
       tailormade for the twists and turns of Monaco where he
       finished a fine fourth, although second was on the cards
       until a pit stop. But he crashed on lap two due to an oil
       slick in the Dutch Grand Prix and that was the end of the
       M4B effort.
       Instead, McLaren subsequently raced an Eagle in France,
       Britain and Germany, although without any success,
       certainly not that enjoyed by Gurney in the preceding
       Belgian Grand Prix which he won.
       McLaren then did the remaining four races in the
       championship in Herd's M5A with its BRM V12 engine, but
       while he finished the first of those races in seventh
       place, he failed to finish the remaining three although he
       qualified in the top ten each time and on the front row at
       Greater success was enjoyed by the orange M6As in CanAm
       racing where McLaren and Deny Hulme won five out of six
       races and Bruce became champion. (Hulme was Formula One
       World Champion for Brabham). The boss also did a few
       Formula Two races too... All this while running a
       successful customer side, although the cars were produced
       by Trojan.
       Partly thanks to Goodyear and Gulf Oil, Denny Hulme signed
       up with McLaren to make a formidable Kiwi combination in
       1968. The pairing of Formula One World Champion and CanAm
       champion racing together in both series was a powerful
       one. But McLaren, like Lotus and Matra, also had the
       benefit of the new DFV engine which gave some sixty bhp
       more than the BRMs. Once again, the chassis design was
       mainly by Robin Herd, before he left for Cosworth.
       However, the first race of the season was some four and a
       half months before the second, so Hulme only raced a BRM
       engined M5A in South Africa where he finished fifth. Next
       up came two non championship races in England, ideal tests
       for the new Cosworth powered M7A and it performed
       magnificently: victory for McLaren in the Race of
       Champions at Brands Hatch, for Hulme at the International
       Trophy at Silverstone, with McLaren second.
       The rest of the season went pretty well too, although
       Lotus with Hill and Matra with Stewart just had the edge
       on the McLarens, although all three were using the same
       DFV engines. McLaren won a Grand Prix for the first time
       using his own car in Belgium, while Hulme won in Italy and
       Canada, leading home McLaren in the team's first one two
       at Mont Tremblant. But in the final race of the season,
       Hulme crashed due to a broken damper and was beaten into
       third in the Drivers' title, although McLaren were just 13
       points behind winners Lotus in the Constructors' thanks to
       super reliability.
       In CanAm, works and customer cars dominated with Hulme
       winning the title this time and McLaren 11 points behind
       in second.
       McLaren's record just got better and better, even though
       they were still using the M7s from the previous year and
       were somewhat distracted by going down the fashionable,
       but ultimately fruitless, four wheel drive road with the
       M9A. It was also the era of high wings, until they were
       banned, so aerodynamics were somewhat varied. Nearly all
       the opposition were running dominant DFVs, apart from BRM
       and Ferrari.
       Tyres, reliability, rule changes, 11 CanAm races and the
       four wheel drive programme all took their toll on the
       straightforward Grand Prix campaign. McLaren got onto the
       rostrum three times during the year but Hulme had a very
       poor second half of the second, only alleviated by victory
       in the final round of the series in Mexico, as Goodyear's
       latest tyres began to overcome Firestone and Dunlop's
       early season form. Even so, the team sunk to fourth in the
       But the team's orange M8Bs won every round of that busy
       CanAm series, lead by Bruce McLaren himself while Peter
       Gethin dominated the Formula 5000 championship in Church
       Farm Racing's M10A. It may not have been a good year in
       Grand Prix racing, but there was plenty to shout about
       The death of Bruce McLaren while testing the team's latest
       CanAm challenger at Goodwood not surprisingly overshadowed
       the entire year. It was going to be a busy one. Not only
       was there a Grand Prix programme with the evolutionary DFV
       powered M14As, but also a parallel programme with Alfa
       Romeo powered M14Ds, principally for Andrea de Adamich. On
       top of that, there was still the CanAm programme, and
       McLaren had decided, the previous year, that they would
       tackle the Indy 500. They had moved to new premises at
       Colnbrook, near Heathrow, and now numbered 50 people.
       Hulme finished second in the first Grand Prix of the year,
       and McLaren was similarly placed in the second. Hulme
       finished fourth in Monaco, and although the Alfa Romeo
       programme suffered from inconsistent engines, things were
       looking good otherwise.
       But then Hulme was badly burnt in an Indy practice fire,
       and days later, McLaren was killed. It was a cruel blow.
       Perhaps Hulme, shouldering team leader status, came back
       to racing too early, but it would take some time for his
       burns to heal. Peter Gethin, again successful in Formula
       5000, became his teammate in Grand Prix racing and in
       CanAm. But in a year that Lotus replaced their 49 with a
       72, and when Ferrari began to make a comeback, it was no
       surprise that McLaren didn't win a single race, and
       remained at fourth equal in the championship. However,
       Hulme won the CanAm title again from customer Lothar
       Motschenbacher with Gethin third. Peter Revson finished
       second at Indy.
       Not surprisingly, the team was still in the process of
       rebuilding as 1971 started. Gordon Coppuck was
       concentrating on the design of the team's IndyCar
       challenger, while Ralph Bellamy joined from Brabham for a
       year to design the factory's Formula One M19A. It featured
       rising rate suspension which initially seemed a good idea.
       Elsewhere, the management of the team passed to Phil Kerr
       and American Teddy Mayer who had both been Bruce McLaren's
       right hand men in various departments.
       Hulme lead the first race of the year at Kyalami until a
       bolt fell out of the rear suspension but thereafter, the
       team was in trouble, partially due to tyre vibration and
       understeer. Bruce McLaren's engineering ability was sorely
       missed. Mark Donohue became a semi works driver in his
       Penske entered machine to try and solve the problem,
       bumping Gethin out of the team to BRM, with whom he won
       the Italian Grand Prix that year.
       Donohue's third place in Canada was the highlight in a
       year dominated by Jackie Stewart and Tyrrell, while
       McLaren scored just ten points, including Donohue's four.
       But McLaren again won the CanAm series with the M8F, Hulme
       ahead of Revson. The American again finished second at
       McLaren's commitments can be typified by the weekend of
       May 19, 1972. That weekend, Hulme won the Oulton Park Gold
       Cup in the Formula One M19A, Jody Scheckter won the last
       Crystal Palace Formula Two race in McLaren's stillborn F2
       production car, the M21, and Mark Donohue won the Indy 500
       in Penske Racing's M16B. A fine McLaren weekend. For the
       record, McLaren were finally beaten the CanAm championship
       that year, after five consecutive victories, while their
       F5000 involvement was petering out.
       But a new era was dawning. The team had full sponsorship
       from Yardley and this year ran the previous year's M19s
       but with changes to wings and tyres. They now had rising
       rate front suspension, and constant rear suspension.
       The season started well, with Hulme second in Argentina
       and then first in South Africa where Revson was third. But
       Emerson Fittipaldi and Jackie Stewart made sure that they
       had little subsequent success, although Hulme and Revson
       were second and third in Austria, Hulme was third in
       Italy, Revson finished ahead of Hulme and behind Stewart
       in Canada and Hulme finished third in the USA. So
       Fittipaldi won the championship from Stewart, while Hulme
       was definitely best of the rest in third and Revson was
       fifth. After his Formula Two promise, Jody Scheckter was
       given his Formula One debut in the American Grand Prix
       where he finished ninth.
       At the end of the previous year, Teddy Mayer and Phil Kerr
       had announced that McLaren would no longer be involved in
       CanAm, so now the concentration was on Formula One and
       IndyCar racing. Changes in regulations meant that the
       elderly M19s would become obsolete by the European season,
       but Hulme finished fifth in Argentina in his, and then
       third in Brazil, while Revson finished second in South
       Africa where Scheckter qualified third and was heading for
       fourth until his engine failed.
       And if that promise wasn't enough, the writing was already
       on the wall for McLaren: Gordon Coppuck's M23, complete
       with obligatory deformable structure, allowed Denny Hulme
       to start from pole on its debut in South Africa and once
       again lead, only to be delayed again, this time by a
       puncture. It looked good.
       And it was good. The M23s usually started from the front
       three rows and were usually in the points. Hulme scored
       the first win of the year at Anderstorp and Revson won at
       Silverstone, a race indelibly engraved in the memory of
       motor sport for young teammate Scheckter's first lap
       accident which eliminated nine cars. Hulme was third.
       Stewart and Peterson often traded wins, but there was
       usually a McLaren in the points. Jacky Ickx did one race
       thanks to his Nurburgring knowledge and finished third
       behind the Tyrrells. Revson was eventually awarded a
       chaotic Canadian Grand Prix, but in spite of a promising
       season, the pair had to give best in the Drivers'
       championship to the Tyrrell and Lotus drivers. McLaren
       were similarly placed in the Constructors' series.
       A new era for McLaren, and a partnership that would last
       for many years: Marlboro Team Texaco was born, managed by
       Teddy Mayer, while Yardley's involvement was slightly
       reduced to one car run by Phil Kerr, principally for Mika
       Hailwood. Leading the team was 1972 World Champion Emerson
       Fittipaldi while the evergreen Denny Hulme stayed with
       McLaren for his seventh but final year.
       It was a thrilling championship. Hulme won in Argentina,
       beating Ferrari's Niki Lauda and Clay Regazzoni.
       Fittipaldi won at home in Brazil, while Hailwood was
       highest placed finisher in South Africa. Lauda,
       Fittipaldi, Peterson(Lotus) and Scheckter(Tyrrell) won the
       next four races; it was that open. Regazzoni and
       Reutemann(Brabham) also won.
       Going into the final round of the championship, McLaren
       led Ferrari 70 pts to 64, while Fittipaldi and Regazzoni
       were tied on 52 points. Scheckter still had a mathematical
       chance with 45 points. He qualified best, on row three,
       with Fittipaldi behind him and Regazzoni a row further
       back. Hulme's engine expired on lap five and he flew out
       of the circuit and Formula One before the race had
       With Regazzoni's Ferrari handling appallingly, Fittipaldi
       knew he just had to shadow Scheckter to the flag, but the
       Tyrrell succumbed to a fuel pick up problem, and
       Fittipaldi finished fourth, securing the Drivers' title
       and the Constructors' too, a great day for McLaren.
       Sadly, the Yardley team didn't fare so well, with Hailwood
       crashing at the Nurburgring and breaking his leg, which
       ended his career. David Hobbs and Jochen Mass replaced
       him, but at the end of the year, Hailwood retired, Yardley
       quit and Phil Kerr followed Hulme home to New Zealand.
       But making it a better year, Johnny Rutherford took his
       M16C/D from 25th on the grid to victory at Indy, while he
       won another three IndyCar races during the year, narrowily
       failing to win the IndyCar championship.
       Pat McLaren, Teddy Mayer and Tyler Alexander remained the
       directors of McLaren at the end of the victorious season,
       but Alastair Caldwell remained to manage the Formula One
       team. Also largely unaltered was Gordon Coppuck's M23, now
       entering its third season. However, Fittipaldi had a new
       teammate in Jochen Mass.
       Fittipaldi started the season with victory over James
       Hunt(Hesketh) in Argentina and second to compatriot Carlos
       Pace(Brabham) at home in Brazil Mass was third. Mass
       salvaged a win from the Montjuich disaster but then Niki
       Lauda took over in the Ferrari with four wins in five
       races. McLaren's pair scored second in Monaco(Fittipaldi),
       and after a couple of non finishes, third and fourth in
       France. Fittipaldi won at Silverstone, Mass was fourth in
       the soaking Austrian GP, Fittipaldi second to Regazzoni at
       Monza, before harrying Lauda to the flag in Watkins Glen,
       with Jochen third.
       There were suggestions that Fittipaldi had been driving to
       score points. He lead the sixth most number of laps, and
       in the end, he was 19.5 pts behind Lauda in the drivers'
       series. Mass was seventh equal while McLaren were third in
       the series, a point behind Brabham. Perhaps they could
       have done better, but the M23 was an old car by now. At
       Indy, Johnny Rutherford finished second in the rain
       shortened race, driving Coppuck's John Barnard modified
       Two sets of circumstances combined to see James Hunt
       replace Emerson Fittipaldi for 1976. Hesketh, for whom
       Hunt had driven for the previous two years, pulled out of
       Formula One, due to lack of sponsorship. And Fittipaldi
       went off to drive for brother Wilson's team. Suddenly Hunt
       was team leader of McLaren, Mass staying on as his
       The tool for the year was intended to be Coppuck's M26,
       but it still wasn't ready, so M23s, lightened by 13.6
       kilos were used initially, and became the favoured car for
       the year.
       And what a year! Ferrari won the first three races, Hunt
       the fourth, disqualified, and then reinstated. Lauda then
       won another two, Hunt came back to win in France and then
       in Britain, only to be disqualified, eventually, after an
       extraordinary race in which he was allowed to restarted in
       the spare car.
       Hunt won in Germany too, but his chief rival, Lauda, was
       desperately injured in a fiery crash. While Hunt went on
       to finish fourth in Austria and first in Holland, Lauda
       fought back from the brink of death to line up at Monza,
       finishing a courageous fourth. Victories for Hunt in
       Canada and Watkins Glen saw Hunt trail Lauda by three
       points as they came into the final race, after a season of
       protests and controversy.
       It was raining hard as the cars lined up for the Japanese
       Grand Prix at Fuji, drivers having discussed whether they
       should race or not. Lauda pitted after just one lap, Hunt
       lead. The Austrian had trouble seeing in the rain, due to
       his fire ravaged eyebrows. He reluctantly but responsibly
       pulled out.
       Hunt, however, had to finish third or higher. But his left
       rear tyre was punctured, and steadily he dropped back,
       eventually having to pit. Furious, he rejoined fifth, with
       just three laps to go. On new tyres, he passed Alan Jones
       and Regazzoni easily, now third. He took the chequered
       flag, but scarcely realised that he was third, refusing to
       believe it for several minutes after he'd come into the
       James Hunt was World Champion by a point, Jochen Mass was
       ninth, and McLaren were second in the Constructors'
       championship, nine points behind Ferrari.
       And to cap it all, Johnny Rutherford had won Indy for
       McLaren for the second time in three years; even numbered
       years were favourite for McLarens at Indy.
       A minute gap between the end of one season and the
       beginning of the next of just 75 days meant that McLaren
       quite understandably retained their M23s for 1977 while
       working on Coppuck's M26. Initially, it looked good. Hunt
       was on pole for the Argentina Grand Prix and for Brazil,
       finishing second in the latter. He was on pole again in
       South Africa, beating teammate Jochen Mass to finish
       But at Long Beach, he was only eighth and again on row
       four in Spain. Teammate Mass finished ahead of him on both
       occasions. Hunt qualified the M26 third in Anderstorp, but
       Mass finished second to Laffite. The M23 sometimes seemed
       better, sometimes the M26. Hunt scored his first win of
       the season at home in the latter. Meanwhile Lauda, Laffite
       and Andretti were also potential winners.
       It wasn't until Monza that McLaren were in the points
       again. In spite of Hunt's pole position, Mass finished
       fourth, but Hunt won at Watkins Glen in the now improving
       M26. He was branded the bad boy after thumping a marshal
       in Canada, only to return to glory in Japan with victory.
       But Lauda had had his revenge, Hunt was only fifth with
       Mass sixth in the championship. At least McLaren was third
       in the Constructors' series.
       Elsewhere, McLaren were once again involved with Johnny
       Rutherford and various customers in IndyCar racing but not
       with the success gained before.
       Hunt had a new teammate in Patrick Tambay, while Formula
       One was undergoing a change. Renault had introduced their
       turbo car the previous year although that wasn't the major
       technical trend. Former McLaren designer Ralph Bellamy and
       Colin Chapman had come up with the Lotus 78/79 ground
       effect cars, and it would be this innovation which would
       prove difficult for other teams to match in the coming
       Hunt and Tambay would continue to use the M26 in 1978 but
       they would be largely outclassed by Lotus in particular,
       but also Ferrari with the 312T3 and Brabham with their
       Alfa Romeo powered BT46s but principally, the Lotuses.
       Hunt scored fourth with the tried and tested M26 at the
       first race in Argentina, then fifth in Spain, while Tambay
       was fourth in Sweden. Hunt was third at Ricard and Tambay
       fifth in Monza but the team was back in eighth place at
       the end of the year.
       Some blame rested with Hunt, that he didn't seem to have
       the determination and fire of old. He had been ditched by
       the team and Ronnie Peterson signed for the following
       year, but the Swede tragically lost his life after a
       startline accident at Monza.
       Meanwhile, McLaren's proven old M23s were much in favour,
       being run in the British Formula One championship and
       appearing in various privateer hands at various Grands
       Prix. In America, Johnny Rutherford was still winning for
       the McLaren team in IndyCar racing, and there were
       privateer successes as well.
       John Watson was signed to replace James Hunt for 1979,
       while Gordon Coppuck came up with his own copy of the
       previous year's all conquering ground effect Lotus. This
       was the M28 but to get the same ground effect figures as
       Lotus, the car had grown huge side pods in which to
       accommodate underwings. It made for a big car which was
       slow on the straights. It also sufferes structurally, due
       to problems with the bonding.
       The M28 was raced for the first half of the season, and
       Watson scored an impressive third in Argentina, partially
       thanks to excellent Goodyear tyres, which masked the
       technical problems. Watson finished fourth in Monaco out
       of six finishers.
       However, as early as May 1, a decision had been taken to
       develop a new, compact replacement for the M28, known as
       the M29. This was more of a Williams copy than a Lotus,
       said Coppuck. In its first race, the British Grand Prix,
       Watson finished fourth and finished fifth at Hockenheim.
       Sixths in Canada and America followed, before the season
       fizzled out.
       Meanwhile, the American campaign was also coming to a
       halt. There were top three finishes in the States, but by
       the end of the season, the team had been wound up. McLaren
       now only raced in Formula One.
       However, there was just one ray of sunlight in the future.
       In November of that year, the team tested an interim M29
       with new underwings. Potential drivers for the following
       season were also on hand, including one Alain Prost. His
       opening laps were quicker than Watson's. He was quickly
       signed for 1980...
       Alain Prost's initial promise was borne out throughout the
       first half of the season, with the Frenchman usually
       outqualifying his teammate. He scored a point in his first
       ever Grand Prix in Argentina, and went on to finish fifth
       in Brazil. Two mechanical breakages in South Africa
       resulted in a broken wrist which kept him out of Long
       Beach. Stand in Stephen South failed to qualify but Watson
       finished an encouraging fourth.
       Belgium offered little respite, and they hit rock bottom
       in Monaco where Watson failed to qualify, and Prost went
       out at the first corner. Prost qualified seventh in France
       and Watson finished in the same position while Prost was
       sixth at Brands Hatch.
       But by this stage, there were developments on two fronts.
       A new, M30 was on the stocks, designed by Gordon Coppuck
       and 50 per cent stiffer. Prost took his model to sixth on
       its debut in Holland.
       But more importantly, there were changes afoot for the
       team as a whole. Formula Two team owner Ron Dennis and
       Marlboro representatives had already approached Mayer a
       year before, suggesting a merger. Now Marlboro, for whom
       Dennis's Project Four team was running a BMW M1 in the
       Procar series, told Mayer that he had better merge because
       they were no longer competitive on their own. Mayer was
       wise enough to heed the advice.
       Part of the deal was that Dennis would bring his own
       designer, John Barnard, and Gordon Coppuck would have to
       leave. The merger, announced in September of 1980, saw
       Dennis and Mayer as joint Managing Directors of McLaren
       International. Mayer was also Chairman while Tyler
       Alexander, one of the McLaren's early members, and Barnard
       would both be Directors.
       By this stage, Watson had rediscovered his old fire, and
       with Barnard's input, his M29 and the M30 were to score
       points. Watson was a competitive fourth in Canada but
       Prost suffered another breakage at Watkins Glen and was
       once again injured, unable to start the race. It had been
       a poor season, but the dawn of a new era.
       In spite of the promise of the new team, and John
       Barnard's forthcoming carbon fibre monocoque for the first
       MP4(Marlboro Project Four), Alain Prost found a way out of
       his contract to leave the team to drive for Renault, his
       national team. Watson hung onto his seat, and was
       partnered by Marlboro's Italian hope, de Cesaris.
       The team started the year with old M29s, now in F
       configuration and it wasn't until the third race in
       Argentina that Watson got his MP4. Two races later, he
       qualified fifth and two races after that, finished third
       in the queue behind Villeneuve in Spain. At Dijon, he was
       on the front row of the grid and finished second, and at
       Silverstone, he won! All this was against a background of
       technical chicanery to get around new rules to combat
       ground effect, and Formula One politics pitching governing
       body FISA against the teams.
       There was another point for Watson in Hockenheim and
       Austria, while he was second in Canada. But the MP4 was
       prone to porpoising, and it didn't make a driver's task
       easy. De Cesaris's season was remembered as being a
       succession of accidents, earning him the nickname de
       Crasheris, while Watson had a big accident at Monza from
       which he was lucky to walk away uninjured. De Cesaris was
       sure not to keep his seat, but Watson's win and subsequent
       form ensured that he kept his. Before the end of the year,
       it was announced that he would be partnered the following
       season by his old Brabham teammate, Niki Lauda, who was
       emerging from retirement.
       Barnard only slightly modified his MP4 for its
       transformation to B specification. The chassis had lasted
       well, so Barnard tried to slim down the monocoques, modify
       the suspension and increase stiffness throughout. Set up
       on Michelin's tyre proved crucial and the team worked hard
       in both their own local wind tunnel in Feltham and that of
       Michelin. Carbon fibre brake discs were also tried during
       the year.
       The season started remarkably well, with Lauda fourth and
       Watson sixth, both in the points. Watson picked up second
       in Brazil after the disqualifications of Piquet and
       Rosberg. Proving that he'd lost none of his magic, Lauda
       won at Long Beach while it was Watson's turn at the tragic
       Belgian Grand Prix, with Lauda third. However, the
       Austrian was disqualified for being underweight. Watson
       was a point behind leader Prost in the Drivers'
       championship, and McLaren led the Constructors'.
       After a disappointing Monaco, Watson sensationally won the
       inaugural Detroit Grand Prix from 17th on the grid,
       partially helped by a stoppage which allowed him to fit
       harder Michelins to iron out understeer. He scythed
       through the field, past his teammate who then spun, but
       Watson and McLaren now led their championships.
       Watson was third in Canada a week later, while Lauda was
       then fourth in Holland, and then won at Brands Hatch.
       McLaren still led the Constructors' but Watson was now
       second in the Drivers' series to Pironi. After the turbo
       Renaults and Ferraris dominated at Ricard, Pironi was
       badly injured in Germany and Lauda also suffered wrist
       injury when he spun off, and would miss the race. Watson's
       suspension broke and he spun out of third. Lauda scored an
       unexciting fifth in Austria, but Rosberg's close second  \
       elevated him to championship leader, a position reinforced
       by victory at Dijon where Watson damaged a skirt and
       dropped to 13th.
       Lauda scored points at Dijon, and Watson scored in Monza,
       his first points in three months which just kept his hopes
       alive but even a fine second in Las Vegas wasn't enough,
       and Rosberg won the title by five points and Ferrari had a
       similar margin in the Constructors'.
       Late in 1982, two things happened which were crucial to
       McLaren. The first was that Teddy Mayer and fellow
       director Tyler Alexander left the team, feeling that they
       were no longer required in the new structure, leaving
       Dennis and Barnard to run the show. Secondly, the second
       phase of an agreement with Porsche to build turbocharged
       V6 engines financed by Akram Ojjeh's Techniques d'Avant
       Garde or TAG was signed. Ojjeh's son Mansour formed a
       company jointly with Ron Dennis and McLaren for the
       The emphasis of the season was weighted towards running
       this engine, particularly when new regulations came into
       effect banning ground effect and calling for cars to run
       flat bottoms. This effectively robbed cars of their
       downforce, and larger front and rear wings would be needed
       to compensate for this loss. However, they would be used
       at the expense of drag, which would handicap the less
       powerful Cosworth runners in comparison to the turbo
       powered entrants. Another handicap was that tyres
       developed for turbo runners weren't necessarily suitable\
       for those running normally aspirated engines...
       So McLaren were looking at several disadvantages during
       the year. The cars were modified for the new aerodynamic
       regulations but they had to bear in mind the forthcoming
       engine. Often they won the Cosworth battle during the
       year, and sensationally, won the second race of the season
       at Long Beach, with Watson and Lauda completing a McLaren
       one two from 22nd and 23rd on the grid! Equally poor
       qualifying at Monaco, however, resulted in neither of them
       starting the race at all.
       Lauda ran the TAG engine in Holland for the first time and
       both drivers had them for the final three races of the
       year. Qualifying positions improved, but neither driver
       finished, as the team began the steep turbo learning curve
       already experienced by other teams and drivers.
       After several seasons of preparation, McLaren now had all
       the weapons that they needed. Barnard changed his chassis
       little, but it did feature new rear suspension. The engine
       development continued during the winter and Alain Prost
       returned to McLaren after being sent on his way by
       Renault, with whom he had gained valuable turbo
       experience. McLaren may have been among the last to join
       the turbo brigade, but they had prepared the ground well.
       They hit the ground running. Alain Prost won the first
       race of the year in Brazil, Niki Lauda led his teammate
       home in the second and while they may not have featured in
       the third, they won the next three between them. At
       season's end, they had won 12 races between them,
       clinching the Constructors' championship by a massive 86
       points, more than that scored by second placed Ferrari.
       Their matched pair of drivers were separated by just half
       a point, Lauda pipping Prost.
       It was a phenomenal demonstration and a warning to all. If
       this was the way McLaren were heading, then rivals would
       have to match this effort. Having said that, Porsche
       certainly had their problems with the engine, although
       rarely in races. And McLaren worked carefully on fine
       tuning brake cooling throughout the year, and had just one
       problem with Prost's front wheel working loose at Dijon.
       Otherwise, it was a pretty remarkable year.
       After the victorious and dominant 1984 season, McLaren
       were quite rightly the team in everyone's sights in 1985.
       Most elements in the team were largely unchanged, apart
       from the departure of Michelin. To keep abreast of the
       competition, John Barnard introduced new bodywork, new
       rear suspension, new front uprights and new wings.
       On the engine side, there weren't huge changes, although
       Barnard was highly complimentary about Bosch's Motronic
       electronic management system, while mirror image KKK
       turbochargers were custom made for TAG's V6 instead of the
       previous identical models.
       Three wins by Alain Prost in the first four races - if one
       includes the chaotic San Marino Grand Prix from which he
       was subsequently disqualified - suggested that McLaren
       hadn't lost their touch although Lauda could only claim a
       single fourth place, two mechanical retirements and a spin
       on oil. A further string of retirements followed, while
       Prost won at Silverstone, was second in Germany, won again
       in Austria, and then harried his teammate all the way to
       the line in Zandvoort as Lauda regained form. However, a
       wrist injury suffered two races later in Belgium merely
       served to confirm his decision to retire from the sport.
       Replaced by John Watson for the next race, he retired
       after a year that reaped only 14 points and which Ron
       Dennis described as 'unlucky'
       Prost had clinched the title by round 14 of the sixteen
       races and McLaren were Constructors' champions again,
       although this time only eight points ahead of Ferrari.
       It is often said that this was a season that Williams
       Honda lost rather than McLaren won. Piquet and Mansell
       both had a chance, yet Prost pinched the title in the last
       round at Adelaide, when Mansell suffered a tyre
       delamination, and when Prost himself thought he was going
       to run out of fuel. Praise was fullsome for the Frenchman
       who won his second world title back to back, and McLaren
       won their third consecutive Constructors' title.
       John Barnard, who was to leave McLaren for Ferrari during
       the summer, made detailed modifications to the MP4/2Bs
       that were to become 2Cs, particularly given the new 195
       litre fuel tank restrictions. There was a six-speed
       gearbox but apart from the latest version of Bosch's
       Motronic engine management system, the engines were little
       One small headache was new recruit Rosberg's press on
       style of driving, so different to Prost's and previous
       teammate Lauda's. It was only after Monaco that the Finn's
       set up was changed.
       After both engines failed in Brazil, Prost was third in
       Spain, then won at Imola and at Monaco. A point in Belgium
       (in spite of a remarkably bent engine mounting), then
       second in Canada kept their hopes alive, but then Williams
       seemed to gain the upper hand with better fuel
       consumption. Only late in the season did Prost reassert
       the team's position with a win in Austria, second in
       Portugal and Mexico and the crucial win in Australia. But
       once again he had lost his teammate and now the technical
       director had gone too. McLaren were going to have to
       Something old, something new: TAG's legendary engine was
       getting long in the tooth; Stefan Johansson arrived to
       partner Alain Prost, and Steve Nichols became Formula One
       project leader following John Barnard's departure the
       previous year. He had worked on the car and with Barnard,
       and now estimated what needed to be left and what changed.
       The suspension was left, as was the gearbox, but a new
       monocoque was designed, with new aerodynamics and a small
       housing for the smaller fuel tank.
       Meanwhile Porsche raised the compression ratio of the TAG
       engine three times in order to improve fuel efficiency but
       then engine development failed to reap rewards and a
       misfire set in. Alain Prost won in Brazil, Johansson was
       third there and fourth at Imola. The pair were first and
       second at Spa but a couple of thirds were the only reward
       from the next four races. The increase in power had in
       turn resulted in an increase in weight, upsetting the
       engine's balance, causing vibration. In Germany, Prost was
       heading for victory until an alternator belt broke five
       laps from home. It was a curious failure as the belt
       hadn't broken in 100,000 miles of racing, and had then
       broken several times.
       Another lean spell ensued as Honda dominated and active
       suspension became the fashion, but Prost was back on top
       in Portugal and second in Jerez, before sinking into
       oblivion again with only Johansson's third in Suzuka as
       Sadly, Johansson was to be elbowed by a dream team in
       1988; Dennis has succeeded not only in attracting Ayrton
       Senna, but also Honda...
       In theory, this was a transitional year for Formula One,
       as the turbo boost was lowered from four bar to 2.8 to
       give the advantage to normally aspirated engines in
       preparation for a turbo ban and fuel capacity lowered from
       195 to 150 litres. In practice, it allowed McLaren, Honda,
       Alain Prost and Ayrton Senna to rewrite the record books
       as they totally dominated the year.
       The statistics are simple: McLaren won 15 out of 16 races,
       Senna winning eight(he was disqualified from the first
       race in Brazil), Prost seven. Senna therefore won the
       championship by three points; both drivers had double the
       points of third placed Gerhard Berger. Similarly, McLaren
       scored three times as many points as the second team in
       the Constructors' championship, winning with 199 points to
       Ferrari's 65. Senna started the first six races from pole
       position, and added another seven before the end of the
       year. It was a magnificent, mind numbing performance by
       team and drivers; scarcely exciting, but mightily
       impressive in its perfection.
       The drivers did occasionally clash, particularly when
       Senna chopped Prost at Jerez, and both were beyond the
       limit at Monza, where Senna's audacity in lapping Jean
       Louis Schlesser's Williams resulted in retirement. He also
       lost concentration at Monaco and ended up in the barrier.
       Prost, once again, revealed his dislike of wet conditions.
       Steve Nichols once again led the design team which had to
       cope with new cockpit regulations as well as the smaller
       fuel tank, so much of the car was new, which made it even
       more deserving. Honda reliability was exceptional and
       overall reliability was phenomenal, all contributing to a
       record breaking season. They deserved everything they got.
       While Steve Nichols's MP4/4 design had been winning the
       final championship of the turbo era, Neil Oatley had been
       hard at work on McLaren's first chassis for the return to
       normally aspirated, but now 3.5 litre engines. Although
       the end result was the same - McLaren winning both
       Constructors' and Drivers' Championships - there was no
       surprise that they didn't quite enjoy the domination of
       However, a McLaren led every race but Portugal (where
       Senna started from pole), and he and Prost won ten of the
       16 races, Prost with four to Senna's six, although it was
       the Frenchman who claimed the Drivers' title with just
       three retirements to the Brazilian's nine non-scores.
       But that just tells half the story. It was a year in which
       Prost became increasingly paranoid about his teammate.
       They fell out at Imola, when Prost felt that Senna had
       breached a no passing agreement. Prost went further at
       Monaco where Senna scored a superb victory, apparently
       without second gear. At Monza Prost accused Honda of
       favouring Senna and would then reveal that he was leaving
       the team. Earlier in the year, he had written off a
       monocoque at Phoenix, the first such accident he'd had in
       five and a half years with the team. Three races later, he
       and Senna collided at the Suzuka chicane, and even though
       neither of them scored points in the last two races, the
       championships still went to McLaren.
       Against this intensely political background, McLaren and
       Honda provided the best combination for the best two, if
       different, drivers in the field. Oatley's design still
       followed similar lines to those before, but weight shaving
       continued throughout the year, although it also suffered a
       handling imbalance. The team also introduced a complete
       new rear end, based around a transverse gearbox, midway
       through the season.
       Honda, meanwhile, made a phenomenal effort, with five
       different specifications of engine for various conditions,
       circuits and situations. They reaped their reward, but
       there was a human cost. And it was interesting that Senna
       suffered more mechanical failures than Prost...
       Prost's defection to Ferrari also saw Steve Nichols leave
       McLaren, but Neil Oatley's design from the previous season
       had been successful and he was entrusted with what became
       a B version of the same car. It incorporated different
       front suspension, revisions to the six speed transverse
       gearbox, aerodynamic profile changes and a multi-arch
       diffuser which was ultimately discarded.
       Senna's new teammate, Gerhard Berger, didn't fit into this
       new design, however, in spite of initial changes to the
       car, and it was no surprise that Gerhard was somewhat
       downhearted until further changes almost resolved the
       problem at mid season.
       Senna, meanwhile, was leading from the front. Indeed, he
       led every race of the season apart from Hungary where he
       harried Thierry Boutsen to the flag, and Suzuka, where he
       punted Prost off at the first corner to claim the
       Against a continued backdrop of acrimony with the
       governing body from the previous year, McLaren claimed the
       first race at Phoenix, in spite of the late completion of
       their cars. Berger set pole position but Senna would be on
       pole for the next four and then Berger. In all, Senna
       started from pole ten times during the year.
       But Prost at Ferrari proved a formidable opponent with
       team-mate Mansell, and Williams's pairing of Boutsen and
       Patrese also had their fair share of success. Honda again
       supplied McLaren with a variety of engines which often
       suffered power loss during the year, while McLaren
       themselves suffered a drop in performance mid season.
       Typically, they reacted well and returned to claim both
       titles, only the second time that the Constructors' series
       had been won three times in a row.
       For the fourth time in as many years and the third time
       with Honda McLaren had a different engine specification to
       use. Otherwise, things were pretty much the same, apart
       from Henri Durand helping chief designer Neil Oatley on
       the aerodynamics side of the latest car.
       The new engine and its thirst not surprisingly, demanded
       several changes to the car's layout. Front suspension was
       changed twice during the year, while both the gearbox and
       the chassis itself were changed, the former being operated
       by automatically and the latter being more rigid.
       Aerodynamics were also changed.
       Honda's decision to go to V12 configuration did result in
       a greater thirst in comparison to the V10s of the
       opposition, but it was also tricky for the team's own TAG
       engine management system to keep abreast of development
       both in fuel and engine terms. This resulted in Senna
       running out of fuel twice during the season, at
       Silverstone and then two weeks later in Hockenheim.
       But the season had started brilliantly with a quartet of
       victories, including an emotional if troubled win at home
       at Interlagos. One retirement and two thirds to Williamses
       were followed by those two retirements, but Senna came
       back superbly with a flag to flag win in Budapest and then
       leading home a great one two in Spa, in spite of gearbox
       problems as in Brazil. The subsequent two second places
       should have been enough to clinch the championship, but
       for previous problems, but a generous second to teammate
       Berger in Suzuka was sufficient to clinch the title with
       the seventh win of the year in Australia the icing on the
       cake. It was Senna's third title, McLaren's fourth in
       This was to be fifth and last season with Honda, and the
       third and final season that Gerhard Berger would drive for
       the team. Nevertheless, with Ayrton Senna still with the
       team and Honda, there were still expectations of huge
       promise. The team started with the previous year's MP4/6
       until it was suddenly realised that perhaps the new car
       was going to be introduced as soon as possible, and it was
       used from Brazil onwards.
       Once again, the new car was the work of the team lead by
       Neil Oatley with several new features, fly by wire
       throttle being one of them, and a new method of making the
       monocoques. The gearbox was still transverse, but once
       again, revised.
       However, there were several shortcomings. The car was
       unpredictable in fast corners, while the latest Honda was
       scarcely more powerful than its precedessor and certainly
       just as thirsty, which of course, meant a weight penalty.
       In the days of ever more sophisticated V10s, this was a
       considerable handicap.
       Both drivers were in the points in the first race, Berger
       in the second and both retired their new cars in the
       third. Senna won Monaco, Berger won in Canada and then
       after two disappointments, Senna finished second in
       Germany and then won in Hungary and in Italy, now with
       active suspension. Berger won in Australia, his swansong
       with McLaren.
       But in spite of three wins, Senna and his teammate were
       fourth and fifth respectively in the championship, and
       McLaren 65 points behind winners Williams in the
       Constructors' series, now faced with a search for a power
       Having tested him a year or so before, Ron Dennis signed
       reigning IndyCar champion Michael Andretti for the 1993
       season, even though Dennis hadn't revealed the source of
       the team's power unit, perhaps because it wasn't finalised
       until November of the previous year. It turned out to be a
       McLaren financed development of Ford's HB engine. However,
       it was a version behind that of Benetton until
       Silverstone, which was a disadvantage.
       What they lacked in straight horsepower, however, they
       hoped to pick up with mechanical sophistication, and that
       involved TAG's electronics, the light and economical
       engine, loads of electronic trickery including, of course,
       very advanced active suspension and traction control.
       In spite of a fine second to Prost at Kyalami, two superb
       races in the wet one at home and the legendary Donington
       victory and his sixth victory at Monaco, there was some
       doubt as to Senna's commitment and it became increasingly
       clear that he would turn his back on the team that had
       brought him three World Championships at the end of the
       While Prost and Hill made hay for Williams, Senna suffered
       few mechanical problems, although there was a third
       consecutive fuel related retirement at Silverstone. The
       year ended with two victories at Suzuka and then Adelaide,
       which was Senna's last and which promoted McLaren as the
       most successful Grand Prix team of all time. But they
       scored exactly half the points scored by winners Williams,
       although Senna was only 23 points behind World Champion
       But McLaren was pretty much a one driver team this year. A
       late regulation change meant that Andretti didn't have the
       laps available for him to learn circuits and he never
       really embraced the European Grand Prix way of life. His
       best race might have been at Imola before he went off, but
       after finishing third at Monza, he returned to the USA, to
       be replaced by Mika Hakkinen who promptly out qualified
       Senna in Portugal. That, in itself, signified the end of
       one era, the beginning of a new one.
       The only question mark over McLaren's long term future was
       its engine, and in 1993, the team began a long term
       partnership with Peugeot except it lasted a year. It
       wasn't an entirely disastrous year but inevitably,
       Peugeot's arrival, the loss of Senna, new regulations, new
       drivers was going to take time to get used to.
       The new MP4/9 chassis was based on the Ford chassis from
       the previous year with slightly different aerodynamics and
       the facility to use a hand operated clutch for the first
       time. A fully automatic upchange facility in the gearbox
       was outlawed. The team also ran power steering for the
       first time, although the drivers preferred conventional
       steering on the faster circuits.
       The main problem was handling on slow corners, although a
       revised underbody and new rear wing made things better
       after the Hungarian Grand Prix. There were rule changes
       with the banning of traction control and other driver
       aids, and more after the death of Ayrton Senna.
       Peugeot's new engine made several steps forward during the
       year, but it had been difficult to define the cooling for
       the engine prior to running it, and then when it did run,
       it was in fairly cool conditions. However, when races were
       run in hot conditions, there were problems.
       Hakkinen was very highly motivated, scoring his first
       rostrum position in that devastating San Marino Grand
       Prix, with more consecutive thirds in Belgium, Italy,
       Portugal and Jerez, the downside being his accident in
       Hockenheim for which he was banned for race, his place
       being taken by Philippe Alliot.
       But the fact remains that for the first time in its
       existence, McLaren International did not win a race.
       Before the end of the season, the long term relationship
       with Peugeot had been terminated and a new one signed with
       Mercedes Benz.
       This was a year of ups and downs as McLaren coped with new
       drivers, a new engine partner, new regulations and new
       First of all, they were using their fourth different
       engine in as many years. And perhaps reviving a precedent,
       Ron Dennis insisted on engine design changes to
       accommodate new regulations, just as John Barnard had done
       with Porsche. But the Ilmor designed Mercedes engine was
       smaller than the previous year's Peugeot, so it wasn't too
       much of a problem for Neil Oatley's design team. The new
       car featured McLaren's first high nose and a wing atop the
       engine cover.
       Meanwhile sponsors Marlboro insisted on high profile name
       and after he'd been turned down by Williams, Nigel Mansell
       was signed. But the MP4/10 not only suffered a major
       imbalance in testing, both drivers also found it lacked
       So a new, wider monocoque was designed and built for
       Mansell in 33 days who stood down for the first two races,
       replaced by Mark Blundell. But front end grip was still a
       problem and Mansell quit before Monaco, his place taken on
       a more permanent basis by the popular Blundell who usually
       qualified a couple of places behind teammate Hakkinen.
       The Finn finally got onto row two in Belgium following
       Ilmor's introduction of a revised engine and McLaren's new
       gearbox. There was no doubt that huge efforts were made by
       both teams.
       Hakkinen missed Aida due to appendicitis, his place taken
       by Magnussen while a week later, Hakkinen's third on the
       grid and second in the race was welcomed, but any optimism
       was cruelly dashed by his huge accident in Adelaide,
       leaving the team despondent as they approached the new
       This, perhaps, was a year of consolidation. Hakkinen had
       thankfully made a remarkable recovery and would improve on
       his previous year's performance. He was joined by David
       Coulthard, who came from front runners Williams but found
       life a little more difficult at McLaren. Ilmor fine tuned
       the Mercedes engines just as McLaren did the same with the
       MP4 chassis. Helping out were former McLaren employees
       Steve Nichols and Alain Prost...
       Although both engine and chassis were refinements of
       previous models, neither carried over much from either
       unit. There was massive detailed effort on the chassis,
       particularly on suspension, but once again imbalance
       proved a problem. The front wing mounting needed revision
       during a year when the drivers preferred the car in low
       downforce trim. It didn't like bumpy circuits, and
       Coulthard's bete noire would be rear end stability. A
       short wheelbase version became the standard at mid season.
       From an engine point of view, there were huge revisions
       here too, working on mid range torque, while it was
       lighter than before with a five per cent increase in
       power. Engine response improve progressively during the
       season, and this year, McLaren chosen to drive its power
       through a longitudinal gearbox again.
       While there were no massive gains in terms of
       competitivity, the drivers did slowly make inroads into
       the Williams/Benetton domination. Coulthard finished
       second to Olivier Panis at Monaco, while Hakkinen had four
       third places. But at the end of the year, a 23 year old
       partnership drew to a close. Dennis, rather than accept a
       cut in budget from Marlboro, preferred to find a new major
       sponsor, and did so with West.
       Once again, McLaren made further progress in 1997 with a
       stable driver pairing, even if they were now decked out in
       the new colours of West. However, the biggest coup during
       the year had been the recruitment of Adrian Newey fro
       Williams who joined Neil Oatley in the design department.
       The latest MP4 was totally new, with fastidious detailing
       which consistently impressed rivals. New technological
       innovations during the year included a fascinating
       secondary braking system. The team's engine partners were
       just as conscientious, their new engine at the start of
       the year featuring a new block with new positioning of
       systems to aid installation A further version of the
       engine was introduced at Barcelona.
       The combination still worried Coulthard, for whom any rear
       end stability was a problem, but even so, he won the
       opening race of the year in Australia and again at Monza.
       Hakkinen was gifted the first win of his career in the
       final race at Jerez. But that only tells half the story.
       They could also have won at Montreal, Silverstone, in
       Austria, the Nurburgring, and maybe Suzuka too which would
       have put a whole new complexion on their season.
       As it was, Coulthard was the higher placed of the drivers,
       and the team finished fourth, but clearly, there was much
       more potential, and with stability now established,
       further fine tuning would probably reap the required
       Adrian Newey's terms of employment restricted him from
       working for West McLaren Mercedes before August of 1997,
       but that still gave him plenty of time during the year to
       think about a car that would conform to the strict new
       regulations, whilst maintaining the emphasis on safety
       that came into effect in 1998. Many designers were hard
       pressed to meet new crash test regulations but Newey had
       been able to work on a car that was safe and competitive.
       Some 12,000 man hours went into trying to regain downforce
       lost by the new regulations.
       Mercedes also worked hard on the engine.
       The other novelty, to Hakkinen's joy, were Bridgestone
       tyres which replaced Goodyear. The Japanese company hit
       the ground running, and eclipsed the American company,
       although Goodyear did fight back.
       But the combination of a Hakkinen who now knew what it was
       like to win, Newey's chassis and Bridgestone's tyres meant
       that West McLaren Mercedes began the season in dominant
       style and almost continued in that vein. The pair were a
       lap ahead of the field in the Australian Grand Prix
       although controversially they swapped places. The result
       was the same in Brazil, while Hakkinen was second to
       Coulthard in Argentina. The Finn went on to win in Spain,
       Monaco, Austria, Germany, then in Luxembourg and Japan.
       Schumacher fought back but that final burst made the
       championship Hakkinen's.
       By contrast, Coulthard won only in San Marino but was
       second six times. He suffered from tactics a couple of
       times, and had two engine failures, but he contributed to
       the West McLaren Mercedes team's success, and he certainly
       gained some consolation from that.
       West McLaren Mercedes , without doubt, was the team to
       beat in 1999 but they should have sewn up the championship
       considerably earlier than Suzuka, when Hakkinen dominated
       to win the Drivers' title. After all, their main rivals,
       Ferrari, lost their main driver at Silverstone. But there
       were mechanical failures, driver errors and occasional
       questionable strategies that cost valuable points during
       the year.
       The new car was completely new, incorporating several
       ideas which technical director Adrian Newey would have
       liked to have included the previous year. It was
       considerably lighter, but also more complex. Partially
       thanks to new tyre regulations, it didn't instil
       confidence as its predecessor had done, but at the limit,
       performed better. Mercedes, meanwhile, had produced a
       lighter and lower V10.
       The season got off to a poor start, with neither car
       finishing. West McLaren Mercedes had thought of taking the
       previous year's car to the first three races... But then
       Hakkinen won in Brazil, while Coulthard might have won at
       Imola but for backmarkers. The team scored a crushing one
       two in Spain, while Hakkinen won again in Canada and was
       then second in France. At this stage, Hakkinen had 40
       points to Michael Schumacher's 32 and Eddie Irvine's 26.
       Hakkinen, however, salvaged only a third place from the
       next three races, whereas Irvine scored two wins and a
       second, although Coulthard won in Britain.
       Hakkinen fought back with a win in Hungary, second after a
       second brush with teammate Coulthard in Belgium, then the
       disappointing second premature exit in Italy.
       Going into the final two races in Malaysia and Japan, he
       was just two points ahead of Irvine, but he was
       frustratingly held up in the first race where Irvine won,
       which gave him a four point deficit going into the final
       round in Japan. But a superb race saw him win and take the
       championship. However, Ferrari had fought back and had
       taken the Constructors' championship. Clearly, McLaren
       could not afford to rest on their laurels.
       They certainly didn't rest on their laurels in 2000, but a
       combination of problems, a disqualification, mechanical
       failures and an occasional mistake saw the team relegated
       to second places in both championships.
       Once again, team, engine builder and drivers retained
       stability, the driver pairing becoming the longest ever in
       Grand Prix racing during the year. There was no doubt that
       speed was there, with the drivers and test driver Olivier
       Panis frequently showing fastest in testing.
       With Mika Hakkinen on pole for the first three races, and
       teammate Coulthard alongside him in the first two, that
       was certainly never in doubt, but both drivers failed to
       finish in Australia due to pneumatic valve failure.
       Hakkinen suffered engine failure in the second race, and
       Coulthard was disqualified, so with Michael Schumacher
       leading the two McLarens home in the third race, the
       Ferrari driver had a huge advantage.
       But then the advantage turned: Coulthard won in England,
       Hakkinen in Spain, Coulthard in Monaco and then again in
       France. In Austria, Hakkinen began the fight back, leading
       home his teammate, while Hakkinen won in Hungary and
       superbly in Belgium where he took the championship lead.
       Unfortunately, a mechanical failure at Indianapolis
       virtually ended his chances. A superb race to second in
       the damp of Japan wasn't enough, but Coulthard's late race
       challenge in Malaysia could not make up for two penalties
       in the last three races. Second was the best in both
       Full Team Name: GoKL Minardi Asiatech F1 Team
       Web Site: http://www.minardi.it/
       Sponsors and Partners: GoKL, European Aviation, Magnum,
          Gazprom, PC Suria, BAS, HealthyCo, Quadriga, Telstra,
          PanGlobal, Allegrini, PDP Box Doccia Spa
       Founded in 1979, with the aim of competing in the European
       Formula Two Championship, the Minardi Team makes its debut
       in Formula One in 1985. After spending its first few
       seasons in motorsport's top category acclimatising to the
       demands of Grand Prix racing, the team takes its first
       World Championship points in 1989, scoring in Great
       Britain (fifth and sixth places), Portugal (fifth) and
       Australia (sixth).
       Minardi's best season to date is 1991, when its effective,
       Ferrari-powered chassis allows the team to claim seventh
       place in the World Constructors' Championship standings.
       The 1993 car is designed under the supervision of highly
       regarded Austrian, Gustav Brunner, and the chassis turns
       out to be highly effective, fourth place in South Africa,
       fifth in Monaco, and sixth at Donington and Imola
       propelling Minardi to eighth place in the Constructors'
       During 1994 and 1995, Minardi enters into a joint-venture
       with Scuderia Italia. Unfortunately, a series of
       commercial difficulties jeopardise the team's future and,
       by the end of 1996, an alliance formed by Gabriele Rumi
       and Flavio Briatore acquires the majority stake in the
       The 1998 season marks a turning point for Minardi.
       Briatore severs his ties with the company and his
       shareholding is acquired by Gabriele Rumi, who thus
       becomes majority shareholder and embarks on an extensive
       restructuring and upgrading programme. The team is joined
       by new, highly skilled personnel on the technical side,
       while Gustav Brunner makes a welcome return to the Minardi
       fold. The hard-trying team's efforts are rewarded when it
       finishes the 1998 championship in 10th place, achieving an
       objective set at the start of the season.
       In 1999, Minardi is further strengthened by the arrival of
       Cesare Fiorio as Team Manager and Sporting Director. Once
       again, the Faenza-based team finishes 10th in the World
       Championship standings, on this occasion courtesy of a
       very valuable point scored by F1 'rookie', Marc Gené, at
       the European Grand Prix. For the team, one of the most
       satisfying aspects of the season is the excellent
       reliability of the M01, which provides its drivers with 10
       top-10 finishes.
       In the year 2000, the Faenza-based team celebrates its
       16th year in Formula One, and although the team fails to
       score any points during the course of the season, it
       retains its tenth-place ranking in the World Championship
       standings with superior placings to the notably better
       funded Prost team.
       The 2001 season marks another watershed for Minardi, as
       the withdrawal of a major sponsor at the end of the
       previous year leaves the team in difficult financial
       circumstances. As a result, it is acquired in late January
       by UK-based Australian businessman, Paul Stoddart, head of
       the European Aviation Group of companies, and merged with
       his European Formula Racing operation in Ledbury, England.
       His plan is to retain Minardi's distinctive character in
       the Formula One paddock, while providing EFR personnel,
       technical expertise and financial stability to strengthen
       the team and improve its overall competitiveness in the
       future. Against all the odds, the new European Minardi
       PS01 chassis, powered by a European V10 engine (an uprated
       version of the previous season's Fondmetal power unit), is
       produced in six weeks and three days, and a pair of cars
       line up for the opening Grand Prix of the year, in
       Melbourne. The team finishes 11th in the 2001 World
       Constructors' Championship and spends the year laying a
       solid foundation for what Stoddart intends should be
       significant future progress.
       Minardi's 2002 effort involves the all-new PS02 chassis,
       powered by Asiatech's latest AT02 engine. Unlike 2001, a
       busy testing programme commences in early January,
       following extensive wind tunnel development of the team's
       latest F1 challenger. With a strengthened technical team
       and sponsorship package in place, Minardi is poised to
       take its next step on the all-important journey to
       increased competitiveness.
       Full Team Name: Renault F1 Limited
       Web Site: http://www.renaultf1.com/
       Sponsors and Partners:
       Louis and Marcel Renault were among motor racing's true
       pioneers, and their spirit is synonymous with the passion
       and excitement of Formula One. In 1899, they took their
       historic first victory in the Paris to Trouville road
       race, and it was just the beginning of a motorsport
       odyssey. More than a hundred years after that first
       victory, Renault returns to the track at the highest
       Town-to-town road racing dominated motorsport in the
       closing years of the nineteenth century. Driven by the
       pioneering spirit of the company's founders, Renault were
       major players. Marcel's landmark triumph in the 1902
       Paris-Vienna race was followed by the tragedy of his death
       in the controversial Paris-Madrid event the following
       year. The race was stopped in its tracks at Bordeaux, and
       the town-to-town races with it.
       As the sport moved onto closed circuits, Renault's success
       followed. The first Grand Prix in history took place on
       home soil in 1906 and, after twelve gruelling hours over
       two days of competition, Ferenc Szisz took the flag at the
       head of the field. Having laid down a marker, Renault
       withdrew from top-level motorsport to concentrate on fresh
       challenges. But a standard of excellence had been
       established which still stands as a reference for Renault
       Away from the circuits, the company's efforts concentrated
       on the infancy of the automobile, and the marque found
       similar success. Not until the birth of Renault Sport in
       1975 did Renault return to the pinnacle of motorsport.
       Meanwhile, Grand Prix racing had been officially organised
       into a World Championship in 1950, and the new
       competitions department was given the brief of taking
       Renault back to compete on the world stage.
       In 1977, the first all-Renault machine rolled out onto the
       grid of a Formula One race. A symbol of the passion and
       dedication of the whole company, it sat at the forefront
       of technology, concealing a major innovation: the
       turbocharger. The early days of this revolution demanded
       unwavering commitment and unquestioning belief, as other
       teams dismissed the 'yellow teapot'. But soon, the
       turbocharged engine, previously unseen in Formula One,
       would revolutionise the sport.
       Two years after its first steps onto the stage, Renault
       was ready to take the leading role. Before a huge home
       crowd, the two yellow cars sat on the front row of the
       grid of the 1979 French Grand Prix at the Dijon-Prenois
       circuit. In a spectacular performance, pole-man Jean
       Pierre Jabouille took the race win, with team-mate René
       Arnoux third after waging a famous battle with Ferrari
       legend Gilles Villeneuve. This race marked the beginning
       of an ascent to the heights of Formula One which so nearly
       enabled Renault to capture the ultimate prize.
       Always alert to talent and potential, Renault signed
       future world champion Alain Prost for 1981. Striving to
       perfect the turbo concept over the next few years, the
       wins kept coming and Prost narrowly missed out on the
       world title in 1983, taking second place in the standings
       with four victories.
       Phase one of the Renault project was completed shortly
       afterwards, and the works team left Formula One in 1985 to
       concentrate on supplying other teams with the turbocharged
       engines that they had introduced to the sport. One year
       later, Renault withdrew from Formula One altogether. The
       passion for victory had not died, but the team withdrew to
       regroup and work on fresh ideas. It was to be a brief
       In 1989, Renault returned with a new engine: the 3.5 litre
       RS1 V10, a configuration which would become the benchmark
       for all Formula One engines. Supplying the Williams team,
       they gained two victories in their return season, and this
       success grew steadily in the years that followed, with the
       team challenging for the championship in 1991.
       After three years of patient diligence, the ultimate goal
       was achieved when Nigel Mansell piloted his Williams
       Renault to championship glory in 1992. Fifteen years after
       their debut, Renault were utterly dominant, and the season
       is regarded as one of the most impressive in Formula One
       history. In 16 races, the team took 15 pole positions, 10
       wins, 11 lap records and a huge 170 points. This was
       excellence of the highest order, and the following year,
       Alain Prost secured another title for Renault.
       Ayrton Senna led the challenge at the start of 1994, and
       many thought him destined to be Renault's third World
       Champion in three years. Fate dictated otherwise, and his
       death in the San Marino Grand Prix was a profound loss for
       Formula One. The emotions served to strengthen the team's
       determination, and victory in the Constructors'
       Championship was a perfect tribute to their fallen
       Entering 1995, Renault expanded its programme to include
       the competitive, charismatic Benetton team. Now supplying
       the two teams fighting for the World Championship, Renault
       took a dramatic clean sweep with first, second, third and
       fourth in the Drivers' Championship, and first and second
       in the Constructors'.
       The success continued to flow in the next two seasons,
       with Damon Hill triumphing in 1996 and Jacques Villeneuve
       in 1997. There was nothing left to prove. Having climbed
       to the top, Renault had proved themselves the very best.
       At the end of 1997, with their objectives achieved,
       Renault again bowed out of the sport. A run of six
       consecutive Constructors' Championships demonstrated to
       the world what Renault represented: technical excellence,
       innovation and a burning desire to succeed.
       Renault has won 11 World Championships, but all of them as
       an engine supplier. Victory with a 100% Renault team is a
       challenge that remains to be met. It is only a matter of
       time before Renault F1 writes the next piece of historyŠ
       Full Team Name: Red Bull-Sauber-Petronas
       Web Site: http://www.sauber.ch/
       Sponsors and Partners: Petronas, Credit Suisse, Red Bull,
          21i.Net, Albert Stoll Giroflex AG, As Elevators,
          Astarte New Media AG, Balzers AG Beschichtungszentrum,
          Bbs Kraftfahrzeugtechnik AG, Bridgestone Motorsport,
          Brütsch/Rüegger AG, Catia/Enovia Solutions,
          Daimlerchrysler Schweiz AG, Dynabit AG, Emil Frey AG,
          Ericsson AG, Fluent Deutschland GmBH, Hermann Bubeck
          GmBH & Co. KG, In-Motion AG, Italdesign-Giugiaro
          S.P.A., Klauke Industries, Lista Ltd., Magneti
          Marelli, Microsoft AG, Msc.Software Corporation, MTS
          Systems Corporation, Ozalid AG, Paninfo AG, Plenexis,
          Sachs Race Engineering GmBH, Sparco S.R.L., Sun World
          Group, Temenos AG, Turbo Lufttechnik GmBH, Walter Meier
          AG, Winkler Veranstaltungstechnik AG
       At first sight, the small town of Hinwil in the Zurich
       Highlands is probably not the place you would expect to
       find a highly developed Formula One centre, equipped to
       the finest technical detail. But appearances are
       deceptive: It is only a few steps from the workshop, in
       which the now 58-year-old Peter Sauber started his company
       in 1970, that the high-tech cars, which have been
       competing in the Formula One World Championship since
       1993, are built.
       The development of high technologies and their function
       under race pressure within the field of motor racing has
       always fascinated Peter Sauber. While back then three of
       his current competitors were already active in Formula
       One, Peter Sauber started off quite modestly by comparison
       with the sporting variation of the legendary Volkswagen
       Full Team Name: Toyota Motorsport GmBH
       Web Site: http://www.toyota-f1.com/
       Sponsors and Partners: Panasonic, AOL Time Warner, AVEX
          Group, Angelika Busch, BS Catia, DLR, EMC2, EOS, Esso,
          Future Sports, KTC Kyoto Tool, Magneti Marelli,
          MAN, M.B.A. Production, Meteo France, Michelin,
          Parkpre Bicycles, Pocklington Coachworks, Ratiopharm,
          SBI, Sika, Sparco, St. Georges, Travelex Plc,
          Vuarnet Sunglasses, Wella, Yamaha, ZF Sachs
       From headquarters in Cologne, Germany, TMG managed
       Toyota's efforts in World Rally Championship (WRC),
       winning seven titles.  TMG also competed in the 1998
       and 1999 24 Hours of Le Mans, winning second place in
       1999.  Since that time, TMG has been focusing on the
       design, building, and operation of the F1 program, which
       is certainly Toyota's greatest motorsport challenge to
       Full Team Name: BMW Williams F1 Team
       Web Site: http://www.bmw.williamsf1.com/
       Sponsors and Partners: BMW, Hewlett-Packard, Allianz,
          Accenture, Castrol, FedEx, Michelin, Petrobras,
          Reuters, Veltins, Worldcom
       WilliamsF1 (formerly Williams Grand Prix Engineering) was
       founded in 1977 by Frank Williams and Patrick Head. They
       set up base in a small industrial unit at Station Road in
       Didcot, Oxfordshire, and with a staff of only 17 set about
       the task of preparing to enter into competition in Formula
       By the start of the 1978 season, the first Patrick Head
       designed Formula One car, the FW06, was ready and Frank
       had found sponsorship to tempt the Australian, Alan Jones,
       to join the team. From that point, the team never looked
       back, for the FW06 in the hands of Jones was extremely
       In 1979 Jones continued as team leader with Clay Regazzoni
       in a second car. The team had really arrived at the
       British Grand Prix in 1979 when, after Jones
       disappointingly retired from the lead, Regazzoni was able
       to drive to victory - the first ever for Frank Williams.
       The trend was to continue as Jones won four of the six
       remaining races that year.
       The team emerged in the 1980s as the one to beat and a
       reliability record unequalled by any other helped them to
       sweep to unchallenged and crushing victories in the
       Constructors' Championships of 1980, 1981, 1986 and 1987.
       In 1982 the team aimed to become the first manufacturer to
       win the Constructors' title for a third consecutive year.
       It wasn't to be but newly-signed Finn, Keke Rosberg, who
       replaced the retiring Jones, won a close fought Drivers'
       World Championship.
       Grand Prix racing's normally aspirated era was coming to
       an end and in 1983 it proved an uphill struggle, although
       Rosberg did win in great style at Monaco. Frank then
       announced a new association with Honda and the Anglo
       Japanese turbo combination first appeared at Kyalami in
       South Africa.
       In 1984 the team was on a 'learning curve' with turbo cars
       but the season was highlighted by Rosberg's Dallas win.
       The team also moved into a superb new custom-built racing
       facility just a mile from their original home at Didcot.
       In 1985 the team had a new colourful image; Keke Rosberg
       had a new team-mate in Nigel Mansell; and the car, the
       Honda powered FW10, had an all-new carbon fibre chassis.
       The season started slowly but reached new heights as the
       two drivers climbed to the top of the victory podium no
       less than four times. Rosberg won the USA East Grand Prix,
       Mansell's two consecutive wins at Brands Hatch and Kyalami
       were particularly sweet as they were his first in Formula
       One and Rosberg's victory in Australia ensured a team hat-
       trick to round off the season.
       Just prior to the start of the 1986 season, the team was
       dealt a severe blow. Whilst driving away from pre-season
       testing at the Paul Ricard circuit in France, Frank
       Williams' car left the road and overturned. It was an
       accident that left him confined to a wheelchair and so
       nearly claimed his life but, instead of bemoaning his
       fate, he fought his way back to lead the company in the
       only way he knew how. New to the team in 1986 was
       Brazilian former World Champion, Nelson Piquet, a worthy
       replacement for Keke Rosberg. He quickly adapted to the
       FW11 and took the new car to victory in the debut race in
       Brazil. The team went on to win nine Grands Prix in 1986
       and secured the prestigious Constructors' World
       Success continued in 1987 with the team winning nine races
       again (six by Mansell, three by Piquet) with the modified
       FW11. This time they made sure of not only the
       Constructors' but also the Drivers' Championship, with
       Piquet taking his third title and Mansell runner-up for
       the second consecutive year.
       For 1988 there were many changes. Mansell had a new team
       mate in the vastly experienced Italian, Riccardo Patrese.
       Also the four year association with Honda ended and the
       team used the normally aspirated 3.5 litre Judd engine in
       the FW12.
       Unfortunately mechanical problems dogged the team's
       efforts during the year but despite this Mansell finished
       second at both Silverstone and Jerez, with Patrese
       achieving his season best with a fourth in Adelaide.
       Frank was aware that to win in the new era of Formula One,
       with everyone now running normally aspirated engines,
       backing was needed from a major motor manufacturer. This
       ambition was realised in July 1988 when the team signed a
       three-year deal with Renault for the supply of their new
       V10 engines. The initial deal was for exclusivity only for
       1989, but at the Canadian Grand Prix that year Renault
       announced that again in 1990 and subsequently 1991 also,
       the team would be the sole recipients of the engine.
       Technical Director, Patrick Head designed the FW13 chassis
       specifically to house the new Renault engine and Belgian
       driver, Thierry Boutsen, joined the team in 1989,
       replacing Nigel Mansell and partnering Riccardo Patrese.
       1990 got off to a good start with Boutsen third in his
       FW13B in Phoenix and then, at the third race of the year,
       the San Marino Grand Prix, there was a fairytale story
       with Patrese winning his third Grand Prix; his previous
       victory had been seven years earlier. Boutsen's turn came
       in Hungary where he claimed his first ever pole position
       and went on to win an impressive green light to chequered
       flag victory. These two wins and several other podium
       placings meant at the end of the season the team finished
       fourth in the Constructors' World Championship
       Halfway through the 1990 season Nigel Mansell, who\
       subsequently won 28 Grands Prix, announced his retirement
       after a disappointing British Grand Prix whilst driving
       for Ferrari. Frank Williams persuaded him to change his
       mind and he re-signed for the team for whom he would win
       more Grands Prix than any other driver. Mansell had his
       first taste of the FW13B at the Estoril track on 20
       November 1990, and then eagerly awaited the completion of
       the new FW14, the latest offering from Patrick Head (who
       by now also had Adrian Newey on his design team) with a
       brand new Renault RS3 engine and a semi-automatic gearbox
       The 1991 Canon backed team proved a winning combination,
       with Mansell scoring five and Patrese two victories. The
       team proved the only real competition to McLaren and were
       runners-up to them in both the Constructors' and Drivers'
       World Championships, with Mansell and Patrese second and
       third respectively in the latter.
       The tide turned in 1992. At the first race in South
       Africa, Mansell and Patrese finished first and second with
       the FW14B fitted with active suspension. This chassis
       remains today as probably the most sophisticated racing
       car ever built.
       And so began a winning streak for Mansell, who became the
       first driver to win the opening five races of a season.
       His record breaking did not stop there and he became the
       first driver to win nine races in one season and to be on
       pole 14 times.
       When Mansell came second in Hungary he clinched the
       Drivers' World Championship, the first British driver to
       do so since James Hunt in 1976. In Belgium, WilliamsF1 and
       Renault took the Constructors' title, the first ever for
       Renault, and to end the winning year Patrese finished
       runner-up to Mansell for the Drivers' crown.
       For 1993 it was all change in the driver line-up, with
       French three-time World Champion, Alain Prost, and
       official test driver, Damon Hill, taking over from Mansell
       and Patrese. They carried on where Mansell and Patrese
       left off, retaining the Constructors' title, while Prost
       clinched his fourth drivers' title and Hill won his first
       Grand Prix in Hungary.
       Soon after clinching the title Prost decided to make the
       '93 season his last in competitive racing, leaving the
       door open for three-times World Champion, Ayrton Senna, to
       join the team. So the 1994 championship battle started
       with the new look Rothmans Williams Renault team and
       drivers, Ayrton Senna and Damon Hill, ably supported by
       new official test driver, David Coulthard
       During the third Grand Prix of the year at Imola in Italy,
       Ayrton Senna was killed while leading the race when his
       car left the circuit at the notorious Tamburello corner
       and crashed into a concrete wall. The world of motor
       racing was stunned and the close-knit Team was shattered
       by the tragic death of the driver who many people regarded
       as simply the best.
       The fight back of the team typified the bravery and
       leadership of Frank. As a mark of respect only one car was
       entered for the next race in Monaco and then four weeks
       after that tragic day in Imola, Hill won the Spanish Grand
       Prix in Barcelona and promptly dedicated his victory to
       both Ayrton and the team.
       For this race Hill was partnered by David Coulthard, who
       drove car No. 2 for eight of the remaining races. For the
       other four races in France, Spain, Japan and Australia,
       Nigel Mansell came back from the USA, where he was racing
       in the Indy Car series. After the win in Barcelona, Hill
       scored another five victories but lost the championship by
       a single point to Michael Schumacher following a
       controversial collision at the last race in Adelaide,
       which was eventually won by Mansell. In such a tragic year
       it was testimony to the strength of the team that they
       retained the Constructors' World Championship, to close a
       season that will never be forgotten
       For 1995 it was Hill and Coulthard who drove for the team
       and between them notched up five victories in the FW17,
       with the young Scot taking his first Grand Prix win in
       Portugal. Hill was the only driver to challenge Schumacher
       for the drivers' title, but had to accept defeat when the
       German won the title for the second year at the Pacific
       Grand Prix in Aida.
       Although losing both titles was a disappointment, Hill
       made sure the team went out on a high with a fine win at
       the last race in Adelaide.
       By 1995 the Didcot HQ was rapidly becoming too small to
       house the team. A search for a new base was made and
       midway through 1995 the ideal place was found 10 miles
       from Didcot at Grove. Over the '95/'96 winter the team
       moved with the final phase being the transportation of the
       wind tunnel over the weekend of the 1996 San Marino Grand
       Prix. The new Grove factory was officially opened by HRH
       The Princess Royal on Tuesday 29th October 1996.
       Joining the team for 1996 was Jacques Villeneuve, 1995
       Indy Car Champion and son of the late Gilles Villeneuve.
       The team had achieved good results during pre-season
       testing but it was not until the first race in Melbourne
       that the FW18's true potential was shown. New boy Jacques
       was the star of the show, claiming pole. With Damon second
       on the grid, the pair were over half a second quicker than
       the nearest opposition. They continued their domination in
       the race and eventually Damon won, with Jacques second
       after the Canadian had to slow down in the closing laps
       and relinquish his lead due to an oil pipe problem
       This success continued with Damon also winning in Brazil
       and Argentina and then Jacques winning his first ever
       Formula One Grand Prix, the European at the Nurburgring.
       The team went on to win 12 of the 16 races - Damon eight
       and Jacques four - and the Constructors' Championship was
       sewn up by the Hungarian Grand Prix.
       The Drivers' Championship was led from start to finish by
       Damon, with Jacques second, but was taken down to the wire
       with the final race in Suzuka seeing the title settled.
       Damon needed just one point to win and for Jacques it was
       a win or nothing. In the end Damon led the race from the
       lights to the chequered flag while Jacques was forced to
       retire. This was Damon's first and the team's sixth
       Drivers' World Championship.
       German driver Heinz-Harald Frentzen joined up the team in
       1997 to partner Jacques. The season promised to be very
       competitive. The team fought hard but by mid-season still
       trailed championship-leaders Ferrari. There were
       celebrations at Silverstone with the 100th Grand Prix win
       at the scene of the very first victory 18 years
       previously. The famous WilliamsF1 determination had kicked
       in and by round 14, the Austrian Grand Prix, the team was
       back at the top of the championship table where it would
       stay. A record-breaking ninth Constructors' World
       Championship was sealed at the Japanese Grand Prix. An
       emotional World Championship victory for Jacques in the
       last race at Jerez sealed the delight of the entire team
       A change of image in 1998 co-incided with a change of
       fortune. The competition had shifted up a gear and by the
       first Grand Prix in Australia it looked like the McLaren
       team was going to walk away with the World Championships.
       A mass of new regulations in 1998 had presented all the
       teams with many new challenges including a reduction in
       the width of the car from two metres to 1.8 metres, more
       stringent crash testing and grooved tyres. McLaren had
       adapted best to the changes and the rest of the field was
       left to play 'catch-up'. WilliamsF1 had said goodbye to
       Renault in 1997 after a tremendously successful
       partnership that brought nine championship titles to the
       two companies
       The team continued to race with Mecachrome/Supertec
       engines before new technical partner, BMW, made its return
       to compete in Formula One racing in 2000. Without a works
       engine partner, the team had a hard fight on its hands to
       compete with the dominant McLaren and the hard charging
       Ferrari team.
       By the close of the season, it was McLaren and Ferrari
       challenging for the Championships whilst the 'Winfield
       WilliamsF1 Team' found itself in the fight for third
       place. Continual developments to the FW20 gave the team
       the push it needed and third place in the Constructors'
       Championship was duly secured. 1999 looked set to be
       another tough year for the team but there would be a few
       A completely new driver line-up brought reigning CART
       Champion Alex Zanardi and Ralf Schumacher to the team in
       1999. Zanardi had a difficult season. Coming from the CART
       series to the modern Formula One threw the Italian onto a
       very steep learning curve. The advent of grooved tyres and
       narrow track cars in 1998 had forced the drivers to change
       their technique to control these new machines. Zanardi had
       to catch up with the learning process fast.
       Bad luck dogged his early season but the turning point
       came at the Belgian Grand Prix when he was finally on the
       pace. A strong performance at the next race in Italy
       looked like the tables were turning but further
       disappointments, ending with an electrical problem on the
       first lap of the last race in Japan, finished off a
       miserable season for the Italian...
       Schumacher though was to become the star of the year,
       putting in stunning performances, regularly scoring points
       and, at the European Grand Prix, his finest moment almost
       came but he was robbed of victory by a puncture. His
       strong racing skills earned him sixth position in the
       Drivers' World Championship and fifth place in the
       Constructors' Championship for the team.
       With the start of the new millennium, a new era began for
       WilliamsF1. After almost two years of backstage work, BMW
       returned to the Formula One arena with the WilliamsF1
       team. The partnership, planned for five years, got off to
       a very promising start in 2000 with the BMW WilliamsF1
       Team taking third place in the Formula One Constructors'
       World Championship.
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