===============================================================================
             Chris    Lee's

  Bioshock    Infinite    1999    Mode     and    Item    Guide           v1.25
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===============================================================================
The officially latest (as well as latest, official) version of this FAQ/Guide
can be found at www.gamefaqs.com.
===============================================================================



===============================================================================
Table of Contents                                                            !-
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To navigate to the different sections, simply use the shortcut key sequence to
the right of each section/subsection in whatever "find" mechanism you're using
in your browser or text editor.  Section references later on in the text ignore
the '!' so that you don't end up jumping to the middle of a random paragraph,
so always be sure you start with a '!' when jumping around.

The pattern behind shortcut key sequence is simple:  the first three letters
(more, if necessary to be unambiguous) of each related section, separated by
commas, beginning with a ! and ending with -.
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How To Use This Guide   !how-

Notes on 1999 Mode      !not-
    Burial at Sea Part 1    !not,bur-

Special Vocabulary      !spe-

Stats and Infusions     !sta-
    Consumables             !sta,con-
    Lockpicks               !sta,loc-

Money and Upgrading     !mon-
    Totals                  !mon,tot-

Vigors              !vig-
    Possession          !vig,pos-
    Devil's Kiss        !vig,dev-
    Murder of Crows     !vig,mur-
    Bucking Bronco      !vig,buc-
    Shock Jockey        !vig,sho-
    Charge              !vig,cha-
    Undertow            !vig,und-
    Return to Sender    !vig,ret-

Weapons                 !wea-
    Tables                  !wea,tab-
    Pistols/Machine Guns    !wea,pis-
    Rifle/Shotgun           !wea,rif-
    Explosives              !wea,exp-
    Special                 !wea,spe-

Gear        !gea-
    Hats        !gea,hat-
    Shirts      !gea,shi-
    Boots       !gea,boo-
    Pants       !gea,pan-

Strategies      !str-
    General         !str,gen-
    AI Quirks       !str,aiq-
    Firemen         !str,fir-
    Patriots        !str,pat-
    Handymen        !str,han-
    Lady Comstock   !str,lad-
    Final Fight     !str,fin-
    Big Daddy [BaS] !str,big-

Bestiary        !bes-
    Vigor Effectiveness     !bes,vig-
    Normal                  !bes,nor-
    Automatons              !bes,aut-
    Heavy Hitters           !bes,hea-
    Special                 !bes,spe-

Appendix            !app-
    Special Thanks      !app,spe-
    History             !app,his-
    All Works           !app,all-
===============================================================================



===============================================================================
How To Use This Guide                                                     !how-
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
This guide serves two purposes.  One, to discuss various weapons, vigors, and
gear in a rigorous way.  Second, relatedly, to discuss all of this from the
perspective of 1999 Mode, which is by far a challenge worthy of its name.

What this guide is not:  a walkthrough.  If you want a walkthrough, there are
plenty of resources for that.  If however, you want to see the various merits
of various aspects of Bioshock Infinite's gameplay analyzed, all within a
helpful context of beating 1999 Mode (with the no-Dollar Bill achievement),
then you're at the right place.

NOTE:  this guide is written taking into without any of the
pre-order/collector's edition extra content taken into account.

If you have any tips, feedback, or corrections, feel free to contact me.  As
people who have contacted me on other guides know, I try to respond to any
correspondence, and I will take seriously any suggestions you may have to
offer.  Simply toss me an email at (with the subject beginning "Bioshock
Infinite guide"):
    s___i_m___u_l__c_r_a@uchicago.edu
WITHOUT the underscores (that's just to prevent auto-parsers from grabbing my
email for spam purposes).
===============================================================================



===============================================================================
Notes on 1999 Mode                                                        !not-
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
In case you aren't aware about 1999 Mode, you can either unlock it by beating
the game, or by starting a new game and--when selecting a difficulty--entering
the Konami Code:
    up, up, down, down, left, right, left, right, [cancel], [confirm]
Though, if you haven't beaten the game yet, I highly recommend doing that first
before doing 1999 Mode.  It'll give you a lot of advanced metagame knowledge
for your second time around.  Plus, doing so will let you enjoy the
mind-blowing narrative of Bioshock Infinite without making you pound your head
into a wall in frustration.

The following changes take place when in 1999 Mode:
    - All damage you take from enemies is doubled.
    - All damage you deal is halved.*
    - Death costs $100, versus $50 on hard and $25 on medium.
    - Enemies revive almost to full health upon your death (versus limited
      levels at lower difficulties.)
    - If you don't have enough money to cover death, you are bumped back to the
      main menu.
    - It takes 4 seconds before your shield starts to regenerate, versus 3
      seconds on hard and 2 seconds on medium.
    - Your shield regenerates at a rate of 16.67% per second (or 100% over 6
      seconds), versus 20%/sec on hard and 25%/sec on medium.
    - There appear to be fewer checkpoint restart points.
    - Navigation arrow is turned off.
    - Aim assistance is turned off.
    - Enemies drop loot less commonly and in smaller amounts (for ammo and $).

* All damage numbers listed throughout the guide are their values for 1999
Mode and so already take into account the 50% penalty.

Because enemies hit you much harder (and there are fewer reload checkpoints
while death is much more expensive), strategy in 1999 Mode revolves around
being more evasive and keeping distance between you and your foes.  As such, a
lot of the analysis in this guide is centered around this central strategy.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Burial at Sea Part 1                                                  !not,bur-

This guide now offers coverage for 1999 Mode in Burial at Sea Part 1.  Because
Burial at Sea Part 1 (hence BaS1 or BaS from now on) features several
significant balance changes, I will be making notes as appropriate in the
proper sections.

Here is a quick, top-level summary of the changes you'll encounter in Burial at
Sea 1999 Mode (most of these changes are not exclusive to 1999 Mode but to
Burial at Sea in general):
    - Comesmetic: "Salt" is now "Eve," "Vigors" are now "Plasmids," and "Silver
      Eagles" are now just "Dollars."
    - Skyline travel speed is _much_ slower.
    - Possession re-balanced to be less obscene (read: it was nerfed).
    - Possession only has one upgrade.
    - Devil's Kiss has no upgrade.
    - Bucking Bronco and Shock Jockey have altered upgrades.
    - A new Vigor/Plasmid, Old Man Winter, is introduced.
    - Undertow, Return to Sender, Charge, and Murder of Crows are not
      available.
    - Once you pick up a weapon, you can now switch to it whenever (though you
      have two you can quick-switch between, like how Vigors/Plasmids works).
    - All available weapons have significantly reduced ammo capacity.
    - A new weapon, the radar range, is introduced.
    - Only available weapons:  hand cannon, machine gun, carbine, shotgun, and
      the aforementioend radar range.
    - Weapons other than the radar range have no upgrades.
    - All upgrade costs are sigificantly scaled down in terms of $.
    - Availability of $ through drops and loot is significantly lower.
    - Gear is no longer randomized.
    - All new gear, which all have a significantly higher power curve than the
      normal game (generally achieved by combining the effects multiple similar
      gear from the base game).  Main exceptions are the Better Mousetrap shirt
      and the Surprise element hat which appear to use completely new effects.
    - Big Daddies from Bioshock are back!  And they use mechanics better suited
      to a world where skylines (erm, whatever they are called in Rapture) are
      prevalent.  Read: pretty hard.
===============================================================================



===============================================================================
Special Vocabulary                                                        !spe-
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I try to be deliberate with my word choice.  In particular, there are some
words and phrases that I use repeatedly throughout this guide (as does Bioshock
Infinite) that carry specific meaning.

"Briefly Invulnerable"
    For sources other than Charge, ice forms around your health and shield bars
        and you are immune to non-fire damage.
    BaS Note:  this is officially referred to as a "Winter Shield."

"Chain"
    When an effect jumps to another target.  Most notably I talk about this in
    terms of an "Overkill chain," wherein while equipped with Gear, severe
    damage to one enemy cause them to die with an Overkill effect, which makes
    nearby enemies vulnerable.  Killing another one of this will cause Overkill
    to occur again, etc.  Bioshock Infinite also uses this word regarding
    specific effects.

Combo
    A deliberate mix of two different effects produces a final effect greater
    than the sum of its parts.  Generally refers to Vigor combos, but weapons
    and gear that emulate Vigor effects can also cause combos (such as shooting
    someone lifted with Bucking Bronco with a Heater).

Critical Hit
    Most enemies have a weak point.  Shots against an enemy's weakpoint will do
    "critical" damage, which pops up as red numbers and are essentially your
    weapon's base damage times its critical multiplier (plus any extra damage
    from being vulnerable).

Vulnerable
    When an enemy is vulnerable, they take twice as much damage from attacks
    (indicated by yellow numbers).

Weak Point
    Most enemies have a specific part of their bodies which, when hit, will
    trigger a critical hit.  All humanoids have their heads as weakpoints.
    Patriots' backs are weak points though as they become more damaged their
    head and then neck become a weak point.  A Handyman's heart is his
    weakpoint.  Lady Comstock's weak point is her head and somewhere in her
    upper body, though she is easier to critically hit when she floats up into
    the air.
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Stats and Infusions                                                       !sta-
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
There are 24 Infusions (not counting the one special Infusion that gives you
the Shield), and each of your stats--Health, Shield, Salts--can be upgraded ten
times (for a * rating).

I only have rough estimates about Health and Shield details, based purely on
getting myself hit repeatedly by enemies (for the sake of SCIENCE!).  It
appears your Health starts at 1500 points and increases by 225 per Infusion.
Your Shield starts at 300 points and increase by 45 per Infusion.  Simply
looking at those numbers it appears Health, pound for pound, is a better choice
for Infusion for maximum survivability, but Shield regenerates without the need
for consumables which means each point of Shield has greater impact.  In
reality, you need closer to a balance; without investing in Shield, you will
have next-to-no-capacity to shrug off incidental damage in combat.  Without
investing in Health, you will have no way of surviving massive single-hit
attacks (like a Handyman's ramming attack or a sniper's shot).

In contrast to my estimates, I am 99% certain that my numbers on Salt are
accurate, based on doing some math and induction.  Your maximum Salts start at
100, and each upgrade increases that by 15, up to a potential maximum of 250.
In contrast to Health and Shield, Salts are less fundamental to your survival
in 1999 Mode, though the ability to regularly use disabling Vigors can extend
your life in a way simple Health/Shield cannot.

Compared to lower difficulties, in 1999 Mode (and to a lesser extent in Hard)
you should invest in Health/Shield a bit more aggressively early on.  It so
significantly helps your survivability that you should wait until you upgrade
them twice each before pursuing any specific Infusion specialization related to
your particular playstyle.  Due to the way stat upgrades work, low-level
upgrades are proportionally more important than high-level upgrades anyway.  To
use Salt as an example, going from 9 to * is 235 to 250, or a 6.4% increase.
By comparison, going from 0 to 1 is a 15% increase, more than twice as
effective.  So you want to get all your survivability stats up a point or two
just to maximize your early benefit.

Burial at Sea Part 1:  there are only 4 Infusions, so you should be much more
deliberate about your choices.  Rather than a blanket recommendation for one
strategy or another, you have to decide early on whether or not you are going
to be a heavy Vigor user.  If you are, then you may only want to spend one
Infusion on Health/Shield.  Otherwise, you probably do not want to bother with
infusing Salt at all, as you then do not want to sacrifice your survivability.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Consumables                                                           !sta,con-

From what I can ascertain, consumable goods restore a _percentage_ of your
total Health or Salts instead of a fixed absolute number.  This is even though
Salt vials in particular state that they bestow +25, +50, or +100 Salt whereas
Health Kits explicitly state a percentage (e.g. 20/80%).  In reality, the
various Salt vials restore 25%, 50%, and 100% of your total Salts.

This percentage-based restoration includes Cigarettes and--as far as I can
tell--miscellaneous food like Oranges and Popcorn.  The only downside is that I
believe the _cost_ of using things like Alcohol (which drains Salt) and
Cigarettes (which drains Health) is also a percentage, however minor.  The only
exception to the percentage-based-recovery-rule is when you try to drink a
Vigor that you already have; you get back a fixed amount of Salt (50) instead
of restoring a percentage of your total Salts.

In particular, infusing your way to max Salts pays significant dividends;
smoking a Cigarette won't do much when you have 0 infusions in Salt, but
smoking a Cigarette when you have * in Salt will give you an extra blast of a
Shock Jockey.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Lockpicks                                                             !sta,loc-

In general, judicious exploration means you will be flush with lockpicks for
much of the game.  However, this is _not_ true for the part of the game before
you take the elevator down from the Fink Worker Induction Center.  There are
many safes and locked doors leading up to that moment and you will barely have
enough lockpicks to open them all; plus, once you hit a plot point after going
down the elevator, you won't even be able to backtrack up to the Worker
Induction Center which itself contains several locks.  It's absolutely crucial
that you are particularly judicious about exploring areas for lockpicks, inch
by inch up until this point, because otherwise you are missing out on infusions
and hundreds of Silver Eagles.

Some further notes:
    - There are enough lockpicks to open every safe and door in the game
      without needing to buy any from a Dollar Bill, though you may have to do
      a bit of backtracking.
    - You cannot backtrack past certain points in the game.  Notably, you
      cannot backtrack past these early points:
        1.  Boarding the Gondola from Soldier's Field.
        2.  After trying to chase Elizabeth from Fort Franklin Pier.
        3.  Shortly after taking the elevator down into Finkton from the Worker
            Induction Center.
        4.  Opening the tear in Fink's holding cells.
      As a result, it is _absolutely imperative_ that you fully explore areas
      before you get to these points of no return.  Not only will you find
      enough lockpicks to open everything prior to these points of no return,
      but you will also find lockpicks that you don't need immediately but are
      necessary for opening everything in future areas.

      Note that right after #2, you will see a Dollar Bill vending machine
      that sells lockpicks.  If you're really desperate (and not going for the
      Scavenger Hunt achievement), you can drop $100 or so to open the locks in
      the Worker Induction Center.

Additionally, here are some lockpick counts (so you can be sure you have picked
up all you need):
    1.  Soldier's Field:  +6 lockpicks -1 door -5 safe = no net.
    2.  Hall of Heroes:  +17 lockpicks -1 door -3 door -10 safe = +2 net.
    3.  Return to Soldier's Field:  +4 lockpicks = +4 net (6 total).
    4.  Lady's Airship:  +1 lockpick = +1 net (7 total).
    5.  Finkton Docks:  +2 lockpicks = +2 net (9 total).
    6.  Fort Franklin Pier:  -5 lockpicks = -5 net (4 total)
    7.  Worker Induction Center:  +5 lockpicks -5 door -1 safe = -1 net (3
        total).
    8.  Finkton:  +4 lockpicks -1 door = +3 net (6 total).
After your first arrival in Finkton you will be generally flush with lockpicks,
so don't worry too much about it after that.

Burial at Sea Part 1:  your lockpick count will be just as constrained as in
the early parts of the base game, so do be judicious in your exploration.
However, like in the base game, you will eventually start finding a lot of
lockpicks in the late game even though there are not that many locks left to
pick.
===============================================================================



===============================================================================
Money and Upgrading                                                       !mon-
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Compared to many other modern action-RPGs, you don't have a special
"experience" stat, some kind of skill tree, or anything like the original
Bioshock's "Adam", so you may think you are pretty unlimited in your character
development as both equipment and character upgrades are purchased with
currency (Silver Eagles).

However, in 1999 Mode, Silver Eagles are so much rarer than in earlier
difficulties that you are _forced_ to specialize, since you can't possibly
afford even a majority of upgrades at your disposal.  In fact, if you aren't
pursuing the no-Dollar Bill achievement, you actually have an interesting
tension between upgrading your character or outfitting him with ammo/health
kits/salt vials since all come from the same finite pool.

(I say finite, because while enemies can drop $ and Elizabeth can toss you $,
enemies very rarely drop $ and only in limited quantities in 1999 Mode, enemies
generally do not respawn, and Elizabeth's $-tossing seems significantly
dependent on you actually looting and buying things.  As a result, $ as a
function of time reveals that there there is an asymptotic limit on the total
supply of Silver Eagles in 1999 Mode.)

By looking at my most recent character and reversing his upgrades, I can say
that just as you reach the Roof of Comstock's House, you will have accumulated
about $13,000; by the time you are about to do the final battle, you will
have earned an additional $1,000.  However, these numbers are based on several
assumptions:
    - You never die (each death costs you a whopping $100).
    - You possess every vending machine (which causes them to cough up between
      $1 and $40 a piece).
    - You crack open _every_ locked door and safe (safes generally contain $100
      to $300).
    - You do not buy _anything_ at a Dollar Bill vending machine.
If you are planning on being less aggressive with using Possession on vending
machines, I would say that $11,500 is a safe target to use for determining
whether or not you can afford upgrades.  If you want to leave some buffer room
for deaths, a target of $9,500 will let you die up to 20 times without being
derailed.  If on top of that you want to leave yourself an allowance to buy
health/salt/ammunition at a Dollar Bill, reduce that target to $8,750.

Note 1:  I do realize that there are a few big fights left after the Roof of
Comstock's House so using that as the goalpoint may seem odd, but the point of
planning ahead is to make sure you hit the peak of your character's power while
there are still fights left to fight.  Plus, the last fight is _super_ hard, so
I would leave buffer room in your checking account so you can take a few deaths
(or use the Dollar Bill vending machine) without being bumped back to the main
menu in failure.

Note 2:  Because dying in 1999 Mode is super expensive (losing $100 in addition
to your enemies being healed to virtually full health), I recommend simply
reloading your game from the last checkpoint instead of eating the death.
However, this can be pretty frustrating for some areas and fights (notably Lady
Comstock), so feel free to just build in the buffer room for several deaths
throughout the course of your adventure.

Burial at Sea Part 1:  The total dollar count is much, much lower; in general
all upgrades are also scaled down in cost, which means the trade-off made
between upgrades and buying supplies/reviving is much more significant.  I do
not have an estimate for total dollar amount yet, but it is an order of
magnitude less: in the vicinity of ~$1000 or so, I was only able to fully
upgrade Possession, Old Man Winter and get one Bucking Bronco upgrade and
unintentionally ended the game with about $500 in tow (I was saving up,
unknowing how long the DLC actually is).  Moreover, Elizabeth does not toss you
$ in Burial at Sea, so upgrading Possession just to use it to extract money
from vending machines (which are also less common) is less effective due to a
lack of compounding returns.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Totals                                                                !mon,tot-

For ease of calculation, here are all the totals for upgrading.  (Note:  Burial
at Sea numbers not included yet.)

    Total available by Comstock House Roof:         $13,000
    Total available by final fight (see note 1):    $14,000

    Penalty for not possessing vending machines:   ($ 1,500)
    Penalty for dying up to 20 times*:             ($ 2,000)
    Allowance for Dollar Bill spending*:           ($   750)

    * adjust to your needs, but leave yourself some wiggle room.

    Vigors                                  Weapons
        Possession              $1,703+         Pistol              $1,077
        Devil's Kiss            $1,907          Machine Gun         $1,375*`
        Murder of Crows         $2,030+         Hand Cannon         $1,902^
        Bucking Bronco          $1,198          Repeater            $1,694^
        Shock Jockey            $1,840          Shotgun             $1,332
        Charge                  $2,169          Carbine             $1,594
        Undertow                $1,449          Sniper Rifle        $1,640+
        Return to Sender        $2,185          Heater              $1,778^
        Old Man Winter (BaS)    [todo]          Burstgun            $2,340*^
                                                RPG                 $1,919
                                                Volley Gun          $2,320
                                                Hail Fire           $1,502^
                                                Radar Range (BaS)   [todo]
    + Recommended.
    * Not recommended.
    ^ See note 2.
    ` See note 3.

Note 1:  There aren't upgrade vending machines in the final fight, so you'll
have to stay on the lower levels of the airship and use the vending machines
before you climb to the 4th floor (people who have played the game previously
will know what I'm talking about).

Note 2:  Some weapons either have semi-rare ammo or are rather inefficient in
terms of net potential damage for their reserve size.  As such, if you want to
specialize in these weapons, you may want to leave a Dollar Bill budget leeway
for buying ammo.  Explosive weapons are excluded from this calculation since
they are, almost by definition, special use anyway.

Note 3:  The Machine Gun has a very low net potential damage, but Machine Gun
ammo is plentiful so it avoids being flagged by the above note.  However, this
is only true so long as you fight Founders (which is most of the game); once
you start fighting Vox, Machine Gun ammo becomes rare.
===============================================================================



===============================================================================
Vigors                                                                    !vig-
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
The various Vigors are generally well-balanced enough that none stand out as
the "best," though there are a couple standouts.  In general though, rather
than basing your character solely on what percieved quality a Vigor is, you
should really focus on matching your playstyle.  After all, there's no point in
heavily investing in and using the-highly-recommended Possession if you just
can't get the aiming/trapping quite right.

The following recommendation list assumes you fully upgrade the Vigors in
question.  Aside from the all-purpose recommended selections, the other Vigors
all generally will have some kind of situation in which they will shine, so
it's difficult to make a bad choice.
    Recommended:  Possession, Murder of Crows
    The Others:  Bucking Bronco, Charge, Devil's Kiss, Return to Sender, Shock
        Jockey, Undertow

In case it isn't obvious, Vigors--aside from Return to Sender--can also be
"combo"-ed to produce substantially superior effects.  To do a combo, you need
to use two Vigors in a specific order; I highlight the various combos available
for each Vigors.  The complete list is as follows (ordered by how early on you
can use them):
    1.  Possession + Devil's Kiss (or vice versa*)
    2.  Murder of Crows + Devil's Kiss
    3.  Possession + Shock Jockey (or vice versa*)
    4.  Murder of Crows + Shock Jockey
    5.  Bucking Bronco + Devil's Kiss (or vice versa)
    6.  Bucking Bronco + Charge
    7.  Devil's Kiss + Charge
    8.  Shock Jockey + Undertow (or vice versa)

    * While order doesn't matter, Possessed allies may stagger when hit by a
    follow-up Vigor, so I recommend starting up with Devil's Kiss/Shock Jockey
    and then Possessing them to avoid wasting your Possession duration.
        Moreover, the game normally "auto-aims" Shock Jockey to help you hit
    enemies, but will _not_ auto-aim Shock Jockey towards a possessed ally.  As
    such, it is much easier to use Shock Jockey and then Possession, whereas if
    you use Possession first you may find yourself having a very hard time
    trying to electrocute your new friend.

I also provide all Silver Eagle upgrade costs, so you can help plan in advance
what Vigors you will be able to afford (see section mon- for specific $
counts).

The Vigors below are listed in the order in which you find them.

Burial at Sea Part 1:  I have not yet fully updated this section to reflect
Burial at Sea-specific tweaks.  A quick summary for the impatient:  Possession
is rebalanced for Burial at Sea to be less exploitive, Bucking Bronco/Shock
Jockey have better upgrades, Devil's Kiss has no upgrades available, and the
other Vigors are not available.  Costs in this section do not reflect Burial at
Sea costs.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Possession                                                            !vig,pos-

Highly Recommended Vigor!  (Not in Burial at Sea, though.)
Total Upgrade Cost:  $1,703

Primary (tap)
    Salt Cost:  50
    Effect:  an automaton becomes your ally for the duration.  Patriots are
        only affected for half as long while turrets are affected for twice as
        long.  If you target a vending machine, it will drop a varying amount
        of Silver Eagles, though each vending machine can only be affected
        once.
    Burial at Sea:  affects automatons _or_ humans.
    Duration:  10 seconds

Alternate (hold & release)
    Salt Cost:  100
    Effect:  sets a trap.  When triggered, all in the explosion are affected by
        Possession (though see footnote *).  Note that you need the "Possession
        Aid" upgrade before you can do this alternate effect.
    Burial at Sea:  automatically available without the need for an upgrade.
        However, the mechanics of Possession are different so really only one
        target in the explosion is affected (though for a much longer
        duration).
    Duration:  20 seconds

Upgrades
    "Possession Aid"  [Not in Burial at Sea]
        Cost:  $50
        Effect:  humanoids are also affected; at the end of the effect,
            humanoids kill themselves.  Firemen and Crows are only affected for
            half duration and do not suicide at the end.  Also unlocks the
            alternate effect.
        Burial at Sea:  Possession automatically affects humans from the start,
            however in Burial at Sea humans _DO NOT_ suicide at the end of the
            effect.
        Location:  You can get this from the first Vigor vending machine you
            find.

    "Possession For Less"
        Cost:  $1,653
        Effect:  halves the Salt cost to 25 for the primary effect and 50 for
            the alternate effect.
        Location:  Hall of Heroes before fighting Slate.

Combos
    Devil's Kiss:  Possess a target and then hit them with Devil's Kiss or
        possess a target that's on fire.  They will emanate waves of fire,
        igniting everything in range and doing periodic damage/disruption,
        though at a much closer range than the Shock Jocky combo.
    Shock Jockey:  Possess a target and then hit them with a Shock Jockey or
        possess a target that's been afflicted by electrocution.  They will
        become a mobile Tesla Coil, periodically electrocuting (as per Shock
        Jockey) every target in range, stunning them and making them
        vulnerable.  In case it isn't clear, you can affect Patriots, too (a
        Patriot that is electrocuting nearby enemies will clear out a room
        quite quickly).

Anti-Combo
    Bucking Bronco and Possession do not mix well; the former will just waste
    the duration of the latter.

Footnote *
    You can only possess one target at a time.  If you possess a second target,
    the effect on the first target immediately ends.  If the first target was
    not a Fireman or Crow, they immediately kill themselves.  This has the
    ramification that if you set a Possession trap and multiple humans trigger
    it, all but one will immediately suicide, and the survivor will be your
    ally until he or she kills themself at the end of the effect.
    Unfortunately, it's rather hard to predict who will be your ally and who
    will suicide.

Discussion
    My personal favorite; immensely useful.  Long story short: Possession gives
    you dramatically increased survivability and a lot of ways to turn the
    tides of battle against your foes, in addition to having an incredible
    auxiliary use.
        At its basic level, if you have the Salt to spare, this Vigor is a
    money-maker, responsible for a non-trivial amount of the total $ available
    for your character-building.  Early on, this also lets you transform those
    early turrets (which are a bit too strong for being so early in the game)
    into valuable assets.
        The first upgrade is an amazing value proposition; for $50 you unlock
    the ability to insta-kill any non-heavy-hitting human, in addition to
    gaining an ally for a few seconds.  And while in effect, your
    enemies will want to attack your new ally, and any bullet/explosive that
    isn't going towards you is a Good Thing(tm).  For $50 you also unlock the
    trap alternate effect; the trap is very effective when you can anticipate
    an ambush or strike first.  For example, when you enter the "chapel" area
    of the Fraternal Order of the Raven, if look down from the balcony you can
    see around 6 enemies arranged around a podium.  Drop a trap in the middle
    of them, and you will instantly kill most of them, and whoever is missed
    will be slaughtered by your ally.
        Even if you aren't in a position to get more than one target at a time,
    the trap is still effective to use if only just for the extra duration.
    This is especially true for heavy-hitters, who are only possessed for half
    the normal duration and also the most likely to survive the entire duration
    without being killed by their (former) allies.  They will generally waste
    most of the default 5 second duration just standing up/getting into
    position; the additional 5 seconds from the trap effect can mean them
    wreaking much more than twice the havoc, especially if you've trapped a
    slow-moving Patriot.
        On top of all this, Possession combos _extremely_ well.  Hitting your
    possessed ally with Shock Jockey is an immensely powerful effect.  You can
    follow behind and clean up all the vulnerable enemies; your ally also gains
    a damage bonus against the zapped foes.  Moreover, the electrocution effect
    is near-constant, so even if you aren't able to finish off a vulnerable
    foe, your ally will most likely re-shock them immediately.  Hitting your
    ally with Devil's Kiss gives you a mobile firestorm.  Unfortunately, the
    range of this effect isn't as nice as the Shock Jockey combo, so you're
    best suited using this on an enemy who is likely to charge against your
    foes (generally someone wielding a bat or a shotgun).  Moreover, nothing is
    stopping you from doing _both_ combos on the same ally.  You can easily
    clear a room with one ally running around shooting, electrocuting, and
    burning enemies.
        Unfortunately, unless you get the "Possession For Less" upgrade,
    Possession is _so_ expensive to use that even with maximum Salt infusions,
    you will only be able to use the trap effect twice.  In fact, even if you
    just use the primary effect, 50 Salt is a steep price even for an effective
    insta-kill (especially if you end up missing).  This means that whereas all
    other Vigors are pretty much useable right off the bat, if you want to make
    any significant use out of this Vigor you _have_ to plan on spending the
    $1,653 upgrade.  Note that if you're only planning on using this to squeeze
    change from vending machines, the upgrade may not be worth it, since I'm
    not sure you actually end up making back the $1653 up-front cost.  On the
    other hand, if you _do_ plan on aggressively using Possession, then the
    ability to readily possess vending machines helps defray the cost of this
    necessary upgrade.

Special Note
    The projectile for Possession tries to home in on targets.  While generally
    helpful, this homing does mean you need to give a little breathing room
    when you launch it, as otherwise your projectile might immediately try to
    curve towards someone but then run into a doorway.

Burial at Sea Note
    Possession is significantly re-balanced in Burial at Sea; in effect is is
    no longer insanely broken post-Possession-for-Less upgrade.  The major
    change is that humans do not kill themselves at the end, which means the
    trap is no longer a mass insta-kill against normal enemies and you have to
    be careful to not be caught offguard by your friend shooting at you after
    the effect ends.
        The economics of Burial at Sea dictate though that despite this nerf,
    Possession is still a valuable survival tool (if not as relatively good as
    it was in the core game); especially with the Possession for Less upgrade,
    getting a temporary ally can do worlds for your survivability and breathing
    room.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Devil's Kiss                                                          !vig,dev-

Total Upgrade Cost:  $1,907

Primary (tap)
    Salt Cost:  23
    Effect: tosses a fire grenade which sets enemies (and oil slicks) within
        the area of effect aflame.  Burning enemies are very briefly vulnerable
        (about 1 second) and may be distracted.
    Damage:  250 (on average, randomly varies about 20% per attack);
        approximately half is done instantly upon detonation, the remainder is
        dealt over 3 seconds.
    Damage (Oil Slick): ~200 per second.

Alternate (hold & release)
    Salt Cost:  46
    Effect:  sets a trap.  When triggered, all in the explosion are set aflame.
        Burning enemies are very briefly vulnerable (about 1 second) and may be
        distracted.
    Damage:  1,050 (on average, randomly varies about 20% per attack);
        approximately half is done instantly upon detonation, the remainder is
        dealt over 5 seconds.
    Damage (Oil Slick):  ~200 per second.

Upgrades
    "Devil's Kiss Mod" [Not in Burial at Sea]
        Cost:  $1,241
        Effect:  after the initial explosion, 5 additional Devil's Kiss
            grenades are launched in specific directions (see Mechanics #5
            below), which after a short dealy detonate for damage similar to a
            regular use of Devil's Kiss, though with a shorter explosion
            radius.
        Location:  Pretty much any vending machine after the Possession Aid one
            (earliest is in Monument Island).

    "Devil's Kiss Boost" [Not in Burial at Sea]
        Cost:  $666
        Effect:  increases damage done by about 25%.
        Location:  vending machines starting with Finkton Docks.

Combos
    Possession:  Possess a target and then hit them with Devil's Kiss or
        possess a target that's on fire.  They will emanate waves of fire,
        igniting everything in range and doing periodic damage/disruption,
        though at a much closer range than the Shock Jocky combo.
    Murder of Crows:  Hit a target with Murder of Crows and then Devil's
        Kiss.  All the crows will catch fire, dealing extra damage.
    Bucking Bronco:  Lift someone up with Bucking Bronco and then hit them with
        Devil's Kiss or hit someone with Devil's Kiss and then lift them with
        Bucking Bronco.  The lifted enemy will drop smaller grenades.
    Charge: Hit a target with Devil's Kiss, then Charge them.  They will
        expel little grenades that explode at close range.

Mechanics
    Devil's Kiss has several eccentricities in how it functions, so before I
    move on to Discussion I'm going to touch on a few points.  All of this
    information came from tedious analysis of my own self-recordings of using
    Devil's Kiss.
        1.  As mentioned above, about half the total damage is dealt
            instantaneously.  This damage functions like any other explosion
            and drops off the further away a target is from the initial
            detonation.
        2.  The remaining half is dealt over 3 (primary) or 5 (alternate)
            seconds.  Like #1, the total amount dealt is based on how far the
            target was from the initial detonation.  In fact, if you have
            "Floating Combat Text" enabled in some cases you may see a curious
            cascade of 0's fly out from a target that was sufficiently far from
            the detonation.
        3.  Both the instant damage and durational damage vary randomly from a
            given average and they do so pseudo-independently:  it is entirely
            possible for the initial detonation to do a very low amount
            (70-ish) but then each "tick" be quite high (22 per tick).
            However, the net total will still average out to be a base of 250
            (primary) or 1,050 (alternate).
        4.  In case it isn't clear, Devil's Kiss stacks, so an enemy afflicted
            by multiple Devil's Kiss explosions will feel each one.
        5.  The additional grenades from Devil's Kiss Mod pop out outwards and
            "upwards" from the initial impact (in physics terms, imagine a
            normal vector to the plane of impact; that's the rough direction I
            mean by "upwards").  After a short delay they detonate, but under
            certain circumstances that I don't comprehend, they don't always
            detonate (possibly if no one is nearby to be affected by them).
        6.  It's possible for your initial target to be caught in the blast
            radius of the smaller grenades from Devil's Kiss Mod, provided that
            they were triggered by someone who was sufficiently close by or a
            wall bounced a grenade back.  Otherwise the additional grenades are
            launched far enough away (most of the time) to not affect the
            primary target.
        7.  Occasionally one of the extra grenades from Devil's Kiss Mod will
            erroneously immediately hit your initial target as it pops out,
            effectively causing Devil's Kiss to do double damage to the
            intended target.  It's somewhat hard to predict when this happens,
            just treat it as a lucky "critical hit" of sorts.
        8.  A corrolary to #5 and #6 is that against a single target or in
            wide-open fights, you won't gain much benefit from Devil's Kiss
            Mod; your extra grenades will simply disappear and not do much.
            However, when targets are grouped together are are within tightly
            enclosed spaces (like a hallway) you will do a dramatically
            increased amount of damage.
        9.  Another corrolary to #5 and #6 is that at the very least, Devil's
            Kiss Mod makes aiming a bit forgiving; while the main projectile
            might miss, the follow up grenades may hit your intended target.

Discussion
    Devil's Kiss is much more effective on lower difficulties, where the
    damage-to-Salt ratio is much better.  As it stands, Devil's Kiss is on the
    underpowered side until you get at least one of the upgrades, though once
    you have both upgrades Devil's Kiss comes into its own; not only will a
    fully-upgraded primary effect kill most normal enemies in the game in one
    hit (provided one of the follow up grenades hits something close by), but
    you'll find that with both upgrades Devil's Kiss has the rare feature of
    becoming better the more you use it.  Why?  For one, there are all sorts of
    oil slicks throughout Columbia that you might not have bothered to take
    advantage of, but more frequent use of Devil's Kiss will find you
    accidentally igniting areas.  For two, Devil's Kiss synergizes with various
    Gear (such as Storm or Ghost Posse).  For three, Devil's Kiss combos rather
    well.
        Not that there aren't problems.  Whereas in Bioshock, the
    Devil's-Kiss-equivalent Incinerate instantly ignited your target, Devil's
    Kiss launches in a medium-speed parabolic trajectory; moreover, when using
    the primary effect, if you don't immediately hit a target the projectile
    will bounce around for a bit before detonating.  While this lets you hit
    targets around a corner or behind cover, it also means that glancing shots
    or missing entirely is all-too easy to do.  Not to mention that hitting
    far away targets on equal or higher elevation is all but impossible.
        That being said, let's get back to why Devil's Kiss can be very good.
    The official combos are quite good.  Possession followed up by Devil's Kiss
    gives you a mobile firestorm, and is a great way to make charge-prone melee
    users and shotgun wielders sow mayhem amongst enemy ranks (though do note
    that when upgraded, your possessed ally will probably die from the Devil's
    Kiss effect itself before getting much of a chance to do anything).
    Devil's Kiss with a Charge can quickly punish clusters of enemies, and
    works great if you've also fully upgraded Charge and also are wielding a
    high-impact close range weapon like a heater.  Crows followed by Devil's
    Kiss is a great way to layer on additional damage, especially later in the
    game when enemies are tougher and take more time to shoot down even when
    rendered vulnerable; not to mention this also helps you trigger the Crows
    Trap Mod effect.  Bucking Bronco with Devil's Kiss is like a merge between
    the Crows combo and the Charge combo, giving you the effect of a disable
    but also wide damage.
        Even outside the "official" combos, Devil's Kiss works well with other
    Vigors, since in some cases guaranteeing a vulnerability effect will ensure
    your enemy dies quickly (e.g. using Undertow to pull an enemy into a
    Devil's Kiss trap).  In particular, Shock Jockey--while not an official
    combo--synergizes with Devil's Kiss through the Storm Gear; an enemy that
    is electrocuted and hit by a Devil's Kiss is virtually guaranteed to die
    quickly, and in so doing will chain *both* the Shock Jockey and Devil's
    Kiss effect, all but guaranteeing widespread mayhem.  (This also applies to
    the official Bucking Bronco combo, since Storm will also chain Bucking
    Bronco.)
        Even without upgrades or synergistic solutions, Devil's Kiss can still
    be situationally useful.  It's a cost-effective solution early on in the
    game for dispatching Turrets and small groups of enemies.  It also adds an
    extra source of damage against early-game Patriots.  Moreover, the
    alternate effect's trap is still very good even unupgraded and on its own.
    If you are anticipating an ambush (and if you've played through the game
    before, you should know when to expect them), you can pre-emptively clear
    the room by dropping a few traps.  Moreover, it doesn't bounce around, so
    if you aren't confident in your aim, you can launch the trap and it'll just
    stick to whereever you shot it like a proximity mine, which may mean a shot
    that would've bounced past an enemy will instead detonate and catch them in
    the explosion.  Moreover, due to the Salt economics of the alternate effect
    (four times the damage for only twice the Salt, not to mention potential
    synergies with Ghost Posse), in many situations it is strictly better to do
    one use of the alternate effect rather than potentially two or more uses of
    the primary effect.

Burial at Sea Note
    You can't upgrade Devil's Kiss, so against even basic enemies you will need
    to use the trap effect to guarantee a kill.  Still, there are enough oil
    slicks and Possession is nerfed enough where using your precious Eve to do
    a Devil's Kiss trap is the omst effective option you have at your disposal.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Murder of Crows                                                       !vig,mur-

[This Vigor/Plasmid is completely removed in Burial at Sea.]

Highly Recommended Vigor!
Total Upgrade Cost:  $2,030

Primary (tap)
    Salt Cost:  28
    Effect:  launches crows that, upon hitting a wall or enemy, start pecking
        away at enemies nearby, doing minor damage and rendering them
        vulnerable.
    Damage/Stun Duration:  30 over ~4 seconds.

Alternate (hold & release)
    Salt Cost:  56
    Effect:  sets a trap.  When triggered, crows launch out at everyone neaby,
        doing minor damage and rending them vulnerable.
    Damage/Stun Duration:  150 over ~9 seconds.

Upgrades
    "Crows Trap Mod"
        Cost:  $1,485
        Effect:  anyone who dies while under the effects of Murder of Crows
            turns into a Murder of Crows trap.
        Location:  Pretty much any vending machine after the Possession Aid one
            (earliest is in Monument Island).

    "Crows Boost"
        Cost:  $545
        Effect:  increases the stun duration by a few seconds.
        Location:  vending machines starting with the Factory.

Combos
    Devil's Kiss:  Hit a target with Murder of Crows and then Devil's Kiss.
        All the crows will catch fire, dealing extra damage.
    Shock Jockey:  Hit a target with Murder of Crows and then Shock Jockey.
        All the crows become electrified.  This results in a longer stun
        duration and slightly increased damage.

Discussion
    Don't pay much mind to the damage numbers, the damage efficiency per Salt
    is too low to really pay it much heed.  What Murder of Crows is good at
    though, is mass disable/vulnerability.  In fact, unless you upgrade Shock
    Jockey or Bucking Bronco, Murder of Crows is really the only mass disable
    Vigor in the game; Bucking Bronco _can_ affect more than one enemy at a
    time, but the flotation effect is harder to really take advantage of.
        Where Murder of Crows really gets bonkers is with the "Crows Trap"
    upgrade.  Getting enemies to die while having crows on them is not that
    hard for most of the game, since while vulnerable they're taking twice as
    much damage.  So with one well-aimed blast of crows and follow up attack,
    you can quickly make it so that you disable an entire battlefield via a
    non-stop stream of free Crows traps.  The sheer Salt efficiency of this
    mayhem cannot be understated.  Combo this with Devil's Kiss and you can
    spread massive mayhem and damage (Shock Jockey to a lesser extent, if only
    I better understood its functionality).
        Murder of Crows also has the special distinction of being one of two
    disabling Vigors that has full effect on Handymen; the other is
    Undertow and Murder of Crows is more efficient (costing a little bit less
    Salt but lasting potentially much longer thanks to the Crows Boost
    upgrade).  Automatons are immune to Murder of Crows otherwise.
        The one drawback to Murder of Crows is that its range is limited and
    the crows as a projectile fly slower than, say, Bucking Bronco or Shock
    Jockey.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Bucking Bronco                                                        !vig,buc-

Total Upgrade Cost:  $1,198

Primary (tap)
    Salt Cost:  15
    Effect:  creates a wave of force that lifts (human) enemies up into the
        air, rendering them vulnerable and able to be knocked around.  Armored
        enemies become easy to hit for full damage.
    Duration:  ~3 seconds.

Alternate (hold & release)
    Salt Cost:  30
    Effect:  sets a trap.  When triggered, all nearby (human) enemies are
        launched into the air.  Armored enemies become easy to hit for full
        damage.
    Duration:  ~6 seconds.

Upgrades [changed in Burial at Sea, not yet listed here]
    "Bronco Mod"
        Cost:  $777
        Effect:  the flotation effect can chain to nearby enemies.
        Location:  vending machines starting with Finkton Docks.

    "Bronco Boost"
        Cost:  $421
        Effect:  increases the flotation duration by a significant amount of
            time.
        Location:  vending machines starting with the Factory.

Combos
    Devil's Kiss:  Lift someone up with Bucking Bronco and then hit them with
        Devil's Kiss or hit someone with Devil's Kiss and then lift them with
        Bucking Bronco.  The lifted enemy will drop smaller grenades.
    Charge:  Lift someone up with Bucking Bronco and then Charge them.  They
        will go flying far away, though the main use for this combo is to
        propel someone over railings for an instant death.

Anti-Combo
    Bucking Bronco and Possession do not mix well; the former will just waste
    the duration of the latter.

Discussion
    Bucking Bronco's primary strength is that it's the most Salt-effective
    disabling effect for much of the game (in addition to being really cheap to
    fully upgrade).  Enemies that are launched in the air also move around
    depending on how you shoot them.  This is a double-edged sword; on the one
    hand, if the enemy is spinning around, it becomes hard to land critical
    hits; in fact, if you like using critical-hit-friendly weapons like
    carbines or hand cannons, you may hate Bucking Bronco.  On the other hand,
    if the enemy is near a railing, a few solid hits or a single whack with
    your sky-hook could be enough to knock them over the edge for an
    insta-kill.
        Moreover, against armored enemies (who are wearing some kind of helmet)
    Murder of Crows and Shock Jockey will stun them and make them vulnerable,
    but you still be having to deal with their heavy armor (so you will be
    doing twice damage but your base damage will still be very low).  With
    Bucking Bronco on the other hand, perhaps because of the way they are
    twirling in the air, you will easily hit armored enemies for full damage,
    making them much easier to dispatch.
        However, Bucking Bronco is held back by the fact that it cannot affect
    Patriots or Handymen (whereas Shock Jockey and Murder of Crows respectively
    do).  It _can_ lift enemies who are hiding behind cover, but not ones
    hiding behind walls.
        Chaining the area of effect is a modest upgrade; even with heavy use
    you won't see too much benefit compared to Shock Jockey's chain benefit (in
    part this is because Bucking Bronco could already affect more than one
    enemy if they were close together).  The "Bronco Boost" upgrade is quite
    good, however, being very $ efficient and disabling enemies for a very long
    time.
        The combos are decent if situational.  Enemies need to be clustered
    together for you to really take advantage of comboing with Devil's Kiss.
    Bucking Bronco and then Charge is alright, but eventually Undertow
    obsoletes this except in the most extreme of cases (where the enemy is very
    far from the railing).  The benefit to comboing with Charge over simply
    using Undertow though, is that you could theoretically give yourself some
    breathing room (from the lift), insta-kill a heavy-hitter (by ramming them
    off the map), and recharge your shield (from a Charge upgrade), all in a
    quick coordinated move.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Shock Jockey                                                          !vig,sho-

Total Upgrade Cost:  $1,840

Primary (tap)
    Salt Cost:  16 [much higher in Burial at Sea]
    Effect:  shoots out a bolt of electricity.  If it hits an enemy, it does
        minor damage and stuns them, which makes them vulnerable.  If it hits
        water (or hits an enemy in water), significant damage is dealt to
        everyone touching the water.  If it hits a power conduit, a door is
        opened (though these doors are only in Hall of Heroes and Soldier's
        Field).
    Damage:  ~25
    Special Damage:  wet targets with sufficiently low health take an
        instantaneous blast of ~1000 damage; otherwise they take ~200 damage
        per second for the duration of the stun or wetness (see Combo).
    Stun Duration:  ~3 seconds.

Alternate (hold & release)
    Salt Cost:  32 [much higher in Burial at Sea]
    Effect:  launches a crystal, which upon hitting a surface shatters.  The
        shrapnel grows into several full-size crystals and then every crystal
        is connected by arcing electricity.  If an enemy touches the
        electricity or a crystal, a crystal shatters and they are electrocuted
        and stunned.  You can also manually destroy a crystal that's been set
        near an enemy by firing at it, which will cause an explosion that deals
        damage.
    Damage:  ~50 over the stun duration
    Explosion Damage:  ~200
    Special Damage:  wet targets with sufficiently low health take an
        instantaneous blast of ~1000 damage; otherwise they take ~200 damage
        per second for the duration of the stun or wetness (see Combo).
    Stun Duration:  ~4 seconds

Upgrades [changed in Burial at Sea, not yet listed here]
    "Shock Chain Aid"
        Cost:  $1,265
        Effect:  if the electricity hits an enemy, it arcs to nearby targets as
            well.
        Location:  vending machines starting with the Factory.

    "Shock Duration Aid"
        Cost:  $575
        Effect:  increases the stun duration by a few seconds.
        Location:  vending machines starting with Downtown Emporia.

Combos
    Possession:  Possess a target and then hit them with a Shock Jockey or
        possess a target that's been afflicted by electrocution.  They will
        become a mobile Tesla Coil, periodically electrocuting (as per Shock
        Jockey) every target in range, stunning them and making them
        vulnerable.  In case it isn't clear, you can affect Patriots, too (a
        Patriot that is electrocuting nearby enemies will clear out a room
        quite quickly).
    Murder of Crows:  Hit a target with Murder of Crows and then Shock Jockey.
        All the crows become electrified.  This results in a longer stun
        duration and slightly increased damage.
    Undertow:  Electrocute a target with Shock Jockey and then hit them with
        Undertow.  The target takes a significant amount of damage until the
        Undertow effect wears off (about 200 damage per second).
        Alternatively, use Undertow's alternate effect to bring a foe to you,
        then hit them with Shock Jockey for either an immediate electrical
        execution (if their health was low enough) or ~200 damage per second.

Discussion
    For a while Shock Jockey stands behind Murder of Crows and Bucking Bronco
    as a disabling Vigor since it can only affect one target.  However, it
    possesses a bunch of nice utility and auxiliary uses that helps make it its
    own.
        For one, Shock Jockey finally provides you a decent answer to
    automatons, disabling and rendering them vulnerable for a significant
    amount of time.
        For two, Shock Jockey becomes ultra-efficient damage if you can hit
    someone in water.  Not terribly common, but there are a couple of water
    spill hazards (either as part of a level or via a Tear) that you can take
    advantage of.
        For three, Shock Jockey's alternate effect is very different from the
    other disabling Vigors, whose alternate effects are basically just slightly
    bigger triggered versions of the primary effect.  Instead, you basically
    are able to do territorial control; each use sets up a way to thwart anyone
    who would try to charge you, even if it's the Fireman doing his otherwise
    unstoppable suicide dash.  In fact, if you like to sit back and snipe away
    at enemies, one way to protect yourself from charges and being flanked is
    to set up a network of crystals near you.  Not only will it halt enemies in
    their tracks, but if you have Combat Text enabled you will be alerted by
    their presence by a sudden string of numbers appearing on your screen.
        For four, Shock Jockey comboes very well (even if I'm not positive on
    what Murder of Crows + Shock Jockey does); see the earlier Vigor sections
    for more discussion.
        "Shock Chain Aid" is almost mandatory if you plan on regularly using
    this Vigor.  The upgrade takes away its major drawback, its lack of area of
    effect (though unlike Murder of Crows or Bucking Bronco you still have to
    actually hit an enemy for the effect to chain at all).  In fact, with the
    upgrade, Shock Jockey's efficiency becomes on par with the super-efficient
    Bucking Bronco.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Charge                                                                !vig,cha-

[This Vigor/Plasmid is completely removed in Burial at Sea.]

Total Upgrade Cost:  $2,169

Primary (tap)
    Salt Cost:  25
    Effect:  instantly launches you at a target, doing impact damage and
        briefly disrupting them, making them vulnerable.  Not all enemies are
        vulnerable to being stunned (notably Handymen are immune).
    Damage:  175

Alternate (hold & release)
    Salt Cost:  25
    Effect:  launches you at a target, doing impact damage and briefly
        disrupting them, making them vulnerable.  Not all enemies are
        vulnerable to being stunned (notably Handymen are immune).
    Damage:  350

Upgrades
    "Charge Aid"
        Cost:  $1,614
        Effect:  upon impact, you become very briefly invulnerable and your
            shield immediately starts recharging.
        Location:  vending machines starting with the Factory.

    "Charge Boost"
        Cost:  $555
        Effect:  upon impact, you create a small explosion that adds ~100
            damage or so.
        Location:  vending machines starting with Downtown Emporia.

Combos
    Devil's Kiss:  Hit a target with Devil's Kiss, then Charge them.  They will
        expel little grenades that explode at close range.
    Bucking Bronco:  Lift someone up with Bucking Bronco and then Charge them.
        They will go flying far away, though the main use for this combo is to
        propel someone over the railing for an instant death.

Discussion
    Charge's power curve over the course of the game is shaped like the letter
    U.  Very high power early on, when you can sometimes straight out kill
    enemies with a Charge and a follow up attack.  Then Charge's power level
    drops when Charging becomes suicidal--appearing right next to several
    enemies who can all hit you is a surefire way to losing $100.  Once you get
    at least the Charge Aid upgrade, the power curve climbs up again as now
    Charge is both an offensive and survival move.
        In fact, even with the "Charge Boost" upgrade and some serious
    close-range upgrades (a fully upgraded Heater for example), I would venture
    to say that Charge becomes mostly useful as a quick survival/travel Vigor.
    Really tough enemies in the end game are enormously resilient, so you
    should never truly anticipate being able to dispatch your target.  Instead,
    use it to give yourself a brief reprieve, recharge your shield, and have a
    follow up Vigor ready (even if just to Charge away from the situation
    towards a different foe).
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Undertow                                                              !vig,und-

[This Vigor/Plasmid is completely removed in Burial at Sea.]

Total Upgrade Cost:  $1,449

Primary (tap)
    Salt Cost:  31
    Effect:  shoots a gush of water which knocks enemies back about 20 feet
        (~6 meters).  Moving your aim very quickly when you trigger the
        effect can let you affect enemies in a wider cone than just directly in
        front of you.  Enemies are briefly vulnerable while they stand up
        again, though some enemies are immune to being knocked back.
    Damage:  incidental damage from hitting obstacles.
    Special Damage:  Patriots take ~200 damage per second for the stun
        duration.  Turrets take ~80 damage per second for the stun duration.
        Handymen take a reduced amount of damage per second for the stun
        duration, but are not stunned.
    Stun:  3 seconds; for humanoids this includes the time they are being
        launched (i.e. not just the time spent standing up again), for
        automatons this is the total time (as they are not launched back).

Alternate (hold & release)
    Salt Cost:  31
    Effect:  holding the button down creates a watery tentacle that
        auto-targets a faraway target.  Upon releasing, the tentacle pulls in
        the enemy to be right next to you, doing some damage from collision
        with the ground and briefly incapacitating them, making them
        vulnerable.
    Damage:  ~50 from impact with the floor
    Special Damage:  Patriots take ~200 damage per second for the stun
        duration.  Turrets are immune to the alternate effect.  Handymen take a
        reduced amount of damage from the impact and are _fully_ stunned
        (unlike the primary effect).
    Stun:  3 seconds (uniform across vulnerable targets).

Upgrades
    "Undertow Aid"
        Cost:  $306
        Effect:  lets you grab up to two additional enemies with the alternate
            effect; while holding down the "use Vigor" button, sweep your
            targetting reticule over the additional targets you want to grab.
        Location:  vending machines starting with Emporia.

    "Undertow Boost"
        Cost:  $1,143
        Effect:  doubles the range of both the primary and alternate effects.
        Location:  vending machines starting with Downtown Emporia.

Combos
    Shock Jockey:  Electrocute a target with Shock Jockey and then hit them
        with Undertow.  The target takes a significant amount of damage until
        the Undertow effect wears off (about 200 damage per second).
        Alternatively, use Undertow's alternate effect to bring a foe to you,
        then hit them with Shock Jockey for either an immediate electrical
        execution (if their health was low enough) or ~200 damage per second.

Discussion
    Previously I considered Undertow to be rather underpowered for 1999 Mode.
    Now that I realized through some experimentation that the alternate
    effect of Undertow does not cost 62 Salt (as most Vigors' alternate effect
    costs twice their primary), I have to say that this is a serviceable Vigor
    with several use cases where it can really shine.
        The primary effect on its own is quite weak; the disabling effect is
    very short against humanoids, especially since for the first part of it you
    can't really target them since they're busy being knocked back.  Rather,
    the primary effect's strength is in fighting Patriots/turrets (which take
    significant damage _and_ are stunned/vulnerable for the duration) or
    humanoids who are near railings.  Even heavy hitters can be instakilled so
    long as you blow them off the edge of the map, and even if you aren't near
    the edge of the map, a long fall can still do (most of) the work for you.
    And while the primary effect + Shock Jockey combo isn't the most efficient
    damage in the world one on one (31 + 16 Salts when you consider just 16
    Salt + a few bullets can do the same thing), anytime you have a group of
    electrocuted enemies the primary effect combo can shine (e.g. Tesla Coils,
    Shock Jockey with chain upgrade, an Overkill chain, a Shock Jacket chain,
    or even just a group of foes near a fallen Patriot).
        The alternate effect can be a bit suicidal if you're not careful.  Much
    of your 1999 Mode survival depends on evasion and range, not by trying to
    do as much damage as possible at point-blank range.  So just willy-nilly
    pulling in a far away target to close quarters is potentially a way to
    screw yourself over, as even a sniper can hit you with the butt of their
    gun for significant damage (wiping out your shield and part of your
    health).  Instead, use the alternate effect as the setup to a more
    devastating finisher.  Even after you see the tell-tale watery tentacle
    that indicates you've hooked an enemy, you can move around so long as you
    don't exceed the maximum range.  Thus, you can move and turn to face a
    railing, release to pull in your foe, and then hit them with the primary
    effect to immediately blow them off the map.
        Of course, doing this costs 62 Salt (31 to pull + 31 to blast), so it's
    not very efficient when you consider an unupgraded Possession will also
    effectively insta-kill most humanoids for only 50 Salt (though you can do
    this Undertow trick just fine with heavy hitter humanoids, so this is
    probably the most efficient way to dispatch Firemen and Crows).  In
    general, you should seek ways to make the pull combo efficient.  For
    example, the Undertow Aid upgrade plus a railing will let you instakill
    three far-away foes in a more efficient manner than three individual hits
    of a fully upgraded Possession (62 Salt versus 75).
        You can also try your Undertow-pulling luck with the Shock Jockey
    combo.  A direct blast from Shock Jockey on a suspended foe will outright
    electrocute many foes, and many others will be reduced to within headshot
    health.  Alternatively, if you setup a Shock Jockey trap in advance, then
    you can squeeze a bunch of efficiency out of the whole deal; just keep
    Undertow-pulling foes into your Shock Jockey trap.  Combined with the
    "Overkill" Gear and the Undertow Aid upgrade you can potentially cause
    multiple levels of electrocution:  one foe will die, trigger an Overkill
    effect, which will electrocute all nearby enemies, who will take extra
    damage again, which may in turn cause another Overkill to occur, etc.  I've
    actually managed to bring a Patriot down solely with an Undertow combo that
    built up to ~600 damage/second thanks to the initial ~200 damage/second
    plus two humanoids who triggered Overkill effects upon death.  Moreover, if
    you use the "Ghost Posse" Gear, this combo has the nice side effect that
    you may be spawning helpful gun allies in the process.
        You can also try other Vigor traps or simply a good shot or two from a
    close-up weapon.  Undertow-pulling a foe or foes onto a trap that would
    otherwise not get used (e.g. because there are no more charging foes left,
    see str,aiq-) is a good way to make sure your Salt doesn't go to waste.
    And repeatedly Undertow-pulling a foe or foes into range of an upgraded
    heater, volley gun, shotgun, or hail fire blast can be a satisfying, quick,
    and safe way to clear an entire room (especially if you are low on ammo for
    your "at range" weapon).
        Aside from all this, the alternate effect is also notable because its
    stun is 100% effective against Handymen.  Moreover, whereas Murder of Crows
    causes a Handyman to flail about, batting away at birds, Undertow keeps the
    Handyman completely stationary.  This makes him a prime target for critical
    hits in the heart (and this is also an easy way to get the Heartbreaker
    achievement).  The stun from Undertow won't last as long as Murder of
    Crows', but then again you may get so much more damage out of it as to make
    it worth it.
        Lastly, the alternate effect is also useful for just taking advantage
    of the shape of the battlefield.  You can pull Patriots into suicidal or
    far-away locations (to minimize their danger).  You can also pull myriads
    of foes into various map hazards, notably Tesla Coils but also oil slicks.
    These are less common a use case than all the others mentioned above, but
    when they occur, they can be abusive.  Notably, the big fight in Grand
    Central Depot can be reduced into a degenerative match of just constantly
    pulling all your foes into a Tesla Coil, whereupon they become electrocuted
    to death.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Return to Sender                                                      !vig,ret-

[This Vigor/Plasmid is completely removed in Burial at Sea.]

Total Upgrade Cost:  $2,185

Primary (tap)
    Salt Cost:  20
    Effect:  creates a blue shield, which stops all damage.
    Shield Duration:  3 seconds.

Alternate (hold & release)
    Salt Cost:  20
    Effect:  creates a trap; when triggered, it propels enemies away, dealing
        damage and rendering them vulnerable while they stand up.
    Damage:  450

Alternate 2 (hold)
    Salt Cost:  20 to start, 10 per second
    Effect:  holding the button down creates an orange shield which holds onto
        any incoming bullets.  Releasing the button launches the orange shield
        (and any absorbed ammunition) as a trap; upon impact or when triggered,
        it deals damage and renders nearby targets vulnerable.
    Damage:  somewhat dependant on absorbed ammunition, at least 450 but I
        generally can do at least ~900 after absorbing a few bullets.

Upgrades
    "Send for Less"
        Cost:  $898
        Effect:  increases blue shield duration to 5 seconds, halves Salt
            consumption rate to 5 per second for the second alternate effect.
        Location:  vending machines starting with Downtown Emporia.

    "Sender Aid"
        Cost:  $1,287
        Effect:  absorbed ammunition is added directly to your stock (though
            see Mechanics #4 below for how this actually works).
        Location:  vending machines starting with Downtown Emporia.

Combos
    None

Mechanics
    Like Devil's Kiss, Return to Sender has a few tricky aspects to it that
    bear mentioning before moving on to Discussion.
        1.  When using the primary effect, the blue shield lasts only so long
            as you do not switch to another Vigor; switching Vigors causes the
            effect to end prematurely.
        2.  If you accept health, salts, or ammo from Elizabeth while using
            either the primary effect or a prolonged use of the alternate
            effect, the entire effect will end prematurely (which can be quite
            annoying if you had a lot of ammo collected in the orange shield).
        3.  When you create a trap using either of the alternate effects, the
            enemy AI will sometimes treat it as an actual target, firing at it
            until it is completely saturated with bullets (the trap continues
            to absorb ammo like the orange shield).  This has two
            ramifications:  one, a Return to Sender trap can function as a
            minor distraction in mid-fight (though you probably have to be out
            of sight for enemies to focus on it instead of you); two, a Return
            to Sender trap that doesn't detonate immediately when set (due to
            proximity) may reach full power for when it does detonate, doing
            well over the average of 450.
        4.  The Sender Aid upgrade _only_ works if both of the following
            conditions are met:
                A.  You are using the primary effect (blue shield).
                B.  The weapon you have out is the same weapon as the one being
                    blocked by the blue shield.
            However, when you successfully gain ammunition, you gain more than
            you would normally expect:  a few absorbed machine gun shots may
            result in 30ish additional ammo.
        5.  The shield stops virtually _all_ sources of damage, even from
            sources that cannot be otherwise absorbed (like a Handyman's melee
            attack).  However, the only exception is fire damage, notably from
            a Fireman's Devil's Kiss.

Discussion
    A wonderful survival tool.  The primary effect can be used to give yourself
    brief defense while you hop from cover to cover, or if you need to pop out
    and shoot at a sniper without getting shot yourself.  It can also be used
    to get the heck out of dodge when your Shield breaks.  The primary effect
    also has an excellent synergy with Urgent Care:  without Send For Less, you
    have enough time to start regenerating your shield; with Send For Less, you
    not only buy yourself enough invulnerability to start regenerating your
    shield, you also have time to get 2/3 of your shield back, which is just
    bonkers for your survivability.
        The first alternate effect isn't terribly great; the vulnerability is
    short and the damage minimal (though oddly, still better and more efficient
    than a non-fully-upgraded Devil's Kiss), but it can be used to give
    yourself quick breathing room in a pinch, either because of the momentary
    knockback from the explosion or the distracting effect it provides as
    described in Mechanics #3.  Interestingly, it does more base damage (and
    with greater Salt efficiency) than Devil's Kiss's primary effect, but it
    has very tricky aiming (since it's effectively a trap with minimal area of
    effect, you have to be on-target or shoot it with a weapon).
        The second alternate effect is quite good.  In addition to making you
    invulnerable to normal shots, you steadily build up a powerful retaliatory
    attack.  Even with a small amount of caught bullets you can do upwards of
    1,000 damage.  Unfortunately, enemies tend to be smart and will fire less
    at you when you start popping out that orange bubble.
        While the Send For Less upgrade is virtually mandatory for anyone who
    uses this Vigor, Sender Aid is much more situational.  You basically have
    to be specializing in a weapon that is commonly used by enemies,
    that is absorbable by Return to Sender, and has sufficiently uncommon ammo
    or low reserve where you actually would benefit from replenishing your ammo
    mid-fight.  To that end, I would venture to say that people who like to use
    the following weapons would benefit from Sender Aid:  machine gun, hand
    cannon, repeater, shotgun, heater, and to a certain extent crank gun
    (basically limitless offense and defense against Patriots).  Other people
    should stay away from this upgrade.
        In short, you probably don't want this sitting as one of your two main
    Vigors all the time, but always be ready to switch out for this at a
    moment's notice.  Some playstyles will benefit enormously from regular
    usage as well as the upgrades, others will be better off with other Vigors.
    But for everyone, the boost to your potential survivability from using this
    Vigor even situationally is amazing.
===============================================================================



===============================================================================
Weapons                                                                   !wea-
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
[Not yet updated for Burial at Sea.]

As a general rule, you should focus on having one "at range" weapon and one
"close-up" weapon that you upgrade and use to a fair amount.  At lower
difficulties you have much more flexibility about what weapons to upgrade and
use, but in 1999 Mode you need to make sure a) you aren't spreading yourself
thin and b) that you will have fully upgraded weapons to use in the game's
final fights.

The "at range" weapon selection is important since this is really the meat of
how you should conduct your fights in 1999 Mode.  Enemies can quickly pummel
you to death in close quarters and you won't always have a luxurious amount of
Salts to use on disabling Vigors.
    Top tier "at range" weapons:  sniper rifle, carbine.

The "close-up" weapon is both a finisher as well as an "oh-shit!" response.
Enemies wielding shotguns and bats will love to charge you, and you need
something with good stopping power to make sure they don't prematurely end your
run.  Note that your skyhook does _not_ count as a close-up weapon, since even
a highly inaccurate Heater can still hit enemies without having to get right
next to them.
    Top tier "close-up" weapons:  hand cannon, repeater.
    Honorable mention:  heater.

In the lists below, I use two terms: "spread" and "recoil." They sound similar,
but refer to distinct aspects of a weapon.  "Spread" is how far apart the
ammunition scatters every time you fire them out of the weapon.  "Recoil" is
how far your weapon moves away from your target after each shot and mainly
impacts zoomed-in aiming.  A high spread can be good or bad; for a weapon that
fires its bullets one at a time, you generally want a low spread, while for a
weapon that fires a mass of ammo with one shot (like a Shotgun or Heater) a
high spread is good.  A high recoil is always worse than low recoil, though.
In general, a high spread weapon is great for a "close-up" role, while you need
a low spread weapon for ranged fighting.  Assume that if I do not explicitly
mention spread or recoil for a weapon that it has low amounts of both.

I provide all Silver Eagle upgrade costs, so you can help plan in advance what
weapons you will be able to afford to specialize in.

I also provide a few metrics to help you to gauge the relative effectiveness of
various weapons:
    1.  DPS (Normal):  the amount of damage you can output per second before
        having to reload.  This metric only assumes body shots.
    2.  DPS (Critical):  the amount of damage you can output per second before
        having to reload.  This metric assumes a number of your shots are
        critical hits:  slow/medium-fire weapons with a 75% critical hit rate
        and fast-fire weapons with a 50% critical hit rate rate.
    3.  Burst Damage Potential:  a semi-subjective measure of how much damage
            you can output in a very short amount of time.  This metric is
            presented because DPS alone may not capture weapon effectiveness:
            sustained damage is less useful if you pop out of cover, quickly
            try to kill someone, and then pop back into cover.
        For fast-fire weapons, I assume a perfect critical rate over half a
            second (or the closest time duration to fire a whole number of
            shots).  For slow-fire weapons, I assume one shot with a critical
            hit.
        You'll note that because of this metric, some weapons look like they
            have one performance given their DPS, but another performance
            implied given by their burst damage potential.  This is
            intentional; for example, it doesn't matter that a Heater's
            sustained DPS is very low if you can blow up everyone with one
            shot.
    4.  Estimated Total Damage Potential:  the total amount of damage you can
        output from full clip/reserve to empty.  This is a relative measure of
        weapon efficiency; a weapon with very low total damage potential means
        you may be running low on ammo constantly.  To account for certain
        weapons having a higher critical damage multipler than others, this
        total assumes a 50% critical hit rate.
Weapons that have upgrades that affect any of the above metrics will list
multiple values for each of them.

Final note:  unlike the Bullet Boon gear, clip size upgrades for weapons
actually let you carry more ammo.  That is because with Bullet Boon, the extra
clip size comes straight out of the reserve (e.g. a repeater would go from 20
clip 60 reserve to 30 clip 50 reserve).  However, clip size upgrades directly
increase the clip size without decreasing the reserve (e.g. a repeater with the
clip size upgrades would go from 20 clip 60 reserve to 40 clip 60 reserve).
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Tables                                                                !wea,tab-

Before I dive into the individual weapons, I want to put all the metrics into
perspective, since simply looking at the stats for one weapon at a time may not
give you a good picture of its overall relative effectiveness.  Here are
various tables that rank weapons by various metrics (all numbers below use
fully-upgraded assumptions).

Weapons by DPS+                         Weapons by DPS for People Who Aim Well+
    1.  Volley Gun      924                 1.  Sniper Rifle  1,240
    2.  Repeater        583.33              2.  Hand Cannon     937.5
    2.  Sniper Rifle    583.33              3.  Volley Gun*     924
    4.  Carbine         500                 4.  Repeater        875
    4.  RPG             500                 5.  Carbine         812.5
    6.  Machine Gun     400                 6.  Pistol          562.5
    7.  Hand Cannon     375                 7.  Machine Gun     500
    8.  Shotgun         337.5               8.  RPG*            500
    9.  Pistol          250                 9.  Shotgun         464.0625
    10. Burstgun        220.83              10. Burstgun        358.85
    11. Heater          ~200                11. Heater          275

+ Both the crank gun and hail fire are excluded from these lists due to their
variability and/or situationality.
* Neither the volley gun nor RPG can critically hit so normal DPS numbers are
used here.

Weapons by Burst Potential+             Weapons by Total Potential+
    1.  Hail Fire     1,386                 1.  Pistol       20,250
    2.  Heater        1,200                 2.  Carbine      18,687.5
    3.  Hand Cannon     900                 3.  Volley Gun   18,480
    4.  Sniper Rifle    875                 4.  Hail Fire    15,246
    5.  RPG             750                 5.  Sniper Rifle 14,700
    6.  Shotgun         675                 6.  Hand Cannon  14,400
    7.  Repeater        600                 7.  Repeater     13,500
    8.  Carbine         562.5               7.  Shotgun      13,500
    9.  Burstgun        550                 9.  Burstgun     10,500
    10. Pistol          525                 10. Machine Gun   8,750
    11. Volley Gun      462                 11. Heater        9,000
    12. Machine Gun     300                 12. RPG           8,250

+ Crank gun is excluded due to its rarity/situationality.

Overall Weapon Effectiveness+*          ...excluding explosive weapons
    1.  Sniper Rifle                        1.  Sniper Rifle
    2.  Hand Cannon                         2.  Hand Cannon
    3.  Repeater                            3.  Repeater
    4.  Volley Gun                          4.  Carbine
    5.  Carbine                             5.  Heater
    6.  RPG                                 6.  Shotgun
    7.  Hail Fire                           7.  Pistol
    8.  Heater                              8.  Machine Gun
    9.  Shotgun                             9.  Burstgun
    10. Pistol
    11. Machine Gun
    12. Burstgun

...only "at range" weapons`             ...only "close up" weapons`
    1.  Sniper Rifle                        1.  Hand Cannon
    2.  Carbine                             2.  Repeater
    3.  Pistol                              3.  Heater
    4.  Machine Gun (w/Accuracy Mod)        4.  Shotgun
    5.  Burstgun                            5.  Machine Gun

+ Crank gun is excluded due to its rarity/situationality.
* Calculated by adding up the ranks for each weapon with 1.5x weight on
burst damage potential and half weight on total potential; lower scores are
better.  Hail fire was given a score of 12 (worst) for the two categories it
was not listed.
` Categories determined by spread/recoil/presence of scope.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Pistols/Machine Guns                                                  !wea,pis-

These are weapons characterized by a high rate of fire.

Pistol
    Damage:     ~50
        ...on critical hit does x3.5
    Clip:       12          Reserve:        108
    Fire Rate:  400 rpm     Reload Speed:   Fast

    DPS (Normal):           333.33 (realistically 250)*
    DPS (Critical):         749.25 (562.5)*     (50% critical hits)
    Burst Damage Potential: 525
    Est. Total Potential:   13,500 or 20,250 w/upgrades

    * It is _very_ unlikely that you will be to physically press your fire
    button at 400 times per minute; really you will be closer to 300 times per
    minute, so the "realistic" numbers will be closer to your in-game
    performance.

    Damage Boost 1:     $199, +25% damage.
    Damage Boost 2:     $199, +25% damage.
    Ammo Increase:      $404, +50% reserve size (to 162).
    Clip Increase:      $275, +50% clip size (to 18).

    Total Upgrade Cost: $1,077

    Discussion:  the pistol is the first non-melee weapon in the game and for
        most players the experience is that of it becoming quickly obsoleted by
        the machine gun and every other future weapon.  Though interestingly,
        given its high fire rate, quick reload time, good accuracy, and high
        critical hit bonus, the damage per second output of a pistol can easily
        match or beat later and ostensibly better weapons in the game, with
        more common ammo to boot (I can personally attest to the successful
        viability of using a pistol as your main weapon for 1999 Mode).
        However, if you don't have good aiming for criticals, it could take
        you two clips just to clear out one enemy in the later stages of the
        games.  1999 Mode isn't a great place to be messing around, so don't
        waste money here unless you are _very_ confident in your shooting
        skills.

Machine Gun
    Damage:     ~40
        ...on critical hit does x1.5
        ...moderate spread
    Clip:       35          Reserve:        105
    Fire Rate:  600 rpm     Reload Speed:   Fast

    DPS (Normal):           400
    DPS (Critical):         500                 (50% critical hits)
    Burst Damage Potential: 300
    Est. Total Potential:   7,000 or 8,750 w/upgrades

    Damage Boost 1:     $236, +25% damage.
    Damage Boost 2:     $236, +25% damage.
    Accuracy Increase:  $512, -75% spread.
    Clip Increase:      $391, +100% clip size (to 70).

    Total Upgrade Cost: $1,375

    Discussion:  also available rather early on and isn't that great.  It fires
        faster than a pistol, so it effectively does more damage than a pistol,
        but its low accuracy and low critical hit bonus mean that it's
        ill-suited for distance attacks or consistently landing criticals.  As
        a result, you may actually do worse with this weapon than with a
        straight-up pistol.  Also note that for having such a high fire
        rate and low damage, the machine gun does not have a large reserve,
        which means that later in the game you could easily empty out your
        entire ammo supply just to kill one enemy, though ammo is relatively
        plentiful since virtually every Founder fight involves machine guns.
            Note that the Accuracy Increase upgrade is quite strong of a bonus;
        it essentially eliminates one of the Machine Gun's weakpoints and makes
        it capable for moderate to long-range shooting (provided you can handle
        squinting at your screen since the iron sights zoom on this weapon
        isn't very strong).

Hand Cannon
    Damage:     ~300
        ...on critical hit does x3
        ...moderate recoil
    Clip:       6           Reserve:        18
    Fire Rate:  75 rpm      Reload Speed:   Moderate

    DPS (Normal):           375
    DPS (Critical):         937.5               (75% critical hits)
    Burst Damage Potential: 900
    Est. Total Potential:   14,400

    Damage Boost 1:     $448, +25% damage.
    Damage Boost 2:     $448, +25% damage.
    Reload Increase:    $656, -50% reload time.
    Recoil Decrease:    $350, -20% recoil.

    Total Upgrade Cost: $1,902

    Discussion:  basically a pistol's take on the shotgun.  Roughly similar
        damage profiles, great close-up stopping power.  The shotgun does a bit
        more damage and has a spread, but the hand cannon is faster to reload,
        has much better accuracy, and a whopping 3x critical hit multiplier,
        making consistent criticals possible and lethal.  In a pinch, you can
        also use the hand cannon to snipe moderately distanced enemies.

Repeater
    Damage:     ~100
        ...on critical hit does x2
        ...moderate spread
        ...moderate recoil
    Clip:       20          Reserve:        60
    Fire Rate:  350 rpm     Reload Speed:   Moderate

    DPS (Normal):           583.33
    DPS (Critical):         875                 (50% critical hits)
    Burst Damage Potential: 600
    Est. Total Potential:   9,000 or 13,500 w/upgrades

    Damage Boost 1:     installed by default, +25% damage.
    Damage Boost 2:     $423, +25% damage.
    Recoil Decrease:    $822, -50% recoil.
    Clip Increase:      $449, +100% clip size (to 40).

    Total Upgrade Cost: $1,694

    Discussion:  much better than the machine gun (the repeater is effectively
        a Vox-modified machine gun, hence the default damage boost mod).  Very
        high damage rate, reasonably easy to critical with, though you will
        still need some Vigor usage to weaken tougher enemies in order to make
        the damage per total carry ammo ratio a bit more efficient.  The only
        downside to this weapon is that it has such a low reserve that you
        basically are only able to use this in prolonged fashion when actually
        fighting Vox (who tend to drop this in spades).
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Rifles/Shotguns                                                       !wea,rif-

Rifles are great for distance shots, while shotguns are high-impact close up
area of effect damage.

Shotgun
    Damage:     ~450
        ...on critical hit does x1.5
        ...high spread
        ...high recoil
    Clip:       4           Reserve:        20
    Fire Rate:  45 rpm      Reload Speed:   Slow

    DPS (Normal):           337.5
    DPS (Critical):         464.0625            (75% critical hits)
    Burst Damage Potential: 675
    Est. Total Potential:   13,500

    Damage Boost 1:     $255, +25% damage.
    Damage Boost 2:     $255, +25% damage.
    Reload Increase:    $462, -50% reload time.
    Spread Increase:    $360, +20% spread.

    Total Upgrade Cost: $1,332

    Discussion:  from the moment you get this until the end of the game, the
        shotgun is an able performer.  Good hits, frequently able to hit more
        than one enemy at a time, and literal stopping power (pretty much every
        shot is guaranteed to cause a stagger).  To balance this out, it is
        very difficult to land a critical on anyone with a small weak spot
        (human enemies's heads or the Handyman's heart), each shell has to be
        loaded individually during a reload, and the clip size is very low.  In
        fact, this means that you might see a better overall damage rate
        increase if you go for the reload upgrade first versus the actual
        damage boosts.

Carbine
    Damage:     ~125
        ...on critical hit does x2.25
        ...moderate recoil
    Clip:       8           Reserve:        80
    Fire Rate:  240 rpm     Reload Speed:   Moderate

    DPS (Normal):           500
    DPS (Critical):         812.5               (50% critical hits)
    Burst Damage Potential: 562.5
    Est. Total Potential:   17,875 or 18,687.5 w/upgrades

    Damage Boost 1:     $375, +25% damage.
    Damage Boost 2:     $375, +25% damage.
    Clip Increase:      $484, +50% clip size (to 12).
    Recoil Decrease:    $360, -60% recoil.

    Total Upgrade Cost: $1,594

    Discussion:  basically a cross between a pistol and sniper rifle.  As such,
        it is much better than a sniper rifle at hip shooting and much better
        than a pistol at distance combat.  Ammo is relatively plentiful, so for
        a versatile weapon you can't go terribly wrong with specializing in a
        carbine.

Sniper Rifle
    Damage:     ~350
        ...on critical hit does x2.5
        ...very high recoil
    Clip:       4           Reserve:        20
    Fire Rate:  50 rpm      Reload Speed:   Slow

    DPS (Normal):           291.66 or 583.33 w/upgrades
    DPS (Critical):         620 or 1,240        (75% criticals)
    Burst Damage Potential: 875
    Est. Total Potential:   14,700

    Damage Boost 1:     $349, +25% damage.
    Damage Boost 2:     $349, +25% damage.
    RoF Increase:       $654, +100% fire rate.
    Recoil Decrease:    $288, -50% recoil.

    Total Upgrade Cost: $1,640

    Discussion:  if you like killing things from across the battlefield, this
        is your pick.  The zoom-in for this weapon is the best in the game and
        will make it almost trivial to critical enemies from far away, which
        more than doubles this weapon's damage rate.  Above all other weapons,
        I recommend that you seriously consider this as one of your 1999 Mode
        specialties, as the ability to slay your foes without ever exposing
        yourself to any real danger is an incredible boon for your survival.
            As a side note, the fire rate increase upgrade almost makes the
        sniper rifle on par with a shotgun or hand cannon for hip shooting
        enemies (though ammo for a sniper rifle is suitably rare that you
        should only do this in emergencies).

Heater
    Damage:     ~800
        ...on critical hit does x1.5
        ...very high spread
        ...very high recoil
        ...catches enemies on fire
    Clip:       1           Reserve:        8
    Fire Rate:  35 rpm      Reload Speed:   Very Slow

    DPS (Normal):           roughly 200, up to 466.66*
    DPS (Critical):         275 up to 642*      (75% critical hits)
    Burst Damage Potential: 1,200
    Est. Total Potential:   9,000

    * Because the reload speed is very slow, this DPS is only attained with the
    help of Bullet Boon.

    Damage Boost 1:     Installed by default, +25% damage.
    Damage Boost 2:     $554, +25% damage.
    Spread Increase:    $467, +20% spread.
    Reload Increase:    $757, -50% reload time.

    Total Upgrade Cost: $1,778

    Discussion:  if you hit an enemy even moderately on-target with this
        weapon, they are going to almost assuredly die.  Even heavy hitters
        will succumb rather quickly if you made them vulnerable beforehand.
        However, this weapon is _slow_.  Even if you use the Bullet Boon shirt
        to increase the clip size to 2, you'll realize that half of the slow
        reload time is actually just the weapon's incredibly slow rate of fire:
        you are literally waiting for the weapon to cool down.  Coupled with
        the rarity of the ammo, you have to make each shot count.  Great for a
        show-stopping close-up weapon, but not very reliable.

    Special:  the "catch on fire" effect functions somewhat like a Devil's
        Kiss, which means you can combo this weapon much like Devil's Kiss
        (with Bucking Bronco or Charge).  It also benefits from Storm.

Burstgun
    Damage:     ~50
        ...on critical hit does x2.25
        ...moderate spread
        ...moderate recoil
    Clip:       30          Reserve:        120
    Fire Rate:  265 rpm     Reload Speed:   Moderate

    DPS (Normal):           220.83
    DPS (Critical):         358.85              (50% critical hits)
    Burst Damage Potential: 550*
    Est. Total Potential:   12,187.5 or 17,062.5 w/upgrades

    * Because this gun fires in bursts and is inaccurate, this assumes that
    one out of every burst of three shots will not critical hit.

    Damage Boost 1:     $423, +25% damage.
    Damage Boost 2:     $423, +25% damage.
    Recoil Decrease:    $822, -50% recoil.
    Ammo Increase:      $672, +50% reserve.

    Total Upgrade Cost: $2,340

    Discussion:  basically a carbine that shoots in bursts of three instead of
        one at a time.  This has the side effect of making it overall less
        accurate than a carbine (and makes the recoil a necessary upgrade), but
        this is still a rather versatile weapon, functioning for normal combat
        purposes like a machine gun while still having the ability to snipe
        (complete with a sniper-rifle-style scope).
            Unfortunately, while the scope of this weapon is better than the
        normal carbine, the base accuracy is much, much worse, so this is
        better suited for moderate distances, not long.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Explosives                                                            !wea,exp-

High-impact weapons that have no finesse (and thus no critical hit bonus).

Note that for all these weapons, your DPS/Burst Damage/Total Damage potentially
will be higher if you can hit more than one target per shot.  However, this is
somewhat counter-balanced by the fact that targets not hit directly will take a
significantly reduced amount of damage, so your performance may not diverge
significantly from the listed numbers.  However, this may be a different case
with Gear/Upgrades that improve area of effect.

RPG
    Damage:     ~750
        ...high recoil
    Clip:       2           Reserve:        8
    Fire Rate:  40 rpm      Reload Speed:   Very Slow

    DPS (Normal):           500
    Burst Damage Potential: 750
    Est. Total Potential:   7,500 or 8,250 w/upgrades

    Damage Boost 1:     $385, +25% damage.
    Damage Boost 2:     $385, +25% damage.
    Clip Increase:      $816, +50% clip size (to 3).
    RPG Speed Increase: $333, +100% projectile speed.

    Total Upgrade Cost: $1,919

    Discussion:  able to clear out enemies with abandon.  The major downsides
        are that enemies closer to the edge of the effect will take--at
        best--minor damage and the rocket itself moves slowly enough that you
        have to significantly lead your targets.  The projectile speed upgrade
        will mitigate this to a slight degree, but the point still stands that
        the RPG occupies a weird spot where it can't be used at distance, but
        neither can it be used in close range (unless you like blowing yourself
        up).  However, the RPG is still worth a consideration for
        specialization, as many hard fights feature an RPG that you can readily
        use (whether strewn somewhere or via a tear), so being able to maximize
        this free gift every time it shows up can be worth it.

    Special:  while the RPG does not really catch enemies on fire like a
        Heater (though it will ignite oil slicks), the RPG nonetheless benefits
        from Storm, so enemies that die from an RPG shot will propagate a
        Devil's Kiss effect.

Volley Gun
    Damage:     ~112 from shell, ~300 from explosion
    Clip:       8           Reserve:        24
    Fire Rate:  120 rpm     Reload Speed:   Slow

    DPS (Normal):           924
    Burst Damage Potential: 462
    Est. Total Potential:   14,784 or 18,480 w/upgrades

    Damage Boost 1:     $522, +25% damage.
    Damage Boost 2:     $522, +25% damage.
    Radius Increase:    $536, +50% explosion radius.
    Clip Increase:      $740, +100% clip size (to 16).

    Total Upgrade Cost: $2,320

    Discussion:  high rate of fire coupled with a tricky parabolic trajectory
        that, once you get the hang of, can be used to circumvent enemy cover.
        Unfortunately, a significant amount of the damage comes from the shell
        itself, and it's rather hard to actually hit someone with that.
        Moreover, there is a steep drop off in the area of effect damage, so
        even with upgrades you may find yourself hitting foes for around 100
        damage or so.  However, unlike the RPG you barely have to worry about
        hitting yourself with the explosion, and the relatively high rate of
        fire and reload time means that the volley gun works really well for
        taking advantage of large groups of disabled enemies.  Plus, like the
        RPG, many hard fights feature a volley gun you can bring in via a tear.
            One perk that doesn't show up on paper is that each shot of a
        volley gun staggers enemies in its explosion; while this is true of the
        RPG as well, the volley gun has a sufficiently large clip size and fast
        reload/fire rate as to be capable of stunlocking virtually any enemy.

Hail Fire
    Damage:     ~112 from shell, ~350 from explosion
        ...if you delay the detonation of the shell (by holding down the attack
        button) but still hit someone with the shell, you will still do the
        base ~112 damage
    Clip:       5           Reserve:        25
    Fire Rate:  545 rpm*    Reload Speed:   Slow

    DPS (Normal):           very low to 4,196.5 (realistically 2,310)**
    Burst Damage Potential: 462 to 2,312.5 (1,386)**
    Est. Total Potential:   13,860 or 15,246 w/upgrades

    * Theoretically this weapon has a fast fire rate, but if you take advantage
    of the tricky firing mechanism (holding down the attack button to launch
    and then releasing to manually detonate the projectile) the effective fire
    rate is much, much slower.

    ** It is _very_ unlikely that you will be to physically press your fire
    button at 525 times per minute; really you will be closer to 300 times per
    minute, so the "realistic" numbers will be closer to your in-game
    performance.

    Damage Boost 1:     Installed by default, +25% damage.
    Damage Boost 2:     $688, +25% damage.
    Radius Increase:    $415, +100% explosion radius.
    Clip Increase:      $399, +50% clip size (to 8).

    Total Upgrade Cost: $1,502

    Discussion:  honestly, most of you should give this weapon a pass in 1999
        Mode.  The firing mechanism is tricky but not damaging enough to
        warrant mastering.  Ammunition is quite uncommon, so you either have to
        plow precious $ into stocking up at a Dollar Bill (which is a no-go if
        you're going for the Scavenger Hunt achievement) or have to live with
        the fact that you're plowing lots of money into specializing in a
        weapon that you'll hardly ever use.  This is made worse by the fact
        that there are very few actual hail fire weapons in the game (less than
        five, if even that), so if you switch out your hail fire for something
        else, you probably won't find another hail fire to use for quite a long
        time (if ever).
            On the plus side, if you have a target that is relatively
        stationary--so you don't care about having to do a trick shot with
        manual detonations--then the sheer damage output of the hail fire
        cannot be matched by any other weapon in the game:  the hail fire will
        spit out explosive shells basically as fast as you can mash your fire
        button.  You will drop Patriots and even Handymen with surprising
        speed.
            Like the volley gun, one perk that doesn't show up on paper is that
        each shot of a hail fire staggers enemies in its explosion; while this
        is true of the RPG as well, the hail fire has a sufficiently large clip
        size, fast reload, and potentially fast fire rate as to be capable of
        stunlocking virtually any enemy.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Special                                                               !wea,spe-

Skyhook
    Damage:     ~112
    Fire Rate:  Moderate

    Discussion:  there are plenty of Gear that specifically enhances this melee
        weapon, but for the most part the damage output is so low and enemies
        so hazardous that if you ever are in a situation where you have to
        seriously melee, you should either go ahead and restart from the last
        checkpoint or just get it over with and die.

Crank Gun
    Damage:     ~50
        ...on critical hit does x1.5
        ...moderate spread
        ...no zoom
    Clip:       100         Reserve:        100
    Fire Rate:  1500 rpm    Reload Speed:   Very Slow

    DPS (Normal):           1,300
    DPS (Critical):         1,625               (50% critical hits)
    Burst Damage Potential: 812.5
    Est. Total Potential:   12,500

    Discussion:  the crank gun is really good early on, but quickly becomes
        more and more of a novelty.  You can't upgrade it, there's no
        consistent source for ammo, and in addition to a wind-up time, your
        movement speed slows down dramatically while firing away.  This is
        pretty much a recipe for death in later fights.
===============================================================================



===============================================================================
Gear                                                                      !gea-
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Note that Gear is semi-randomized (not in Burial at Sea).  While the locations
are set in stone, when you activate a piece of Gear you get a semi-random
result.  As such, if you reload the game from your last checkpoint, you may get
completely different Gear.  There are a few places where aggressively reloading
may be a worthwhile pursuit, to try and get some of the better Gear:
    1.  Right after you take the elevator up in the Fraternal Order of the
        Raven, there is a piece of Gear behind a bookshelf.  The checkpoint is
        right after the elevator, so it's a quick jog.
    2.  Right before you enter the Arcade in Battleship Bay (when Elizabeth
        tosses you your first batch of $), there are two Gears, one in a closet
        and one in a hallway or in the arcade proper (based on what you did at
        the Raffle).  The checkpoint is right before Elizabeth tosses you the
        $, so it's a very quick jog.
    3.  Right when you wake up at Finkton Docks, you can run across the first
        area to an "Employees Only" shed where a Gear is sitting next to a
        desk; the checkpoint is rigth when you wake up.  Do note that entering
        the "Employees Only" shed will trigger a fight, so if you get some good
        Gear, don't end up dying shortly afterwards (as you'll either lose
        money or be forced to reload and probably not get the same Gear again).

Some Gear are not randomized and are always in the same location.  Those Gear
are (in chronological order):
    Burning Halo (right after killing your first Crow)
    Spare the Rod (room right before you see Fitzroy and Fink's showdown,
        behind a vending machine)
    Spectral Sidekick (in the Bank)
    Health for Salts (in the Asylum)
    Rising Bloodlust (in the Asylum after you open the main door)

Also note that while there are 41 Gear (though see footnote*), of the 36 that
are randomized, they can only spawn in 25 locations (though see foonote**).
That means that you will never see all the Gear in one game.  In fact, you
could get extremely unlucky and miss out on all the top tier and better middle
tier Gear, which could hurt your 1999 Mode run.  This might be an argument in
favor of reloading at a checkpoint, though I can personally attest that 1999
Mode is perfectly possible with even the stupidest bad luck in Gear selection.

Note that there's nothing stopping you from changing out your gear mid-fight.
A lot of Gear is situation-dependent, so to maximize your 1999 Mode success, be
ready to switch out your Gear at a moment's notice.  Like Vigors, a lot of Gear
is well-balanced enough that even if I tier a piece of equipment as "Bottom
Tier," it may still have situations where it will shine (though unlike Vigors,
there are definitely a few that are unabashedly bad).

Just as a reminder - all damage numbers here are showing the 1999 Mode
versions, which differ from the stated numbers in-game.

Footnote *:  With early bird and various collector's edition stuff, the total
Gear count can go up to 53.  Ironically, since none of the extra Gear you
unlock is really top tier stuff, you actually make the game _harder_ than if
you didn't have all the extra stuff since you are diluting the chance that you
actually get a piece of top tier Gear like Winter Shield or Urgent Care (though
some of the extra Gear you unlock create new fixed spawn points that don't
dilute your odds).

Footnote **:  There is a particularly nasty bug regarding Handymen; at the end
of virtually every Handyman conflict a piece of Gear flies off the Handyman
corpse.  However, sometimes this process glitches out and _no_ Gear appears,
leaving only a Handyman corpse to loot.  This is a particularly nasty bug and
the only way around it is to restart form the last checkpoint and re-fight the
Handyman until he actually drops the Gear.

Burial at Sea Note:  As mentioned earlier, unlike in the core game Gear is
completely nonrandom (i.e. fixed locations), so there's no chance that you'll
miss out on any given piece of equipment.  There's a total of ten, and if
you're judicious about your exploration you'll find them in roughly this order:
    1.  Filthy Leech (pants)
    2.  Evil Eye (hat)
    3.  Ticket Puncher (hat)
    4.  Magic Bullet (shirt)
    5.  High and Mighty (boots)
    6.  Better Mousetrap (shirt)
    7.  Death Benefit (pants)
    8.  Quick-Handed (pants)
    9.  Surprise Element (hat)
    10. Roar to Life (shirt)
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Hats                                                                  !gea,hat-

Top Tier:  Evil Eye [BaS], Hill Runner's Hat, Sheltered Life
Middle Tier:  Ammo Cap, Electric Touch, Spare the Rod, Rising Bloodlust,
    Storm, Surprise Element [BaS]
Bottom Tier:  Burning Halo, Gear Head, Quick Handed, Throttle Control, Ticket
    Puncher [BaS]

Ammo Cap
    Tier:  Middle
    Effect:  40% chance that you instantly reload when you run out of ammo.
    Discussion:  while using this Hat, don't play sub-optimally and stop
        reloading until you run out of ammo, that's a recipe for disaster.
        Instead, what this Hat does is in frantic situations (or for
        low-clip-size and slow-reload weapons) give you a quick boost in
        emergency power.

Burning Halo
    Tier:  Bottom
    Effect:  70% chance that a melee target will take 200* damage over 3
        seconds.
    Discussion:  modestly useful early in the game, but relying on melee to
        kill your foes is a recipe for death in 1999 Mode.
    (* takes into account 1999 Mode penalty.)

Electric Touch
    Tier:  Middle
    Effect:  50% chance that a melee target is electrocuted and vulnerable for
        3 seconds.
    Discussion:  if you're in a dire situation (someone has ambushed you from
        behind), then two quick taps to stun them (on average) could be the
        difference between a death/reload or surviving to the next checkpoint.
            Note that since this is electrocution, this will also combo with
        wet foes (Undertow or otherwise) and do ~200 damage per second (less
        for automatons).

Evil Eye [only in Burial at Sea]
    Tier:  Top
    Effect:  Weapon damage increases while looking down the sights and after
        each successive kill (up to five).
    Discussion:  In effect this combines the better part of the Tunnel Vision
        boots (25% damage bonus while looking down sights but no damage penalty
        when not) as well as the Bloodlust hat.  Needless to say, very very
        good Gear with the side effect of making your ammo more efficient (a
        must in the more resource-starved world of Rapture.)

Gear Head
    Tier:  Bottom
    Effect:  makes you harder to detect by automatons, zeppelins, and Patriots.
    Discussion:  _very_ situational.  Makes it easier to shoot Patriots in the
        back, and makes it easier to shoot away at turrets, though eventually
        Shock Jockey makes both of these easier anyway.

Hill Runner's Hat
    Tier:  Top
    Effect:  when your shield breaks, your movement speed is 50% faster for 5
        seconds.
    Discussion:  when your shield breaks is precisely the moment when you need
        to get the heck out of there, and a 50% movement speed boost is
        _significant_.  My life has been saved innumerable times because of
        this Hat.

Quick Handed
    Tier:  Bottom
    Effect:  decreases weapon reload speed times by 30%.
    Discussion:  it's not a _bad_ Hat, it's just not that great of an effect,
        especially since for some slow weapons the crux of why they are slow is
        independent from their reload times (like an RPG's crank or a Heater's
        literal cool down time).

Rising Bloodlust
    Tier:  Middle
    Effect:  every enemy you kill within a span of 10 seconds (up to five) will
        increase your damage.
    Discussion:  an otherwise solid hat, but as I've mentioned before, evasion
        and survivability are tantamount in 1999 Mode and this Hat encourages
        the wrong kind of behavior.

Sheltered Life
    Tier:  Top
    Effect:  every time you eat a snack or use a health kit, you gain brief
        invulnerability.
    Discussion:  to maximize this effect, you need to adjust your playstyle
        instead of ravenously devouring everything you see; keep a mental map
        of where goods are stashed and be sure to immediately loot fallen foes
        (they may have Chips or something on them).

Spare the Rod
    Tier:  Middle
    Effect:  30% chance that a melee target is possessed.
    Discussion:  the effect is great and, like Electric Touch, gives you an
        oh-shit-I'm-about-to-die button you can quickly tap.  Unfortunately,
        30% is a very low chance, which keeps this from being top tier.

Storm
    Tier:  Middle
    Effect:  when an enemy dies while under the effect of Devil's Kiss, Shock
        Jockey, or Bucking Bronco, the effect chains to nearby enemies.
    Discussion:  Basically, when an enemy dies, they explode in a wide, colored
        explosion that spreads the normal effects of whichever of the three
        vigors they were affected by in a moderate radius.
            Note that for Devil's Kiss, Storm functions like one gigantic
        Devil's Kiss explosion instead of a true "chain" effect.  So in
        addition to not causing many smaller grenades to drop off affected
        enemies (as would be expected if you upgraded with Devil's Kiss Mod),
        damage drops off the further away an enemy is from the initial Storm
        explosion, which can mean potentially piddling amounts of chained
        damage.
            Most useful in prolonged fights against packs of enemies, as
        otherwise the enemies aren't close enough or numerous enough to be
        mutually affected by other death-explosions.  Note that an amazing
        combo is to prep an enemy with Bucking Bronco or Shock Jockey, then
        follow up with Devil's Kiss and perhaps a few shots.  Upon death, the
        enemy will propagate *both* the disabling Vigor and the Devil's Kiss
        effect, potentially causing a mass chain effect, especially if you keep
        shooting at the newly affected enemies to ensure they die before the
        effects wear off.
            Note that weapons that have a fire-type effect (namely the Heater
        and the RPG) will also benefit from Storm:  if an enemy dies from a
        shot, they will propagate a Devil's Kiss effect.
            In short, for playstyles that can take advantage of it, Storm is
        almost abusively good.  For other playstyles, it is almost literally
        useless.  Situationally fantastic, but a bit too situational to be top
        tier.

Surprise Element [only in Burial at Sea]
    Tier:  Middle
    Effect:  bullets have a 50% chance to do fire, electric, or ice damage.
    Discussion:  most effective for a heavy Plasmid user who doesn't plan
        on using the radar range.  Why a Plasmid user?  Because on its own the
        elemental damage doesn't do much (except potentially doing a minor stun
        effect); this hat's value comes from triggering free Devil's Kiss or
        Shock Jockey-style combos with either the appropriate Plasmid (Bucking
        Bronco or Possession) or environmental effects (oil or water).  Because
        the radar range does not shoot bullets, it does not trigger this Gear.

Throttle Control
    Tier:  Bottom
    Effect:  better braking and throttling on skylines.
    Discussion:  gweh?  The only Gear I really see no point for.

Ticket Puncher [only in Burial at Sea]
    Tier:  Bottom
    Effect:  melee attacks have 3x range and do 2x damage but also cause you to
        lose 20% of your shield with each swipe.
    Discussion:  combines Deadly Lungers with a pretty powerful melee damage
        boost, but then cancels that all out by having a terrible downside.
        This could be a vaguely plausible hat for someone on a lower difficulty
        who puts all their Infusions into Health, but as it stands in 1999 Mode
        this is needlessly suicidal.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Shirts                                                                !gea,shi-

AMAZING Tier:  Winter Shield
Top Tier:  Better Mousetrap [BaS], Blood to Salt
Middle Tier:  Bullet Boon, Coat of Harms, Drop Cloth, Magic Bullet [BaS], Nitro
    Vest, Roar to Life [BaS], Scavenger's Vest, Shock Jacket
Bottom Tier:  Executioner, Pyromaniac, Sky-Line Accuracy

Better Mousetrap [only in Burial at Sea]
    Tier:  Top
    Effect:  traps have a greater effect (25% more) while costing less (25%
        less, i.e. only 1.5x normal Eve use instead of 2x).
    Discussion:  this effect gives you such an efficiency boost for your Eve
        that virtually anyone who moderately uses Plasmids in Burial at Sea
        should keep this on.

Blood to Salt
    Tier:  Top
    Effect:  slain enemies have a 40% chance of instantly restoring a
        percentage of your total Salts.
    Discussion:  absolutely bonkers for anyone who uses Vigors with any
        regularity.  A 40% chance may not seem like a lot, but the difference
        is being flush with Salt and spamming Vigors or scrambling around with
        a "Low on Salt!" notice before the fight is even half done.  Because
        the recovery is a percentage of your total Salts, this Vigor heavily
        rewards players who invest their infusions in Salt.

Bullet Boon
    Tier:  Middle
    Effect:  increases clip size for weapons by 50%.
    Discussion:  most noticable for weapons like the Heater (which rounds up to
        having a clip size of 2) that are both slow to reload and have tiny
        clip sizes.  Combined with an Ammo Cap hat, your ability to mete out
        punishment will increase dramatically.  Interestingly, shotguns don't
        get as much of a benefit out of this since each extra shell has to be
        reloaded on its own, so you get an increased clip size but also an
        increased reload time.

Coat of Harms
    Tier:  Middle
    Effect:  enemies are easier to execute.
    Discussion:  an enemy you manage to execute is one that doesn't use up
        precious ammo/Salts, plus you're invulnerable while the cutscene is
        taking place.  Synergizes with Kill to Live, which rewards executions.

Drop Cloth
    Tier:  Middle
    Effect:  when you dismount from a sky-line, your movement speed is
        increased by 50%.
    Discussion:  can be situationally useful for sprawling fights or if you
        need to put distance between yourself and a Handyman.  In general
        though, simply the act of dismounting will be enough to put space
        between your enemies and yourself; you don't need the extra help.

Executioner
    Tier:  Bottom
    Effect:  a 60% chance to critically hit vulnerable enemies.  25% increased
        damage.
    Discussion:  while this effectively makes melee-ing a bit more attractive,
        you still don't want to be in a situation where you have to rely on
        meleeing.  For comparison, against an armored non-heavy-hitter in
        Comstock House, taking him down took repeated Shock Jockeys and more
        than a clip of fully-upgraded Shotgun blasts (each doing roughly 1000
        damage).  Do you really think that a slight damage boost and a critical
        hit chance is going to go over well against such resilient enemies?

Magic Bullet [only in Burial at Sea]
    Tier:  Middle
    Effect:  increases critical hit damage by 50% (in the vein of the Head
        Master boots, see its special note) and shots that do a critical hit
        have a chance to not use a bullet.
    Discussion:  not a bad effect by any means and can be very good for anyone
        with decent aim, but frankly I would take Better Mousetrap's
        significant Devil's Kiss boost (which will effectively result in mass
        instakills) over this regardless of aim.

Nitro Vest
    Tier:  Middle
    Effect:  boosts area of effect for explosive weapons
    Discussion:  very situational, but is gangbusters when you can take
        advantage of it.

Pyromaniac
    Tier:  Bottom
    Effect:  when struck, 50% chance of burning nearby enemies for 200* damage
        over 3 seconds.
    Discussion:  don't rely on having to be struck for your damage output.
    (* takes into account 1999 Mode penalty.)

Roar to Life [only in Burial at Sea]
    Tier:  Middle
    Effect:  when your shield breaks, your weapon damage and movement speed are
        boosted (50%) for 5 seconds and your ammo clip is immediately refilled.
    Discussion:  Hill Runner's Hat was really good in the core game, but
        despite getting a lot extra boosts attached to it, those extra boosts
        don't add much (since you should be fleeing during those few seconds,
        not fighting).  Moreover, aside from being really useful against
        the Big Daddy, the greater emphasis on survival horror in Burial at Sea
        means you should be stalking and ambushing your enemies (and making
        better use of a hat slot with Better Mousetrap or Magic Bullet via
        traps or sniping, respectively) than doing all-out war.

Scavenger's Vest
    Tier:  Middle
    Effect:  slain enemies have a 40% chance of directly restoring some ammo.
    Discussion:  not quite as good as Blood to Salt, but by the end game you
        may be scrambling for ammunition, especially if you're avoiding Dollar
        Bill vending machines.  So in particular for weapons with small
        reserves or rare ammo, this could be a situational godsend.

Shock Jacket
    Tier:  Middle
    Effect:  when struck, 50% chance of shocking nearby enemies for 25* damage
        and stunning them for 2 seconds.
    Discussion:  unlike the very similar Pyromaniac, stunning an enemy that's
        in position to hit you can be a lifesaving effect.
            Note that since this is electrocution, this will also combo with
        wet foes (Undertow or otherwise) and do ~200 damage per second (less
        for automatons).
    (* takes into account 1999 Mode penalty.)

Sky-Line Accuracy
    Tier:  Bottom
    Effect:  your shots are more likely to hit enemies when on a sky-line.
    Discussion:  in general, shooting straight off a sky-line isn't the
        greatest of ideas, but if you're really good at doing that, perhaps you
        can benefit more from this.  Pretty much the only reason why I ever
        shot weapons off a sky-line was just to get the achievement.

Winter Shield
    Tier:  "So good there probably will be a patch to weaken it"
    Effect:  jumping on or off a sky-line or sky-hook grants you brief
        invulnerability (NOTE: sometimes it doesn't trigger, just immediately
        dismount or re-attach to trigger it).
    Discussion:  absolutely, positively, insanely good.  A happy coincidence is
        that every Handyman fight tends to involve hooks and sky-lines; with
        aggressive attaching and dismounting you can spend the entire encounter
        invulnerable.  Even when Handymen aren't involved, doing a sky-line
        strike, gaining the invulnerability, laying a Vigor or firing some
        shots at other enemies, then immediately re-attaching to refresh your
        invulnerability will render many encounters easy.
            This Gear is so good that the difference in 1999 Mode with it and
        without it is night and day.  Don't leave it on all the time,
        obviously, since sky-lines and hooks aren't everywhere.  If there is
        only one Gear that you will probably want to aggressively reload for,
        it's this.
            I do fully anticipate that the developers will find a way to weaken
        this somehow; it's just way too good.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Boots                                                                 !gea,boo-

Top Tier:  Overkill, Tunnel Vision, Newton's Law
Middle Tier:  High and Mighty [BaS], Kill to Live, Nor'Easter, Vampire's
    Embrace
Bottom Tier:  Death from Above, Fit as a Fiddle

Death from Above
    Tier:  Bottom
    Effect:  weapon damage increased by 30% on sky-lines.
    Discussion:  a very situational effect; I generally spend more of my time
        doing sky-line strikes than shooting from sky-lines, but if you're the
        type of person who likes gunning down/exploding foes via rail, you will
        definitely want this.

Fit as a Fiddle
    Tier:  Bottom
    Effect:  when revived, come back with full health.
    Discussion:  you _really_ can't afford to die that much on 1999 Mode.  On
        Hard, this was definitely one of my oft-used Gears, but on 1999 Mode
        you need to be a lot more prudent, since enemies regain a _lot_ of
        their health when you revive (virtually all of it).  Because you need
        to be a lot more prudent, you will be dying less.  Because you will be
        dying less, this Gear will see less use.  And in my runs at least
        (where I don't die), this Gear bestows zero benefit.

High and Mighty [only in Burial at Sea]
    Tier:  Middle
    Effect:  basically Winter's Shield.
    Discussion:  a tier ranking is moot because this is the only pair of boots
        in Burial at Sea.  That being said, there are far less opportunities to
        hop around in Rapture so--aside from being very useful in the final Big
        Daddy fight--is less useful overall (also because the Big Daddy can
        shatter your Winter Shield effect).

Kill to Live
    Tier:  Middle
    Effect:  melee executions have a 65% chance of bestowing health.
    Discussion:  the health gain is modest (roughly like a small health kit).
        But, melee executions are rather painless to pull off; regardless of
        your preferred weapon, so long as you are good at noticing the little
        skulls you get an unstoppable attack for which you are briefly
        invincible.  So not bad at keeping your health topped off.

Newton's Law
    Tier:  Top
    Effect:  landing from a sky-line or hook knocks nearby enemies away.
    Discussion:  as the game advances, rather than individual enemies you can
        strike down upon, you will be in awkward situations where you will jump
        into a fray of multiple enemies, all of whom will be quick to shoot at
        the guy who just killed their friend.  This counters that, giving you a
        brief moment of reprieve to either escape or to launch some disabling
        Vigors.

Nor'Easter
    Tier:  Middle
    Effect:  killing an enemy from a sky-line gives you a 50% chance of brief
        invulnerability.
    Discussion:  much more effective than Death from Above, as generally when
        you are able to stably attack enemies from a sky-line, they are also
        able to attack you.  Giving yourself invulnerability while launching a
        rocket at enemies is quite good.

Overkill
    Tier:  Top
    Effect:  killing with excessive damage electrocutes nearby enemies
        (stunning them like Shock Jockey).
    Discussion:  you don't need _that_ much excessive damage to trigger the
        effect, just a couple hundred, which later in the game with upgraded
        weapons and disabling Vigors is not that hard.  And in effect, since
        stunned enemies are themselves vulnerable, you can quite possibly chain
        the Overkill effect from foe to foe.
            Note that since this is electrocution, this will also combo with
        wet foes (Undertow or otherwise) and do ~200 damage per second (less
        for automatons).

Tunnel Vision
    Tier:  Top
    Effect:  aiming down your weapon's sights increases your damage by 25%, but
        aiming from the hip reduces it by 25%.
    Discussion:  for anyone who likes to use pistols, rifles, or really
        anything other than a Crank Gun, this is a god-send.  You'll have to
        get used to rapidly switching in and out of zoomed-in-aiming mode, but
        this is a rather significant boost in your damage output.

Vampire's Embrace
    Tier:  Middle
    Effect:  melee kills bestow a little bit of health.
    Discussion:  you may think that this is better than Kill to Live (which
        rewards executions and only 65% of the time), but the difference is in
        the playstyle they encourage.  Kill to Live fits in seemlessly with a
        1999 Mode mindset; Vampire's Embrace encourages you to just whack at
        enemies even though you do not have an execution possibility.  An
        execution is a guaranteed kill.  A melee strike, even if the enemy has
        but a sliver of health left, is not, especially when you're up against
        normal enemies who can withstand many tens of melee strikes.  You're
        much better off shooting your foe with a high-powered weapon rather
        than hoping your melee strike kills them.
            However, the saving grace for this Gear is that skyline strike
        kills and kills from Charge count as "melee kills," so these easy-kill
        situations can be sources of free heatlh should the need arise.
    * Special Note:  it appears that deaths caused independently of a weapon
        (I'm mainly thinking of environmental deaths and Devil's Kiss
        ancilliary explosions) are treated as "melee" kills, and will thus
        bestow health.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Pants                                                                 !gea,pan-

Top Tier:  Death Benefit [BaS], Filthy Leech [BaS], Head Master, Urgent Care
Middle Tier:  Angry Stompers, Fire Bird, Ghost Posse, Health for Salts, Last
    Man Standing, Sky-Line Reloader
Bottom Tier:  Brittle-Skinned, Deadly Lungers, Quick Handed [BaS], Spectral
    Sidekick

Angry Stompers
    Tier:  Middle
    Effect:  when extremely low on health, do 2x damage.
    Discussion:  obviously don't keep this on all the time, only when you are
        extremely low on health.  It might give you the edge you need to turn
        that period of near-death into a victory.  Note that this rewards
        players who heavily infuse their Health as the threshold appears to be
        a percentage, so players with more health will still have more absolute
        health.

Brittle-Skinned
    Tier:  Bottom
    Effect:  melee targets are vulnerable for 5 seconds.
    Discussion:  if you're out of Salts, this might be the only way you can buy
        yourself some extra damage, but don't go around just swiping at people
        just because you can.  Ironically, this would be way better if you
        could also somehow wear Deadly Lungers.

Deadly Lungers
    Tier:  Bottom
    Effect:  3x normal melee range.
    Discussion:  coupled with Electric Touch, Spare the Rod, or Coat of Harms,
        this could be quite serviceable, but aside from situational uses, your
        melee attack is by far your worst attack, so you should generally just
        shoot the damn enemy.

Death Benefit [only in Burial at Sea]
    Tier:  Top
    Effect:  melee kills grant health, melee executions grant even more health.
    Discussion:  combines Vampire's Embrace and Kill to Live in one nice
        package.  Because Burial at Sea is more resource-starved, you will be
        doing a lot more melee, which means that this pair of pants becomes
        very, very good.

Filthy Leech [only in Burial at Sea]
    Tier:  Top
    Effect:  kills via a Plasmid grant some Eve.
    Discussion:  a slightly nerfed version of Blood to Salt, but still amazing
        for your Plasmid-using efficiency.  Combined with Better Mousetrap you
        may never need to worry for Eve ever again.

Fire Bird
    Tier:  Middle
    Effect:  dismounting from a sky-line or hook will burn nearby enemies for
        200* damage over 3 seconds.
    Discussion:  a nice little damage boost, especially when combined with
        Winter Shield and Newton's Law.  It also functions as a mini-Newton's
        Law (in that it disrupts foes when you land), so it can function as a
        weaker fallback in case you are unlucky about getting Newton's Law.
    (* takes into account 1999 Mode penalty.)

Ghost Posse
    Tier:  Middle
    Effect:  enemies slain by a Vigor trap have a 50% chance that their guns
        turn into floating allies for a few seconds.
    Discussion:  can be very good with the right setup; do note that it has to
        be a Vigor _trap_ and it has to be a directly-caused death; for
        example, Possession-induced group suicide or manually killing someone
        who is vulnerable from a Shock Jockey trap don't count.
            That being said, combined with, say, Return to Sender or Devil's
        Kiss's alternate fire or a Shock Jockey trap you pull someone into via
        Undertow, you can quickly spawn a miniature army of helpers.

Head Master
    Tier:  Top
    Effect:  increases critical hit damage by 50% (see special note *).
    Discussion:  incredible for good aimers.  If you're not a good aimer,
        practice until you are.  The sheer increase in damage output is
        immense.
    * Special Note:  it appears that the way this Gear is implemented, it's not
        actually a 50% bonus of your total critical hit damage, it's instead an
        increase in the critical hit multiplier of your weapon by .5 (if it has
        one).  In other words, normally if you're using a sniper rifle a
        critical hit will do 2.5x normal damage.  With this Gear, rather than
        doing 3.75x normal damage on a critical hit (2.5x increased by 50%), it
        does 3x normal damage (2.5x plus .5x).  Still a great effect, and even
        moreso for weapons with lower critical hit multipliers.

Health for Salts
    Tier:  Middle
    Effect:  lets you use Health to use Vigors when out of Salts.
    Discussion:  when used carelessly, this Gear is a recipe for suicide.
        However, for heavy Vigor users you do have a 31% chance* of
        having a game where you do not get Blood For Salts as a Gear, so this
        Gear can be an important backup since you are guaranteed to find it in
        the Asylum.
            And for anyone in general, sometimes if you are unable to use a
        Vigor _right now_ (like to stun a Handyman) you are as good as dead, so
        sacrificing a non-trivial amount of health to actually finish the fight
        successfully instead of restarting is not to be understimated.  So
        don't go crazy with this using up your Health, but for emergencies this
        Gear can shine.

        (* 31% is the odds that Blood For Salt is one of the 11 Gear you do not
        see in a normal game.  The odds of this happening actually increase for
        the worse if you have extra Gear unlocked through add-ons.)
    * Special Note:  there is a severe penalty for using Health instead of Salt
        in terms of Vigor cost.  Multiply Salt costs by 20 to get how much
        Health you need to spend to get the same effect; this means that a
        Possession Trap will obliterate most of the Health of even someone who
        has fully infused Health.

Last Man Standing
    Tier:  Middle
    Effect:  when very low on health, killing an enemy grants you health.
    Discussion:  the health gain is modest (roughly equivalent to a small
        health kit), but it's way better than nothing.  You don't always need
        to have this gear equipped, just swap into it when you are in a dire
        situation.

Quick-Handed [only in Burial at Sea]
    Tier:  Bottom
    Effect:  decreases weapon reload times by 30%.
    Discussion:  even if you don't plan on melee-ing much, Death Benefit is
        still a way better choice: actually aiding your survivability is a much
        more important effect than a marginal decrease in the time you have to
        spend hiding behind an obstacle.  Plus, given that all your weapons
        have significantly diminished ammo capacities, you won't be doing much
        reloading anyway.

Sky-Line Reloader
    Tier:  Middle
    Effect:  jumping onto or off a sky-line reloads your current weapon.
    Discussion:  surprisingly effective.  Especially in frantic fights
        involving Handymen, being guaranteed a full clip everytime you dismount
        is a significant weight off your shoulders.

Spectral Sidekick
    Tier:  Bottom
    Effect:  when you drop a weapon, that weapon becomes an ally for a few
        seconds.
    Discussion:  sounds great on paper, but I had an extremely hard time
        getting this to be effective.  Trouble is, you generally are holding
        onto weapons you _want_ to use (and have been upgrading).  And if
        you want to swap out in the middle of a fight, the weapon you're
        switching with rarely ever tends to be in a great spot, either nestled
        away in a corner or in the middle of a frantic battlefield that would
        be suicide to run to just to get an ally.  Your mileage may vary, and I
        happily accept any advice or suggestions to the contrary.

Urgent Care
    Tier:  Top
    Effect:  decreases delay before Shield recharge by 1 second (to 3 seconds)
        and doubles the regeneration rate (to 33%/sec or 100% in 3 seconds).
    Discussion:  1999 Mode is all about survivability, and this gives you that
        in spades.  The normal delay rate is 4 seconds, so this is a
        significant boost.  Thanks to the reduced delay and increased
        regeneration rate, this could actually mean an exponential increase in
        your overall survivability:  frequently you might be about to
        regenerate your Shield, but a stray bullet hits you, which resets the
        delay and hurts your health.  With Urgent Care, you would have already
        started regenerating your Shield, and there would have been enough of
        it to absorb the bullet entirely.
            Because of the way this Gear works, players who heavily infuse
        their Shield stat benefit the most.  With a significant Shield stat,
        you may almost never take normal damage.
            This Gear also has an amazing synergy with Return to Sender.  The
        reduced shield delay time means even an unupgraded use of Return to
        Sender buys you enough invulnerability to start regenerating your
        shield.  Combined with a use of Return to Sender that has the "Send for
        Less" upgrade (which buys you 5 seconds of invulnerability), not only
        will you have enough time to start regenerating your shield, but you'll
        have regenerated 2/3 of your total shield before being able to take
        damage again.
===============================================================================



===============================================================================
Strategies                                                                !str-
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
General                                                               !str,gen-

Pretty much the general strategy to keep in mind throughout all of 1999 Mode
can be summed up with one word:  "prudence."  In lower difficulties, you have
much more leeway to go charging in to the fray, blasting enemies away.  In 1999
Mode, that's a surefire recipe for death.

Instead, think of fighting in 1999 Mode as a numbered series of tactics, that
you progress down only as you exhaust each previous one.
    1.  Pre-empt a fight in advance with Vigor traps or certain tears.
    2.  Use an "at range" weapon to take out opposition from afar, while
        staying behind cover and using nearby Vigor traps as defense.
    3.  If no more enemies are able to be shot at (due to distance or cover) OR
        a new front has opened (from an ambush/charge that couldn't be stopped
        by nearby traps or tears), find the next suitable bit of cover and run
        to it.
    4.  Repeat, going from 2-3, until you are very close to your enemies.  Then
        use Vigor Traps and/or an "up close" weapon to finish off the remaining
        opposition.
The progression has to be very methodical.  In 1999 Mode, you will spend a
_lot_ more time peeking out from behind a pillar, just to assess the state of
the battlefield and to be 100% absolutely sure that the next bit of cover
you're going to run to is a) actually safe and b) close enough so that you
don't die in transit (Hill Runner's Hat helps out a lot for this).

Moreover, among possible tears, you'll find that all sorts of automated allies
are significantly diminished in relative effectiveness.  Even the rare
Motorized Patriot will be destroyed by your enemies with relative ease.  That
doesn't mean you shouldn't use them (a shot fired at an ally is a shot that
isn't fired at you).  But it does mean that you should make sure you have a
quick follow-up--such as opening up a bit of cover or dashing to higher
ground--as once your automaton is dispatched all those bullets will be flying
at you.

Aside from this, encounter-specific strategies follow below.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
AI Quirks                                                             !str,aiq-

Enemies you fight can be broadly categorized into three behavior groups:
    1.  Ones who charge you.
    2.  Ones who will advance towards you or use area of effect weapons.
    3.  Ones who will try to kill you from afar.

Enemies sometimes switch gears from one behavior to another, but some enemies
are bound to a specific strategy.  For example, any enemy you see with a melee
weapon or a shotgun is _guaranteed_ to fall into group #1.  Snipers are always
going to be in group #3.

While pursuing your general strategy (see above discussion in section
str,gen-), you should also assess which enemies are in which behavior group.
Enemies in group #1 should be higher priority than enemies in group #2, and
enemies in group #2 should be higher priority than enemies in group #3.  That's
because an enemy who sits back and snipes you is not going to try to flush you
out of your cover, so you can take your time with them.  An enemy in group #2
will pose an increasing threat as they get closer to you, but you still have
reasonable amounts of time before your current position is no longer safe.  An
enemy in group #1 will single-mindedly try to usurp any secure, defensible
position you may have.  Moreover, if you like to use Return to Sender, Return
to Sender can protect you against group #3 just fine, but less so against group
#2 (since either they're using explosives or are steadily getting within
rifle-butt range), and Return to Sender is almost useless against group #1
(except for shotgunners).

In fact, because of the way enemies tend to come out in waves, what may happen
is that as you dispatch enemies, a new wave of enemies will appear to fill in
the gaps.  If you keep dispatching charging enemies, while the general absolute
number of your foes isn't really changing, the overall threat level of your
enemies _is_.  Whereas if you were to immediately snipe away all the ranged
threats and trigger a new wave of enemies, you might find yourself overwhelmed
by charging, shotguns-blazing, heavily armored foes.

So in general, proper threat assessment of what behavior pattern your enemies
are using is important.  In fact, it will also teach you when to use traps and
when to not.  If there are still charging AI, setting up a trap near yourself
is worth the Salt.  If however you are only left fighting enemies trying to
take potshots at you while hopping laterally from cover to cover, setting up a
trap would be a guranteed waste of time and Salt.

Though do note that whatever the behavior pattern, getting too close to an
enemy will force them to charge and melee you, which is a rather dangerous
prospect for your survival.  Unless you have a solid exit plan involving a
great defense or a solid finishing move, keep a respectable distance!
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Firemen                                                               !str,fir-

Firemen have one rather special trait about them.  See, virtually every time
you become "briefly invulnerable" (with the exception of Charge), you get a
little frozen graphic over your Health/Shield bars that slowly goes away.  In
fact, Gear that provides brief invulnerability are even "cold" themed, whether
in the name (e.g. "Nor'Easter") or by the imagery (e.g. a snowflake in the
middle of Sheltered Life's icon).

These little touches aren't just for show.  Any and all fire-based sources of
damage will instantly cancel out your invulnerability (except for Charge's).
So save yourself the trouble and don't bother trying to do Sheltered
Life/Nor'Easter/Winter Shield tricks with the Fireman, he'll just wipe it out
with one hit.

That being said, Firemen are otherwise straightforward to dispatch.  They're
basically souped-up versions of flak cannon enemies, launching Devil's Kiss
instead of explosive shells.  As would be expected, Firemen are immune to
Devil's Kiss and other fiery effects.  They can be briefly possessed (at half
normal duration) so in crowded fights a Possession trap a) can get the
Fireman to dispatch a lot of your enemies AND/OR b) let your other foes do some
of the damage to the Fireman for you.

The only major gotcha is that once at low health, a Fireman will charge at you
and then explode suicidally.  Vigor traps can stop this from happening, but
don't underestimate just how far a Fireman is willing to run just to chase you
down (though with enough distance you could manually kill him before he gets
too close).
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Patriots                                                              !str,pat-

Early Patriots are a major pain.  It's unlikely you have any decent ammunition,
and their weak point (the back) is extremely hard to hit.  They are immune to
Murder of Crows and at least for a short while, you don't have Shock Jockey.
That being said, Devil's Kiss does do damage to them, so you can supplement
your ammunition with a Devil's Kiss trap or two; since the trap does more than
twice normal damage for only twice the Salt cost and since Patriots have very
predictable movement patterns, it's more efficient to use the alternate effect
than the primary effect.

Also note that as a Patriot gets damaged, their head starts to fall apart.
Once it's down to a basic skeleton, their head becomes a critical hit point.
Once it's blown off, their neck becomes a critical hit point.  Make sure to
exploit these.

Later on, Shock Jockey gives you the umph you need to help trivialize these
fights; for a while it's the only disabling Vigor that works on them.  Even
with the stun duration upgrade though, Shock Jockey won't provide enough time
for you to flank the Patriot and start shooting them in the back, so you're
better off just unloading at them from wherever you are.  (Unless of course,
you're already behind them or very nearly behind them, at which point knock
yourself out.)

Much later on, Undertow provides an immensely powerful weapon against Patriots.
While it won't stun them for as long as a Shock Jockey with a duration upgrade,
you will quickly destroy Patriots thanks to the combined vulnerability and ~200
damage per second electrocution.  With a quick wave of your targetting
reticule, you can even target multiple Patriots with one blast.

You can possess Patriots to good effect, and if you have the Salts, doing a
Possession Trap followed up with a Shock Jockey will turn your Patriot into a
riddling-vulnerable-enemies-with-bullets machine of destruction (for 10
seconds).  This is an especially effective maneuver when you have two Patriots
near each other; in all likelihood they'll start trying to fight each other,
except one will constantly be electrocuted by the other, allowing the other to
do a significant amount of damage.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Handymen                                                              !str,han-

These guys are tough as nails.  There are two ways to really effectively
dispatch them, a cheesy way and the insane way.
    Cheesy way:  equip Winter Shield and constantly mount and dismount from
        sky-lines and hooks so that you are only fighting the Handyman while
        invulnerable.
    Insane way:  use Murder of Crows/Undertow to land in a shot or two, but
        then otherwise keep moving; use sky-lines and hooks for a brief second
        or two to run away, but not long enough to get electrocuted.

The cheesy way is self-explanatory.  Pretty much if you have Winter Shield,
Handymen are actually rather easy (if requiring constant, panicky fleeing)
since Irrational Games has made sure that every encounter with a Handyman takes
place near plenty of sky-lines and hooks for you to use.  Note that sometimes
mounting/dismounting won't trigger the invulnerability, so you'll need to
dismount/mount immediately in order to trigger it.  For this reason, it's worth
starting your escape when you still have half your invulnerability left, so
that you aren't accidentally caught flat-footed without any protection.

It is possible to kill Handymen without Winter Shield and without dying, but it
is much harder.  Between the two Vigors that actually disable the Handyman,
Murder of Crows is more efficient, especially if you have the stun duration
upgrade.  However, Undertow keeps the Handyman still, which makes him easier to
critical hit (though also brings him right next to you).  If you have good aim
and a decent critical hit weapon, Undertow is probably your best bet, but
otherwise go with Murder of Crows.  Regardless of which you use, it's not worth
combo-ing the Vigors with anything as any extra damage you get out of them
pales in comparison to simply saving your Salts.

Without the Murder of Crows stun duration upgrade, you really only have time to
land one or two good shots before you need to start high-tailing it out of
there; the moment Murder of Crows/Undertow ends the Handyman is going to ram
you.  The stun duration upgrade for Murder of Crows buys you an extra shot or
two, but you still need to make sure you are well on your way to a new location
before the effect wears off.

Even if you do not have Winter Shield, you need to still aggressively use hooks
and sky-lines.  Jumping on or off gives you a very brief amount of
cutscene-related-invulnerability, and attaching onto a hook/riding a sky-line
and then dismounting as far as you can is one of the fastest ways to travel.
Plus, by aggressively jumping on/off hooks and sky-lines, you're not giving the
Handyman a chance to electrocute you, which could spell instant disaster
(especially if there are still other non-Handymen that you need to dispatch).

If you don't have any Salts for Murder of Crows; well, then hopefully Elizabeth
tosses you some soon.  Otherwise, I hope you're really good at hip shooting
from a far distance, as your strategy then becomes escaping via hook/sky-line,
then immediately dismounting and trying to shoot the Handyman while he's
jumping to you, which is a brief window of about a second or so.

Whatever you do, do not try to hit Handymen in the back.  They are heavily
armored, so unless you're striking his heart or the front of his body, you will
not do much damage at all.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Lady Comstock                                                         !str,lad-

Whew, if there's any one type of fight in the game that poses a huge threat of
ending your 1999 Mode run, Lady Comstock is it.  You may be overwhelmed at
first, but trust me; with some practice Lady Comstock will actually be much
easier than a Handyman.  The specific tactics vary a bit based on which
location you're in (graveyard, vault, or plaza), but the three best overall
strategies are:
    1.  Return to Sender plus sniping.
    2.  Find a sweet spot and snipe her.
    3.  Use Shock Jockey, Devil's Kiss, or Burning Halo to disintegrate many of
        her minions and just go toe-to-toe with her directly (thanks to
        nocturbulous and endersgame33 for pointing this out!)
Note that for the graveyard, you have one extra strategy that I would consider
the best of the best:
    4.  Use a fully upgraded repeater with at least 40 shots in reserve plus
        Head Master and Tunnel Vision and kill her before she has a chance to
        do anything.

For strategies 1 and 2, it is absolutely imperative that you are well-stocked
with your "at range" weapon of choice.  If you go into the graveyard or vault
with a Shotgun and Crank Gun, you may find yourself irrevocably screwed.
(Fortunately, in the plaza there is a Sniper Rifle tear.)  For strategy 3,
having an "at range" weapon is less important and in fact, as endersgame33
pointed out, you can just equip a lot of melee-based Gear and just keep
Charging the minions over and over again (though the shield regeneration
upgrade for Charge is highly recommended).  Or, you can also just
Undertow-pull-into-a-Shock-Jockey-trap combo all the minions.

For strategy 1, what you're basically doing is finding some kind of cover
reasonably far away from Comstock and her minions.  Stay behind it until you
are reasonably sure where Comstock is, at which point you should pop out,
trigger Return to Sender's primary effect, and then snipe at Lady Comstock's
head until your blue shield is almost gone (this will protect you from the
many, many bullets that will be flying towards you).  Duck back behind cover,
reload your weapon, and repeat.  If you do this right, you can wipe her out
before she revives all her minions.

For strategy 2, you're taking a similar approach, except now you're trying to
find a specific place you can camp out where you will be relatively unharassed.
The graveyard is by far the hardest location to find such a spot and it's
really contingent on the AI; a spot that was good in one run may not be good in
another.  The vault and plaza are both easier to do this; the vault gives you a
nice bottleneck that sometimes her minions are loath to cross, and the plaza
gives you plenty of hiding spots in addition to a Mosquito tear that you can
use to distract aggressive minions.

The main difference between those two strategies is that strategy 1 is a bit
more consistent at the cost of having stricter prerequisites.  Consistent,
because you don't need to find a sweet spot to trick the AI.  Stricter, because
you need to have enough Salts for repeated uses of Return to Sender and a high
enough ranged damage output to slay Lady Comstock before the opposition becomes
insurmountable.

Strategy 3 revolves around the fact that enemies that die under the effects of
Shock Jockey and Devil's Kiss will be disintegrated.  Doing so will prevent
them from being revived.  You need to come prepared to use up a lot of Salt
(either to use those aforementioned Vigors or to Charge enemies with the
Burning Halo Gear equipped), but if you lack any decent "at range" weapon or
are lacking ammo you can take this approach to the battle.

As for strategy 4, if you have a fully upgraded repeater and the requisite
Gear, the moment you open the gate to start the graveyard fight zoom in and
fire away at her at full auto.  It doesn't have to be at her head; as long as
you're in the general vicinity of the top half of her body, you will critical
hit her a lot.  Disable the first two minions she raises with Murder of Crows,
an upgraded Shock Jockey, or an upgraded Bucking Bronco (or simply turn on
Return to Sender) and continue to fire away; if Elizabeth offers you more ammo,
don't take it, just reload your weapon when you run out.  After Lady Comstock
raises her first two minions, she'll stand around a bit, and then charge you.
If you've done everything right, you will kill her before she reaches you (this
is by far the easiest way to dispatch her).  You can sort of do the same thing
in the vault and the plaza, though without using a Dollar Bill machine you may
not have scavenged enough repeater ammo during your explorations to pull it off
again.

Other than for strategy 3, you generally shouldn't waste your ammo/Salts/time
fighting Lady Comstock's minions since she will just make more.  However,
sometimes killing a minion is necessary because when Lady Comstock is busy
making more allies, she will rise up into the air very slowly.  This is a
perfect time to shoot her repeatedly in the head, though make sure that you are
far enough away from her that her post-revival explosion doesn't hit you (it
immediately wipes out your shield, which can mean certain death).  You can also
kill minions to try to coax her into specific locations.

Lady Comstock is also vulnerable to being Charged, so if you desperately need a
survival boost and you've upgraded Charge, you can ram her, let off a shot at
close range, and then high-tail it out of there (and as alluded to, you can
make Charge a central part of pursuing strategy #3).
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Final Fight                                                           !str,fin-

If you've made it this far, the final fight is actually not that bad, as far as
1999 Mode conflicts go, if only because by now you are at the peak of your
power.  Just one thing to keep in mind:
    Once you gain the objective to destroy all Vox zeppelins, enemy Vox and
    Patriots will keep being summoned until you destroy all the zeppelins in
    the wave.
This means that if you're _too_ quick at killing off all the foes, another wave
of Vox and Patriots will appear before you have a chance to summon Songbird.

This means that ways to harmlessly delay the fights (to buy you time for
another Songbird) are golden.  Three suggestions:
    1.  When you're down to your last Vox, simply use Possession on them (maybe
        even a trapped version).  They will wander around for 10/20 seconds
        doing nothing, during which your Songbird cooldown finishes and you
        have noone to worry about.
    2.  Use a fully upgraded Bucking Bronco judiciously.  It has a sinfully
        long duration (in addition to being dirt-cheap to use repeatedly) and
        while your enemies are just floating around, they aren't attacking your
        ship's core.
    3.  Use Undertow to pull a Patriot (or two!) to an awkward part of the
        sniper's nest at the top of the ship.  Their ability to hurt your
        ship's core will be cancelled out, which buys you plenty of time to
        deal with other foes and take out the zeppelins with Songbird.  Note
        that frequently Patriots you pull up to the sniper's nest will
        disappear (do they just jump off to their doom?) so this is not a
        fool-proof way to stall for Songbird time.  Though at the very least,
        this is still a painless way to dispatch up to two Patriots at once.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Big Daddy [Burial at Sea]                                             !str,big-

It's back!

Some quick notes:
    - Like in Bioshock, the Big Daddy will love to charge at you from across
      the room.
    - Like in Bioshock, the Big Daddy does have a "slow time" effect that makes
      it very difficult to dodge its attacks.
    - New in Burial at Sea, the Big Daddy can now jump around and even fire its
      drill to harpoon you back to it (for you other old-timers, think Scorpion
      from Mortal Kombat).
    - Unlike basically every other enemy in the game, the Big Daddy can shatter
      through your Winter Shield with its harpoon attack.

Note that while the Big Daddy can negate your Winter Shield, it will still
absorb much of the damage, so aggressively hop around on the skyline to keep it
up whenever you can.  Depending on your playstyle the specific strategy will
vary, but I was able to make good use of repeated Devil's Kiss traps (via
Better Mousetrap) to take away a significant chunk of health.  And even though
Skyline travel speed is slower, it is still the best way to put distance
between you and the Big Daddy so continue to make use of it.  Though don't stay
on too long, as you just become a sitting duck for the harpoon (though as a
side effect of jumping on and off repeatedly you will be triggering your Winter
Shield more frequently).
===============================================================================



===============================================================================
Bestiary                                                                  !bes-
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
I don't pretend to have come up with any of this data on my own.  It is pulled
from the Brady Games official strategy guide, though some of its accuracy is
dubious.

The official Brady Games talks about "ranks" of enemies that are tied to
successive areas of the game.  This is much like the original Bioshock, where
splicers would become tougher after you hit certain geographic checkpoints.  In
1999 Mode, enemies are pulled more liberally from higher ranks.  In the
interest of avoiding copyright infringement, I won't list when the different
ranks theoretically occur (since that's all just straight from the strategy
guide), but if you have the guide itself, do note that you will easily be
fighting enemies 1-2 ranks higher than you should be.

All damage numbers are adjusted for 1999 Mode.  As you'll be able to
ascertain, enemies _hurt_ when they hit you.  Moreover, enemies that have a
ranged weapon will still have a melee damage listed; if you get too close, they
will whack you with their weapon and this damage is just as intense as a
straight-up melee-er's atack.

In the listings below, rather than provide enemies by rank--as Brady Game
does--I merely provide the range of their health and damage.  In general, the
earlier you are in the game, the more likely you will be fighting enemies on
the lower end of the spectrum; the opposite is true for later in the game.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Vigor Effectiveness                                                   !bes,vig-

Various Vigors have differing effects against different enemies.  This table is
shamelessly pulled from the official strategy guide and is provided here for
reference.

If an enemy has an effectiveness multipler of at least x1, then the enemy is
also rendered vulnerable by the Vigor.

                P       DK+     MoC^    BB      SJ^     C       U
Normal          x1      x1      x1      x1      x1      x1      `
"Armored"       x1      x1      x1      x1      x1      x.5     `
Automaton       x2      x1      --      --      x1      !!      `
"Barrage" A.    --      x1      --      --      x1      --      --
Fireman         x.5*    --      x1      x1      x1      x1      `
Zealot          x.5*    x1      --      x1      x1      x1      `
Patriot         x.5     x1      --      !!      x1      x.75    `
Handyman        --      x1      x.75    --      x1      x.1     `
Lady Comstock   !!      x1.5    !!      !!      !!      !!      !!

Legend:
    +   Damage only, not duration.
    ^   Duration only, not damage.
    --  Immune.
    !!  Brief weakness/stun only, no other effect.
    *   Also do not suicide, unlike other humanoids.
    `   Undertow has very varying effects against enemies.  See vig,und- for
    more details.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Normal                                                                !bes,nor-

Normal foes are grouped by what weapon they use.  In general, lower-end weapons
occur earlier in the game, while they start to get replaced with much better
equipped foes later in the game.  All normal (aka "humanoid") foes have their
heads as weak points for critical hits.

Police (only at the start of the game)
    Health:  150
    Damage (melee only):  200
    Special:  Right at the start of the game, in Raffle Square, there is one
        special Police Officer that has 100 Health, does slightly less melee
        damage, and has a Pistol that does 50 damage.  This is where you get
        your first non-skyhook weapon.

Melee
    Health:  705 - 1,191
    Damage (melee only):  374 - 646

Pistol
    Health:  295 - 648
    Damage:  100 - 176 ranged, 374 - 646 melee

Hand Cannon
    Health:  499 - 648
    Damage:  1,150 - 1,382 ranged, 540 - 646 melee
    Special:  You can easily distinguish these chaps from normal
        pistol-wielders because these guys wear little "Statue of Liberty"
        masks.

Machine Gun (only Founders)
    Health:  354 - 777
    Damage:  82 - 142 ranged, 374 - 646 melee
    Special:  may be "armored" in later stages of the game (see "armored" note*
        below).

Repeater (only Vox)
    Health:  777
    Damage:  312 ranged, 646 melee

Carbine (only Founders)
    Health:  460 - 777
    Damage:  360 - 518 ranged, 450 - 646 melee

Shotgun (only Founders)
    Health:  642 - 1,085
    Damage:  1,250 - 1,800 ranged, 450 - 646 melee
    Special:  may be "armored" in later stages of the game (see "armored" note*
        below).

Heater (only Vox)
    Health:  1,085
    Damage:  2,902 ranged (!!), 646 melee
    Special:  as you can ascertain, this guy is definitely an argument for
        prioritizing charging foes (in section str,aiq-):  the damage is
        immense, able to take you down in one hit unless you are heavily
        Health/Shield-infused.  But, this damage drops off exponentially at any
        decent range, so the further away you engage this guy, the better.

Sniper
    Health:  460 - 777
    Damage:  1,846 - 2,658 ranged (!!), 450 - 646 melee
    Special:  while the ranged damage is immense, Elizabeth tends to yell out
        if there are snipers anywhere, so it's unlikely you'll be caught
        off-guard.  This means you'll have the benefit of taking your time in
        taking these guys out.

Burstgun (only Vox)
    Health:  598 - 777
    Damage:  346 - 414 ranged, 540 - 646 melee

RPG (only Founders)
    Health:  1,743 - 3,830
    Damage:  2,224 - 3,203 ranged (!!), 450 - 646 melee
    Special:  are always armored (see "armored" note* below).

Volley Gun
    Health:  1,743 - 3,830
    Damage:  1,334 - 2,401 ranged (!!), 374 - 646 melee
    Special:  are always armored (see "armored" note* below).

* Note on "armored" foes:  some foes are heavily armored.  This means that they
take significantly reduced damage and cannot be critically hit, at least until
you hit them in the head enough to knock off their helmet.  However, despite
Brady Games listing only "Beasts" as heavily armored, heavily armored foes are
_not_ heavy-hitters, so will kill themselves just fine after the effects of a
Possession.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Automatons                                                            !bes,aut-

Automatons do not have critical hit weak points, though they have special
vulnerabilities to Shock Jockey and Undertow.

Machine Gun Automaton
    Health:  1,742 - 3,828
    Damage:  61 - 108 ranged, 480 - 818 from explosion upon death

Rocket Automaton
    Health:  1,472 - 3,828
    Damage:  1,080 - 1,258 ranged, 690 - 818 from explosion upon death

Barrage "Automaton"
    Health:  4,394
    Damage:  864 ranged
    Special:  These "automatons" are those gigantic cannon like things that you
        see at specific plot points, such as the police impound entrance or
        attached to gunships in the final fight.  They cannot be affected by
        any Vigor, so your best bet is to just wail on them with ranged
        weapons.

Mosquito
    Health:  1,132 - 1,914
    Damage:  74 - 108 ranged
    Special:  Mosquitos are listed as having an explosion damage like other
        turrets, but in practice since they float around in the air, no one
        will ever be impacted by it.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Heavy Hitters                                                         !bes,hea-

All Heavy Hitters are only affected at half-strength by Possession and do not
kill themselves at the end of the effect.

Fireman
    Health:  1,430 - 4,833
    Damage:  480 - 1,658 Devil's Kiss, 600 - 2,074 melee, 720 - 2,488 suicide
        explosion
    Special:  immune to Devil's Kiss and other fire-like effects.  Their
        Devil's Kiss cancels out all invulnerability effects (other than
        Charge's).  It's possible to prevent a Fireman suicide charge by
        holding them in place with a Vigor and manually bringing them to 0
        health yourself.  Upon death, guaranteed to drop decent consumables and
        generally also a lockpick.  See str,fir- for further discussion.

Crow
    Health:  2,356 - 5,175
    Damage (melee only):  1,064 - 1,842
    Special:  teleports around by turning into a murder of crows.  Is
        completely invulnerable during this effect.

Patriot
    Health:  5,053 - 8,540
    Damage:  144 - 208 ranged, 846 - 1,244 melee
    Special:  see str,pat- for a full discussion on Patriots.  Guaranteed to
        drop a crank gun upon death.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Special                                                               !bes,spe-

These fellows are so special that they follow their own rules of vulnerability,
combat, and how they are affected by Vigors.

Handyman
    Health:  9,952 - 12,938
    Damage:  1,600 - 1,920 ranged (only used if you are dangling on a hook),
        2,764 - 3,318 melee
    Special:  weak point is his heart; he is heavily armored from the back.  If
        you stay on a sky-line for too long, he will jump on it and electrocute
        the entire thing, which deals ~4000 damage per second to you if you're
        still on it (in general if you don't jump off as soon as you start
        taking damage, you will probably die).  He also can recklessly attack
        other enemies, though if you still have lots of enemies around when a
        Handyman shows up, you may be in bad shape.  See str,han- for further
        discussion.

Lady Comstock
    Health:  15,994
    Damage:  1,970 melee
    Special:  will try to maintain a given size of raised minions; if the
        number of minions drops below this amount, she will rise up into the
        air and create more (unless those minions were disintegrated).  At the
        end of the resurrection effect, she emanates a wave of energy which
        instantly wipes out your shield if you are caught in it.  She will
        generally not try to charge you for her actual up-close attack unless
        you are camping out somewhere in the graveyard or she has no one left
        to raise.  See str,lad- for further discussion.
===============================================================================



===============================================================================
Appendix                                                                  !app-
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Special Thanks                                                        !app,spe-

rarityguide.com for somehow having specific numbers to various elements of
Bioshock Infinite's gameplay.

BradyGames for the details on 1999 Mode's changes.

Other Bioshock Infinite fans who have contributed to this guide:
    endersgame33
    nocturbulous
    ...and others who preferred to stay anonymous.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
History                                                               !app,his-

2013.11.25 - v 1.25
    In general adding preliminary notes for Burial at Sea Part 1, including new
        sections:  not,bur- str,big-
        ...and notes in existing sections:  spe- sta- sta,loc- mon- mon,tot-
            vig- vig,pos- vig,dev- vig,mur- vig,buc- vig,sho- wea- gea-
            gea,hat- gea,shi- gea,boo- gea,pan-

2013.08.09 - v 1.24 (minor)
    vig,dev-:  corrections to Devil's Kiss mechanics.

2013.08.08 - v 1.23 (minor)
    Changing "app,oth-" to "app,all-".

2013.08.07 - v 1.22
    vig,mur- vig,sho-:  adding details about Murder + Shock combo.
    vig,ret-:  correcting note about mechanics.
    gea,pan-:  adding note about how Salt cost is calculated for Health to
        Salts.

2013.08.05 - v 1.21
    vig,ret-:  adding some notes about Return to Sender.
    gea,boo-:  adding extra note about Vampire's Embrace.

2013.08.05 - v 1.20 (not posted)
    vig-:  adding note about auto-aim in Possession combos, some copy-editing o
        the various discussions.
    vig,dev-:  adding extensive extra detail about Devil's Kiss mechanics.
    vig,ret-:  adding extensive extra detail about Return to Sender's
        mechanics.
    gea,hat-:  adding further mechanical notes to Storm.
    gea,boo-:  upgrading Vampire's Embrace.
    wea,exp-:  adding notes to Volley Gun and Hail Fire about stun potential.
    wea- wea,*-:  general copy-editing.

2013.08.01 - v 1.19
    vig,ret- gea,pan-:  adding notes about Return to Sender synergy with Urgent
        Care.

2013.08.01 - v 1.18 (minor)
    wea-:  fixing minor description issue with Estimated Total Damage
        Potential.  Adding Machine Gun to "at range" category.
    wea,pis-:  adding note to Machine Gun about accuracy upgrade.

2013.08.01 - v 1.17
    vig,ret-:  removing extraneous tier rating.
    str,pat-:  clarifying note about Undertow and Shock Jockey.
    mon,tot- wea-:  modifying recommendations based on wea,tab-.
    wea,tab-:  new section.
    gea-:  adding footnote about potential Handyman Gear drop bug.

2013.07.31 - v 1.16
    app,his-:  fixing all timestamps to be 2013, not 2012.
    mon,tot-:  changing the recommended Vigors.
    vig-:  removing "tier" system with a more general recommendation system.
    vig-:  adding "vice versa" to certain combos that don't care about order.
    vig,pos-:  note that turrets are affected at 2x strength.
    vig,pos- vig,dev- vig,sho-:  clarifying text to indicate order doesn't
        matter for Possession combos.
    vig,dev-:  revising discussion, adding note about damage for Alternate
        effect.
    gea,hat-:  revising discussion about Storm.
    gea,hat- wea,rif- wea,exp-:  adding note about the interaction with Storm.
    bes,vig-:  new section.

2013.07.12 - v 1.15
    -:  removing listing for a section I never bothered to write ("An Aside on
        Exploits").
    vig-:  fixing typo.
    Adding new metrics to wea- section:  damage per second (per clip), burst
        damage potential, and total damage potential.

2013.07.01 - v 1.14
    New sections:  spe-.
    vig- vig,ret-:  downgrading Return to Sender to middle tier.
    vig,pos-:  clarifying that only Firemen and Crows do not suicide.
    bes,hea-:  adding commas.

2013.04.23 - v 1.13
    vig-:  for all Vigors, re-organization effect sections to be clearer about
        what the Vigor's primary effect actually is.
    vig,sho-:  separating out combo/special damage from normal damage.
    vig,cha-:  fixing mistake of showing a combo between Charge and Charge
        instead of Charge and Bucking Bronco.
    vig,und-:  rewriting discussion because it still carried undertones of when
        I thought it sucked.
    wea,pis-:  cleaning up some awkward writing.
    str,han-:  cleaning up typos.
    str,lad-:  clarifing strategy 3.
    str,fin-:  reworking the Patriot suggestion.

2013.04.22 - v 1.12
    vig,und-:  more discussion on combo.
    wea,pis-:  more discussion for the pistol.
    wea,exp-:  more discussion for the hail fire.
    gea-:  adding various notes about Undertow combos to appropriate Gear,
        including Electric Touch, Shock Jacket, and Overkill.
    gea-:  re-ordering Pants and Boots to reflect in-game ordering.
    gea-:  adding location for Burning Halo.
    gea-:  there are 41 Gear, not 40, though this number varies.  Clarifying
        the 25 spawn number and adding a note for unlucky people who unlocked
        extra Gear.
    gea,pan-:  adding more notes about Fire Bird.
    gea,pan-:  downgrading Ghost Posse and adding more specifics.
    gea,pan-:  upgrading Health for Salts and adding more specifics.
    str,han-:  clarifying Undertow strategy.

2013.04.16 - v 1.11 (minor update)
    Miscellaneous grammar fixes affecting the following sections:
        sta,loc-
        vig,pos-
        vig,und-

2013.04.16 - v 1.11
    Miscellaneous grammar fixes affecting the following sections:
        vig,pos-
        bes,nor-
    Significantly revising discussions about Undertow, since its alternate
    effect only causes 31 Salt, not 62.  This includes changes to the following
    sections:
        vig-
        vig,mur-
        vig,sho-
        vig,und-
    Fixing references to "Combo X" where X is a number; these references were
    left behind after the significant reworking of sections following v1.9.
    This includes changes to the following sections:
        vig,mur-
        vig,sho-
    mon,tot-:  vending machines can drop up to $30, though not frequently.

2013.04.15 - v 1.9
    Grammatical/spelling/copy fixes in the following sections:
        gea,shi-
        str,gen-
        str,fir-
        str,lad-
    sta,loc-:  fixing lockpick running totals.
    vig-:  cleaning up all formatting for improved readability/skimming.
    vig,buc-:  fixing formatting.
    vig,cha-:  additional damage is about 100.
    wea-:  fixing formatting.
    wea,rif-:  heater combos.
    str,pat-:  adding Undertow interaction.
    str,lad-:  giving nocturbulous credit for strategy #3, adding
        Charge/Burning Halo interactions from endersgame33.
    bes-:  new section.

2013.04.15 - v 1.8
    mon,tot-:  Undertow is no longer not recommended, but Devil's Kiss is.
    vig,buc-:  Bronco Boost _really_ helps the duration.
    vig,und-:  fixing damage numbers for turrets.
    str,lad-:  adding note that Shock Jockey can disintegrate foes to prevent
        revive.
    str,fin-:  adding strategy.

2013.04.15 - v 1.7 (not posted)
    vig,und-:  more notes about Handyman stun effect and Shock Jockey combo,
        fixing Undertow Boost to mention that it also affects the primary
        effect.
    wea-:  adding note about clip size upgrades.
    wea-:  tiering best "close-up" and "at range" weapons.
    wea,pis-:  adding more notes about repeater.
    wea,exp-:  adding volley gun fire rate (d'oh!).
    str,han-:  adding Undertow strategy.
    str,lad-:  adding cheesy repeater strategy, removing personal "easiest"
        story as it should now be apparent that the repeater was the personal
        easiest version.

2013.04.13 - v 1.6 (not posted)
    sta,con-:  drinking vigors yields 50 Salt.
    sta,loc-:  detailed lockpick counts.
    mon-:  safes yield 100 to 300, not 100 to 250.
    mon,tot-:  adding disclaimer about certain weapons.
    mon,tot- vig,sho-:  fixing Shock Jockey total $ cost.
    vig-:  fixing ordering for several combos.
    vig- vig,ret-:  upgrading Return to Sender to top tier.
    vig,pos- vig,buc-:  adding anti-combo note.
    vig,buc-:  Bucking Bronco disability does not combine well with criticals.
    vig,sho-:  adding damage note for undertow targets
    vig,und-:  more documentation about its effects.
    wea,rif-:  grammar fix for shotgun.
    wea,rif-:  adding more negativity to burstgun.
    wea,rif-:  fixing carbine reserve amount.
    wea,exp-:  hail fire shell also does damage (like volley gun).
    gea,shi-:  adding Drop Cloth.

2013.04.12 - v 1.5
    not-:  enemies revive more health, too.
    not-:  smaller loot quantities don't apply to consumables (which always
        restore the same amount on difficulties).
    sta,loc-:  more information about lockpicks.
    wea,rif-:  missing info about sniper rifle rate of fire, changing reload
        speed to "slow"

2013.04.11 - v 1.4
    Grammatical/spelling/copy fixes in the following sections:
        sta-
        wea,pis-
        gea,shi-
    not-:  note about reduced drops in 1999 Mode.
    sta-:  adding estimates about Health and Shield.
    mon-:  adding provisions for buying things at vending machines.
    vig,dev-:  notes about vulnerability, oil slick damage.

2013.04.11 - v 1.3 (not posted)
    Grammatical/spelling/copy fixes in the following sections:
        vig,pos-
        vig,buc-
        vig,sho-
        wea,pis-
    not-:  specific details about 1999 Mode.
    vig-:  correct damage/duration numbers to all vigors.
    wea-:  correct damage numbers to all weapons.
    wea-:  rates of fire and critical multipliers to all weapons.
    wea,pis-:  adding clarification and disclaimer to pistol.
    gea-:  adjusting all damage numbers for 1999 Mode.
    gea,pan-:  clarifying Head Master mechanics.
    gea,pan-:  giving exact numbers to Urgent Care.

2013.04.10 - v 1.2 (not posted)
    Lowering estimated amount of $ from vending machines.

2013.04.10 - v 1.1b (not posted)
    Fixing date format for updates.
    Modifying header to be a bit more SEO.

2013.04.10 - v 1.1
    Miscellaneous grammatical and spelling fixes.
    how-:  adding contact info.
    how-:  moving konami code to not-.
    New sub-section in mon-:  totals (mon,tot-).
    vig,ret:  adding comparison to Devil's Kiss.
    New sub-section in str-:  ai quirks (str,aiq-).
    app,his-:  fixing release date for 1.0.

2013.04.09 - v 1.0
    Initial release.  Still missing some data, but important to get out there.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
All Works                                                             !app,all-

1999 Mode Guide (Bioshock Infinite)
Clash in the Clouds Guide (Bioshock Infinite:  Clash in the Clouds DLC)
Heart of Fury Guide (Icewind Dale 2)
Party Creation Guide (Baldur's Gate)
Party Creation Guide (Baldur's Gate:  Enhanced Edition)
Populous II Guide (Populous II)
Thief Guide (Baldur's Gate 2)
Ultimate Analysis (System Shock 2)
Ultimate Oblivion FAQ (The Elder Scrolls IV: Oblivion)
===============================================================================



===============================================================================
The Stinger
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    "When I was a girl, I dreamt of standing in a room looking at a girl who
was and was not myself, who stood looking at another girl, who was and was not
myself.  My mother took this for a nightmare. I saw it as the beginning of a
career in physics."
            - Rosalind Lutece
===============================================================================