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    Mahjong Guide by barticle

    Version: 1.01 | Updated: 04/06/12 | Search Guide | Bookmark Guide

     YDS Mahjong Guide - Version 1.01 - 6 April 2012 - by Barticle at hotmail.com
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         01 INTRODUCTION                           08 TABLE RULES
         02 WHEN AND WHERE                         09 SCORE CALCULATION
         03 PLAY MODES                                o Points and Minipoints
            o Gambling                                o Limits
            o Tournament                              o Draws and Honba
         04 QUICKSTART GUIDE                          o Uma
         05 MAHJONG TILES                          10 CONTROLS
         06 WINDS AND TURN OF PLAY                 11 DISPLAY
         07 MAHJONG RULES                             o The Table
            o The Basics                              o The Scoresheet
            o Calling Pung and Calling Chow        12 TROPHY
            o Declaring Mahjong: Tsumo and Ron     13 COMPLETION
            o Declaring Riichi                     14 STRATEGY
            o Scoring Elements and Fan             15 FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS
            o Limit Hands                          16 GLOSSARY
            o Double Limit Hands                   17 CONTACT
            o Dora Bonuses                         18 THANKS
    ------< INTRODUCTION >-------------------------------------------- [Section 01]
    The purpose of this guide is to tell you everything you need to know about the
    traditional tabletop game Mahjong, specifically the modern Japanese rules and
    the Mahjong minigame in the 2012 PS3 video-game Yakuza: Dead Souls (the Euro/US
    version of the 2011 Japanese original "Ryuu ga Gotoku: of the End").
    Much like the 2008 samurai game "Ryuu ga Gotoku: Kenzan", Yakuza: Dead Souls (or
    "YDS" for short) is a non-canonical "just for fun" spin-off from the main RGG
    series. It retains the present-day setting of Yakuza 1-4 and the (over)familiar
    Kamurochou map but throws in a whole bunch of zombies and gives you gunplay -
    rather than brawling - as your primary combat mechanic. It also includes the
    usual wide range of playable minigames including Mahjong.
    Mahjong has a lot of rules and specialist vocabulary so it's difficult to
    describe one aspect without making reference to others which I haven't yet
    explained but I've done my best to make everything clear. Where a new term is
    defined it is given in CAPS for easy reference. There is also a basic glossary
    near the end of the guide (Section 16).
    Primarily I'll be using the translated English terminology used in YDS but I
    will add some Japanese terms where I think it'll aid further study. If you want
    to know more then check out my complete guide to the terminology and rules of
    Japanese Mahjong. It's available as a 78-page, illustrated, linked PDF and can
    be accessed from the United States Professional Mahjong League website here:
      http://www.uspml.com/site/downloads.htm  (Barticle's Japanese Mahjong Guide)
    If you want to discuss Japanese Mahjong then join the international community of
    enthusiasts on Reach Mahjong's English forums. Hope to see you there. :)
    If you're enjoying Mahjong then think about importing a proper Japanese Mahjong
    game. I have guides for several PS3 and DS titles on this site. The best games
    for both formats are arguably the Mahjong Fight Club ones, although if you want
    to play against real people online on the PS3 you'll want to go with Janline-R.
    This guide is designed to be viewed using a monospaced (non-proportional or
    fixed-width) font, preferably Courier New. Some sections of the document will
    display incorrectly if you are using a proportional font like Times New Roman.
    ------< WHEN AND WHERE >------------------------------------------ [Section 02]
    As veterans of the Yakuza series will know, you never have full access to the
    map/s at the start of the game. You'll need to play through the story a little
    before you're given freedom to explore the game world. In this case you'll need
    to progress as far as Part I Chapter 3.
    After unmissable meetings with Kamiyama and Hasegawa (and Akaishi) you'll take
    a quick (involuntary!) trip back into the quarantine zone through the back door
    of the Millennium Tower. When you exit back into the "normal" part of the city
    afterwards you'll have free access to almost all of the minigame locations,
    restaurants, etc, including the mahjong parlour called Orchid Palace Mahjong.*
    The mahjong parlour can be found in its usual location on the part of Nakamichi
    Alley that runs parallel and closest to Showa Street along the southern edge of
    the map. If you select the map from the pause menu and zoom in (press X) you can
    see it (marked purple) immediately north-west of the south save point, on the
    same short alley as the Ebisu pawnshop (marked pale yellow). If you still can't
    find it press Triangle and browse the map directory.
    By the start of Part III of the story the quarantine zone expands to the extent
    that it now encompasses the Mahjong parlour. In order to be able to play Mahjong
    again you will need to visit the venue, attempt to enter and then "liberate" the
    local area by killing a small group of zombies outside. The Orchid Palace will
    then remain available for the remainder of the story.
    *The green signs outside the entrance give the name of the parlour in three big
    red kanji - they say Roku Ran Sou which means "six-orchid manor". The two white
    kanji at the top of the sign say Jansou which means "Mahjong parlour" and the
    text at the bottom says 2F Noboru which means "go up to the 2nd floor". The
    three dice shown would indicate the monetary rate and Uma used at the parlour.
    ------< PLAY MODES >---------------------------------------------- [Section 03]
    Just like in Yakuza 4 there are two different ways of playing Mahjong in YDS and
    you can access both of them at the Orchid Palace. I'm calling them "Gambling"
    and "Tournament" modes.
    = Gambling =
    There are three tables* being used inside the parlour, each with a magic text
    label floating over it indicating Easy, Normal and Hard difficulty. Your choice
    will have quite a significant effect on the scale of the Uma bonuses applied at
    the end of each match - see Section 09 for more info.
    (It's also possible to unlock a fourth (Expert) table - see Section 13 for info)
    Just like gambling at a casino, you'll need to change some of your money before
    you play. Instead of using circular poker chips, Mahjong points are counted with
    white plastic SCORING-STICKS marked with dots to indicate their value.
        |   |              |   |             |   |             |   |
        | o | black dot    |   |             |   |             |   |
        | . |              |   |             |   |             |. .|
        |. .|              |. .|             |   |             |. .|
        | o | red dots     | o | red dots    | o | red dot     |. .| black dots
        |. .|              |. .|             |   |             |. .|
        | . |              |   |             |   |             |   |
        | o | black dot    |   |             |   |             |   |
        |   |              |   |             |   |             |   |
       10,000 pts         5,000 pts         1,000 pts         100 pts
    (You don't need to recognise those but since I'd already prepared the ASCII art
    for one of my Mahjong Fight Club guides - and I've tried to make this a general
    guide to Mahjong - I thought I'd re-use the diagram.)
    All four players always start each match with 25,000 points** so you'll need to
    buy some before your first game. You can get these from the guy standing at the
    reception desk. You can buy either 10k, 25k or 100k points and the "exchange
    rate" is one point per Yen so it'll cost you 25,000 Yen in order to buy enough
    points to play. Also you should note that these Mahjong points are different to
    the ones you use in the other gambling games elsewhere in Kamurochou.
    You can see how many Mahjong points you currently possess by going to the Items
    inventory from the pause menu then pressing R1 to view the "valuables". After
    buying some points you should see an item that consists of a pile of several
    Scoring-Sticks. When you highlight that item your points total will be shown in
    the text description at the bottom of the screen.
    Once you have your points you can choose a table at which to play and talk to
    the person there to start a game. If you have more than 25,000 pts at the end of
    a game you can go straight into another one if you like. If you have less than
    25k however you'll need to buy some more credit before your next match.
    If you're new to Mahjong this could be an expensive way to learn so check out
    the Tournament play option below which requires a larger initial investment but
    it's a one-off payment so you can play for free after registration.
    If you find yourself with an excess of Scoring-Sticks you can exchange them for
    one or more of a dazzling array of prizes from the list below! You cannot "cash
    out" and convert your points directly back into money like you would with chips
    at an American or European casino; this is a consequence of the (real) gambling
    laws in Japan. Instead you trade your points for prizes and if you want the
    money you have to sell them at the pawnshop.***
                                      |     Cost    | Resale Value
                       Platinum Plate | 150,000 pts |  150,000 Yen
                           Gold Plate | 100,000 pts |  100,000 Yen
                         Silver Plate |  13,000 pts |   13,000 Yen
                         Bronze Plate |   1,000 pts |    1,000 Yen
                           Iron Plate |     100 pts |      100 Yen
                      Bull's Eye Tile |  20,000 pts |   10,000 Yen
    The plates all follow the same "exchange rate" so you can choose any of them,
    but it makes sense to buy the most valuable ones you can afford since they will
    take up less space in your inventory slots.
    *If the Mahjong tables in the parlour look a little chunky it's because they
    are automatic ones. Mechanisms inside the tables shuffle the tiles, build the
    Wall and roll the dice for you at the start of each game. How cool is that?
    **The most common starting score for Japanese Mahjong is 25,000 points although
    other values like 20,000 pts, 27,000 pts or 30,000 pts are also used sometimes.
    Often players will buy into a game with 30,000 pts but then pay the difference
    into a jackpot called the OKA which goes to the winner, so for example if the
    four players begin play with 25,000 pts they each pay 5,000 into the pot and the
    person who wins the game receives an additional 20,000 pts (4 x 5,000 pts).
    ***Rather conveniently the pawnshop is situated on the same back-alley as the
    Mahjong parlour (a quite common arrangement for Pachinko parlours in Japan). You
    can sell items to Kamiyama in his truck too but for most goods he'll pay you 20%
    less than the pawnshop!
    = Tournament =
    The receptionist at the Mahjong parlour also gives you the option to register
    for the Modern Mahjong* Cup of the "Mahjong Ranking Tournament".
    Registration for the tournament costs 50,000 Yen which may seem like a lot at
    first but it's only twice what you pay for sufficient Scoring-Sticks to play on
    the gambling tables. After paying the fifty grand, not only will you be able to
    play all tournament matches for free but you can also win prizes with a combined
    value of over 800 thousand Yen! (see below)
    (In contrast to Yakuza 4, you seem to start the story with the same amount of
    money regardless of whether you selected Easy, Normal or Hard difficulty. Since
    you start out with 60,000 Yen - as long as you don't blow it on something - you
    should always have enough to pay for the tournament registration fees.)
    After registration you can begin a tournament match at any time by speaking to
    the parlour receptionist. There are no further fees to pay.
    The tournament is played with a "ladder" format consisting of thirty ranked
    players including yourself - you start on the bottom rung. Each time you play a
    tournament ranking match you compete against the person immediately below you in
    the ladder and the two people above you (unless you're currently in 30th, 2nd or
    1st place, of course). After the game, the four of you will occupy the same four
    positions in the ladder but you will now be listed in order of your placings in
    the match.
    So, for example, if you are in 16th position in the ladder you would always play
    against the people in 17th, 15th and 14th. The player who comes first at the end
    of the game will then become 14th, second will be 15th, third will be 16th and
    fourth will be 17th. Here's an example showing how your character (Akiyama) will
    climb the ladder by winning a match.
       Ladder Standings Before       Game Results         Ladder Standings After
        14th Boppin' Arakawa     1st Shun Akiyama     -->  14th Shun Akiyama
        15th Cricket Kengo       2nd Cricket Kengo    -->  15th Cricket Kengo
        16th Shun Akiyama        3rd Boppin' Arakawa  -->  16th Boppin' Arakawa
        17th Oyuki the Vixen     4th Oyuki the Vixen  -->  17th Oyuki the Vixen
    If you come first then you're promoted two places in the ladder, if you come
    second you go up one, if third you hold position and if you come last in the
    game then you drop a place. You're shown the revised ladder listing at the end
    of every tournament game you play.
    There are seven prizes available in the ladder (only one of each per customer)
    which you win when you reach 25th, 20th, 15th, etc, as shown in the table below.
    You can continue to play after you hit the top spot but there's no more prizes,
    although the ranking table will show how many times you've defended your title!
      Rank | Prize                     | Resale Value | Use
      25th | Italian Cologne           |    2,900 Yen | Hostess bonus** / Sell
      20th | Silver Plate              |   13,000 Yen | Modding ingredient / Sell
      15th | Lucky Bracelet            |   11,000 Yen | Improves fight rewards (?)
      10th | Caviar Skin Bag           |   75,000 Yen | Hostess gift / Sell
       5th | Gold Plate                |  100,000 Yen | Sell
       3rd | Swiss Watch               |  142,500 Yen | Hostess bonus** / Sell
       1st | Modern Mahjong Cup Trophy |  500,000 Yen | Cherish / Sell
    So after winning the seven prizes you have the option of selling them all to
    give a 794,400 Yen profit from your initial registration fee. :D (This assumes
    that you sell them at the nearby pawnshop; don't sell them to Kamiyama as he'll
    only give you 80% of these prices!)
    Each of the four playable characters registers separately for the tournament so
    it'll cost you 50,000 Yen each time but you have the potential to win the same
    prizes with each person for a combined value of over 3 million Yen!
    The tournament match registrations for each of the four characters are named
    after the Shijin (literally "Four Gods") of Chinese astrology:
           Akiyama = Phoenix [for Suzaku - the Vermillion Bird of the South]
            Majima = Tiger [for Byakko - the White Tiger of the West]
              Goda = Tortoise [for Genbu - the Black Tortoise of the North]
            Kiryuu = Dragon [for Seiryuu - the Azure Dragon of the East]
    After completing the story and entering Premium Adventure mode you'll gain the
    option to play a Dragon King Match featuring the four strongest local Mahjong
    players who just happen to be Akiyama, Majima, Goda and Kiryuu! :) You play as
    your currently selected character against the other three guys.
    *Modern Mahjong (in Japanese 'Kindai Maajan') is a popular manga featuring a
    number of Mahjong-based comic-strips and articles. They actually ran a special
    feature to promote the launch of the original Japanese version of Yakuza 4 back
    in March 2010. In the game you can find copies of the manga in the magazine rack
    inside the convenience stores and in front of the parlour reception, although
    you can only look at the cover and read a brief description.
    You might also have spotted the Kindai Maajan poster on a partition inside the
    Mahjong parlour which features Akagi - the main character from one of the most
    famous Mahjong manga/anime - and the deranged grin of his nemesis, Washizu. 8D
    **According to the Japanese YDS wiki site the Italian Cologne give +0.25 hearts
    and the Swiss Watch gives +0.5 hearts (when equipped) on a hostess visit.
    ------< QUICKSTART GUIDE >---------------------------------------- [Section 04]
    Although it's no substitute for reading this entire (loooong!) document, I've
    written this section to cover the essentials as concisely as possible. This will
    hopefully enable anyone with little or no knowledge of Mahjong to achieve a
    useful functional level of ability on a short timescale.
    For an expanded and illustrated version of my mahjong quickstart guide check out
    my article on the Yakuza wikia site here:
    --> http://yakuza.wikia.com/wiki/Barticle's_Introduction_to_Japanese_Mahjong
    o Register for the tournament. This will cost you 50,000 Yen for registration
      but thereafter you can play as many tournament matches as you like for free
      (and you'll have the chance to win various prizes worth a lot more than that).
    o You'll need to learn to recognise the Chinese/Japanese numbers on the Craks
      suit (the tiles with red and black markings). Press Triangle during play for
      the in-game help, chose "Hands" and page to Full Flush which shows all nine in
      order from 1 to 9 (left to right).
    o You should really learn the characters used on the Wind tiles too (the ones
      with black markings). Keep paging through the help and you'll come to Little
      Four Winds which shows east, south, west and north (left to right again).
    o You start with 13 tiles and each turn you take one extra and discard one. Your
      aim is to make a complete hand composed of four sets of three and one matching
      pair. The set can be a Chow (three consecutive tiles in the same suit), a Pung
      (a triplet of three identical tiles) or exceptionally a Kong (a quad set).
    o If an opponent discards a tile which you could use to make a triplet then you
      can call Pung to steal it, but the set and your hand will now be "exposed" and
      no longer "concealed". Similarly you can call Chow off the player to your left
      to make a sequence but again it will be exposed. It is usually best to NOT do
      this because you'll limit your scoring potential. Keep your hand concealed and
      reject any Pung and Chow pop-up options that appear.
    o Unless you have a hand which obviously lends itself to Pungs/pairs, you should
      usually try to make Chows (sequences). Keep the numbered tiles from the three
      suits, favouring ones that can make sets together. For example, 6_8 becomes a
      Chow by adding a 7 or _45_ becomes a Chow if you get either a 3 or a 6. Groups
      of four or more adjacent suit tiles can be very versatile.
    o In addition to the four sets, your hand will also need a pair of two identical
      tiles so make sure you keep a pair when you have one.
    o To declare a win with a hand it *must* also qualify for at least one Scoring
      Element. These are loosely equivalent to the combinations of Poker except in
      Mahjong you can combine them. Check Section 07 of this guide for a list or
      review the illustrated examples in the in-game help.
    o The two most important Scoring Elements are Riichi and Pinfu. I would suggest
      that most of the time you attempt to use both in combination, hopefully with
      some other stuff too to boost your score.
    o If your hand is "ready" (one tile away from being complete) and concealed you
      can declare Riichi by pressing the Square button. If you're not sure you can
      just press Square each turn and see what happens! Declaring a win after Riichi
      will add a double to your score and there's a couple of extra possible bonuses
      too. It does cost 1000 points to use it though so it's best to use it when you
      could win with two or more tiles (see display in top-right corner when picking
      the Riichi option) and when there are at least 15 tiles remaining to be played
      (see counter at the right-hand end of the black section in the centre).
    o Pinfu is the hardest Scoring Element to explain but it's one of the most
      common and useful. For Pinfu you must meet the following requirements:
      - your hand must be concealed (so don't call Chow/Pung when offered)
      - all four sets must be Chows (which is a good thing because that's the most
        efficient structure to use)
      - the hand must be completed on a Two-Sided Wait, for example _56_ (in other
        words your hand must consist of three complete Chows, one pair and two more
        tiles with consecutive numbers in the same suit, e.g. 234 789 345 11 _56_)
      - the pair cannot be composed of any of the Dragons (the special white, green
        and red tiles), the current Prevalent Wind (check the kanji symbol in the
        first of the four boxes in the centre of the screen) or your current Seat
        Wind (indicated by the kanji symbol next to your character's name)
      It sounds complicated but this should all flow naturally from sensible play.
    o Riichi and Pinfu are often combined with All Simples. This is achieved by
      having a hand with no Dragons, Winds, 1's or 9's, in other words the hand is
      composed entirely of suit tiles with numbers between 2 and 8 inclusive.
      (NB: The Scoring Element of All Simples can only be claimed on an exposed hand
      if the Kuitan rule is applied.)
    o Another handy way to boost your score is the Dora bonus tiles. The tile shown
      in the centre of the screen is the Dora indicator and the next sequential tile
      is the Dora and each is worth one double. For example if the indicator is the
      2-Dots tile and you have a pair of 3-Dots in your hand then you have two Dora.
      (The numbers wrap so a 9 indicator makes the Dora 1 in the same suit and the
      Dragons and Winds follow the sequences Green>Red>White>Green (it happens to be
      in alphabetical order in English) and East>South>West>North>East.)
      With the Red Dora option applied you'll see special red versions of some of
      the number 5 suit tiles. These are worth one double each too.
    o The player with the current Seat Wind of East is known (in English) as the
      "Dealer" and receives around 50% extra points each time they win; therefore
      you should try to take advantage of your stints as Dealer. You will "stay on"
      as Dealer if you win the Hand or if it results in a draw where you have a
      "ready" hand (one that is one tile away from being complete).
    o You declare "Tsumo" to register a win with a tile you've drawn yourself or
      "Ron" to win off an opponent's discard. If you have a ready hand that could be
      completed by any of the tiles that you've already discarded yourself then you
      are Furiten and you cannot declare a Ron win on any tile; you can still win by
      Tsumo or you can change your hand structure to escape the Furiten. 
    o Although generally you should avoid calling discarded tiles from the other
      players, here are some examples of when it might be a good choice:-
      - If you have a pair of Dragons, Seat Wind or Prevalent Wind (see Pinfu above)
        then you can call Pung on a third matching tile to give the Scoring Element
        required for a win. You might use this to give a quick/cheap win in order to
        stay on as the Dealer in the next Hand.
        (Aside from such pairs, you'd usually discard the Winds and Dragons first.)
      - If you have several Dora tiles in your hand you might call tiles to complete
        a All Simples hand to secure the win quickly.
      - A Half Flush (one suit plus Winds and Dragons) or Full Flush (one suit only)
        can be completed more easily by calling tiles, although it will devalue the
        hand somewhat.
      - Any player with a ready hand in a draw receives a share of 3000 points from
        their opponents so even if you are unlikely to win you might call tiles in
        the final few turns to achieve a ready hand.
    o Once you've won some points you'll want to keep them! If an opponent declares
      a Ron win off one of your discarded tiles then you pay the full amount for
      their win so sometimes you'll need to play defensively. If another player
      calls Riichi then you know they are only one tile away from winning and the
      safest action is to "fold", i.e. to dismantle your hand so you can discard
      safe tiles. This is a tough lesson to learn but sometimes you need "to lose a
      battle in order to win the war"!
      The best tiles to discard are ones that your opponent has already discarded
      because they will be Furiten on them. It's also good to drop tiles that you or
      the other opponents have discarded since the player declared Riichi.
      (This is another reason not to steal tiles from your opponents. The tiles in
      your exposed set/s are locked so you have less to choose from when folding.)
    o Be patient, keep practising and enjoy learning the game.
    ------< MAHJONG TILES >------------------------------------------- [Section 05]
    Mahjong is a traditional oriental game of skill and luck using a set of tiles
    usually made of bone or plastic and played by four players around a square
    table. The game's true origins seem to have been lost in the mists (and indeed
    myths) of time but it's safe to say that it originated in China and that it 
    dates back to the late nineteenth century. There are numerous variants of the
    game but I will be focusing on the modern Japanese version as it appears in YDS
    and the associated terminology.
    The pieces are likely to make you think of dominoes but the tiles actually have
    more in common with a deck of playing cards and the core gameplay is similar to
    some card games, most notably Rummy.
    A full Mahjong set has 144 tiles. In some versions of Mahjong the four Seasons
    tiles and four Flowers tiles - each associated with one of the four Winds - are
    used to give bonuses but in the Japanese version of the game (in YDS) they're
    removed from the set so the game is played using the 136 remaining tiles.
    Whereas a deck of cards has four suits with thirteen cards in each, a Mahjong
    set has three suits - Dots, Bamboo (Bams) and Characters (Craks) - with nine
    numbered tiles in each and there are also three Dragon tiles and four Wind
    tiles. There are four copies of each of these tiles in the full set.
    (3 suits x 9 tiles x 4) + (4 Winds x 4) + (3 Dragons x 4) = 136 tiles in total
    If you're new to Mahjong you will need to learn to recognise all of the
    different tiles so I would suggest that you consult the following webpages.
    --> http://mahjong.wikidot.com/equipment
    --> http://www.mahjonged.com/mahjong_tiles.html
    The tiles numbered 2 to 8 are called SIMPLES, the ones marked 1 and 9 are called
    TERMINALS (end of the line) and the seven different Dragon and Wind tiles are
    known collectively as HONOURS.
    Dots (also known as Circles, Balls, Coins or PINZU)
    The tiles of the DOTS suit are marked simply with blue and red circles denoting
    their value, from 1 to 9. The patterns on the first six tiles are similar to the
    patterns of dots on dice.
    Bamboo (also known as BAMS, Sticks or SOUZU)
    Similarly the tiles for values of 2 to 9 in the BAMBOO suit are marked with the
    appropriate number of (mostly) green symbols, each representing a single piece
    of bamboo. The exception is the 1-Bams tile which is traditionally marked with a
    bird, in this case a green peacock with a dark grey tail.
    Characters (also known as CRAKS, Grands or MANZU)
    The tiles of the CHARACTERS suit are all marked with the same red symbol* plus a
    black kanji character above it representing a number 1 to 9. Some real Mahjong
    tiles made for western markets are marked with "Arabic" (i.e. English) numerals
    in the corner but you're out of luck here! To play the game you will need to 
    learn which of each of the nine characters represents each of the nine numbers.
    If you press the Triangle button to access the help pages and then select the
    "Hands" and flick to page 15 you can see a full set of Craks tiles given as an
    example of a Full Flush (Chinitsu) hand. The fourteen tiles are shown in the
    order 11233445666789 so you can use that to work out which is which. (1, 2 and 3
    are fairly obvious and you should learn to recognise the others after playing
    a few games, even when they're sideways and upside-down!)
    Here's a quick attempt to reproduce the nine numbers in ASCII art...
                        ___     _____    / _|_       |     _|_             _|_
       _____    ---     ___    | | |_|   |  | |    -----    |       / \     | |
               -----   _____   |/____|   | _|_|_   /   \    '--'   /   \   /  |_
         1       2       3        4         5        6       7       8       9
    *The red symbol on each Craks tile represents 10,000. Originally the circles on
    the Dots represented individual coins, the Bams were actually strings of one
    hundred coins and the Craks were sets of one hundred strings - hence 10,000.
    There are four WINDS tiles, each named after one of the cardinal points of the
    compass - East, South, West and North. Each is marked with a single black kanji
    symbol so again you will have to learn to recognise them.
    The four Wind symbols look (a little!) like this. The relative proportions are a
    bit off but hopefully you get the idea!
         East:   |_|_|     South:   _|_      West:   ____     North:     |
                 |_|_|             __|__             _||_              _||/
                  /|\             | \ / |           | ||_|              ||
                 / | \            |  T  |           |/___|             _||_.
    I think the easiest way to tell them apart is to look for the distinguishing 
    feature of each symbol. If the kanji looks like it has three legs (tripod) it's
    East - this is the most important one to learn because the player sitting at
    East is the Dealer. If it looks like a lower-case letter "t" standing next to
    its reflection then it's North. The remaining two are similar in appearance but
    if it has a flat horizontal bar on top (detonator plunger!) it's West and if the
    bar is crossed like a "+" symbol then it's South.
    In Japanese Mahjong the four Winds are named TON (East), NAN (South), SHAA
    (West) and PEI (North), although you don't need to remember that!
    There are three coloured DRAGONS: red, green and white; the Japanese don't
    actually refer to these as Dragons but this is the name by which they are
    commonly known internationally and in English texts.
    The Red Dragon tile is marked with a simple red kanji character - a box with a
    vertical line through it - which means "centre". In Japanese Mahjong it is known
    as CHUN.
    The Green Dragon has a complicated green character which means "departure" and
    is read as HATSU. At low resolution it looks like a green triangle with the
    point towards the top.
    The White Dragon is a plain white tile and is called HAKU. You might like to
    think of it as a white dragon on a white background! :) Outside Japan, the White
    Dragon tile is often marked with an empty blue rectangular frame but I prefer
    the Japanese version.
    (The Chinese names for the three Dragons are Chung, Fa and Po respectively so
    often Mahjong tiles made for export are marked with C, F or P in the corner.)
    ------< WINDS AND TURN OF PLAY >---------------------------------- [Section 06]
    You can choose to play either a Half Game or a Quarter Game (see Section 08).
    A HALF GAME is made up of two ROUNDS (or WIND ROUNDS) each of which is comprised
    of four HANDS (or KYOKU) and therefore eight Hands* in total, while a QUARTER
    GAME, as you might expect, lasts for only one round, or four Hands. However
    sometimes additional Hands, which I will refer to as EXTRA HANDS, will be played
    (see below); also a game will finish early if the points total of one player
    (hopefully not you!) drops below zero - this rule is called DOBON.
      Seat Winds   At the start of a game the console will select a player to be
      ~~~~~~~~~~   East and therefore the first DEALER (or OYA). The player to the
         West      left of the Dealer is North, opposite is West and to their right
     N .------. S  is South (NB this is the opposite of a western compass layout).
     o |      | o  This is each player's SEAT WIND (or OWN WIND or JIKAZE) and these
     r |      | u  will change as the game progresses, moving counterclockwise
     t |      | t  around the table at the start of each normal Hand. Each player's
     h '------' h  Seat Wind is shown on screen next to their name, using the same
         East      kanji as the Wind tiles.
    Each time the Seat Winds move, the player at East becomes the new Dealer. It is
    important to know which player is the Dealer in each Hand because the current
    Dealer pays and receives double points (see Section 09).
    In every Hand of the game there is also a PREVALENT WIND (in the sense of a
    "prevailing wind") also called the BAKAZE or the ROUND WIND because it changes
    at the end of a round. This is shown on the first counter in the centre of the
    screen and always starts as East in the first round and then, in a Half Game,
    changes to South in the second.
    The following table shows how the Seat Winds rotate during the course of play
    for the four players (labelled A-D working counterclockwise around the table).
                |          First Round          |         Second Round
                |    (Prevalent Wind = East)    |    (Prevalent Wind = South)
           Hand |   1   |   2   |   3   |   4   |   1   |   2   |   3   |   4
       Player A |  East | North |  West | South |  East | North |  West | South
       Player B | South |  East | North |  West | South |  East | North |  West
       Player C |  West | South |  East | North |  West | South |  East | North
       Player D | North |  West | South |  East | North |  West | South |  East
                |<-------- Quarter Game ------->|
                |<------------------------- Half Game ------------------------->|
    The turn of play is complicated by the fact that it depends on whether a Hand is
    won by the Dealer, won by another player or drawn (and how). If a Hand is won by
    a non-dealer then the Seat Winds move one place to the right so South becomes
    East (and therefore the new Dealer) and the next Hand played is a "normal" one
    which is counted as one of the four per round.
    However if a Hand is either won by the Dealer or it's a draw and the Dealer is
    only one tile away from having a complete hand, i.e. the Dealer is TENPAI, then
    the Seat Winds don't move and an extra Hand is played; this is a CONTINUANCE or
    RENCHAN. (A player that is Tenpai is sometimes described as WAITING, CALLING or
    FISHING or as having a READY hand.)
    If the Hand was a draw but the Dealer was not Tenpai then the Seat Winds move
    and the next Hand is a normal one, not an extra Hand, although it's still
    counted as a draw in terms of points (see Section 09).
    There is one final complication as the game uses an optional rule (AGARI YAME)
    whereby the player who's the Dealer in the final normal Hand of the game has the
    option to end the game early if they win that Hand and are leading on points;
    this gives them the opportunity to ensure their victory (and pick up the Uma
    bonus - see Section 09) rather than risk losing their lead in an extra Hand. If
    one of the computer players wins the final Hand as East then they'll sensibly
    choose to end the game and if you win as East you are given the option (there'll
    be a faint "Quit?" textbox in the centre of the screen and a Yes/No pop-up menu
    in the bottom-right corner).
    For other topics relating to extra Hands please refer to "Two Fan Minimum" in
    Section 08, "Draws and Honba" in Section 09 and the bit about the table's Honba
    counter under in Section 11.
    *The term "hand" is used to describe both your allocated tiles, like a hand of
    cards, which I will write in lower-case, and the basic unit of gameplay that
    makes up a round, which I'll write capitalised as Hand for the sake of clarity.
    ------< MAHJONG RULES >------------------------------------------- [Section 07]
    = The Basics =
    At the start of each Hand of the game, each player draws four tiles, then four
    more, then another four and finally one more unless they are the Dealer in which
    case they get two (this is how the tiles are issued in the real game*). The
    Dealer chooses one tile to discard, then the next player to the right takes a
    tile and discards one, then the next player to their right and so on, with play
    proceeding in a counterclockwise direction around the table.
    The basic aim of the game is to form a complete hand of usually fourteen tiles
    which consists of four sets of three tiles each (called Pungs or Chows) and one
    matched pair (also called the HEAD, EYES or ATAMA), although there are a couple
    of exceptions to this basic pattern which are listed later in this section (7
    Pairs and 13 Orphans) and you can also have sets made of four tiles (Kongs).
        ___ ___ ___     ___ ___ ___     ___ ___ ___     ___ ___ ___     ___ ___
       |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
       | 2 | 3 | 4 |   | 6 | 6 | 6 |   | 3 | 4 | 5 |   | 7 | 8 | 9 |   | 1 | 1 |
       |___|___|___|   |___|___|___|   |___|___|___|   |___|___|___|   |___|___|
            set             set             set             set           pair
    (A winning hand must also always have at least one Scoring Element - see below.)
    A valid set of three tiles can either be a PUNG (also TRIPLE or KOUTSU in
    Japanese) which is a triplet of three identical tiles or a CHOW (also SEQUENCE,
    STRAIGHT, RUN or SHUNTSU in Japanese) which is a set of three tiles with
    consecutive values from the same suit (I like to think of it as a mini version
    of a straight flush in Poker) for example 2 Dots, 3 Dots and 4 Dots. Since they
    lack numerical values you cannot make a Chow of either Wind or Dragon tiles
    (they can only form Pungs, Kongs and pairs).
    It is also possible to form a set called a KONG (also QUAD, FOUR or KANTSU in
    Japanese) which is like a Pung but it includes all four of the same tile. This
    is counted as one of the four sets required to make a valid hand but it would
    of course leave you a tile short overall so when you declare a Kong you receive
    an extra tile, sometimes called a LOOSE or SUPPLEMENT TILE. (The three different
    ways to make a Kong are discussed in the next subsection.)
    Through the rest of this guide I will use the word SET to refer generally to
    Chows, Pungs and Kongs.
    You'll notice during play that when a player calls for a discarded tile (see
    below) they use special spoken declarations, CHII for a Chow, PON for a Pung or
    KAN for a Kong - these are the original Chinese names for the three types of set
    transcribed phonetically into Japanese.
    *In real life the tiles are taken from the four-sided WALL (or YAMA) but this is
    not depicted in YDS apart from the part of it known as the DEAD WALL (also
    called the WANPAI). The Dead Wall is made up of seven stacks of two tiles each -
    the first two stacks are used as supplement tiles after a Kong is declared and
    the other five are used as Dora indicators (see Dora Bonuses later in this
    section). These five stacks are shown in the centre of the screen.
    In Japanese Mahjong the Dead Wall is effectively replenished, in other words it
    must always have fourteen tiles and therefore for each supplement tile taken
    there will be one less tile available from the Wall at the end of the Hand.
    = Calling Pung and Calling Chow =
    If any other player discards a tile which you can use to form a Pung (triplet)
    with two tiles you already hold then you can do what is known as CALLING PUNG.
    You can take the tile you need but the Pung will then be displayed face up on
    the virtual tabletop. Such a Pung is said to be EXPOSED (or OPEN or MELDED) and
    your hand is therefore no longer fully CONCEALED (or CLOSED) which restricts
    your options and scoring possibilities.
    Similarly if the player to your left (and only that player) discards a tile 
    which you can use to form a Chow (sequence) with two tiles you're holding then
    you can take it; as you might've guessed, this is referred to as CALLING CHOW.
    Again the set will be exposed and the hand is no longer concealed. If there is
    more than one option then you can choose which two tiles from your hand to use.
    Exposed sets are shown to the right of your hand. The captured tile is laid
    perpendicularly to the other two and positioned to indicate which player it was
    taken from: on the left if taken from the player to your left (1), on the right
    if it came from the player to the right (2) and, predictably, in the middle of
    the set (3) if it came from the player seated opposite you. (This is necessary
    when playing a real game as you need to be able to monitor all your discards to
    check if you are Furiten - see next subsection.)
                      ___ ___         ___ ___              ___      ___
             (1) ____|   |   |   (2) |   |   |____    (3) |   |____|   |
                |    |   |   |       |   |   |    |       |   |    |   |
                |____|___|___|       |___|___|____|       |___|____|___|
    After calling Pung/Chow the player has fourteen tiles and must make a discard as
    if it is their turn and play then continues from the player to their right. So
    the turn of play is interrupted - the normal sequence is East, South, West,
    North, but if then West calls Pung the next turn will go to North, then East.
    Any Pungs and Chows that are exposed (also called MELDS) are locked - the tiles
    cannot be discarded and the sets cannot be changed, except to turn an exposed
    Pung into an exposed Kong (quad); if you already have an exposed Pung you can
    only upgrade it to a Kong with a SELF-DRAWN tile, i.e. one that you were dealt.
    This tile is placed above the horizontal tile in the exposed set.
                 ____                         ____             ____
                |    |___ ___         ___ ___|    |        ___|    |___
                |____|   |   |       |   |   |____|       |   |____|   |
                |    |   |   |       |   |   |    |       |   |    |   |
                |____|___|___|       |___|___|____|       |___|____|___|
    Alternatively if you have a concealed Pung in your hand then you can call Kong
    on another player's discard which also makes an exposed Kong. Again one tile is
    positioned perpendicular to the others to indicate which player the called tile
    was stolen from.
                   ___ ___ ___      ___ ___ ___           ___ ___      ___
              ____|   |   |   |    |   |   |   |____     |   |   |____|   |
             |    |   |   |   |    |   |   |   |    |    |   |   |    |   |
             |____|___|___|___|    |___|___|___|____|    |___|___|____|___|
    If, on the other hand, you have four of the same tile concealed in your hand you
    can choose when to declare it as a Kong. At this point you draw your replacement
    tile and the Kong is laid on the table with two tiles facing upwards and two
    downwards; such a set is still counted as concealed.
    (Since there's no need to draw a replacement tile, it's not necessary to declare
    a concealed Chow or Pung in your hand.)
    Claims on discards to make a Pung or Kong take precedence over claims to make a
    Chow. The game will process this automatically, so occasionally you might be
    offered the chance to call Pung, reject this and then see the player to the
    discarder's right take the same tile to make an exposed Chow.
    The option to call Pung, Chow or Kong appears at the bottom-right corner of the
    screen. The option to declare a concealed Kong or to "upgrade" an exposed Pung
    into a Kong appears in the same place but you have to press the Square button.
    = Declaring Mahjong: Tsumo and Ron =
    When you choose to announce that you have a complete and valid hand you declare
    MAHJONG (and therefore win the Hand), this is sometimes called GOING OUT. If you
    complete your hand using a self-drawn tile (one you were "dealt") this is called
    TSUMO. If on the other hand you complete your hand by picking up a discard tile
    from another player this is called RON.
    Crucially you *must* have at least one of the Scoring Elements or Limit Hands
    (see below) to be able to declare a win.
    Whereas you can usually call Chow only from the player to your left, you can
    call Ron from any player and complete a Chow, Pung or pair to finish your hand;
    it doesn't cause the hand to become exposed either.
    If you are Tenpai (i.e. one tile away from a complete hand) and *any* of the
    tiles among your own discards would complete your hand then you are FURITEN and
    cannot claim *any* discard tile to win (Ron). When you are Furiten you can still
    win with a self-drawn tile (Tsumo). The game won't tell you when you're Furiten
    so this is something that you have to watch out for.
    There is also a second type of Furiten which is known as TEMPORARY FURITEN. This
    occurs if you have a Tenpai hand and (either by choice or accident) don't claim
    a Ron win on a discarded tile that would complete it. In this case you only stay
    Furiten until your next turn. However if you miss a Ron win after declaring
    Riichi (see below) you will be permanently Furiten until the end of that Hand.
    The two different ways of winning a Hand, by Tsumo or by Ron, have consequences
    on the way points are distributed - with a Tsumo win the three losing players
    all pay the winner but with Ron the player who discarded the winning tile has to
    pay it all - see SCORE CALCULATION (Section 09) for more information on this.
    Some versions of the rules allow Double Ron which is when two players go out by
    Ron on the same discarded tile (so they both win points from the hapless
    discarder!) but I've never seen it happen in Yakuza games so I'm pretty sure
    it's not allowed. In this case, the ATAMA HANE (literally "head bump") order is
    applied and, when two players claim the same discard for a win, it is the one
    that is closest to the discarder's right that gets the win, and the points!
    The option to declare Ron or Tsumo appears at the bottom-right of the screen.
    = Declaring Riichi =
    If you are only one tile away from completing a concealed hand (and there are at
    least four tiles still to be dealt in the Hand) you can pay 1000 points to
    declare RIICHI (ready). This is a gamble - essentially you're betting that you
    will win the Hand. If you do win, you'll get your 1000-point stake back, the
    Riichi will improve your score and you might get further benefits from Ippatsu
    and Underside Dora (these are explained in the "Scoring Elements and Fan" and
    "Dora Bonuses" subsections below respectively).
    When you (or another player) declare Riichi, a Scoring-Stick (like a casino
    chip) is placed above the discard tiles - you are literally putting your 1000
    points on the table - and the first tile to be discarded is placed at right-
    angles to the others as a record of when it happened (this is used to check for
    Ippatsu (see next subsection) and it also enables other players to see which
    tiles you discarded before and at the declaration of Riichi). The 1000-point
    stake/s from any Riichi are claimed by the next player to win a Hand, i.e. if a
    Hand results in a draw then any stakes carry over into the next one.
    Once you've called Riichi your hand is frozen and play proceeds automatically
    (therefore quite quickly) until either you or another player wins; you won't
    have to do anything except choose to accept Tsumo/Ron or continue (or rarely to
    declare a Kong*).
    Riichi is a Scoring Element in its own right so as long as your hand is closed
    (with no sets made by stealing an opponent's discard) you can always use Riichi
    to give your hand the Scoring Element that's required for a valid win).
    The option to declare Riichi appears at the bottom-right of the screen, although
    you have to press the Square button to make it pop-up.
    If a game ends with Riichi stakes still on the table (i.e. if the final normal
    Hand results in a draw where the Dealer is not Tenpai) then the Riichi points
    are paid to the player in first place, added to their Uma (see Section 09).
    One nice new feature which has been added since Yakuza 2 is what I like to call
    the "Riichi Helper". When you choose to declare Riichi, a box appears at the top
    right of the screen showing you which tile/s you require to complete the hand
    and how many of them are left unplayed (i.e. not visible on the tabletop). If
    you have a choice of discards then you can switch between them and see which
    gives you the best chance of winning.
    *If you are given the opportunity to declare a Kong after calling Riichi you
    should check first that this won't spoil your hand. On one occasion in Yakuza 2
    I'd declared Riichi with a hand including 56777 Craks (which I was counting as a
    567 Chow and a 77 pair) and an incomplete Chow of Bams. I was offered a Kong on
    the sevens and I accepted without thinking, leaving me with two incomplete sets.
    At the end of the Hand I was penalised 8000 points for "Illegal Riichi". Ouch! 
    (For the record, the Dealer got 4000 points and the other two players got 2000
    each. The penalty points due to a foul are called CHOMBO and are the same as the
    number of points awarded for Mangan - see Section 09.)
    = Scoring Elements and Fan =
    Unlike Poker where you can only ever have one type of hand (a full house is not
    also a pair and three of a kind), in Mahjong you can have a number of patterns
    and conditions - referred to as SCORING ELEMENTS or YAKU - in a single hand (I
    think the most I've seen is six). Each Scoring Element present in a hand is
    awarded a specified number of FAN (also known as HAN) and each Fan will - in
    simple terms - *double* your score for the hand. 
    It's important to note that for a valid win your hand must always qualify for at
    least one Scoring Element; you can't just make any random four sets and a pair.
    (Any hand with Scoring Elements and Dora bonus tiles worth thirteen or more Fan
    in total is counted as a Limit Hand and always scores the limit; Dora tiles and
    Limit Hands are covered later in this section. Also note that for any Scoring
    Elements that require Pungs you can always use one or more Kongs instead.)
    Although I've completely reformatted these listings (since my original Yakuza 2
    Mahjong guide), they still give the Scoring Elements in the order in which they
    are given in the in-game help pages. I've now added page references (so for
    example 3.2 is the second entry on the third page) and I've given the Romanji
    spellings of the Japanese names in brackets.
    Those Scoring Elements marked with an asterisk (*) score one Fan fewer if the
    hand is not concealed (i.e. if it has exposed sets completed by calling a tile).
    1.1    Name: PINFU
          Value: 1 Fan
    Requirement: A concealed hand that receives only the basic 20 or 30 minipoints
                 (see Section 09) for the declaration of a win. To achieve this all
                 four sets must be Chows, the hand must be completed on a TWO-SIDED
                 WAIT (e.g. _56_ waiting on a 4 or 7) and the pair cannot be formed
                 from Dragon, Seat Wind or Prevalent Wind tiles.
                 (Although Pinfu has a low minipoints value it can be combined with
                 other Scoring Elements and Dora to boost the score. Since Chows are
                 much easier to complete than Pungs it is also an efficient form.)
    1.2    Name: ALL SIMPLES (Tanyao)
                 Sometimes called an INSIDE or END-LESS hand.
          Value: 1 Fan
    Requirement: A hand consisting of only suit tiles with numbers between 2 and 8
                 inclusive. If the Kuitan rule is off the hand must be concealed -
                 see TABLE RULES (Section 08)
                 In Yakuza 4 they started using the correct Japanese name "Tanyao"
                 but now they've reverted to the English form "All Simples".
    2.1    Name: PURE DOUBLE CHOW (Iipeikou)
                 Also known as a DOUBLE RUN.
          Value: 1 Fan
    Requirement: Two identical Chows (same numbers and suit) in a concealed hand.
                 (The suit tiles are always displayed in numerical order so this
                 will look like three consecutive pairs, 223344, rather than two
                 adjacent Chows, 234234.)
    2.2    Name: FULLY CONCEALED HAND (Menzen Tsumo)
                 Also known as CONCEALED SELF-DRAW. Announced simply as "Tsumo".
          Value: 1 Fan
    Requirement: A hand composed entirely of tiles drawn by the player. It cannot
                 include any sets completed by calling Chow or Pung from opponents
                 and it cannot be won by Ron off a discard either.
                 (The combination of Fully Concealed Hand, Tanyao and Pinfu is quite
                 a common one so Japanese players have an abbreviated name for it:
                 "Mentanpin" - a contraction of Menzen Tsumo, Tanyao and Pinfu.)
    2.3    Name: RIICHI
                 Sometimes Anglicized as "REACH" and used as both noun and verb.
          Value: 1 Fan
    Requirement: Awarded if you declared Riichi (see previous description).
    3.1    Name: IPPATSU
                 Literally a "ONE-SHOT" win.
          Value: 1 Fan
    Requirement: Awarded if you declare a win within four dealt tiles (one cycle of
                 play) after calling Riichi, i.e. on the next discard of any of your
                 opponents (Ron) or on your next draw (Tsumo).
                 Entitlement to Ippatsu is negated by any player calling Pung/Chow
                 or making a Kong.
                 Since your hand must be concealed for Riichi, winning on your own
                 next turn for Ippatsu will also give Fully Concealed Hand.
    3.2    Name: DRAGON PUNG (Yakuhai)
          Value: 1 Fan
    Requirement: A Pung or Kong of any of the three Dragons.
                 This will be listed on the scoresheet as "Red", "White" or "Green".
    4.1    Name: PREVALENT WIND / SEAT WIND (Kazehai)
          Value: 1 Fan
    Requirement: A Pung or Kong of either the Prevalent Wind or your current Seat
                 Wind. (You can claim both together for Double Wind - see below.)
                 Technically this is another form of Yakuhai but the Yakuza games
                 always use "Kazehai" instead which specifies that Winds are used.
                 This will be listed on the scoresheet as "East", "South", West" or
                 "North" as appropriate.
                 (Since you can score a Fan (which doubles your score) with sets
                 consisting of Dragons, Prevalent Wind or your Seat Wind, these
                 tiles are known collectively as the DOUBLING HONOURS, VALUE TILES
                 or LUCKY TILES. These are also the only tiles that give minipoints
                 (Fu) if they form your pair - see Section 09 below.)
    4.2    Name: LAST-TILE TSUMO (Haitei)
          Value: 1 Fan
    Requirement: Declaring a Tsumo win on the last tile to be dealt in the Hand.
    4.3    Name: LAST-TILE RON (Houtei)
          Value: 1 Fan
    Requirement: Declaring a Ron win on the last tile to be discarded in the Hand.
    5.1    Name: AFTER A KONG (Rinshan Kaihou)
                 Also occasionally known as KING'S TILE DRAW.
          Value: 1 Fan
    Requirement: Declaring a Tsumo win on the replacement tile picked from the Dead
                 Wall after declaring a Kong yourself.
    5.2    Name: ROBBING THE KONG (Chankan)
          Value: 1 Fan
    Requirement: Declaring a Ron win on a tile that another player had used to
                 "upgrade" an exposed Pung into an exposed Kong.
                 (There is one exception to this rule which is that you are also
                 allowed to "rob" a *concealed* Kong when declared if you are using
                 the tile to complete the Limit Hand known as Thirteen Orphans. See
                 following Limit Hand list.)
    (Those last four Scoring Elements occur far less often than the ones above them,
    especially Robbing The Kong! I have got it a couple of times though.)
    6.1    Name: ALL PUNGS (Toi-Toi)
                 Also known as NO CHOWS or FOUR TRIPLETS.
          Value: 2 Fan
    Requirement: A hand with four Pungs or Kongs (plus a pair obviously).
    6.2    Name: MIXED OUTSIDE HAND (Chanta)
          Value: 2 Fan (1 Fan if hand is open)*
    Requirement: All sets must include a Terminal or Honour tile and the pair must
                 also be composed of Terminals or Honours.
    7.1    Name: PURE STRAIGHT (Ikkitsuukan or "Ittsuu" for short)
                 Also known as THREE CONSECUTIVE SEQUENCES.
          Value: 2 Fan (1 Fan if hand is open)*
    Requirement: 123456789 tiles in the same suit (three Chows: 123, 456 and 789).
    7.2    Name: SEVEN PAIRS (Chii Toitsu)
          Value: 2 Fan
    Requirement: This is one of the two exceptions to the usual hand format. As you
                 might've guessed from the name, it consists of seven matched pairs.
                 You can't use a Kong as two pairs.
                 Since there are no Pungs or Chows it will always be concealed.
                 Seven Pairs always receives exactly 25 minipoints with no additions
                 and no rounding up (see Section 09).
    8.1    Name: MIXED TRIPLE CHOW (San Shoku Doujun or "San Shoku" for short)
          Value: 2 Fan (1 Fan if hand is open)*
    Requirement: Three Chows with the same numbers but each in a different suit, for
                 example 234 Bams + 234 Craks + 234 Dots.
    8.2    Name: DOUBLE WIND (Ren Fon Pai)
          Value: 2 Fan
    Requirement: A Pung or Kong of the Prevalent Wind when this is the same as your
                 Seat Wind. This isn't really a Scoring Element in its own right -
                 it's just two instances of Kazehai/Yakuhai in a single set.
                 This will be listed on the scoresheet as "Double East" or "Double
                 South" as appropriate. The player character will announce it using
                 the Japanese wind name, e.g. "Dabu[ru] Ton" for Double East.
    9.1    Name: THREE CONCEALED PUNGS (San Ankou)
          Value: 2 Fan
    Requirement: Three concealed Pungs! Although the hand can also include an open
                 set, all the tiles in the three Pungs must be self-drawn, so if you
                 complete one by Ron you cannot claim this
                 (There is no Scoring Element of "Pure Triple Chow" here but instead
                 it would be counted as Three Concealed Pungs that just happen to be
                 in the same suit. Some versions of Japanese Mahjong do recognise it
                 as a Scoring Element called SAN REN KOU, also known as PURE SHIFTED
                 PUNGS in the new Chinese Official rules.)
    9.2    Name: ALL TERMINALS AND HONOURS (Honroutou)
          Value: 2 Fan
    Requirement: A hand with no 2-8 numbered tiles. If you claim this you cannot
                 also claim Mixed Outside Hand.
                 (Obviously this will have no Chows. It will either be made with
                 Pungs - in which case you also get two Fan for All Pungs (and one
                 each for any Yakuhai sets) - or it might be made with Seven Pairs
                 for two Fan again. You might also be able to combine it with Half
                 Flush which is listed below.)
    10.1   Name: LITTLE THREE DRAGONS (Shou San Gen)
          Value: 2 Fan
    Requirement: Two Pungs or Kongs of Dragons plus a pair of Dragons.
                 (You get one additional Fan each for the two Dragon Pungs too.)
                 NB There's also a Big Three Dragons - more on that later...
    10.2   Name: TRIPLE PUNG (San Shoku Doukou)
          Value: 2 Fan
    Requirement: Three Pungs or Kongs of the same number. This is a rare one.
    11.1   Name: THREE KONGS (San Kantsu)
          Value: 2 Fan
    Requirement: Any three Kongs, open or closed. This is a *very* rare one!
    11.2   Name: DOUBLE RIICHI (Daburu Riichi)
          Value: 2 Fan (*instead* of the usual 1 Fan for Riichi, not in addition)
    Requirement: Riichi is declared on the player's first discard.
    12.1   Name: PURE OUTSIDE HAND (Junchan)
                 Also known sometimes as TERMINALS IN ALL SETS (in which case the
                 Mixed Outside Hand above is just called an Outside Hand).
          Value: 3 Fan (2 Fan if hand is open)*
    Requirement: All sets include a Terminal (1 or 9).
                 You have a good chance of getting Mixed Triple Chow with this too.
    12.2   Name: HALF FLUSH (Honitsu)
                 Also known as a SEMI-PURE HAND.
          Value: 3 Fan (2 Fan if hand is open)*
    Requirement: A hand containing only one suit and Honours.
                 Most effective if combined with one or more Yakuhai sets.
    13.1   Name: TWICE PURE DOUBLE CHOW (Ryanpeikou)
          Value: 3 Fan
    Requirement: A concealed hand with two instances of Pure Double Chow.
                 Although this will have a Seven Pairs form, e.g. 22 445566 667788,
                 you cannot also claim that Scoring Element on such a hand.
    14.1   Name: TERMINAL AND HONOUR DISCARD (Nagashi Mangan)
          Value: Mangan (5 Fan)
    Requirement: This is a special Scoring Element claimed when a Hand ends in a
                 draw, there are no Simples (2 to 8) in the player's discard pile
                 and none of his discards have been claimed by other players.
                 (This is a hand which you would attempt only very rarely. It can
                 only be claimed by a player when a Hand ends in an exhaustive draw,
                 i.e. when the supply of seventy tiles is exhausted, so you would
                 usually need to have around 17 or 18 Terminal and Honour tiles to
                 be able to do this. If you start a Hand with a lot of these tiles
                 then you'd probably go for Thirteen Orphans, All Terminals and
                 Honours, or something like that, so the only situation where you'd
                 normally go for this hand would be one where you discard all your
                 initial T&H tiles to try for a Tanyao hand but find that you keep
                 on drawing more T&H from the Wall and keep discarding them.)
    15.1   Name: FULL FLUSH (Chinitsu)
          Value: 6 Fan (5 Fan if hand is open)*
    Requirement: All the tiles in the hand are from the same suit.
    (Of the above Scoring Elements, Triple Pung, Three Kongs, Twice Pure Double Chow
    and Terminal & Honour Discard are easily the least common.)
    It should be noted that the sets in the winning hand can only be counted one way
    so if, for example, you're counting all the sets as Pungs (to get All Pungs)
    then you can't claim any Scoring Elements involving Chows or if you have a hand
    including tiles of 22334455 you can count this as two 234 Chows and pair of 5's
    (and get Pure Double Chow if the hand is concealed) but you cannot also claim it
    as a pair of 2's and two 345 Chows to get Pure Double Chow again.
    *These Scoring Elements are worth one Fan less if the hand contains one or more
    sets completed by calling an opponent's discarded tile. This property is known
    as KUI-SAGARI ("eat and decrease").
    = Limit Hands = 
    LIMIT HANDS, also known as YAKUMAN, automatically score the maximum points
    regardless of their Scoring Elements. They are scored at the top Limit (see
    Section 09) which is conveniently/confusingly also called Yakuman.
    You should be aware that Limit Hands are very rare, i.e. you'll probably have to
    play Mahjong for literally dozens of hours before you see one!
    Examples of the various Limit Hands are illustrated on pages 16 to 21 of the
    in-game help pages.
    16.1   Name: FOUR CONCEALED PUNGS (Suu Ankou)
          Value: Top Limit (Yakuman)
    Requirement: All four Pungs must be entirely self-drawn (you cannot complete any
                 by either calling Pung or declaring Ron).
    16.2   Name: ALL HONOURS (Tsuuiisou)
                 Also known as ALL SYMBOLS.
          Value: Top Limit (Yakuman)
    Requirement: Only Dragon and Wind tiles are permitted.
                 Much like All Terminals & Honours above, this can be made either
                 with four Pungs and a pair or with seven pairs. The latter would be
                 much harder but it gives the most beautiful hand in the game, with
                 two each of all seven types of Honour tile.
    17.1   Name: BIG THREE DRAGONS (Dai San Gen)
                 Also known as THREE GREAT SCHOLARS.
          Value: Top Limit (Yakuman)
    Requirement: Three Pungs or Kongs of Dragons (plus any other set and pair).
    17.2   Name: ALL GREEN* (Ryyiisou)
          Value: Top Limit (Yakuman)
    Requirement: A hand containing only purely green tiles, i.e. only Green Dragons
                 and 2, 3, 4, 6 and 8 Bams are permitted.
    18.1   Name: THIRTEEN ORPHANS (Kokushimusou)
                 Also known as THIRTEEN UNIQUE WONDERS.
          Value: Top Limit (Yakuman)
    Requirement: This is the other exception to the normal hand structure, composed
                 of one of each Terminal and Honour tile (thirteen in total) plus a
                 duplicate of one of those.
                 (Realistically you need a starting hand with at least nine or ten
                 different Terminals and Honours to stand a chance of making this.)
    18.2   Name: LITTLE FOUR WINDS (Shou Suu Shii)
          Value: Top Limit (Yakuman)
    Requirement: Three Pungs of Winds plus one pair of Winds (and one other set).
    19.1   Name: ALL TERMINALS (Chinroutou)
                 Also known as HEADS & TAILS.
          Value: Top Limit (Yakuman)
    Requirement: Only suit tiles with values 1 and 9 are permitted.
    19.2   Name: BIG WHEEL (Dai Sharin)
          Value: Top Limit (Yakuman)
    Requirement: Seven Pairs but specifically with 22334455667788 in the Dots suit.
                 (Some versions of Japanese Mahjong allow this Limit Hand in any
                 suit but in YDS only Dots are permitted. Other versions don't count
                 it as a Limit Hand although you will always get Twice Pure Double
                 Chow, Full Flush, All Simples and Pinfu so there's a good chance of
                 getting the 13 Fan for a Counted Yakuman (see below).)
    20.1   Name: FOUR KONGS (Suu Kantsu)
          Value: Top Limit (Yakuman)
    Requirement: Four Kongs! (and a pair)
                 Very simple, but almost impossibly rare.
    20.2   Name: NINE GATES (Chuurenpoutou)
                 Also known a NINE LANTERNS.
          Value: Top Limit (Yakuman)
    Requirement: A concealed flush with specifically 1112345678999 in the same suit
                 plus one extra tile from the same suit.
                 (If you consider the thirteen tiles of the flush you'll see that
                 the pattern of numbers is such that when you add one further tile
                 from the same suit, regardless of which it is, you will always end
                 up with four complete sets and a pair. The hand therefore has nine
                 ways of "going out", hence the English name Nine Gates!)
    21.1   Name: HEAVENLY HAND (Tenhou)
                 Also known as INSTANT WIN.
          Value: Top Limit (Yakuman)
    Requirement: The Dealer has a complete hand at the very start of the Hand.
    21.2   Name: EARTHLY HAND (Chiihou)
                 Also a.k.a. Instant Win.
          Value: Top Limit (Yakuman)
    Requirement: As above but for a non-dealer winning on their first drawn tile.
    21.3   Name: NATURAL LIMIT
                 After toying with the correct Japanese term KAZOE YAKUMAN in Yakuza
                 4 they've now gone back to the English name used in Yakuza 2. This
                 is also known by the (more helpful) English name COUNTED YAKUMAN.
          Value: Top Limit (Yakuman)
    Requirement: Any complete hand containing various Scoring Elements and Dora
                 worth thirteen Fan or more in total.
                 This is really just an application of the Limit system.
    *Be careful not to confuse All Green with American soul singer Al Green! ;)
    = Double Limit Hands = 
    specific, even rarer, versions of one the Limit Hands above. They're worth twice
    as many points as a Limit Hand, hence the name!
    Examples of the four Double Limit Hands are illustrated on pages 22 and 23 of
    the in-game help pages.
    22.1   Name: FOUR CONCEALED PUNGS WITH SINGLE WAIT (Suu Ankou Tanki Machi)
          Value: Double Top Limit (Double Yakuman)
    Requirement: You must already have the four complete sets and you finish the
                 hand by making the pair. As usual you can have any mixture of Pungs
                 or Kongs but all four sets must be entirely self-drawn.
    22.2   Name: PURE THIRTEEN ORPHANS (Junsei Kokushimusou)
          Value: Double Top Limit (Double Yakuman)
    Requirement: As Thirteen Orphans above (one of every Terminal and Honour tile
                 plus one dupe) but the pair must be completed last; the hand is won
                 on a THIRTEEN-SIDED WAIT, i.e. there are thirteen different tiles
                 that could complete it.
    23.1   Name: BIG FOUR WINDS (Dai Suu Shii)
          Value: Double Top Limit (Double Yakuman)
    Requirement: Four Pungs or Kongs of Winds (obviously one of each) and any pair.
    23.2   Name: PURE NINE GATES (Junsei Chuurenpoutou)
          Value: Double Top Limit (Double Yakuman)
    Requirement: As Nine Gates above but it must be completed with the extra single
                 tile to make the pair, i.e. it is won on a NINE-SIDED WAIT.
                 This is an incredibly rare hand. There is a superstition attached
                 to Pure Nine Gates that says it's a bad omen and that if you make
                 this hand you'll die soon after! (Hence Akiyama's comment to the
                 Frightened Man in the final event when dating hostess Erika.)
    Some rules allow you to stack Limit Hands so you can claim more than one on the
    same hand, for example you might have Big Three Dragons combined with a Wind
    Pung and a Wind pair which would give you All Honours too and score as a Double
    Limit Hand. It's theoretically possible to make a *Septuple* Limit Hand through
    such STACKING but that would be very very very very very very very rare!
    Although I'm yet to see it happen in a Yakuza game, a special rule called either
    PAO or SEKININ HARAI (literally "liability payment") applies to certain Limit
    Hands, usually Big Three Dragons and Big Four Winds. If a player has two exposed
    Pungs of Dragon tiles and another player discards the tile that lets them make a
    third for Big Three Dragons, or if a player has three Pungs of Wind tiles
    exposed and someone discards the tile that lets them complete the fourth Pung
    for Big Four Winds, then the discarding player has to pay. If the hand is won by
    Tsumo the discarding player pays the full amount (Yakuman!) or if the hand is
    won by Ron from a third player then the discarder has to pay half.
    = Dora Bonuses =
    During play you should make a mental note of the exposed tile/s on the Dead Wall
    of tiles in the middle of the screen. At the start of a Hand only one tile is
    exposed - this denotes that the next sequential tile is the DORA bonus tile. 
    For example if 3 Bams is showing then the Dora is 4 Bams and you will score an 
    additional Fan for every 4 Bams in your hand, i.e. a Pung of 4 Bams would score 
    you an extra three Fan!
    If a 9 tile is showing then the numbers wrap and the Dora is the 1 tile of the 
    same suit. Obviously the Dragons and Winds don't have numbers so instead they
    are assigned the sequences Red-White-Green and East-South-West-North (this is
    the order of the Seat Winds working counterclockwise around the table) and again
    these wrap so a Green Dragon showing would make the Dora tile Red Dragon.
    Each time a Kong is formed, a replacement tile is taken from the Dead Wall and
    one more tile is flipped to give another Dora (technically a KAN DORA). Also
    if the winner of a Hand declared Riichi then there will also be a UNDERSIDE DORA
    (or URA DORA) tile revealed at the end of the Hand. There will also be an Under-
    side Dora for each of any Kan Dora (these are called KAN URA DORA). So as an
    example if a Hand saw one Kong being made and the winner calling Riichi there
    will be a total of four bonus tiles (the Dora and a Kan Dora and for both of
    these one Underside Dora) and these will all be shown on the scoresheet.
    The following diagram illustrates the functions of the fourteen tiles of the
    Dead Wall (specifically under the modern Japanese rules). Remember in the Yakuza
    minigame the first two stacks are not shown on the screen.
                _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ _______
               |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |
               |   1   |   3   |   A   |   B   |   C   |   D   |   E   |
               |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |
               |   2   |   4   |   F   |   G   |   H   |   I   |   J   |
    Tile A is the indicator for the standard Dora and is always flipped at the start
    of each Hand of play. When a Kong is declared the player takes Tile 1 as their
    supplement tile and flips Tile B as a Kan Dora indicator; this process would be
    repeated with 2/C, 3/D and 4/E for the second, third and fourth Kong sets. If a
    player wins a hand after declaring Riichi they also apply the Ura Dora indicator
    (Tile F) and the Kan Ura Dora indicators under any *active* Kan Dora indicators
    (potentially Tiles G-J).
    The Dora are different to the Red Dora (red fives) which are explained in the
    next section.
    Although each Dora (and Red Dora) tile in a hand is worth one Fan apiece*, you
    still need to have at least one Scoring Element in your hand to declare Mahjong.
    Dora is a contraction of Doragon which is the Japanese rendering of the English
    word "dragon".
    *If the same tile appears twice amongst the Dora and Underside Dora then it is
    counted twice and each occurrence is worth two Fan. It's also possible for a Red
    Dora tile to also be a Dora tile.
    ------< TABLE RULES >--------------------------------------------- [Section 08]
    Although there is a core rule-set (including Riichi and Dora) which is common to
    all Japanese play, there are literally dozens of optional rules and variations.
    The situation is such that Mahjong parlours and gaming servers need to publish
    a full page of information detailing the "local rules" they use. Things are a
    little simpler in the Yakuza series though and only four rule options are
    available (the same four that have been included ever since Yakuza 2 in 2006).
    The following four options can be set from the Mahjong menu that's displayed
    when you first join a table to play. The default setting for each is indicated
    with an asterisk (*).
    The rules and options are listed below in the order they appear in the game.
    1. Match Settings - Half Game / Quarter Game*
       In most versions of Mahjong each match is played over four wind-rounds - one
       for each of the four Prevalent Winds - but in the Japanese rules the standard
       duration is only two. Such a game is called a HANCHAN (literally "Half Game")
       or TONNANSEN ("east south match") because it has only east and south rounds.
       Alternatively you can play half a "half game" which is often referred to in
       English as a Quarter Game (for obvious reasons) or in Japanese as TONPUUSEN
       (which means "east wind match").
       If no extra Hands are played, a Half Game will last for eight Hands while a
       Quarter Game will run for four.
    2. Kuitan - Use* / Don't Use
       Setting the KUITAN rule to "Use" allows the Scoring Element of All Simples
       (Tanyao) to be claimed on an exposed hand instead of it being allowed only
       on a concealed hand.
       The "Kui" implies eating (which in a Mahjong context means calling tiles from
       your opponents' discards) and the "Tan" is short for Tanyao.
    3. Two Fan Requirement - Use* / Don't Use
       When the TWO-FAN MINIMUM rule is applied, a minimum score requirement of two
       Fan is imposed when five Hands have passed without a non-dealer win and the
       Honba counter (see Section 11) is showing five or more. This rule limits the
       extent to which the Dealer can take advantage of the Honba bonus points that
       are paid each time they win consecutive extra Hands (see Section 09).
       The Japanese name for this rule is RYAN HAN SHIBARI. "Ryan" is the word used
       for the number two in Japanese Mahjong, "Han" is the Japanese form of Fan and
       finally "Shibari" denotes a binding or, by extension, a restriction.
       (The word Shibari is also used in relation to Japanese bondage so it can give
       some exotic results in online image searches!)
    4. Red Dora - Use / Don't Use*
       With the RED DORA option (also called AKAPAI or simply RED FIVES) set to Use
       four of the number-five tiles from the suits will be marked in red ink
       instead of the usual colours. Each such Red Dora tile in your hand gives you
       one additional Fan for your score (and this is on top of the standard Dora
       bonuses) so you should turn this rule on if you want higher scores (for both
       you and your opponents!) and more to think about.
       The game follows a traditional distribution of Red Dora tiles: one 5 Craks,
       one 5 Bams and two 5 Dots. I think the reason for having four in total is
       that the extra optional Red Dora tiles fit neatly into a case designed to
       hold tiles in rows of four. The standard number 5 tiles all include some red
       bits in their designs but the Red Dora have purely red markings.
    The default settings for the four table rules are: Quarter Game, Kuitan on, Two
    Fan Minimum on and Red Dora off.
    *This is the default setting for the option. In real Japanese Mahjong the term
    ARI (with) is used to denote a rule that is being used and NASHI (without)
    denotes one that is not. For example you might say that you are playing a game
    "Kuitan ari" if the Kuitan rule is applied. It's kinda like specifying "aces
    wild" in some western card games.
    ------< SCORE CALCULATION >--------------------------------------- [Section 09]
    Luckily the game does this for you!
    = Points and Minipoints = 
    The points score for a winning hand is calculated using both the total number of
    Fan and the total number of MINIPOINTS (also known as FU).
    Fan are awarded for the Scoring Elements present in a winning hand (see Section
    07) and for any Dora and Red Dora tiles (see Sections 07 and 08). For a valid
    win in Japanese Mahjong your hand must always have at least one Fan obtained
    from a Scoring Element.
    (Subject to the limits applied - see below - each additional Fan will double the
    score for your winning hand so try to include as many different Scoring Elements
    and Dora as possible.)
    Minipoints are awarded for declaring a win, the type of win, the type/s of set
    present, the composition of the pair and how the hand was completed.
    You get 20 minipoints simply for winning the Hand plus a further 10 for a win
    with a concealed hand by Ron or 2 for a win by Tsumo. If your hand qualifies for
    Pinfu and you win by Tsumo then the 2 minipoints are waived and you take the one
    Fan (double) for Pinfu instead. Exceptionally if you win by Ron with an open
    hand which otherwise meets the requirements of Pinfu (four Chows, a non-scoring
    pair and won on a two-sided wait) then you get 2 minipoints too although, since
    the hand is not closed, you cannot actually claim Pinfu on an "open Pinfu" hand!
    An exposed Pung of Simples is worth 2 minipoints but with Terminal or Honour
    tiles it's worth twice that and if concealed it's worth two times more as well.
    A Kong is worth four times as many minipoints as the equivalent Pung, so a con-
    cealed Kong of Terminals or Honours will get you 32. Since they are easier to
    make, no minipoints are given for a Chow. A pair of Dragons, Prevalent Wind or
    your current Seat Wind is worth 2 minipoints, or 4 for a pair in Double Wind
    (i.e. when your Seat Wind matches the Prevalent Wind).
    (Although Chows yield no minipoints they are much easier to make than Pungs and
    Kongs so, since the effect of minipoints is less significant than Fan, it's best
    to usually make hands of Chows.)
    You also get minipoints for certain types of WAIT - a Wait is an incomplete set
    or hand (which is completed when you declare a win). It's easiest to explain the
    different types with examples: an EDGE WAIT is a 1 and 2 waiting on a 3 to make
    a Chow, a CENTRE WAIT is a 4 and 6 waiting on a 5, a Two-Sided Wait or OPEN-
    ENDED WAIT is a 5 and 6 waiting on a 4 or a 7 and a PAIR WAIT or SINGLE WAIT is
    one tile waiting to become part of a pair. Only an Edge Wait, Centre Wait or
    Pair Wait is awarded 2 minipoints, i.e. when you win with a "one chance" ready
    hand - one that was waiting on only one specific tile.
    The total of the minipoints is rounded up to the nearest ten and will usually be
    shown on the scoresheet. The Seven Pairs hand is a special case and always gets
    exactly 25 minipoints with no additions and no rounding up.
    The following tables summarise the allocation of minipoints:-
                                       Any win |  20 minipoints
                           Bonus for Tsumo win |   2 minipoints
       Bonus for Ron win with a concealed hand |  10 minipoints
    (In most rule-sets the 2 minipoints for a Tsumo win are waived in the case of a
    Pinfu hand in order to meet the "no points" requirement of the Scoring Element.)
                                               |   exposed set  | concealed set
                    Pung of Simples (e.g. 444) |  2 minipoints  |  4 minipoints
          Pung of Terminals/Honours (e.g. 999) |  4 minipoints  |  8 minipoints
                   Kong of Simples (e.g. 6666) |  8 minipoints  | 16 minipoints
         Kong of Terminals/Honours (e.g. 1111) | 16 minipoints  | 32 minipoints
                           Any Chow (e.g. 567) |  0 minipoints  |  0 minipoints
    (NB: If you declare a Ron win to complete the final set in a concealed hand then
    the set completed with the discarded tile is considered exposed but your hand
    will still be recognised as concealed.)
                               Pair of Dragons |  2 minipoints
           Pair of Seat Wind or Prevalent Wind |  2 minipoints
                           Pair of Double Wind |  4 minipoints
                                Any other pair |  0 minipoints
    (These additions are not applied to a Seven Pairs hand; that always gets exactly
    25 minipoints with no further points for pairs or the type of win.)
                          Edge Wait (e.g. 12_) |  2 minipoints
                        Centre wait (e.g. 4_6) |  2 minipoints
                           Pair wait (e.g. 8_) |  2 minipoints
                                Any other wait |  0 minipoints
    The BASE POINTS for a hand are then calculated from the number of Fan and the
    total of the minipoints using the following formula.
                 Base Points (BP) = minipoints x ( 2 ^ ( 2 + Fan ) )
    This is an exponential function in powers of two - in other words it involves
    doubling the minipoints. They always get doubled twice and then they're doubled
    a further number of times equal to the number of Fan (this is why Scoring
    Elements are sometimes referred to as DOUBLES). The player who won the Hand is
    then paid points by the other players as shown in the following table.
                         |    Player wins by Tsumo   |      Player wins by Ron
        Dealer wins Hand | All three losing players  | The player who discarded 
                         | pay 2 x BP each*          | the winning tile pays 6 x BP
    Non-dealer wins Hand | Dealer pays 2 x BP* and   | The player who discarded 
                         | other two pay 1 x BP each | the winning tile pays 4 x BP
    In every case the points paid are always rounded up to the next multiple of 100
    and consequently, for any given combination of Fan and minipoints, the sum of
    points received for a Tsumo (self-draw) win do not always exactly equal the
    points for a Ron (stolen discard) win, but it will be close.
    Rather than using the formula to determine the points, Mahjong players use pre-
    calculated look-up tables. These were included in the help pages in Yakuza 2 and
    Kenzan but they've been removed from this game. You don't need them to play but
    they might make the scoring a little clearer so take a look at this link:-
    --> http://www.mahjongtime.com/mahjong-japanese-scoring-4.html
    For example, if a non-dealer (i.e. a player with a Seat Wind other than East)
    wins with a hand worth 3 Fan and 50 minipoints they would get 6,400 points for a
    win by Ron. If it was a win by Tsumo then the Dealer would pay 3,200 points and
    the other two players would each pay 1,600.
    *The standard payment for each player is 1 x Base Points but "the Dealer always
    pays and receives double".
    = Limits =
    Japanese Mahjong is played with a tiered system of LIMITS which apply to the
    points you can win off a hand. The bottom Limit is called Mangan and applies to
    any hand where the Base Points exceed 2000, i.e. one with five Fan, or four Fan
    with 40 or more minipoints*, or three Fan with 70 or more minipoints*. If you
    get six of more Fan then higher Limits apply - see table below.
    In such a case, the Limit will be shown on the scoresheet instead of the mini-
    points total; if you won the Hand then your character will announce the Limit
    after stating all the Scoring Elements present in your winning hand.
    The table below shows the five different Limits and the Fan (and in some cases
    minipoints, Fu) needed to achieve for them. Each Limit is always worth the same
    specified number of points, for example a Dealer with Mangan always gets 12,000
    points. A Limit Hand always gives you Yakuman which is worth the maximum
    possible points: a jaw-dropping 48,000 pts on a Dealer win (and a Double Limit
    Hand gets twice that!).
                  |                |   Points for   | Points for |   Mangan
                  | Awarded for... | non-dealer win | Dealer win | equivalence
                  | 3 Fan & 70+ Fu |                |            |
           Mangan | 4 Fan & 40+ Fu |      8,000     |   12,000   |   1 x Mangan
                  | 5 Fan          |                |            |
          Haneman | 6 or 7 Fan     |     12,000     |   18,000   | 1.5 x Mangan
           Baiman | 8, 9 or 10 Fan |     16,000     |   24,000   |   2 x Mangan
        Sanbaiman | 11 or 12 Fan   |     24,000     |   36,000   |   3 x Mangan
          Yakuman | 13 or more Fan |     32,000     |   48,000   |   4 x Mangan
    Although Yakuman scores the maximum Limit points, if you're lucky enough to get
    this you will receive any Riichi stakes and Honba points (see below) as usual on
    top of the Yakuman points.
    *Sometimes a rule called MANGAN KIRIAGE, literally "Mangan rounding-up", can be
    applied causing a hand with either four Fan and 30 minipoints or three Fan and
    60 minipoints to be rounded up to the Mangan level.
    = Draws and Honba =
    If no-one has won after the final tile is dealt (and final discard made) then
    the Hand is a draw*, specifically an EXHAUSTIVE DRAW (the supply of tiles in the
    Wall is depleted/exhausted).
    In this event the game checks to see if any players are one tile short of a
    complete hand, i.e. they are Tenpai (if you see one or more players reveal their
    tiles on a draw it's because they are Tenpai). There are 3000 points available
    in a drawn Hand and these are awarded to the player or players that are Tenpai
    and deducted from the ones that are not (NO-TEN). The points paid out on a draw
    are called NO-TEN BAPPU.
    If one player is Tenpai they get 3000 pts and the other three pay 1000 pts.
    If two players are Tenpai they get 1500 pts and the other two pay 1500 pts.
    If three players are Tenpai they get 1000 pts and the other one pays 3000 pts.
    If all or none of the players are Tenpai then it's a complete draw and no-one 
    gets or loses any points.
    When a Hand ends in either a draw or a Dealer win, the HONBA counter is used
    (this is displayed next to the number of tiles remaining). This is normally set
    to zero but when a Hand is either a win by the Dealer or a draw (regardless of
    whether or not the Dealer is Tenpai) it moves up to one; if it happens again it
    moves up to two, etc. It keeps incrementing like that until a non-dealer wins a
    Hand and at this point the Honba number is set back to zero again.
    This affects the scores because whenever someone wins a Hand they receive an
    additional number of points equal to the Honba number multiplied by 300. For a
    win by Ron these points are taken from the player who discarded the winning tile
    and for Tsumo each of the three losing players pays an equal share. (Unlike the
    Riichi stakes, these points are not left "on the table", instead they are just
    counted there and then paid when required.) 
    So not only does the Dealer get six times the Base Points for a win instead of
    the usual four, he can also get these extra points for as long as he "stays on"
    as Dealer - 300 points for a win in the first extra Hand, 600 for a win in the
    second, 900 in the third, etc. The Two Fan Minimum rule (see Section 08 above)
    restricts the extent to which this can be exploited; under this rule a player
    needs a hand worth at least two Fan to win the Hand when the Honba counter
    reaches five so it's no longer possible to go out quickly with a "cheap" hand.
    The following table summarises the consequences of different outcomes in a Hand.
    (The "Hand counter" is the number shown next to the Prevalent Wind indicator
    that counts the normal Hands played in each round, from 1 to 4.) Any increase
    in the Honba number takes effect from the next Hand, so for example if the
    Dealer wins their first (normal) Hand they don't get any Honba points but the
    counter goes up to 1 and 300 points are paid for a win in the next (extra) Hand.
                      | Seat Winds |   Hand    |   Honba   |
                      | move round |  counter  |  counter  |
       Hand is won by |    yes     |    +1     |  reset to | winner gets Honba pts
         a non-dealer |            |           |    zero   | (if any)
       Hand is won by |     no     | no change |     +1    | winner gets Honba pts,
           the Dealer |            |           |           | next Hand is extra Hand
       Hand is drawn, |     no     | no change |     +1    | next Hand is extra Hand
     Dealer is Tenpai |            |           |           |
       Hand is drawn, |    yes     |    +1     |     +1    |
    Dealer not Tenpai |            |           |           |
    If the final normal Hand of a game results in a draw where the Dealer is not
    Tenpai then the game ends (because otherwise the move of the Seat Winds would
    constitute the start of a new round). Any Riichi stakes left go to the winner.
    If the Dealer wins the final normal Hand and they are currently in first place
    then they have the option to either end the game early or to play an extra Hand;
    this rule is usually known as AGARI YAME.
    *Some versions of the Japanese rules state that an ABORTIVE DRAW occurs in any
    of the following situations:-
    o all four players call Riichi in the same Hand
    o two or more players declare four Kongs in total in one Hand
    o three players simultaneously declare a Ron win on the same discard tile
    o all four players discard the same Wind tile on their first turn in a Hand
    o a player has nine or more different Terminal and Honour tiles after drawing
      their first tile (and they choose to accept a re-deal)
    I have seen the first situation occur once in Yakuza 2 (it was called a "Four
    Riichi Draw") but I don't know if any of the other types are recognised. I would
    guess that the last two are not allowed as I would expect to have seen them a
    few times each by now.
    = Uma = 
    At the end of a game the player with the most points is the winner, regardless
    of how many Hands they won (perhaps only one!), and you are shown who has come
    first, second, third and fourth. One final exchange of points, called the UMA,*
    is then applied. This is an optional rule in modern Japanese Mahjong but it's
    always used in every match in YDS.
    The Uma payments are usually symmetrical and expressed as a pair of numbers, for
    example 10-20, representing the amounts of points (in thousands) that are paid
    at the end of the match. The player in 3rd place pays the smaller amount to 2nd
    and the player in 4th pays the larger amount to 1st. So for example with a 5-10
    Uma you'll see 3rd pay 5,000 pts to 2nd and 4th pay 10,000 pts to 1st (and 1st
    also collects any unclaimed Riichi stakes left on the table).
    In the Yakuza series however they've always used a curiously asymmetrical Uma
    and now different scales are applied on each table too. This grid summarises the
    four Uma used on the open tables in gambling mode.
                 |  Easy Table   | Normal Table  |  Hard Table   | Expert Table**
       1st place |  +25,000 pts  |  +35,000 pts  |  +45,000 pts  |  +75,000 pts
       2nd place |   no change   |   +5,000 pts  |   +5,000 pts  |  +15,000 pts
       3rd place |  -10,000 pts  |  -15,000 pts  |  -15,000 pts  |  -25,000 pts
       4th place |  -15,000 pts  |  -25,000 pts  |  -35,000 pts  |  -65,000 pts
    Given that you purchase points at a rate of 1 point per Yen this effectively
    gives you a monetary bonus of up to 75,000 Yen for winning a game! :D The same
    quantities of Uma points are shared in either a half game or a quarter game so
    quarter games are the quicker way to rack up points (and therefore profit).
    Equally, if you do badly, you're at risk of losing a further 65,000 Yen on top
    of the losses incurred during the match so you might want to save your game
    before playing at the Expert table and reload if you lose.
    The very large Uma from the Expert table is also applied after each tournament
    match but, since this will never alter the final placings, it's irrelevant.
    In the event of two players having the same number of points at the end of the
    game the priority goes to the player who started the game as East (i.e. South in
    the final Hand), then to the player that was East next, etc. So if for example
    the two players seated at South and West in the final Hand were tied for second
    place, the priority goes to South (who gets 2nd place) and not West (who ends up
    taking 3rd). If the match was played on the Normal table (with a 10-20 Uma) the
    player now in 2nd place would take 10,000 pts from the player in 3rd.
    Your overall points total for gambling is carried over between games and can be
    checked by going to your items inventory in the pause menu, pressing R1 and
    selecting the white "Mahjong Sticks" item; you are also shown your total in the
    top-right corner of the screen at the start and end of each Mahjong game there.
    If your total drops below 25,000 points you will need to buy more before you can
    play again. After a heavy loss (especially with Uma) you might end up with a
    negative score for a game; this will be deducted from your overall points but
    your total will never drop into negative figures.
    *Uma means "horse". The same kanji character appears in Kiryuu's name, and it's
    also the name given to a promoted bishop piece in Shogi (the Japanese chess game
    which you can play at Shoten on Senryou Avenue).
    **See Section 13 for details on how to unlock the fourth table.
    ------< CONTROLS >------------------------------------------------ [Section 10]
    The controls are pretty much the same as in Yakuza 2 except that some buttons
    have been swapped and a useful new view is available by holding L1.
        start button - displays list of controls for minigame
       select button - gives option to quit minigame*
                  L1 - hold for a top-down view to see the discards more clearly
       d-pad up/down - navigates initial menu
                     - selects pop-up menu options when necessary
    d-pad left/right - selects tile to discard (or tiles to meld into)
     (or left stick)
            X button - confirms your decision either to discard the selected tile or
                       to take the chosen pop-up menu choice
            O button - cancel action listed on menu, e.g. (calling) Pung
     Triangle button - displays rules and Scoring Elements lists
       Square button - gives option to declare Riichi
                     - gives option to declare a Kong
                     - hides scoresheet at end of Hand (to see table underneath)
    When you are in a position to call Riichi** or to make a Kong you can press the
    Square button and you will then be given the option to perform the action.
    *If you quit mid-game while playing in gambling mode then you will lose the 25k
    points you used to buy into the game. In tournament mode however you can happily
    quit without it affecting your league standing at all.
    **If you're lazy you can use this as a "Riichi detector"! You just tap the
    Square button and if your concealed hand is Riichi-able you'll be given the
    option of Riichi. If you do not want to declare Riichi you can still press X to
    select it to see which tile/s you can safely discard without losing your Tenpai
    status and then press Triangle or Square to cancel Riichi and discard as normal.
    ------< DISPLAY >------------------------------------------------- [Section 11]
    = The Table =
    Your hand is shown at the bottom of the screen while your three opponents' tiles
    are at the right, top and left. Your tiles are shown in this order: Craks, Bams,
    Dots, Winds and Dragons, and in sequential order within each of those. When you
    are dealt a new tile it appears at the right end of your current tiles and any
    exposed sets are shown beyond that (e.g. Hideaki in the illustration below).
    Your currently selected tile in your hand is shown in a raised position.
    Each player's name and face is shown along with their current points score and a
    white box showing the symbol of their Seat Wind for the current Hand.
    Tiles discarded by players are shown in front of their hand in neat rows of six.
    When a discard is claimed by another player it is still displayed for reference
    but it appears darkened.
    A small pop-up box at the bottom-right of the screen shows the options available
    to you and the button press required to do them (i.e. X to accept, O to reject).
            |                      _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _              |
            |      _              |_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|             |
            |     |_|             '-'-'-'-'-'-'-'-'-'-'-'-'-'      _      |
            |     | |                          _ _  Careful Wateru|_|     |
            |Tanyao Yoriko             _ _ _ _|_|_|      21600    |_|     |
            |    20700                |_|_|_|_|_|_|               |_|     |
            |     |_|    _ _ _        |_|_|_|_|_|_|               '-'     |
            |     |_|   |_|_|_|       '-'-'-'-'-'-'     _ _        _      |
            |     |_|   |_|_|_|                        |_|_|      |_|     |
            |     |_|   '-|_|_|    @1* |0 |0 []13      |_|_|      |_|     |
            |     |_|     |_|_|       _ _ _ _ _        |_|_|_     |_|     |
            |     |_|     |_|_|      |_|_|_|_|_|       |_|_|_|    |_|     |
            |     |_|     |_|_|      '-'-'-'-'-'       |_|_|_|    |_|     |
            |     |_|     '-'-'    _ _ _ _ _ _         |_|_|_|    |_|     |
            |     |_|             |_|_|_|_|_|_|        '-'-'-'    |_|     |
            |     '-'             |_|_|_|_|_|_|           Gamblin' Hideaki|
            |                     |_|_|_|-'-'-'                 25800     |
            |       Shun Akiyama  '-'-'-'                         |_|     |
            |          31900_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _             '-'     |
            |              |_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|                    |
            |              '-'-'-'-'-'-'-'-'-'-'-'-'-'                    |
    The block of tiles in the centre of the screen is (part of) the Dead Wall. At
    the start of each Hand one tile is exposed (face up) here - this is the Dora
    bonus indicator. Each time a Kong is formed, another bonus indicator tile will
    be revealed. If someone wins a Hand with Riichi then indicators for the Under-
    side Dora are also applied - these are on the bottom row of the Dead Wall.
    There are also four numbers shown in a row in the centre of the screen directly
    above the Dead Wall.
    The first number is the Hand counter which shows the current Prevalent Wind and
    the number of ordinary Hands played with it, so it counts from East 1 to East 4
    in the first round and then - if you're playing a half game - from South 1 to
    South 4 in the second round. Extra Hands are not counted here.
    The middle two numbers are both shown next to a Scoring-Stick (these are also
    called BONES, COUNTERS or TENBOU and are used like casino chips). The first of
    these two numbers, the second in the row, counts any unclaimed 1000-point Riichi
    stakes from previous drawn Hands. When a Hand is next won, an additional 1000
    points multiplied by this counter are added to the winner's points along with
    any Riichi stakes from the current Hand. You'll notice that the scoring stick
    next to this number is one marked with a single dot, the same type that a player
    lays down when declaring Riichi.
    The third number in the row is the Honba counter which counts the number of
    consecutive preceding Hands where either the Dealer won or it was a draw. If a
    Hand is won when the Honba counter is in use then the winner receives extra
    points equal to 300 multiplied by the number. When a non-dealer wins a Hand the
    counter is reset to zero.
    The last of the four numbers is the easiest to understand (and explain!) - it
    simply shows the number of tiles remaining to be drawn in the current Hand. The
    counter starts at 70 and goes down until it reaches zero (or someone wins).
    = The Scoresheet = 
    The layout of the scoresheet shown at the end of each Hand is fairly straight-
    forward and is similar to the one in Yakuza 2.
    The winning hand is displayed at the top of the larger upper section of the
    sheet with the winning tile at the right end of the unexposed tiles so the type
    of Wait can be determined. Any Dora bonus tiles are shown on the next row* (in
    this example one player declared a Kong so there are two Dora and the winner
    called Riichi so there are two Underside Dora). The Scoring Elements present are
    listed below this with the number of Fan awarded for each. Any Dora bonus tiles
    in the winning hand are listed after the Scoring Elements; regardless of the
    combination of Dora, Underside Dora and Red Dora, these are all listed together.
    At the bottom of this section the number of Fu/minipoints (or the Limit) and the
    total number of Fan is shown. The final row gives the number of points awarded
    for the winning hand, calculated from the minipoints and number of Fan.
                           _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _  _
     the winning hand ->  |_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_||_|  <- the wining tile
                               _ _                   _ _
                         Dora |_|_|  Underside Dora |_|_|
                          Riichi                       1Fan
                          Ippatsu                      1Fan
                          Fully Concealed Hand (Tsumo) 1Fan
                          Seven Pairs                  2Fan
                          Dora                         2Fan
                                       7Fan          Haneman  <- Limit applied
      | Shun Akiyama  |@| Uncle Chiwa    |$| Narrow Wataru  |#| Slow Nobuko    |&|
      |      37100      |       24700      |       24500      |       12700      |
      |      +13000     |       -3000      |       -3000      |       -6000      |
    The lower section of the sheet has three rows. The first row shows the players'
    names and current Seat Winds, the second shows the players' previous points
    totals and the third shows the points won or lost in the last Hand (including
    any 1000-point Riichi stakes and 300-point Honba rollovers as appropriate).
    Since points are transferred between players, the scores on the second row will
    always add up to 100,000 (i.e. 4 x 25,000) unless there are unclaimed Riichi
    bets left on the table following a drawn Hand.
    At the press of a button (X) the points from the Hand are incorporated into the
    player totals. In the event of a drawn Hand, the Scoring Elements are not
    considered and therefore only this lower section of the scoresheet is shown.
    NB: You can hold the Square button or L1 to hide the scoresheet and see the
    table underneath (although the counters above the Dead Wall are removed).
    In a new feature added since Kenzan, after the scoresheet you're shown a table
    confirming who came 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th in the game. If you're playing in the
    tournament this page is followed by a display of the revised ladder standings.
    *The scoresheet shows the actual Dora tile/s as opposed to the Dora indicator/s
    which are seen on the table, so for example if the Dora is 8-Bams you will see
    this on the scoresheet but the indicator on the Dead Wall would've been 7-Bams.
    ------< TROPHY >-------------------------------------------------- [Section 12]
    There's a bronze PSN trophy available in YDS from playing Mahjong and Shogi -
    the trophy requirement is that you win one match of both minigames.
    Once you've learnt the rules you shouldn't have too much trouble getting a win
    in Mahjong. It doesn't need to be a big win - you can scrape a victory by a
    narrow margin. For tips on achieving a basic level of competence check out my
    quickstart guide in Section 04 above.
    Alternatively if you can get the hostess Erika (available to Akiyama at Shine)
    to the maximum twenty hearts you'll trigger her final event which involves you
    playing Mahjong. When you get to the Orchid Palace parlour you'll encounter the
    Frightened Man who gives you a Lucky Mahjong Marker (it's a golden Round Wind
    indicator). This is a unique single-use cheat item for Mahjong which will give
    you a massively big win on your very first hand... If you accept the Tsumo win
    offered you'll get Pure Thirteen Orphans combined with Heavenly Hand to give a
    *triple* Yakuman! This win (worth 144,000 pts since you're playing as East) is
    easily big enough to bust all three opponents so you win the match instantly.
    (See Section 26 of Seiyou_All_Star's YDS guide for full walkthroughs for each of
    the seven hostesses in the game. If you make the correct choices (for dialogue,
    food, drink, etc) and wear accessories to boost your dating prowess you can get
    a girl to twenty hearts in four visits.)
    It seems that this Mahjong cheat item can only be used when playing the crucial
    match for Erika's mission. Even if you win that game without using the (ahem)
    magic marker you will not be given the option to use it in other matches.
    You can play Shogi at Shoten ("shogi heaven") on south Senryou Avenue in the
    south-east corner of the map. It becomes available in Part I-3 of the story.
    Shogi is quite similar to western chess except it's harder to recognise the
    pieces, the board is different and you have the added complications of being
    able to promote your pieces and to redeploy (or "drop") ones you've captured
    from your opponent. So it's fortunate that the little trick I came up with for
    Shogi in Yakuza 4 works again here. You can get a win in just two moves!
    The key is to use the Challenge mode - beating this counts as a win, both for
    the trophy and for minigame completion. Choose the Trial 1 option and then click
    OK to confirm the config settings.
     | S G B |  In Trial 1 a significant handicap is applied to your opponent. In
     | R     |  total six of his pieces have been captured and are available for
     |       |  redeployment from the little board on the right: two Silver Generals
     |_______|  (marked S here), two Gold Generals (G), a Bishop (B) and a Rook (R).
       _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
     9|#|#|_|_|K|_|_|#|#|  You'll be using two of those pieces to win the game...
     7|#|#|#|#|#|#|#|#|#|  After your opponent moves his pawn, take the Rook (R)
     6|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|  and place it deep in enemy territory on square g8. This
     5|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|  traps your opponent's King (K) in the top row.
     3|#|#|#|#|#|#|#|#|#|  He'll then move his King one square to the left (d9) so
     2|_|#|_|_|_|_|_|#|_|  take one of your captured Gold Generals (G) and place it
     1|#|#|#|#|#|#|#|#|#|  immediately under the King in square d8. The Gold General
       a b c d e f g h i   blocks the King's escape and is protected by the Rook.
    This is Checkmate and you win the game. :D Not only that but you also receive a
    delicious Bean Paste Bun as a prize. Bonus!
    ------< COMPLETION >---------------------------------------------- [Section 13]
    In previous Yakuza titles the completion requirement for the Mahjong minigame
    was that you finish a match with a score of 50,000 points or more (before the
    Uma bonus was applied). This was pretty tough - even a skilled player would need
    a little luck and probably several attempts to achieve this. In YDS however
    there's a different requirement: winning one game on the "top table".
    So what's this top table then? Does it mean the Hard difficulty table...? Nope.
    Perhaps it means playing in the top four of the tournament ladder to defend your
    title...? Nope. Trust me, you are not going to guess this one!
    Like in Yakuza 4, you can take a taxi out to the docks where you can play the
    fishing minigame. You're able to catch a range of different fishes and sometimes
    a few random objects ...and eventually you'll catch a surprisingly friendly
    zombie named Esper Ito!* He won't attack you and instead will run off towards
    the city.
    You can encounter Ito at several minigame locations where you can play against
    him. In several cases you need to defeat him to earn completion in the game -
    and Mahjong is one of those games. The next time you enter the Orchid Palace
    parlour you'll be given the option of playing against him and thereafter a new
    Expert difficulty table will be available at the far end of the room.
    Winning one match on the Expert table gives you Mahjong minigame completion.
    *I can't say which are the best bait and range to use when trying to catch him.
    It took me about 30-40 minutes of continuous fishing (YMMV!) using a variety of
    baits and distances (during which time I also caught a marlin and a tuna with a
    combined resale value of 150,000 Yen). When I caught Ito I think I was using
    Vinegar Squid bait at a relatively short range - around 50m maybe - and it was
    during Part I-3 of the story so it was daytime.)
    ------< STRATEGY >------------------------------------------------ [Section 14]
    (Disclaimer: I wrote this for my previous Yakuza guides when I was still quite
    new to Mahjong but I think it's still good, if somewhat long and rambling...!)
    Mahjong is a complex game so it's obviously advantageous to have a good working
    knowledge of all the rules and Scoring Elements and an awareness of the points
    system. I hope that the other sections of this guide cover everything you need
    to know; even if you already know enough to play the game I think it's worth
    reading through the whole thing to pick up on anything you might've missed.
    Don't forget that you can choose your difficulty level when playing in gambling
    mode on the three tables at the parlour.
    At the start of a Hand I'd survey my tiles quickly to see if they lend them-
    selves to any particular Scoring Element/s. If there's a fair chance of obtain-
    ing this I'd work towards that goal but you have to be flexible - you might need
    to change your plans later in the Hand based on the tiles you're dealt.
    Then I'd look at any Honours (Winds or Dragons) in the hand. If you have a pair
    of Dragons, Prevalent Wind or your Seat Wind then it's definitely worth keeping
    them; if nothing else you can use them as your pair (that's worth a couple of
    minipoints too) but in my experience you are very likely to get the opportunity
    to pick up a third by calling Pung (since other players will discard them) which
    will score you one Fan and give you the Scoring Element you need to declare a
    win (your hand will no longer be concealed though). If you have Double Wind
    (i.e. your Seat Wind matches the Prevalent Wind) then the pair or Pung is worth
    double; because of the way the Seat Winds move, each player will be in Double
    Wind for at least one Hand per round.
    If you find yourself with an individual Dragon or Prevalent/Seat Wind tile then
    it's tempting to hang onto it - there are only thirty-four different tiles in
    the game so there's a chance you'll be dealt another to make a pair and then you
    can steal a discard to make a Pung - but I think it's probably best to ditch
    them quite early (so that you don't miss any opportunities to start building
    sets with the other tiles) and you'll notice that the other players do the same.
    The only solo Honour tile you might want to keep is your Seat Wind, especially
    when it is a Double Wind, as this is usually of no use to your opponents and
    therefore a more likely discard.
    (Keep an eye out for hands where the majority of the tiles are Honours (in pairs
    or Pungs) and suit tiles from a single suit as this will give you a good chance
    of getting a Half Flush hand. In this case any Winds are useful - they don't
    have to be the Prevalent Wind or your Seat Wind, although they are better.)
    Although Honours can be used to make scoring sets they are not very flexible as
    they cannot be used in Chows, only Pungs (or Kongs). Terminals (1's and 9's) are
    slightly more useful because they can be used in Pungs or one Chow (e.g. 111 or
    123) and tiles marked 2 or 8 are better still because they can make a Pung or
    two different Chows (e.g. 222, 123 or 234). The suit tiles marked 3 to 7 are the
    most useful as they can make a Pung or three possible Chows. This analysis not
    only shows which tiles are generally the most helpful to retain in your hand but
    also which are the better Waits to aim for. Given a choice of two options it's
    better, for example, to make a ready hand needing a 1 rather than a 4 because a
    1 is less useful and is therefore more likely to be discarded by another player.
    If you can see two of a given Honour tile on the table there's no chance of
    making a Pung from your single or pair of the same and equally you can safely
    discard one without someone calling Pung on it (although they could still claim
    it by Ron to make a pair and go out). However if it's late in a Hand and you can
    only see one (or none) of a certain Honour tile then it's likely that another
    player is sitting on a pair and it will be risky to discard one.
    Next I'd discard any stray tiles that look less useful. If I only have one Craks
    tile for example I'd ditch it. If I have 1, 4, 5, 7 and 9 Bams then the 4 and 5
    could form a Chow and so could the 7 and 9 but I'd usually get rid of the 1 that
    doesn't have any near neighbours. Any suit tile with a number more than two
    away from the others you're holding can't make an easy Chow so is a likely
    You should keep probabilities in your mind when building your hand. From the
    earlier example, if I have 7 and 9 then I could make a Chow with an 8 of the
    same suit but if I have 4 and 5 then either a 3 or a 6 would do it - so speaking
    generally I'm twice as likely to draw a tile I need in the second case. Two con-
    secutive suit tiles, like 4 and 5, are called a SERIAL PAIR or RYANMEN Wait, and
    such elements are the most effective way to build a hand.
    If I have 6, 7 and 9 Dots then I'm waiting on a 5 or 8 Dots to make a Chow with
    the 6 and 7 but also waiting on an 8 again to make a Chow with the 7 and 9. In
    this case I might discard the 9. You need to govern your hand with a view to
    maximising your chances of each drawn tile helping you complete a set.
    (You should learn to recognise patterns of tiles that give you multiple winning
    options and try to steer your hand towards these. For example if you have 6667
    you can take a 5 to make a 567 Chow and a 66 pair, or a 7 to make a 666 Pung and
    a 77 pair or an 8 to make a 66 pair and a 678 Chow. If you have 2345 you can
    make a Chow and a pair with either a 2 or a 5. You'll also come to instantly
    recognise complete sets that overlap, for example 455667 is two Chows - 456 and
    567 - and 12223 is a 123 Chow and a pair.)
    Of course there are other factors to consider when thinking of probabilities.
    You should check the discards, the Dora indicator/s and any exposed sets to see
    if the tile/s you need are inaccessible. Also remember that the tiles you want
    might be in the concealed section of another player's hand or among the fourteen
    tiles in the Dead Wall which will not enter play.
    If I've got two 3-Bams in my hand then I can use that as my pair. I might be
    able to make a Pung with another 3 Bams but there are only four 3 Bams tiles in
    the whole game and I've already got two of them! Even if none have been
    discarded, the chances of that aren't so good, although of course you can call
    Pung on any player's discard whereas you can only call Chow from the player to
    your left. Pungs can give you a better hand too, with better Scoring Elements
    and minipoints to be had, but generally it's preferable to go for Chows.
    You should also think about all the possible Scoring Elements, especially the
    one-Fan patterns which are easiest to achieve. Calling Pung and calling Chow
    (picking up discards from other players) makes it a lot easier to complete sets
    in your hand but this will make your hand exposed which rules out some elements
    like Pinfu, Riichi and obviously Fully Concealed Hand! You might want to con-
    sider ditching all the Terminals and Honours from your hand to get All Simples
    or conversely you might keep them for All Terminals And Honours or Mixed Outside
    Hand. You might keep Terminals as part of a Pure Straight or Honours to help
    with a Half Flush.
    Don't forget that you need a pair in your hand so if you only have one pair
    think twice before you call Pung on it. It can be quite hard to make a new pair.
    Speaking of pairs, if you have a hand with several (five maybe?) then you could
    try aiming for the Seven Pairs hand but this often doesn't give a great score
    and can be hard to complete. A better option is to go for All Pungs which gives
    two Fan, good minipoints for Pungs and opportunities to make Kongs. If you can
    complete three of the Pungs with self-drawn tiles you can claim a further two
    Fan for Three Concealed Pungs and if you make all four by self-draw you've got
    yourself a Limit Hand! However usually you will need to call for discards in
    order to complete the hand and this will limit your defensive potential.
    If you find yourself with four of the same suit tile in your hand it might be
    best to wait before declaring a Kong - this gives you the flexibility to use the
    tiles as a Pung and part of a Chow. Also if you hold off on declaring the Kong
    until you are Tenpai (i.e. one tile short of a complete hand) then there's a
    chance that you'll score one extra Fan for "After a Kong" if you complete your
    hand. If one or more of your opponents has called Riichi then it's better not to
    make a Kong as this will give them potentially two extra Dora if they win.
    If you have some exposed Pungs remember which tiles are there. You might be
    dealt the fourth you need to make one into a Kong which will boost your score.
    Declaring Riichi can be a good way to make points - you can score Fan for Riichi
    itself plus Ippatsu and Underside Dora bonuses - but if you call Riichi late in
    a Hand you won't have many opportunities to get the tile/s you need. It is also
    better to call Riichi when there are several possible tiles that could complete
    your hand, for example if you are holding 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 Craks you could form
    two Chows with either 1-Craks, 4-Craks or 7-Craks. Again you should check the
    discard piles to see if some of the tiles you need have gone as this will shift
    the odds against you. Don't forget that taking Riichi costs 1000 pts so if your
    chances aren't so good it may be better not to risk it.
    If you have a choice of several discards when "reaching" (declaring Riichi) you
    should carefully compare the different options. How many of the tile/s you need
    are still in play? Will your choice affect your Scoring Elements (for example
    All Simples)? Will it make you Furiten? Will it get you more or less Dora tiles?
    Would it be better to hold off until you're waiting on more/different tiles? You
    should also think about whether your opponents are close to winning because you
    won't have any control over your discards and therefore can't play defence.
    Keep in mind that you need a hand worth at least one Fan (not counting Dora
    bonuses) to be able to declare Mahjong; you can't just have four complete sets
    and a pair. This is one reason to avoid calling Pung/Chow at every offered
    opportunity - you can get an ill-formed and worthless (and exposed) hand. Make
    sure you have a Scoring Element (it's usually best to combine Pinfu and Riichi).
    You should also remember to check the exposed tile on the Dead Wall for the Dora
    bonus as this might affect your decisions. A pair or Pung of Dora tiles will
    give you two or three extra doubles to your score so you'll want to keep them.
    If you only have a single Dora in your hand then it's worth hanging onto for a
    while - you might at least be able to make a pair with it - but if you don't get
    the tiles you need to make a set with it then you should let it go. The same
    goes for the Red Dora bonus tiles if you have that rule/option turned on.
    Being the Dealer (i.e. in a Hand where your Seat Wind is East) is a bit of a
    double-edged sword. If you're an optimist then you'll relish the opportunity to
    score extra points on a win and then "stay on" as Dealer to do it again but if
    you're a pessimist you might be worried about facing a bigger loss of points if
    you lose. It might be better not to risk going for a higher-scoring hand and
    instead to go out on the first available possibility, then repeat this process.
    If you are doing well in a Hand then you might want to stop and count how many
    Fan your hand is worth. If it's currently worth 4 or 6 Fan then it's not worth
    taking a gamble on getting one more Fan since a 6 Fan hand scores the same as a
    7 Fan hand and a 4 Fan hand (with 40+ minipoints) scores the same as 5 Fan.
    As you get better at Mahjong you will start to think more about defensive play.
    The essence of defence is to avoid discarding tiles which help your opponents,
    especially ones they can claim by Ron to win the hand; they might still win with
    a self-drawn tile or with someone else's discard but at least you won't have to
    pay all the points. Since the discarder pays all the points for a win by Ron,
    feeding a player the tile they need to win could easily cost you as much as
    12,000 points if they're the Dealer!
    You should be cautious of any player who has called Riichi because they must
    have a Tenpai hand and are therefore in a position to claim Ron on a discard.
    However you should also keep in mind that a player might be Tenpai but not call
    Riichi because either their hand is not concealed or they have a poor Wait (i.e.
    their chance of getting the tile/s they need is not high enough to risk the 1000
    points for Riichi). This is called "SILENT TENPAI" or DAMA TEN.
    Remember that the other players can also claim discards to make sets which will
    put them closer to a winning hand. It's particularly important to watch the
    player to your right as they can call Chows from you as well as Pungs.
    The key to defence is to read your opponent's discards to try to work out what
    tile/s they need. Mahjong experts have written on this topic at length but I'll
    just give a few simple points here. At the most basic level, you can sometimes
    get an overall impression of their discards/hand, for example if one suit is
    missing from their discards then they could be making a Flush or Half Flush hand
    and you should avoid discarding tiles of that suit, or if they've discarded a
    lot of Honours and Terminals they are probably trying to get All Simples.
    In general play it is usually safe to discard a tile that someone has discarded
    recently because if someone needed it they'd have taken it! Also when a player
    is Tenpai you are safe to discard any tile which they have discarded because of
    the Furiten rule - they cannot call Ron on any tile they've discarded. Although
    it's less certain, you might also choose to assume that a Tenpai player has made
    the most effective sort of Wait, the serial pair, for example a 4 and a 5
    waiting on a 3 or 6 to become a Chow, but they are unlikely to have made a Wait
    where they are Furiten on one of the two winning tiles, so you can reason that
    if they discard a 3 for example then they probably don't have a 3/6 wait and the
    6 tile of the same suit could also be safe (you will learn the tiles that go
    together, i.e. 1-4-7, 2-5-8 and 3-6-9). This works best with low or high value
    discards because, for example, a 1 discard means that 4 could be safe (with a
    23 wait) but a 4 discarded might mean that either 1 (with a 23 wait) *or* 7
    (with a 56 wait) could be safe.
    In an extreme case, if at any stage you think you're unlikely to win (i.e. your
    hand is far from complete) then you should start to play defensively. You might
    even choose to break up non-exposed sets in your hand in order to be able to
    discard tiles that are safer and prevent another player from winning. Breaking
    a Pung is especially useful because if no one claims the first discard then you
    have two more of the same tile to discard on your next two turns!
    When heading for a draw you might also call Pung/Chow on tiles that you wouldn't
    normally take in an effort to get your hand into a Tenpai state and therefore
    fair better when the points are shared out. A Tenpai hand is any that is only
    one tile away from being complete, regardless of it being concealed or exposed
    or being a "good" (Pungs of Honours) or "bad" (Chows of Simples) hand. If you're
    the only player that's Tenpai in a draw you get a very handy 3000 points which
    is more than you get for winning with a low-value hand!
    Don't lose heart in a game if you've been stuck in fourth place for ages. One
    high-scoring hand can win you the game or at least put you in second place where
    you'll avoid losing points on the Uma.
    ------< FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS >------------------------------ [Section 15]
    Q. I made four sets and a pair, why didn't I win the Hand?
    A. Your complete hand must have at least one Scoring Element or, if you're very
       lucky, a Limit Hand (see Section 07 for lists of both) before you can declare
       a win (Tsumo or Ron) and win the Hand.
       If you're playing the Two Fan Minimum rule and the Honba counter (the third
       number in the middle of the screen) is showing 5+ then your hand must be
       worth at least two Fan (not counting Dora bonuses) before you can go out.
    Q. I'm one tile away from a complete hand, why can't I do the Riichi thing?
    A. Firstly the game won't show you the option for Riichi, you have to press the
       Square button first.
       Secondly you need to fulfil the following criteria to declare Riichi:-
       o you must have a "ready hand" that's one tile away from completion, although
         two or more different tiles could complete it
       o your hand must be concealed (with no exposed sets made with discards)
       o there must be at least four tiles remaining to be drawn (dealt) in the Hand
       o you need the 1000 points to pay the stake
    Q. I had four identical tiles in my hand, shouldn't I have been able to declare
       a Kong set?
    A. Yes, but this is another situation where you need to press the Square button
       to get the option to pop up.
    Q. When should I declare a Kong?
    A. The most significant effect of declaring a Kong is that an additional Dora
       indicator is revealed (see Section 07). When a player declares a win they can
       benefit from this, and if they won after declaring Riichi then they will also
       have an additional Underside Dora indicator.
       This makes a generous gift so you should aim to give it only to yourself and
       not to an opponent! It is best to declare a Kong only when you are close to
       declaring a win. If you do it when your hand is Tenpai (ready) then there's a
       chance that you'll complete your hand with the supplement tile you take after
       declaring a Kong in which case you would receive the bonus Scoring Element
       "After a Kong" which is worth one extra Fan.
       It's usually a bad idea to declare a Kong after an opponent has "reached"
       because they must have a Tenpai hand so they're very close to winning and two
       additional Dora indicators will be applied if they win.
    Q. I was one tile away from winning and one of the other players discarded a
       tile I needed to win but I couldn't claim it (Ron), why was that?
    A. If you had already called Riichi then you were probably Furiten - this is the
       situation when any of the tiles you have discarded could complete your hand.
       When you are Furiten you are not allowed to win by Ron although you can still
       win by Tsumo (i.e. with a self-drawn tile).
       If you hadn't declared Riichi then either you were Furiten or your hand did
       not meet the criteria of any Scoring Elements so you couldn't win with it.
       For example:-
       o If the only potential Scoring Element in your hand was All Simples and you
         had a 2 and a 3 waiting to be a Chow then you could win with a 4 but you
         could not win with a 1 because then the hand wouldn't be "All Simples".
       o If you had no Scoring Elements and, say, a pair of 2-Bams and a pair of
         Red Dragons then you could win with another Red Dragon (giving the Scoring
         Element required: Dragon Pung) but you couldn't win with another 2-Bams.
       o If you were trying to win with only Fully Concealed Hand this Scoring
         Element has a requirement that the winning tile must be self-drawn so you
         can't win with Ron (unless you have other Scoring Elements present).
       If you're unable to "go out" you should either try to change your hand to get
       a viable Scoring Element (perhaps lose the Terminals and Honours to get All
       Simples, or try to get Pinfu) or attempt to hold out, being careful with your
       discards, and maintaining your Tenpai status so you fair better in a draw.
       Remember that Riichi is a Scoring Element itself so it's possible to call
       Riichi on a (closed Tenpai) hand and then go out with a complete but other-
       wise valueless hand using Riichi to give the one Scoring Element required.
    Q. What are all the different tiles?!
    A. There are thirty-four different tiles in the game (and four of each in the
       set) and you'll need to be able to tell them apart to play Mahjong.
       Rather than describing each individual tile, it's easier to direct the reader
       towards helpful resources - have a look at the following webpages which show
       all the different tiles in the game, but disregard the Seasons and Flowers
       tiles as these are not used in the Japanese version of the game.
       --> http://www.mahjonged.com/mahjong_tiles.html
       --> http://www.mahjong-solitaire-game.com/mahjong-solitaire-tiles.htm
    Q. Do I have to learn all these Scoring Element things?!
    A. Not really - when you're new to the game it's probably best just to focus on
       the ones which occur most frequently in play. You should keep in mind that
       combining as many Scoring Elements (and Dora) as possible in a hand is the
       key to getting big scores.
       Here's a list of the top ten Scoring Elements you should learn, listed with
       the most common at the top.
       o Riichi
       o Pung of Dragon / Seat Wind / Prevalent Wind
       o All Simples
       o Pinfu
       o Fully Concealed Hand
       o Half Flush
       o Pure Double Chow
       o All Pungs
       o Mixed Triple Chow
       o Seven Pairs
       Ippatsu actually occurs fairly commonly too (above Half Flush in the chart)
       but since it's pretty much a matter of luck I've not listed it here.
       Some of even the low-value Scoring Elements are stupidly rare - a few even
       occur less often than Limit Hands. Don't expect to see Triple Pung, Robbing
       The Kong, Twice Pure Double Chow or (especially) Three Kongs any time soon!
    Q. What do the numbers in the middle of the screen mean?
    A. Working from left to right they count: the number of normal Hands played in
       the current round (and the current Prevalent Wind: East or South), the number
       of Riichi bets left on the table from previous Hand/s (each worth 1000 points
       for a win), the number of consecutive preceding Hands that were either a
       Dealer win or a draw (each worth 300 points for a win) and finally the number
       of tiles remaining to be drawn in the Hand.
    Q. How do I know which tiles give the Dora bonus?
    A. Any exposed tiles on the Dead Wall (the row of five tiles in the centre of
       the screen) are Dora indicators and the actual Dora is the next sequential
       tile. For example, if you can see a 6-Dots there then the Dora is 7-Dots.
       Each declaration of a Kong set causes another Dora indicator to be exposed
       and if the player wins with Riichi then secret Underside Dora also apply. 
       See DORA BONUSES in Section 07 for further information.
       Also, if you are playing the Red Dora rule then any red fives also give a
       bonus (see Section 08).
    Q. How do the modern Japanese Mahjong rules in the Yakuza games differ from
       other versions?
    A. There are actually quite a lot of differences between the various versions of
       Mahjong played in different countries. The key features of "Riichi" Mahjong
       (also known as Reach Mahjong) that distinguish it from others are as follows:
       o only the winner of a Hand scores points, and for a win with a discard (Ron)
         the points are taken only from the player that discarded the winning tile
       o points are paid on a drawn Hand (if one, two or three players are Tenpai)
       o the list of permitted Scoring Elements includes Pure Straight, All Simples,
         Mixed Outside Hand, Mixed Triple Chow, Triple Pung and Seven Pairs
       o there are no restrictions on the number of suits or Chows in a hand
       o Dora and Red Dora are used
       o the Season and Flower bonus tiles are not used
       o Riichi is used (plus the related features of Ippatsu and Underside Dora)
       o the Furiten rule is used (and therefore discards are arranged neatly)
       o the game is usually played over two rounds (East and South) instead of four
       o the game is played with a one-Fan minimum (for declaring a win)
    Q. How can I get me one of them fancy Limit Hands?
    A. Beyond the unique one-use cheat item (see Section 12), I think the best
       advice is to forget about it, or at least to put it to the back of your mind!
       Although they make up a big part of the rules and their interesting patterns
       and high scores are quite exciting, realistically you could play for a very
       long time and not see one, despite your best efforts!
       What you can do is to quickly check your tiles at the start of each Hand and
       see if they have the potential to form a Limit Hand, i.e. if you already have
       more than half the tiles required. For example lots of Winds and Dragons for
       All Honours, lots of ones and nines for All Terminals, a good range of both
       Terminals and Honours for Thirteen Orphans, several Pungs and pairs for Four
       Concealed Pungs or lots of Dragons for Big Three Dragons.
       The game stats on the Tenhou website show that (reasonably skilled!) players
       achieve Yakuman (top Limit) scores in about 0.18% of winning hands which is
       equivalent to about one in 550. The most common are Four Concealed Pungs, Big
       Three Dragons and Thirteen Orphans, each occurring in about 0.04% of wins.
    Q. What's the best Mahjong hand you've got in a Yakuza game?
    A. I've completed Limit Hands (Yakuman) in several Yakuza games.
       My first ever Limit Hand was in Kenzan where I made a rare "Natural Limit"
       (Counted Yakuman - a hand worth 13 or more Fan). I had two Kongs and got
       really lucky with the Dora bonus tiles - I had eleven! I called Riichi and
       got All Simples too, giving a total of 13 Fan.
       I also got Four Concealed Pungs in Yakuza 2 and Thirteen Orphans in Yakuza 3
       (or specifically in the Japanese original "Ryuu ga Gotoku 3" since Sega saw
       fit to cut the Mahjong minigame from the English version, Yakuza 3).
       Believe it or not, it's actually harder to make a hand with 11 or 12 Fan (a
       Sanbaiman) than it is to make a Limit Hand (nominally 13 Fan).
    Q. Have they changed any of the terminology used previously in Yakuza 4?
    A. Unhelpfully, after switching to several new terms in Yakuza 4, they now seem
       to have mostly reverted to the wording that was previously used in Yakuza 2.
       o Reverse Dora are now "Underside Dora" again
       o Kazoe Yakuman is back to being "Natural Limit"
       o a Yakuman is a "Limit-Hand"
       o the element Tanyao is now "All Simples"
       o Fu are now called "Minipoints" again
       However the "Full Game" and "Half Game" options of Yakuza 2 have retained
       their names from Yakuza 4, namely "Half Game" (two rounds) and "Quarter Game"
       (one round) *respectively* - see Section 06 above.
    ------< GLOSSARY >------------------------------------------------ [Section 16]
    Since there are so many special terms used in Mahjong I thought it would be
    helpful to include this section which defines the most important words. I've
    tried to keep the definitions very short and simple here; there's a more
    comprehensive explanation of each one somewhere in the document above...
    Bamboo - one of the three suits, also called Bams
    Calling Pung/Chow - making an exposed set using another player's discard
    Characters - one of the three suits, also known as Craks
    Chii - declaration made when calling for a discard tile to make a Chow
    Closed - descriptive of a concealed set or hand
    Chow - a set of three tiles from the same suit with consecutive numbers
    Concealed - a hand with no exposed tiles
    Counted Yakuman - a hand with Scoring Elements and Dora totalling 13+ Fan
    Dead Wall - a small wall of spare tiles shown in the centre of the screen
    Dealer - the player with a Seat Wind (q.v.) of East in any given Hand
    Dots - one of the three suits, they're marked with dots!
    Dora - one or more tiles that gives a bonus score (cf. Red Dora)
    Dragons - the three Dragon tiles are red, white and green
    Draw - a Hand in which no player declares a win
    Exposed - a set that has been placed face-up on the table
            - a hand with one or more exposed sets
    Extra Hand - an additional Hand played after a Dealer win or Dealer Tenpai draw
    Fan - a score doubler awarded for Scoring Elements and Dora in a hand
    Flowers - four tiles depicting flowers, not used in Japanese Mahjong
    Fu - a measure of score awarded for features in a wining hand
    Furiten - when one of your discards would complete your hand you cannot call Ron
    Half game - a game lasting two rounds (the standard length in Japanese Mahjong)
    hand - the thirteen tiles you are holding plus one you are dealt
    Hand - each round consists of four normal Hands and sometimes extra Hands too
    Honba - a count of consecutive draws and Dealer wins
    Honours - collective term for the Dragon and Wind tiles
    Kan - declaration made when calling for a discard tile to make a Kong
    Kong - a set of four identical tiles
    Kuitan - a rule that allows the All Simples (Tanyao) element on an exposed hand
    Limit - a cap applied to high-scoring hands
    Limit Hand - a rare hand which is automatically worth maximum points
    Major tiles - a collective name for the Terminal and Honour tiles
    Meld - (verb) to call Pung/Chow thereby creating an exposed set 
         - (noun) an exposed set
    Minipoints - a measure of score awarded for features in a wining hand (also Fu)
    Open - descriptive of an exposed set or hand
    Points - points are awarded in each Hand, based on Fan and Fu (qq.v.)
    Pon - declaration made when calling for a discard tile to make a Pung
    Prevalent Wind - this is East in the first round and South in the second
    Pung - a set of three identical tiles
    Quarter game - a game lasting one round
    Red Dora - a special number-five tile marked in red that gives a score bonus
    Riichi - to state that one is "ready", needing one tile to complete the hand
    Ron - to declare a win by claiming another player's discard (cf. Tsumo)
    Round - four normal Hands (cf. Half Game and Quarter Game)
    Round Wind - a more common English name for the Prevalent Wind in each round
    Scoring Element - a pattern or condition that is worth one or more Fan
    Scoring-Stick - a short white stick used like a casino chip to count points
    Seasons - four tiles depicting seasons, not used in Japanese Mahjong
    Seat Wind - the Wind assigned to a player that changes after each normal Hand
    Set - a Pung, Chow or Kong (qq.v.)
    Simples - suit tiles marked with numbers between 2 and 8 inclusive
    Suit - a "family" of tiles like the four suits in a deck of playing cards
    Table rules - optional rules that can be chosen at the start of a game
    Tenpai - the state of having a "ready hand", one tile away from being complete
    Terminals - suit tiles marked with numbers 1 or 9
    Tiles - the pieces used to play the game
    Tsumo - to declare a win with a self-drawn tile (cf. Ron)
    Two Fan Minimum - a rule applying a score restriction after four extra Hands
    Uma - a final exchange of points between players after the final Hand
    Underside Dora - a special Dora (q.v.) revealed after a Hand won with Riichi
    Wait - an incomplete hand that is "waiting" for the right tile to complete it
    Winds - the four Wind tiles are each marked East, South, West or North
          - see also Seat Wind and Prevalent Wind (qq.v.)
    Yakuman - a rare hand which is automatically worth maximum points
            - also the name of the top tier in the Limit system
    For a complete guide to the rules and terminology of Japanese Mahjong you can
    download my PDF guide from the USPML website here:
      http://www.uspml.com/site/downloads.htm  (Barticle's Japanese Mahjong Guide)
    ------< CONTACT >------------------------------------------------- [Section 17]
    I welcome all feedback on this guide and any contributions you'd like to make.
    I'm also happy to receive questions about this or any other Mahjong game, or
    about the rules and terminology of Japanese Mahjong.
    You can email me at barticle at hotmail.com - obviously changing the "at" to an
    @ and removing the spaces. It would be helpful if you include the word "Mahjong"
    in the subject line and tell me which game you're playing.
    ------< THANKS >-------------------------------------------------- [Section 18]
    I would like to thank the following:-
    o Seiyou_All_Star for the fantastic YDS guide
    o Sega for another RGG localisation without major cuts
    o A Winged Victory For The Sullen and Stars Of The Lid for super sounds
    I will be happy to give credit and thanks to anyone who makes a contribution.
            ___________                                          ___        
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                 /   \___ ________ _________/  \__ ___ ______ /  /  ________
    .-------o   /  __   / \___   //  ___/\_   ___//  //  ___//  /  /  __   /
    | ANOTHER  /  / /  /_____/  //  /     /  /   /  //  /   /  /  /   \/  / 
    '---------/  /-/  //  __   //  /-----/  /---/  //  /---/  /--/  _____/---------.
             /  / /  //  / /  //  /     /  /   /  //  /   /  /  /  /         GUIDE |
            /   \/  //   \/  //  /     /   \_ /  //   \_ /   \ /   \________ o-----'
            \______/ \______/ \_/      \____/ \_/ \____/ \___/ \___________/
    Yakuza: Dead Souls - Mahjong Guide
    Copyright 2012 James R. Barton
    Initial version 1.00 completed 24 March 2012
    Current version 1.01 completed 6 April 2012
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