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    FAQ/Strategy Guide by Rovingbar

    Version: 1.0 | Updated: 12/02/05 | Search Guide | Bookmark Guide

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    Lumines Skills Guide
      By Rovingbar AKA Jeff Hebert
      Version 1.0
    
    
    0.   Contents
    1.     Introduction to this Guide
    2.     Know Yourself
      2.1.     Your brain and Lumines
      2.2.     Motor skills
    3.     Blocks and Sequences
      3.1.     Squares, Blocks, Deletes, and Combos
      3.2.     Block Types
      3.3.     Block Frequencies
      3.4.     Destroyers
      3.5.     Sequence Probabilities
    4.     Rotating Blocks
      4.1.     Single Direction Strategy
      4.2.     Dual Direction Strategy
      4.3.     Rotation Statistics
    5.     Delete Strategies
      5.1.     A word on scoring
      5.2.     Basic Deletes
      5.3.     Infinite Tower
      5.4.     Layers
      5.5.     Slice
      5.6.     Double Slice
      5.7.     Power Slice
      5.8.     Advanced slice and dice
      5.9.     Maximizing Deletes
      5.10.     Managing Leftovers
    6.     Delete Theory
      6.1.     How many Squares does it take to make a Delete?
      6.2.     Rectangular Deletes
      6.3.     Max and Min Squares per Delete
    7.     Game Speed
      7.1.     Game Speed
      7.2.     Max Drop Rate
    8.     Know your Skills
      8.1.     Performance Statistics
    9.     Improve Your Skills
      9.2.     Upcoming drops
      9.3.     Planning your next move
      9.4.     Play Faster
    10.     Know your habits
      10.1.     Identify your habits
      10.2.     Break your habits
      10.3.     For Lumines Sake ? Know your habits
    11.     Credits
    12.     Copyright
    13.     Version History
    14.     Appendix
      14.1.     Table of 3 block sequences
      14.2.     Table of Typical Deletes
    
    
    
    
    
    1.	Introduction to this Guide
    
    This is a different kind of guide. I?ve read many guides on 
    how to play Lumines. They cover controls and strategy very 
    well. Please refer to them if you want to learn strategy. 
    This guide is intended to help you develop your Lumines 
    skills. I am actually writing this guide to help me 
    formalize my thoughts. I am NOT an advanced player. I see 
    things in this game that I have not seen in any other game. 
    More importantly, no other guide covers this material. The 
    shining star (IMHO) of this guide is the Improve your Skills 
    section. In that section I discuss the essential skills of 
    Lumines ? predicting, planning, and speed. Most important, 
    I?ll recommend some exercises to help you develop these 
    skills. But first, we need to cover quite a bit of ground so 
    lets get started.
    
    Here is a quick guide to how you play the game, and the 
    section of this guide with info on that skill. 
    
    Quick Guide to Lumines Activities
    1. Recognize the block (Section 3)
    2. Decide what to do with it (Sections 5,6)
    3. Slide the block (Section 9)
    4. Rotate the block (Section 4)
    5. Drop the block (Section 9)
    
    2.	Know Yourself
    
    2.1.	Your brain and Lumines
    Many folks describe a moment where you ?get it?. Before that 
    moment, Lumines seems impossibly difficult. After that 
    moment, everything seems to make sense. Yet the game is 
    still impossibly difficult, you can just get much farther in 
    the game until you come to some barrier. The way it 
    typically goes is the first few games you get to 10k or 20k 
    points, and get stuck there for a while. You may steadily 
    improve to 30k or 40k where you get stuck again. Then you 
    figure out the controls and the timeline and how deletes 
    work and you can suddenly get to 50k or 80k. Then after 
    another breakthrough you suddenly start scoring 150k to 200k 
    points. Then you run into some of the fast levels and get 
    stuck again.
    
    The reason this happens is because to play this game well 
    you need to re-train your brain. This game is not just about 
    reflexes or strategy, it is about training your brain to 
    recognize and respond to patterns. As you play, you will 
    recognize lots of patterns. You will drop a block onto it 
    and see the results. Sometimes the results are good (many 
    deletes) sometimes they are bad (checkerboard of death). 
    After repeating that same pattern a few dozen times your 
    subconscious will suddenly 'get it' and you will start 
    dropping the blocks better. You will suddenly start getting 
    combos that seemed impossible before. If you look closely at 
    your combos, you will notice that they are usually the same 
    pattern over and over. Even the most advanced players have a 
    set of standard patterns stored away in their subconscious 
    somewhere.
     
    The point of this is that the only way to improve in this 
    game is through practice. You can study all the guides in 
    the world. You can read how to beat specific puzzles, or how 
    to do an infinite combo, or whatever. But not of that will 
    really help you improve. (Actually, learning those 
    techniques can help you improve, but only if you practice 
    the technique over and over.) 
    
    So don't worry if you don?t get it right away. Just keep 
    playing and practicing. When you get stuck with Challenge 
    mode, switch over to Time Attack for a day or two then come 
    back to Challenge mode. Try some of the exercises later in 
    this guide. They are designed to help you develop some of 
    the skills that help you improve the critical areas of your 
    game.
    
    
    [At some later date I may describe mental pathways, 
    invariant representations, and habits.]
    
    2.2.	Motor skills
    
    Obviously, motor skills play a role in this. Again, the only 
    way to develop those skills is through practice.
    
    Remember, this game is about patterns. That is why it is a 
    puzzle game. The more you play, the faster your brain gets. 
    Soon enough you will find that you have an intuition about 
    where to place blocks, so you don?t have to think about them 
    much. At that point, your game becomes limited by your motor 
    skills. How fast can you move the block 3 columns right, 
    rotate it once, then drop it. Fast players can do that in 
    about half a second. Slow players take 1.5 to 3 seconds to 
    do that simple move. When you first start playing, it may 
    take 2 seconds to figure out what to do with a block, so it 
    doesn?t matter if it takes you 2 or 3 seconds to move it. 
    You can do some multi tasking and the entire sequence works 
    well. But as you advance in the game, you must be able to 
    move blocks faster so you can devote more brainpower to 
    figuring out what to do with the blocks.
    
    
    3.	Blocks and Sequences
    
    3.1.	Squares, Blocks, Deletes, and Combos
    
    Squares are the fundamental pieces of Lumines. Four squares 
    create a block. You drop blocks to create deletes. A single 
    delete is always a 2x2 collection of same color squares. 
    Combos happen when you get more than 1 delete. The most 
    efficient way to get combos is to pile many squares of the 
    same color onto each other. There will be more on deletes 
    and combos later in this guide.
    
    3.2.	Block Types
    
    For the purposes of this guide, I?ve chosen to use a numeric 
    nomenclature for blocks. Whenever you see a code like [1], 
    that means that 1 of the squares is dark. A [2x] means that 
    2 are dark, and they are the checkerboard type (AKA Deuce) 
    block. Note that there are only 6 types of blocks, but for 
    some the orientation is significant. So there are 16 
    possible configurations. I label the possible orientations 
    ABCD. Throughout this GUIDE, you will see codes like [3]A or 
    simply 3A which means 3 dark blocks, and the one light block 
    is at the top left. Keep this table handy for reference.
    
                   Orientation
    Block code   A   B   C   D
    
    Blank [0]:   OO
                 OO
    
    One [1]:     XO  OX  OO  OO
                 OO  OO  OX  XO
    
    Two [2]:     XX  OX  OO  XO
                 OO  OX  XX  XO
    
    Deuce [2x]:  XO  OX
                 OX  XO
    
    Three [3]:   OX  XO  XX  XX
                 XX  XX  XO  OX
    
    
    Four [4]:    XX
                 XX
    
    
    3.3.	Block Frequencies
    
    We need to get something straight here. Lumines is a game of 
    random probabilities. That is part of the elegance of the 
    game. When generating blocks, the program randomly chooses 
    the color of each square. There is a 50% chance of getting 
    either light or dark for each square. Squares are put 
    together in groups of 4. The order is significant, thus the 
    probability of getting any one pattern is 2^4 (i.e. 2*2*2*2) 
    or 16 possible combinations. The probability of getting any 
    one of the combinations is 1/16 or 6.25%. The part that 
    confuses most people is that there are several different 
    orientations for some of the blocks.
    
    Block   My Code  Orientations     Total Probability
     Blank    [0]         1                 6.25%
     One      [1]         4                25.00%
     Two      [2]         4                25.00%
     Deuce    [2x]        2                12.50%
     Three    [3]         4                25.00%
     Four     [4]         1                 6.25%
     TOTAL               16               100%
    
    3.4.	Destroyers
    
    Destroyers come along about once every 64 or 128 blocks. 
    That means the probability that any given square is a 
    destroyer is 1 of every 2^8 or 2^9 squares. Yes indeed, they 
    are very rare.
    
    Note: I would be grateful if anyone can provide statistics 
    on actual destroyer frequency. I?ve seen some posts, but 
    there is precious little data.
    
    3.5.	Sequence Probabilities
    
    This section is of limited use, but I thought it would be 
    useful to get a sense of the top sequences. Note: These 
    sequences ignore orientation because initial orientation is 
    not relevant to how the block is finally placed on the 
    field. 
    
    3.5.1.	Two Block Frequencies
    
    As expected, the most frequent blocks dominate the most 
    frequent sequences. Blocks 1,2, and 3 show up together 
    nearly 56.25% of the 2 block sequences. 
    
    Probability   1st   2nd
    6.25%          1     1
    6.25%          1     2
    6.25%          1     3
    6.25%          2     1
    6.25%          2     2
    6.25%          2     3
    6.25%          3     1
    6.25%          3     2
    6.25%          3     3
    3.13%          1     2x
    3.13%          2     2x
    3.13%          2x    1
    3.13%          2x    2
    3.13%          2x    3
    3.13%          3     2x
    1.56%          0     1
    1.56%          0     2
    1.56%          0     3
    1.56%          1     0
    1.56%          1     4
    1.56%          2     0
    1.56%          2     4
    1.56%          2x    2x
    1.56%          3     0
    1.56%          3     4
    1.56%          4     1
    1.56%          4     2
    1.56%          4     3
    0.78%          0     2x
    0.78%          2x    0
    0.78%          2x    4
    0.78%          4     2x
    0.39%          0     0
    0.39%          0     4
    0.39%          4     0
    0.39%          4     4
    
    
    3.5.2.	Three Block Frequencies
    
    This is just the top frequencies that you will see more than 
    1% of the time. The complete table is at the end of this 
    guide. Note that again, these sequences are dominated by the 
    most frequent blocks. Blocks 1,2, and 3 show up together 
    nearly 42.19% of the 3 block sequences.
    
    Probability   1st   2nd   3rd
    1.56%          1     1     1
    1.56%          1     1     2
    1.56%          1     1     3
    1.56%          1     2     1
    1.56%          1     2     2
    1.56%          1     2     3
    1.56%          1     3     1
    1.56%          1     3     2
    1.56%          1     3     3
    1.56%          2     1     1
    1.56%          2     1     2
    1.56%          2     1     3
    1.56%          2     2     1
    1.56%          2     2     2
    1.56%          2     2     3
    1.56%          2     3     1
    1.56%          2     3     2
    1.56%          2     3     3
    1.56%          3     1     1
    1.56%          3     1     2
    1.56%          3     1     3
    1.56%          3     2     1
    1.56%          3     2     2
    1.56%          3     2     3
    1.56%          3     3     1
    1.56%          3     3     2
    1.56%          3     3     3
    
    
    4.	Rotating Blocks
    
    There are two strategies when it comes to rotating blocks: 
    Single direction or dual direction.
    4.1.	Single Direction Strategy
    
    The single direction strategy is easier to learn, you rotate 
    blocks either clockwise or counterclockwise. The primary 
    benefit is that once you?ve decided what orientation you 
    want, you don?t have to think about which direction to 
    rotate. You just hit your favorite rotate button 0, 1, 2, or 
    3 times.
    
    4.2.	Dual Direction Strategy
    
    The dual direction strategy is slightly harder to pick up, 
    because you have to learn which way the block rotates when 
    you press the different buttons. However, once you master 
    this technique you can rotate blocks with fewer button 
    strokes. Let?s look at some numbers...
    
    4.3.	Rotation Statistics
    
    Given the random nature of Lumines, let?s look at each type 
    of block and each type of orientation to see which rotation 
    strategy is best. To read the following tables, consider any 
    block can be presented randomly in any given orientation. 
    That is that the Drop orientation can be A, B, C, or D. You 
    may need to rotate it to another orientation. Overall the 
    Drop and Need orientations should be uniform. That means 
    that 25% of the time it drops in orientation A. Given that 
    drop, 25% of the time you need orientation A so you don?t 
    need to rotate it. 25% of the time you need orientation B so 
    you have to rotate it once. 25% of the time you need 
    orientation C so you have to rotate it twice. The main 
    difference between the Single and Dual strategy is that in 
    single, you periodically have to rotate 3 times, while in 
    the dual, you simply rotate backwards 1 time.
    
    
    Single Strategy Rotation Table for type 1,2,3
              Need     
         Drop  A     B     C     D
         A     0     1     2     3
         B     3     0     1     2
         C     2     3     0     1
         D     1     2     3     0
         Average = 1.5 Rotati0ns per Drop
    
    
    
    Dual Strategy Rotation Table for type 1,2,3
              Need     
         Drop  A     B     C     D
         A     0     1     2     1
         B     1     0     1     2
         C     2     1     0     1
         D     1     2     1     0
         Average = 1.0 Rotati0ns per Drop
    
    
    Single and Dual Rotation Table for Type 2x
               A     B
         A     0     1
         B     1     0
    
    
    Now that we have tables for the different types of blocks, 
    lets put them together and use the drop probabilities to 
    figure out how many rotations you need for each strategy.
    
    
    Summary Table for Rotation Strategies
         Block       Prob     Single       Dual
         0           6.25%     0.0          0.0
         1          25.00%     1.5          1.0
         2          25.00%     1.5          1.0
         2x         12.50%     0.5          0.5
         3          25.00%     1.5          1.0
         4           6.25%     0.0          0.0
         Total                 1.2          0.8
    
    So this data shows that folks who use the single direction 
    strategy will press the rotate button 50% more than those 
    that use the dual direction strategy. This may be a limiting 
    factor when you advance very far in the game.
    
    
    5.	Delete Strategies
    
    5.1.	A word on scoring
    
    There are basically two scoring levels. You get 40 points 
    per delete. However, if you get 4 or more deletes when the 
    timeline passes, you get a 4x combo bonus. This is great for 
    your score, and it actually gives us a way to measure how 
    good you are at using combos as you will see in Know your 
    Skills.
    
     N     Points     Points/Delete
     1      40           40
     2      80           40
     3     120           40
     4     640          160 ? 4X Bonus begins
     5     800          160
     6     960          160
    And so on... all combo?s after 3 deletes are worth 160 
    points per delete. So when it comes to maximizing your 
    score, make sure you get 4 deletes each time the timeline 
    passes. This will come naturally as you play faster.
    
    5.2.	Basic Deletes
    
    The first think you need to realize about deletes is that 
    they are not always 4 squares. The first delete is always 
    made by 4 squares of the same color. After that, you only 
    need 2 squares to make the second delete. Sometimes you can 
    make a delete with only one more square. (This topic is 
    covered in detail in the Delete Theory section of this 
    guide.)
    
    
    One delete
    
         4 squares
    
                   
           XX              
           XX              
    
    
    Two delete combo
         6 squares
                        
           XXX            
           XXX            
    
    Three delete combo                    
    
         8 squares
                        
           XXXX            
           XXXX            
                        
           XX
           XXX            
           XXX            
    
    Four delete combo
    
         9 squares
                        
           XXX            
           XXX            
           XXX            
                        
         10 squares
    
           XXXXX          
           XXXXX          
    
           XX
           XXXX          
           XXXX          
    
    
    
    5.3.	Infinite Tower
    
    As I understand it, Stan64 was the first to formally 
    articulate this strategy in Lumines forums. This is a 
    fundamental skill which helps buy you time to think, and can 
    help you get through some very tough spots in the game. I 
    believe that most people develop this strategy on their own, 
    though they may not recognize it as thoroughly as Stan64 
    did.
    
    The Infinite Tower combo always starts with a single X or O 
    square. The square can be sitting on the base, or it can be 
    on other squares. You can find this pattern just about 
    anywhere. Sometimes you will get a delete with a tower drop, 
    sometimes you will just build up the tower. Using this 
    strategy you will very rarely get more than 2 or 3 deletes 
    when the timeline passes.
    
    
    
    Tower base examples
    
                 X         X          O
      _X_       XO         XX        XX
    
    
    Blocks 0 or 4 ? Be sure to put these off to the side
    
    
                        
                OO            
                OO    -->   
                                OO
           X                X   OO
                        
                        
    Blocks 1 or 3
                        
                              
                OO   -->      
                OX        O     
                          OO
                X         XX           
                        
                        
    Block 2 ? Be sure to put these off to the side
                        
                XX       
                OO   -->       
                                  XX
            X              X      OO
                        
                        
    
    Block 2x
            
                
           XO      
           OX   -->  X    
                     OO
           X         XX     
                        
                        
                        
    5.4.	Layers
    
    Layering is what I call laying down rows of 2 colors side by 
    side. You can sometimes get a long row of the same color. Or 
    you can end up with a stack of alternating colors. Either 
    way, these layers are fairly easy to set up and to delete. 
    You will get a 0, 2, or 4 about 37% of the time, so one in 3 
    blocks should be a perfect match for one of these setups. 
    You can also use a 1 or 3 block, but it will mess up your 
    layer.
    
    
     OO
     XX             OO           XO
                    OO           OO
    OXXO
    OOOO            OOOO         OOOO
    
    
    
    Another way to use 1 or 3 blocks is by building a ?house? 
    around an existing layer. The example below will clear all 
    the blocks with two timeline passes.
    
    
    OOOO
    OXXO
    
     XX
     OO
    
    
    
    
    
    5.5.	Slice
    
    I call this a slice when you build vertical columns of 
    similar colors. You slice off part of a block to get a 
    delete. The block below will cause the two O columns on the 
    left to delete.
    
    
         OX  
         OX  
    
     OXXO
     OOOO
    
    
    
    
    5.6.	Double Slice
    
    A double slice will make two deletes over the course of two 
    timeline passes. In this example, the two O columns will 
    delete, and then the X column will drop and cause another 
    delete with the next timeline pass.
    
    OX  
    OX  
    
     OXXO
     OXOO
    
    
    
    
    5.7.	Power Slice
    
    A power slice causes two or more deletes when it drops. 
    Usually you get these deletes by staggering columns of 
    blocks.
    
    
    OX  
    OX
    
      X
      X 
     OXXO
     OOOO
    
    
    
    
    5.8.	Advanced slice and dice
    
    As you get better with slicing, you can build higher 
    columns. If you are fast enough, you might be able to drop 2 
    or 3 blocks into one of these structures and get quite a few 
    deletes. Sometimes folks will call these J, U, or L 
    structures because they look like letters J, U, and L. These 
    structures can have a one or two square opening in the 
    middle. The advantage of one square opening is that you get 
    an extra deletes with the drops. The next section has 
    details on how to maximize deletes with each type of block.
    
       O     O O    O
       O     O O    O
     O O     O O    O
     OOO     OOO    OOO
    
    
    Variations on JUL
    
    
    X  O     O X    O  X
    X  O     O X    O  X
    XO O     O X    O  X
    XOOO     OOO    OOOX
    
    
    
    5.9.	Maximizing Deletes
    
    I?ve spent quite a bit of time trying to figure out how to 
    get the most number of deletes from a single drop. There are 
    two issues here: 1. Maximizing delete with this drop, and 2. 
    Setting up to maximize deletes with another drop. For now, 
    lets focus on how to maximize the number of points you get 
    with each type of block. As you develop your skills, you 
    will naturally setup these types of patterns.
    
    5.9.1.	Blanks (0 or 4)
    
    6 deletes from a blank or four block.
    
     OO
     OO
    
    O  O     OOOO
    O  O --> OOOO
    OOOO     OOOO
    
    
    
    
    5.9.2.	Ones and Threes (1 or 3)
    
    4 deletes from a One or Three block
    
    XO
    OO
            X 
      O     OOO
    O O --> OOO
    OOO     OOO
    
    
    
    5.9.3.	Twos (2)
    
    5 deletes from a Two block (Note: A = any block that does 
    not complete a delete.)
    
     XO
     XO
    
    X        XX 
    X    --> XX 
    XO O     XOOO
    AO O     AOOO
    AOOO     AOOO
    
    
    3 deletes from a Two block
    
    
     XX
     OO
              XX
    O  O --> OOOO
    OOOO     OOOO
    
    
    Or even 4 deletes from a Two block
    
    
    
     OX
     OX
         
    O  X     OOXX
    O  X --> OOXX
    OOXX     OOXX
    
    
    5.9.4.	Deuces (2x)
    
    
    3 deletes from a Deuce block
    
    
     OX
     XO
              O 
    X        XX 
    XX   --> XXX
    AO O     AOOO
    AOOO     AOOO
    
    
    
    5.10.	Managing Leftovers
    
    
    
    5.10.1.	Cleaning up a mess
    
    [Eventually I plan to add some details on how to clean up a 
    mess. But first I have to learn how to do it myself. :) ]
    
    5.10.2.	Setting up for slicing
    
    
    The simple rule for slicing is that you need vertical 
    columns of similar colors. This is exactly the opposite of 
    the infinite tower strategy. You start off with a similar 
    base, and you simply want to make it taller. Try to have 
    open space next to your column.
    
    
    Slice base examples
    
                 X         X          O
      _X_       XO         XX        XX
    
    
    Blocks 0 or 4 ? Be sure to put these off to the side
    
    
                        
           OO            
           OO        -->    O
                            OO
           X                XO
                        
                        
    Blocks 1 or 3
                        
                              
               OO    -->      
               OX          O   
                          OX
                X         OX           
                        
                        
    Block 2 ? Be sure to put these off to the side
                        
            XO           
            XO       -->   X   
                           XO
            X              XO
                        
                        
    
    Block 2x
            
                
          XO      
          OX   -->   O   
                    XX
           X        OX     
                        
                        
          
    
    
    
    6.	Delete Theory
    
    So what the heck is he talking about delete theory? What 
    theory could there be? Its just a game. Well if you are 
    interested, here are some interesting observations.
    
    
    
    
    6.1.	How many Squares does it take to make a 
    Delete?
    
    
    No, this is not the start of a joke. This is a serious 
    question. You?ve probably noticed by now that you can get a 
    delete with fewer than 4 blocks. But how many squares does 
    it really take?
    
    Lets start with some basic deletes. In the diagrams below, 
    there are three columns, the number of deletes from the 
    pattern, the number of squares in the pattern, and a diagram 
    showing the pattern. The numbers in the pattern refer to the 
    delete in the pattern. For instance a 3 represents the third 
    delete in the pattern.
    
    Del Sq Pattern               
    1   4  11              
           11              
                        
                        
    2   6  112            
           112            
                        
                        
    3   8  1123            
           1123            
                        
        8  33
           112            
           112            
    
                        
    4   9  334            
           112            
           112            
                        
       10  11234          
           11234          
    
       10  44
           1123          
           1123          
    
    
    6.2.	Rectangular Deletes
    
    
    We can easily develop a grid for calculating the number of 
    deletes from a rectangular pattern of the same color 
    squares. A 2x2 square gives 1 delete. A 4x4 square gives 9 
    deletes. A 4x5 rectangle gives 12 deletes.
    
    
                                  Width          
                         1     2     3      4      5
                   1     0     0     0      0      0
         Height    2     0     1     2      3      4
                   3     0     2     4      6      8
                   4     0     3     6      9     12
                   5     0     4     8     12     16
    
    
    It turns out that the formula for the number of deletes for 
    a rectangle is (h-1)*(w-1).
    
    
    6.3.	Max and Min Squares per Delete
    
    
    I combined the numbers from the previous two sections and 
    came up with a regression equation for the min number of 
    squares per delete. The equation for minimum number of 
    squares per delete is
    
    MinSq = 2.1 + 1.9 * Number of Deletes (Combos <10 deletes)
    
    
    The equation for maximum number of squares per delete is 
    very easy. It is one block per delete,
    
    MaxSq = 4 * Number of Deletes
    
    
    
    So the average number of squares per delete falls somewhere 
    between those two numbers.
    
    
    Actually, at the extreme, you only need 1.14 squares to get 
    more deletes. But this is really only valid for single 
    combos above 20 deletes so it really is not useful.
    MinSq = 7.8 + 1.14 * Number of Deletes (Combos >20 deletes)
    
    
    
    
    7.	Game Speed
    
    Game speed governs how far you can get. 
    
    7.1.	Game Speed
    
    
    I?ve collected some data on the speed of the timeline and 
    the speed of drops. The timeline speed is the amount of time 
    it takes for the timeline to cross the screen. The Drop 
    Speed is the time it takes a block to fall if you don?t 
    speed it up. Notice that the timeline speed is all over the 
    mpa throughout the game, while the drop speed decreases as 
    you advance. The one exception is that blessed oasis Holiday 
    in Summer where we get a brief respite before the maddening 
    pace resumes.
    
    
    
    Skin     Skin          Timeline  Drop Speed   Level
    1     Shinin'              3.0      6.7         0
    2     Urbanization         4.0      6.5         4
    3     Round About          3.7      7.2         8
    4     Slipping             4.0      6.4        12
    5     Shake ya Body        4.0      6.3        16
    6     Square Dance         4.0      5.0        20
    7     Talk 2 You           4.0      4.0        24
    8     Just...              3.5      3.0        28
    9     I Hear the music...  7.0      4.1        32
    10     Dark Side...        4.5      3.0        36
    11     Aback               4.5      3.1        40
    12     Working in the Hole 3.5      3.0        44
    13     Sister Walk         4.5      3.0        48
    14     Da-Di-Do            3.5      2.5        52
    15     Strangers           3.0      2.5        56
    16     Holiday in Summer   6.7      6.0        60
    17     Take a Dog out...   6.0      5.0        65
    18     Big Elpaso          7.0      4.5        70
    19     My Generation       3.5      3.8        75
    20     Meguro              6.0      2.7        80
    21     Spirits             4.0      2.2        85
    22     Get Up and Go       4.0      1.2        90
    23     Fly into the sky    4.0                 95
    24     Lights                                 100
    25     Water, Flower & Lights          
    
    
    The important lesson here is that your ability to progress 
    in the game depends on your speed relative to the native 
    Drop speed. If you need 4 seconds per drop, you will very 
    rarely make it past the 8th skin. (And many intermediate 
    players can attest just how frustrating that Just... level 
    really is.) If you need only 3 seconds, you can barely make 
    it to the 13th skin as you watch the screen fill up with 
    your mistakes.
    
    
    7.2.	Max Drop Rate
    
    
    Your maximum drop rate may vary, but I?ve measured it to be 
    about 0.4 seconds. That means that at best you can drop 2.5 
    blocks per second, or 25 blocks in 10 seconds. This has real 
    implications on how many deletes you can get in the game. 
    For instance, if the timeline speed is 4 seconds, you can 
    drop up to 10 blocks or 40 squares. Based on the previously 
    described delete theory, the best players use about 2.5 
    squares per delete. That means that the best players can get 
    up to 16 deletes in real-game situations. (Remember that you 
    can get many deletes in the aftermath of a destroyer combo. 
    This discussion is about typical game play, not those 
    situations.)
    
    
    
    
    8.	Know your Skills
    
    This section tells you how to measure some basic performance 
    statistics, and gives some exercises to help improve your 
    performance.
    
    8.1.	Performance Statistics
    
    The following statistics measure how well you play the game. 
    The purpose of these metrics is to give us a method of 
    measuring our improvement. Just like golf, or baseball, 
    these statistics can also tell us how we compare with our 
    past performance as well as comparing ourselves with others.
    
    The first four can be calculated from data displayed during 
    most challenge mode levels. To measure your performance, 
    simply pause the game after you have been playing for a 
    while and write down your numbers. The remaining statistics 
    take some creative measurement.
    
    LPM ? Levels per Minute
    DPM ? Deletes per Minute
    PPD ? Points per Delete
    ACE ? Apparent Combo Efficiency
    DrPM- Drops per Minute
    TDR ? Typical Drop Rate
    MDR ? Maximum Drop Rate
    SAS ? Slide Accuracy Score
    SDS ? Slide Drop Score
    
    
    Formulas
    
    LPM = Level / (Hours * 60 + minutes + seconds/60)
    
    DPM = Deletes / (Hours * 60 + minutes + seconds/60)
    
    PPD = Score / Deletes
    
    ACE = (PPD -40)/120 = (Score / Deletes - 40) / 120 
    
    DrPM = Number of Drops / (Seconds / 60)
    
    DrE = DPM / DrPM
    
    TDR = DRPM in a typical setting
    
    MDR = Your best possible DRPM
    
    SAS = 2 * # perfect drops + 1 * Number off by 1 square
    
    SDS = Start Seconds ? End Seconds
    
    
    8.1.1.	Levels per Minute
    
    LPM = Level / (Hours * 60 + minutes + seconds/60)
    
    Levels Per Minute is a simple statistic that is related to 
    how fast you play. I don?t find this statistic to be very 
    useful. Deletes per Minute is much more useful.
    
    8.1.2.	Deletes per Minute
    
    DPM = Deletes / (Hours * 60 + minutes + seconds/60)
    
    This is an elegant and useful statistic. It is the best 
    measure of how fast you play the game. DPM is an average 
    number of deletes per minute. Many factors influence your 
    DPM. Some of them are how fast you play, speed of the 
    timeline, how good you are at managing leftovers, and how 
    good you are at making large combos.
    
    One quick estimate of your DPM is your max Time Attack 
    score. Your 60 Sec Time Attack score is your max DPM under 
    limited circumstances. You have one skin, and one timeline 
    speed to deal with. The best players can get 120 or even 150 
    deletes per minute in a 60 Sec Time Attack.
    
    There are many ways to improve your DPM. Playing Time Attack 
    games is probably the best way. Also, try some of the games 
    described in this Faq. One non-intuitive way to improve your 
    DPM is to slow down and look for combos. Sometimes we get so 
    caught up in making deletes, that we miss opportunities to 
    get combos that may be worth 2 or 3 deletes instead of just 
    one.
    
    8.1.3.	Points per Delete
    
    PPD = Score / Deletes
    
    Points per Delete is also an elegant metric that tells how 
    well you are using combos. Each delete is worth 40 points. 
    However, when you get 4 or more deletes, you get a 4X bonus 
    so each delete is worth 160 points. Using this knowledge, 
    you can calculate your PPD to see how well you are using 
    combos. If your PPD score is around 40, then you are only 
    getting a few deletes per pass. If your score is near 160 
    you are usually getting 4 or more deletes per pass. This 
    metric is very useful, but it can be hard to interpret. So I 
    came up with the concept of Combo Efficiency or ACE.
    
    8.1.4.	Apparent Combo Efficiency
    
    ACE = (PPD -40)/120 = (Score / Deletes - 40) / 120
    
    Your ACE score should be reported as a percentage. It 
    represents how well you use combo?s during the game. If you 
    have a low ACE score, you rarely get more than 3 deletes 
    with each pass of the timeline. An ACE score of 100% means 
    that you nearly always have 4 or more deletes when the 
    timeline passes. For instance, I currently run around 60% 
    combo efficiency. That means that about 60% of the time I 
    have more than 4 deletes when the timeline passes. 
    
    Of course, this number is affected by points from fast 
    drops, single color bonuses, and all clear bonuses. So it is 
    possible to get more than 100% combo efficiency. That is why 
    I call it an _apparent_ combo efficiency, not the actual 
    combo efficiency. For the same reason, it is not really 
    possible to get 0% ACE.
    
    You can measure your ACE score at any point during a game. 
    Simply pause and record the Score and the number of deletes 
    at that moment. The ACE score should be averaged over 
    several games. Generally it is best to calculate the score 
    later in a game because it will cover a broader range of 
    play conditions (i.e. many skins).
    
    The ACE metric is valid for scores between 1,000 and 
    999,998. Once you reach 999,999 your ACE quickly becomes 
    meaningless. It is best to use DPM after you max out the 
    score.
    
    
    8.1.5.	Drop Rate
    
    DrPM = Number of Drops / (Seconds / 60)
    
    Drop Rate is an interesting metric related to your DPM rate 
    but entirely different. Drop rate is the number of drops per 
    minute while DPM is the number of deletes per minute. If all 
    your deletes are 4 squares, then the two numbers will be 
    equal. But you probably noticed that sometimes a delete is 3 
    or 2 or even 1 square. So your DrPM is usually less than 
    your DPM score. There are many different ways to measure 
    this rate. On each level, blocks drop at two different 
    rates. One is the ?native? rate, the other is the ?drop? 
    rate. I think the ?drop? rate is constant throughout all 
    levels. The ?native? rate changes from level-to-level. 
    Finally, there is a personal drop rate which is the number 
    of blocks you can drop in a minute at your normal play 
    speed. The three metrics are important because they really 
    govern how far you can get in the game.
    
    To progress in the game, your DrPM must be higher than the 
    Native Rate for the skin. For example, if your average drop 
    rate is 50 blocks per minute, but you come to a skin where 
    the native drop rate is 60 blocks per minute, you will soon 
    find the screen filled with random blocks. You will do fine 
    on skins where the native rate is say 30 or even 40 blocks 
    per minute. (Stats on the native drop rate are covered in 
    detail in section 7.1 Game Speed.)
    
    As a general rule, if you can pass a level easily then
    
      Native Rate < DrPM < DPM < Max Drop Rate
    
    That is, for you to pass a level, your Drop Rate is higher 
    than the native drop rate. Therefore you can get combos and 
    your DPM is even higher than your DrPM. For the most 
    advanced players, I believe it is possible for the DPM to be 
    greater than the Max Drop Rate. But this is only true 
    because of something I call Drop Efficiency (DrE).
    
    
    
    
    I find that the best way to measure your drop rate is the 60 
    sec Time Attack mode. Simply count the number of drops you 
    make in a fake game. There are two ways to do it. 
    
    Typical Drop Rate (TDR)
    This is best to do with a friend, or video camera. Play a 
    normal 60 sec Time Attack game. Your friend must keep track 
    of how many blocks you drop during the game. Or check your 
    video to count them.
    
    
    Max Drop Rate (MDR)
    Don?t worry too much about deletes or combos. Simply focus 
    on counting the drops. You should spread the blocks around a 
    little bit like your normal game. This will give you a 
    higher number, but it is a good measure of your current 
    reflexes. I?ve found this is the easiest 
    
    
    9.	Improve Your Skills
    
    9.1.1.	Drop Efficiency
    
    DrE = DPM / DrPM
    
    Drop Efficiency is an interesting metric which tells you the 
    average number of deletes you get from a single drop. Now 
    you might think if you keep the screen mostly clean your 
    drop rate would be the same as your delete rate. That is,
    
    Typical Assumption:  DrPM = DPM
    
    But the fact of the matter is that deletes can be 1, 2, 3, 
    or 4 squares. Drops are always 4 squares. SO we have to 
    introduce an efficiency. Think about it this way, when you 
    play, the number of squares on the board stays nearly 
    constant. That is you may have 40 squares on the board. 
    During a minute you may drop 20 blocks (20 blocks * 4 
    squares/block = 80 squares) During the same minute, you may 
    get 40 deletes. When all is done, you may be left with 20 
    squares.
    
    
    DPM = DrE * DrPM
    
    
    9.1.2.	Speed Slide Accuracy
    
    When you slide blocks, you have probably noticed that they 
    slide faster if you pause half a second. For a long time, I 
    simply pressed left or right many times to line up the 
    block. 
    
    This game is fun, and a little tricky. You get to practice 
    sliding to a specific point in the field. The play field is 
    16 squares wide by 10 squares high. I?ll say there are 16 
    columns and 10 rows. Counting from the left, blocks are 
    automatically centered over column 8 and 9. For this game, 
    you practice trying to slide blocks to column 2 and then 
    dropping them. Then slide to column 14 and dropping them.
    
    The Game:
    
    Alternate dropping blocks over columns 2,3 and 14,15.
    1. Slide a block to columns 2 and 3 as fast as you can and 
    drop as fast as you can. 
    2. Slide a block to columns 14 and 15 as fast as you can and 
    drop as fast as you can.
    3. Repeat 1 and 2 until you have dropped 8 blocks (4 blocks 
    on each column)
    4. Pause. You get two statistics from this exercise.
       SAS ? Slide Accuracy Score
       SDS ? Slide Drop Score
    
    
    Scoring:
    
    SAS ? Slide Accuracy Score = # of squares that hit the 
    correct column
    
    SDS ? Slide Drop Score = Time required to stack 4 blocks 
    over columns 2 and 3
    
    SAS is a score between 0 and 32 which indicates your 
    accuracy when doing a slide-drop. Simply count the number of 
    squares that land on target (column 2,3 or columns 14,15). 
    If the block is on the right columns you get 4 points 
    because all for squares are on the columns. If you are off 
    by 1 column, you get 2 points because two squares are on the 
    right column, and two squares are not. Otherwise you get 0 
    points. When you first start playing, you may have to pause 
    part way through the game if you get any deletes. After you 
    play a few times, your accuracy improves and you don?t have 
    to worry so much about deletes.
    
    
    SDS is a score in seconds which tells how long it takes you 
    to slide and drop 8 blocks. (i.e. 10 sec) You can turn this 
    into a Drop per Minute score with this formula
    
    DrPM = 60 * Drops / SDS = 240 / SDS
    
    Do not confuse this with DPM (Deletes per Minute). DrPM 
    (Drops per minute) is related to DPM, but they are 
    different.
    
    
    Advanced Game:
    
    You can play this game with any column. I generally double 
    up the game during a single Time Attack game. For example: 
    Hit 2,3 and 14,15 then hit 5,6 and 11,12, stop and count. 
    Sometimes I miss a lot and have to stop early. Also, 
    sometimes I get deletes. This is not a problem, but I 
    usually pause and record which column the deletes happen in. 
    
    At first, this game seems impossibly hard. You will probably 
    start with your normal left-left-left-left-left-left-drop 
    sequence. After a while it becomes more intuitive and you 
    can do left-hold-drop. You will be amazed at how much faster 
    you get after just a few dozen games.
    
    
    9.2.	Upcoming drops
    
    Basically, you are trying to improve your awareness of 
    upcoming blocks. You can play this game without touching the 
    controls, but it is best to hold your PSP as you would 
    during a normal game. Look at the center of the screen and 
    use your peripheral vision to see which blocks are coming 
    next. Do not worry about making deletes at first. Simply pay 
    attention to the upcoming blocks.
    
    I am not really satisfied with my technique for measuring 
    this skill, but here it is. Drop a block in the center and 
    look at it. For the next 4 blocks call out what you think 
    the block is. (Blank, one, two, etc. or 0, 1, 2, etc. 
    whatever you are comfortable with calling the blocks). If 
    you are right, you get a point, if not you get nothing. You 
    will get a score between 0 and 4 which is your Upcoming Drop 
    Proficiency score.
    
    
    9.3.	Planning your next move
    
    This game is the flipside of the previous game. Instead of 
    looking at the field, look only at the blocks. You have to 
    ?know? where the blocks are on the field, and plan where you 
    want the upcoming blocks to fall. Then (and here is the 
    tricky part) slide and drop them WITHOUT LOOKING. This is a 
    much more advanced skill than the Upcoming Drops skill. It 
    also requires that you are pretty good with your Speed Slide 
    accuracy. So you may want to wait a while before trying this 
    exercise.
    
    
    9.4.	Play Faster
    
    This has been a recurring theme of this guide: Practice. The 
    only way to play faster is to practice until all the 
    
    Game speed is governed by five activities. You go through 
    this entire list each time you drop a block. The order of 
    the last three may be a little different, but all these 
    activities happen.
    
    1. Recognize the block
    2. Decide what to do with it
    3. Slide the block
    4. Rotate the block
    5. Drop the block
    
    Hopefully you recognize that each of these activities has 
    been covered in great detail earlier in this guide. This is 
    the final stop where we bring it all together. These five 
    activities work together to determine your DPM rate. 
    
    I break these activities down into two categories: 
    Predictive and Reactive. Predictive activities are Recognize 
    and Decide. The process is mostly mental where you figure 
    out what you will do with the block. The Reactive activities 
    are slide, rotate, and drop the block. They are primarily 
    physical, and the speed is based on your reflexes. Rotation 
    strategy can play a role, but your speed here still boils 
    down to reflexes.
    
    
    
    10.	Know your habits
    
    10.1.	Identify your habits
    
    OK, this section may be hard for some to take. I know it was 
    tough for me to recognize at first. Lets start with the 
    basics: You have habits which limit your ability to get 
    large combos.
    
    Yes you. The shining star Lumines player, you too have 
    habits that limit you. I found that most of my habits caused 
    me to get many single deletes and miss out on combos. For 
    instance, if I got a 1 or 3, I would look for a lone block 
    to make a delete. This kept me from stacking up the blocks 
    next to the lone block in a U or J shape. Eventually I 
    learned how to make those structures, and they became a 
    habit.
    
    
    10.2.	Break your habits
    
    The best way to break your habits is to first recognize 
    them, and then to deliberately NOT follow them when they 
    come up. For instance, I typically use an infinite combo to 
    deal with a [3] block when I see one. I?ve gotten into the 
    habit of forming vertical columns of light and dark blocks. 
    So when I get a [3] or [1], I look for a column and either 
    drop it 2 columns away to setup the next slice, or I slice 
    it through the column to get the 2X delete.
    
    
    10.3.	For Lumines Sake ? Know your habits
    
    The best way to learn about your habits is to record 
    yourself and watch the video. Pause it after each drop and 
    try to think of other ways you could have dropped the block. 
    Do you find yourself following a pattern? Is it a good 
    pattern? Do you want to change something?
    
    
    10.3.1.	Practice patterns
    
    One good thing to do is forcibly practice some of the 
    patterns. Practice building L and U columns.
    
    
    10.3.2.	Practice again
    
    10.3.3.	Practice skills
    
    
    11.	Credits
    
    In building this guide I sought guidance from many people. 
    Most of the people were forum members at gamefaqs.com. I 
    have already mentioned the wonderful Lumines FAQs on the 
    site.
    
    Thanks to          For contributing
     Stan64             Infinite Tower strategy
     itsmeoreo          Data to help develop the metrics
     Lord Grahf         Data to help develop the metrics
     MaSTeR C 3223      Data to help develop the metrics
     Tighting           Previous work on Bar speeds
    
    
    12.	Copyright
    
    This guide is completely my work. Do not copy it without my 
    permission. If you want to use any portion of this guide, 
    send email to faq @ rovingbar . com. I will probably give 
    you permission. If you don?t hear from me it is because the 
    spammers found me before you did. Try posting to the Lumines 
    board at gamefaqs.com if you can?t get me through email.
    
    Copyright 2005 by Jeff Hebert
    
    13.	Version History
    
    9/1/05   Rev 0.0  Began working on the guide
    12/2/05  Rev 1.0  Completed enough to publish first draft
    
    14.	Appendix
    
    14.1.	Table of 3 block sequences
    
    Prob     1st   2nd   3rd
    1.56%     1     1     1
    1.56%     1     1     2
    1.56%     1     1     3
    1.56%     1     2     1
    1.56%     1     2     2
    1.56%     1     2     3
    1.56%     1     3     1
    1.56%     1     3     2
    1.56%     1     3     3
    1.56%     2     1     1
    1.56%     2     1     2
    1.56%     2     1     3
    1.56%     2     2     1
    1.56%     2     2     2
    1.56%     2     2     3
    1.56%     2     3     1
    1.56%     2     3     2
    1.56%     2     3     3
    1.56%     3     1     1
    1.56%     3     1     2
    1.56%     3     1     3
    1.56%     3     2     1
    1.56%     3     2     2
    1.56%     3     2     3
    1.56%     3     3     1
    1.56%     3     3     2
    1.56%     3     3     3
    0.78%     1     1     2x
    0.78%     1     2     2x
    0.78%     1     2x    1
    0.78%     1     2x    2
    0.78%     1     2x    3
    0.78%     1     3     2x
    0.78%     2     1     2x
    0.78%     2     2     2x
    0.78%     2     2x    1
    0.78%     2     2x    2
    0.78%     2     2x    3
    0.78%     2     3     2x
    0.78%     2x    1     1
    0.78%     2x    1     2
    0.78%     2x    1     3
    0.78%     2x    2     1
    0.78%     2x    2     2
    0.78%     2x    2     3
    0.78%     2x    3     1
    0.78%     2x    3     2
    0.78%     2x    3     3
    0.78%     3     1     2x
    0.78%     3     2     2x
    0.78%     3     2x    1
    0.78%     3     2x    2
    0.78%     3     2x    3
    0.78%     3     3     2x
    0.39%     0     1     1
    0.39%     0     1     2
    0.39%     0     1     3
    0.39%     0     2     1
    0.39%     0     2     2
    0.39%     0     2     3
    0.39%     0     3     1
    0.39%     0     3     2
    0.39%     0     3     3
    0.39%     1     0     1
    0.39%     1     0     2
    0.39%     1     0     3
    0.39%     1     1     0
    0.39%     1     1     4
    0.39%     1     2     0
    0.39%     1     2     4
    0.39%     1     2x    2x
    0.39%     1     3     0
    0.39%     1     3     4
    0.39%     1     4     1
    0.39%     1     4     2
    0.39%     1     4     3
    0.39%     2     0     1
    0.39%     2     0     2
    0.39%     2     0     3
    0.39%     2     1     0
    0.39%     2     1     4
    0.39%     2     2     0
    0.39%     2     2     4
    0.39%     2     2x    2x
    0.39%     2     3     0
    0.39%     2     3     4
    0.39%     2     4     1
    0.39%     2     4     2
    0.39%     2     4     3
    0.39%     2x    1     2x
    0.39%     2x    2     2x
    0.39%     2x    2x    1
    0.39%     2x    2x    2
    0.39%     2x    2x    3
    0.39%     2x    3     2x
    0.39%     3     0     1
    0.39%     3     0     2
    0.39%     3     0     3
    0.39%     3     1     0
    0.39%     3     1     4
    0.39%     3     2     0
    0.39%     3     2     4
    0.39%     3     2x    2x
    0.39%     3     3     0
    0.39%     3     3     4
    0.39%     3     4     1
    0.39%     3     4     2
    0.39%     3     4     3
    0.39%     4     1     1
    0.39%     4     1     2
    0.39%     4     1     3
    0.39%     4     2     1
    0.39%     4     2     2
    0.39%     4     2     3
    0.39%     4     3     1
    0.39%     4     3     2
    0.39%     4     3     3
    0.20%     0     1     2x
    0.20%     0     2     2x
    0.20%     0     2x    1
    0.20%     0     2x    2
    0.20%     0     2x    3
    0.20%     0     3     2x
    0.20%     1     0     2x
    0.20%     1     2x    0
    0.20%     1     2x    4
    0.20%     1     4     2x
    0.20%     2     0     2x
    0.20%     2     2x    0
    0.20%     2     2x    4
    0.20%     2     4     2x
    0.20%     2x    0     1
    0.20%     2x    0     2
    0.20%     2x    0     3
    0.20%     2x    1     0
    0.20%     2x    1     4
    0.20%     2x    2     0
    0.20%     2x    2     4
    0.20%     2x    2x    2x
    0.20%     2x    3     0
    0.20%     2x    3     4
    0.20%     2x    4     1
    0.20%     2x    4     2
    0.20%     2x    4     3
    0.20%     3     0     2x
    0.20%     3     2x    0
    0.20%     3     2x    4
    0.20%     3     4     2x
    0.20%     4     1     2x
    0.20%     4     2     2x
    0.20%     4     2x    1
    0.20%     4     2x    2
    0.20%     4     2x    3
    0.20%     4     3     2x
    0.10%     0     0     1
    0.10%     0     0     2
    0.10%     0     0     3
    0.10%     0     1     0
    0.10%     0     1     4
    0.10%     0     2     0
    0.10%     0     2     4
    0.10%     0     2x    2x
    0.10%     0     3     0
    0.10%     0     3     4
    0.10%     0     4     1
    0.10%     0     4     2
    0.10%     0     4     3
    0.10%     1     0     0
    0.10%     1     0     4
    0.10%     1     4     0
    0.10%     1     4     4
    0.10%     2     0     0
    0.10%     2     0     4
    0.10%     2     4     0
    0.10%     2     4     4
    0.10%     2x    0     2x
    0.10%     2x    2x    0
    0.10%     2x    2x    4
    0.10%     2x    4     2x
    0.10%     3     0     0
    0.10%     3     0     4
    0.10%     3     4     0
    0.10%     3     4     4
    0.10%     4     0     1
    0.10%     4     0     2
    0.10%     4     0     3
    0.10%     4     1     0
    0.10%     4     1     4
    0.10%     4     2     0
    0.10%     4     2     4
    0.10%     4     2x    2x
    0.10%     4     3     0
    0.10%     4     3     4
    0.10%     4     4     1
    0.10%     4     4     2
    0.10%     4     4     3
    0.05%     0     0     2x
    0.05%     0     2x    0
    0.05%     0     2x    4
    0.05%     0     4     2x
    0.05%     2x    0     0
    0.05%     2x    0     4
    0.05%     2x    4     0
    0.05%     2x    4     4
    0.05%     4     0     2x
    0.05%     4     2x    0
    0.05%     4     2x    4
    0.05%     4     4     2x
    0.02%     0     0     0
    0.02%     0     0     4
    0.02%     0     4     0
    0.02%     0     4     4
    0.02%     4     0     0
    0.02%     4     0     4
    0.02%     4     4     0
    0.02%     4     4     4
    
    
    14.2.	Table of Typical Deletes
    
    The numbers and letters in the pattern column tell which 
    delete the square belongs to.
    
    Del Sq Pattern               
    1   4  11              
           11              
                        
                        
    2   6  112            
           112            
                        
                        
    3   8  1123            
           1123            
                        
                        
    4   9  334            
           112            
           112            
                        
       10  11234          
           11234          
                        
                        
                        
    5  12  112345          
           112345          
                        
                        
    6  12  3346            
           1125            
           1125            
                        
       14  1123456        
           1123456        
                        
                        
    7  16  11234567        
           11234567        
                        
                        
    8  15  33468          
           11257          
           11257          
                        
       18  112345678      
           112345678      
                        
    9  16  7789            
           3346            
           1125            
           1125            
                        
       20  1123456789      
           1123456789      
                        
                        
    10 18 33468A          
          112579          
          112579          
                        
       22 1123456789A    
          1123456789A    
                        
                        
    11 24 1123456789AB    
          1123456789AB    
                        
                        
    12 21 33468AC        
          112579B        
          112579B        
                        
       20  99ABC          
           33468          
           11257          
           11257          
                        
       26  1123456789ABC  
           1123456789ABC  
                        
                        
                        
                        
    13 28  1123456789ABCD  
           1123456789ABCD  
                        
                        
    14 24  33468ACE        
           112579BD        
           112579BD        
                        
                        
       30  1123456789ABCDE
           1123456789ABCDE
                        
                        
                        
                        
    15 24  99ABCF          
           33468E          
           11257D          
           11257D          
                        
       32  1123456789ABCDEF
           1123456789ABCDEF
                        
                        
                        
    16 27  33468ACEG      
           112579BDF      
           112579BDF      
                        
                        
           GG              
       34  1123456789ABCDEF
           1123456789ABCDEF
                        
                        
    17 29  HH              
           33468ACEG      
           112579BDF      
           112579BDF      
                        
       27  DDEFGH          
           33468AC        
           112579B        
           112579B        
                        
       27  GGH            
           99ABCF          
           33468E          
           11257D          
           11257D          
                        
       36  HH              
           GG              
           1123456789ABCDEF
           1123456789ABCDEF
                        
                        
    18 30  HHI            
           33468ACEG      
           112579BDF      
           112579BDF      
                        
       28  DDEFGHI        
           33468AC        
           112579B        
           112579B        
                        
       28  GGHI            
           99ABCF          
           33468E          
           11257D          
           11257D          
                        
       38  HHI            
           GGI            
           1123456789ABCDEF
           1123456789ABCDEF
                        
                        
    19 31  HHIJ            
           33468ACEG      
           112579BDF      
           112579BDF      
                        
       30  JJ              
           DDEFGHI        
           33468AC        
           112579B        
           112579B        
                        
       29  GGHIJ          
           99ABCF          
           33468E          
           11257D          
           11257D          
                        
       40  HHIJ            
           GGIJ            
           1123456789ABCDEF
           1123456789ABCDEF
                        
                        
    20 32  HHIJK          
           33468ACEG      
           112579BDF      
           112579BDF      
                        
       31  JJK            
           DDEFGHI        
           33468AC        
           112579B        
           112579B        
                        
       30  GGHIJK          
           99ABCF          
           33468E          
           11257D          
           11257D          
                        
       42  HHIJK          
           GGIJK          
           1123456789ABCDEF
           1123456789ABCDEF
    
    
    0        1         2         3         4         5         6
    123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890
    
    [End of Guide]
    

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