________________________________
  |  Metal Gear Solid: Portable Ops|
  |  Secret Character Guide        |
  |  Written by phoenix009         |
  |________________________________|
                        _
                       / \
                  /\  /   \
           --    /___/    /________
          |.^.\_/  (@)    |________\       
   /\____  \________     _/        \\
   \     \  //     /  __/_          \\
    \     \//      /   /  \          ||
     \  ^ ^\/\/\_/___/     |       . //   ___
      \^ ^  \_______/_____/__/\_ . . .   /(*)\
       \     \_____/ \  ________|;: : : /___ /
      //\     \____  /\_/         . . . \\^^/
     //  \    O/.\ \_|___                \\/
    //____\   o|./  _\   \______________//
    \______\   \._\_/    /______________/ 
            \___________/

  __ ___   __  __ _____   _          __  __   __   __  __  __
 |__ |__| |__ |     |    /_\  |     |__ |  | |__| |   |__ |__
 __| |    |__ |__ __|__ /   \ |___  |   |__| |  \ |__ |__ ___|

_______________________________________________________________

______  _____                  ___   __  __ ___   __ ______ 
||___| ||__||  \\ //    || || ||__|| ||  || ||\\  || ||___ \
||_    ||  ||   \//     ||_|| ||  || ||  || || \\ || ||   ||
||_|   ||__||   /\\     ||_|| ||__|| ||__|| ||  \\|| ||___||
||     ||__||  // \\    || || ||__|| ||__|| ||   \|| ||___||

---------------------------------------------------------------------------

Table Of Contents

[1] Intro
[2] Updates
[3] Characters
[4] Common Trouble Spots
[5] Hacked character Info
[6] Rumours
[7] Legal
[8] Closing
[9] Credits

--------------------------------------------------------------------------

[1] Intro

I decided to write this guide to help people obtain unique characters
without the use of a password where possible. While some are easy to
obtain, others are not so obvious and require specific steps. I hope this
guide helps you recruit the team you desire. There are some minor spoilers
so read at your own discretion. 

--------------------------------------------------------------------------

[2] Updates

Version 1.10 - Added more detail to Raikov and Paramedic. Also added 
character stats.

Version 1.11 - Fixed some grammar and spelling mistakes. Also expanded
info on Gene and Cunningham.

Version 1.21 - Added more stat info such as careers and fixed life and
stamina. Also added common trouble areas section. 

Version 1.31 - Added two new sections. They are Hacked Character info and 
Rumours section. Also figured out stamina cap.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------

[3] Characters

Please note that some characters will only be unlocked on a subsequent
play through and others require you to save your game and turn off your
PSP and reload the game. Some also require you to be at a certain point
in the game and have no outstanding reports. Some even require other
special conditions. I will outline those in the section to follow.
Also stats are based off of those my characters have.

+ Cunningham + 

Stats: 

Unique Item - Laser

Career(s) - Arms Specialist and Quarterback

Life Min - 140
Life Max - 200
Stamina Min - 220
Stamina Max - 320
Life Password Min - 140
Life Password Max - 200
Stamina Password Min - 220
Stamina Password Max - 320

SNS - 30

Handgun - B
Submachine gun - B
Assault rifle - A
Shotgun - A
Sniper rifle - C 
Heavy weapons - S 
Knife (CQC) - B
Throwing weapons - A 
Traps - A
Technical skill - C 
Medical skill - C

Method: You must stamina kill him and beat the game before January
1st, 1971 on any difficulty. I suggest playing on easy and using
stealth camo. Also make sure to have a good spy team deployed to
avoid using aborts and wasting time waiting for them to give you
reports. Restarting does not effect your time limit only aborting
does. 

+ Elisa +

Stats:

Unique Item - None

Career(s) - Chemist and Doctor

Life Min - 60
Life Max - 120
Stamina Min - 200
Stamina Max - 300
Life Password Min - 60
Life Password Max - 120
Stamina Password Min - 200
Stamina Password Max - 300

SNS - 90

Handgun - A
Submachine gun - A
Assault rifle - B
Shotgun - B
Sniper rifle - B 
Heavy weapons - C 
Knife (CQC) -  A
Throwing weapons - B 
Traps - A
Technical skill - A 
Medical skill - S

Method: Acquire a medic level of 80 and beat the game. On the next play 
through save the game and reload your PSP. She will then join your
party. 

In order to obtain a medic level of 80 you will need high ranking
medics. I personally had 2 level S medics and the rest level A.
I managed to obtain one S from the hospital and the other through
AP scan. The hospital will give you lots of level A staff. 

+ Eva + 

Stats:

Unique Item - None

Career(s) - Spy and Deliveryman

Life Min - 80
Life Max - 140
Stamina Min - 250
Stamina Max - 350
Life Password Min - 80
Life Password Max - 140
Stamina Password Min - 250
Stamina Password Max - 350

SNS - 50

Handgun - A
Submachine gun - A
Assault rifle - B
Shotgun - B
Sniper rifle - S 
Heavy weapons - C 
Knife (CQC) - B
Throwing weapons - C 
Traps - B
Technical skill - A 
Medical skill - A

Method: Make sure you put spies in the town, guest house, and western
wilderness. After you get Sokolov head to the Silo Entrance. You will
receive a call from Campbell about a spy report even though there was
none. Head for the top left corner and interrogate the officer.
He wears green and is by the rpg ammo. There is a bridge there.
He will mention a man with twirling revolvers. 
You will then get a report from the town about a government
official that is there at night time. Head to town at night.
Go to the north east side of town and interrogate an official
in a blue suit. He'll mention a man with revolvers at the
airport. Go to the airport. On the third floor there will
be a guard. This is the same room you interrogated the 
blue politician. Interrogate the guard and he will give you
a frequency of 141.23. After you leave you will get a report
about a government official at the guest house. Go to the
north east room in the northwest building of the guest house
and interrogate the man in the blue suit twice. You will
get a report about another government official in the
western wilderness. Now go to the basement in the western
wilderness and capture the official in the blue suit. Now
go to the security base. In the North West building there
will be a set of lockers. Open them and your character will
mention the frequency numbers. Go to the X in the middle of
the communications base. Eva will call you to meet up at the
airport. Wait 6 days. The easiest way to do this is to go to
a place and exit and use the wait feature. Now go to the 
airport and you will get a call from Campbell. Head to the top
of the airport where you interrogated the politician in the 
blue suit. You will get a call from Eva telling you her plane
will crash. Now you will get a report about Eva being spotted
in the western wilderness. Go to the basement of the western
wilderness and rescue Eva. She is now on your team. 

* Must have no outstanding tasks.
* Must not capture the politician in the blue suit at the airport.
You can only interrogate him, but do not recruit him to your team.
AP scanned politicians are ok to have in your party.
* Must have beaten Null for the second time.

+ GA KO +

Stats:

Unique Item - None

Career(s) - Athlete and Scout

Life Min - ?
Life Max - ?
Stamina Min - ?
Stamina Max - ?
Life Password Min - 90
Life Password Max - 150
Stamina Password Min - 220
Stamina Password Max - 320

SNS - 50

Handgun - A
Submachine gun - B
Assault rifle - B
Shotgun - C
Sniper rifle - A 
Heavy weapons - C 
Knife (CQC) - B
Throwing weapons - A 
Traps - S
Technical skill - A 
Medical skill - B

Method: Currently the only known method is by password.
Input !TRAUMER to unlock.

+ Gene +

Stats:

Unique Item - Bowie Knife

Career(s) - Doctor and Politician

Life Min - 110
Life Max - 170
Stamina Min - 330
Stamina Max - 430
Life Password Min - 110
Life Password Max - 170
Stamina Password Min - 330
Stamina Password Max - 430

SNS - 50

Handgun - A
Submachine gun - B
Assault rifle - B
Shotgun - C
Sniper rifle - A 
Heavy weapons - C 
Knife (CQC) - S
Throwing weapons - A 
Traps - A
Technical skill - A 
Medical skill - A

Method: You will need to recruit 200 soldiers before you beat the
game. Once you have recruited 200 you have to go and face Gene.
You must beat him by stamina kill. Please note that you do not
have to get 200 soldiers in one play through. For instance you can 
get 80 on the first, and then 120 on the second, and then go fight
Gene and you will unlock him. My method of recruiting soldiers 
consists of going to the airport and alarming the guy outside.
Then run back to the truck. A bunch of guys will start shooting at
you close to the truck. Stealth camo helps a lot to take these guys
down. Once you knock them all out with your mk22 and the alarm mode
(after caution preferably) stops drag all the soldiers back to the
truck. Using this method I get about 8-9 soldiers each time. Not only
that but most are fox soldiers which are good for online. Keep 
repeating until you get 200 soldiers. It is possible to obtain soldiers
through other methods. Ap and GPS scanning will count towards the 200
count. I imagine that real combat online and the trade function work
toward the 200 but I have not had a chance to personally test it out
yet. Also note that you can only have 100 soldiers at a time. This
includes Snake and Jonathan so really you only have 98 free slots.
In order to make more room you will have to discharge some. Simply
select the soldier menu
(the one where you can view their weapons and careers), and
press triangle. From this menu select comrade discharge. Any
prisoners you have in prison will not count towards the 200 so make
sure to wait until they get transferred over to rookie stage. When
you gain 200 soldiers and stamina kill Gene start a new game. Save
the game and reload your PSP by turning it off and then turning it
on again. Now load your game and it will say a new soldier was
found. Gene is now in your party. 


+ Major Zero + 

Stats:

Unique Item - None

Career(s) - Politician, Quarterback, Rescuer, and Deliveryman

Life Min - ?
Life Max - ?
Stamina Min - ?
Stamina Max - ?
Life Password Min - 55
Life Password Max - 115
Stamina Password Min - 260
Stamina Password Max - 360

SNS - 25

Handgun - B
Submachine gun - A
Assault rifle - A
Shotgun - A
Sniper rifle - A 
Heavy weapons - B 
Knife (CQC) - B
Throwing weapons - A 
Traps - B
Technical skill - B 
Medical skill - B

Method: At this time it is known that Major Zero
can only be obtained through the use of a password
or by having a saved file of Metal Gear Solid Digital
Graphic Novel on your PSP. The password is 1+2-3

+ Naked Snake +

Stats:

Unique Item - ?

Career(s) - ?

Life Min - ?
Life Max - ?
Stamina Min - ?
Stamina Max - ?
Life Password Min - ?
Life Password Max - ?
Stamina Password Min - ?
Stamina Password Max - ?

SNS - ?

Handgun - ?
Submachine gun - ?
Assault rifle - ?
Shotgun - ?
Sniper rifle - ? 
Heavy weapons - ? 
Knife (CQC) - ?
Throwing weapons - ? 
Traps - ?
Technical skill - ? 
Medical skill - ?

Method: At this time it is known this character is only
obtainable through hacking. If you obtained one through Real 
Combat online he is hacked.

+ Null +

Stats:

Unique Item - Machete

Career(s) - None

Life Min - 130
Life Max - 190
Stamina Min - 400
Stamina Max - 500
Life Password Min - 130
Life Password Max - 190
Stamina Password Min - 400
Stamina Password Max - 500

SNS - 60

Handgun - A
Submachine gun - S
Assault rifle - A
Shotgun - B
Sniper rifle - C 
Heavy weapons - C 
Knife (CQC) - S
Throwing weapons - B 
Traps - A
Technical skill - B 
Medical skill - C

Method: Defeat him by any means and on your next play through
save and reload your PSP and he will be in your party.

+ Ocelot +

Stats: 

Unique Item - None

Career(s) - Spy, Arms Dealer, and Gambler

Life Min - 100
Life Max - 160
Stamina Min - 300
Stamina Max - 400
Life Password Min - 100
Life Password Max - 160
Stamina Password Min - 300
Stamina Password Max - 400

SNS - 60

Handgun - S
Submachine gun - A
Assault rifle - B
Shotgun - B
Sniper rifle - A 
Heavy weapons - B 
Knife (CQC) - A
Throwing weapons - B 
Traps - A
Technical skill - B 
Medical skill - B

Method: After you recruit Sokolov and Eva head to the Ravine.
Campbell will call you and tell you to use the communication
device and the frequency 141.23 to establish a connection. 
Head to the second floor cave on the north side of the Ravine
and pick up key C. Now go to the X on your map. You will get
a call from Ocelot. Now you have to beat the game and start
a new file. Once you save reload your PSP and he will join
your team.

* Must have no outstanding tasks.
* Must not capture the politician in the blue suit at the airport.
You can only interrogate him, but do not recruit him to your team.
AP scanned politicians are ok to have in your party.
* Must have beaten Null for the second time.
* Must beat game before character joins.

+ Paramedic +

Stats:

Unique Item - None

Career(s) - Chemist, Doctor, and Nutritionist

Life Min - 45
Life Max - 105
Stamina Min - 100
Stamina Max - 200
Life Password Min - 45
Life Password Max - 105
Stamina Password Min - 100
Stamina Password Max - 200

SNS - 20

Handgun - A
Submachine gun - B
Assault rifle - C
Shotgun - C
Sniper rifle - C 
Heavy weapons - C
Knife (CQC) - A
Throwing weapons - C 
Traps - B
Technical skill - B 
Medical skill - S

Method: First place spies at the hospital.
Before the rail bridge mission go to the communication
base and contact Paramedic. The communication  area is the
x on the map. You will then get a report about Paramedic
being spotted at the hospital. Head for the blue bars on
the map in the north section of the hospital on the
first floor to rescue Paramedic. She will now be on your
team.

* Might have to clear some reports first.

+ Python +

Stats:

Unique Item - LN G

Career(s) - Quarterback and Scout

Life Min - 120
Life Max - 180
Stamina Min - 300
Stamina Max - 400
Life Password Min - 120
Life Password Max - 180
Stamina Password Min - 300
Stamina Password Max - 400

SNS - 40

Handgun - C
Submachine gun - A
Assault rifle - S
Shotgun - A
Sniper rifle - C 
Heavy weapons - B 
Knife (CQC) - B
Throwing weapons - S 
Traps - A
Technical skill - C 
Medical skill - C

Method: Stamina kill him on any difficulty and he will join
your party.

+ Raikov +

Stats:

Unique Item - None

Career(s) - Athlete and Artist

Life Min - 90
Life Max - 150
Stamina Min - 300
Stamina Max - 400
Life Password Min - 90
Life Password Max - 150
Stamina Password Min - 300
Stamina Password Max - 400

SNS - 30

Handgun - B
Submachine gun - B
Assault rifle - A
Shotgun - S
Sniper rifle - A 
Heavy weapons - B 
Knife (CQC) - A
Throwing weapons - A 
Traps - B
Technical skill - C 
Medical skill - C

Method: First place spies in the town. Right before you 
rescue Snake you will get a report about a map detailing the
Western Wilderness. Go to the town and in the north east building
there will be a red and black secret document with the map to the
western wilderness. Now place spies in the western wilderness.
Go to the Guest house and rescue Snake. After you rescue Snake
you will get a report about a handsome soldier in the Western
Wilderness. Head to the prisoner room at the bottom of the
Western Wilderness. Raikov will be standing there and you
will recruit him.

+ Roy Campbell +

Stats:

Unique Item - ?

Career(s) - ?

Life Min - ?
Life Max - ?
Stamina Min - ?
Stamina Max - ?
Life Password Min - ?
Life Password Max - ?
Stamina Password Min - ?
Stamina Password Max - ?

SNS - ?

Handgun - ?
Submachine gun - ?
Assault rifle - ?
Shotgun - ?
Sniper rifle - ? 
Heavy weapons - ? 
Knife (CQC) - ?
Throwing weapons - ? 
Traps - ?
Technical skill - ? 
Medical skill - ?

Method: At this time it is known this character is only
obtainable through hacking. If you obtained one through Real 
Combat online he is hacked.

+ Sigint +

Stats:

Unique Item - None

Career(s) - Arms Specialist and Engineer

Life Min - 70
Life Max - 130
Stamina Min - 200
Stamina Max - 300
Life Password Min - 70
Life Password Max - 130
Stamina Password Min - 200
Stamina Password Max - 300

SNS - 10

Handgun - B
Submachine gun - B
Assault rifle - B
Shotgun - B
Sniper rifle - B  
Heavy weapons - S
Knife (CQC) - B
Throwing weapons - B 
Traps - A
Technical skill - S 
Medical skill - B

Method: After you rescue Snake, contact Sigint at the Comm
stage, there will be an X in the middle of the map.
Place spies in the town and then rescue him after you get the
report about him.

+ Sokolov +

Stats:

Unique Item - None

Career(s) - Elite Engineer

Life Min - 40
Life Max - 100
Stamina Min - 100
Stamina Max - 200
Life Password Min - 40
Life Password Max - 100
Stamina Password Min - 100
Stamina Password Max - 200

SNS - 10

Handgun - C
Submachine gun - B
Assault rifle - B
Shotgun - C
Sniper rifle - A 
Heavy weapons - B 
Knife (CQC) - B
Throwing weapons - B 
Traps - S
Technical skill - S 
Medical skill - B

Method: Make sure you have spies in the harbour and the plant.
Wait until you get a report about left over parts used to offload
metal gear. Then go to the bottom floor of the harbour
where you first found the colonel and the crate with the metal gear
parts. At the bottom floor Ghost will contact you about retrieving the
Saturn V blueprints. Now make your way to the Power Substation
and head to the building where you laid the time bomb. There
will be 2 guards here, and one of them you will need to interrogate.
I believe it is the one closer to the back entrance of the building.
He will give you a frequency of 145.61. Now proceed to the Silo entrance
and head for the X on the map. It will lead you to a locked door to a
building in the northeast section of the map. Campbell will give you a
call explaining that you need to use a code to open the door. Stand in
front of the door and input the frequency 145.61 you obtained from the
guard. Run in and grab the black and red secret documents. You will
receive a report from the plant telling you to rescue someone. Go 
to the plant and go inside the main building. Climb the stairs and
go inside the small room between the 2 sliding doors by the tech guy
in the blue suit. Sokolov will be standing there and he will be 
recruited. 

* Must have beaten Null for the second time.
* Might not be able to recruit politician at the airport
* Might not be able to have outstanding tasks. I did and 
was still able to get him so it might depend. 

+ Teliko + 

Stats:

Unique Item - None

Career(s) - Nutritionist and Athlete

Life Min - 65
Life Max - 125
Stamina Min - 280
Stamina Max - 380
Life Password Min - 65
Life Password Max - 125
Stamina Password Min - 280
Stamina Password Max - 380

SNS - 40

Handgun - S
Submachine gun - A 
Assault rifle - A
Shotgun - B
Sniper rifle - A 
Heavy weapons - B 
Knife (CQC) - B
Throwing weapons - B 
Traps - B
Technical skill - C 
Medical skill - A

Method: Make sure to place spies in the guest house. Then wait
until December 16th 1971. You will get a report about a women in a 
strange dress at the guest house. Go to the guest house and head
to the right hand side of the north west building and you will find
her on the second floor. Now drag her back to the truck. She will
now be in your team.

* Might have to have no outstanding missions
* Might have to wait till second Null fight to obtain. 

+ Ursula +

Stats:

Unique Item - None

Career(s) - Chemist

Life Min - ?
Life Max - ?
Stamina Min - ?
Stamina Max - ?
Life Password Min - 60
Life Password Max - 120
Stamina Password Min - 200
Stamina Password Max - 300

SNS - 100

Handgun - A
Submachine gun - A
Assault rifle - B
Shotgun - B
Sniper rifle - B 
Heavy weapons - C 
Knife (CQC) - A
Throwing weapons - B 
Traps - S
Technical skill - A 
Medical skill - S

Method: At this moment it is known that instead of getting Elise you
sometimes get Ursula for having a medic level of at least 80.
Otherwise you will have to input the password PK +ESP.
Note at this time it is known that you can not have both in your
party at the same time.

+ Venus +

Stats:

Unique Item - None

Career(s) - None

Life Min - 60
Life Max - 120
Stamina Min - 250
Stamina Max - 350
Life Password Min - 60
Life Password Max - 120
Stamina Password Min - 250
Stamina Password Max - 350

SNS - 65

Handgun - A
Submachine gun - A
Assault rifle - A
Shotgun - A
Sniper rifle - A 
Heavy weapons - A 
Knife (CQC) - A
Throwing weapons - A 
Traps - A
Technical skill - A 
Medical skill - A

Method: Make sure to place spies at the power substation. Then 
wait until December 8th 1971. You will get a report about an alien
invasion. Now go to the power station and head to the north west 
corner. She will be walking outside of the door to the main building
knock her out and drag her back to the truck. She will now be in your
team.

* Might have to have no outstanding missions
* Might have to wait till second Null fight to obtain. 

--------------------------------------------------------------------------

[4] Common Trouble Spots

These are common things people overlook when attempting to get a
character. If these tasks are not fulfilled, you may not get the report
you need or the info from an interrogation.

1. Outstanding Tasks - This is a big one. In order to obtain certain
characters you must not have any outstanding reports from your spy
unit. This means every report must have a red complete message next to
it, before you can receive new reports or events allowing you to unlock
the characters. This includes getting every gun reported found, every
prisoner that needs to be rescued, ect.

2. Not Being Far Enough in the Game - If you find you can not get the 
character you want because your spy unit is not giving you the proper
reports or whatever the case may be, then proceed further in the game.
In fact I recommend that you beat Cunningham and attempt to get your 
characters before the final fight with Gene (if applicable eg: Paramedic
you need to get sooner). At this point in the game you will have no 
outstanding missions to interfere with you unlocking a character.

3. Not Enough Spies - You do not have enough spies to get the report you
need. To solve this only put people that actually have spy attributes
(Spy, surveyor, ect.) in the location they need to be deployed. Also
make sure you have max spies (4) deployed in the area you need to get 
your report from.

4. Not Starting a New Game and Reloading your PSP - For some characters
you can not unlock them until your next play through. You need to 
complete the tasks necessary to unlock them in your current play through
then beat the game and start a new game off of the same file that you
just beat. Now play until you can save. Once you save your new game, 
exit and turn off your PSP. Turn your PSP back on and load your game.
It will say a new soldier has been found. The character you were 
working on getting will be in your party.

5. Not Having Enough Room in Your Party - You will not be able to 
unlock a character if you have a full party of 100 units. Try discharging
some to make room then saving your game and reloading your PSP again.
Now that you have enough room the character you want should join your
party.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------

[5] Hacked Character Info

Hacked characters are regular characters that are edited. Their 
appearance and sometimes stats are altered. The characters can be made
to look like Naked Snake (Snake you start out with that has no shirt
and camo pants. He will only look like this in single player not online
as of now), or Roy Campbell. Also the Japanese exclusive camo soldiers
(basically regular soldiers with colourful patterns or logos of stores
in Japan I believe) are hacked because no one with the North American
version has the GPS attachment for the PSP to legitimately obtain them
as of now. Players will change the look of regular soldiers to look
like camo soldiers. If you are going to use or make hacked characters
please do the community a favour and only use them in single player.
If you are planning to use the camo soldiers online then please use
their intended stats which can be found online through various 
sources such as message boards. 

Please note I do not have the resources (proper firmware) to produce 
hacked characters so I can not help you obtain them. The only thing
I can suggest is asking around, because there are currently some
save files with them, or perhaps someone else can assist you.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------

[6] Rumours

Ga-Ko: It has been rumoured that using or producing 100 Ga-Kos will
unlock this character.

MGS4 Snake: At this time it is not possible by any means to obtain
this character. 

Ursula: It has been rumoured that if you obtain a medic level of over 80
with the second number being odd (eg: 83, 87, 93) you will obtain Ursula
assuming you don't already have Elisa on your team. I have tried this
by discharging Elisa and beating the game with both a medic level of 83
and 99 and I did not unlock Ursula, but rather got Elisa back. So I think
it is safe to say this is not the case. I have yet to try all odd
numbers, but I think this is simply not the case.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------

[7] Legal

Copyright 2007 Bart Romanowski

Feel free to use this on your own website or for your own use
as long as it is not altered in any way and advance written permission is
obtained. Do not use parts of this guide for your own guide without
consenting for permission first.
Do not use this guide for profit.

All trademarks and copyrights contained in this document are
owned by their respective trademark and copyright holders.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------

[8] Closing

If there is anything that is incomplete, an error, or anything else
you wish to point out (such as easier methods to obtain a character),
please email me at humdedelala@hotmail.com

--------------------------------------------------------------------------

[9] Credits

Thanks to the following people that made this guide possible

Bubbatrop
Delriach
Emperorwon
GenomeSoldier66
Shadys_Back
Signeti
sil3ntw0lf
Vokkan

For help with passwords and some characters.

end_of_eden

For letting me know the stamina cap so I would not give up due to
boredom trying to obtain it.

Konami
Kojima Productions

For production of Metal Gear Solid Portable Ops.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------