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    Driving Instructions Guide by Wolf Feather

    Version: 1.0 | Updated: 12/25/02 | Printable Version | Search Guide | Bookmark Guide

    
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    PRO RACE DRIVER: DRIVING INSTRUCTIONS GUIDE
    by
    Jamie Stafford/Wolf Feather
    FEATHER7@IX.NETCOM.COM
    
    
    
    
    
    Initial Version Completed: December 25, 2002
    Version 1.0 Completed:     December 25, 2002
    
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    MILESTONE
    This guide was originally submitted December 25, 2002,
    exactly two years after the submission of my first-ever game
    guide (Midnight Club: Street Racing - Capture the Flag
    Guide).  This marks my 100th guide in these two years of
    writing, and when my first guide was submitted, I never
    dreamed that I would become such an authority figure on
    PlayStation and PlayStation2 racing games.  Due to support
    from readers and other guide writers, I have launched my own
    Web site with my guides as well as an e-mail list to inform
    others of my writing projects.
    
    I would like to take this opportunity to thank the hundreds
    of readers who have e-mailed me with suggestions, comments,
    criticisms, and even simply short notes of thanks.  It is
    truly for the readers that I continue to write game guides,
    and reader feedback and input is definitely welcome.  I
    eagerly look forward to the next two (and hopefully more)
    years of writing game guides - which will almost certainly be
    concentrated within my specialty of auto racing games.
    
    ==============================================
    
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    CONTENTS
    Spacing and Length
    Permissions
    Introduction
    Driving Instructions: A1 Ring
    Driving Instructions: Adelaide
    Driving Instructions: Bathurst
    Driving Instructions: Brands Hatch Grand Prix
    Driving Instructions: Brands Hatch Indy
    Driving Instructions: Bristol
    Driving Instructions: Canberra
    Driving Instructions: Catalunya
    Driving Instructions: Charlotte
    Driving Instructions: Dijon Prenois
    Driving Instructions: Donington Park
    Driving Instructions: Eastern Creek
    Driving Instructions: Fuji
    Driving Instructions: Hockenheim Long
    Driving Instructions: Hockenheim Short
    Driving Instructions: Knockhill
    Driving Instructions: Las Vegas
    Driving Instructions: Magny-Cours
    Driving Instructions: Mantorp Park
    Driving Instructions: Mexico
    Driving Instructions: Monza
    Driving Instructions: Norisring
    Driving Instructions: Nurburgring
    Driving Instructions: Oran Park
    Driving Instructions: Oschersleben
    Driving Instructions: Oulton Park
    Driving Instructions: Phillip Island
    Driving Instructions: Rockingham Oval
    Driving Instructions: Rockingham Road
    Driving Instructions: Sandown
    Driving Instructions: Sears Point
    Driving Instructions: Silverstone
    Driving Instructions: T1 Circuit AIDA
    Driving Instructions: Vallelunga
    Driving Instructions: Vancouver
    Driving Instructions: Zandvoort
    Driving Instructions: Zolder
    Contact Information
    
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    SPACING AND LENGTH
    For optimum readability, this driving guide should be
    viewed/printed using a monowidth font, such as Courier.
    Check for font setting by making sure the numbers and letters
    below line up:
    
    12345678901234567890123456
    ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ
    
    This guide is approximately 65 pages in length in the
    Macintosh version of Microsoft Word98 using single-spaced
    Courier 12-point font.  Therefore, it is probably NOT a good
    idea to print this guide in its entirety!!!!!
    
    ==============================================
    
    PERMISSIONS
    Permission is hereby granted for a user to download and/or
    print out a copy of this driving guide for personal use.
    
    This driving guide may only be posted on: FeatherGuides,
    GameFAQs.com, f1gamers.com, PSXCodez.com, Cheatcc.com, Games
    Domain, gamesover.com, Absolute-PlayStation.com,
    RobsGaming.com, InsidePS2Games.com, CheatPlanet.com,
    RedCoupe, The Cheat Empire, a2zweblinks.com, Gameguru,
    CheatHeaven, IGN, GameReactors.com, cheatingplanet.com,
    neoseeker.com, and vgstrategies.com.  Please contact me for
    permission to post elsewhere on the Internet.
    
    Plagiarism is NOT tolerated!!!!!
    
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    INTRODUCTION
    This guide is a list of detailed driving instructions to help
    players to quickly yet safely drive each circuit in Pro Race
    Driver.  Much of this information comes from my World-famous
    Racing Circuits Guide (in which the information is based upon
    a variety of racing games featuring the listed circuits), so
    there may be a few minor differences between what is printed
    here and the rendition of each circuit in Pro Race Driver.
    
    Please note that different games will provide different
    variations on the same circuit.  For example, compare Monte
    Carlo/Monaco (Temporary Street Circuit) in F1 2001 and Gran
    Turismo 3; the circuit in the former is very tight and
    narrow, just like the real-world circuit, whereas the latter
    presents a generally wider circuit.  Changes also occur
    within the same game series; compare the Le Mans circuit in
    Test Drive: Le Mans and Le Mans 24 Hours.  Note also that
    circuit owners are always considering changes (largely in the
    effort to improve safety in the event of crashes) and that it
    may take quite some time for games to reflect these changes;
    the Monza circuit's initial chicane was changed in 2000 in an
    attempt to slow cars somewhat, but it was not until F1 2001
    that EA Sports made the real-world circuit's alterations to
    its line of F1-based games.
    
    For those fairly new to racing games - especially those games
    with a heavy road racing emphasis, such as any F1-based game
    and games based on endurance racing - it may be a good idea
    to combine the driving details presented in this guide with
    information of driving tips presented both in the previous
    section of this guide and also in my General Racing/Driving
    Guide, also available EXCLUSIVELY on FeatherGuides and
    GameFAQs.
    
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    DRIVING INSTRUCTIONS: A1 RING
    This course may only have seven corners, but it is still a
    highly-challenging technical course for the drivers.  The
    circuit itself is built on a steep hillside, with the Paddock
    area and the Pit Straight located at the lowest elevation of
    the course.  The significant elevation changes and poorly-
    placed barriers make this a particularly challenging circuit
    to safely navigate.  This is also the circuit where Ferrari
    made a major public relations blunder in 2002 by ordering
    race leader Rubens Barrichello to pull aside in the final few
    meters of the Austrian Grand Prix to allow teammate Michael
    Schumacher to win a race which Barrichello had completely
    dominated all weekend long (Practice, Qualifying, and Race).
    
    Pit Straight: Long and straight; main grandstands to the
    left, Pit Lane to the right.  Rather mundane, except that the
    entire Pit Straight has a slow uphill climb into the Castrol
    Curve.  The beginning of the Pit Straight (coming off
    Mobilkom Curve) is also a bit bumpy.
    
    Turn 1 (Castrol Curve): After a rather mundane Pit Straight,
    the Castrol Curve is anything but mundane.  This is a right-
    hand uphill corner which requires moderate braking.  The Pit
    Lane rejoins the main course on the right at the exit of the
    corner.  Because of the steep slope of the hill, it is all
    too easy to drive off the outside of the corner and into the
    massive sand trap.  If you lose your concentration and forget
    even to slow down, you will likely find yourself airborne
    once you hit the rumble strip; similarly, if you try to take
    this corner at top speed, you may find yourself looking up at
    the ground.
    
    Straightaway: There are a few fades in the straightaway as
    the course continues its uphill climb.  The end of the
    straightaway (approaching Remus Curve) has a suddenly steeper
    grade and demands total concentration.
    
    Turn 2 (Remus Curve): This is a TIGHT right-hand 'J' turn
    requiring heavy or even severe braking, as well as COMPLETE
    CONCENTRATION to navigate safely (even when not dealing with
    traffic).  The uphill climb of the circuit continues through
    most of the turn, plus Remus Curve is even slightly banked
    toward the OUTSIDE of the corner, making high or even
    moderate speeds absolutely impossible here.  Rolling the
    right-side tires up on the thin patch of grass on the inside
    of the Remus Curve will almost definitely result in loss of
    control of your vehicle.  Even worse, this is a blind corner
    due to the barrier.  Aggressive drivers will certainly end up
    overrunning the Remus Curve on exit and find themselves
    beached in the kitty litter.  If you use the accelerator too
    soon on exit, you WILL find yourself off-course.
    
    Straightaway: Located at the highest elevation of the course,
    this straightaway has a fade to the right, then another to
    the left.  After the second fade, prepare for braking before
    arriving at the Gosser Curve.  Make use of the distance-to-
    corner markers, or else you risk overrunning Gosser Curve.
    
    Turn 3 (Gosser Curve): Another tight right-hand corner, heavy
    braking will be required here to avoid sliding off the course
    and into yet another sand trap.  This is also a blind corner,
    due to the barrier on the inside of Gosser.  The circuit
    begins to slowly descend in elevation here.
    
    Straightaway: This is actually NOT a straightaway at all; the
    course map does not list the right-hand turn, but it is
    definitely more than just a fade.  If you overrun this, you
    will end up in the same sand trap as before - it is simply
    extended along the left side of the course from the outside
    of Gosser until well beyond this unofficial corner.
    
    Turn 4 (Niki Lauda Curve): This is a wide left-hand corner
    which will require moderate or heavy braking, especially
    since this is a blind corner due to the slope of the hill on
    the inside of the turn; even if you slow greatly before
    entering the corner, you will likely be tapping the brakes as
    you progress through Niki Lauda.  There is another wide patch
    of sand on the outside of the corner, stretching almost all
    the way to the entrance of the Gerhard Berger Curve.  A short
    straightaway separates Turns 4 and 5.  Note that the circuit
    turns to the left here; the patch of pavement which continues
    straight forward will lead you into a barrier.
    
    Turn 5 (Gerhard Berger Curve): This is almost identical to
    the Niki Lauda Curve, but with an additional sand trap which
    begins on the inside of the corner.
    
    Straightaway: Again more than a fade but not listed as an
    official corner, there is a 'turn' to the right shortly after
    exiting the Gerhard Berger Curve.  About two-thirds of the
    way along, the course enters a scenic forested area; this
    'transition' section is also rather bumpy.
    
    Turn 6 (Jochen Rindt Curve): This is a blind right-hand
    corner which can be taken with light braking, or just a small
    lift of the accelerator; the best way to judge this corner is
    by using the right-side barrier as a guide.  Another sand
    trap awaits those who run off the outside of the corner.  A
    short straightaway follows Jochen Rindt.
    
    Turn 7 (Mobilkom Curve): This is a right-hand corner which
    will require light or moderate braking.  The Pit Lane begins
    on the right just before the entry to Mobilkom, so be careful
    not to bump cars slowing before going to the pits.
    
    Pit Entry: Located just before the entrance to the Mobilkom
    Curve, the Pit Lane is to the right.  This is a very long pit
    lane, so plan to stay out of here as much as possible!!!
    
    ==============================================
    
    DRIVING INSTRUCTIONS: ADELAIDE
    The Adelaide venue is a temporary street circuit which was
    one of the true gems of F1 racing.  Unfortunately, the Grand
    Prix of Australia is now held instead at Albert Park in
    Melbourne (which is itself an excellent race venue), but,
    while Albert Park is definitely a beautiful place to hold a
    race, it does not have nearly the mystique and the charm that
    is found on the challenging streets of Adelaide.
    (Fortunately, Australia's excellent V8 SuperCar series still
    uses the Adelaide circuit.)
    
    Turns 1 and 2: At the end of the Pit Straight, this very
    tricky section begins with a TIGHT left-right chicane which
    requires moderate or heavy braking; cars will definitely pile
    up here if there is an incident on the opening lap of the
    race, as there is virtually nowhere to go should an accident
    block the raceway due to the closeness of the barriers
    (although they are fortunately NOT nearly as close as at
    Monaco).  After a VERY brief straightaway, there is a dogleg
    to the left.
    
    Turn 3: Shortly after passing underneath the pedestrian
    bridge, drivers need to begin braking for the blind right-
    hand Turn 3.  Because the white-painted barriers are so close
    to the circuit in this opening segment of the Adelaide street
    circuit, it can be VERY difficult to spot exactly where the
    circuit bends until one can see the very short escape road
    ahead... and by this time, it is really too late to safely
    make it through the right-hand right-angle corner.
    
    Turn 4: About one city block beyond Turn 3, this is a
    perpendicular left-hand corner requiring moderate braking.
    
    Turn 5: About one city block beyond Turn 4, this is a
    perpendicular right-hand corner requiring moderate braking.
    
    Turns 6 and 7: About one city block beyond Turn 5, this is a
    fast left-right chicane which can actually be taken at full
    throttle with the proper tight racing line.  If taken at full
    throttle, beware the barrier on exiting the chicane.  Begin
    braking at corner exit for Turn 8.
    
    Turn 8: This is a rough right-hand corner which requires
    moderate braking beginning with the exit of Turn 7.
    
    Turn 9: This is a rough right-hand corner which requires
    light braking and a wide racing line... but beware the
    grandstands on the left on corner exit.
    
    Straightaway: This is the single longest straightaway at
    Adelaide.  Powerful acceleration out of Turn 8 is required,
    and only the BAREST of tapping on the brakes is needed for
    Turn 9 to enable excellent passing opportunities along this
    immense straightaway and the entry to Turn 10.
    
    Turn 10: This tight and nasty right-hand J-turn requires
    heavy braking, especially given the incredibly-fast speeds
    attained along the previous straightaway.  This is an
    excellent to pass on braking entering this J-turn.
    
    Turn 11: Immediately following a left-hand dogleg, this is a
    J-turn to the left, requiring moderate braking.
    
    Turn 12: This final corner is tricky.  Pit Entry is
    immediately on the right on corner entry, whereas the main
    circuit uses the outside racing line.  The Pit Lane barrier
    is set back at corner exit, which means that passing can
    occur by essentially 'shortcutting' the corner... but then
    drivers risk ramming the Pit Lane barrier by 'shortcutting'
    the corner too much.
    
    ==============================================
    
    DRIVING INSTRUCTIONS: BATHURST
    This 'world-famous' counter-clockwise circuit (in Australia
    and New Zealand) hosted its first 24-hour race in November
    2002.  The circuit map certainly presents a mostly-technical
    circuit, but it simply does NOT do justice to just HOW
    technical this circuit is... and drivers must certainly have
    their hands full and their hearts in their throats while
    trying to race here at night in the new 24-hour event!!!!!
    What makes this circuit so difficult is that the most
    technical section consists of many tight and fast-approaching
    twists and turns combined with the continual ascents and
    descents in the highly-scenic mountains, so that when drivers
    finally exit the mountainous section, their nerves are
    extremely frayed.  While speed is obviously important in auto
    racing, the trick to Bathurst is to continually maintain a
    1,000,000,000% concentration level for the entire race.
    
    Pit Straight: This is nearly the shortest straightaway of the
    circuit, and is the farthest point from the highly-technical
    mountainous section.
    
    Turn 1 (Hell Corner): This may not seem like much on the
    circuit map, but due to the immense speeds attained on Pit
    Straight and the near-lack of recovery room for those who
    miss the braking zone, this left-hand right-angle corner is
    an extremely dangerous place.  It is important to begin
    braking rather early, especially on the first lap of a race,
    to try to avoid other cars' accidents (and debris) ahead.
    
    Straightaway (Mountain Straight): This straightaway leaves
    the vast, flat, open area of the valley and begins the ascent
    into the mountains.  More and more trees appear alongside
    either side of the straightaway as the elevation rises, and
    is in some respect reminiscent of the Spa-Francorchamps
    circuit in Belgium.  Mountain Straight has its own crest
    about halfway along the straightaway, then a long dip before
    renewing its ascent.
    
    Turn 2: This right-hand 105-degree angle seems rather gentle
    on the circuit map, but the ascent of the circuit truly gains
    momentum here; this fact combined with the inside barrier's
    proximity to the raceway itself makes this corner semi-blind
    and extremely difficult, so pristine knowledge of this corner
    is a necessity to keep from sliding off the pavement.  The
    main ascent of the mountains begins at the entry of Turn 2,
    so car power will certainly be a necessity... although that
    power must be continually tempered with both strong braking
    and feather-light throttle control.
    
    Note: From the exit of Turn 2 to the end of the mountainous
    section, there pavement is almost always directly bounded by
    barriers and/or sheer cliff faces.  This means that there is
    literally NOWHERE to go in case of an incident, and thus the
    raceway can quite easily become blocked.  This also means
    that missing a braking zone will result in the near-instant
    destruction of the front of a vehicle.
    
    Turn 3 (Cutting): This is a left-hand decreasing-radius
    hairpin corner with NO room for error; missing the braking
    zone will destroy the front of the car.  Cutting is a blind
    corner, so it is imperative to go VERY slowly here,
    especially since this is a prime place for accidents to occur
    as cars ram and bounce off the barriers here.
    
    Turn 4: This right-hand corner is rather gentle, but the
    circuit has a brief crest here which can potentially play
    havoc with light-weight, high-power vehicles.  This caveat
    aside, it should be possible to power through Turn 4 at full
    acceleration without incident (unless blocked by traffic).
    
    Turns 5-6: Here, minor braking will be needed to keep off the
    barriers (still adjacent to the raceway) as the grade of the
    ascent increases through the right-hand Turn 5.  Immediately
    afterward is the gentle left-hand Turn 6, which leads onto a
    brief straightaway.
    
    Turn 7: This long left-hand corner requires at least light
    braking at its midpoint, which is a major dip in elevation.
    This dip will play havoc with virtually any vehicle, but car
    control will be EXTREMELY difficult here if a car is even
    slightly loose (i.e., the rear of the car tends to swing
    about).
    
    Turn 8: This is a gentle left-hand corner which can be taken
    at full acceleration.
    
    Straightaway (Skyline): As the name suggests, this is the
    highest elevation of the Bathurst circuit (although the
    mountain continues to climb in elevation to the right of the
    raceway), and a nice view of the vast plains can be seen both
    ahead and to the left of the flow of traffic.  However,
    taking the time to admire this scenery will bring death and
    destruction in the Esses.
    
    Turns 9-15 (Esses): Simply put, this is a nail-biter.  The
    circuit makes a steep downhill descent among the tightest,
    twistiest turns; again, there is really nowhere to recover
    should a driver miss a braking zone.  This section is where
    strong braking is REALLY needed.  Those using manual
    transmission can use mountain-driving tactics and gear down
    one or two gears lower than usual, allowing for 'engine-
    braking' to occur to save the vehicle's true brakes.
    
    Turn 16 (Forest Elbow): This is a sharp left-hand corner on a
    steep downhill run which is semi-blind on approach.  There is
    STILL no recovery room for those who miss the corner, so it
    is imperative that all drivers brake early and HARD for
    Forest Elbow.
    
    Turn 17: After a brief straightaway, this is a gentle left-
    hand corner coming out of the mountainous area.  No braking
    should be required here.
    
    Straightaway (Conrod Straight): This is the single longest
    straightaway of the Bathurst circuit.  The descent is very
    gradual now as the circuit rejoins the vast desolate valley,
    the trees thinning quickly.  The barriers on either side of
    the raceway slowly begin to give way as well.  Fortunately,
    Chase can be easily seen ahead (in daytime conditions).
    
    Turns 18-20 (Chase): This is a gentle right-hand mini-kink
    followed by a sharp left-right.  There is no barrier on the
    inside of Chase to prevent cars from simply barreling
    straight ahead, but the entire area IS filled with kitty
    litter to severely slow those drivers attempting this tactic.
    Moderate or hard braking will be required for Turn 19, and
    drivers may need to tap the brakes again for Turn 20.
    
    Turn 21: After a short straightaway, this is a left-hand
    right-angle corner onto Pit Straight, with Pit Entry just
    before the entry of the corner on the left side of the
    pavement.  There is some recovery room for Turn 21, but not
    much.
    
    ==============================================
    
    DRIVING INSTRUCTIONS: BRANDS HATCH GRAND PRIX
    The Brands Hatch Grand Prix circuit is a fun circuit for
    racing.  Situated within a natural bowl, it is easy for many
    spectators to see the bulk of the racing action from many
    points along the circuit.  However, traffic is almost always
    a problem for drivers.  Interestingly, along almost the
    entire circuit, drivers can easily hear the other cars on
    other sections of the circuit, thus testifying to the compact
    nature of this venue.
    
    Pit Straight (Brabham Straight): This is the longest single
    straightaway of the circuit, so powerful acceleration is
    required out of Clark Curve to make passes or pull away from
    challengers.
    
    Turn 1 (Paddock Hill Bend): This long sweeping right-hand
    corner can be tricky at full acceleration, so a gentle
    tapping of brakes before entering Turn 1 is key.  This is
    nearly a double-apex corner, so take care with the racing
    line, especially since this begins the downhill descent of
    the circuit.  Taking this corner at full throttle is likely
    to cause the car to spin before achieving corner exit.
    
    Turn 2 (Druid's Bend): This right-hand hairpin is the
    tightest corner of the Brands Hatch Grand Prix circuit.
    Passing on braking here can be advantageous, but is NOT for
    the newcomers - especially on the opening lap of a race!!!
    There is plenty of sand to the outside of the hairpin for
    those who miss the braking zone.
    
    Turn 3 (Graham Hill Bend): Experts can handle this left-hand
    corner at full throttle if unencumbered by traffic, although
    slight braking is preferred here.  The course is at its
    lowest elevation here.
    
    Straightaway (Cooper Straight): This straightaway has a
    slight bend to the left.  While not nearly as long as Brabham
    Straight, it is a great place for low-downforce cars to gain
    race positions.
    
    Turn 4 (Surtees): This left-hand corner requires light
    braking to keep to the pavement, and flows quickly toward
    Pilgrim's Drop.
    
    Straightaway: Following Surtees, the circuit has its longest
    straightaway.  About halfway along this straightaway begins
    Pilgrim's Drop, which - despite the 'misnomer' - is a gentle
    descent into Hawthorne Bend.
    
    Turn 5 (Hawthorne Bend): This right-hand right-angle corner
    will require light to moderate braking, but really adept
    drivers should be able to get away with only a very slight
    tapping of the brakes through Hawthorne Bend as necessary.
    The entry to Hawthorne Bend marks the beginning of an uphill
    climb for the circuit; this makes this corner a bit more
    challenging than it would originally appear from the circuit
    map.
    
    Straightaway (Derek Minter Straight): This straightaway
    continues the gentle uphill climb of the circuit (which
    begins with the entry to Hawthorne Bend).
    
    Turn 6 (Westfield Bend): This is a long right-hand corner
    which can generally be taken with light or moderate braking;
    only TRUE experts can safely navigate Westfield Bend without
    ANY braking whatsoever (and this will really only be due to
    prime car tuning).  Driver who carry too much speed through
    Westfield Bend will likely find themselves beached in one of
    the wide sand traps to the outside of the corner.
    
    Turns 7-9 (Dingle Dell Corner): Shortly after Westfield Bend
    is a right-left-right chicane complex.  If unencumbered by
    traffic, it is possible to essentially shortcut Turn 8 and
    make a wide right-hand sweeping arc.  Otherwise, moderate
    braking will be required here to keep to the pavement (or
    only light braking if the traffic through the chicane is
    spread wide enough to allow making ample use of the rumble
    strips).
    
    Turn 10 (Stirling's Bend): This is a left-hand right-angle
    corner coming very quickly after Dingle Dell Corner (the
    right-left-right chicane).  Moderate braking is a requirement
    here, especially since there is VERY little grass on the
    outside of the pavement before the barrier will stop any
    runaway vehicles.  This opens onto Clearways, another long
    straightaway, so excellent acceleration out of Stirling's
    Bend will pay dividends for gaining race positions.
    
    Turn 11 (Clark Curve): Slight braking may be desired entering
    this long right-hand corner, but then it is imperative to
    power hard all the way to Turn 1!!!  Pit Entry is on the
    right entering Clark Curve.
    
    ==============================================
    
    DRIVING INSTRUCTIONS: BRANDS HATCH INDY
    The Brands Hatch Indy circuit is a small but fun circuit for
    racing.  Situated within a natural bowl, it is easy for many
    spectators to see the bulk of the racing action from many
    points along the circuit.  However, traffic is almost always
    a problem for drivers.  Interestingly, along almost the
    entire circuit, drivers can easily hear the other cars on
    other sections of the circuit, thus testifying to the compact
    nature of this venue.
    
    Pit Straight (Brabham Straight): This is the longest single
    straightaway of the circuit, so powerful acceleration is
    required out of Clark Curve to make passes or pull away from
    challengers.
    
    Turn 1 (Paddock Hill Bend): This long sweeping right-hand
    corner can be tricky at full acceleration, so a gentle
    tapping of brakes before entering Turn 1 is key.  This is
    nearly a double-apex corner, so take care with the racing
    line, especially since this begins the downhill descent of
    the circuit.  Taking this corner at full throttle is likely
    to cause the car to spin before achieving corner exit.
    
    Turn 2 (Druid's Bend): This right-hand hairpin is the
    tightest corner of the Brands Hatch Indy circuit.  Passing on
    braking here can be advantageous, but is NOT for the
    newcomers - especially on the opening lap of a race!!!  There
    is plenty of sand to the outside of the hairpin for those who
    miss the braking zone.
    
    Turn 3 (Graham Hill Bend): Experts can handle this left-hand
    corner at full throttle if unencumbered by traffic, although
    slight braking is preferred here.  The course is at its
    lowest elevation here.
    
    Straightaway (Cooper Straight): This straightaway has a
    slight bend to the left.  While not nearly as long as Brabham
    Straight, it is a great place for low-downforce cars to gain
    race positions.
    
    Turn 4 (Surtees): This left-hand corner requires light
    braking to keep to the pavement, and flows quickly into
    McLaren.
    
    Turn 5 (McLaren): This long sweeping right-hand corner can
    generally be taken at full acceleration.
    
    Turn 6 (Clark Curve): Slight braking may be desired entering
    this long right-hand corner, but then it is imperative to
    power hard all the way to Turn 1!!!  Pit Entry is on the
    right entering Clark Curve.
    
    ==============================================
    
    DRIVING INSTRUCTIONS: BRISTOL
    First used for NASCAR in 1961, Bristol Motor Speedway is the
    shortest track on the current NASCAR calendar at 0.533 miles
    (0.853 kilometers) - thus it is known as 'The World's Fastest
    Half-mile.'  Formerly asphalt, the  Bristol, Tennessee, USA,
    circuit was converted to concrete in 1992, and boasts
    attendance easily topping 150,000 for NASCAR events.  The
    banking is thirty-six degrees in the corners and sixteen
    degrees on the straightaways.  Passing is difficult at
    Bristol due to the compact nature of the circuit; the only
    easy part about racing at Bristol is the ability to be
    involved in accidents.
    
    ==============================================
    
    DRIVING INSTRUCTIONS: CANBERRA
    Canberra is a rather difficult street circuit.  This venue is
    not nearly as tight and compact as at Vancouver, but the
    corners are definitely FAR worse (and also more numerous),
    requiring much slower speeds.  It is important to keep to the
    left on Pit Straight to ensure avoiding Pit Lane... unless a
    pit stop is truly needed or required.
    
    Pit Straight: Pit Entry is on the right half of Pit Straight,
    so it is important for cars remaining on the main circuit to
    keep to the left to ensure they do not accidentally go into
    Pit Lane itself.  Also, the Pit Lane barrier is difficult to
    see on approach, so drivers should commit to either the far-
    left or the far-right until they have safely passed the
    beginning of this barrier.
    
    Turn 1: This is a severe-braking right-hand right-angle
    corner which will likely see a lot of bumping and grinding on
    the first lap of a race.  During a race, Pit Exit is at the
    apex of the corner, so it is important for those coming from
    Pit Straight to keep hard to the left, and those coming from
    Pit Lane to keep hard to the right.
    
    Turn 2: IMMEDIATELY after exiting Turn 1, this is a long
    sweeping left-hand corner on a slightly-wider raceway.  Full
    acceleration can be used here, and there is definitely plenty
    of room to make a well-timed pass.  However, drivers must be
    careful as traffic from Pit Lane merges with the higher-speed
    traffic coming off Pit Straight.
    
    Turns 3-6: This is an elongated right-left-left-right bus
    stop chicane.  Moderate or severe braking will be required
    for Turn 3 and Turn 5; careful throttle management will be
    needed for Turn 6 to ensure avoiding the outside barrier.
    
    Turns 7-9: This is a left-right-right complex which in total
    acts as nearly a hairpin corner.  Moderate braking will be
    needed here, with gentle throttle control throughout.  In
    fact, this section is easier if Turns 8 and 9 are treated as
    a hairpin corner, making a wide berth to hit both apexes just
    right.  Note that there is an access road BETWEEN Turn 8 and
    Turn 9, but this is NOT part of the official raceway;
    nonetheless, this can be rather confusing until the
    intricacies of this circuit have been committed to memory.
    
    Turn 10: This right-hand corner requires moderate braking.
    
    Straightaway: This is not 'straight' at all.  Instead, this
    'straightaway' is one long continuous sweeping bend to the
    left.  there are three bridges over this 'straightaway;' it
    is best to begin braking for Turn 11 once beyond the third
    bridge.
    
    Turn 11: This right-hand corner requires moderate braking.
    
    Turns 12 and 13: This is a VERY slow left-right chicane, so
    moderate or even severe braking will be required.  Due to the
    VERY slow speed required here for safe passage, this is a
    prime place for cars to pile up if one driver is too
    aggressive.
    
    Turns 14-16: This right-left-right chicane is just as slow as
    the previous chicane.  What makes this worse, however, is
    that the left-hand corner of this chicane is an actual
    hairpin in its own right!!!  Fortunately, once past the apex
    of the chicane's own hairpin turn, the right side of the
    raceway opens up, so those drivers using too much speed
    through the hairpin portion of the chicane will have a nice
    expanse of grass to greet them instead of the usual immovable
    barrier.
    
    Turns 17 and 18: Immediately after exiting the chicane, the
    raceway curves twice to the right.  These are gentle curves,
    but the second will still require light braking since the
    momentum of the vehicle will try to force it into the left-
    side barrier. This leads onto Pit Straight.
    
    ==============================================
    
    DRIVING INSTRUCTIONS: CATALUNYA
    The Catalunya circuit is challenging, especially the two
    hairpins and the final corners of the race.  This is the same
    circuit configuration used in modern F1 racing.
    
    Pit Straight: As usual, incredible speeds can be attained
    here.  Watch for cars rejoining the race from the right side
    of the straightaway about two-thirds of the way along its
    length.
    
    Turn 1 (Elf): This is a right-hand corner which requires
    moderate braking.  Be careful not to hug the inside of the
    corner too tightly, or you will damage your right-side tires
    on the barrier.  Strong acceleration out of Turn 1 creates
    great passing opportunities all the way to Repsol.
    Attempting to take Turn 1 at top speed will either cause you
    to lose control as you run up on the rumble strips, or send
    you too far off course to survive Turn 2 intact.
    
    Turn 2 (Elf): Immediately following Turn 1, the left-hand
    Turn 2 can usually be taken at top acceleration.  With strong
    acceleration out of Turn 1, this is a prime passing zone.
    
    Turn 3 (Seat): A sweeping right-hand increasing-radius corner
    which can be taken at full speed with a flawless racing line.
    This is also a good place to pass slower cars, especially if
    you have the inside line.
    
    Turn 4 (Repsol): This is a semi-blind right-hand hairpin
    corner which requires moderate or heavy braking.  The barrier
    on the inside of the corner rests almost directly against the
    track, and blocks your view around the corner.  This can
    actually be a good place to pass on braking, but only with
    extreme caution (and usually only if the car you wish to pass
    takes the wide line around the corner).  Don't come too hot
    into this corner or else you will find yourself in the sand.
    After clearing the first 90 degrees, you should be able to
    accelerate fairly well if not encumbered by traffic.
    
    Turn 5: After a very short straightaway, this is a semi-blind
    left-hand hairpin, a bit tighter than Turn 4.  Moderate or
    heavy braking will be needed here, or you will definitely
    find yourself in the kitty litter.
    
    Straightaway: This straightaway fades to the left.  Strong
    acceleration out of Turn 5 can create passing opportunities,
    especially in the braking zone for Wuth.
    
    Turn 6 (Wuth): With a good racing line, you should be able to
    brake lightly to clear this semi-blind, slightly-downhill,
    left-hand corner.  Beware the barrier on the inside of Wuth.
    The exit of Wuth has an immediate fade to the right, so do
    not commit too much to turning left here, or the front-left
    of the car will be shaking hands with the barrier.
    
    Turn 7 (Campsa): This right-hand corner can be taken at full
    speed with a flawless racing line.  Note that the official
    circuit is to the right; do not drive directly ahead onto
    another patch of pavement, or you will be assigned a Stop-Go
    Penalty.
    
    Turn 8 (La Cacsa): Severe braking is required for this left-
    hand corner.  While not suggested, you may be able to pass
    other cars on braking here.  As with Wuth, stay off the
    rumble strips and grass on the inside of the turn, or you
    will risk losing control of the car.  This is a 'J' turn, and
    the corner seems to go on forever before you reach the exit.
    
    Turn 9 (Banc Sabadeau): Shortly following Turn 8, moderate or
    heavy braking will be needed here for the right-hand, upward-
    sloping corner.  This is also a 'J' turn which is nearly a
    double-apex corner.  If you need a recovery area anywhere on
    the course, it will most likely be here.  It is possible to
    pass slower cars here by tightly hugging the inside of the
    turn, even running the right-side tires on the rumble strips
    or just slightly in the grass.
    
    Turn 10: Light braking may be needed for this right-hand
    corner.  The key here is to truly hug the inside of the turn
    and accelerate strongly through the exit.  Watch for slow
    cars here preparing to go to Pit Lane for servicing.
    
    Turn 11: Entering this right-hand corner, the Pit Lane begins
    on the right, so be on the lookout for very slow cars here.
    If you take this final corner too tightly, or make a VERY
    late decision to go to the pits, you will certainly damage
    the front of the car on a barrier.
    
    ==============================================
    
    DRIVING INSTRUCTIONS: CHARLOTTE
    One of the favorite circuits of NASCAR racing, Charlotte is a
    tri-oval, with Pit Straight actually curved slightly along
    its entire length.  The corners can accommodate two-wide
    racing if necessary, but single-file racing is best through
    the turns.
    
    ==============================================
    
    DRIVING INSTRUCTIONS: DIJON PRENOIS
    Located in southern France, Circuit Dijon Prenois is a small,
    hilly, and FUN circuit.  Pit Straight is 1.1km (0.7 miles) in
    length, whereas the rest of the circuit continually twists
    and turns in the hills.
    
    Pit Straight: This is really the only true straightaway of
    the entire circuit.  At 1.1km (0.7 miles) in length, this
    straightaway really should be taken at lower than optimal
    speeds, due to the necessity for high downforce on the rest
    of the circuit.
    
    Turns 1-2 (Villeroy): This is a double-apex right-hand
    corner.  Turn 1 can be taken with light braking, but moderate
    braking will be necessary for Turn 2.
    
    Turns 3-5 (Hourglass S'es): Careful, precision steering will
    be needed to keep the car on the pavement while still
    negotiating traffic at top speed through these right-left-
    right S-curves.  Turn 5 is sharper than the other corners.
    There is a continual rise in elevation throughout this
    section of the circuit.
    
    Turn 6 (Crossover): The shorter configuration of the circuit
    has simply a moderate left-hand corner here, but the main
    configuration uses a 135-degree left-hand corner heading
    toward the Parabolique.  Light to moderate braking will be
    required for Crossover, and plenty of sand on the outside of
    the corner awaits the not-so-focused drivers.
    
    Turn 7 (Parabolique): This is a right-hand heavy-braking
    near-hairpin corner which is made much more difficult due to
    the sudden steep climb in elevation beginning at the entry of
    the Parabolique.  This means that much of the corner is
    unsighted, thus drivers must have PRISTINE knowledge of this
    corner in order to truly power through the Parabolique at any
    great speed.  There is fortunately a sand trap on the outside
    of the Parabolique to collect runaway vehicles, but it is
    still possible to clear the kitty litter and severely damage
    the car against the barrier.
    
    Turn 8: This left-hand corner is a long moderate-braking
    corner at the crest of the circuit.  There is a wide sand
    trap on the outside of the turn for those who overshoot the
    corner, which is especially important since this is a semi-
    blind corner until the car is safely at the top of the rise.
    
    Turn 9 (Combe): This right-hand corner can be easily
    negotiated with only slight braking as needed.
    
    Turn 10 (Pouas Corner): This final corner is a long right-
    hand sweeping turn leading back onto the immense Pit
    Straight.  Slight tapping of the brakes may be necessary for
    Pouas Corner, especially in high-powered cars.  Pit Entry is
    on the right approximately 1/4 of the way along Pit Straight.
    
    ==============================================
    
    DRIVING INSTRUCTIONS: DONINGTON PARK
    This popular British venue is the host of many events, and
    has been included in other games.  The outside of almost
    every corner has a very small strip of grass between the
    pavement and the sand trap.  The Grand Prix configuration
    inverts the final chicane of the National configuration and
    adds two lengthy straightaways with two hairpin corners
    behind the paddock area.
    
    Turn 1: This right-hand J-turn requires moderate braking, and
    plenty of patience at the start of a race as traffic really
    jams up here.
    
    Turn 2: This is a long, gentle right-hand semi-corner,
    sloping downhill along its entire length.
    
    Turn 3: Continuing downhill, this left-hand corner will only
    require light braking, if the brakes are needed at all.  Due
    to the downhill slope, it may be difficult to see the apex of
    the corner as you approach.
    
    Turn 4: Immediately after Turn 3, the course turns uphill to
    the right here, with light or moderate braking required.
    
    Turn 5: After passing underneath the pedestrian bridge, the
    course turns to the left here.  No braking is required.
    
    Turn 6: This is really just a left-hand fade.
    
    Turn 7: Moderate braking is necessary as the course continues
    uphill through this right-hand turn.  The barrier on the left
    comes rather close to the pavement, so there is not much
    grass and sand to stop you if you miss your braking zone.
    
    Turn 8: This lengthy, sweeping right-hand J-turn will require
    light braking to keep out of the grass and sand as the course
    continues slowly uphill.  This corner opens out onto the
    longest straightaway at Donington.
    
    Turns 9-10: Shortly after passing underneath the big Dunlop
    tire, begin braking for the chicane.  This is a tight left-
    right combination with NO room for error.  The barrier on the
    inside of Turn 9 prevents shortcutting, and the sand trap to
    the inside of Turn 10 severely hinders anyone attempting to
    shortcut that corner.
    
    Turn 11: After a significant straightaway, this is a tight
    right-hand hairpin turn onto another significant straightaway
    behind the Paddock Suite.  Essentially, think of this as
    changing runways on an airport circuit (such as at Sebring)
    and you should do fairly well here.  Moderate braking is
    required here.  If you miss your braking zone, there is a
    wide patch of kitty litter to the outside of the corner.
    
    Turn 12: The final corner of the circuit is a left-hand tight
    hairpin.  Again, think of this as changing runways on an
    airport circuit.  Moderate braking will be needed here.
    
    ==============================================
    
    DRIVING INSTRUCTIONS: EASTERN CREEK
    This 3.93-kilometer (2.456-mile) circuit hosts V8 Supercars,
    many Formula series, a number of sports cars and sports
    sedans series, touring cars, production cars, and numerous
    national and support motorcycle series.  The pit straight
    even incorporates a drag strip, so racecars here can make use
    of this wider section to pass large packs of slower traffic.
    This is a high-speed technical circuit, and those with
    moderately- or extremely-loose cars will likely find
    themselves slamming the barriers and/or sliding through the
    many patches of kitty litter.
    
    Pit Straight: The longest straightaway at Eastern Creek, Pit
    Straight also doubles as a drag strip :-)   Pit Entry is
    approximately 1/3 of the way along Pit Straight.
    
    Turn 1: This is a long left-hand corner requiring light
    braking after the immense length of Pit Straight and the high
    speeds attained there.
    
    Turn 2: This left-hand hairpin corner requires moderate or
    even heavy braking on approach, and perhaps slight braking
    throughout.  This is a somewhat-tight corner, so it is easy
    to misjudge speed and end up slipping off the pavement and
    getting stuck in the grass on the outside of the corner.
    
    Turn 3: Almost immediately following Turn 2, this right-hand
    corner may require light braking to keep from slipping out
    into the kitty litter on corner exit.
    
    Turn 4: This right-hand corner needs moderate braking to keep
    to the pavement, although a wide sand-filled recovery area is
    available if necessary.
    
    Turn 5: Just after Turn 4, Turn 5 is a left-hand corner
    requiring moderate braking.
    
    Turns 6-7: Turn 6 is a quick right-hand flick leading
    immediately into the left-hand sweeping Turn 7.  Light
    braking can be useful for Turn 6, whereas moderate braking is
    required for and throughout Turn 7 to keep the vehicle on the
    pavement.
    
    Turn 8: Light or moderate braking is needed for this left-
    hand corner.
    
    Turn 9: This right-hand hairpin requires moderate or even
    heavy braking.
    
    Turns 10-11: Turn 10 is a quick right-hand flick leading
    immediately into the left-hand sweeping Turn 11.  Light
    braking can be useful for Turn 10, whereas moderate braking
    is required for and throughout Turn 11 to keep the vehicle on
    the pavement.  This leads onto Pit Straight.
    
    ==============================================
    
    DRIVING INSTRUCTIONS: FUJI
    This Japanese circuit is perhaps most notable to North
    American classic video game enthusiasts from its appearance
    in Atari's Pole Position series in the stand-up arcades of
    the 1980s.  There are a few of these classic Pole Position
    and Pole Position II arcade boxes still in existence,
    although the best bet for finding these games now is on the
    various gaming consoles.  However, those who prefer the
    version of the circuit in the Pole Position series will be
    rather disappointed at the chicanes added along the faster
    sections of the Fuji circuit.
    
    Turns 1-2 (Daiichi Corner) This is a double-apex right-hand
    near-hairpin corner.  Due to the immense length of Pit
    Straight, HARD braking will be required before even thinking
    of entering Daiichi Corner, and moderate braking will be
    required throughout this section.  There is a nice patch of
    kitty litter on the outside of Daiichi Corner, but drivers
    should not expect it to stop a runaway car before the vehicle
    slams hard into the wall when overshooting this section of
    the circuit.
    
    Turns 3 and 4 (Sumtory Corner): Ahead, a barrier can be seen;
    this blocks direct access to the smooth left-hand corner Pole
    Position enthusiasts know so well; instead, players are
    forced straight ahead into a tight left-right complex around
    the barrier, so moderate or hard braking will be needed here
    on entry.  It is possible to power out of Turn 3 and through
    Turn 4 without braking, unless the car has some severe grip
    problems and/or is extremely loose (i.e., the back end of the
    car tends to swing about).
    
    Turn 5 (100R): If the driver's car is properly tuned, there
    should be no trouble with powering through this wide right-
    hand sweeping turn, even when navigating traffic.  However,
    cars which are moderately or extremely loose will have plenty
    of trouble here, ESPECIALLY if encumbered by traffic.
    
    Turn 6 (Hairpin): This left-hand corner is aptly named.
    Unfortunately, Hairpin comes at the dip following 100R, which
    can make this corner extremely tricky as the car inherently
    loses traction; the proximity of the barrier is definitely
    too close for comfort here due to this drop in elevation (the
    elevation change is certainly not significant, but it is just
    enough to cause grip problems in many cars).
    
    Turn 7 (MC Corner): This long, sweeping, right-hand corner is
    another prime place for full-throttle acceleration.
    
    Turns 8-10 (Dunlop Corner): This right-left-right chicane
    will also disappoint Pole Position enthusiasts.  Heavy
    braking will be needed for Turn 8, with moderate braking
    required for Turn 9.  Turn 10 should be easily taken at full
    acceleration.  Fortunately, the barrier forcing cars to take
    the chicane is easily visible from a distance on approach.
    
    Turn 11 (Last Corner): This aptly-named corner is the final
    sweeping long right-hand corner of the Fuji circuit.
    Moderately- and extremely-loose cars will have difficulty
    here; otherwise, only a slight tapping of the brakes MAY be
    necessary for Last Corner.
    
    ==============================================
    
    DRIVING INSTRUCTIONS: HOCKENHEIM LONG
    Surrounded by multitudes of trees which make much of the
    circuit rather dark in wet or overcast races, this is the
    fastest course used for F1 racing in recent years.  If not
    for the Jim Clark, Brems, and Ayrton Senna chicanes, cars
    would be flying around the course in top gear all the way
    from the North Curve (Turn 1) to the entry of the Stadium
    (Turn 10).  Except for the right side of the Pit Straight,
    there is more than enough room to pull well off the pavement
    should a car have a serious problem on any part of the
    circuit.  Interestingly, Hockenheim's Stadium segment is very
    similar to an unnamed final segment at Silverstone.
    
    Important Note: These driving instructions are for the old
    Hockenheim circuit.
    
    Pit Straight: This is an extremely short straightaway
    compared to the rest of the course.
    
    Turn 1 (North Curve): This right-hand corner will require
    moderate braking to keep out of the expansive kitty litter.
    The Pit Lane rejoins the course from the right at the exit of
    North Curve.  Acceleration out of North Curve is of key
    importance due to the length of the ensuing straightaway.
    
    Straightaway: Immensely lengthy and lined with trees, speed
    is of the utmost importance here.  The entire straightaway is
    an extremely gentle fade to the right.  Drift to the left
    when you reach the grandstands.
    
    Turns 2 and 3 (Jim Clark Chicane): Former games in the series
    had a patch of pavement heading straight off Turn 2, allowing
    for shortcutting of the chicane; this is no longer possible,
    as a nasty barrier blocks any shortcutting attempts.
    Moderate or heavy braking will be required for Turn 2 (or
    light braking if not in traffic and using a FLAWLESS racing
    line which makes judicious use of the rumble strips), but
    full acceleration can be taken leading out of the chicane.
    
    Straightaway: Yet another long, sweeping straightaway which
    fades calmly to the right, so powerful acceleration out of
    the Jim Clark Chicane is imperative to keep from getting
    passed.  Drift to the left before entering the Brems Chicane,
    and begin braking much earlier than for the Jim Clark
    Chicane.
    
    Turns 4 and 5 (Brems Chicane): The original course
    configuration (used in older F1 racing games) did not have a
    chicane here, and the original pavement remains.  However,
    the official course suddenly cuts tightly to the right and
    then cuts tightly to the left to rejoin the old pavement.
    Moderate braking will be needed for Turn 4, and light braking
    for Turn 5.  This right-left chicane has a continual downhill
    slope, adding to the difficulty of the chicane.  Even with
    the Flags option disabled, the angle of the old pavement to
    the official chicane is such that it is impossible to blast
    through this segment at top speed without spinning the car
    through the kitty litter.
    
    Turn 6 (East Curve): This is a very wide right-hand corner
    which can be taken at top speed.  Strong acceleration out of
    Brems is key to assist in passing here.
    
    Straightaway: This is yet another long straightaway, but
    without any fades.  Drift to the right for the Ayrton Senna
    Chicane.
    
    Turns 7-9 (Ayrton Senna Chicane): DO NOT follow the old
    course pavement directly ahead unless you really WANT to
    collide with the brand-new barrier.  The official course
    turns to the left, cuts to the right, and eases left again.
    It is actually possible to speed into Turn 7 at top speed,
    lift off the throttle through Turn 8, and accelerate quickly
    out of the chicane - but this is certainly NOT recommended.
    
    Straightaway: The final long straightaway of the course has
    extra pavement on the left - this could potentially be a
    place to pass large numbers of cars.  This extra pavement
    begins shortly after the exit of the Ayrton Senna Chicane,
    and ends at the entry of the Stadium; thus, if you are on
    this 'extra' pavement entering the Stadium, you will have a
    better racing line for Turn 10, allowing you to navigate the
    corner with less.
    
    Turns 10-13 (The Stadium): This is similar to the final
    segment of the Silverstone circuit.  However, do not expect
    to drive The Stadium the same way you would the final segment
    at Silverstone.
    
       Turn 10 (Entrance to the Stadium: Agip Curve): Light
       braking may be required here, but you should be able to
       pass through the Agip Curve without any braking at all
       (especially if your racing line began with the 'extra'
       pavement on the left before the Stadium).  A short
       straightaway follows.
    
       Turn 11 (Continuing through the Stadium: Sachscurve): This
       is a left-hand wide hairpin turn, requiring moderate
       braking.  Be careful not to end up in the grass, either
       entering or exiting the corner, and beware the barrier.
    
       Straightaway (Continuing through the Stadium): This short
       straightaway has a fade to the left, followed by a fade to
       the right.
    
       Turns 12 and 13 (Exiting the Stadium: Opel): The first
       right-hand corner is somewhat tight, and heavy braking
       will be required here; the old course rejoins the current
       course from the left on exit, so if you run wide in this
       corner, you can likely recover here using the old
       pavement.  The final corner of the circuit is a right-hand
       turn which will require moderate braking.  The Pit Lane
       entry is to the right just before the official Turn 13.
    
    Pit Entry: The Pit Lane begins to the right at the entry of
    Turn 13 (the final corner of the Stadium).
    
    ==============================================
    
    DRIVING INSTRUCTIONS: HOCKENHEIM SHORT
    In 2002, the long, traditional Hockenheim circuit was
    dismantled and replaced by a much shorter version.  F1
    traditionalists worldwide were FURIOUS about this change, as
    the shorter circuit is no longer scenic and is really too
    compact for F1 racing (although still better than A1-Ring in
    Austria).  However, the new, severely-shortened version of
    Hockenheim still retains its characteristic Stadium section,
    so at least some measure of the old circuit's tradition and
    history remains.  Interestingly, the new, shorter circuit
    supposedly now handles more spectators than the old, longer
    circuit.
    
    Pit Straight: This is an extremely short straightaway
    compared to the rest of the course.
    
    Turn 1 (North Curve): This right-hand corner will require
    moderate braking to keep out of the expansive kitty litter.
    The Pit Lane rejoins the course from the right at the exit of
    North Curve.  Acceleration out of North Curve is of key
    importance due to the length of the ensuing straightaway.
    
    Turn 2: After a nearly-nonexistent straightaway comes the
    right-hand 120-degree Turn 2.  This corner requires some
    moderate braking, and it is very easy to slide off the
    pavement here.  Unfortunately, the barrier on the inside of
    the corner is really TOO close to the pavement, so a driver
    trying to pass to the inside of a slower car will have
    literally nowhere to go should the slower car suddenly cut
    inward in the corner.  Just at the exit of Turn 2 is a quick
    fade to the left.
    
    Turn 3: After a brief straightaway is the left-hand 45-degree
    Turn 3.  It is best to begin braking for Turn 4 at the exit
    of Turn 3.
    
    Turn 4: Almost immediately after Turn 3 is the right-hand
    135-degree Turn 4, leading back onto the old (longer)
    Hockenheim circuit just before entering The Stadium.
    Moderate or heavy braking will be required for Turn 4,
    although there is a significant amount of paved swing-out
    room so that those in need of a quick recovery can briefly
    slam on the handbrake to keep off the outside barrier.
    
    Turns 5-8 (The Stadium): This is similar to the final segment
    of the Silverstone circuit.  However, do not expect to drive
    The Stadium the same way you would the final segment at
    Silverstone.
    
       Turn 5 (Entrance to the Stadium: Agip Curve): Light
       braking may be required here, but you should be able to
       pass through the Agip Curve without any braking at all
       (especially if your racing line began with the 'extra'
       pavement on the left before the Stadium).  A short
       straightaway follows.
    
       Turn 6 (Continuing through the Stadium: Sachscurve): This
       is a left-hand wide hairpin turn, requiring moderate
       braking.  Be careful not to end up in the grass, either
       entering or exiting the corner, and beware the barrier.
    
       Straightaway (Continuing through the Stadium): This short
       straightaway has a fade to the left, followed by a fade to
       the right.
    
       Turns 7 and 8 (Exiting the Stadium: Opel): The first
       right-hand corner is somewhat tight, and heavy braking
       will be required here; the old course rejoins the current
       course from the left on exit, so if you run wide in this
       corner, you can likely recover here using the old
       pavement.  The final corner of the circuit is a right-hand
       turn which will require moderate braking.  The Pit Lane
       entry is to the right just before the official Turn 8.
    
    Pit Entry: The Pit Lane begins to the right at the entry of
    Turn 8 (the final corner of the Stadium).
    
    ==============================================
    
    DRIVING INSTRUCTIONS: KNOCKHILL
    This circuit is a nightmare for car set-ups, as there are
    many tight corners (some with their own significant elevation
    changes) connected by significant straightaways.
    
    Pit Straight: Pit Straight is on an uphill slope, which may
    make standing starts somewhat tricky.  It is also quite
    lengthy.  Pit Entry is on the left, where the slots of the
    starting grid are located; this is a very short Pit Lane.
    
    Turn 1: This heavy-braking right-hand corner is made even
    more difficult because it heads downhill.  It is very easy to
    foul up here and get caught out in the sand on the outside of
    Turn 1.
    
    Turn 2: Almost immediately after Turn 1, this left-hand
    corner requires at least a slight tapping of the brakes to
    keep to the pavement.
    
    Turn 3: Almost immediately after Turn 2, this right-hand
    corner requires moderate braking  to keep to the pavement.
    
    Turn 4: Shortly after Turn 3, this gentle right-hand corner
    can be taken at full acceleration, but care must be taken on
    the approach to Turn 5.
    
    Turns 5-6: This tricky left-right complex requires heavy
    braking on entry; slowing enough on entry allows for powerful
    acceleration through Turn 6 and onto the ensuing
    straightaway.
    
    Turn 7: This difficult right-hand corner is on an uphill
    climb; if there is no traffic in front to provide an idea of
    where the circuit is, it is virtually impossible to see the
    layout of the pavement due to the angle of the hill.  This
    opens onto a nice straightaway.
    
    Turn 8: This is another right-hand corner on an uphill climb;
    this time, the corner is nearly a hairpin.  Strong
    acceleration out of Turn 8 is required, as this opens onto
    the lengthy Pit Straight.
    
    ==============================================
    
    DRIVING INSTRUCTIONS: LAS VEGAS
    This is a tri-oval which is VERY wide: three-abreast racing
    is definitely feasible here; four-wide racing MIGHT be
    possible (primarily on the straightaways), but should never
    be attempted.  Due to the nice width of the circuit, passing
    is relatively easy - the difficult part could be getting
    enough of an aerodynamic tow (slipstreaming or drafting) to
    actually make a pass.  The gentle, lengthy nature of the
    corners means that this is a fast race venue.
    
    ==============================================
    
    DRIVING INSTRUCTIONS: MAGNY-COURS
    The Magny-Cours circuit is characterized by long, sweeping
    straightaways, and fairly quick corners. The Adelaide hairpin
    will almost definitely cause trouble, especially for
    aggressive drivers, and is one of the slowest corners in
    modern F1 racing.  This is a very fun course to drive
    (admittedly a very subjective statement), but its layout can
    produce problems from the standpoint of hearing other cars:
    Three of its main straightaways are almost exactly parallel
    to each other with little distance and no large obstacles
    between them, sometimes making it difficult to determine
    where other cars are truly located around you as you try to
    anticipate where the next group of traffic that you will need
    to navigate is located; listen attentively to the team radio
    for useful traffic information.  The circuit also has
    extremely wide areas along most of the main course for a car
    to pull aside should a major malfunction arise.
    
    Pit Straight: Following the tight High School chicane, strong
    acceleration through the Pit Straight creates good passing
    chances through Great Curve and into Estoril.  However, the
    tightness of the High School chicane and the incredibly close
    proximity of the Pit Lane barrier requires immense caution
    and headache-causing concentration as you come onto the Pit
    Straight.  The Start/Finish Line is about halfway down the
    Pit Straight; the Pit Lane rejoins the course from the left
    at this point.
    
    Turn 1 (Great Curve): In accordance with its name, this is a
    sweeping left-hand corner which can be taken flat-out unless
    encumbered by a lot of traffic.
    
    Turn 2 (Estoril): Either light or moderate braking will be
    needed for entering the VERY long right-hand 180-degree
    Estoril; in either case, you will almost certainly be tapping
    the brakes repeatedly through Estoril.  It is quite easy to
    roll the right-side tires off onto the grass, and it is just
    as easy to slip off onto the grass on the outside of Estoril
    - both can easily occur, whether navigating traffic or
    driving alone.
    
    Straightaway (Golf): The Golf Straight if by far the longest
    of the course and includes several fades to the right.
    
    Turn 3 (Adelaide): The right-hand Adelaide hairpin is
    EXTREMELY tight.  The key here is to brake EARLY, as you will
    be downshifting from your top gear to your lowest gear
    rapidly; if you begin braking too late, you will be off in
    the grass.  If you accelerate too soon out of Adelaide, you
    will be rolling through the kitty litter and losing valuable
    track position.  Even 30MPH is likely to be too fast here.
    
    Straightaway: Acceleration out of Adelaide is important for
    passing other cars here.  There are a few fades in the course
    here.
    
    Turns 4 and 5 (Nurburgring): This is a right-left chicane
    which will require light braking.  It is possible to fly
    through Nurburgring without braking by making use of the
    bright-green extension on the inside of Turn 5; however, this
    extension is significantly shorter than it was in F1
    Championship Season 2000.
    
    Turn 6 (180 Degrees): This is quite true - the official name
    of this corner is '180 Degrees' according to the official Web
    site of Magny-Cours.  This is a wide left-hand hairpin
    nestled well within the Estoril hairpin.  Running too wide
    here will put you out in the sand; running too close to the
    apex could put you up on the rumble strips and force you to
    lose control.  While this corner is not as slow as the
    Adelaide hairpin, you really do not want to try pushing very
    much faster here.
    
    Straightaway: The third of the three parallel-running
    straightaways, this 'straightaway' has several fades before
    the Imola chicane.
    
    Turns 7 and 8 (Imola): This right-left chicane should require
    light braking, except for cars with a flawless racing line.
    The bright-green extension on the inside of Turn 8 is longer
    than in F1 Championship Season 2000, which could well be used
    for top-speed navigation of the chicane.  A short
    straightaway out of Imola sets up the Water Castle curve.
    
    Turn 9 (Water Castle): Somewhere between a standard 'J' turn
    and a hairpin, this is an increasing-radius right-hand corner
    leading into the final straightaway of the circuit.
    
    Turns 10 and 11 (High School): There is a false line of
    pavement to the right as you near the official chicane; this
    false pavement runs directly up to an immovable barrier (I
    believe this is the Pit Entry for other forms of racing at
    the circuit).  The official chicane requires moderate braking
    on entering, and allows for a VERY short burst of
    acceleration on exit.  If you completely miss this chicane,
    you will blast through the sand trap and break the front end
    on a perpendicular barrier blocking any direct access to Pit
    Lane.
    
    Turn 12 (High School): On entry, the Pit Lane begins to the
    left.  The official corner is a TIGHT right-hand turn which
    requires moderate or even heavy braking; wheel lock is very
    much a possibility here, especially in wet conditions.  If
    you miss the corner, you will blast through the all-too-brief
    sand trap and ram directly against a barrier and bounce
    backward into any cars behind you.  Speed is an extreme
    concern here; it is virtually impossible to go too slow, but
    going too fast will definitely result in a crash (with great
    possibility of bouncing into follow-up crashes with other
    cars, or with another nearby barrier).
    
    Pit Entry: The Pit Lane begins to the left at the entry of
    Turn 12.  The Pit Lane has its own sharp right-hand turn
    almost immediately, so it is best to begin slowing (or
    rather, barely accelerating) as you leave the High School
    chicane.
    
    ==============================================
    
    DRIVING INSTRUCTIONS: MANTORP PARK
    Like Eastern Creek, Mantorp Park uses one of its
    straightaways as a drag strip.  This time, however, the width
    from standard road course to drag strip is more impressive,
    allowing road course racers MUCH more room for passing along
    the drag strip portion of the circuit.  This is a high-speed
    circuit, although strong braking will be required for many
    corners; fortunately, there is plenty of recovery room in
    almost all areas of the circuit.
    
    Pit Straight: Unlike Eastern Creek, Mantorp Park's Pit
    Straight does not double as a drag strip; instead, the drag
    strip is just to the right as cars pass along Pit Straight.
    The Pit Straight itself is relatively short, so any passing
    here requires INCREDIBLE power out of the final corner and/or
    outbraking a competitor into Turn 1.
    
    Turn 1: This is a left-hand corner requiring moderate
    braking.
    
    Turn 2: After a too-brief straightaway comes the right-hand
    hairpin at Turn 2.  Moderate braking will be needed here, and
    light braking may be required throughout, especially if a car
    is loose.
    
    Turn 3: Shortly after the hairpin is a gentle right-hand bend
    which can generally be handled at full acceleration.
    
    Turns 4-5: This is a double-apex right-hand section leading
    onto the drag strip portion of the circuit.  Moderate braking
    is needed for Turn 4, while full acceleration can be used in
    Turn 5.  However, those who miss the braking zone for Turn 4
    can turn in the sand trap and slide sideways onto the staging
    area for the drag strip, then power ahead at full
    acceleration without having lost too much time.
    
    Straightaway: This is the drag strip portion of the Mantorp
    Park road course.  This is a rather wide stretch of pavement,
    so there should be no problems with passing slower cars here.
    Not surprisingly, this is the longest straightaway of the
    road course.
    
    Turn 6: At the end of the drag strip, this right-hand
    increasing-radius hairpin corner requires moderate or heavy
    braking on approach, and judicious throttle management
    throughout to keep from sliding the car off the pavement.
    
    Turn 7: Light braking may be required for this left-hand
    bend.
    
    Turns 8-9: This is a double-apex right-hand increasing-radius
    section leading back toward Pit Straight.  Moderate or heavy
    braking is required for Turn 8, while gentle throttle
    management can alleviate the need for braking in Turn 9 IF
    the car has slowed enough for Turn 8.  Pit Entry is on the
    left side of the pavement at the entry of Turn 9.
    
    Turn 10: This is a left-hand right-angle corner requiring
    moderate braking.  This leads onto Pit Straight.
    
    ==============================================
    
    DRIVING INSTRUCTIONS: MEXICO
    This circuit reopened for use in a CART race in November
    2002, many months after its originally-scheduled grand
    opening.  Pit Straight is immensely lengthy, but the rest of
    the circuit consists of mainly high-speed twists and turns.
    Drivers who prefer slightly-loose cars AND are excellent at
    countersteering and/or drift-style racing should perform well
    at Mexico.
    
    Turns 1-3: The end of Pit Straight is a moderate braking zone
    for the right-left-right chicane that begins the difficult
    twisty portion of the circuit.  If not encumbered by traffic,
    shortcutting across the chicane (or at least making ample use
    of the rumble strips) will save a lot of time and allow the
    driver to maintain momentum for the following straightaway.
    
    Turns 4 and 5: This is a left-right complex which can be
    rather tricky.  Moderate braking is needed on entering Turn
    4, but the car must be slowed even more in order to safely
    handle Turn 5 without getting caught in the kitty litter to
    the outside of the corner.
    
    Turns 6-13: This is the S-curve section.  Interestingly, the
    corners begin with a right-hand tight corner, then the
    corners gradually decrease in radius and 'tightness' while
    the slight distances between the corners keeps growing
    gradually.  After the final corner of this section (the
    fourth left-hand corner), the S-curve section empties onto
    another long straightaway which runs through a popular Mexico
    City baseball stadium.
    
    Turn 14: Essentially the Curva Parabolica of Mexico, this
    right-hand wide hairpin corner can be taken at full
    acceleration with slight or no braking required.  On corner
    entry, however, there is a rather significant bump - if a car
    is not tuned correctly, this bump can cause a problem for
    drivers.  Pit Entry is on the right immediately before
    entering Turn 14.
    
    ==============================================
    
    DRIVING INSTRUCTIONS: MONZA
    This historic high-speed track hosts a highly partial pro-
    Ferrari crowd - affectionately known as the 'tifosi.'  The
    2000 Italian Grand Prix is the race in which a volunteer
    corner worker was killed at the Roggia Chicane, due to all
    the flying debris from the first-lap multi-car collision
    caused by Heinz-Herald Frentzen missing his braking zone.
    
    Pit Straight: Strong acceleration out of the Curva Parabolica
    can create prime passing opportunities along the Pit
    Straight, the longest straightaway at Monza.  The Pit Lane
    begins on the right shortly after exiting the Parabolica.
    
    Turns 1-3 (Rettifilio): The new chicane here is a tight
    right-left with a gentle right turn back into line with the
    original pavement.  The chicane is blocked by a barrier, but
    the inside of Turn 1 has a paved 'extension' which may be of
    benefit.  Even with Flags on, shortcutting the chicane TO THE
    RIGHT OF THE BARRIER can be done at top speed, thus lowering
    lap times; shortcutting to the left of the barrier results in
    a Stop-Go Penalty.
    
    Turn 4 (Biassono): This sweeping right-hand corner among the
    thick trees can be taken flat-out.  To the left is a long,
    wide area of sand, but the corner is so extremely gentle that
    the sand should not be needed for any reason unless you blow
    an engine or severely puncture a tire.
    
    Turns 5 and 6 (Roggia): Despite the flatness of the Monza
    circuit, this chicane is extremely difficult to see on
    approach unless traffic is present to mark the pavement for
    you, so it is very easy to overrun the chicane.  This is a
    very tight left-right chicane, so moderate or heavy braking
    is required; shortcutting through here at full throttle is
    possible by making use of the new, narrow, bright-green
    extensions on the inside of each corner, as the CPU us rather
    tolerant of shortcutting here (compared to previous
    incarnations of the game).  There is a large sand trap for
    those who miss the chicane altogether.
    
    Turn 7 (First Lesmo): This right-hand corner requires
    moderate braking.  There is a wide sand trap on the outside
    of the corner, just in case.  Beware the barrier on the
    inside of the corner.  About 150MPH is the maximum speed
    here, or you risk slipping off the course and into the kitty
    litter.  If you shortcut the first two chicanes of the game,
    this will be the first time you absolutely need to use the
    brakes.
    
    Turn 8 (Second Lesmo): This right-hand corner is a little
    tighter than First Lesmo, and also has a significant area of
    kitty litter on the outside of the corner.  Moderate braking
    will be needed here.  Again, beware the barrier on the inside
    of the corner.  Generally, about 140MPH is the maximum speed
    here to keep from sliding off the pavement.
    
    Straightaway/Turn 9 (Serraglio): This is really just a fade
    to the left, but the official course map lists this as a
    curve.  Counting this as a fade, this marks about the halfway
    point on the longest straightaway of the Monza circuit.
    There is sufficient room to pull off the course here on
    either side if necessary, except when passing underneath the
    first bridge.  The circuit is extremely bumpy between the two
    bridges.
    
    Turns 10-12 (Ascari): The Ascari chicane is more difficult
    than it seems.  Turn 10 is a left-hand corner requiring at
    least light braking.  This is followed immediately by a
    right-hand corner requiring moderate braking.  Turn 12 can be
    taken at full acceleration if you slowed enough in Turn 11.
    Wide areas of grass and sand are available for those
    overruninng any part of the chicane.  Still, unless
    encumbered by traffic, experts may be able to take Ascari at
    full throttle with a flawless racing line which makes use of
    the rumble strips as well as the bright-green 'extension' on
    the inside of Turn 10.  Unfortunately, F1 2001 does not
    provide the real course's paved swing-out area at the exit of
    Ascari.
    
    Straightaway (Rettilineo Parabolica): This is the second-
    longest straightaway at Monza and a prime passing zone,
    especially with powerful acceleration out of Ascari.
    
    Turn 13 (Curva Parabolica): This final corner is a very-wide
    increasing-radius right-hand hairpin. Light or moderate
    braking is required on entry, but after about one-third of
    the way around the hairpin, stand on the accelerator all the
    way through to Rettifilio.  The outside of the Curva
    Parabolica has an immense expanse of kitty litter, but this
    really should not be necessary unless you suddenly need to
    take evasive action to avoid someone else's accident.  After
    the Lesmo corners, the Curva Parabolica is the third and
    final place where braking is a definite MUST.
    
    Pit Entry: Shortly after exiting the Curva Parabolica, the
    Pit Lane begins on the right.  This is perhaps the shortest
    Pit Lane in all of F1; there is virtually NO room for
    deceleration once leaving the main course, so cars going in
    for servicing will begin slowing at the exit of the Curva
    Parabolica.
    
    ==============================================
    
    DRIVING INSTRUCTIONS: NORISRING
    Due to the track layout and the surrounding scenery,
    Norisring primarily has the feel of an inner-city street
    circuit.  The circuit itself is rather small and thus
    extremely easy to learn, yet it is VERY difficult to master.
    
    Pit Straight: The single longest straightaway at Norisring,
    Pit Straight is also the widest straightaway, allowing plenty
    of room for passing slower traffic.  Pit Entry is on the
    right side about 1/4 of the way along Pit Straight; the lane
    for Pit Entry actually begins at the exit of the final
    corner.
    
    Turn 1: Things start with a BANG at this left-hand SHARP
    hairpin corner.  What makes this corner so nasty is that
    there is virtually NO recovery room for those who miss the
    braking zone or do not brake hard enough - there is
    definitely a reason why SEVERE braking is required for this
    initial hairpin corner.
    
    Turns 2-3: Essentially an overglorified chicane, this is a
    right-left complex which leads the raceway around and behind
    the main grandstands.  Both corners here are perpendicular
    corners, but the sand on the inside of Turn 2 makes car
    control virtually impossible if touched.  The exit of Turn 3
    has a brick extension alongside a brick wall; this extension
    is more than wide enough to provide an extra lane for passing
    slower traffic and/or for making a wide sweeping run out of
    Turn 3.
    
    Turns 4-5: Turn 4 is a right-hand kink just before the left-
    hand hairpin at Turn 5.  It is important to begin braking
    before Turn 4, then slam HARD on the brakes for Turn 5.
    Fortunately, the exit of the hairpin is onto an unbelievably-
    wide straightaway (the same width as Pit Straight), so the
    braking required here is not quite as severe as for the
    initial hairpin corner at Turn 1.
    
    Turn 6: Very quickly after the second hairpin is the left-
    hand full-throttle kink onto Pit Straight.  Those vehicles
    going to Pit Lane will keep hard to the right here coming off
    the second hairpin and through Turn 6.
    
    ==============================================
    
    DRIVING INSTRUCTIONS: NURBURGRING
    From a driving standpoint, the hilly Nurburgring circuit is
    very much characterized by its tight corners, some of which
    are semi-blind turns.  Tire wear is a definite issue in long
    races here, especially in wet conditions.  Even more
    important, however, is braking early for almost every corner;
    perhaps only the narrow streets of Monaco require more
    braking than does the Nurburgring circuit.
    
    Pit Straight: This straightaway is fairly long, but the
    Start/Finish Line is near the exit of the final corner.  The
    Pit Lane rejoins the course near the end of the Pit Straight,
    just before the Castrol S.
    
    Turns 1 and 2 (Castrol S): Moderate braking is required
    before entering this right-left 'S' curve.  It is quite easy
    to miss seeing the entry to the Castrol S unless traffic is
    present to mark the corner for you.  Until you know the
    course really well, expect to find yourself driving straight
    ahead into the recovery area.  Turn 2 is actually somewhat of
    a double-apex left-hand corner, so do not go too wide
    initially on exit.  Also, be careful not to drive too wide
    exiting the Castrol S.  Caution must be taken here on the
    first lap of a race, as the traffic truly bunches up here.
    
    Turn 3: Light braking or a quick lift of the accelerator will
    be necessary for this left-hand corner.  However, hard
    braking will be required for the Ford Curve ahead.  Beginning
    at the top of Turn 3, the course moves downhill.
    
    Turn 4 (Ford Curve): This is a hard right-hand corner,
    practically a 'J' curve.  The course continues its downhill
    slope here, which significantly adds to the difficulty of the
    turn, especially in wet condditions.  Braking too late here
    means a trip through the kitty litter, while riding up on the
    inside rumble strips usually means losing control of the car.
    This is definitely NOT a place to pass unless absolutely
    necessary.
    
    Straightaway: The course fades to the left here.  If you can
    accelerate well out of the Ford Curve, you should be able to
    pass several cars here as you continue downhill.
    
    Turn 5 (Dunlop Curve): Severe braking for this hairpin is a
    must, unless you really want to drive through the sand.
    Again, rolling up on the rumble strips on the inside of the
    curve may cause you to lose control of the car; however, I
    have several times induced slight wheelspin of the right-side
    tires on the rumble strip, which helped to swing the car
    around the corner just a little faster.  The course continues
    gently uphill here toward the Audi S.
    
    Turns 6 and 7 (Audi S): Entering the left-right Audi S, the
    uphill slope of the course increases, making it very
    difficult to see the course more than a few feet ahead.  The
    exit of Turn 6 is the crest of this hill.  Unless traffic
    blocks your racing line, the entire Audi S section can be
    taken at top speed if you have a good racing line, so good
    acceleration out of the Dunlop Curve will be very beneficial
    for passing entering Turn 6 and/or exiting Turn 7.
    
    Turn 8 (RTL Curve): With the rise in the course entering the
    left-hand RTL Curve, this appears to be identical to Turn 6
    on approach.  However, you MUST use moderate braking entering
    the RTL Curve, or you will definitely be off in the grass on
    the outside of the curve.  After a short straightaway, this
    corner is followed by the gentler BIT Curve.
    
    Turn 9 (BIT Curve): This right-hand curve will require light
    or moderate braking, depending on how much acceleration was
    used in the brief straightaway following the RTL Curve.
    
    Turn 10 (Bilstein-Bogen): This is a gentle right-hand semi-
    corner which can be taken at full throttle.  From here to the
    Veedal S, the course makes its final and steepest upward
    slope.
    
    Turns 11 and 12 (Veedal S): This is an extremely tight left-
    right made even worse for the drivers by its placement at the
    very crest of the hill.  For those who overshoot the chicane,
    there is a newly-added barrier to collect you and your car.
    
    Turn 13 (Coca-Cola Curve): A 'J' turn to the right, moderate
    braking is required here to keep from sliding off the course.
    The entry of the Coca-Cola Curve is also where the Pit Lane
    begins, so cars may be slowing on approach to go to Pit Lane
    for servicing.  This is the final corner of the circuit.
    
    Pit Entry: The Pit Lane begins at the entry of the final
    corner.  It is extremely important to slow down before
    entering Pit Lane; if you come in too fast, you will
    certainly damage the front of the car on the barrier.  Keep
    tight to the right for Pit Entry, to allow those continuing
    the race to have the prime racing line to the left of the
    pavement.
    
    ==============================================
    
    DRIVING INSTRUCTIONS: ORAN PARK
    Like Suzuka in Japan, Oran Park includes a bridge where the
    raceway crosses over itself.  However, Oran Park is generally
    a slower-speed circuit than Suzuka, primarily due to the lack
    of long straightaways and the many moderate- and severe-
    braking corners.  Fortunately, the circuit is almost entirely
    flat; even the ascent to and the descent from the bridge is
    so gradual that elevation is really not an issue when working
    on car set-ups for Oran Park.
    
    Pit Straight: Pit Entry is about 1/3 of the way along Pit
    Straight, although the entry lane for Pit Entry begins at the
    exit of the final corner (on the right); this 'extra lane' is
    also quite useful as a swing-out area for the final corner,
    if necessary, but a barrier directly against the pavement
    here still requires some amount of moderate braking for the
    final corner.
    
    Turn 1: This is a gentle left-hand kink which itself can be
    taken at full acceleration.  However, it is best to begin
    braking well before Turn 1, since the nasty Turn 2 follows
    IMMEDIATELY.
    
    Turn 2: This tight left-hand corner requires moderate or even
    severe braking.  This 135-degree corner leads underneath the
    bridge, and because there is precious little recovery room,
    missing the braking zone for Turn 2 will obliterate a vehicle
    almost instantly.
    
    Turn 3: Shortly after passing underneath the bridge is the
    right-hand Turn 3, a nasty and tight 135-degree corner.  With
    the lack of a recovery area, moderate or severe braking is a
    MUST for Turn 3.
    
    Turn 4: A paved chicane area which is not used for the Grand
    Prix configuration appears on the right; immediately
    following this is Turn 4 itself.  This is yet another nasty
    and tight 135-degree corner leading onto the bridge.  There
    is a moderate recovery area to the outside of Turn 4, but
    moderate or heavy braking is still required to keep off the
    grass.
    
    Turn 5: INSTANTLY beyond the bridge is a junction; the Grand
    Prix circuit heads to the right here with yet another nasty
    right-hand corner requiring moderate or severe braking.  It
    is best to begin braking just as the car comes onto the
    bridge itself.
    
    Turns 6-7: Shortly beyond Turn 5, this is an overglorified
    right-left chicane.  Light or moderate braking will be needed
    here to keep to the pavement.
    
    Turn 8: Beyond the overglorified chicane, this is a left-hand
    corner which needs light or possibly moderate braking.
    
    Turns 9-10: Again, this is an overglorified right-left
    chicane.  Expert drivers can squeak through here with no
    braking whatsoever, but most drivers will likely need light
    braking to keep to the pavement here.  There is also a slight
    crest on entry here, and a dip exiting Turn 10, and these
    features can certainly play havoc with a car's handling
    (especially with lightweight cars).
    
    Turn 11: This final corner is on a slight incline as it leads
    onto Pit Straight.  Moderate braking is needed for this left-
    hand 135-degree corner.
    
    ==============================================
    
    DRIVING INSTRUCTIONS: OSCHERSLEBEN
    This is a primarily flat circuit, so ride height need not be
    a problem.  However, there are several slow hairpin corners
    plus plenty of other corners which require moderate braking.
    The recovery areas around the circuit are not very
    significant, so it really is best to keep to the pavement at
    all times.
    
    Pit Straight: This is the longest straightaway at
    Oschersleben.
    
    Turn 1: At the end of Pit Straight, this is a semi-gentle
    left-hand corner.  This corner itself does not require
    braking, but Turn 2 (which follows immediately after the exit
    of Turn 1) DOES require braking, so it is perhaps best to
    begin braking just at the entry of Turn 1 at the latest (of
    course, braking works best in a straight line).
    
    Turn 2: This right-hand 270-degree corner requires moderate
    or even severe braking to keep from sliding off the pavement.
    Once in the corner itself, careful throttle management is
    required to keep from overspinning the drive wheels and
    sending the car sliding off the raceway.
    
    Turn 3: After a short straightaway, this is a left-hand
    hairpin corner requiring moderate braking.  The entire turn
    is banked slightly, but it is definitely not enough to help
    to 'catch' a car which is carrying too much speed into and
    through Turn 3.
    
    Turns 4-6: This is a triple-apex left-hand complex with
    requires increasing braking with each corner.
    
    Turn 7: IMMEDIATELY following Turn 6, this right-hand hairpin
    requires moderate braking (if the vehicle is not already
    slowed enough after the triple-apex section) and feather-
    light acceleration to remain on the pavement.
    
    Turns 8-10: This right-left-right chicane requires increasing
    braking with each corner.  It is possible to completely
    bypass Turn 9, but this requires running through the kitty
    litter.  Careful acceleration is needed from the apex to the
    exit of Turn 10.
    
    Turns 11-12: At the end of the second-longest straightaway at
    Oschersleben is an overglorified right-left chicane.  It is
    important to use light or even moderate braking for Turn 11
    to avoid the sand trap.  By making judicious use of the
    rumble strips, drivers can save a few milliseconds of time -
    and may also even be able to make a pass.
    
    Turn 13: This is a 30-degree right-hand corner which requires
    light braking.
    
    Turn 14: After a VERY brief straightaway, this final turn is
    a right-hand 150-degree turn leading back onto Pit Straight.
    Pit Entry is to the left just before corner entry.
    
    ==============================================
    
    DRIVING INSTRUCTIONS: OULTON PARK
    Overtaking is often difficult at this tight venue.  This
    circuit is also somewhat rough on brakes in long races, in
    part due to the traffic jams (especially at the first corner
    at the beginning of a race).  The two lengthy straightaways
    (one with a tight chicane) can be a great place to pass if
    gearing and downforce are set correctly.
    
    Pit Straight: The Pit Straight here is rather long compared
    to most, so powerful acceleration is absolutely necessary.
    
    Turn 1 (Old Hall Corner): This right-hand corner begins a
    slow downhill run along The Avenue and Dentons.  Slight or
    moderate braking is required for the corner, put strong
    acceleration is needed on corner exit.
    
    Turn 2 (Cascades): This tricky left-hand corner requires
    moderate braking as the pavement leaves the Fosters circuit
    using this left-hand J-turn.  This opens out onto the longest
    straightaway of the circuit, so hard acceleration is needed
    here to gain race positions before the next corner.
    
    Straightaway (Lakeside): Named for the lake to the left of
    the pavement, strong acceleration is needed here.
    
    Turn 3 (Island Bend): This left-hand corner (more of a fade
    than a corner) can itself be taken flat-out, but moderate
    braking is really required due to the hairpin which follows
    almost immediately.
    
    Turn 4 (Shells Oils Corner): This right-hand hairpin is
    rather slow, making this a prime place for passing on braking
    on corner entry, and for passing on horsepower on corner
    exit.
    
    Turns 5-7 (Foulstons): This tight left-right-left chicane
    truly disrupts any sense of speed, but can be good for
    passing on braking FOR EXPERTS ONLY due to the signs blocking
    a clear run past the chicane.
    
    Straightaway (Hilltop): This long straightaway is a wonderful
    place for high-horsepower cars to pass slower traffic,
    especially if there are multiple cars all trying to draft off
    each other.
    
    Turn 8 (Knickelbrook): This right-hand corner can be taken at
    full throttle unless blocked by traffic.  A pristine racing
    line is needed (perhaps with the assistance of the rumble
    strips) to keep on the pavement.  There is a paved chicane on
    the inside of Knickelbrook, but it is not used for TOCA
    racing.
    
    Straightaway (Clay Hill): This long straightaway has a left-
    hand bend.
    
    Turn 9 (Druids Corner): This right-hand corner will require
    light braking to keep to the pavement as the car muscles its
    way along a slow uphill climb.
    
    Turn 10 (Lodge Corner): This right-hand J-turn requires
    moderate braking on entrance to keep out of the sand and
    grass.  Once safely though Lodge Corner, it is imperative to
    power hard along Pit Straight to make a few passes.
    ==============================================
    
    DRIVING INSTRUCTIONS: PHILLIP ISLAND
    The Phillip Island Grand Prix Circuit is host of both V8
    Supercars and some of the high-profile international
    motorcycle series.  The circuit combines high speeds with
    VERY slow hairpin corners, making car set-up a bit more of a
    compromise than usual in auto racing.
    
    Pit Straight: The final corner is gentle enough that braking
    should not be necessary, so Pit Straight is FAST.
    
    Turn 1: This gentle right-hand corner may not require any
    braking at all; however, depending on car set-up, moderate
    braking may be required.  In any event, there is plenty of
    sand to catch those who miss the braking zone.
    
    Turn 2: This is a long left-hand hairpin corner requiring
    moderate braking.  The speeds here are definitely slow, but
    not quite as slow as for the other hairpin corners of the
    circuit.
    
    Turn 3: This is a gentle left-hand corner which should
    require light braking at most.  However, toward the end of
    the corner, it is imperative to begin braking for Turn 4.
    
    Turn 4: The first of the REALLY slow hairpin corners, this
    right-hand corner requires moderate or even severe braking,
    depending on if/when braking began in Turn 3 itself.
    
    Turn 5: This is a barely-noticeable kink to the right, but
    this is listed as an official corner on the circuit map.
    
    Turn 6: This is another REALLY slow hairpin corner, this time
    to the left.  Moderate or severe braking will be required for
    Turn 6 as well.
    
    Turn 7: This is a barely-noticeable kink to the left, but
    this is listed as an official corner on the circuit map.
    
    Turn 8: Turn 8 is a high-speed sweep to the right, requiring
    only a light tapping of the brakes if necessary.
    
    Turn 9: Light or moderate braking is needed to keep to the
    pavement in this sweeping left-hand corner.
    
    Turn 10: This is the final hairpin corner of the circuit, and
    it is also very SLOW, requiring moderate or (most likely)
    severe braking on approach.
    
    Turn 11: Coming out of Turn 10, this left-hand corner may
    require light braking, but throttle management is the true
    key to remaining on the pavement in Turn 11.
    
    Turn 12: This final corner is a long sweeping left-hand arc
    back onto Pit Straight; Pit Entry is to the left just before
    corner entry.
    
    ==============================================
    
    DRIVING INSTRUCTIONS: ROCKINGHAM OVAL
    'Oval' is really a misnomer in the case of Rockingham Oval.
    This circuit is essentially shaped like a square with an
    adjacent triangle attached to its side.  If a car is tuned
    properly, NO braking will be required unless the driver
    cannot get low enough in a corner and drifts toward the wall.
    All corners are also banked, although Turn 3 is banked less
    than the other corners.  It may actually be beneficial to
    simply SLIDE through the corners, depending on car set-up and
    driver experience.
    
    Turns 1 and 2: These are left-hand perpendicular corners,
    although the corners themselves are long and semi-gentle.
    Pit Exit is from the left beyond the exit of Turn 2.
    
    Turn 3: This is a 45-degree corner.
    
    Turn 4: This is a 135-degree corner which is long and semi-
    gentle.  Pit Entry is to the left just before corner entry.
    
    ==============================================
    
    DRIVING INSTRUCTIONS: ROCKINGHAM ROAD
    This is a 'stadium circuit' (similar to the Indianapolis
    Grand Prix circuit used in F1 racing) nestled within the
    Rockingham Oval circuit. Turn 4 of the Rockingham Oval venue
    is used, as is the Pit Lane and Pit Exit lane; otherwise, the
    Rockingham Road circuit makes use of the vast infield area.
    
    Turns 1-3: Just beyond the Start/Finish Line, the Rockingham
    Road raceway has a left-right chicane off the oval portion
    and onto the oval's Pit Exit lane; a barrier prevents drivers
    from simply powering ahead along the oval.  Once on the
    oval's Pit Exit lane, the pavement makes a gentle curve to
    the left while merging once again with the oval portion of
    the venue.  (Note that the chicane itself can be
    straightlined, but moderate braking will still definitely be
    required.)
    
    Turns 4 and 5: This is a harsh double-apex left-hand hairpin
    off the oval and onto the infield portion of the circuit.
    This hairpin corner will require moderate or severe braking.
    
    Turns 6 and 7: After a short straightaway, this is a pair of
    right-hand perpendicular corners.  Moderate braking will
    again be needed here for each of these corners .
    
    Turns 8 and 9: This is a left-right chicane which requires
    light or moderate braking, depending on car set-up and
    traffic conditions.
    
    Turns 10 and 11: Again, this is a set of left-hand
    perpendicular corners.  Moderate braking is required for
    both, but this section can be treated as a single left-hand
    hairpin turn.
    
    Turn 12: This left-hand 135-degree corner requires moderate
    braking to keep on the pavement.
    
    Turn 13: Here is a TRUE hairpin corner to the right,
    requiring moderate or severe braking.  This is perhaps the
    best place to pass via outbraking an opponent.
    
    Turns 14 and 15: This is a pair of left-hand corners.  The
    first of these corners will require moderate braking, but the
    second corner can be handled nicely at full acceleration.
    
    Turn 16: This is also a true hairpin corner, this time to the
    left and leading back toward the oval portion of the circuit.
    Moderate or severe braking will be required here; the
    handbrake can be used here effectively if carrying too much
    speed into Turn 16.
    
    Turn 17 (Oval Turn 4): This is the final corner of the oval
    portion of the circuit.  Note that for the Rockingham Road
    circuit, however, Pit Entry is on the left at the APEX of
    this corner.
    
    ==============================================
    
    DRIVING INSTRUCTIONS: SANDOWN
    This circuit appears easy on the circuit map, but is a very
    different beast on the pavement; numerous test drives and
    practice sessions are definitely required to truly come to
    grips with Sandown.
    
    Turn 1: The initial corner is a left-hand near-perpendicular
    corner requiring moderate or severe braking after the lengthy
    Pit Straight.  There is fortunately A LOT of recovery room
    for those who miss the braking zone.
    
    Turns 2 and 3: This is a right-left chicane which should
    really require light braking.  However, it is quite feasible
    to straightline this chicane; those with extensive rally
    racing experience will already be quite adept at this tactic.
    
    Turn 4: IMMEDIATELY following Turn 3, this is a NASTY left-
    hand acute-angle corner which requires moderate or severe
    braking.  Most importantly, the 'recovery area' here is
    extremely tiny, so missing the braking zone for Turn 4 will
    definitely result in severe car damage against the barrier on
    the outside of the corner.
    
    Straightaway: This is the longest straightaway of the
    circuit, with a slight fade to the right just shortly beyond
    Turn 4.  The straightaway also crests at its end.
    
    Turns 5-8: This is a left-right-left-left complex which
    requires harder and harder braking with each corner.  The
    entire complex makes a left-hand 120-degree bend overall, but
    it is comprised of some rather fast-approaching corners with
    little recovery room.
    
    Turns 9 and 10: This is a right-left chicane requiring
    moderate braking on approach, but powerful acceleration
    through Turn 10 and all the way to the end of Pit Straight.
    
    Turn 11: With Pit Entry to the right at corner apex, this is
    a gentle left-hand bend onto Pit Straight which can be taken
    at full acceleration.
    
    ==============================================
    
    DRIVING INSTRUCTIONS: SEARS POINT
    Sears Point Raceway is one of only two road courses used in
    NASCAR racing.  This circuit is also notable in NASCAR due to
    the need for two Pit Lanes - one on each side of the raceway
    near the Start/Finish Line.  Road course and street course
    specialists will certainly love Sears Point, even if using a
    standard NASCAR-spec vehicle :-)
    
    Pit Straight: There really is NO 'Pit Straight' per se, since
    the main Pit Lane curves around the outside of final corner
    (a hairpin turn) while the secondary Pit Lane begins to the
    inside of this hairpin turn.  There is a semi-significant
    bend to the left about halfway between the final corner and
    Turn 1.
    
    Turn 1: This is a fast left-hand bend taken at full
    acceleration and beginning an uphill climb.
    
    Turn 2: Shortly after the first corner, this is another left-
    hand bend which can generally be handled at full
    acceleration.  However, due to Turn 3 which closely follows,
    it is best to begin braking for the next corner at the apex
    of Turn 2.
    
    Turn 3: This is a right-hand blind corner due to the
    hillside.  Those who miss the braking zone and/or forget to
    turn (the actual corner itself is VERY difficult to spot on
    approach) may be able to benefit from the wide paved recovery
    area.  Since the recovery area is paved, it is relatively
    easy to maintain a moderate level of speed and rejoin the
    race.  However, because the recovery area is paved, it is
    also quite easy to keep on sliding across the pavement and
    slam into the barrier.
    
    Turns 4 and 5: This is a left-right section which dips at the
    entry of Turn 4, crests, then begins a gentle downhill run
    toward Turn 6.  The elevation changes in this section can
    cause handling problems, especially for lightweight cars.
    
    Turn 6: This is a right-hand right-angle corner around a tire
    barrier (placed specifically to prevent shortcutting the
    corner).  Those with good drift-racing skills can implement
    those abilities here (and at Turn 7 as well) to pass one or
    two cars through the corner (but beware the barrier at the
    apex).  Like Turn 3, Turn 6 has a wide paved recovery area
    for those who overshoot the braking zone; this recovery area
    is the largest at Sears Point, so a GREAT amount of effort is
    required to slide all the way across it and slam into the
    distant barrier to damage the vehicle.
    
    Turn 7: This is a right-hand 135-degree corner around a tire
    barrier (placed specifically to prevent shortcutting the
    corner).  Those with good drift-racing skills can implement
    those abilities here (as at Turn 6) to pass one or two cars
    through the corner (but beware the barrier at the apex).
    
    Turn 8: Immediately at the exit of Turn 7, this is a quick
    left-hand bend which can be taken at full acceleration.
    
    Turns 9-14 (S-curves): The raceway keeps switching from left
    to right, all the way back to Pit Entry for the primary Pit
    Lane.  The overall trend of the raceway here is a gentle
    downhill slope, although some corners will require light
    braking to remain on the pavement.
    
    Turn 15: This is a tight right-hand hairpin corner with some
    paved swing-out room (but not very much).  Pit Entry for the
    primary Pit Lane is to the left well before this hairpin
    corner, while Pit Entry for the secondary Pit Lane is to the
    right on corner exit.
    
    ==============================================
    
    DRIVING INSTRUCTIONS: SILVERSTONE
    The Silverstone International circuit shares much of the same
    pavement as the Grand Prix circuit used for the annual F1
    Grand Prix of Great Britain; in fact, the pavement for the
    two circuits even cross at approximately two-thirds of the
    way around the International circuit.  Once the International
    circuit leaves the Grand Prix circuit, however, the ensuing
    S-curves are incredibly tight and tricky, although
    straightlining by making use of the rumble strips will often
    help to save time.
    
    Pit Straight: The Start/Finish Line is directly at the
    beginning of the Pit Straight.  There is no room for error on
    the right side of the track, as the Pit Lane barrier is
    directly against the pavement.
    
    Turn 1 (Copse): This is a moderate right-hand corner which
    can be taken at full speed with a pristine racing line, but
    be careful to not run off the course at the exit of the turn.
    The best racing line is to tightly hug the apex, but the Pit
    Lane barrier is right there against the pavement, so it is
    imperative to keep the right side of the vehicle from rubbing
    the barrier.  Copse exits onto a long straightaway.
    
    Straightaway: The Pit Lane rejoins the main course from the
    right about 1/3 of the way along the straight.
    
    Turns 2-3 (Maggots): This is a left-right S-curve. Turn 2 can
    be taken at full speed or with very quick tapping of the
    brakes, but Turn 3 requires moderate braking to keep to the
    pavement.
    
    Turn 4: This tight right-hand J-curve can easily surprise
    newcomers to this version of Silverstone; fortunately, there
    is plenty of sand to the outside of the corner to catch the
    unwary.  With the heavy braking required to safely clear this
    corner, this is a prime place to pass on braking.
    
    Turn 5-7 (Ireland): This tight set of S-curves can be taken
    at full throttle with no traffic by straightlining the
    corners using the rumble strips.  Otherwise, expect to be
    frustrated by slow traffic in this tight left-right-left
    complex.  There is a fade to the left on exiting Ireland.
    
    Turn 8: There is a fade to the left immediately before
    entering this tight right-hand hairpin, which makes the
    hairpin itself much more difficult.  Fortunately, pavement
    from the Silverstone Grand Prix circuit crosses the
    International circuit here, so those who go wide on the
    hairpin can generally make use of the Grand Prix pavement to
    recover and get back onto the International pavement.
    
    Straightaway (Farm Straight): From the right side, the Grand
    Prix pavement rejoins the International pavement.  Both
    circuits follow the same pavement for the remainder of the
    lap.  With good acceleration out of the hairpin, good passing
    opportunities can be made here.
    
    Turns 9-13: This final segment of the circuit is very similar
    to The Stadium at Hockenheim.  However, these similar
    segments cannot be approached in the same manner.
    
       Turn 9 (Bridge): Immediately after passing underneath the
       pedestrian bridge, you will enter a complex similar to The
       Stadium at Hokkenheim.  This is a right-hand corner which
       can likely be taken at full speed.
    
       Turn 10 (Priory): This left-hand corner will require
       moderate braking.
    
       Turn 11 (Brooklands): Another left-hand corner, this one
       requires heavy braking.  There is a small sand trap for
       those who miss the braking zone.
    
       Turn 12 (Luffield): This set of right-hand corners
       essentially forms a 'U' shape, and requires moderate or
       severe braking to avoid sliding off into the kitty litter.
       The entry to Pit Lane is on the right shortly leaving
       Luffield.
    
       Turn 13 (Woodcote): Barely a corner but more than a fade,
       the course eases to the right here.  The right-side
       barrier begins abruptly here (be careful not to hit it).
    
    Pit Entry: The Pit Lane begins to the right between Luffield
    and Woodcote.  The new Pit Lane has a gentle right-hand
    swing, so you can come into Pit Lane at top speed and have
    plenty of room to slow.
    
    ==============================================
    
    DRIVING INSTRUCTIONS: T1 CIRCUIT AIDA
    Aida is a fun and fairly quick circuit.  There are many high-
    speed areas, tempered with a few J-turns to slow the cars.
    Fortunately, there are NO CHICANES at Aida, which is
    absolutely great for aggressive drivers.
    
    Turn 1: After a moderate-length Pit Straight, Turn 1 is a
    right-hand J-turn requiring moderate braking and gentle
    throttle control throughout.  While passing on the outside
    line is indeed possible here, it is not suggested.
    
    Turn 2: Shortly after Turn 1, this is a gentle left-hand
    corner which can generally be taken at full acceleration with
    a pristine racing line making use of the rumble strips
    (especially on corner exit)... unless encumbered by traffic.
    
    Straightaway: This 'straightaway' has three fades - left-
    right-left - which can essentially be straightlined; those
    with experience in rally racing will already have this
    essential time-shaving skill in their arsenal of racing
    tactics.
    
    Turn 3: Immediately after the final fade of the preceding
    'straightaway,' the circuit makes a right-hand bend here as
    the venue makes a slow rise.  This corner requires moderate
    braking.  Note that the crest comes after corner exit, so
    while speed out of the corner is important, it is quite
    possible that there will be an incident jut over the rise -
    therefore, drivers must be prepared to quickly take evasive
    action coming over the crest.
    
    Turn 4: After a second mini-crest comes the right-hand Turn
    4.  Moderate braking is required here as is a tight racing
    line along the apex for this J-turn.
    
    Turns 5 and 6: Almost immediately after Turn 4 comes a pair
    of left-hand corners.  These are fairly gentle corners
    requiring only light braking, but the straightaway connecting
    Turn 5 and Turn 6 is simply too long to permit treating this
    section like one elongated hairpin corner.  Slow cars tend to
    REALLY slow for the Turns 4-5-6 complex, so powering out of
    the corners and braking heavily and late entering the corners
    will help with passing in this section.
    
    Turns 7 and 8: This section begins just beyond the pedestrian
    bridge over the raceway.  This is a set of left-right J-
    turns, each requiring moderate braking.  Again, slow cars
    tend to be REALLY slow here, so powering out of the corners
    and braking heavily and late entering the corners will help
    with passing in this section.
    
    Turns 9 and 10: This is a pair of VERY gentle right-hand
    corners requiring NO braking whatsoever, so long as the
    driver can keep a good racing line.  These corners
    essentially form one wide sweeping elongated hairpin turn to
    the right.
    
    ==============================================
    
    DRIVING INSTRUCTIONS: VALLELUNGA
    This Italian venue is primarily a high-speed circuit with
    semi-gentle curves that require only very light braking, if
    any braking is required at all.  However, on the back side of
    the circuit, there is a set of hairpin corners which requires
    moderate or hard braking, thus slowing things down
    considerably.  So long as drivers master this 'additional'
    section along the back side of the circuit, there should be
    no problems attaining success at Vallelunga :-)
    
    Turn 1: At the end of Pit Straight, this is a gentle left-
    hand bend.  There is pavement which continues straight ahead,
    but this is not used.  Little braking is needed here, if any.
    
    Turn 2: Shortly after Turn 1, the raceway makes a gentle
    right-hand bend.  Little braking is needed here, if any.
    
    Turn 3: If any, little braking is needed for this long,
    gentle, sweeping right-hand bend.
    
    Turn 4: This is a rather wide hairpin corner to the right,
    requiring moderate braking on approach and careful throttle
    management throughout.
    
    Turns 5 and 6: This right-left section should not require any
    braking whatsoever, except perhaps by the most powerful of
    cars.
    
    Turn 7: This begins the tricky section of the circuit.  This
    is a right-hand hairpin corner requiring moderate braking.
    Note that there is virtually NO recovery room should a driver
    miss the braking zone for Turn 7.
    
    Turn 8: After a brief straightaway, this is an even tighter
    hairpin corner, this time to the left.  Severe braking will
    be needed here, especially since there is NO recovery area to
    the outside of the corner until corner exit - and this is
    primarily a steep hillside which risks to cause a vehicle to
    flip onto its side or roof.
    
    Turns 9 and 10: This left-right section requires light
    braking for most cars, or moderate braking by high-power
    vehicles.
    
    Turn 11: This final corner is a right-hand hairpin requiring
    light braking.  Drivers must avoid shortcutting the corner
    even by a few centimeters, as a barrier protrudes all the way
    up to the pavement itself at the apex of this hairpin turn.
    Note that Pit Entry is to the left (the inside of the corner)
    just beyond the apex but before corner exit.
    
    ==============================================
    
    DRIVING INSTRUCTIONS: VANCOUVER
    Perhaps most popular for the annual CART race (one of three
    in Canada - the others being in Toronto and Montreal), this
    is a TIGHT street circuit.  This means that there are AT MOST
    two lanes of racing (and passing in most areas is very dicey
    at best), and that there is NOWHERE to go in case of a
    mistake or an accident.  Due to the barriers, ALL corners are
    semi-blind.
    
    Turn 1: This is a wide right-hand hairpin corner, with Pit
    Exit at the apex.  This is actually one of the two best
    passing zones at Vancouver, but passing here means keeping a
    VERY tight line on corner entry and hoping that the brakes do
    not lock up and cause the vehicle to slide across the
    pavement and into the outside barrier.
    
    Turn 2: Immediately after Turn 1, this is a left-hand right-
    angle corner.
    
    Turn 3: After a VERY short straightaway, this is a right-hand
    right-angle corner onto the long back straightaway.
    
    Straightaway: This is the longest straightaway at Vancouver.
    Passing here is possible, but definitely still tricky due to
    the narrow nature of the circuit.  The 'straightaway' has a
    semi-significant bend to the right about 1/3 of the way along
    its length, but this can be handled at full acceleration
    (even with side-by-side racing).
    
    Turn 4: This is the other prime passing area, a right-hand
    right-angle corner.  There is some extra room on the inside
    of the corner, so crossing over the rumble strips can be
    quite useful for passing.
    
    Turn 5: This is a right-hand hairpin corner, requiring
    moderate braking.  If there is no traffic here, some good
    speeds can be carried through Turn 5.
    
    Turns 6-9: This is a left-left-right-left complex which is
    rather tricky, especially since the raceway narrows between
    Turns 6 and 7.  Harder and harder braking will be required
    while passing through this section.
    
    Turns 10-12: This final section is the trickiest, both to see
    and to drive.  There is an overhead highway on the left side
    of the raceway approaching Turn 10; at the TINY break in the
    wall, the raceway makes a hard left-right-left onto Pit
    Straight.  GOING STRAIGHT AHEAD LEADS TO PIT LANE!!!!!
    Moderate or even severe braking is required to definitely be
    able to keep to the pavement without banging any of the
    barriers here at the tiny opening.
    
    ==============================================
    
    DRIVING INSTRUCTIONS: ZANDVOORT
    This is one of the trickiest race circuits on the planet.
    While not as technical as Monaco, the difficulty level is
    still definitely rather high.  There are really only two
    high-speed sections along the entire circuit; the rest of the
    circuit is filled with twists and turns combined with changes
    in elevation; for much of the circuit, there is NO room for
    error, as - similar to a street circuit - the barriers come
    almost directly up against the raceway itself.
    
    Pit Straight: This is one of only two sustained high-speed
    sections at Zandvoort.  Pit Entry is on the right about 1/3
    of the way along Pit Straight; the Pit Entry lane begins just
    after the exit of Turn 14.
    
    Turn 1: This right-hand hairpin requires moderate or even
    severe braking to keep out of the vast area of kitty litter
    on the outside of the corner.  Careful throttle management
    will also be needed throughout the corner once past the apex.
    
    Turn 2: After a quick fade to the left, Turn 2 is a right-
    hand corner requiring moderate braking.  This enters the main
    area where there are barriers almost directly against the
    pavement on both sides, so making any mistakes in this
    section of the circuit can be extremely costly, creating A
    LOT of work for the pit crew (and thus longer pit stops).
    
    Turn 3: IMMEDIATELY after Turn 2, this left-hand hairpin
    corner requires even more braking.  From the apex of Turn 3,
    the circuit begins a noticeable uphill trajectory, which can
    make corner exit slightly difficult.
    
    Turns 4-6: The raceway crests at the apex of Turn 4, a gentle
    right-hand bend, then dips at the apex of Turn 5, a gentle
    left-hand bend; the raceway then crests again at the apex of
    Turn 6, another gentle right-hand bend.  This is the second
    high-speed section at Vandvoort.  At one point, the right-
    side barrier does give way, but generally, the barriers are
    almost directly up against the raceway on both sides.
    
    Turn 7: Moderate or severe braking will be needed for this
    long right-hand corner.  There is a steeply-banked elongated
    sand trap on the outside of the corner to help slow runaway
    vehicles, but it is still possible to slam into the barrier
    on the other side of the kitty litter; also, should a car
    slide sideways into the sand, the sudden deceleration rate
    and the angle of the slope here risks to cause the car to
    roll onto its side and/or roof.
    
    Turns 8 and 9: The circuit map shows these as two distinct
    right-hand corners, but it is best to approach these as one
    270-degree decreasing-radius corner.  Moderate braking is
    needed entering Turn 8, but the braking pressure must be
    slowly increased to safely make it to the exit of Turn 9.
    There is a large sand trap to the outside of this section,
    but by the exit of Turn 9, the raceway is again bounded VERY
    closely by barriers.
    
    Turn 10: Moderate braking is required for this left-hand
    hairpin corner.  There is not much recovery room to the
    outside of Turn 10, then the barriers again closely protect
    the raceway.
    
    Turns 11 and 12: This is the absolute worst section of the
    circuit.  This is a NASTY right-left chicane: a right-hand
    perpendicular corner instantly followed by a left-hand
    hairpin turn around a large sand trap bisected by a barrier.
    There is NO shortcutting possible here, and those carrying
    too much speed into this chicane will DEFINITELY destroy the
    front of the vehicle on the barrier.
    
    Turns 13 and 14: These final two corners again appear as
    distinct turns on the race map, but should also be treated as
    one massive hairpin corner.  Turn 13 may require light
    braking by high-power vehicles, but ALL cars should be able
    to power through Turn 14 at full throttle.  This leads onto
    Pit Straight.
    
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    DRIVING INSTRUCTIONS: ZOLDER
    This circuit can be fun but tricky, especially in wet racing
    conditions.  It is generally a high-speed circuit, but the
    chicanes and few tight corners will certainly test a driver's
    guts.
    
    Turn 1: This left-hand corner will require light braking to
    remain on the raceway.  The outside of the corner begins with
    a good recovery area, but by corner exit, the outside barrier
    is almost directly against the pavement.  Pit Exit is at
    corner exit on the right.
    
    Turn 2: Turn 2 is a right-hand hairpin corner with a
    decreasing radius.  There is some good sand-filled recovery
    space on the outside of the corner.  Light braking will be
    required initially, but the braking pressure must be slowly
    increased in order to remain on the circuit itself.
    
    Turn 3: Light braking will be needed with most vehicles to
    keep them on the pavement for this right-hand corner.  There
    is little room for error on either side of the pavement
    through Turn 3.
    
    Turns 4-6: On approach, the back side of the paddock area is
    to the right of the raceway.  Then the circuit makes a left-
    right-left chicane which requires moderate braking.  Turning
    too soon will be costly, however, as the left-hand barrier
    does not give way until after the apex of Turn 4.  The inside
    of Turn 5 is filled with sand, so straightlining this chicane
    may not be very beneficial.  Fortunately, the swing rate of
    the corners is not very great, so turning left just a little
    bit can allow drivers to make ample use of the inside rumble
    strip for Turn 5, and then straightline Turn 6; however, if
    encumbered by traffic, this tactic will likely result in a
    collision with one or more competitors.
    
    Turn 7: This left-hand bend can be taken at full
    acceleration.  However, at corner exit, it is best to begin
    braking for the next corner.
    
    Turns 8-10: This is a rough right-left-right chicane with a
    much wider swing rate than the former chicane, so
    straightlining this chicane will never be a viable option.
    Due to the much greater angle of each corner, moderate or
    even severe braking will be required to slow enough for
    safely negotiate Turn 8 and properly set up the approach for
    Turn 9.  Most cars should be able to handle full acceleration
    from the apex of Turn 9 through Turn 10.
    
    Turn 11: Except for the most powerful of vehicles, this
    right-hand corner can be taken at full acceleration.  There
    is a nice recovery area to the outside of the corner,
    however, for those who may need to make use of its services.
    
    Turn 12: This left-hand bend can be handled at full
    acceleration without problems.
    
    Turns 13-15: Severe braking is required for Turn 13, a right-
    hand J-turn.  Exiting Turn 13 leads into a gentle left-right
    chicane which can be handled at full acceleration.
    
    Turns 16 and 17: After passing underneath an advertisement
    comes a 'junction.'  Pit Entry is directly ahead, whereas the
    main circuit makes a left-right chicane.  Moderate braking
    will be needed to slow enough to handle the chicane without
    getting bogged down in the sand trap.  Like the initial
    chicane of the circuit, the left-side barrier protrudes all
    the way to the apex of Turn 16, so it is not possible to turn
    early to have a better racing line.  Because of the
    'junction' setting here, those going to Pit Lane should
    remain hard to the right side of the circuit (perhaps even
    with the right-side tires just slightly OFF the pavement) to
    allow the best-possible racing line for those remaining on
    the circuit itself.
    
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