*********************
* == LEFT 4 DEAD == *
* VERSUS MODE GUIDE *
*********************

Author:  Luminar
Version: 1.2

================================

CONTENTS:
1) Introduction       (LX-INT)
2) Legalese           (LX-LEG)
3) FAQ Update History (LX-HIS)
4) Versus Mode        (LX-VSM)
5) Survivor Strategy  (LX-SUR)
 a) Items           (LX-S-ITM)
  i) Guns           (LX-S-IT1)
  ii) Grenades      (LX-S-IT2)
  iii) Medical      (LX-S-IT3)
  iv) Objects       (LX-S-IT4)
 b) Vs Hunters      (LX-S-HUN)
 c) Vs Smokers      (LX-S-SMO)
 d) Vs Boomers      (LX-S-BOO)
 e) Vs Tanks        (LX-S-TAN)
 f) Vs Witches      (LX-S-WIT)
 g) Other Hazards   (LX-S-HAZ)
6) Infected Strategy  (LX-INF)
 a) The Hunter      (LX-I-HUN)
 b) The Smoker      (LX-I-SMO)
 c) The Boomer      (LX-I-BOO)
 d) The Tank        (LX-I-TAN)
7) Patch Notes        (LX-PAT)
8) Conclusion         (LX-CON)

================================

1) INTRODUCTION (LX-INT)

Welcome to my second FAQ! I enjoyed writing my first (the Spore Archetypes
Guide) so much I decided to have a second shot at helping people out. This
time it's for Left 4 Dead's Versus Mode. Obviously.

This guide is intended as a collection of hints and strategies aimed at
helping you play effectively in Versus Mode, the mode where two teams of
players compete to see who can get furthest. This guide covers strategy for
both the Survivors and Infected teams.

This FAQ assumes you're familiar with at least the basics of playing L4D.
If not, go ahead and play a few campaign games with friends or on singleplayer
mode. This FAQ isn't going anywhere, it can wait. No point reading on if it's
all going to be as clear as gibberish, right?

Incase you're wondering what those odd codes in the Contents table are in the
brackets, they're intended as a quick way of finding what you want. Just hit
Ctrl+F, type in the code, press enter twice and you'll be taken straight
to it. Convenience is the road to happiness, sometimes.

***

2) LEGALESE (LX-LEG)

Left 4 Dead and all associated properties are copyright Valve Software.

GameFAQs is owned by CNET Networks, a CBS company.

This FAQ, written under the alias of "Luminar", is copyrighted to me, but
as far as i'm concerned it may be distributed, copied, printed, rehosted,
kicked, eaten, or whatever you want to do with it freely. It'd be cool if
you gave credit, but i'm not exactly going to come after you for it.
Yeah i'm basically an e-communist. Go figure.

***

3) FAQ UPDATE HISTORY (LX-HIS)

Version 1.0 (30th Dec 2008)
Initial version for publishing.

Version 1.1 (11th Jan 2009)
Credit/Thanks for various help added to Conclusion section
Added to both sides of Tank strategy
Added to both sides of Smoker strategy
Added to Anti-Witch strategy
Added to General Infected tips
Added to Hunter strategy
Added to Boomer strategy

Version 1.2 (15th Jan 2009)
Many guide corrections for Jan 14th L4D patch
Added "Patch Notes" section containing details on each L4D patch

***

4) VERSUS MODE (LX-VSM)

So what's Versus Mode all about then?
The premise is basically the same as Campaign Mode - Survivors are trying to
do what their namesake implies, and the masses of Infected are trying to do
them in before they can escape. There are five maps per campaign, four point
to point maps and one finale where the Survivors must hold off against an
Infected onslaught until rescue can arrive.

The difference is that there are now up to eight players instead of four.
While four control the survivors and try to reach their goal as usual, four
players control the Special Infected (the Hunter, Smoker, Boomer and Tank)
and try to kill or otherwise stop the survivors from.. well, surviving.
Once the survivors either reach their goal or are overwhelmed, the two teams
switch places. The idea is to see which team can get the furthest and survive
the best. Another main difference is that once a survivor dies, they're out
for the rest of the round - no getting locked in a cupboard to rescue. Some of
the map layouts are also ever so slightly tweaked to tip the balance a little.

The difficulty in Versus Mode is locked to normal and cannot be changed. There
was an exploit of sorts at one point where teams would vote the difficulty to
easy when they were Survivors, and to expert when they were Infected in order
to make the game very easy for themselves, which was an incredibly cheap and
unfair tactic. Thankfully, Valve patched it out in the first game update.

At the end of each bout, scores are tallied up for the survivors. The score
is multiplied several times if the survivors managed to get to the end. Good
scores are usually around 2000 or more, poor scores are usually in the low
hundreds since no multipliers are added if your team perishes.

The Distance Score is the base score - it's basically just how far into the
map you got, or in the cace of the finale maps how long you lasted.

The Health Bonus adds to your score for having higher health - note that
Medkits in your possession actually count as part of the health bonus,
whether they've been used or not. Just having one adds to the bonus. If you
got killed off, you obviously have no health at all, so no bonus is added.

The Survivor Bonus multiplies by the amount of survivors who made it to the
end of the map - x4 for a full team, no bonus if only one survived or if your
team was wiped out altogether.

The Difficulty Bonus is decided by whoever designed the map - it's a static
multiplier which is supposed to be based on how hard the map creator thinks
that paticular map is to complete.

The Infected score points every round too, but it's largely just for show
since it isn't added to the team's score. You can see your score as an
infected by holding tab (default key) anytime during gameplay. It's worth
checking when you're respawning to see who's doing well and who needs help.

***

5) SURVIVOR STRATEGY (LX-SUR)

The Survivors play more or less as they normally do, having access to guns,
explosives and medical equipment with the goal of reaching the safe room or
rescue waiting for them at the end of each round. They must fight their way
through the hordes of Infected zombies and avoid various hazards and of course
the other team playing as the Special Infected.

The main thing to worry about in Versus Mode is that the special zombies are
now much, much smarter and free-thinking, and are able to plan strategies with
each other rather than just dumbly rushing in like the AI likes to. A good
Infected team will plan their attacks and exploit various situations and
terrain to gain an advantage over you - a good Survivor team has to be one
step ahead and know when the other team is most likely to strike and in what
way - you must always be ready to counter any attack if you can't prevent it
from happening altogether, which is rarely an option.

Always remember above all things:
"United we stand, divided we fall."
It's in the very basics of Left 4 Dead but it can't be stated enough - do not
EVER go off on your own or fail to support your teammates as much as you can!
You simply cannot take on the infected by your lonesome; Hunters and Smokers
are specifically designed to screw over loners or teams that don't support
each other. Get caught by one and you will NEED someone else to free you,
there's no getting out of it by yourself. If you try to go it alone and your
teammates aren't able to rescue you in time (or at all), it's you to blame.
And a team with one survivor dead can be taken down by a very well coordinated
attack by the infected - they have access to two hunters and one smoker at any
given time - if all three strike at once, that's three team members unable to
escape. Without that one fourth member, you become a lot more vulnerable.

Also, keep an eye on your teammates health and items; if another team member
is struggling, then share the health - use your medkit on them or give them
pills. As Survivors become more injured, they start to limp and struggle,
slowing them down. A slowed down team member is essentially a liability;
a good infected team will strike at the injured first and try to kill them
off for good. If a Tank attacks, healthy survivors can stay out of its reach
by running, but limping survivors have essentially no form of defence other
than shooting it, which doesn't do you a lot of good when it gives you a face
full of fist and sends you reeling.

There's also the issue that if a team member is knocked down three times
without recieving health from a medkit, they die. Pills are no good, they
MUST be healed by a medkit to prevent them from dying. I've seen situations
where the infected have used this to their advantage and repeatedly knocked
down a survivor through harassment tactics, killing them even though the
full team had medkits. So don't let any injury accumulate - as soon as anyone
gets into yellow health, heal them up. Medkits are best, but if you're in the
middle of a fight and have no time, just give them some pills to chug.
Always remember pills are a temporary measure, though.

Some general tips for Survivor teams:

* Close doors behind you as you go. Infected cannot open them and must batter
  them down, giving you advance warning of their presence.

* Always be aware of your surroundings. If there are hazards present, the
  infected team will likely try to exploit them, so act accordingly.

* The infected team is waiting for you to make mistakes - doing so will
  give them a large advantage. Sticking together mitigates this risk.

* Always have the sound on and the music enabled. The special infected are
  noisy and have musical cues which give away their presence. Large hordes
  of zombies are also preceded by an ominous motif in the music.

* If you are able to, use voice chat. It is much more convenient than typing.
  Just make sure you speak clearly and can be heard easily. However, be
  aware of whether or not your server has alltalk enabled - using voice chat
  on an alltalk server will allow the infected team listen in to you.

* If you walk (shift), crouch-walk (ctrl) or stand still for a while without
  shooting or doing any voice commands, the infected will not be able to see
  your silhouette until you shoot, run, speak or use an item. You can use this
  to hide from the infected team members - regular zombies won't be fooled by
  this, however. Large hordes will still home in on you. There's also always
  the chance they'll just find you the old fashioned way.

* Keep your pace even. Going too quickly may result in confusion or the team
  getting split up. Going too slowly will result in the AI director sending
  zombie hordes as a punishment, as well as allowing the infected team members
  to wear you down through attrition.

* Crouching improves the accuracy of automatic weapons, namely the Uzi and the
  Assault Rifle. Firing in short bursts also saves ammo and keeps your shots
  accurate. Also, if you are infront of your teammates then crouching allows
  them to shoot over you, minimising friendly fire incidents.

* Most of the guns can fire through one wall. If you think a special infected
  is lurking behind a wall fire a few shots into it - this is an especially
  good tactic against fragile Boomers. Some bullets also penetrate through
  regular zombies, allowing you to save ammo if you line up shots well.

* Always remember to melee. You can reload weapons while using melee to push
  zombies away - special infected are also temporarily stunned by melee hits.
  This excludes the tank and witch. NEVER melee a Witch!

 -----------------------------

 a) ITEMS (LX-S-ITM)
 
 The Survivors rely on their items to fend off the infected and keep
 themselves alive. There are three kinds you keep in your inventory; guns,
 grenades and medical supplies. There are also loose items that you must
 carry with both arms and cannot put in your inventory.

 i) GUNS (LX-S-IT1)

 PISTOL
 Clip: 15 (30 with double pistols)
 Total Ammo: Unlimited
 Advantages: Never runs out of ammo, rapid fire, fairly accurate, upgradeable
 Disadvantages: Poor damage
 The Pistol is a weak weapon in terms of hitting power, but its main advantage
 is that it will never run out of ammo. You still have to reload it when your
 clip of 15 bullets runs out, so make your shots count and don't forget to
 melee if you're being beaten on.
 You can obtain a second pistol by picking up a pistol lying around any of the
 maps - this increases your clip size to 30 and allows you to fire faster. It
 does take you slightly longer to reload, however.

 TIER ONE
 The two Tier One weapons are the Uzi and Shotgun. Tier One weapons are found
 at the start of a campaign, and in early safe rooms. You'll generally always
 have access to them, along with the pistol. You had best hope a Tank doesn't
 show up while you're using these guns and have no molotovs.
 It's best for the team to have at least one member using each weapon, so you
 can adapt to more situations. Ideally, have two using the Uzi and two with
 Shotguns. It's up to you, though.

 UZI
 Clip: 50
 Total Ammo: 480
 Advantages: Long Range, Clears crowds well
 Disadvantages: Not as much raw damage as shotgun
 Of the two tier one weapons, Uzis are good for long-range shooting and for
 dealing with normal zombies - you can either take aim and headshot singular
 ones or open up on full auto and mow a mob of them down.
 They're not so good at putting down Special Infected, however - Smokers
 sighted a long distance away can be taken out much more easily but aside
 from that Shotguns are better for taking down other Specials.
 The accuracy on this weapon can be improved by crouching and firing in
 short bursts. Being struck by anything also lowers your accuracy momentarily.

 SHOTGUN
 Clip: 8
 Total Ammo: 128
 Advantages: Good damage, Good accuracy at close range, interruptable reload
 Disadvantages: Poor long-range accuracy, long time between shots, long reload
 Shotguns fire a spray of bullets with each shot which spread out over a
 distance - this means they have a very powerful kick to them at close range,
 but as the target gets further away it's more like a glancing blow. Shotguns
 are the best tier one weapon against special infected, who generally want to
 get in your face which is where can do the most damage. For long range
 threats while you're using the shotgun, there's always the pistol.

 TIER TWO
 These weapons are much more powerful, but you have to find them first.
 They'll often be on the second map somewhere, most often on the path you'd
 normally follow, but not always. Try to find them as soon as you can.

 ASSAULT RIFLE
 Clip: 50
 Total Ammo: 360
 Advantages: Rapid fire, crowd clearing, can headshot regular zombies
 Disadvantages: Not as much raw power as the others, limited ammo
 The Assault Rifle is pretty much a straight upgrade of the Uzi. It is given
 more hitting power and can one-hit regular zombies if you aim for the head.
 Compared against the other two tier two weapons, this is essentially the
 weapon that does everything but excels at nothing. Keep an eye on your ammo
 when using these, it's easy to go overboard and run out.
 
 AUTOMATIC SHOTGUN
 Clip: 10
 Total Ammo: 128
 Advantages: Rapid fire, high damage per shot, crowd clearing
 Disadvantages: Poor at long range, awkward reload
 When compared to the tier one shotgun this weapon is derived from, this
 weapon has a far higher rate of fire and actually has slightly more power
 behind each shot also. It retains the poor long-range capabilities of the
 regular shotgun, but this is somewhat alleviated by the fact you can more or
 less just spam bullets at anything off in the distance now.
 As of the January 14th patch, Tanks now have innate resistance to Autoshotgun
 rounds, due to their prior weakness to shotgun spamming. It is still able to
 kill Tanks well enough, only now it cannot completley cream them in seconds.
 
 HUNTING RIFLE
 Clip: 15
 Total Ammo: 180
 Advantages: High shot power, long range, penetrates unlimited zombies
 Disadvantages: Low rate of fire, requires high skill
 This weapon seems to be very situational. It doesn't have the power to mow
 down crowds or blow away special infected like the assault rifle or auto
 shotgun, but the hunting rifle IS superbly accurate and also has a scope for
 long-range sniping. The thing is, smart special infected will generally never
 expose themselves to long range fire (excluding smokers), so it's a matter
 of taking opportunities when you see them.
 One paticular use of this weapon is to pick off Smokers who are trying to
 abuse car alarms or witches to their advantage, or to anger an unavoidable
 witch from a huge distance away so you have time to pick her off.
 It should be noticed that shots from this weapon pierce through an unlimited
 amount of regular zombies, so it can be good for mowing down crowds if you
 place your shots well.
 
 MOUNTED MINIGUN
 The Mounted Minigun isn't a gun you can take with you in your inventory, but
 it's a gun nontheless. These are generally placed on finale maps and on some
 horde events. Press E (default) to use them - they have a limited cone of
 vision and take a while to spin up, but the rate of fire and power is great.
 They're mainly used for mowing down crowds of regular zombies, but they're
 quite effective against special infected too. Tanks will be slowed down if
 they try to run against the stream of fire, other special infected will
 likely just be killed instantly. It also has unlimited ammo.
 The drawback is that the gun heats up as it is fired continuously, and will
 begin to turn red and emit smoke. The smoke can obscure your vision somewhat;
 but if you continue to fire beyond this point, the minigun will jam and stop
 firing until it has fully spun down, which takes around 5 seconds or so.
 It is best to fire in bursts - you also need teammates to cover you, since
 you cannot defend yourself while using the minigun.

 ii) GRENADES (LX-S-IT2)

 PIPE BOMB
 The Pipe Bomb attracts regular zombies to it and then explodes, vapourising
 them all into a red mist. It is more or less useless against special infected
 since they will just avoid them like the plague, though if you can get one to
 explode near a tank he will stagger for a few moments from the blast.
 This one's mostly good as a "get out of horde free card" of sorts - for
 periodic zombie hordes, event hordes, or puke-attracted hordes. It can be a
 good idea to chuck one of these if a boomer pukes on everyone and there's
 risk of death or incapacitation.
 They're alright for pulling Witches too, since you get a head start to run.

 MOLOTOV COCKTAIL
 Molotov Cocktails set a large area of ground on fire for around 20 or so
 seconds. Regular zombies are apparently incapable of understanding how
 fire works and will happily run right into it and die, but generally
 player-controlled special infected are smarter than that and will avoid
 the flames. This one is good for blocking off a route and dealing with mobs.
 It should be noted that if a Hunter catches on fire, he gets incredibly angry
 and does TONS of extra damage when he pounces someone. He'll die pretty soon
 one way or another, but if he pounces someone get him off ASAP, since fire
 makes him capable of causing incapacitation extremely quickly.
 If Tanks were vampires, Molotov Cocktails would be their holy water. When a
 Tank gets set on fire, it starts a 30-40 second timer. When the time is up,
 the Tank simply drops dead on the spot regardless of how much health he has.
 It's almost a cheap strategy to just burn the tank then run like hell - you
 don't even need to shoot at him since he'll die anyway.

 iii) MEDICAL (LX-S-IT3)

 FIRST AID KIT
 These are vital pieces of equipment you should try to never be without. That
 said, don't be stingy with them - if someone drops into yellow, get them to
 heal themselves, or if they don't have a kit then heal them yourself.
 Two survivors with no medkits is better than one survivor with a medkit.
 They bring you back up to 80% health, or if you're already above that they
 top you off, but you shouldn't use one unless it's neccecary.
 If you come across an extra medkit and everyone has one, it's probably worth
 topping off someone's health and taking the spare if you have time to - it's
 only going to get left behind otherwise.
 Keep in mind that a medkit takes a few seconds to use, so you should cover
 whoever's using one and do it in a safe spot so you can't easily get caught
 out by a special infected team member. Smart special infected will try to
 interrupt heals wherever they can.
 Three incapacitations normally means death - the medkit resets the knockdown
 count, meaning a survivor can go on for longer. Generally you shouldn't be
 getting incapacitated anyway, but if someone gets knocked down then heal
 them as soon as you possibly can with a medkit, not pills.

 PAINKILLER PILLS
 They're not as hardline vital as medkits are, but they're a nice boost to
 have. Painkillers will give you 50 temporary health (which shows up in your
 health bar as stripes rather than a solid bar) which will slowly go away
 with time. The best use of these is if you are limping and need to be able
 to run quickly (if a tank attacks for instance) and you don't have time or
 proper cover to use a medkit. AI Bots tend to just chug them as soon as they
 get low on health, so bear that in mind.

 iv) OBJECTS (LX-S-IT4)

 These are loose objects that can be moved around but not taken into your
 inventory. Press E to pick them up, left click to throw them.

 PROPANE TANK
 These are round white tanks. They explode immediatley when struck by gunfire
 or another explosion, and kill zombies and special infected instantly in the
 same manner as a pipebomb. The Tank and Witch are exceptions; the Tank will
 stumble for a few moments if hit by a blast, but the Witch won't care. She'll
 also be rather angry about it too, obviously.

 GAS CANISTER
 These are flat red bottles with an X-shaped indentation in the side. When
 shot they engulf the area in flame with the same effect as a molotov. These
 are good to use if there are no real molotovs around or if you have one and
 don't want to use it.

 OXYGEN CYLINDER
 These are thin green cylinders that aren't seen as commonly as the other two.
 When shot, they will emit a hissing noise for a moment and then explode in
 the same manner as the Propane Tank.

 +++

 b) VS HUNTERS      (LX-S-HUN)

 Don't be fooled by the seeming ineffectiveness of most pounces - Hunters are
 a very deadly and legitemate threat when used properly. They are highly
 mobile and can come at you fron nearly any angle, are capable of causing
 nasty amounts of damage, and have a pounce attack which renders a survivor
 helpless until rescued by another. They are the most common kind of Special
 Infected you will encounter, and the Infected team can have up to two active
 at one time. Along with one Smoker, this can cause three renderings of
 helplessness onto survivors, though this requires great coordination.

 Hunters give away their presence quite often, though not as badly as Boomers.
 While crouching they constantly emit low growls, which means they're ready to
 use their pounce attack. When they use a pounce attack, they emit a sharp
 echoing scream. Sometimes Hunters will use their pounce to move around rather
 than make an attack - it is still an indication of their presence, however.
 When a Hunter sees a survivor he will automatically make a shrill and angry
 screaming noise - it is distinct from the pounce scream in that it does not
 echo, and sounds more like "WRAAAAIII!". When Hunters are just running around
 on foot, they don't make any noise other than quiet footsteps.

 Good hunters are most likely to strike when there is a distraction. Their
 attack can come in one of two ways - the Hunter can run in on foot and start
 ripping you up with his claws, or he can pounce you and pin you. The pounce
 is incredibly obvious and is highlighted to survivors no matter where they
 are, unless they're in a smoke cloud or blinded by vomit. Always listen out
 for the echoing scream signalling a hunter pounce - if you can knock or shoot
 a Hunter off your teammate quickly, they will more than likely take no damage
 at all and you can dispose of the Hunter. Claw attacks on the other hand are
 not as attention-drawing, but are significant as they do six damage per swipe
 and attack in an arc infront of the Hunter, meaning they can hit multiple
 targets with one swipe. Hunter claw attacks are distinct from normal zombie
 attacks in that you will hear a loud tearing sound rather than the usual dull
 thud of a zombie smacking you. The Hunter will also gibber and snarl madly.

 The best defence against hunters is to stick together and be vigilant.
 Hunters absolutely love to pounce stragglers, since they will take off huge
 amounts of health if not outright kill them, since no-one can help them quick
 enough to mitigate the damage. Melee attacks from hunters can be avoided if
 teammates watch each other's backs carefully enough. Since Hunters can get to
 and come from just about anywhere, the main defence against them is to be
 vigilant and cautious, plain and simple.

 Always be cautious when healing or helping up incapacitated survivors. Low
 health team members are like a giant magnet for hunters - if they can knock
 them down three times it's death, and it's not hard to do on a teammate who
 goes down with two claw attacks.

 The January 14th patch took Hunter claw damage down from ten to six. However,
 they now do a minimum amount of damage on pounce, though it's around one to
 three. They are also harder to melee out of the air now.
 The Hunter's pin and shredding also now apparently does less damage per hit,
 but hits more often. It equalises out to the same amount of damage overall,
 but now Hunters are much more capable of causing some damage before being
 killed, whereas before they could easily be killed before they could do any.
 Supposedly, flaming hunters are even more lethal now due to this.

 +++

 c) VS SMOKERS      (LX-S-SMO)

 Smokers are the kings of disruption and seperation. Their tongue attack drags
 a team member to the Smoker, who then proceeds to start beating or choking
 their victim until their hold is broken or the victim is freed.
 It is capable of killing or causing significant disruption by pulling the
 team apart, causing split-ups or distractions. It can even sometimes cause
 instant death or severe damage by pulling team members over certain edges.

 Smokers constantly cough and hack, which gives away their presence. They make
 strange angry noises when they have line of sight to a survivor, from making
 a strange "SHAAPTH" spitting noise or just screaming "GAAAAHGH!". When a
 Smoker fires his tongue to snare a survivor, a loud spitting noise can be
 heard whether the tongue connects or not.

 Smokers are largely situational. Depending on which map you're on, Smokers
 can be either a non-issue or lethal. Beware of drops and parts where you
 cannot backtrack - Smokers can do immense damage by making survivors fall
 off high ledges, and they can pull a survivor in places where no-one can
 rescue them, meaning a guaranteed kill for the Smoker. This usually requires
 excellent timing however, and can be negated by good teamwork and planning.

 Smokers will also abuse hazards such as car alarms and Witches by pulling a
 Survivor to them hoping to be shot at, more often than not striking the
 hazard in the process and setting it off. In the case of witches it's more
 dangerous due to the fact that if the survivor is dragged all the way to the
 Witch it will more than likely anger her and incapacitate the victim. The
 Hunting Rifle comes in very handy in these situations. Sharpshooters are the
 bane of the Smoker's existance, so have someone on the Assault Rifle or
 Hunting Rifle ready to pick off the Smoker accurately and cleanly.

 Things that break a Smoker's grasp on one of your teammates are:
 * Meleeing the Smoker
 * Shooting the Smoker
 * Shooting the extended tongue
 * An explosion hitting the Smoker
 * The Smoker dying for any reason
 * Meleeing the Survivor once they have stopped being dragged

 The January 14th patch took a lot of focus on buffing the Smoker, who up
 until then was seen as something of a weak link and too situational for most
 players to use effectively. It will now be much harder for you to counter
 the Smoker's efforts to drag away Survivors, and will begin doing damage
 right away rather than when the Survivor stops moving.

 +++

 d) VS BOOMERS      (LX-S-BOO)

 Ah yes, good old Mr. Spew. In the Developer Commentary, Valve states that
 they designed the Boomer because L4D is a game where you shoot everything;
 thus, to add to the challenge they put in the zombie you DON'T want to shoot.
 Boomers are pretty much impossible to miss - they constantly gurgle and groan
 disgustingly, and their obese appearance makes them stand right out in any
 crowd of zombies, or at a distance.

 Avoid being puked on them by all costs - it holds your team up for a short
 while, in addition to temporarily blinding you. The blindness can vary in
 severity depending on how dark the area you're in is, but the main thing is
 that it doesn't show your team member's silhouettes while you're puked.
 That means if someone gets pounced or snagged, you can't see it and it's
 likely that you may not hear it over the noise of the zombie mob. This is
 why using voice chat or even just typing a message is such a boon to the
 survivors; communication can go a long way to saving you.

 If you get puked on, go into the nearest corner and melee repeatedly to knock
 away the attracted mob, while shooting them whenever you can. Try to keep an
 ear out for anything bad happening to your teammates. If your teammates get
 puked on, try to cover them somewhat. If the rest of the team excluding you
 gets puked, the other special infected in the area may try to come after you.
 Be on your guard, and hope your teammates are astute enough if anything goes
 wrong with fending off smokers and hunters. Puke coatings when a tank is
 present are VERY BAD. You should take extra care of boomers in the vincinity
 whenever there is a Tank active.

 If you see a Boomer at long range, shoot him immediatley if you can. If you
 encounter one at close range (which is far more likely), then it depends on
 how you've encountered him. Most of the time Boomers will be waiting around
 corners or in side rooms waiting for you to either blunder right into them
 or become distracted enough for them to sneak up on you. Tight groups are
 a big Boomer magnet, so while still staying together, try to keep an even
 distance from your comrades if a Boomer is around, so that he doesn't manage
 to cause a giant vomit party by coating the lot of you in puke. Also beware
 of tall places, since Boomers love to jump off and land in the middle of your
 team suddenly, which is ideal positioning for them to cover everyone in puke.
 Falling Boomers will emit a loud burping noise, so keep an ear out.
 
 If you think you know where a Boomer is lurking, fire a few shots in the
 general direction, remembering you can shoot through walls. Boomers are
 pretty fragile compared to the other specials, and will explode after taking
 moderatley light damage. If this doesn't kill the Boomer, try quickly peeking
 into the suspected area and then back out, or fake them out by moving to peek
 without actually going all the way. It depends on the Boomer user's reactions
 but they may fire off their puke; if no-one is caught in it, it basically
 renders them an ineffective kamikaze zombie for a few moments.
 Note that if a Boomer acquires line of sight with a survivor, he will
 automatically make a loud "URRGH!" groan. It is distinct from his usual
 groaning but only somewhat, so learn it with experience.

 If you encounter a boomer who cannot puke, remember to always knock him away
 with melee and then shoot him once he is a good distance away. Don't try to
 play hackey sack with Boomers or otherwise repeatedly melee them for whatever
 reason, enough melee strikes will cause them to explode, with you at point
 blank range. Boomers on fire are pretty rare by all accounts, but if you come
 across one in close quarters just run away. He'll likely explode any moment.

 +++

 e) VS TANKS        (LX-S-TAN)

 The supposed big bad of the infected masses, the Tank is actually fairly easy
 to deal with if you know what you're doing, and have the right situation on
 hand to help you deal with him. Even very skilful and comptetent tanks are no
 match for a team of Survivors working together to bring him down.

 For presence, the Tank could not possibly be more obvious if he had a giant
 50 foot neon sign strapped to him blaring "I AM A TANK" over loudspeakers.
 Aside from the music changing to a very ominous and threatening tune, the
 ground shakes with the Tank's footfalls and he constantly snarls, grunts and
 roars loudly. Every single thing he does pretty much loudly announces him.

 The Tank can punch you and send you flying, dealing a huge amount of damage.
 He can also rip chunks of concrete out of the ground and lob them at you,
 these also do an absolute ton of damage. Needless to say, don't EVER get hit
 by him or he'll likely follow up with several more attacks and incap you.
 As long as you're in green health, you run at the same speed as the Tank so
 if you can keep ahead of him you can dodge his attacks. If anyone is yellow
 or below however, they will limp and this will cause problems, because the
 Tank will likely go straight for them. If you have pain pills on hand, give
 them to yellowed or redded survivors as soon as the tank music starts up.
 Also on certain maps with deadly falls, the Tank can punch you straight off
 cliffs or edges, which can result in instant death. It is also able to punch
 large objects at you which will instantly incapacitate you if you are struck
 by them, so beware in areas with any large, loose objects, paticularly cars.

 The absolute best situation to deal with a tank is a wide open area, with all
 survivors in green health, with no other specials interfering with the fight.
 This situation obviously won't always be on hand however.
 The other best option for dealing with the Tank is to set him on fire.
 As detailed in the Molotov section, the Tank will simply drop dead
 after cooking for around 40 seconds no matter how much health he has.
 Auto Shotguns used to be good for dealing with Tanks, but the Jan 14th patch
 gave them resistance to Auto Shotgun fire. Just take whichever weapon you
 think you will do best with.

 Another weakness the Tank has is to explosions - whether from a Pipebomb,
 Propane/Oxygen tanks or from a Boomer. If the Tank is caught in an explosion,
 he will momentarily stagger and be unable to act - this is your cue to get in
 his face and blow it off as fast as possible while he is unable to defend
 himself. Just make sure not to linger too long, else the Tank will snap out
 of it and treat you to several knuckle sandwiches. Laying down gas cylinders
 as a trap for the Tank is a good strategy, though a good Tank may realise
 what you are up to and try to circumvent it. Don't count on hitting a Tank
 with a pipebomb however, unless he's REALLY stupid.

 Beware of other special infected while the tank is around. Though the Tank
 pretty much commands all attention in the area, don't forget to rescue any
 other survivors who are pinned or ensnared. If they're incapped on the ground
 it is likely the tank will ignore them, but Hunters will possibly try to
 finish them off. Generally, you should judge how far away the Tank is while
 considering whether or not to revive teammates. The second the Tank notices
 you doing it he is likely to stop at nothing to prevent you from reviving
 them, so only do it if he is a large distance away, and not likely to pay
 attention anytime soon. Give the revived survivor pills if you have any
 on hand, otherwise they're likely to just get punched down again.

 Especially beware of zombies and boomers - fighting a tank while blind can be
 nasty, but being slowed down by zombies whacking you as a tank approaches
 amounts to a death sentence. Both at the same time? Worse than a big bag
 of worse things. Oddly, I don't tend to notice Boomers around when a Tank
 is present very often. It doesn't discount the possibility, though.
 However, if the Boomer is near the Tank for any reason, then shoot it if it
 presents no risk to your teammates - it acts like any other explosion for the
 Tank, causing him to stagger and allowing you a moment to blow him away.

 Take note that apart from increasing how many Tanks will appear in a game,
 the Jan 14th patch also standardised Tanks across both teams. If you come
 across a Tank during one section of the map, you will get the Tank at that
 same spot too. This means the element of suprise is lost on the second team
 to play, but makes for a much more fair match.

 +++

 f) VS WITCHES      (LX-S-WIT)

 If you can get a clear and quiet period away from the specials to deal with
 her, the Witch is easy to bring down. Aggroing a witch is pretty much one
 of the best times for special infected to attack, since they can either slow
 you down to let the Witch catch up to whoever angered her and incap them, or
 distract team members who should otherwise be shooting at the witch as she
 charges. This is all assuming you can't avoid her altogether.

 You will hear the Witch well ahead of actually encountering her, since her
 mournful sobbing and crying seems to travel quite a long distance. When you
 get closer to her, the music will change to an eerie choir, and when you're
 very close you will also hear sharp piano chords. She will keep crying while
 undisturbed, but if anything begins to anger her she will rise to her feet
 and start shouting and growling. When she starts doing this, stop doing
 whatever it is you're doing to anger her and back away. If she's calming down
 then her growling will turn into snarled breathing.

 Things that anger the Witch are:
 * Shining a flashlight on her
 * Standing too close to her
 * Looking at her from too close range
 * Firing guns or making other loud noises near her
 * Punching her (instantly enrages her)
 * Shooting her (instantly enrages her)
 * Hitting her with an explosion or fire (instantly enrages her)

 If you startle the Witch, she will emit a loud scream and the music will
 change to a very loud and frantic tune with a similar choir motif to it.
 She'll come barrelling at whoever startled her, ploughing through anything
 in the way to get to them. It is impossible to outrun her or prevent her from
 reaching you - if you startled her, the only way to stop her is to kill her.
 She doesn't take too much firepower to put down, but it must be done quickly
 before she reaches her target, since she causes incapacitation instantly and
 then begins to violently shred the downed Survivor, killing them within a few
 seconds. If she manages to kill them, she will then simply run away and
 despawn, but hopefully it shouldn't come to that.
 Sometimes, the Witch can glitch and will abruptly switch targets for no
 apparent reason. This may have something to do with her being unable to
 reach her current target for some reason, so she instead lurches at whoever
 is closest to her at the time. Beware of this by keeping your distance.

 It is possible to kill a witch in one hit using a shotgun blast to the head,
 and there is an achievement for this (Cr0wned), but I don't recommend doing
 this unless you're very well-practiced in it and know how to do it. I myself
 don't know how to do this and wouldn't risk it in a multiplayer game. The
 shotgun blast needs to be delivered at point blank before she is startled, or
 while she is running towards another Survivor without having been shot.
 If you screw up the former she'll promptly hand you your own head on a
 platter, so you must use a great amount of care in attempting to cr0wn her.
 
 The best way to cr0wn the witch is to walk up behind her with your flashlight
 off, get very close but do not come into contact with her. She'll go "Huh?"
 and stand up before she starts her angry growling - shoot her while she is
 in the process of standing up. The reason for most cr0wning failiures is that
 all pellets from the shotgun blast need to strike her head - if you graze her
 arm or body with any of the pellets it will not work, and instead you will
 have an angry witch coming at you from point blank.
 While she is crying on the ground, her head is much less exposed since she is
 bowed down and partially covering her head with her arms, meaning you are
 much more likely to hit her in the arm than when she is standing up and has
 her head uncovered.

 Remember this piece of advice: Don't be a Witch toucher.
 Coming into physical contact with the witch when she is still inert will
 immediatley anger her, as well using a melee attack on her. However, once
 she has been angered, using melee on her is still a pretty bad idea - it will
 not have any effect on her efforts to get to her target, and if you directly
 obstruct her with a melee attack she will knock you away and deal around 25
 or so damage. I've also seen her glitch up and cause multiple knockdowns
 before - this appears to be related to meleeing her.

 Witches are simple enough to deal with overall, the main problem in versus
 comes from the fact that the infected team members will likely try to use her
 in some way, either waiting until you anger her to strike, or forcing you to
 anger her if she can be sneaked past. The Witch absolutely MUST be put down
 as your first priority if she is angered, if this becomes impossible then be
 ready to peel her off the downed Survivor and then deal with any other
 threats that have appeared.

 +++

 g) OTHER HAZARDS   (LX-S-HAZ)

 Certain cars (usually orange/red ones for some reason) are alarmed. If these
 cars are shot then the car alarm will go off and attract a paticularly large
 mob of regular zombies. You can tell these cars from normal inert cars due to
 the fact that the windows will flash orange every so often, and if bullets
 hit near the car (but don't actually hit the car) then the car's indicators
 will flash briefly and it will beep. This also happens if an infected punches
 the car for whatever reason. Smokers and sometimes Boomers will often try to
 wait behind or near these cars in plain sight, hoping you will shoot at them
 and strike the car. NEVER shoot at them unless you have the hunting rifle or
 assault rifle, and can eliminate them without hitting the car.

 If a Smoker hiding near one of these cars grabs someone, don't shoot at him
 unless you have a hunting rifle. If you can't free the survivor before they
 reach the car, simply run around and melee the Smoker until he dies. I've
 seen Boomer players try to hang around cars before with the hope of being
 shot, though this is much less successful than Smokers for several reasons.

 There are usually a few horde events during every campaign. They generally
 involve manipulating some noisy object such as turning on a generator or
 triggering the alarm on a door, the noise from which attracts a large
 horde of regular zombies to the area. The horde's size and consistency
 tends to vary some of the time, though there will be at least one period
 of intense fighting. Obviously, the special infected will try to abuse the
 hell out of this opportunity. Especially beware of Boomers, who can summon
 even more zombies and bolster the horde's already considerable numbers.
 Smokers can pull survivors out into the horde requiring another survivor
 to risk their neck saving them, and Hunters can use the distraction to make
 several nasty claw attacks or pounces. Generally, tanks will never show up
 during these events, though there are some situations where one of these can
 be triggered while a tank is present, though it requires incredibly stupid
 team members for it to happen.

***

6) INFECTED STRATEGY (LX-INF)

The Infected still serve the same purpose, to disrupt and ultimatley kill or
otherwise overwhelm the Survivors. The difference is that now players are
controlling up to four of them at a time, and can plan strategies together
via team messages or voice chat. When the Infected work together well, it's
an absolute nightmare for the Survivors to deal with provided they aren't one
step ahead of you in thinking.

Since you can only control the special Infected in Versus Mode, that's the
only place you can really practice with them. Have patience for seemingly
ineffective team members - they may just be inexperienced and will benefit
from various hints and tips. You could even link them to this FAQ to help
them improve, if needed.

Your game as Infected more or less relies on the Survivors making mistakes or
creating opportunities for you to attack. Much like the Survivors, if you try
to wade in on your own you're just going to end up accomplishing nothing.
Always bear in mind that you're going to get killed one way or another - it's
what you do with each life you're given that counts. Since your effectiveness
relies on the ineffectiveness of the Survivor team, use the observation time
between respawns to watch the Survivors and see what flaws the team has.
Do they have someone who likes to go off on their own? Do they have someone
who lags behind? Is one of them trigger happy? Do they fail to work with each
other and support their team? All of these things can and must be exploited as
much as possible in order for you to win.

Always try to take out the weakest in terms of health - if there are weak team
members in terms of skill, try to finish them off last since leaving the
effective Survivors alive for last will result in them being harder to pin
down when pushed to desperation. Forcing the Survivors to use up their Medkits
early is good - it's down to chance whether or not they will recieve more.
If you strike fast and effectively enough, you can kill survivors before they
even have a chance to use their medkits. Don't bank on it happening, but if
the opportunity presents itself then take it.

General tips for Infected:

* Use Climb and Break indicators to their best effect. You can get to many
  places the Survivors cannot, and come at them from angles that inexperienced
  players may not expect. Bear in mind that only the Tank can break certain
  walls down, such as concrete or metal walls.

* Don't assume the Survivors will panic or be significantly disrupted in a bad
  situation. It's entirely dependant on the skill of the players in the team -
  a bad team will panic and do reckless things, opening themselves up for
  attacks and pins/ensnares. Never assume a team is poorly skilled, however;
  arrogance and recklessness on YOUR part can make you much less effective.

* Whenever you think of a strategy, consider how likely it is that the
  Survivors will figure out what you're doing, and how they will try to
  counteract it. If you hide behind a wall for example, you know they may
  hear you and try to shoot through it, so try to be careful about your
  positioning. They may also check around the corner to verify if you are
  there, so be ready to strike.

* Pay attention to the Survivor silhouettes, as well as the silhouettes of
  your teammates. Healthy survivors glow green, wounded ones glow yellow and
  red and they degenerate. Ones coated in Boomer vomit turn bright purple.
  If Survivors are moving slowly, not shooting and remaining quiet for
  whatever reason, their silhouette will disappear and you must find them
  manually. Pay attention to where your teammates are, highlighted in blue.
  Striking together as a team is a very effective strategy.

* You're going to die repeatedly anyway, so do whatever you can with each
  life. If you bungle up what you intend to do and get discovered, try to
  wade in with melee attacks. It won't do much, but it's better than nothing.
  Hanging back for too long is generally wasting time, unless you're a Smoker.

* Don't get seen or otherwise alert the Survivors to your presence if you can
  help it. As long as they're kept in the dark about where and when attacks
  will come, you can operate much more effectively. Don't expect them to let
  their guard down completley though.

* If you stray too far from the Survivors, the game will prompt you to press
  E to "catch up" and choose where to spawn again. This can be used to your
  advantage if you have no way to get at the Survivors without being noticed.
  Simply run far enough away from them, hit E, and choose your new spawn
  location so that you can ambush them from an unexpected direction.
  It also allows you to pick a new spawn location without having to die and
  wait out your respawn time. In certain areas, using this will teleport you
  a large distance ahead of the survivors if they are currently inaccessible;
  the most notable for this is the No Mercy 4 elevator.

* You cannot select your spawn location during finale events. Be aware that
  you may get several bad spawns during this time that you can't really do
  a great deal about. Just try your best.

* As of the Jan 14th patch, the Infected now have a new HUD which shows who
  has control of what, who is alive and dead, and if dead how long they have
  until they can play again. Use this to co-ordinate your attacks better.
  It was also full of buffs for the Infected in general, paticularly the
  Smoker, though melee damage has been evened out somewhat.

 -----------------------------

 a) THE HUNTER      (LX-I-HUN)
 Health: 250
 Melee Damage: 6 per swipe

 Of the three regular special infected you will control, the Hunter is
 essentially the bread and butter damage-dealing guy. He's the most common
 one you will control, since there can be two hunters at any one time, though
 sometimes the game will spawn three hunters.
 
 Hunters are extremely mobile and can get just about anywhere. This must be
 used to your advantage, since if you are seen at long ranges there's a good
 chance you'll just be shot down before you can do anything. If you are caught
 before you mean to be then use your pounce to escape. The Pounce, aside from
 being an attack, is a very fast and effective method of travel. You can also
 jump from wall to wall using it - pounce at a wall, quickly point at where
 you want to go and pounce again as soon as you hit the wall. You can do this
 as many times as you like and it is helpful for reaching taller buildings a
 single pounce is unable to reach. Hunters also run quite quickly on foot.

 The Pounce is your primary attack, but it is situational and shouldn't be
 used as standard. You need to crouch for a second to be able to use it, and
 while crouched you emit growls that give away your presence to survivors.
 The pounce should only be used on a Survivor who cannot be rescued quickly
 for whatever reason - if they've gone off too far from the rest of the team
 is the best instance, but with good Survivor teams this never happens.
 Another instance is if the Survivors are dropping down to a point where they
 cannot climb back up - if you quickly pounce the last one to go down, the
 Survivors will not be able to come back and rescue them, meaning a guaranteed
 kill for you and a team member down for them. Though the main damage from the
 Pounce comes from the shredding you do to the pinned survivor, the Pounce can
 also cause damage on impact if you did a paticularly long pounce. This caps
 out at 25 damage, which is two and a half melee swipes worth - it's worth
 doing if you can manage it, but getting the full 25 damage is very tricky and
 not always possible to accomplish.
 The Jan 14th patch added minimum damage to pounces, though it is very low,
 around one to three damage. However, they tweaked the shredding attack
 somewhat, so it now does less damage but faster. It comes out to roughly
 the same amount of damage overall, but means you're more likely to cause
 damage at all, whereas before a lot of pounces simply got the Hunter killed
 before they could do anything.

 If you see another Hunter has pounced a Survivor who cannot be rescued by
 his teammembers quickly, it is good if you join in and attack the Survivor
 with melee swipes. This causes their incapacitation and death MUCH faster
 than just the shredding from the pouncer, which will kill off a Survivor at
 best and hold the survivors back at worst, so it's always a good thing to do.
 This also applies to Smokers who have captured a survivor with their tongue.
 Bear in mind that it is usually bad to pounce a survivor off the end of a
 Smoker's tongue, but there are a few instances where it is actually good
 to do so. If the Smoker has pulled someone in a location where the victim
 cannot be rescued at all, it is worth pouncing - the Survivor will die faster
 and the Smoker can go back to disrupting the team and even possibly getting
 more unsavable kills. It is best to inform the Smoker of what you are doing
 if you aren't buddies though, else it may make people who aren't in the know
 of this tactic somewhat angry.

 The claw swipes are your secondary attack, and before the Jan 14th patch
 did ten damage per swipe - this was reduced down to six, making the swipes
 much less effective. It takes seventeen swipes to put down a Survivor from
 full health, so it may only be worth doing this when they cannot fight back
 or won't notice you beating on them. If they are blinded, it may be better
 to pounce rather than melee depending on how many Survivors are blind.

 The claw swipes really come into their own when dealing with downed survivors
 and specifically their revival. An incapacitated survivor is revived with
 roughly 15 or so health - this means three swipes will put them back down.
 Three knockdowns with no medical aid means death, so if the opportunity to
 do this presents itself then it should be taken. A good team will cover the
 victim as they are healed, but sometimes this can't be done, and this is when
 you should strike. Go straight for the injured survivor and put him down,
 then either retreat or attack anyone else in the area. It is not likely you
 will be able to pull off a hit and run attack twice on a good Survivor team,
 as they will guard survivors who are about to die very well.

 As with all other infected, watch the silhouettes and try to predict their
 next move, especially if you think that next move will be one to counter
 your plan. Work with your teammates, especially Boomers who can cause
 enough of a distraction for you to get in and do more damage than usual.

 If you get set on fire as a Hunter, you will soon die; however, your pounce
 shredding damage is increased massively. You can incapacitate a survivor from
 full health in roughly five seconds of shredding if you are on fire. It's a 
 risk to take on your part, but it's a risk that might be worth taking if you
 feel you can pounce someone who will take longer than five seconds to be
 rescued by his team mates.

 Ladders are your friend; if you can pounce a Survivor at the right time when
 he is climbing up a ladder, you will knock him all the way back down and also
 knock down anyone else who was climbing the ladder. On paticularly tall
 ladders such as the No Mercy 3 sewer exit, you can also cause fall damage on
 top of your pounce and shred damage, forcing the Survivors to use up more
 medical supplies or stalling them for longer. This is even better if a Boomer
 pukes down the ladder first so none of the Survivors know what the hell.
 The pounce requires good timing, though - too early and you'll simply smack
 into the edge of the hole and possibly fall in, too late and you'll simply
 pin the survivor on top of the hole, becoming an easy target.

 +++

 b) THE SMOKER      (LX-I-SMO)
 Health: 250
 Melee Damage: 4 per swipe
 Tongue Recharge: 15 seconds after paralysing a Survivor, 3 otherwise

 The Smoker is often dismissed as useless by quite a few people; this is why
 the Smoker was arguably the main focus of the Jan 14th patch, buffing him up.
 He has a tongue attack that ensnares and drags Survivors in towards you from
 a long distance, however it is extremely situational - if you're not in the
 right kind of situation, you're a nuisance. If you ARE, then you become very
 very dangerous to the Survivors. It's all about timing and positioning.

 Smokers don't move paticularly fast and aren't anywhere near as agile as
 Hunters, but they can still use climb points to get to all sorts of areas.
 Their melee attack is also awful and should only be used for beating on
 survivors who are pinned by hunters, survivors who are on their last few
 points of health, or as a desperation move if you are discovered.

 The Smoker's primary attack is to launch his tongue at a Survivor, which
 then wraps around them, making them unable to act or free themselves. They
 will be dragged towards you - if they reach you, you will start smacking them
 around the head repeatedly. If they get caught on something or otherwise
 cannot be pulled all the way to you, they simply begin choking or hanging.
 The damage from this is lower than the hunter's shredding, but it has the
 unique ability to forcibly seperate the Survivor team members and pull them
 into various hazards, such as over edges so they take fall damage, or pulling
 them into Witches which will cause her to enrage and attack whoever you
 brought to her. There are even a few places on certain maps where a Smoker
 can pull a survivor over edges which result in instant death. The only way
 they can stop this from happening is to react quickly to you.
 Before the Jan 14th patch, Smokers would only begin doing damage once the
 Survivor had stopped moving. Now, the mere act of being dragged causes damage
 to a Survivor, as well as making the grab much harder to counter.

 Since the Smoker is so situational, it is difficult to give general advice
 other than knowing when and from where to strike. Points where Smokers are
 effective will be covered in the Campaign Strategy section. Be aware that
 your constant coughing cannot be prevented and will continually betray your
 presence for as long as you are alive.

 Though Smokers are poor at close range, if you grab a survivor with your
 tongue at point blank range it will immediatley ensnare them, meaning
 they will require a rescue from their teammates.

 Good points for Smokers in the official campaigns are:
 
 * NO MERCY 1
   Just before the subway station there is an alarm car you can drag
   survivors to, in hope that their teammates will shoot.

 * NO MERCY 2
   During the horde event in the generator room, if the Survivors do not throw
   a molotov down the hole in the floor you can drag one of them down it by
   grabbing them from below, causing seperation and delays.

   There is an alarm car on the street approaching the safe room.

 * NO MERCY 3
   There is a gas station you can drag Survivors to if they don't blow it up
   intentionally ahead of reaching it. If Survivors fire at you to free their
   teammate they stand a good chance of blowing up both you and your victim.

   During the lift horde event, as the survivors are running across the blue
   awning you can pull one off, causing seperation and a fair chunk of fall
   damage, as well as causing regular zombies on the ground to have a target.
   If they hang around too close to the windows in the building they get to
   via the awning, you can pull them out to the same effect.

   When the Survivors descend into the sewers from the pipe room, if you can
   quickly snag the last one to go down before he can, then the Survivors will
   not be able to rescue him from you.
 
   There may be an alarm car for you to use after they exit the sewers.

 * NO MERCY 4
   If you can pull a Survivor out of the elevator as it leaves, their team
   mates are powerless to rescue them.

   It is possible in certain places to pull a Survivor over the edge in the
   area after the elevator, which will require a teammate to rescue them.

 * NO MERCY 5
   At the end of the first long corridor, you can pull a Survivor into the
   elevator shaft, which causes them to require rescuing. Apparently, if
   this is done from certain angles it causes an instant kill.

   When the Survivors climb the last ladder and emerge onto the roof, you can
   quickly snag the last one to jump down before he can, making the Survivors
   unable to rescue him without risking using a grenade.

   Alternately, you can pull a Survivor off the first rooftop area and inflict
   a huge amount of fall damage.

   Standing on the building with the satellite dish and pulling Survivors as
   they emerge from the ladder can result in instant death for them.

 * BLOOD HARVEST 1
   There are sections behind the chainlink fence where you can pull a Survivor
   down and inflict grevious fall damage.

 * BLOOD HARVEST 2
   In the warehouse near the beginning before the alarm door, you can pull a
   Survivor down from the gantries and inflict some fall damage to them.

 * BLOOD HARVEST 3 is poor for Smokers.

 * BLOOD HARVEST 4
   When the Survivors jump down the small cliff onto the train track, you can
   snag the last one to jump down for a guaranteed kill if the other Survivors
   don't land on the white awning.

   There is an alarm car after they leave the building mentioned above.

   You can pull them out of the windows of the small house.

 * BLOOD HARVEST 5
   Immediatley left of the Safe Room right at the beginning of the map is a
   very thin ledge with several rocks on it. If you carefully walk as far as
   you can go on this ledge and then pull a survivor to it once you spawn,
   when they are freed they will fall off the cliff and instantly die.

   When the Survivors are defending the house during the finale, you can pull
   them out of the windows if they get too close to them.

 +++

 c) THE BOOMER      (LX-I-BOO)
 Health: 50
 Melee Damage: 2 per swipe
 Vomit Recharge: 30 seconds

 Operating quite differently from the other two, the Boomer is less about
 attacking and more about causing distractions and opportunities for your
 teammates to attack. Against a good Survivor team, the vomit and blindness
 on their own mean nothing - you must operate with your team members to get
 the most use out of your pukey goodness.

 The golden rule of Boomers is don't get seen before you mean to be. This can
 be tricker than it sounds since the Boomer is probably the most noisy
 infected next to the Tank, constantly groaning and gurgling. Good survivors
 will usually try to predict where you are coming from and how you will strike
 so be ready to react before they do, or use terrain to sneak up on them.

 Your vomit arcs downwards somewhat, so it actually goes further if aimed
 downwards off something. Be aware though that the range is not very long,
 perhaps only roughly four or five times normal melee range. There's nothing
 worse than puking from too far away and getting safely detonated. You should
 always try to get as many as you can with the puke - hitting all four of them
 in one go is optimal performance and will create a fairly nasty situation.

 Once you've puked on them (or perhaps used your puke and missed), it may be
 best to fall back and wait for your vomit to recharge. This takes thirty
 seconds, which is a fairly long time - generally if you've held them back
 with the puke at all it will cover just over half of that duration. If you
 can keep them locked in the same area with repeated puke attacks time and
 time again (very unlikely to happen), you will slowly grind them down through
 attrition and probably force them to use up whatever medical supplies they
 have on hand. It will also give your teammates a lot of opportunities to
 strike and do a lot of damage or disruption.

 If you can vomit on enough survivors during a horde event of any kind, it
 actually creates MORE regular zombies for them to fight, which is bad for
 them in several ways but also creates a massive opportunity for Hunters
 and Smokers to get damage done. If you can puke on Survivors while a Tank
 is present, the blindness and any possible slowdown from the summoned mob
 will make them very easy Tank fodder.

 If you miss with puke, the choice is yours of whether to retreat or kamikaze.
 Rushing into them hoping to be shot or for mistakes to be made is making an
 assumption of the Survivors's skill and reactions, which is something you
 generally should try not to do. A good team will just bounce you away, and
 then keep their distance and shoot you. If possible, try to run out infront
 of them while they are already firing at something and walk into their 
 stream of fire - this is tricky to do however, as usually the Survivors will
 be covering each other and at least one of them will probably see you.

 If you happen across an incapacitated survivor or one snared by a Smoker's
 tongue it might be worth puking on them if you don't think you'll be able
 to bag multiple team members. Attracting a mob to a Smoker victim will
 cause incapacitation and death far faster than the Smoker can on his own,
 and an incapacitated Survivor can only fight off zombies beating him to
 death mildly well. It might be the difference between rescue and death.
 If you come across an incapacitated survivor and your puke isn't available,
 you can stand there and beat on them. They can't melee you away and you do
 pitiful damage to them, but it's damage nontheless and forces the victim to
 choose between tolerating you beating on him or blowing you up and attracting
 a mob to swiftly tear him apart. There's also the chance that another
 survivor might shoot you, coating their unfortunate team member in puke.

 Be aware when a Tank is present you can aid him greatly by attracting a mob
 with your puke, which will slow the Survivors down or generally harass them
 enough for the Tank to catch up and deliver a beating. However, you should
 keep your distance from the Tank since if you explode near him, it will
 cause him to stagger for a few moments, making him very vulnerable.

 The Boomer's spawning mechanics appear to be slightly more lenient than those
 of the Hunter and Smoker with regards to the distance you can spawn from.
 If you can, it may be worth spawning behind a desk in the same room as the
 Survivors and quickly coating them all in puke - this overcomes one of the
 Boomer's greatest weaknesses, that of how much attention he gives of his
 presence in advance. Just make sure your vomit doesn't get blocked off by
 any debris on the obstacle you choose to hide behind.

 A paticularly amusing strategy is to find a Hunter and ask him to melee you
 three times - this will hurt you just enough so that a single melee strike
 will cause you to die and explode. Then if you can jump out on the Survivors
 at close enough range they will either melee you and get covered in puke,
 shoot you and get covered in puke, or leave you alone and get puked on.

 +++

 d) THE TANK        (LX-I-TAN)
 Health: 6000
 Melee Damage: 25 per punch
 Stone Damage: 25 per thrown rock

 A rare treat for players, the AI Director usually loans your team a Tank once
 per map, though they usually don't appear on the first map of a campaign.
 During finales, you will get three - two during pauses in the mob attacks,
 and one as a "last ditch" tank when the rescue vehicle arrives. Bear in mind
 that the Tank spawns controlled by the AI and then begins running towards the
 Survivors from wherever it is placed - a random player is granted control
 shortly after. This means you can gain control of the Tank in some pretty
 odd situations - I once gained control of him while he was standing in a fire
 and i've seen the Tank die seconds after the player gained control of it due
 to the AI running it right up to the Survivors and being mowed down.
 This is less of a concern now since the Jan 14th patch, however. Also it
 should be noted that as of the same patch, Tanks have been evened out
 between teams - if one team encounters a Tank in a certain area, the other
 is guaranteed to find a tank there on their run.

 As is implied by its name, the Tank can survive immense amounts of punishment
 and dish out enormous amounts of damage. As is to be expected, there are
 drawbacks - Tanks can be taken down very quickly by explosion staggering, are
 very weak to fire, and they have a Control Meter which must be kept topped up
 by attacking the Survivors constantly. For as long as you can't see any
 Survivors, the Control Meter drains slowly. When it empties out, the Tank
 gets very mad and begins to stomp and thrash, which essentially amounts to
 a short stun the Survivors can exploit. Control will then be given to another
 player on the team - if their control meter runs out, the AI takes the Tank
 back and tries to kill the Survivors itself. A human player is always better
 than an AI player when it comes to special Infected, so this is bad.

 If you get set on fire (by any source of fire, not just molotovs), it starts
 a 40 second timer. Once time is up, the Tank simply drops dead on the spot,
 regardless of how much health it had left. It is a VERY common Survivor
 strategy to simply immolate the Tank and then run away, conserving ammo.
 Avoid fire at all costs, but it is sometimes unavoidable as generally
 Survivors will try to aim the molotov bottle directly at you. If you are
 blocked off from the Survivors by fire, it may be worth simply waiting it
 out and forfeiting your turn with the Tank to another team member to ensure
 maximum damage can be done, and that the Survivors are fighting on the Tank's
 terms, not their own.

 Avoid explosives like the plague also. Pipebombs aren't much of a threat, but
 it is a viable survivor strategy to hide a propane tank just around a corner
 then lead you into it, detonating it to stagger you, and filling your face
 full of lead. If you are in an area that is known to provide these items to
 the survivors, use extra caution to avoid being led into a trap. Even if you
 aren't in one of these areas, Survivors can bring these items with them, so
 always be wary if you think the Survivors are trying to "herd" you.

 The best situation for the Tank to appear in is when the Survivors are
 already struggling, since when they are all healthy they are capable of
 staying out of the Tank's reach and dodging thrown concrete chunks. When they
 are in yellow or red and limping however, the Tank can easily catch up to
 them and give them a good hiding, and it also makes them far less likely to
 avoid rock throws. Think of the Tank more as a "finishing move" than anything
 else; though this is not to say he is ineffective against a healthy team.

 Against a team of fully healthy Survivors, you will have to rely on quick
 reactions, help from your teammates, and maybe a little luck too. Healthy
 Survivors run at the same pace you do, so chasing after one pretty much
 results in a Benny Hill situation where no-one really gets caught. If faced
 with healthy Survivors in an open area, lobbing rocks is probably your best
 bet. From full health, it takes four punches or rocks to incapacitate.
 Once you hit with one, the victim will go flying, giving you enough time to
 run up to them and deliver another punch, and so on until they go down.
 Never attack an incapacitated Survivor - you do negligable damage standing
 there pounding on them so it really isn't worth it, especially when other
 Survivors are likely to be shooting you full of lead.

 Your control meter may be limited, but it is not completley inflexible.
 Certain tactics may involve ducking out of sight of the Survivors for a
 short while to lull them into a false sense of security - you would be
 suprised how often this works given that every time you think Tank, you
 think a big monster getting up in your face and staying there until dead.
 Use the Survivor silhouettes to your best advantage - it may be worth
 incapacitating a Survivor and then running away just around the corner.
 If the Survivors are fooled by this, they may attempt to revive the downed
 teammate - either rush in during or after the revive, and get either the
 reviver or revivee.
 Downing a guy and then allowing him to be revived, then downing him again
 may be a very viable strategy to permanently kill off a Survivor. Three
 knockdowns means death, and a badly injured Survivor pretty much cannot
 escape from you whatsoever with their slow and limping pace. This means
 they cannot heal or fight back against you; however, it depends on the
 actions of their teammates. If the teammates choose to leave the Survivor
 down on the ground to pursue you, this course of action isn't available.

 When working with teammates, try not to punch Survivors that are pinned by
 a Hunter - doing so instantly kills the Hunter, and if the Survivor is not
 incapacitated they have a chance of escaping. Since no bullets penetrate
 through a tank, it might be worth standing infront of the Hunter while he
 tears apart his victim, blocking any attempts to save their teammate.
 Throw rocks while doing this for added damage. If they attempt to set you
 on fire, dodge it - not only will you avoid immolation, but the Hunter will
 be set on fire and recieve a huge damage boost on his victim before he dies.

 Survivors that have been snared by a Smoker take a lot longer to die than
 Hunter victims unless they are surrounded by zombies - who normally aren't
 around when a Tank is present unless a Boomer summoned them. It might be
 worth just smacking them out of the tongue snare if you can follow it up
 with enough attacks to incapacitate the victim - as long as the Smoker
 isn't killed by your attack, he can snare another victim for you to
 incapacitate. The beauty of this is that not many will pay too much attention
 to a Smoker while the Tank is present. Another consideration though, is that
 if the snared victim cannot be rescued easily then he is effectively
 "out of the fight" until either killed or rescued. Dealing with three is
 easier than dealing with four.

 You don't really need to interact with Boomers as such. If they can get their
 vomit off on Survivors it will summon a small mob which hopefully will slow
 them down enough for you to catch them, but there's nothing you can really do
 to help the Boomer pull this off other than provide a distraction, which you
 do with your mere presence.
 One thing to keep in mind however is that the Boomer is most well-known for
 his namesake, going boom. You'll stagger from an exploding Boomer like you
 will from any other explosion, so you will need to keep your distance from
 them, and them from you. Make sure to notify each other of this.

 In certain areas on certain maps, there are large loose objects that can
 be punched around. Striking a survivor with a sufficiently large object will
 instantly incapacitate them. It is possible to even incapacitate all four
 in a single strike if you are lucky (or if the Survivor team is terrible),
 leading to an immediate loss for them. Note that the angle which you punch
 the object has quite a lot of bearing on how far the object will fly.
 Crouching down and angling upwards before you punch will send the object
 hurtling through the air - useful for moving an object you want to another
 area, but it gives the Survivors more time to react and dodge it.
 These objects include:
 * Cars (including alarm cars)
 * Dumpsters
 * Forklift Trucks
 * Mobile Generators
 * Logs (Blood Harvest)
 * Hay Bales (Blood Harvest)
 If you punch an Alarm Car, bizarrely enough it won't trigger the alarm.
 However, the Survivors can still end up shooting the thing and triggering it
 for you instead. If you can, punch an alarm car into their firing line.
 It is possible to block certain areas with these objects. However, it is
 likely that Valve did not intend for this to happen, as certain objects will
 despawn if you attempt to do this with them. Having the Survivors immediatley
 prevented from winning through no control of their own likely doesn't fit
 into what they intended, so expect it to be patched out.

 As of the January 14th patch, objects which can be bashed in this manner
 are highlighted with a red glow. Also, striking an alarm car will break
 the alarm on it, meaning one less major hazard for the Survivors. You will
 have to consider the situation and figure out whether it is worth the
 incapacitation or not to screw your team out of a free zombie mob.
 Finally, striking these objects as of the patch no longer refills your
 control meter - the only things that will do this are landing hits on
 Survivors, with either fist or rock. With this, Tanks are pretty much now
 compelled to charge in and stay on the offensive.

 One more thing to note is that on certain maps, the massive knockback from
 your attacks can send Survivors flying off edges to an instant death.
 Do this whenever possible - bear in mind Survivors will be trying to avoid it
 however, so just take whatever opportunities you can get.

***

7) PATCH NOTES (LX-PAT)

This section contains patch notes from Left 4 Dead patches. I included this
section due to the fact that the information in this FAQ may well change
over time as Valve adds to or corrects the game. In addition to updating my
own advice, I figure it's best to include Valve's list of changes in here
also so that players can be advised on what has changed.

---

JANUARY 14, 2009
Left 4 Dead has been updated with a host of fixes, tweaks and new features,
including enhancements to Versus mode for improved competitive play.
The full change list is below. For PC users the update will be applied
automatically via Steam. Meanwhile, the update will be made available to
Xbox 360 players in the coming weeks.

General
===
* Fixed Survivors being able to climb surfaces marked for versus infected only
* Fixed a class of SurvivorBot bugs dealing with rescuing downed players
* Players can no longer grab ladders while flying through the air after a
  Tank punch
* Shooting near a car with an alarm that has already fired the alarm will no
  longer make chirping noises
* Improved loading time
* Fixed mini-gun physics exploit
* Fixed propane tanks (and other physics objects) causing players to fall
  through elevators
* Fixed rare achievement bug issues
* Fixed several map exploits
* Fixed various match making issues
* Fixed NAT traversal issues

Versus Changes
===
* Added HUD elements to show status of other infected players
* Changed color of infected player name in chat to red
* Fixed exploit where players could spawn infected bots
* Fixed instance where a Survivor changing to the infected team would be
  attacked by infected bots
* Normalized special infected melee damage
* Made the following client commands cheat protected: "Kill" and "explode"
* Fixed exploit where infected players could run away and teleport back to
  gain health
* Players can only change teams once per map
* Players can't change teams while other players are still loading
* Tank spawns at the same % through the map for both teams in versus mode
* Made the Tank and Witch spawn directly on the escape route
* Increased chance of getting the Tank or Witch
* Fixed team swap issue


Hunter
===
* Easier to pounce a Survivor who is meleeing
* Increased Minimum damage a Hunter pounce does


Smoker
===
* Fixed Smoker tongue tolerance
* Smoker now has to be killed or the tongue destroyed for the tongue to break
* Survivor's cannot bash someone off the tongue until the Survivor
  being pulled is paralyzed or hanging
* Tongue attacks that fail to paralyze or hang a Survivor will use the
  shorter ability delay timer
* Fixed cases where the ability timer was not using the correct time
* Fixed case where you could point at a Survivor but not register a tongue hit
* Fixed Smoker tongue not targeting and landing properly through PZ ghosts
* Smoker tongue does damage every second while dragging paralyzed Survivors


Tank
===
* Bashable objects now appear with a red glow
* Tanks hitting a car with an alarm disables the alarm permanently
* Tank frustration timer is only reset by hitting Survivors with rocks
  or fists
* Reduced autoshotgun damage against Tanks


Witch
===
* Witch spawns at the same % through the map for both teams
* Avoids spawning within a certain % of the tank
* Fixed an exploit where the Witch could be woken up and tricked into
  attacking Survivors

---

***

8) CONCLUSION (LX-CON)

I'd like to thank a few people for helping me improve the guide:

Thanks to Ian Hertel, for strategy in general, regarding tanks, and regarding
how hunters and smokers should cooperate.

Thanks to Matt Baurac, for general strategy, infected strategy, and tips for
certain map locations.

Thanks to Carl Celizic, for words on tanks with explosions, hunters with
ladders, and moving witches with hunters.

Thanks to klip_twings, for advice on witch cr0wning, and smoker strategies.

Thanks to Dan Quick for map strategies.

Thanks to Matthew Halpin, for advice on witch cr0wning.

Thanks to Colin Gormley and Kyle Harris for general feedback.

+++

My Steam ID is "LuminarNightblade". I'm not terribly sociable though, so
unless you're contacting me to ask me for advice i'm not likely to accept
friend requests - I save my friendlist for people I know well. Feel free to
compare stats/achievements/games or such though.

You may contact me at "teh_man_tat_maeks_teh_ppl_go_onoz@hotmail.com" if you
have any questions, queries, corrections, glowing praise, insults,
death threats, or the like. In my defense regarding my e-mail address, I made
it back in 2003 or something when I was too stupid to realise how passť that
was. I can't guarantee i'll answer quickly or at all. If it's something dumb
like asking me to clean your car i'll just delete it, if it's relevant i'll
get around to replying. It's not my main email account, I just use it for less
important things. Seriously though, clean your car. It's filthy.

End of file.

================================