Wrath of Denethenor(Apple II) FAQ/Walkthrough by Andrew Schultz email@example.com version 1.0.0 copyright 2007 Please do not reproduce for profit without my consent. You won't be getting much profit anyway, but that's not the point. This took time and effort, and I just wanted to save a memory of an old game and the odd solutions any way I could. Please send me an email referring to me and this guide by name if you'd like to post it on your site. This FAQ contains the how-to and text to get through the game. However, the maps that accompany it on GameFAQs should provide a visual aid that will hopefully make it come alive a bit more. I have tried to make them small and detailed so that you can see immediately where you need to go. I also rely on them in this guide so when I say "go to X" and don't give full directions, you may wish to look at the map. I wrote this at the end, too, but very special thanks to crimdom.net(and Electronic Gamer by proxy) and to Shay Addams's Quest for Clues for their own walkthroughs. While I copied nothing from them, they pointed me in the right direction when I put on my silly cap and couldn't figure out what to do next. ================================ OUTLINE 1. INTRODUCTION 2. CONTROLS 2-1. THE KEYBOARD 2-1-1. SHORTCUTS 2-2. SPELLS 3. ROUGH LARGE SCALE MAPS 3-1. OUTSIDE 3-2. INSIDE TOWNS 3-3. WHAT ITEMS/SPELLS ARE WHERE 3-4. MATCHING UP PORTALS 4. WALKTHROUGH 4-1. NISONDEL 4-2. CESTIONA 4-3. ARVEDUIN 4-4. ISLES OF BREGALAD 4-5. MYSTENOR 5. CHEATS 6. VERSIONS 7. CREDITS ================================ 1. INTRODUCTION Wrath of Denethenor is a fun retro 1-player RPG despite its faults. It features 5 large outside worlds that you can teleport between, some big towns, and some clever NPC dialogues. However, it's a bit heavy on how big it wants to be. You sense there could have been a lot more, and yet at the same time it is already too big. I am guessing that this game is the reason Deathlord switched from a Nordic theme to a Japanese one--two games in the same vein would be bad for sales. But while it squeezed Deathlord out there, Deathlord compacted cities into a small bit of memory, forced you to find many different items, and offered a bunch of wonderful dead ends and irrelevancies. WoD feels artificial with its teleports between worlds. The combat system is horrendous, forcing you to use control-(direction) and then to decide where to strike. Some of the monsters confuse you as to what they do. Starting is baffling. And there are traps that just kill you for the fun of it. In WoD the puzzles are straightforward, but building up your character isn't, and because so much is focused on leveling up, which can be achieved essentially by waiting out of doors and raiding the right towns at the right time, the game lacks muscle. But anyone who likes nice big maps and a bit of dungeon crawling should enjoy this. 2. CONTROLS 2-1. THE KEYBOARD You move with IJKM. You attack with ctrl-(IJKM) and then you must aim. Aiming is pretty simple. If it's a big monster, you can aim anywhere, but J/K is probably best. If the monster is short and closer to the ground, aim down. If it seems to be flying, aim up. Otherwise you will miss it completely. C converses with a NPC. D disarms trap, which is critical in a dungeon. It may not work 100% of the time, but it avoids instant death. Traps are orange floor tiles with either grey dots or parallelograms in the center. E equips player with the new armor/weapon he just bought. H hoists anchor and L lowers the anchor on your boat. You cannot lower the anchor in shallow water, which makes it tough to find where to land near some areas. O opens a door. P shows player information. Push space to get through it or escape once you've seen what you wanted to see. R rests until you push another key. It can help you gain hit points quickly. S casts a spell. You need to type it in the first time, but once you know what it is, the computer remembers this and fills in the spell once you type the first letter. V views surroundings. [esc] pauses the game so you don't pass a move if you just sit around. 2-1-1. SHORTCUTS Hold down control when fighting. That works OK. You just have to make sure you don't flipflop the direction you fight in and where you aim. Remember that world maps scroll, so you can use that to your advantage for instance after you steal a boat from Pescara and you can go SE to land on the island with portal 3. It's useful also to get to the Lotrus Amphitheater. Just hit i-k-i-k-i-k etc. You can generally hold keys down, too, which helps, as if you run into a monster the computer does not dock you a move. 2-2. SPELLS The computer fills in a spell for you if you typed it successfully once. However, you still need to use the appropriate reagent. For spells without a reagent, using the reagent will make them fail. People in the game tell you what the secret names of spells are, but you don't need to talk to these people to use the spells. 3. ROUGH LARGE SCALE MAPS 3-1. OUTSIDE Nisondel: to~ ~Dry Cest~ ~Gulch onia~ ~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~ Solrain ~ Argoth Back ~ woods /-----------\ / \ \ C Solrain / ------- ----- ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~ Pescara Firetench(W) ~ Firetrench(E) Cestonia: ~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~ C Mirrih ~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~ Lake Fionell The Mirrih Hole Argoth ~~~~~~~~~~~ Mt ~ Bay of Karibae ~ Mirrih Arveduin: useless~ island ~ ~~~~~~~~ | +---|---+ | Mount | |Restorn| +-------+ Castle Castle ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Drawn Estrine ~Deledain ~ ~Penitentiary~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Dead Forest Lotrus ~ Inn Amphitheater~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Mystenor and Isles of Bregalad are too twisty to be mappable. Isles of Bregalad are pretty linear. En Siev is first, then take a boat to go south and east and get out, then visit the Banshee and, if you want, Limbar's. Then go back west and into the narrow river that leads to a dungeon and eventually Shadowmere. The entrance from the Isles of Bregalad to Mystenor is 1-way, leading to Red Sands dungeon, Sorie Gulch and eventually either the fake Denethenor Castle or Death Meadow, which leads to the real Denethenor Castle. 3-2. INSIDE TOWNS 3-3. WHAT ITEMS/SPELLS ARE WHERE The only really special item is Hemlock, so this is a list of where you can find armor and weapons to buy once you get good enough. Armor and weapons only help so much, and the most important thing is to be able to go for volume and know all the spells(which you don't have to learn in-game.) But at the start it's critical to have a good weapon, and whatever bonus you can get from armor and such will be helpful when you invariably lose track of your HP. What to buy where: (prices not 100% exact) ****NISONDEL**** Backwoods: food-25, whip-120, dagger-175, sell items Dry Gulch: food-25, HP-50 Castle Solrain: cloak, leather Solrain Argoth: food-2, Handaxe-310, Rapier-~1900 Pescara: longbow-780, Crossbow-975 --come back later to rob areas and use MONSROL ****CESTONIA**** Lake Fionell: food-35, handaxe, handsword, leather, chain Mirrih Argoth: food-35 Mt Karibae: food-35, torches(you can buy in bulk) --rob the trading post Bay of Mirrih: food-35, Chain-1700, Plate-2300 --rob the docks before leaving ****ARVEDUIN**** Dead Forest Inn and Lotrus Amphitheater: food-45 ****ISLES OF BREGALAD**** Food to Go: food-55 En Siev Dungeon: 4 of any reagent for 20 gold, food-55 Shadowmere: food-55 ****MYSTENOR**** Fake Denethenor: food-65 Spells: Tulicanre: Hermit in Backwoods Specere: Castle Solrain pub Netrelon: Cleric in Solrain Argoth Wethrir: back-rooms of Dry Gulch Monsrol: SW condo in Lake Fionell Resonim: The cleric in the N cell of Castle Mirrih, Bhui, tells you Lethren: found in Castle Drawn Desapar: hinted at in Castle Drawn, found in Banshee(unruined) on Isles of Bregalad. This is a tough one to find because if you kill one townsman, you are in for it, but they block your way to the Banshee in the first place. Inslerete: backstage in the SE of Lotrus Amphitheater, you learn this Elresire: found in the En Siev dungeon when you reach the pub, the name is engraved Urenduiresex: Fake Denethenor when you kill the lord and sit on his throne Hemlock is behind the Death Meadow portal. 3-4. MATCHING UP PORTALS From the outside maps: 1. SW Nisondel goes to the NE mainland 2. NW of the NE portal goes back and forth to the island with Dry Gulch on it 3. the NW isle on Nisondel 4. NE Cestonia to isolated Arveduin isle, hooks up with a. 5. SE Cestonia mainland to SW of castle Mirrih. But you can walk between these portals. 6. SW Cestonia <-> Bay of Mirrih isle. Useful to get boat. 7. Teleports from NW Cestonia isle to inside one to the south 8. From Cestonia to Arveduin mainland 9. From S Arveduin to Mystenor. This forms an elaborate loop with other portals, 9-c-d. a. From NW Arveduin isle to SE Arveduin isle(dead end) c. Moves you from one side of the Arveduin NE broken bridge to the other d. Behind c, leads you to Mystenor i. from Mystenor to the Isles. One teleport on the Isles leads to Limbar's Fortress, which is not really necessary. 4. WALKTHROUGH First note that if you get stuck anywhere with low HP/stamina, go back to Nisondel and beat up enemies in Firetrench and see what you can rob. Without Monsrol you can't get the really good stuff, although if you want you can go in for it before you "learn" it. 4-1. NISONDEL You start just north of the center and there is really only one way to go. Follow the coastline originally to your west and you will come to a town. That town is Backwoods. Go to the weapon seller(SE) and buy the dagger. Without it you won't be able to kill much of anything quickly. Buy some rations if you want. Note that you lose 1 stamina per minute, and rations give 4 stamina per gold piece in Nisondel. Therefore, you need to spend 360 gold on food a day to keep afloat. There is nothing wrong with spending 125 now. For the next bit you need to walk around for a while. You probably will just fight enemies as they pop up. Eventually you will be able to kill one that has a torch. But before you go visiting a dungeon, first go to Castle Mirrih to boost your intelligence. This will help the torch last longer when you go down into Firetrench, which is in the southwest of the continent(approach from the east.) You don't really have to do anything besides troll the area for fights. Technically, you don't even need a torch to stumble around, but it really helps. You can also swap a couple of keys for gold in SE Backwoods. In general you will find yourself piling up money, and while you can't really rout enemies in castles(with big treasure) right away, it is nice to have places where you can fill up every now and then. Treasure gradually replenishes, so if you have a few places to steal it from, you can buzz about between them. Once you get a torch, you should be able to move around in Firetrench pretty easily. Before Firetrench, try to have 500 stamina. There's no food where you will wind up, so you need to be careful you don't starve. The dungeon map should show you where the treasure is. You should also try to disarm all traps. If you fall through a spiked pit, you die, but if you try to disarm it and fail, you just take a chunk of damage. Whatever you do in Firetrench, make sure you have 500+ stamina just in case, as you need to take a trip to find a place with food. You should have enough money or items to buy new food with the money you get from Firetrench, or from the items you find there that you sell in Backwoods. Go to the bottom of Firetrench and keep fighting until you are at about 400 hit points. Then you can go on with your passage to the other stairs up to the surface, which lead to right by Pescara Bay in the southeast. If you were in the area you probably saw a small quasi-island cordoned off by mountains. You're there now. You may need to go south to Dry Gulch for a quick food run if you're low, but thankfully it's not hard to get there, as the world wraps. Now one thing about Firetrench--you can always go back. It's the best place to build up gold fairly harmlessly and eventually you will stumble on an enemy that gives you a lot more. This is random, but once you find a few longbows, you can save up for a rapier and eventually plate mail. Then the rest you save up will be to buy stamina for casting spells. The Healer in Dry Gulch can give you lots of hit points for gold, but if you go, be sure you 1) have 4 keys and 2) have enough money for several times. You might as well get your money's worth for keys, which don't have a specific value but are relatively rare. He is worth it to save stamina if you are loaded with gold and have a bunch of extra keys--eventually, as you fight more, you will be. Casting a timely Monsrol will save a lot of hit points compared to hacking through monsters, and it'll save you time for non gaming stuff one occasionally does with this thing called life. You should be good enough to go through the dimension door on the northwest isle once you have the rapier. It's worth waiting to make sure you have the best. You'll probably have a surplus of magic reagents--for the moment, anyway. Worst comes to worst, you can come back. 4-2. CESTIONA In Cestonia, the monsters look the same, but of course they are much tougher and take you for a lot more damage. So Monsrol is advisable here. If you want to play it straight-up, visit Lake Fionell where you can learn about Monsrol in the SW of the condo complex. Don't upgrade to chain just yet. Instead, exit and make a run for the SW of the continent, cutting SE N W SW. You'll want to cast monsrol as you can, as the monsters will often get caught behind you. If you are SW of them and they have to go NW SW to get to you, they won't. On the other side you have a dungeon called The Hole which is not really worth the trouble. Basically you need to cast MONSROL a lot to get by enemies. You also need to know RESONIM which means you'd need to visit Castle Mirrih first. Basically you use up a LOT of energy to get to the treasure, and then you have to get back, and you'll make silly mistakes along the way. It's an interesting puzzle but it's impractical and gets in your way. There is a portal to the south of Mirrih Argoth, which is east of the hole. It leads to the isle with the Bay of Mirrih, although you can go south to Mount Karibae and loot it before entering the portal. This portal leads to Bay of Mirrih, where you can buy plate mail. After that you can buy lots of food, then loot the armory and side rooms to get gold back for food in the future. Steal a boat, too, and work your way NW up a river then NE to where Castle Mirrih is. In Castle Mirrih you can find a guy who tells you about RESONIM, and of course you want to talk to Lord Mirrih for an intelligence boost. You need both of these to get to the "correct" portal to Arveduin. Exit the bay and head southeasterly until you get to a small island with a portal. Magic fields will appear. Repel them with Resonim. Enter one portal and it leads you to another island with a portal. Take that and you are on the Arveduin mainland. 4-3. ARVEDUIN Go SW and, if you want, SE to get to the Dead Forest Inn. Your ultimate goal is Castle Estrine, which is west, then around the coast and behind a mountain. MONSROL now to shake off monsters. At Castle Estrine you can get another blessing for more intelligence along with another boat. To the east you have the Deledain Penitentiary, which is not terribly useful, but it's there. On the north of the inlet there are rivers NW and NE. Take the NW and it leads to another inland lake. Fortunately a bridge to the north is busted and you can make it out that way. Before the bridge to the right is Castle Drawn, where you can learn about a couple of spells. It's not a necessary detour, as the spells you learn aren't terribly useful, and in fact you need INSLERETE(learned from the Lotrus Amphitheater in the SW, which you should go NE to to visit) but let's walk through it after showing what to do in Lotrus. In Lotrus, go to the main building and approach the only ulocked door in the SE. Go east through the locked door to find the spell information. Now you can go back to Castle Drawn with an easy concsience. You can go up the NE door for a bit of gold if you want. In Castle Drawn, walk into the portal. You can stand diagonally from wizards so that they shoot you and send you to a place that would be tough to get to otherwise--in that case you need to sucker the ones on the west to the east and cast MONSROL then INSLERETE after you open the door below. This lets you cast RESONIM without locked doors and standing on the magic fields while you recharge to worry about. Alternatively you can just go NE to start and go E SW and cast INSLERETE then SE S(re-cast if you reappear) then RESONIM. Head to the west and cast RESONIM again and stand on the force field. You will take some damage but you can use NETRELON to get through the rest of this mess. This gets you to the outer passage of Castle Drawn. Now entering the NW or SE doors here leads you to information about two more spells. Lethren, which is useless, and Desapar, which is found in The Banshee, a pub on the Isles of Bregalad. Which is your next destination after the Mt Restorn dungeon. Mt Restorn is tricky to muddle through, with a false exit(through the fields after you take the door, then SE) but if you know what to do, it is not bad. Take the center bottom door after going right and disarming the trap. Another trap to disarm after tha, and then teke a boat and go NE. When there is a passage going up, anchor the boat and follow the massage NW til you reach a non tiled area. Then W S and you will hit a portal that will send you to a 3x3 room. Either portal to the side leads you to the heart of Mt Restorn. From there, S then SE and there will be a couple of narrow gaps, then a whole bunch of magic fields. RESONIM, then go a few squares right then 1 up to get to the sign. Your spell will run out, and when you can cast it again, 2N then east and N to get to the stairs. They lead you to a small valley with a portal to the east. Take that portal to the next world. 4-4. ISLES OF BREGALAD This is the first of two winding outside areas. It is mostly one-way when you are on the ground, though. Follow the passage and note the dungeons--which are near the end of your journey here. En Siev is the first place to stop off, though all it really has is information as well as any reagents you may need to stock up on. The town of En Siev starts empty but fills up with enemies pretty quickly. So go SE to the courtyard, then west to the sopply area. Door in NW, then S SE and go through two unlocked doors to get to the dungeon. The En Siev dungeon is one-way, and it places you far away from the stairs you took down. NE NW leads to "ale of elresire" where you want to remember the name. If you talked to people previously you'll know that the name in the pub was a big damage spell. This one is pretty handy to take enemies out, though Monsrol is still efficient to get by them. Back to where you started, SW SE E NE(you can ignore the residences) N E N and there will be a branch to the west--it is useless as there is just a fireplace for sacrifices. The next branch is what you want. W leads to where you can buy 4 reagents for 20 gold each. If you're low on anything, pick it up. North leads to another long passage which eventually leads to the stairs back up. From En Siev outside, continue E S SW SE W and take the boat. Go west along the coast and land. You can go to the portal along the path and then walk into the Banshee for instructions. Limbar's is beyond that, and it's decent for looting but nothing special. You can't approach it by boat anyway. When you're finished with that, you can get back on the boat and go north and NW/NE around the mountains, then N E S and there'll be a river you can take in that will lead to a landing by a dungeon. Enter the dungeon. It's completely dark but not very hard. Try to go S/E and when you are blocked by a monster, kill the monster. Most of the time it will be a bat, so aim high, but otherwise aim level. Going S/E you will eventually reach the other side and Shadowmere. It's a good idea to wait outside of Shadowmere until just before midnight. Then when you enter, it will change. When it does, go to the south and then head 1N. Go west and look out for the portal 2N of the south edge of town. Enter it. You should have plenty of time to do this--420 moves to go 40S, then 80W at the very most. 4-5. MYSTENOR Now you are in a relevant part of Mystenor. You can actually get to side parts two ways from Arveduin, but the teleports lead back to each other. As before, cast Monsrol when anyone is near you, but just move towards your goaluntil enemies to show up. Go NE to get out and use Monsrol when you can. Go S SE and E. When there's a passage north, take it and then enter the dungeon of Red Sands. This one is actually pretty easy. Take the 3rd-right door of 8 to the north Follow it and disarm all traps. Then go east to reach a boat eventually. Take the boat and go back west. There'll ba an island with stairs up. Now go east and south through a narrow pass, then east past some stray mountains and head NE when the mountains to the north turn up. Go north and keep them in sight and you'll go to another narrow pass between the water and mountains, which eventually leads to Sorie Gulch. This is a tricky one as you need to go to the west, right below the magic wall, then cast MONSROL then (keep trying til you recharge) RESONIM. Then head back east and go up when you see the pit to the north. At the east end of it, there will be a door. NETRELON it and beat up the wizard guarding...nothing? Actually, if you move west you are booted through a secret passage. Go north and blast em with a MONSROL or a ELRESIRE. The only time it's really useful, at least until you get on a boat to the northand need to use it again. You can't use MONSROL on a boat since it causes the winds to die down too. Exit Sorie Gulch to the east. Then take the boat west along the narrow strait and go NW and you can cast RESONIM by the north side of the island with the castle. You don't have to enter the castle, but you can do so and kill the fake Lord Denethenor in the NE and sit on his throne. A guard may step into it too unless you MONSROL(again.) Then it's kind of funny to see the new Castle and you learn the word that is also in this guide, which you need to use on Denethenor to win the game. Leaving the fake castle, go west after a RESONIM to get to the area with the portal. Save before entering it. You are sent to Death Meadow, which is a tricky puzzle of its own. Mushrooms pop up everywhere to block you, and monsters may slow you down until you are boxed in as well. The object is to find the portal out of here. The solution is 1) use MONSROL whenever a monster gets close and 2) go diagonally NE. Death Meadow wraps, so you can go diagonally any direction, really, but there's a sign SW of the second portal which will help you get your bearings a little better. The other portal is 35N35E of the entry. So if you just go N E N E etc. and keep track of when you have to make a few N's/E's in a row to get around mushrooms or enemies and make up for it later, you should wind up at the other portal soon enough. The game may(but it's doubtful) make it impossible to get there, but you can always try again. After Death Meadow you wind up near a fellow called Janai. He offers you some Hemlock, which you can return to Lord Mirrih(go through the portal, then the next one, then retreat) or you can go straight to the real Castle Denethenor. If you go to the real Denethenor, have 3000 hit points to spare. This is more for the damage magic walls will inflict on you than for combat. The final Castle Denethenor requires you to mix up your spells but should not be too taxing if you know where to go--though otherwise you run into a lot of dead ends. Head south along the west edge and enter the dungeon. Cast Inslerete in this forced-dark dungeon and go E 2N and open the door to the east. Enter it and go 3E S E* N* E* S* E*. This should be pretty easy as a lot of bats may attack you, but you can always push against them. When you start taking damage, cast Inslerete again. The stairs up lead to inside the castle proper. Take the passage west. You need inslerete to get by 2 guys guarding above and below(1 hit kills you,) so be prpared to cast again if your spell wears off. By the magic walls, wait to become visible unless you cast Inslerete, then cast Inslerete if necessary, then cast Resonim and make a break west. Netrelon the door(keep trying 'til you recharged) and go south and netrelon. Going north, you run into Denethenor from the west, where he sees you even if you cast inslerete. You will need to cast a Resonim or maybe two to get to the SE cell(be prepared to save and retry and experiment) where there is an exit to the south and you can get to the outer walls. Cast RESONIM there and go west. Then in the SE tower, cast RESONIM again and go north. You will be losing hit points here as you recharge and the walls zap you, so keep pushing S. Then cast RESONIM again and move up to the next tower. Go to the north and cast RESONIM again and make another jump. Another session where you must take damage as you go up before casting RESONIM twice. THen go west and cast INSLERETE in the middle of the long column of magic walls, then try RESONIM til it works, and then move in on Denethenor to the west. He's behind where the walls extend to the east a bit. When you are next to him, cast URENDUIRESEX and you win. 5. CHEATS Wrath of Denethenor does not store values as hex. Instead it puts their decimal representations in as two bytes. But other than that the cheating is pretty straightforward Basically you need a good hex editor(google axe21.zip) and if you are on AppleWin, you need to just save and reload save states. One thing that doesn't work is to adjust the map: in AppleWin, your map starts at offset 0xd12a. The map is always a square or very close to it. You can load up on gold, 0x3e, all over the place, in the save state. Only problem is, it freezes the game. But fortunately you can get rid of traps that way without adverse effects. Similarly you can rub out monsters out-of-doors by converting their bytes(usually >20 and not 3a/3b which is reserved for mountains) to 01 or 02. You can cut through terrain or even water the same way. Outdoor areas are 109x109. But to pump your character up quickly, go to byte 1b84 in the save state file, and in that area you will find most of the game critical information. 1b84 = time, on military time i.e. x:yz pm is (x+12) (yz)--note that this controls only if things get lighter/darker so for best results start at 3:59 if the playfield is totally dark. 1b8a = base-10-ized # of hit points(hi/lo) i.e. 76 54 = 7654 hit points 1b8c = base-10-ized stamina 1b8e = base-10-ized gold 1b90 = # of cloak 1b91 = # of leather 1b92 = # of chain 1b93 = # of plate 1b94 = # of whip 1b95 = # of dagger 1b96 = # of handaxe 1b97 = # of longbow 1b98 = # of crossbow 1b99 = # of handsword 1b9a = # of rapier Again, these are hexadecimals that only take decimal digits, so you'll see weird characters if you try to write hexadecimal. Still, getting lots of plate and rapier should be insurance against ever losing your gold. Also note that better weapons only help so much and the most important thing is stamina, so cheating your items only goes so far. End of FAQ Proper ================================ 6. VERSIONS 1.0.0: sent to GameFAQS 7/1/2007, complete. 7. CREDITS Thanks to the usual GameFAQs gang, current and emeritus. They know who they are, and you should, too, because they get/got some SERIOUS writing done. Good people too--bloomer, falsehead, Sashanan, Masters, Retro, Snow Dragon/Brui5ed Ego, ZoopSoul, War Doc, Brian Sulpher, AdamL, odino, JDog and others I forgot. OK, even Hydrophant in his current not-yet-banned message board incarnation. I am not part of his gang, but I want him to be part of mine. Very special thanks to crimdom.net(and Electronic Gamer by proxy) and to Shay Addams's Quest for Clues for their own walkthroughs. Theirs were necessarily briefer, because you couldn't do all sorts of crazy graphic and cheating things in the good old days, but they described where things were, which helped me immensely with maps.