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    Commodore 64 FAQ by Simon

    Version: 7.0 | Updated: 01/22/05 | Search Guide | Bookmark Guide

    
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    =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=
      The UNOFFICIAL Commodore 64 FAQ Version 7.0 by Thiago Simões - January/2005
    =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=
    
        Contents
        ===--===
        1.0 - About this FAQ
        2.0 - Commodore 64
        2.1 - History
        2.2 - Commodore 65 and Commodore 128
        2.3 - Is it still alive?
        2.4 - Specifications and PAL/NTSC Differences
        2.5 - Features
      2.5.1 - Loading Programs and Playing Games
      2.5.2 - Accessing the Internet/WWW and BBS
      2.5.3 - Original Commodore 64 Operation
    2.5.3.1 - The PRINT Command
    2.5.3.2 - Printing in a Printer
    2.5.3.3 - Loading Disks
    2.5.3.4 - Loading Tapes
    2.5.3.5 - Loading Cartridges
    2.5.3.6 - How to Format a New Disk
    2.5.3.7 - Saving Programs
      2.5.4 - CCS64 Emulator Operation
    2.5.4.1 - Loading Disks
    2.5.4.2 - Loading Tapes
    2.5.4.3 - Loading Cartridges
        2.6 - Commodore 64's Operational Systems
      2.6.1 - BASIC
    2.6.1.1 - BASIC Upgrades
    2.6.1.2 - Main Programs Released Using BASIC
      2.6.2 - GEOS
    2.6.2.1 - GEOS Upgrades
    2.6.2.2 - Main Programs Released Using GEOS
        2.8 - Main Peripherals Released for the Commodore 64
        3.0 - What's New in this FAQ
        4.0 - Copyright, Thanks and Notes
    
    =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=
    1.0 - About this FAQ
    =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=
    
    This FAQ is a  serious attemp to organize as much information as possible about
    the  Commodore 64 into  a single  text file.  However,  note that this is not a
    comprehensive  guide about  how  to use  all the commands  of  BASIC or  how to
    hook  up and  operate the  peripherals,  but  a  FAQ about  what is, how to get
    started  and  what  can you  do with  the Commodore 64.  If  you have  read any
    previous  version  of the  FAQ, you  will  note that some  information has been
    deleted,  and  some has  been  added as  well  to the  current version. I would
    like  to point out that I'm  not  a native speaker of English.  Therefore, this
    FAQ  is  subject to  errors,  because I am a  human being  as well. Besides, as
    the  Commodore 64  was  never  released  in  Brazil (where  I  live),  all  the
    information I've got came from Internet research, and some personal experiences
    with the CCS64 Commodore 64 emulator.
    
    =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=
    2.0 - Commodore 64
    =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=
    
    "Why buy just a videogame?" - from a Commodore 64 advertisement.
    
    =====-------=====-----=====-----=====-----=====-----=====-----=====-------=====
    2.1 - History
    =====-------=====-----=====-----=====-----=====-----=====-----=====-------=====
    
    The Commodore 64 was a revolutionary computer released by Commodore Business in
    1982. This powerful machine combined the power of a proffessional computer with
    the easy-to-use interface from home computers.  The built-in Operational System
    used by the Commodore 64 is the BASIC, the most used Operational System in home
    computers at that time.  BASIC is a deep language, time consuming to learn, but
    nevertheless  easier than  other existent languages.  The Commodore 64 sold out
    about  17  to  22 million of  units  around the  world,  until  1994,  when its
    production was ceased, and Commodore Business was sold for a German company.
    
    =====-------=====-----=====-----=====-----=====-----=====-----=====-------=====
    2.2 - Commodore 65 and Commodore 128
    =====-------=====-----=====-----=====-----=====-----=====-----=====-------=====
    
    In order  to make a successor for  the Commodore 64, Commodore developed  a new
    version of the Commodore 64 called Commodore 65. As Commodore 65 seemed so much
    with  the newest  Amiga  computers,  from  a  new  company  bought  earlier  by
    Commodore Business, Commodore decided to stop its  production and only sold out
    200 beta versions  of the  Commodore 65  in a special sale. The  real successor
    of the Commodore 64 was the Commodore 128. This computer expanded some features
    of the Commodore 64, such  as a quicker load time,  and came with the Commodore
    64  engine built-in,  you only needed to change the OS between the Commodore 64
    and the Commodore 128. All  the peripherals, programs  or  games  made  for the
    Commodore 64 would run in the Commodore 128 in 64 mode. It sold out around 4 to
    7 million units around the world. The Commodore 128 was developed with the help
    of Microsoft Corporation.
    
    =====-------=====-----=====-----=====-----=====-----=====-----=====-------=====
    2.3 - Is it still alive?
    =====-------=====-----=====-----=====-----=====-----=====-----=====-------=====
    
    Yes, even over 20 years  after its release, the Commodore 64 is still a popular
    hardware amongst  collectors. Some people truly  use it only for nostalgia, but
    in fact,  there are games  still being developed for  the Commodore 64, made by
    professional  nostalgic people or begginers in programming. With the emulators,
    such  as the CCS64  that emulates the  real Commodore  64 on your computer, the
    Commodore 64 will always be alive, and  there will always be someone developing
    games or programs for it.
    
    =====-------=====-----=====-----=====-----=====-----=====-----=====-------=====
    2.4 - Specifications and PAL/NTSC Differences
    =====-------=====-----=====-----=====-----=====-----=====-----=====-------=====
    
    +-----------------------------------------------------------------------------+
    | Official Name       | Commodore 64                                          |
    +-----------------------------------------------------------------------------+
    | Year of Release     | 1982                                                  |
    +-----------------------------------------------------------------------------+
    | Country of Origin   | USA                                                   |
    +-----------------------------------------------------------------------------+
    | C.P.U.              | 6510 (8 bits)                                         |
    +-----------------------------------------------------------------------------+
    | Speed               | 0,985 MHz (PAL) / 1,023 MHz (NTSC)                    |
    +-----------------------------------------------------------------------------+
    | Co-Processors       | VIC II (Video) / SID (Sound)                          |
    +-----------------------------------------------------------------------------+
    | ROM                 | 20 Kb                                                 |
    +-----------------------------------------------------------------------------+
    | RAM                 | 64 Kb                                                 |
    +-----------------------------------------------------------------------------+
    | Text Resolution     | 40 X 25                                               |
    +-----------------------------------------------------------------------------+
    | Graphics Resolution | Several; Most used: 320 X 200                         |
    +-----------------------------------------------------------------------------+
    | Colors              | 16                                                    |
    +-----------------------------------------------------------------------------+
    | Sound               | 6 octaves                                             |
    +-----------------------------------------------------------------------------+
    | Voices              | 3                                                     |
    +-----------------------------------------------------------------------------+
    | I/O Ports           | RGB, Video Composite, Joystick, Cardridge, Tape,      |
    |                     | Serial, User Port (RS232 compatible), TV              |
    +-----------------------------------------------------------------------------+
    
    PAL/NTSC
    ===--===
    There are  actually two versions of the Commodore 64 -- PAL  and NTSC versions.
    The PAL version of the Commodore 64  is slightly  slower than the NTSC version,
    so it means that the speed of  the application running on the  computer will be
    messed up. This is a  problem especially  when playing games.  I am not sure if
    one can  play a NTSC game on a PAL TV (and the other way around). I do believe,
    however, that  if your PAL  TV also  supports NTSC  input/output,  there is  no
    problem in  playing  games this  way. Anyway,  I would  be very pleased to know
    about it for sure.
    
    =====-------=====-----=====-----=====-----=====-----=====-----=====-------=====
    2.5 - Features
    =====-------=====-----=====-----=====-----=====-----=====-----=====-------=====
    
    The Commodore 64 is a home computer, so you can do almost everything a "modern"
    home computer  can do nowadays.  Surely you will have  some limitations, mostly
    low speed problems because the Commodore 64 was released over twenty years ago.
    But the  versatility  and functionality  of the Commodore 64 was really amazing
    for its time. You can use programs, play games, use several peripherals such as
    a  printer  and a mouse, and even make  your own  programs  and games  with the
    proper  knowledge. Other computers, such as  the MSX and the SG-1000, were also
    able  to manage such  things but none was  as powerfull  and easy to use as the
    Commodore 64.  You do  not even need a  monitor in order to use a Commodore 64!
    You can  just hook  up  the computer to  an  ordinary  TV and use the programs,
    peripherals and play games! Talk about versatility!
    
    =====-------=====-----=====-----=====-----=====-----=====-----=====-------=====
    2.5.1 - Loading Programs and Playing Games
    =====-------=====-----=====-----=====-----=====-----=====-----=====-------=====
    
    There were several  games and programs released for the  Commodore 64, and most
    are very  easy to find in the  Internet if you want  to play through emulators.
    Obviously, these  programs and games would  work in a real Commodore 64 machine
    as well. In fact, you can exchange information between your computer and a real
    Commodore 64 through a program called Star Commander and appropriate additional
    hardware.
    
    There are three ways to run games or programs into the Commodore 64:
    
    Cartridges.. The Commodore 64  has a built-in cartridge  slot, in order to play
                 some games and load programs. Cartridges don't have load time, but
                 due  to the  fact that  they were  very  expensive  to buy  and to
                 develop, very few cartridges were released.
    
    Disks....... You  would  need to buy a  1541  or other Disk  Drive to play disk
                 games or  run disk programs,  but there are THOUSANDS of them, due
                 to the fact that the cost to develop a game in a diskette was very
                 cheap.  As far as I know, some  disks were sold  for 1 dollar! You
                 could also record your own programs in a blank disk.
    
    Tapes....... Tapes have a fairly long load  time,  but they  were  cheaper than
                 cartridges. You would  need to buy a  Datacassete in order to play
                 games or  run programs  in  tapes.  Such as  in the disks, you can
                 record your own programs in a blank tape.
    
    =====-------=====-----=====-----=====-----=====-----=====-----=====-------=====
    2.5.2 - Accessing the Internet/WWW and BBS
    =====-------=====-----=====-----=====-----=====-----=====-----=====-------=====
    
    You can  access the Internet  via modem, but only in 16-color mode. In order to
    access the internet, you  will need  a Modem and  a Browser. With the Turbo 232
    Modem  Interface  (see  section  2.8  for  additional  information  about  this
    peripheral), you  will be  able to use any Modem up to 232K, but if you want to
    use GeoFAX you  will need a  special Modem. It is the Diamond Supra Express 56e
    Pro Modem,  100% compatible with the Commodore 64's communication programs. Now
    you will need  a browser. If you  want to browse the  Internet/WWW graphically,
    the only software available to  work with Commodore 64 is the WAVE 64. You will
    need Wheels 64 and  GEOS 2.0 in order to run it. Currently, e-mails support are
    not allowed, but the developer hopes it will be supported soon. A non-confirmed
    option is that you can also visualize the .GIF and .JPG/.JPEG images you got in
    the  Internet  with the  GeoGIF and Juddpeg programs.  The Juddpeg program will
    only run if you have the Super CPU 64. With a Turbo 232 Modem and GEOS 2.0, you
    will  also be  able to  use the  program  GeosFAX  (more details in the section
    2.6.3.1)  that  will  allow  your  Commodore 64 computer  to be  used  as a fax
    machine. GeoFAX also  makes possible to use  a fax machine as an A4 scanner. If
    you  want  to access  BBS's  and limited  WWW, you will  need another software,
    called Novaterm. Summing up, you will need:
    
    - A Commodore 64
    - A Modem
    - A Modem Interface (Turbo 232 Modem Interfacte - for user port - or Uart Cart,
      for cart port)
    - Terminal Emulation Software (the WAVE 64 or Novaterm)
    
    I forgot to  mention that with the Turbo 232  Modem Interface, you will be able
    to connect to the WWW through the computer's userport, but you can also connect
    through the  Commodore 64's cartridge port if  you own the Uart cartridge. Note
    that the WAVE 64 also has  a built in fully featured Terminal  program. But you
    cannot access the WWW alone, you will need an ISP. The ISP's will need:
    
    -Unix shell access
    -Unix utilities -Optional- (See section 2.6.3.1 to lean more about these tools)
    
    If the ISP offer shell access but don't offer anything more useful than telnet,
    then  you can still use their  telnet service to connect to  a decent ISP which
    does offer the good stuff, such as Pine, Lynx, etc.
    
    In  VidGame0 (http://vidgame0.tripod.com),  there is a link to a site where the
    Commodore 64 is being used as a sever!  The webmaster could even use a Firewall
    to prevent any unexpected problem! Isn't it surprising!?
    
    Going  back to  Terminal programs, I've read that  Novaterm uses a synthetic 80
    columns  on  the Commodore  64. Now,  this is what  I could find  about this 80
    columns   thing  (the   following   text   was   written   by   Cameron  Kaiser
    [ckaiser@stockholm.ptloma.edu], and adapted by me):
    
    "[Novaterm] uses  what is  commonly  called  "soft 80"  where  80  columns  are
    simulated on the  high res screen with 4x8 characters and a custom driver. It's
    visible 80 columns, but it's subject to the limitations of high res (i.e. being
    4x8, two  characters  in the same 8x8 cell  must have  the  same foreground and
    background  colours, etc.), so it's  not  the 80  columns with  individual, 8x8
    characters you would get out of the VDC or a PC.
    
    Soft 80 is  not uncommon on the 64. COMPUTE! released  two drivers for it [...]
    (Screen-80 and 64 Eighty,  the former being more  common but  the latter is far
    more superior  and functional). [...] ACE now  supports it and just about every
    modern  terminal  program   does  too. [You can]  use Kermit 64  as a  terminal
    program and it also has VDC and soft-80 modes, just like Novaterm."
    
    Also,   some   few  info   listed   on  this  section   was   written  by  Marc
    (mwalters@bombadil.apana.org.au). I  got  Marc's  and Cameron's  articles  from
    comp.sys.cbm newsgroups, posted in September/1999.
    
    =====-------=====-----=====-----=====-----=====-----=====-----=====-------=====
    2.5.3 - Original Commodore 64 Operation
    =====-------=====-----=====-----=====-----=====-----=====-----=====-------=====
    
    When you first turn on your Commodore 64  you will see the word READY, followed
    by a flashing  point. It means that  the computer is waiting for orders. As you
    can see in the section  2.6.1, the original Operational  System of Commodore 64
    is the BASIC. Below are listed some  of the  commands that you can execute with
    BASIC, but remember that this is not intended to be a guide for BASIC or such a
    Manual  about  "How  to operate  your computer",  but  just a  quick  guide for
    beginners.  Remember  that you  can also use  ANY of the  commands listed below
    with the CCS64 Emulator, in the original BASIC mode (the emulator also works as
    the real Commodore 64 does).
    
    =====-------=====-----=====-----=====-----=====-----=====-----=====-------=====
    2.5.3.1 - The PRINT Command
    =====-------=====-----=====-----=====-----=====-----=====-----=====-------=====
    
    The PRINT command is one of the top-used commands for Commodore 64. If you type
    
    PRINT 1+1
    
    and press RETURN key, the computer will immediately show the right answer, 2.
    
    Some other uses for the PRINT command are:
    
    PRINT X+X  -  Addition
    PRINT X-X  -  Subtraction
    PRINT X*X  -  Multiplication
    PRINT X/X  -  Division
    PRINT X^X  -  Exponentiation
    
    Note: ^ is the up arrow symbol, accessible when  you key the up arrow key (from
          the right  of the  asterisk/star  key)  in  the  original  Commodore 64's
          keyboard or the DELETE key in your standard keyboard when using the CCS64
          emulator.
    
    Note2: X stands for any value you want to calculate.
    
    This is  a built-in  calculation mode,  present in  your Commodore 64.  But you
    can also use the PRINT command, to show any other character at your screen. For
    example:
    
    PRINT "COMMODORE 64"    - Key in these words
    COMMODORE 64            - The computer will print these words in the screen
    READY                   - The computer will wait for your next command
    
    Just a little note:  when printing  words  through "  " you can change the font
    color by pressing:
    
    SHIFT + (numbers from 1 to 8)   or   C= (Commodore key) + (numbers from 1 to 8)
    
    For example, by typing
    
    PRINT"[C=+1]COMMODORE"
    
    and pressing RETURN, the word COMMODORE will be shown in orange on the screen.
    
    Note: The  [C=+1]  means that you have to press both C= (Commodore key) and the
    "1" key at once, and not that you have to type it.
    
    If you  want to  risk  your computer  till the  death of  its  bytes (I am just
    kidding), there are two ways you can crash the BASIC. Just type:
    
    PRINT0+""+-0
    
    or
    
    35072121
    
    If you  type the first, you will crash the BASIC imediately. The second way not
    always  crashes the  BASIC. Sometimes,  the computer  will  show  ?SYNTAX ERROR
    instead of  crashing.  If your Commodore 64  crashes,  you can just turn it off
    and on  again,  and it will work fine. Just note  that I am not responsible for
    any silly thing you do to your computer. Kids, don't do such things! :)
    
    =====-------=====-----=====-----=====-----=====-----=====-----=====-------=====
    2.5.3.2 - Printing in a Printer
    =====-------=====-----=====-----=====-----=====-----=====-----=====-------=====
    
    First of all, you have to have a printer connected with your computer. Now type
    
    OPEN 1,4
    
    and press  RETURN. This  will tells to  the computer  that you want  to use the
    utput device 4, the Commodore 64's  internal code for Printers (P.S.: 5 is also
    a code for printers). You can also type
    
    OPEN 1,4,0 - Tells to the computer that you want upper case only (code 0)
    
    or
    
    OPEN 1,4,7 - Tells to the computer that you want upper and lower cases (code 7)
    
    After that, type
    
    PRINT# 4, "COMMODORE 64"
    
    and your printer will print the sentence COMMODORE 64.
    
    =====-------=====-----=====-----=====-----=====-----=====-----=====-------=====
    2.5.3.3 - Loading Disks
    =====-------=====-----=====-----=====-----=====-----=====-----=====-------=====
    
    Simply type:
    
    LOAD"PROGRAM NAME",8,1      <RETURN>
    RUN
    
    LOAD is the default command for loading a file, "PROGRAM NAME" is, usually, the
    specific name of the program. ,8 is the Commodore 64's internal code for Disks.
    In order to make things easier, if you want to load the first program on a disk
    (and  this is  necessary in 99,9% of  the cases), and you can  not remember the
    right PROGRAM NAME that you have to type, just type:
    
    LOAD"*",8                   <RETURN>
    RUN
    
    As you are  saying to  your Commodore 64 that  you want  to load everything, it
    will simply  search for the  first program  on the  disk  and load  it  without
    trouble.
    
    You  can  also list  all the programs on  the disk  for  a easy  reference when
    loading a program. Type
    
    LOAD"$",8                   <RETURN>
    LIST
    
    The computer  will show the programs on  the disk. From now on,  you can easily
    type the  correct name  of the program  that  you want  to load,  may it be the
    first, second or last program on disk.
    
    From  Lee  Rolfing:  "I noticed that you  said that the load  "program",8,1 was
    only needed  to load the  first program  on  a diskette...  this information is
    incorrect...
    
    LOAD by itself will search for the first program it finds on cassette.
    LOAD "Filename" will search for the first program named "Filename" on cassette.
    LOAD "Filename",8 will  search for a program  named Filename  on the first disk
         drive device.
    LOAD "Filename",8,1 will load a machine  language program off of the first disk
         drive and make sure it is relocated to the correct point in memory... Much
         of machine  language is dependant  on certain  addresses being correct, so
         this is important...
    
    There is no 8,2 or 8,3 etc...
    
    Hopefully this will clear things up."
    
    =====-------=====-----=====-----=====-----=====-----=====-----=====-------=====
    2.5.3.4 - Loading Tapes
    =====-------=====-----=====-----=====-----=====-----=====-----=====-------=====
    
    The main  proccess is pretty  much the same  as loading  a disk,  but with  the
    appropriated changes. First, completely rewind the tape, then type
    
    LOAD
    
    The computer will search for the tape. When the computer asks you for
    
    PRESS PLAY ON TAPE
    
    you have to press  SHIFT and  RUN/STOP keys  simultaneously, and press play on
    your  tape  machine.  When the  computer finds  the  program,  just press  the
    C= (Commodore key) to load the program.
    
    =====-------=====-----=====-----=====-----=====-----=====-----=====-------=====
    2.5.3.5 - Loading Cartridges
    =====-------=====-----=====-----=====-----=====-----=====-----=====-------=====
    
    Turn  off your Commodore 64, insert  the Cartridge, and  then turn the computer
    on.  Now, begin the game by  typing the START  key that's  listed in the game's
    instruction sheet.
    
    =====-------=====-----=====-----=====-----=====-----=====-----=====-------=====
    2.5.3.6 - How to Format a New Disk
    =====-------=====-----=====-----=====-----=====-----=====-----=====-------=====
    
    [                Extracted from the Commodore 64's User Manual                ]
    
    When you are  using  a new, unprogrammed  disk for  the  first time you need to
    format it. Formatting,  which is also called  headering, prepares  your disk by
    doing things  like dividing  the  disk into blocks. Formatting  also creates  a
    directory that you  use as a table  of  contents for the files you  save on the
    disk.  DO NOT  header a preprogrammed disk. You  only have to format new disks,
    not  disks  that already have  programs on  them unless  you want to  erase the
    entire disk and reuse it. To format a new disk, use this special version of the
    OPEN and NEW commands:
    
    OPEN 1,8,15,"N0:<name>,<id>"
    
    + N0 tells the  computer to  header  (NEW) the disk  in drive 0.  If you have a
      dual disk drive connected (via a suitable interface) header disks in drive 0.
    + The  <name>  you use in this command goes in the directory as the name of the
      entire disk. Give the disk any name up to 16 characters.
    + The  <id>  is any two characters.  Give the  disk any <id>  you want, but you
      should  give every disk a different <id> code.
    
    When the disk drive light goes off, type CLOSE 1 and press RETURN.
    
    BE CAREFUL! Headering a disk  erases all  information on the  disk, if there is
    any. Header only a new disk  or a disk you are willing  to erase. Here are some
    examples of formatting commands that header a disk:
    
    OPEN 1,8,15,"N0:MYFILE,A3"
    OPEN 1,8,15,"N0:$RECORDS,02"
    
    =====-------=====-----=====-----=====-----=====-----=====-----=====-------=====
    2.5.3.7 - Saving Programs
    =====-------=====-----=====-----=====-----=====-----=====-----=====-------=====
    
    [                Extracted from the Commodore 64's User Manual                ]
    
    When you  want to reuse a program you've written, be sure to SAVE it before you
    LOAD another program. If you  don't, you'll lose the program. When you change a
    SAVEd  program, you have  to SAVE it again if you want to keep the new version.
    When you reSAVE a program, you are replacing the old  version with the new one.
    If you want to keep both the old and the changed versions, you have to give the
    new one a different name when you SAVE it.
    
    Saving on Disk
    ===--------===
    When you  want to SAVE a program  you've  written  on disk, follow these simple
    steps:
    
    + Key  in  SAVE"PROGRAM NAME",8.  The  8 is  the code for disks.  It  tells the
      computer that you're using a disk.
    + Press RETURN.  The disk makes a noise, and the computer displays this message
      when the program is saved:
    
    SAVING PROGRAM NAME
    OK
    READY
    
    Saving on Cassette Tape
    
    When you want  to  SAVE a program you've written on cassette tape, follow these
    steps:
    
    + Key  in  SAVE"PROGRAM NAME". The  program  name  you  use  can  be  up  to 16
      characters long.
    + Press the RETURN key. The computer displays the message PRESS RECORD AND PLAY
      ON TAPE.
    + Press the  RECORD  and PLAY keys on your DATASSETTE recorder. The screen goes
      blank  and turns the color of the border. The READY prompt reappears when the
      program is SAVEd.
    
    =====-------=====-----=====-----=====-----=====-----=====-----=====-------=====
    2.5.4 - CCS64 Emulator Operation
    =====-------=====-----=====-----=====-----=====-----=====-----=====-------=====
    
    Note:  It is  VERY  important that  you remember what  kind of software you are
    loading.  Usually,  Disks have  the .D64  extension, Cartridges  have  the .CRT
    extension, and finally, Tapes have the .TAP extension. However, sometimes disks
    may have the .P00 and .T64 extensions too.
    
    =====-------=====-----=====-----=====-----=====-----=====-----=====-------=====
    2.5.4.1 - Loading Disks
    =====-------=====-----=====-----=====-----=====-----=====-----=====-------=====
    
    Press F9 and then choose the first option (1541 Device 8). Choose the directory
    where the   .D64,   .P00   or   .T64 file is and  press RETURN when its name is
    highlighted.  You must navigate  with the LEFT / RIGHT / UP / DOWN keys. If you
    want to  return to the main menu, just press ESC.
    
    =====-------=====-----=====-----=====-----=====-----=====-----=====-------=====
    2.5.4.2 - Loading Tapes
    =====-------=====-----=====-----=====-----=====-----=====-----=====-------=====
    
    Press F9 and  then choose the option Tape Device 1.  Choose the directory where
    the .TAP file is and press RETURN when its name is highlited. You must navigate
    with  the  LEFT / RIGHT / UP / DOWN  keys. If you  want to  return  to the main
    menu, just press ESC.
    
    =====-------=====-----=====-----=====-----=====-----=====-----=====-------=====
    2.5.4.3 - Loading Cartridges
    =====-------=====-----=====-----=====-----=====-----=====-----=====-------=====
    
    Press F9, choose the option  Cartridge, and then  Insert Cartridge.  Choose the
    directory  where the .CRT file is and press RETURN when its  name is highlited.
    You must navigate with the LEFT / RIGHT / UP / DOWN keys. If you want to return
    to the main menu, just press ESC.
    
    =====-------=====-----=====-----=====-----=====-----=====-----=====-------=====
    2.6 - Commodore 64's Operational Systems
    =====-------=====-----=====-----=====-----=====-----=====-----=====-------=====
    
    The built-in Operational System  running in the Commodore 64 is the BASIC,  but
    you  can also  upgrade  your  computer  with new  Operational Systems  (such as
    nowadays, you  may have DOS  and Windows working  in your computer, and you can
    still add  the Linux or  anything  else you  would like to).  Below, are listed
    some working Operational Systems on the Commodore 64.
    
    =====-------=====-----=====-----=====-----=====-----=====-----=====-------=====
    2.6.1 - BASIC
    =====-------=====-----=====-----=====-----=====-----=====-----=====-------=====
    
    BASIC is one of  the most popular computer languages ever  developed. It is  by
    far easier than others computer languages such as  the damn hard COBOL. You can
    simply type PRINT 1+1 and then your Commodore 64 will show you the result. With
    BASIC, you will be able to print, calculate, and with some deep  knowledge, you
    will be able to make your own programs, even add music and sounds to it without
    any special tool.  You have to know at least  a couple  BASIC commands in order
    to operate  any computer using the BASIC as the main Operational System. If you
    want to make a program you will need a heavy knowledge about this language. The
    only thing I can  say is that you can search around the Internet for some books
    about BASIC, which is your best choice.
    
    =====-------=====-----=====-----=====-----=====-----=====-----=====-------=====
    2.6.1.1 - BASIC Upgrades
    =====-------=====-----=====-----=====-----=====-----=====-----=====-------=====
    
    JiffyDOS
    ===--===
    JiffyDOS  is a chip (not a software) that  upgrades some of the BASIC features.
    This chip has to be inserted in your Commodore 64 by removing  the  older chip,
    and so you will have an even easier BASIC Operational System.
    
    =====-------=====-----=====-----=====-----=====-----=====-----=====-------=====
    2.6.1.2 - Main Programs Released Using BASIC
    =====-------=====-----=====-----=====-----=====-----=====-----=====-------=====
    
    There were several programs released  for the Commodore 64. If you are using an
    emulator you will find some good programs available for free at:
    
    http://cia.c64.org/
    
    Below are listed some programs:
    
    +-----------------------------------------------------------------------------+
    | Commodore 64 Program:                  | Microsoft Windows (TM) Equivalent: |
    +-----------------------------------------------------------------------------+
    | The Manager (1541 Disk Format)         | Access (Microsoft)                 |
    | Image Maker (Cartridge Format)         | Paint (Microsoft)                  |
    | Modern Music Maker (Cartritge Format)  | Yamaha XG Studio (Yamaha)          |
    | The Print Shop (1541 Disk Format)      | Print Artist (Microsoft)           |
    | Writer (1541 Disk Format)              | Word (Microsoft)                   |
    | Microsoft Multiplan (1541 Disk Format) | Excel (Microsoft)                  |
    +-----------------------------------------------------------------------------+
    
    Also,  several Fastloaders have been released in order to decrease the big load
    time of most disks and tapes released for the Commodore 64. Cartridges with new
    commands for  the BASIC were also available, and were very popular, such as the
    famous Simon's BASIC cartridge.
    
    =====-------=====-----=====-----=====-----=====-----=====-----=====-------=====
    2.6.2 - GEOS
    =====-------=====-----=====-----=====-----=====-----=====-----=====-------=====
    
    GEOS is like a new  Operational System for Commdore 64.  It has almost the same
    functions  as  the Microsoft  Windows  3.11, but  with  the  difference it  was
    released  earlier for the  Commodore 64. With GEOS you can navigate through the
    menus  using a mouse. GEOS came  with 3 programs that used the Commodore Mouse,
    GeoPaint (basicaslly  the  same thing as the  Paint program that comes with the
    Microsoft  Windows),  GeoSpell and GeoWriter.  Later on, several programs  were
    released for GEOS using the useful mouse interface.
    
    =====-------=====-----=====-----=====-----=====-----=====-----=====-------=====
    2.6.2.1 - GEOS Upgrades
    =====-------=====-----=====-----=====-----=====-----=====-----=====-------=====
    
    Gateway 64
    ===----===
    Gateway  was  released in order  to "boost" GEOS. If you have at least a 512 Kb
    RAM expansion,  you can  have  two GEOS  programs  running at the same time and
    even  exchange  information between  them  (i.e., you  could paste a image made
    with  GeoPaint in a text  file made in  GeoWriter).  Gateway  also  came with a
    Trash Can to  temporarily  delete files  you  do not want anymore. Gateway also
    granted  a  better  customization   about  your  GEOS,   making it  possible to
    choose drivers for Printers, change the background colors and set the Real Time
    Clock correctly.
    
    Wheels 64
    ===---===
    In order  to run Wheels 64 on the Commodore 64, you will need a Super CPU and a
    RAM  expansion of 512Kb.  With Wheels you  can hook up  to four disk  drives to
    the Commodore 64,  have multiple resizable windows opened at the same time, and
    the program intelligently handles files for you.
    
    =====-------=====-----=====-----=====-----=====-----=====-----=====-------=====
    2.6.2.2 - Main Programs Released Using GEOS
    =====-------=====-----=====-----=====-----=====-----=====-----=====-------=====
    
    GeoCalc 64
    ===----===
    Graphical calculator program.
    
    GeoFAX
    ==--==
    GeoFAX is a  very  versatile  program. If  you have  a Modem  connected to your
    Commodore 64, now you can send and receive Fax. It also makes possible to use a
    fax machine as an A4 scanner if it is connected to the modem.
    
    GeoFile 64
    ===----===
    Organize files and programs.
    
    GeoFont
    ===-===
    This program added several new font-styles for professional documents.
    
    GeoGIF
    ==--==
    Allows the visualization of .GIF files.
    
    GeoPaint
    ===--===
    Came with GEOS original package. The same as Windows's packed-in Paint program.
    
    GeoSpell
    ===--===
    Came with GEOS original package. This program checked and corrected your spell.
    
    GeoWriter
    ===---===
    Came with GEOS original package. Word processor program.
    
    LYNX
    =--=
    Tool for handling WWW.
    
    Pico
    =--=
    Tool for handling text editing, on WWW.
    
    Pine
    =--=
    Tool for handling e-mails.
    
    Tin
    =-=
    Tool for handling news, on WWW.
    
    Unzip 64
    ===--===
    Tool that handles .ZIP files.
    
    =====-------=====-----=====-----=====-----=====-----=====-----=====-------=====
    2.8 - Main Peripherals Released for the Commodore 64
    =====-------=====-----=====-----=====-----=====-----=====-----=====-------=====
    
    1541 Disk Drive
    ===---------===
    Runs games and programs or record programs in a blank disk.
    
    40/80 Column Colour Monitor
    ===---------------------===
    Professional Monitor. The Commodore 64 can also be plugged to a TV.
    
    Built-in Cartridge Slot
    ===-----------------===
    Runs games and programs. Cartridges do not neet to load.
    
    Cassete Unit Drive (Datacassete)
    ===--------------------------===
    Runs games and programs, or record programs in a blank tape.
    
    CMD Hard Drive
    ===--------===
    Hard drive for storing files and programs. Allows for more space than removable
    disks.
    
    Commodore Lightpen + Software
    ===-----------------------===
    Allows communication with the computer on the screen.
    
    Commodore Mouse
    ===---------===
    Standard mouse (1 key). Can be used in some games, programs and GEOS.
    
    Commodore Printer 1230
    ===----------------===
    Prints your work. There are several different printers.
    
    CS 4 Player Adapter
    ===-------------===
    Allows either 1,2,3 or 4 players to play multi-player games.
    
    Diamond Supra Express 56e Modem
    ===-------------------------===
    Modem that allows use of softwares like GeoFAX and WAVE64.
    
    Digi-Drum + Software
    ===--------------===
    3-pad percussion attachment used for making music.
    
    FD2000 + Real Time Clock
    ===------------------===
    3.5" Drive. Format disks up to 1.6MB record space!
    
    HD Zip Drive
    ===------===
    Records informations from your Commodore 64 to a Zip Disk.
    
    NEC CD Reader
    ===-------===
    Exchanges informations between a CD ROM and a Commodore 64.
    
    Piano Keyboard + Software
    ===-------------------===
    Piano Keyboard for use with Modern Music Maker.
    
    RAM Link
    ===--===
    Works as a Disk drive for data storage and fast retrieval.
    
    Standard Joystick
    ===-----------===
    Self-explanative. Subistitutes a mouse in GEOS, with the proper driver.
    
    Super CPU 64
    ===------===
    Boosts up to 22Mhz the Commodore 64 instead of 2Mhz default.
    
    Turbo 232 Modem Interface
    ===-------------------===
    Allows connection with any modern modem up to 232k.
    
    =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=
    3.0 - What's New in this FAQ
    =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=
    
    Version 7.0
    ====---====
    Well, I  gave up  of renaming  this  FAQ to  "Final Version",  since  it  quite
    possibly  will never  have a  truly  "Final" version. Since this is the seventh
    update  to  this FAQ,  I  decided to  rename it to  Version 7.0 for the sake of
    completeness. Anyway, the true news are:
    
    - I've got a very kind  e-mail from Lee Rolfing about  the LOAD command. Thanks
      to his  e-mail  I have now  a  clearer explanation  about this command as his
      explanation is a lot  more helpful than  the previous ones I had given. Thank
      you very much, Lee.
    
    - I've got e-mails from NA NA and Razvan Mustarica asking me about PAL and NTSC
      compatibiliy.  Well, I did  my best to answer  their questions  and I added a
      small bit of information  about it on section 2.4. Thanks to NA NA and Ravzan
      for their questions.
    
    - Also,  thanks again to  Lee Rolfing,  NA NA and Ravzan Mustarica  for waiting
      OVER ONE YEAR AND A HALF for a reply. I know, I'm a lazy bum, and I'm ashamed
      of it.
    
    - Quite a few changes have been made  to the FAQ. Anyway, I decided to turn the
      old section 2.9 about some good games  for the Commodore 64 into this "What's
      new in this FAQ"  section  to  replace the  awkward  and  unnecessarily  long
      Updates   section,  which   has  been  deleted.  A candy  to those  who could
      understand this last sentence :D
    
    - My skills with the  English language have improved a lot, and now the FAQ has
      a cleaner and more concise text. Thanks to the college. :)
    
    - Lastly, I decided to change the Copyright notes to a more accurate expression
      about my concessions  and prohibitions  about this FAQ. That's it for today.
    
    =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=
    4.0 - Copyright, Thanks and Notes
    =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=
    
    * * * * *   Copyright Notice borrowed from Brett "Nemesis" Franklin   * * * * *
    
    © Copyright  2005  Thiago  "Simon"  Simões. This  FAQ  and  everything included
    within  this  file  cannot  be reproduced in any way, shape or form  (physical,
    electronical, or  otherwise)  aside from  being placed  on a freely-accessible,
    non-commercial web page in it's original, unedited and  unaltered  format. This
    FAQ cannot be used for profitable purposes (even if no money would be made from
    selling  it)  or  promotional  purposes.  It  cannot be  used  in  any  sort of
    commercial  transaction.  It cannot  be given away as some sort of bonus, gift,
    etc., with a  purchase as  this  creates  incentive  to  buy and  is  therefore
    prohibited.
    
    Furthermore,  this  FAQ cannot  be  used by the  publishers, editors, employees
    or  associates, etc. of any company, group, business, or association, etc., nor
    can it be used by  game  sites and  the like. It cannot  be  used in magazines,
    guides,  books,  etc.  or in  any other form of  printed  or  electronic  media
    (including  mediums  not specifically  mentioned)  in  ANY way,  shape, or form
    (including  reprinting, reference or  inclusion),  without  the express written
    permission of the author, myself.  This  FAQ  was  created  and is owned by me,
    Thiago Simões. All  copyrights  and  trademarks are acknowledged  and respected
    that are not specifically mentioned in this FAQ.
    
    The only sites allowed to use this FAQ are:
    
    - http://www.gamefaqs.com
    - http://vidgame0.tripod.com
    
    The latest version can always be found in GameFAQs.com. I do not want it to  be
    put up on any other web site and am not above explaining this to your ad banner
    guys  or  whoever  else I  can  get ahold  of  if  you  decide  to violate this
    disclaimer.
    
    To  continue, this FAQ and everything included herein is protected by the Berne
    Copyright  Convention of  1976,  not to  mention  International  Copyright Law.
    Remember  that  plagiarism is  a crime, and  that this is a copyrighted work --
    stealing  from  this guide  is  putting yourself  at  risk, plain  and  simple,
    because the law  is on my side. If  you would like to contribute  to  this  FAQ
    (you will  be credited,) please e-mail me, as  well as any questions, comments,
    or corrections, to the address below.
    
    Special thanks to:
    
    - GOD, for everything.
    - Mom, for listening all my stuff :)
    - You, for reading this FAQ.
    - c64.com and arnold.c64.org, for providing such nice games.
    - Lee Rolfing, for info on the LOAD command.
    - lemon64.com and the hosted sites Total64 and Manual.
    - Shotgunner (csanicola@yahoo.com), for asking good questions.
    - The  guys from  Project 64, for  retyping the  extremely  useful Commodore 64
      Programmer's Reference Guide.
    - Marc Walters (mwalters@bombadil.apana.org.au) - I've got a few info in one of
      his articles.
    - Cameron Kaiser (ckaiser@stockholm.ptloma.edu) - I've got a few info in one of
      his articles.
    - NA NA and Razvan Mustarica for asking questions about NTSC/PAL compatibility.
    - NoName (http://noname.c64.org/mood),  for  developing  the best  first person
      shooter available for an 8-bit console, Mood. (Although unfinished, that is).
    - Commodore Scene (http://www.btinternet.com/~commodorescene/), for their great
      catalog products list. It cleared about 90% of my doubts.
    - DDP619 (ddp619@aol.com) - For making me realise I had to update this FAQ once
      again!
    - Alex Allen (alex@allenzone.co.uk) - For letting me know about Mad Doctor.
    
    Note that the sections
    
    2.5.3
    2.5.3.1
    2.5.3.2
    2.5.3.3
    2.5.3.4
    2.5.3.5
    
    were    written     with    the    help    of    Commodore    On-line    Manual
    (http://www.lemon64.com/manual), and from the  C6410PRG.DOC  document, wrote by
    the  people  from  Project 64,  and  fully   based  on  the  book  Commodore 64
    Programmer's Reference Guide. The sections
    
    2.5.2
    2.8
    
    were also written  with the help of Commodore Scene  product catalogue, and the
    sections
    
    2.5.3.6
    2.5.3.7
    
    were extracted  from the  Commodore 64 User Manual.  Other than these,  nothing
    here was copied from  any other place, or used  without  proper credit. All the
    products, peripherals,  books, sites and computers listed here are Copyright of
    their creators.
    
    Contact me through my e-mail - thiagosimoes84@hotmail.com
    
    Thanks for reading.
    
    EOF

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