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    Units FAQ by DWeir

    Updated: 07/16/02 | Search Guide | Bookmark Guide

    MADE BY: DANIEL WEIR (d_weir_efc@yahoo.co.uk)
    Thanks to www.EmpireEarth.com for some of the information that I used 
    and thanks to Sierra for making such a great RTS game.
    Boeing Chinook
    Built: 1950's
    Wingspan: N/A
    Max Speed: N/A
    Max Range: N/A
    Unit Type:  Aircraft
    Epoch:  Atomic
    Description:  The Boeing CH-47 "Chinook" is a twin-turbine, tandem-
    rotor transport helicopter approximately 100 feet in length from rotor 
    tip to rotor tip. It has a maximum payload of about 25,000 pounds and 
    can accommodate over 3-dozen troops. From its development in the late 
    1950's, it has undergone several updates and is expected to remain in 
    use well into the 21st Century.
    F-117A Nighthawk
    Built: June, 1981 
    Wingspan: 43 feet, 4 inches
    Max Speed: Mach 1
    Max Range: 1,100 miles
    Unit Type:  Aircraft
    Epoch:  Atomic
    Description:  After tests in the 1970's demonstrated the feasibility of 
    stealth technology, Lockheed's famed "Skunk Works" division was awarded 
    the contract to produce stealth fighters in 1978. The result was the F-
    117A "Nighthawk," which was first flown in 1981 and achieved 
    operational readiness in 1983. 
    The F-177A was the first combat-ready aircraft built with so-called 
    "stealth" technology. In addition to its use of radar-absorbing 
    materials, the unique shape of the F-117A - with its many carefully-
    angled flat surfaces - reflects incoming radar energy in harmless 
    directions. Additionally, all armaments are housed internally to 
    further reduce the fighter's radar signature. So as to lessen its 
    vulnerability to heat-seeking missiles, the F-117A is not equipped with 
    afterburner engines. Although this limits the Nighthawk to subsonic 
    speeds, the plane's stealthy characteristics more than make up for the 
    The F-117A made its combat debut in Panama in 1989, and went on to 
    perform spectacularly during the Gulf War. The roughly 40 Nighthawks 
    that took part in Operation Desert Storm flew more than 1,200 combat 
    sorties and delivered 2,000 tons of ordnance. Not a single F-117A was 
    lost in the war - in fact, not one was even fired upon. Stealth 
    Fighters also took part in the NATO-led air campaign over Yugoslavia in 
    1999. One F-117A was lost during the campaign, but the pilot was 
    rescued unharmed.
    Vought F4U-1 Corsair
    Built: 1940
    Wingspan: 41 feet
    Max Speed: 417mph
    Max Range: 1,015 miles
    Unit Type:  Aircraft
    Epoch:  Atomic
    Description:  The F4U Corsair was used extensively by the US Navy and 
    the US Marines in the Pacific Theater during WWII. Though designed to 
    be a carrier-based fighter/bomber, in practice the Corsair proved to be 
    difficult to land on a carrier due to its poor forward visibility, 
    common low-speed stalls, and tendency to bounce on the runway. Early 
    production models were all restricted to land-based use until these 
    problems were addressed. 
    The most distinctive feature of the F4U were its "inverted gull wings," 
    which resemble a "W" when seen head-on. The wing design was adopted to 
    accommodate the plane's powerful Pratt & Whitney engine, which required 
    a large propeller to convert all of the engine's more than 2,000 horse 
    power into forward thrust. The landing gear attached to the lowest 
    portion of each wing, thus providing the ground clearance needed for 
    the propeller while avoiding the need for long, more-fragile landing 
    gear. Additional benefits to the wing design included reduced air drag 
    and a lower clearance when the wings were folded up, which made the 
    Corsair easier to store on a carrier.
    The Corsair was known to the Japanese as "Whistling Death" due to the 
    sound it made in a dive. Overall, the Corsair is credited with downing 
    more than 2,000 enemy aircraft while only about 500 Corsairs were lost 
    to enemy fire. The plane also saw service during the Korean War. By 
    1952, when production of the Corsair was finally halted, more than 
    12,500 planes had been built. Some remained in active use in South 
    American armed forces into the early 1960's.
    Heinkel HE-111
    Built: 1935
    Wingspan: 72 feet, 2 inches
    Max Speed: 250mph
    Max Range: 1,200 miles
    Unit Type:  Aircraft
    Epoch:  Atomic
    Description:  Germany developed the Heinkel He 111 in the mid-1930s 
    with two purposes in mind. It was ostensibly to be used as a civil 
    airliner and mail carrier, thus circumventing the limitations placed on 
    Germany's rearmament after WWI. But it was always meant to function as 
    a medium bomber as well. In addition to bombs, some He 111s were armed 
    with torpedoes and late models were even converted to launch V-1 "Buzz 
    Bombs" after the V-1 launch facilities in Germany had been either 
    destroyed or captured. The He 111 was first used in combat in 1936 
    during the Spanish Civil War. Heinkel bombers became part of the 
    infamous "Condor Legion," a special part of the Luftwaffe sent by 
    Germany to aid General Franco's Nationalist forces. The bomber 
    performed well, able to carry a large payload while remaining fast 
    enough to evade most enemy fighters of the time. In fact, early in its 
    career, the He 111 was often flown without a fighter escort. During the 
    Battle of Britain (1940) in WWII, however, the He 111 began to show 
    signs of deficiency. The British Spitfire and Hurricane fighters took 
    their toll on the lightly armed bombers, especially during daytime 
    raids. The Luftwaffe quickly realized that fighter escorts for the He 
    111 had become necessary. Germany continued to produce the He 111 until 
    1944, due mostly to the fact that it had no new bomber designs to 
    replace it. By then, the He 111's two-engine design, comparatively 
    small payload and low speed, and light armaments and armor had rendered 
    it all but obsolete. The Germans built a total of over 7,300 He 111s, 
    some of which were used by Spain (with new engines) until the 1960's. 
    Spain even built its own version of the bomber called the CASA 2111.
    Lockheed P-38 Lightning
    Built: 1939
    Wingspan: 52 feet
    Max Speed: 415mph
    Max Range: 2,600 miles
    Unit Type:  Aircraft
    Epoch:  Atomic
    Description:  The first truly modern aircraft for the US Army Air Force 
    in WWII, the P-38 "Lightning" saw action in both the European and 
    Pacific theaters. The P-38 was noteworthy for many reasons. Its two-
    engine, twin-tailboom design was a departure from the traditional 
    single-prop fighters of the time. It was the first modern fighter to be 
    made largely from stainless steel and to use a tricycle-style landing 
    gear. It was also the first fighter to exceed speeds of 400 mph. 
    Historically, the P-38 was the first USAAF fighter to shoot down a 
    German aircraft, the first fighter to escort bombers all the way to 
    Berlin, and it destroyed more Japanese aircraft than any other American 
    fighter. It was also the only US fighter to be produced throughout 
    America's involvement in the war, from Pearl Harbor to VJ Day - though 
    it only appeared in numbers after 1942. In total, just over 10,000 P-
    38's were built. The P-38 was such an advanced aircraft for its time 
    that it could approach the speed of sound in terminal velocity dives. 
    Unfortunately, the designers and pilots of the Lightning were not yet 
    experienced with the stresses such speeds could put on a plane... or a 
    person. As a result, there were several fatal crashes early in the P-
    38's career when pilots tried and failed to pull out of such dives. 
    This fact earned the P-38 the reputation of being dangerous to fly. 
    Only later, when the so-called sound barrier was studied in more 
    detail, did scientists realize that all aircraft had difficulties at 
    such speeds. For the P-38, the problem was traced to a shock wave that 
    formed over the wings and prevented the plane's control surfaces from 
    operating properly. The addition of a small electric motor, which could 
    alter the wings' shape and, thus, the flow of air over them, mostly 
    corrected the problem in later models. 
    Historic Note:  German pilots nicknamed the P38 Lightning the "Fork 
    Tail Devil" due to its devastating fire power and speed.
    Sikorsky SH-3 Sea King
    Built: 1959
    Wingspan: 62 feet
    Max Speed: 166mph
    Max Range: 2,600 miles
    Unit Type:  Aircraft
    Epoch:  Atomic
    Description:  In the 1950's, the US Navy was looking to add to its 
    ranks an all-weather Anti-Submarine Warfare (ASW) helicopter that was 
    versatile enough to be used in other roles. They contracted with 
    Sikorsky Aircraft and the result, in 1959, was the SH-3 Sea King. 
    Production models became available in 1961. The Sea King's crew 
    consists of two pilots and two sonar operators, and it carries 
    torpedoes and depth charges. It can operate from land or the deck of a 
    support ship, ready to search out and destroy enemy submarines. Some 
    production models were outfitted for mine-countermeasures, logistical 
    operations, search and rescue missions, or even the emergency 
    evacuation and transportation of VIPs in Washington, including the 
    President of the US. During the 1990's, the Sea King was gradually 
    replaced in ASW operations by the SH-60 Sea Hawk. The remaining Sea 
    Kings were reconfigured into search and rescue helicopters and many are 
    still in use in the US, Canada, and other countries.
    AH-64 Apache
    First Flight: 1975 
    Max Speed: 176 mph (level flight) 
    Rotor Diameter: 48 ft 
    Overall Length: 58 ft 
    Max Range: about 400 miles (w/o external fuel tanks) 
    Basic Armament: 30 mm cannon; 16 Hellfire missiles or 76 70 mm rockets 
    or a combination of both 
    Gross Weight: 15,000 lbs 
    Crew: 2 
    Description:  Near the end of the Vietnam War, the US Army was in need 
    of a new attack helicopter to replace the AH-1G HueyCobra. McDonnell 
    Douglas (now part of Boeing) produced a prototype - the YAH-64 - in 
    1975 and was awarded the development contract in 1976. Production of 
    the AH-64A Apache began in 1983. Over 900 AH-64A Apaches were delivered 
    to both the US and international customers by 1997 before production 
    switched over to the updated AH-64D and the Apache Longbow. 
    Sophisticated weapons, navigation and target acquisition systems, and 
    night vision technology made the Apache the most advanced, combat-
    tested attack helicopter of the 1990's. It was primarily designed for 
    anti-tank operations, but was effective against other ground vehicles 
    and troop formations as well.  The AH-64A flew its first combat 
    missions in 1989 during the US action in Panama.  In 1991, Apache 
    helicopters played a major role in Operation Desert Strom, where they 
    are credited with destroying or disabling more than 500 tanks plus 
    hundreds of other vehicles.  With updated equipment, including the 
    addition of the Longbow fire control radar, the Apache will remain the 
    most advanced attack helicopter well into the new millennium.
    B-2 Stealth Bomber
    First Flight: July, 1989 
    Wingspan: 172 feet 
    Max Speed: High subsonic 
    Max Range: Over 6,000 nautical miles; 10,000 nm with one mid-air 
    Gross Weight: 336,000 lbs., normal take-off weight 
    Crew: 2 
    Description:  The B-2 "Spirit" is a strategic, long-range heavy bomber 
    that was unveiled to the public in 1988. Its primary - though by no 
    means only - role is to penetrate deep into enemy territory to strike 
    specific targets with a variety of air-to-surface weapons. 
    The B-2 is best known for it low-observability or "stealth" 
    characteristics. To achieve its tiny radar signature, which is roughly 
    the size of a bird's signature, the B-2 was designed with no right 
    angles. All its exposed surfaces are curved and covered with special 
    paint to help scatter radar signals. The plane is also constructed of 
    graphite instead of metal to help absorb radar emissions. Additionally, 
    the B-2 cools its exhaust to reduce the threat presented by heat-
    seeking missiles and the bomber's overall design allows it to operate 
    more quietly than conventional aircraft. 
    For navigation and targeting, the stealth bomber relies on the Global 
    Positioning System (GPS), a network of a dozen orbiting satellites that 
    can pinpoint a location anywhere on the earth in any kind of weather. 
    Using the GPS, the B-2 "Spirit" can strike to within 20 feet of its 
    assigned target. Moreover, the Spirit's refueled range allows it to 
    travel any place on earth. 
    The B-2 program began in the late 1970's, but the ideas for both 
    stealth aircraft and so-called "flying wings" had been around for more 
    than 35 years prior to that. The YB-49 bomber, designed by Jack 
    Northrop in the 1940's, had a flying wing design, but though a working 
    prototype was built, the plane never went into production. With the 
    advent of computer "fly-by-wire" technology and new construction 
    materials, the B-2 became a reality. Originally, 132 aircraft were 
    ordered from the contractor, Northrop Grumman. But factors such as cost 
    (each plane costs about 1.3 billion US dollars) and the end of the Cold 
    War led the US Government to reduce the order to 21. 
    Today, all operational B-2 bombers are stationed at Whiteman AFB in 
    Missouri. The B-2 made its combat debut over Yugoslavia in the March, 
    1999, NATO-led air campaign. Afterwards, Pentagon officials and 
    military experts testified to Congress that the plane performed 
    extremely well.
    Albatros D.V
    First Flight: 1917 
    Wingspan: 29 ft. 8 in. 
    Max Speed: 116 mph 
    Max Range: About 1,000 miles 
    Basic Armament: 2 Spandau light machine guns 
    Gross Weight: 2060 lbs 
    Crew: 1 
    Description:  The Albatros D-series was a WWI German fighter named 
    after the company that produced them. The first Albatros, the D.I, used 
    plywood to cover the fuselage at a time when many airplanes were 
    covered with stretched fabric. Plywood greatly increased the rigidity 
    of the Albatros as compared to other contemporary aircraft. The D.I 
    also put the propeller in front of the plane rather than behind. This 
    "tractor" design proved more efficient than the "pusher" designs being 
    used by Britain and was instrumental in reestablishing German air 
    superiority in 1917. The pusher design was soon thereafter abandoned by 
    all aircraft-producing nations. Design changes on subsequent models of 
    the Albatros improved stability, armament, and visibility. However, the 
    wings on all models before the D.Va variant were prone to crack in 
    flight, especially under the stresses of a steep dive. This design 
    defect caused numerous fatal crashes. Even Manfred von Richtofen, the 
    infamous Red Baron, had the lower wing of his D.III crack in flight, 
    though he managed to land safely. The D.V and D.Va variant were the 
    last versions of the Albatros produced during the war. Overall, Germany 
    produced more than 3,000 of the D-series fighters. 
    F-96 "Talon" Joint Strike Fighter
    First Flight: 2031 
    Wingspan: 35 feet 
    Max Speed: Mach 2.65 (at high altitude) 
    Max Range: 2,000 nautical miles; unlimited with air refueling 
    Basic Armament: Various interchangeable air-to-air and air-to-ground 
    weapons; no fixed weapons 
    Weight: 35,800 lbs (max take-off) 
    Crew: 1 pilot 
    Description:  The F-96 "Talon" was the first generation of new joint 
    strike fighters designed to meet the special needs of air combat in the 
    21st Century. Development of the F-96 began in 2024 as it became clear 
    to the US Air Force that proven Post-Cold War air combat methods and 
    weaponry were beginning to change. To maintain supremacy in this new 
    era, a fighter with a powerful, versatile, and yet simple 
    pilot/aircraft interface was needed. After several design revisions, 
    the first prototype Talon took off in 2031. Full production began two 
    years later. 
    As soon as the F-96 was battle-ready, it was superior to anything else 
    then in the air. Constructed of advanced composite materials, the 
    strongest and lightest yet developed, the F-96 weighed in at just under 
    20,000 pounds when empty. The powerful yet fuel efficient Pratt & 
    Whitney engine provided enough thrust to push the plane to Mach 2.65 at 
    altitudes greater then 40,000 feet. The materials and the plane's 
    curved surfaces also made the F-96 virtually invisible to radar, 
    through new tracking technologies intended to replace radar were 
    already well into development at that time. To counter these 
    anticipated threats, the Talon sported a suite of state-of-the-art 
    electronics packages. 
    A next-generation avionics system went into the F-96. With it, the 
    Talon could track 100 separate targets, evaluate the threat posed by 
    each, and feed the information to the pilot by both voice and an 
    advanced heads-up display (HUD). The plane could also take many 
    defensive actions by itself, such as dispensing chaff and transmitting 
    a variety of electronic counter measures (ECM) to confuse incoming 
    missiles and jam ground tracking systems. 
    Most noteworthy was the inclusion of a technologically advanced 
    pilot/aircraft interface, which had been developed over the previous 
    30+ years. Pilots underwent an intensive 3-month special training 
    program, in addition to traditional instruction, to learn to control 
    many of the plane's systems and functions via biofeedback. Once 
    trained, pilots could literally "think" to the plane what they wanted 
    it to do. For redundancy purposes, these functions were also accessible 
    via controls on the stick in the original production model. But the 
    system proved sound and later versions removed the unnecessary stick 
    controls. The F-96 Talon was a highly successful aircraft and, with 
    updates, remained in active service for over 40 years.
    Epoch:  All
    Description:  As the seat of government and successor to the simpler 
    Town Center, the Capitol is the heart of a civilization. Capitols 
    instill a high sense of morale to those in their presence and even 
    compel citizens to work harder for the good of society. Defensive and 
    economic benefits make Capitols a valuable investment in Empire Earth. 
    Epoch:  Middle
    Description: Houses that are built around capitols increase the morale 
    effect of the capitol even further. They do not hold your population 
    and cannot increase it. They are good when placed around guard towers 
    and docks as they give them an extra defense.
    Epoch:  Industrial
    Description:  The hospital is where healing takes place.  Healing, at 
    first, was a matter for spiritual leaders and sacred sites. Early 
    hospitals were essentially places where a patient might receive divine 
    help. In Greece and elsewhere, for example, a ritual known as 
    incubation was used in which illness was said to be cured by sleeping 
    in a holy place. Bathing in supposedly curative waters was also thought 
    to be beneficial and this practice may have been the origin of modern 
    health spas. Later Greek doctors - Hippocrates being the most famous - 
    were instrumental in pushing the science of medicine forward. Roman 
    hospitals, based largely on Greek medicine, were first established 
    around 100 BC to treat injured and ill soldiers. The rise of 
    Christianity helped to transform hospitals into the care facilities we 
    know today. In the 6th Century AD, the Hotel-Dieu of Lyon opened. It 
    had a large hall lined with beds and emphasized treating the patient, 
    not just the ailment. Monastic infirmaries in Europe and elsewhere 
    cared for monks and outsiders alike. At the end of the Middle Ages, 
    civil authorities increasingly began to take on the responsibilities of 
    healthcare. By the turn of the 16th Century, England alone reportedly 
    had more than 200 secular hospitals to care for its people. 
    Archery Range
    Epoch:  Middle
    Description:  At the archery range players can train archery units. The 
    archery range changes to tank factory in the Atomic Age. The use of the 
    bow goes back at least 30,000 years, as clear depictions of bow-
    wielding hunters have been found in cave paintings from that time. Bows 
    evolved into several distinct varieties, including the composite bow, 
    the crossbow, and the long bow, all of which had their advantages and 
    disadvantages in battle. Crossbows were better at close range and 
    required less skill to use, while the longbow, though a difficult 
    weapon to master, could fire light arrows 500 yards. Some archers - the 
    Mongols of the 13th Century, for instance - even took to horse back, 
    which provided them greater speed though diminished their aim while 
    riding. To perform their best, archers, perhaps more than any other 
    early soldier, needed training and practice. Some archers, such as 
    English longbow men, trained from early age to become proficient with 
    their weapon. Target shooting and drilling at an archery range helped 
    to get archers into battle-ready condition. Archery ranges also 
    provided a convenient storage facility for arrows and other equipment. 
    Munitions Factory
    Epoch:  Atomic
    Description:  At the munitions factory shells are made for high powered 
    artillery weapons and other kinds of ammunition are also produced here. 
    Modern day conflicts have involved the use of heavy artillery.  A 
    munitions factory is where the shells for the artillery pieces are 
    made. In the atomic age these factories were constantly being bombarded 
    with all kinds of offense.  This was due to the fact that each side 
    knew these factories produced the deadly weapons used in killing their 
    soldiers.  During World War II daily bombing raids were used by the 
    Allies to try and crush the German war machine.  British bombers would 
    bomb German munitions factory during night and the Americans would bomb 
    them during the day. 
    Naval Yard
    Epoch:  Atomic
    Description:  The naval yard is where ships are produced, repaired, and 
    resupplied. Today's navies have naval yards where they build, repair, 
    and supply their arsenal.  Most naval yards include docks, dry docks, 
    and storage facilities.  They are the heart and soul of any atomic age 
    navy.  These are usually prime targets for any army to destroy. 
    Tank Factory
    Epoch:  Atomic
    Description:  The tank factory is where mobile artillery weapons known 
    as tanks are made.  This is an upgrade from the archery range. 
    Tanks are used by just about every army today.  Their armor hauled 
    exteriors, mobility, and high fire power have made them a menace to the 
    infantryman.  The tank began to appear on battle fields during World 
    War I.  At first they were slow cumbersome vehicles but in the years to 
    come they became more advanced.  During World War II nothing was more 
    feared than the German Panzer tank. 
    Epoch:  Atomic
    Description:  Docks are where ships are moored near land. 
    The dock as always been an important part of any civilization.  It 
    allows for deep water ships to be moored next to land.  This makes it 
    easier for ships to be loaded with passengers, cargo, or weaponry.  In 
    Empire Earth the dock goes through improvements through the ages.  It 
    first becomes available in the first epoch.  During the first epoch it 
    is the place where ships are built.   
    Cannon Factory
    Epoch:  Industrial
    Description:  The cannon factory is where cannons are made during the 
    industrial age. During the industrial age new gun powder weapons showed 
    up on battle front.  These new weapons were known as cannons.  Usually 
    they were cast in molds in special foundries.  A simple name for these 
    foundries is a cannon factory. 
    Epoch:  Paleolithic
    Description:  The is where priests pray to their gods and heal units. 
    Ever since people thought up religion they needed a place to gather and 
    worship their god or gods.  That was the temple.  Later on the temple 
    becomes the church. 
    Siege Workshop
    Epoch:  Bronze
    Description:  The siege workshop is where siege weapons are 
    constructed. Early high powered artillery weapons were known as siege 
    weapons.  They were called this because they were used to siege walled 
    cities, castles, and forts.  The siege workshop later becomes the 
    cannon factory. 
    Mech Factory
    Epoch:  Late Information Age, Nano Age
    Description:  Automated mechanized weapons (or Mechs) were introduced 
    in the late 21st Century primarily to keep human beings out of harms 
    way. For many years, few but the most devoted Tech Sergeants much cared 
    if a Mech came back from a dangerous mission or not. The precursors to 
    Mechs were small robots - remotely operated - which were used for 
    reconnaissance and disposing of unexploded ordnance. Later, larger 
    machines were lightly armed and sent into hostile areas to gather 
    intelligence for their operators. The first truly autonomous Mechs 
    appeared in the second half of the 21st Century once neural nets and 
    processing power became sufficiently advanced to provide machines with 
    rudimentary intelligence. In succeeding decades, continued advances in 
    computers, materials, propulsion, and weapon systems lead to an 
    explosion of Mech designs. Anti-infantry Mechs were created 
    specifically to kill human soldiers. Airborne Mechs provided air 
    support and recon. A small, stealthy Mech codenamed "Poseidon" was 
    invented to capture other Mechs by introducing an invasive program into 
    the target. As a result, later Mech designs incorporated anti-virus 
    countermeasures in an effort to fend off such attacks. By the turn of 
    the 22nd Century Mechs were standard equipment in all modern armies and 
    Mech production facilities were common around the world. In addition to 
    research & development and the actual production of Mechs, these 
    facilities literally trained Mechs to fight using techniques not unlike 
    those used to train humans. Over time, many people came to think of 
    Mechs as sentient entities rather than disposable military hardware. 
    Description:  From its ancient Greek origins, the concept of 
    citizenship has evolved over time. Yet one fact is true now as then: 
    every civilization owes its very existence to the tireless efforts of 
    its citizens. In Empire Earth, Citizens gather natural resources, 
    construct and repair buildings, and transform Settlements into Town 
    Centers and Capitols. 
    Description:  Mounted Knights were strong, well trained, and despotes 
    their heavy armor, fast. Foot solders, unless organized into cohesive 
    groups were at the mercy of charging knights. The advent of pikes, and 
    later firearms ultimately ended the knight's battlefield supremacy. 
    Knights make short work of swordsman in Empire Earth. 
    Bronze Cannon
    Description:  Cannon were often categorized by the weight of the 
    cannonball they fired. This, a 12-pounder fired a 12-pound cannonball. 
    Different kinds of shot, including explosive rounds or grapeshot, could 
    be used depending on the target. The Bronze Cannon in Empire Earth is a 
    12-pounder, effective against massed infantry formations. 
    Description:  The development of the trigger-activated matchlock and 
    shoulder-braced gunstock culminated in the arquebus, the most advanced 
    small arm of the 15th Century. Thought their range and accuracy were 
    inferior to the archers of their day, Arquebusiers started the steady 
    march to modern warfare. The Arquebus is the earliest in the line of 
    Empire Earth's gun infantry.  
    A7V Sturmpanzerwagen
    Built: 1917
    Weight: 30 tons
    Max Speed: 15kph
    Max Range: 80km
    Unit Type:  Vehicle
    Epoch:  Atomic
    Description:  On November, 1917, 474 British tanks achieved a major 
    breakthrough against the Germans at the Battle of Cambrai. Though the 
    Germans eventually drove the British back, tanks had demonstrated their 
    potential in battle. Following this British victory, the Germans 
    recognized there was a growing gap on the battlefield. Though the 
    German War Ministry continued to express confidence in their troops' 
    ability to deal with the new English weapon, they secretly gave the go 
    ahead to contractors to develop a tank for Germany. The result, in late 
    1917, was the A7V Sturmpanzerwagen. The A7V designation was used to 
    maintain secrecy; in German, it stood for "War Department General 
    Division 7 Traffic Section." It was well armored and outfitted with one 
    forward-facing 5.7 cm cannon and six Maxim MG08 machine guns, which 
    covered the sides and rear of the tank. Only about 20 A7Vs were built 
    due to material shortages during the war, not to mention the overall 
    low priority given to the project. The new German tanks saw their first 
    action at St. Quentin in March, 1918. Five A7Vs were set to take part 
    in the offensive, but three had mechanical problems before the battle. 
    The two remaining A7Vs, along with a few captured British Mark IV 
    tanks, carried the day. A month later, the first tank versus tank 
    battle took place at Villers-Bretonneux. The A7Vs fought well against 
    the British Mark IV's, but this was largely due the their much thicker 
    armor. Overall, the Mark IV was a better tank and the British crews had 
    more combat experience. Several Mark IVs were destroyed or 
    incapacitated during the battle, but many more A7Vs broke down or were 
    captured. The A7V was prone to breakdowns and suffered from a number of 
    other problem s, including: low ground clearance, poor trench-crossing 
    ability, poor climbing ability, and underpowered engines. Between the 
    front cannon and the first side-mounted machine guns was a gap in the 
    A7V's field of fire. Drivers of the A7V would drive in a zigzag pattern 
    to keep enemies from exploiting this weakness.
    M4 Sherman
    Built: 1941
    Weight: 30 tons
    Max Speed: 38kph
    Max Range: 160km
    Unit Type:  Vehicle
    Epoch:  Atomic
    Description:  The M4 "Sherman" medium-tank was the main American battle 
    tank of World War II. It was also used by Britain, Russia, and other 
    Allies. The M4 began production in 1941 and they were still in use at 
    the end of the war. While in command of the 3rd Army, General George 
    Patton used Sherman tanks to great effect during his 1944 dash across 
    Europe. Although the Sherman was less powerful than its German 
    counterparts (though later versions were faster and equipped with a 
    larger cannon), it made up for its shortcomings by being available in 
    great numbers. By converting automobile factories to manufacture tanks, 
    the US pushed the production of Shermans up to 2,000 per month. Over 
    49,000 Sherman tanks were built during the war - more than all the 
    tanks produced by Germany over the same time period. The Sherman was 
    also a very reliable tank and rarely broke down in combat. 
    Leopard 2 Main Battle Tank 
    Built: 1979
    Weight: 30 tons
    Max Speed: 45 mph
    Max Range: About 350 miles 
    Weapons Armament: 120 mm main gun, two 7.62 mm machine guns 
    Crew: 4 
    Unit Type: Vehicle 
    Description: The Leopard 2 program began back in the 1960s. The US and 
    West Germany were jointly developing a new main battle tank, known as 
    the MBT/KPz-70 project. The agreement between the two countries 
    stipulated that no separate national tank program would exist in either 
    country during the joint project, though Germany was already developing 
    the Leopard 1. When the Leopard 1 entered service in 1965, a contract 
    was awarded in Germany to experiment with bringing the Leopard 1 up to 
    the standard drafted for the MBT/KPz-70. When the US-German program was 
    ended in the late 60s without a prototype, the Germans decided to 
    continue with their own upgrade project. (The Americans went on to 
    build the M1.) 
    A new main gun, engine, multi-layer armor, and many other improvements 
    went into the design of the Leopard 2. An improved fire control system 
    and gun stabilizers allowed the main gun to fire while the tank was in 
    motion. Water-tight construction let the Leopard 2 wade to a depth of 
    1.2 meters (about 4 feet) without any special preparation, but with 
    snorkels and other gear added the tank could be fully submerged. 
    Maintenance needs were kept to a minimum - even a complete engine 
    replacement would take only 30 minutes. The first Leopard 2 tanks were 
    delivered in 1979, and many other countries, including Canada, 
    Switzerland, Spain, and the Netherlands, purchased the Leopard 2. 
    Modernized models are still being produced today. 
    A-17 "SkyWatcher" 
    Built: 2017-2029 
    Weight: 8,800 lbs
    Max Speed: 50 mph (level ground)
    Max Range: 325 miles 
    Weapons Armament: Three missile tubes; STARK guided missiles 
    Crew: 2 
    Description: The self-propelled AA-17, known in the field as the 
    "SkyWatcher," was among the last anti-air missile defense systems to be 
    built before the advent of high-energy weapons. Armed with long-range 
    STARK (Surface-To-Air Retribution rocKet) guided missiles, the AA-17 
    was highly effective in its anti-air role. The STARK guided missile was 
    originally designed for anti-aircraft cruisers, but was successfully 
    adapted for use with the AA-17. The STARK's acronymic name was adopted 
    in honor of the USS Stark, which had been tragically attacked by Iraqi 
    aircraft in 1987, resulting in the deaths of 37 US sailors. 
    The SkyWatcher's three-tracked design gave it remarkable stability and 
    allowed it to cross rough terrain with ease. Its superior off-road 
    performance and operational radius meant the SkyWatcher could be 
    deployed to forward installations, field bases, and other remote 
    strategic locations. State-of-the-art active and passive target 
    acquisition systems allowed the AA-17 to find and track multiple 
    targets simultaneously while keeping its own emitted signals to a 
    minimum. The AA-17 was constructed from radar-absorbing composite 
    materials, borrowed from the aerospace industry, which further reduced 
    its vulnerability. These stealthy features, coupled with its mobility, 
    made the AA-17 highly effective at evading air-to-ground retaliation. 
    The SkyWatcher also featured an innovative modular design, allowing 
    outdated components to be easily replaced with newer ones and making 
    field improvements to the system a simple matter. 
    M16 Antiaircraft Half-Track 
    Built: 1942-1943 
    Weight: 19,800 lbs
    Max Speed: 45 mph
    Max Range: 215 miles 
    Weapons Armament: Four .50 caliber machine guns 
    Crew: 4 
    Description:  The M16 half-track was a lightly armored antiaircraft 
    vehicle that could fire more than 400 rounds per minute from its quad-
    mounted .50 caliber machine guns. Its fire rate, along with the guns' 
    360-degree turn radius, quick turn rate, and 7200 yard range, made the 
    M16 a formidable antiaircraft weapon. The M16 was built on the chassis 
    of the M3 personnel carrier and performed well both on and off road. 
    M16s were used primarily for protecting infantry and tank columns from 
    strafing enemy fighters. They saw action in both the Pacific and 
    European theaters during WWII and in the Korean War.
    Description:  First built in Asia, the ultimate siege engine of the 
    Middle Ages was the trebuchet. Trebuchets used a counterweight to 
    generate a force that could hurl a 300 pound projectile over 300 
    hundred yards. Some of these machines were enormous, with 
    counterweights in excess of 10 tons. Once properly aimed they could 
    make short work of any wall. There is evidence that some trebuchets 
    were fitted with wheels for mobility. But modern experiments have shown 
    that the wheels also provided an extra benefit - they helped to control 
    the tremendous recoil of the weapon.
    Siege Tower
    Description:  Siege towers are mobile wooden structures deigned to 
    protect warriors as they are transported up to, and over, and enemy's 
    walls. Some in antiquity were so enormous that thousands of men were 
    required to move them. Use Siege Towers in Empire Earth to storm an 
    enemy's walls. 
    Bison Main Battle Tank
    Built: 2105-2112
    Weight: 54 Tons
    Max Speed: 62 mph (level ground)
    Operating Radius: Unlimited
    Armament: 2 laser canons (primary), two 7.62 mm machine guns 
    Armor: Focused Energy Dissipaters (FEDs) over conventional armor 
    Crew: 2 or 3 
    Description: By the dawn of the 22nd Century, unmanned weapon systems 
    were getting increasingly smarter and more sophisticated. But the cost 
    of developing and deploying an army of intelligent machines was beyond 
    the budgets of many nations. Additionally, some military circles still 
    put their confidence in the adaptability, if not outright superiority, 
    of humans on the battlefield. There was therefore a market for cheap 
    yet effective modern weapons that were designed to be operated by human 
    One of the most successful human-operated weapons of this time period 
    was the Bison Main Battle Tank. The Bison, developed by Armaments 
    International, Inc. to appeal this specific arms market, traced its 
    roots all the way back to the American M1A1. After the US had 
    discontinued production of its last version of the M1 in 2032, 
    Armaments International, just recently formed at that time, purchased 
    the outdated tanks and began their own modification program. The Bison 
    was actually designed around the modified chassis of the M1's last 
    production model. 
    The Bison, like most weapon systems of the era, was powered by 
    inexpensive yet powerful fusion batteries - tiny self-contained fusion 
    power plants that could survive in tact even if the tank itself were 
    utterly destroyed. The batteries allowed the tank to run almost 
    indefinitely without refueling. Separate reactors powered the tanks two 
    main guns. Due to significant recharge times between shots, the 
    designers adopted the dual main gun configuration to provide an 
    acceptable rate of fire. 
    Modernization of the weapons and other key systems allowed the crew of 
    the Bison to be reduced to two: a driver and a gunner. A tank commander 
    could ride in the tank if necessary, but he or she usually directed the 
    tank via a secure aud/vid link from a centralized tactical command 
    center, which accommodated all the tank commanders in a battalion. This 
    configuration put one less person per tank at risk while simultaneously 
    increasing battle effectiveness through improved coordination of 
    Specialized Mechs
    Description: Machine intelligence continued to be refined throughout 
    the late 21st and 22nd Centuries. Mechs became smarter, and the 
    responsibilities with which they were entrusted increased accordingly. 
    Large numbers were constructed as the Mech revolution reached its 
    But not all Mechs were mass produced in factories, destined to fill out 
    the ranks of one army or another like so many pawns. Some were 
    specially created to fill distinct roles on the battlefield, supporting 
    or augmenting the more-standard troops. And a few were designed and 
    built to be one of a kind - unique, individual entities who came to 
    possess their own personalities, opinions... and passions. 
    Laser Infantry
    Description:  Laser Infantry formed the core of all national armies in 
    the mid-twenty-first century. Though their mobility, versatility, and 
    firepower made them ideal for many combat situations, these armies were 
    the last to rely so heavily on human combatants. In Empire Earth, Laser 
    Infantry are the last in the upgrade line that started with the 
    primitive arquebus. 
    Description:  Developed in the 2120s, the Raptor is armed with a long-
    range pulse cannon, which, in addition to explosive damage, creates an 
    electrically-charged field that reduces a target's will to fight. 
    Though completely autonomous, the Raptor requires close-range defensive 
    support. In Empire Earth use the Raptor for strategic bombardment of 
    enemy troop positions. 
    War Raft
    Description:  Tens of thousands of years ago, seaworthy watercraft 
    carried ancient peoples to remote islands. When necessary, there early 
    rafts could be used to fight off on the open water. War Rafts in Empire 
    Earth are proficient at sinking rival fishing boats.
    Launched: 1862
    Displacement: 10,800 tons (fully loaded)
    Max Speed: 14.8 knots
    Length: 407 feet
    Unit Type:  Naval
    Epoch:  Industrial
    Description:  The Agincourt was a steam-powered British battleship that 
    was among the last warships built with sails, which were used to 
    supplement the steam engines on long voyages. Her four 9-inch and 
    twenty-four 7-inch rifled guns were arranged in a long, armored battery 
    - one of the last times such a gun configuration was used as rotating 
    gun turrets were about to come into widespread use. Originally fitted 
    with muzzle-loading guns, she was converted to breach-loading weapons 
    later in the 1860's. The Agincourt survived well into the 20th Century, 
    and was finally broken up in 1960.
    Launched: Feb., 1939
    Displacement: Approx. 51,000 tons (fully loaded)
    Max Speed: 30 knots
    Length: 823' 6"
    Complement: 2,065
    Unit Type:  Naval
    Epoch:  Atomic
    Description:  The sinking of the German battleship Bismarck is one of 
    the best known naval stories of the war in the Atlantic. Sent by the 
    Germans to harass allied shipping in the North Atlantic, it was spotted 
    off the coat of Norway by a British plane on May 18, 1941. The British 
    immediately dispatched ships to intercept the Bismarck, including the 
    H.M.S. Prince of Wales and, the pride of the Royal Navy, the H.M.S. 
    Hood. The British force caught up to Bismarck near Iceland on May 24. 
    In the ensuing battle, the Prince of Wales sustained heavy damage and 
    the Hood was sunk with a loss of 1,416 men - all but 3 of her entire 
    compliment. The Bismarck escaped with only light damage.
    More British ships arrived on the scene, including the aircraft carrier 
    Victorious. After another skirmish, in which British torpedo bombers 
    scored one hit that killed a crew member but did minimal damage, the 
    Bismarck again slipped away. The British lost contact with the German 
    battleship on May 25.
    The Bismarck was not spotted again until the next day. Naval groups 
    from the West and North set off in pursuit while more British warships 
    approached from the South. Late on May 26, repeated attacks by torpedo 
    bombers finally scored two hits on Bismarck, one hitting in the rear 
    and jamming the rudder. As a result, the Bismarck lost maneuverability 
    and sailed uncontrollably toward the British fleet. The next morning, 
    the British closed in.
    The battleships Rodney and King George V opened fire at 0847 hours. The 
    Bismarck fired back, but, unable to maneuver, was an easy target. 
    Within half-an-hour, the Bismarck had suffered multiple direct hits 
    that had destroyed several turrets, taken out the fire control center, 
    and killed most of the senior officers. The British warships continued 
    to pound the Bismarck, which fired its last ineffective salvo at 0931. 
    With the once mighty battleship now little more than a floating hulk, 
    the surviving crew set scuttling charges. The British cruiser 
    Dorsetshire moved in and fired several torpedoes, which exploded at 
    about 1030. The Bismarck finally capsized and sank at about 1040 hours 
    on May 27, 1941. Only 115 sailors of a crew of over 2,000 survived.
    In June, 1989, an expedition discovered the wreck of the Bismarck 600 
    miles off the coast of France in 15,000 feet of water.
    Launched: Sept., 1960
    Displacement: Approx. 93,000 tons (fully loaded)
    Max Speed: 30+ knots
    Length: Over 1,100 feet
    Area of Flight Deck: 4.4+ Acres
    Complement: Navy: Over 3,300; Air Wing: Over 2,500; Total: Over 5,800
    Unit Type:  Naval
    Epoch:  Atomic
    Description:  Many ships have proudly carried the Enterprise name, 
    which can be traced back to a British supply sloop that was captured 
    during the American Revolution. The seventh Enterprise (CV-6) was the 
    first aircraft carrier to bear the name and is famous for its role at 
    the battle of Midway and other naval engagements in the Pacific Theater 
    during World War II.
    The eighth U.S.S. Enterprise (CVN-65) was the first nuclear powered 
    aircraft carrier. Like its predecessor, it has had a distinguished 
    career. In February, 1962, the carrier acted as a tracking station for 
    the flight of Friendship 7, the United States' first orbital space 
    flight piloted by Lieutenant Colonel John Glenn. In October, 1962, the 
    Enterprise participated in the naval blockade of Cuba during the Cuban 
    Missile Crisis. The Big E made six deployments to Southeast Asia from 
    1965 to 1972, becoming the first nuclear powered ship to engage in 
    combat. She was also the first carrier to deploy the F-14A "Tomcat" 
    and, in 1975, assisted with the evacuation of Saigon.
    The Enterprise has undergone several refits, the most extensive of 
    which concluded in 1994. She is expected to remain in service well into 
    the 21st Century.
    Henry Grace a Dieu
    Launched: June, 1514
    Displacement: Approx. 1,000 tons
    Armament: Over 150 bronze and iron guns
    Complement: 600-800 sailors and soldiers
    Unit Type:  Naval
    Epoch:  Imperial
    Descriptions:  Commissioned by and named after Henry VIII, the Henry 
    Grace a Dieu was the largest warship in the world when she was launched 
    in 1514. Records of her career are spotty, but she was involved in 
    several skirmishes with the French, which she survived. In 1553, she 
    accidentally caught fire and sank while mooring at Woolwich.
    Launched: 2048
    Displacement: Approx. 40,000 tons (normal)
    Max Speed: 37 knots (cruising), 41 knots (short burst) 
    Length: 656' 2" 
    Complement: 486 
    Unit Type: Naval
    Descriptions: Rounding out the mid-21st Century redesign of NATO's 
    naval forces was the reincarnation of one of the previous century's 
    greatest warships: the battleship. Use of the battleship had declined 
    following WWII as aircraft carriers became the weapon of choice for the 
    world's navies. Despite a brief resurgence in the use of battleships by 
    the US at the end of the 20th Century, no new battleship designs had 
    been produced for 100 years until NATO's "Leviathan" program began in 
    2041. Destroyers had filled multiple offshore roles for over 40 years, 
    while aircraft carriers and long-range aircraft had provided the means 
    for aerial bombardment. NATO wanted to compliment these existing sea-
    based combat capabilities with a well-protected and highly mobile 
    vessel armed with the latest high-energy weaponry, which would give it 
    both fantastic range and unprecedented firepower. The Leviathan Class 
    Battleship was the result. Its main guns were capable of firing a 
    contained plasma charge a distance of over 100 km (more than 60 miles). 
    The Leviathan's powerful laser canons consumed colossal amounts of 
    energy. Each of its four turrets had a dedicated fusion reactor, in 
    addition to the main reactor needed to run the ship. The reactors were 
    cross-connected to provide redundancy, allowing the guns to operate at 
    lower power should one of the reactors go offline. Additionally, the 
    reactors could be chained together to produce bursts of varying 
    intensity. Though theoretically capable of producing a single energy 
    burst of essentially unlimited power (given enough charging time), care 
    had to be taken to keep charges below a certain safety threshold. If 
    containment of a massive charge ever broke down it would cause a 
    devastating onboard explosion, possibly resulting in the loss of the 
    ship and its crew. 
    One of the most remarkable achievements of the Leviathan program was 
    the reduction of the crew size compared to earlier battleships. World 
    War II era battleships routinely went to sea with well over 2,000 
    crewmen. The Leviathan, with its automated systems and low maintenance 
    requirements, needed fewer than 500. The reduction in necessary crew 
    space, in addition to the miniaturization that many standard shipboard 
    systems and components had undergone over the previous half-century, 
    resulted in a vessel only 200 meters in length displacing 36,000 metric 
    tons. (Battleships this size had been at sea as far back as WWI.) This 
    gave the Leviathan a huge power-to-weight ratio and therefore 
    exceptional speed for a ship of its stature. It also provided the extra 
    benefit of presenting a smaller target to enemies. 
    The Leviathan was first used in combat in 2051 supporting a NATO action 
    to eliminate a clandestine terrorist installation discovered in 
    northern Africa. 
    Nematocyst Class Destroyer
    Launched: 2039
    Displacement: Approx. 8,500 tons (fully loaded)
    Max Speed: Approx. 37 knots 
    Length: 464' 6" 
    Complement: 78 
    Unit Type: Naval
    Descriptions: By the third decade of 21st Century, the nature of 
    warfare was changing. The development of high-energy weaponry was in 
    full swing and deployment of the first combat-ready lasers was close at 
    hand. At sea, fleet modernization was badly needed to both prepare for 
    and take advantage of this new class of weapons. 
    The expanded NATO alliance began programs to redesign all the major 
    categories of naval warships, starting with the destroyer. Every 
    charter member contributed parts and/or systems to the project, with 
    final assembly of the prototype vessel taking place in the UK. In April 
    2039, the first Nematocyst Class Destroyer was launched with great 
    fanfare. The name referred to its ability to deliver a lethal sting to 
    its targets. The Nematocyst's sea trials were nearly flawless and full 
    production of the destroyer began soon thereafter in both Great Britain 
    and the US. 
    The Nematocyst borrowed many proven design concepts from the DD 21 
    Zumwalt Class Destroyer, developed by the US 30 years earlier. 
    Communications, navigation, and the automation of basic shipboard 
    functions were adapted from the previous design with some significant 
    enhancements. Numerous stealth features were also incorporated, 
    including minimized radar, acoustic, heat, and magnetic signatures. The 
    biggest changes were made to the weapons, armor, and power system. 
    High-energy lasers replaced surface projectile and missile armaments. A 
    first-generation miniaturized fusion reactor provided the power needed 
    to charge the weapons and run the ship. The reactor also allowed the 
    Nematocyst to remain at sea indefinitely, coming into port only to 
    replenish supplies and exchange crew members. Continuing the 21st 
    Century trend of minimizing the complements of naval warships, the 
    Nematocyst carried a crew of only 78 men and women. Ample living and 
    work space helped to maximize quality of life while the vessel was at 
    Like its predecessors, the Nematocyst Destroyer played a multi-mission 
    role: protecting larger ships and battle groups, supporting troop 
    landings and deployments, and patrolling for hostile submarines. Over 
    350 Nematocyst Class Destroyers were produced from 2039 to 2057. Almost 
    all of the ships performed beyond expectations, with service lives in 
    excess of 35 years. 
    Launched: 5th Century BC
    Displacement: Approx. 40 tons
    Max Speed: 7+ knots 
    Length: 120 feet 
    Complement: Approx 200 plus a contingent of foot soldiers 
    Unit Type: Naval
    Descriptions: Light yet sturdy and highly maneuverable, triremes ruled 
    the Mediterranean for most of the 5th Century BC. They were used 
    extensively by the navies of Persia, Phoenicia, and the Greek city-
    states. Triremes had a square sail on a single mast, but the sail and 
    mast were stowed during battle in favor of the oars. Three rows of oars 
    on each side of the ship were manned by many as 170 oarsmen, depending 
    on the size of the vessel. 
    At the Battle of Salamis in 480 BC, the Greek Commander Themistocles 
    lured a much larger Persian fleet under King Xerxes into the straits 
    near the island of Salamis. The outnumbered Greek triremes proved much 
    more maneuverable than the Persian Galleys in the narrow straits. 
    Through ramming and boarding tactics, the Greeks manages to sink about 
    300 Persian ships while losing only about 40 triremes. The remainder of 
    the Persian fleet dispersed, delaying Xerxes planned invasion and 
    giving the Greeks time to prepare their defenses. This victory signaled 
    the beginning of the dominance of triremes, which lasted until the end 
    of the Peloponnesian War in 404 BC. 
    U.S.S Warrington DD-843
    Launched: Sept.1945
    Displacement: Approx. 3,500 tons (fully loaded)
    Max Speed: 35 knots 
    Length: 390' 6" 
    Complement: 22 Officers, 345 Enlisted 
    Unit Type: Naval
    Descriptions: The Warrington (DD-843) was a Gearing Class Destroyer, 
    commissioned just after the end of WWII. It was the third US warship 
    given the name Warrington. Outfitted with surface guns, anti-aircraft 
    guns, torpedoes, and depth charges, the Warrington was a versatile and 
    formidable vessel capable of taking on many assignments. 
    She went through an extensive refit in 1961-62 and became a guided 
    missile destroyer used primarily in an anti-submarine role. The 
    Warrington was deployed during the Cuban Missile Crisis, where it fired 
    a warning shot to stop a Russian ship heading for Cuba. She was also on 
    hand after the atomic sub USS Thresher was tragically lost with all 
    hands in 1963. When on duty during the Vietnam War in 1972, the 
    Warrington struck a mine in the Tonkin Gulf under somewhat suspicious 
    circumstances. The ship was decommissioned and sold to Taiwan for 
    scrapping in 1973.
    WW2 U-Boat
    Launched: 1936
    Displacement: 753 tons (surface), 857 tons (submerged)
    Max Speed: 17.9 knots (surface), 8 knots (submerged)
    Complement: 44-48
    Length: 220 feet
    Max Depth: Approx. 720 feet
    Unit Type:  Naval
    Descriptions:  German submarines or "U-boats" took a heavy toll on 
    Allied shipping in both World War I and World War II. A number of 
    designs were put into production to fill various roles. The Type VIIB 
    U-boat was a very successful attack-sub during World War II. The VIIB 
    carried more fuel and was a bit faster than its predecessor, the Type 
    VIIA, and also had a second rudder for better maneuverability. Like the 
    VIIA, the VIIB was armed with four torpedo tubes in the bow and one 
    aft, but it carried three additional torpedoes for a total of 14. 
    Twenty-four VIIB U-boats were built from 1936 to 1940, when the 
    slightly larger VIIC went into production. U-48, the most successful U-
    boat of the war, was a Type VIIB. Commissioned in April ,1939, she sank 
    52 ships and damaged 4 more for total loss of more than 300,000 tons of 
    shipping. U-48 was scuttled in May, 1945, as part of Operation 
    Regenbogen to keep the German fleet from falling into the hands of the 
    Allies at the end of the war.

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