EMPIRE EARTH FAQ ---------------- MADE BY: DANIEL WEIR (email@example.com) Thanks to www.EmpireEarth.com for some of the information that I used and thanks to Sierra for making such a great RTS game. AIRCRAFT -------- Boeing Chinook -------------- Built: 1950's Wingspan: N/A Max Speed: N/A Max Range: N/A Unit Type: Aircraft Epoch: Atomic Description: The Boeing CH-47 "Chinook" is a twin-turbine, tandem- rotor transport helicopter approximately 100 feet in length from rotor tip to rotor tip. It has a maximum payload of about 25,000 pounds and can accommodate over 3-dozen troops. From its development in the late 1950's, it has undergone several updates and is expected to remain in use well into the 21st Century. F-117A Nighthawk ---------------- Built: June, 1981 Wingspan: 43 feet, 4 inches Max Speed: Mach 1 Max Range: 1,100 miles Unit Type: Aircraft Epoch: Atomic Description: After tests in the 1970's demonstrated the feasibility of stealth technology, Lockheed's famed "Skunk Works" division was awarded the contract to produce stealth fighters in 1978. The result was the F- 117A "Nighthawk," which was first flown in 1981 and achieved operational readiness in 1983. The F-177A was the first combat-ready aircraft built with so-called "stealth" technology. In addition to its use of radar-absorbing materials, the unique shape of the F-117A - with its many carefully- angled flat surfaces - reflects incoming radar energy in harmless directions. Additionally, all armaments are housed internally to further reduce the fighter's radar signature. So as to lessen its vulnerability to heat-seeking missiles, the F-117A is not equipped with afterburner engines. Although this limits the Nighthawk to subsonic speeds, the plane's stealthy characteristics more than make up for the trade-off. The F-117A made its combat debut in Panama in 1989, and went on to perform spectacularly during the Gulf War. The roughly 40 Nighthawks that took part in Operation Desert Storm flew more than 1,200 combat sorties and delivered 2,000 tons of ordnance. Not a single F-117A was lost in the war - in fact, not one was even fired upon. Stealth Fighters also took part in the NATO-led air campaign over Yugoslavia in 1999. One F-117A was lost during the campaign, but the pilot was rescued unharmed. Vought F4U-1 Corsair -------------------- Built: 1940 Wingspan: 41 feet Max Speed: 417mph Max Range: 1,015 miles Unit Type: Aircraft Epoch: Atomic Description: The F4U Corsair was used extensively by the US Navy and the US Marines in the Pacific Theater during WWII. Though designed to be a carrier-based fighter/bomber, in practice the Corsair proved to be difficult to land on a carrier due to its poor forward visibility, common low-speed stalls, and tendency to bounce on the runway. Early production models were all restricted to land-based use until these problems were addressed. The most distinctive feature of the F4U were its "inverted gull wings," which resemble a "W" when seen head-on. The wing design was adopted to accommodate the plane's powerful Pratt & Whitney engine, which required a large propeller to convert all of the engine's more than 2,000 horse power into forward thrust. The landing gear attached to the lowest portion of each wing, thus providing the ground clearance needed for the propeller while avoiding the need for long, more-fragile landing gear. Additional benefits to the wing design included reduced air drag and a lower clearance when the wings were folded up, which made the Corsair easier to store on a carrier. The Corsair was known to the Japanese as "Whistling Death" due to the sound it made in a dive. Overall, the Corsair is credited with downing more than 2,000 enemy aircraft while only about 500 Corsairs were lost to enemy fire. The plane also saw service during the Korean War. By 1952, when production of the Corsair was finally halted, more than 12,500 planes had been built. Some remained in active use in South American armed forces into the early 1960's. Heinkel HE-111 -------------- Built: 1935 Wingspan: 72 feet, 2 inches Max Speed: 250mph Max Range: 1,200 miles Unit Type: Aircraft Epoch: Atomic Description: Germany developed the Heinkel He 111 in the mid-1930s with two purposes in mind. It was ostensibly to be used as a civil airliner and mail carrier, thus circumventing the limitations placed on Germany's rearmament after WWI. But it was always meant to function as a medium bomber as well. In addition to bombs, some He 111s were armed with torpedoes and late models were even converted to launch V-1 "Buzz Bombs" after the V-1 launch facilities in Germany had been either destroyed or captured. The He 111 was first used in combat in 1936 during the Spanish Civil War. Heinkel bombers became part of the infamous "Condor Legion," a special part of the Luftwaffe sent by Germany to aid General Franco's Nationalist forces. The bomber performed well, able to carry a large payload while remaining fast enough to evade most enemy fighters of the time. In fact, early in its career, the He 111 was often flown without a fighter escort. During the Battle of Britain (1940) in WWII, however, the He 111 began to show signs of deficiency. The British Spitfire and Hurricane fighters took their toll on the lightly armed bombers, especially during daytime raids. The Luftwaffe quickly realized that fighter escorts for the He 111 had become necessary. Germany continued to produce the He 111 until 1944, due mostly to the fact that it had no new bomber designs to replace it. By then, the He 111's two-engine design, comparatively small payload and low speed, and light armaments and armor had rendered it all but obsolete. The Germans built a total of over 7,300 He 111s, some of which were used by Spain (with new engines) until the 1960's. Spain even built its own version of the bomber called the CASA 2111. Lockheed P-38 Lightning ----------------------- Built: 1939 Wingspan: 52 feet Max Speed: 415mph Max Range: 2,600 miles Unit Type: Aircraft Epoch: Atomic Description: The first truly modern aircraft for the US Army Air Force in WWII, the P-38 "Lightning" saw action in both the European and Pacific theaters. The P-38 was noteworthy for many reasons. Its two- engine, twin-tailboom design was a departure from the traditional single-prop fighters of the time. It was the first modern fighter to be made largely from stainless steel and to use a tricycle-style landing gear. It was also the first fighter to exceed speeds of 400 mph. Historically, the P-38 was the first USAAF fighter to shoot down a German aircraft, the first fighter to escort bombers all the way to Berlin, and it destroyed more Japanese aircraft than any other American fighter. It was also the only US fighter to be produced throughout America's involvement in the war, from Pearl Harbor to VJ Day - though it only appeared in numbers after 1942. In total, just over 10,000 P- 38's were built. The P-38 was such an advanced aircraft for its time that it could approach the speed of sound in terminal velocity dives. Unfortunately, the designers and pilots of the Lightning were not yet experienced with the stresses such speeds could put on a plane... or a person. As a result, there were several fatal crashes early in the P- 38's career when pilots tried and failed to pull out of such dives. This fact earned the P-38 the reputation of being dangerous to fly. Only later, when the so-called sound barrier was studied in more detail, did scientists realize that all aircraft had difficulties at such speeds. For the P-38, the problem was traced to a shock wave that formed over the wings and prevented the plane's control surfaces from operating properly. The addition of a small electric motor, which could alter the wings' shape and, thus, the flow of air over them, mostly corrected the problem in later models. Historic Note: German pilots nicknamed the P38 Lightning the "Fork Tail Devil" due to its devastating fire power and speed. Sikorsky SH-3 Sea King ---------------------- Built: 1959 Wingspan: 62 feet Max Speed: 166mph Max Range: 2,600 miles Unit Type: Aircraft Epoch: Atomic Description: In the 1950's, the US Navy was looking to add to its ranks an all-weather Anti-Submarine Warfare (ASW) helicopter that was versatile enough to be used in other roles. They contracted with Sikorsky Aircraft and the result, in 1959, was the SH-3 Sea King. Production models became available in 1961. The Sea King's crew consists of two pilots and two sonar operators, and it carries torpedoes and depth charges. It can operate from land or the deck of a support ship, ready to search out and destroy enemy submarines. Some production models were outfitted for mine-countermeasures, logistical operations, search and rescue missions, or even the emergency evacuation and transportation of VIPs in Washington, including the President of the US. During the 1990's, the Sea King was gradually replaced in ASW operations by the SH-60 Sea Hawk. The remaining Sea Kings were reconfigured into search and rescue helicopters and many are still in use in the US, Canada, and other countries. AH-64 Apache ------------ First Flight: 1975 Max Speed: 176 mph (level flight) Rotor Diameter: 48 ft Overall Length: 58 ft Max Range: about 400 miles (w/o external fuel tanks) Basic Armament: 30 mm cannon; 16 Hellfire missiles or 76 70 mm rockets or a combination of both Gross Weight: 15,000 lbs Crew: 2 Description: Near the end of the Vietnam War, the US Army was in need of a new attack helicopter to replace the AH-1G HueyCobra. McDonnell Douglas (now part of Boeing) produced a prototype - the YAH-64 - in 1975 and was awarded the development contract in 1976. Production of the AH-64A Apache began in 1983. Over 900 AH-64A Apaches were delivered to both the US and international customers by 1997 before production switched over to the updated AH-64D and the Apache Longbow. Sophisticated weapons, navigation and target acquisition systems, and night vision technology made the Apache the most advanced, combat- tested attack helicopter of the 1990's. It was primarily designed for anti-tank operations, but was effective against other ground vehicles and troop formations as well. The AH-64A flew its first combat missions in 1989 during the US action in Panama. In 1991, Apache helicopters played a major role in Operation Desert Strom, where they are credited with destroying or disabling more than 500 tanks plus hundreds of other vehicles. With updated equipment, including the addition of the Longbow fire control radar, the Apache will remain the most advanced attack helicopter well into the new millennium. B-2 Stealth Bomber ------------------ First Flight: July, 1989 Wingspan: 172 feet Max Speed: High subsonic Max Range: Over 6,000 nautical miles; 10,000 nm with one mid-air refueling Gross Weight: 336,000 lbs., normal take-off weight Crew: 2 Description: The B-2 "Spirit" is a strategic, long-range heavy bomber that was unveiled to the public in 1988. Its primary - though by no means only - role is to penetrate deep into enemy territory to strike specific targets with a variety of air-to-surface weapons. The B-2 is best known for it low-observability or "stealth" characteristics. To achieve its tiny radar signature, which is roughly the size of a bird's signature, the B-2 was designed with no right angles. All its exposed surfaces are curved and covered with special paint to help scatter radar signals. The plane is also constructed of graphite instead of metal to help absorb radar emissions. Additionally, the B-2 cools its exhaust to reduce the threat presented by heat- seeking missiles and the bomber's overall design allows it to operate more quietly than conventional aircraft. For navigation and targeting, the stealth bomber relies on the Global Positioning System (GPS), a network of a dozen orbiting satellites that can pinpoint a location anywhere on the earth in any kind of weather. Using the GPS, the B-2 "Spirit" can strike to within 20 feet of its assigned target. Moreover, the Spirit's refueled range allows it to travel any place on earth. The B-2 program began in the late 1970's, but the ideas for both stealth aircraft and so-called "flying wings" had been around for more than 35 years prior to that. The YB-49 bomber, designed by Jack Northrop in the 1940's, had a flying wing design, but though a working prototype was built, the plane never went into production. With the advent of computer "fly-by-wire" technology and new construction materials, the B-2 became a reality. Originally, 132 aircraft were ordered from the contractor, Northrop Grumman. But factors such as cost (each plane costs about 1.3 billion US dollars) and the end of the Cold War led the US Government to reduce the order to 21. Today, all operational B-2 bombers are stationed at Whiteman AFB in Missouri. The B-2 made its combat debut over Yugoslavia in the March, 1999, NATO-led air campaign. Afterwards, Pentagon officials and military experts testified to Congress that the plane performed extremely well. Albatros D.V ------------ First Flight: 1917 Wingspan: 29 ft. 8 in. Max Speed: 116 mph Max Range: About 1,000 miles Basic Armament: 2 Spandau light machine guns Gross Weight: 2060 lbs Crew: 1 Description: The Albatros D-series was a WWI German fighter named after the company that produced them. The first Albatros, the D.I, used plywood to cover the fuselage at a time when many airplanes were covered with stretched fabric. Plywood greatly increased the rigidity of the Albatros as compared to other contemporary aircraft. The D.I also put the propeller in front of the plane rather than behind. This "tractor" design proved more efficient than the "pusher" designs being used by Britain and was instrumental in reestablishing German air superiority in 1917. The pusher design was soon thereafter abandoned by all aircraft-producing nations. Design changes on subsequent models of the Albatros improved stability, armament, and visibility. However, the wings on all models before the D.Va variant were prone to crack in flight, especially under the stresses of a steep dive. This design defect caused numerous fatal crashes. Even Manfred von Richtofen, the infamous Red Baron, had the lower wing of his D.III crack in flight, though he managed to land safely. The D.V and D.Va variant were the last versions of the Albatros produced during the war. Overall, Germany produced more than 3,000 of the D-series fighters. F-96 "Talon" Joint Strike Fighter --------------------------------- First Flight: 2031 Wingspan: 35 feet Max Speed: Mach 2.65 (at high altitude) Max Range: 2,000 nautical miles; unlimited with air refueling Basic Armament: Various interchangeable air-to-air and air-to-ground weapons; no fixed weapons Weight: 35,800 lbs (max take-off) Crew: 1 pilot Description: The F-96 "Talon" was the first generation of new joint strike fighters designed to meet the special needs of air combat in the 21st Century. Development of the F-96 began in 2024 as it became clear to the US Air Force that proven Post-Cold War air combat methods and weaponry were beginning to change. To maintain supremacy in this new era, a fighter with a powerful, versatile, and yet simple pilot/aircraft interface was needed. After several design revisions, the first prototype Talon took off in 2031. Full production began two years later. As soon as the F-96 was battle-ready, it was superior to anything else then in the air. Constructed of advanced composite materials, the strongest and lightest yet developed, the F-96 weighed in at just under 20,000 pounds when empty. The powerful yet fuel efficient Pratt & Whitney engine provided enough thrust to push the plane to Mach 2.65 at altitudes greater then 40,000 feet. The materials and the plane's curved surfaces also made the F-96 virtually invisible to radar, through new tracking technologies intended to replace radar were already well into development at that time. To counter these anticipated threats, the Talon sported a suite of state-of-the-art electronics packages. A next-generation avionics system went into the F-96. With it, the Talon could track 100 separate targets, evaluate the threat posed by each, and feed the information to the pilot by both voice and an advanced heads-up display (HUD). The plane could also take many defensive actions by itself, such as dispensing chaff and transmitting a variety of electronic counter measures (ECM) to confuse incoming missiles and jam ground tracking systems. Most noteworthy was the inclusion of a technologically advanced pilot/aircraft interface, which had been developed over the previous 30+ years. Pilots underwent an intensive 3-month special training program, in addition to traditional instruction, to learn to control many of the plane's systems and functions via biofeedback. Once trained, pilots could literally "think" to the plane what they wanted it to do. For redundancy purposes, these functions were also accessible via controls on the stick in the original production model. But the system proved sound and later versions removed the unnecessary stick controls. The F-96 Talon was a highly successful aircraft and, with updates, remained in active service for over 40 years. BUILDINGS --------- Capitol ------- Epoch: All Description: As the seat of government and successor to the simpler Town Center, the Capitol is the heart of a civilization. Capitols instill a high sense of morale to those in their presence and even compel citizens to work harder for the good of society. Defensive and economic benefits make Capitols a valuable investment in Empire Earth. House ----- Epoch: Middle Description: Houses that are built around capitols increase the morale effect of the capitol even further. They do not hold your population and cannot increase it. They are good when placed around guard towers and docks as they give them an extra defense. Hospital -------- Epoch: Industrial Description: The hospital is where healing takes place. Healing, at first, was a matter for spiritual leaders and sacred sites. Early hospitals were essentially places where a patient might receive divine help. In Greece and elsewhere, for example, a ritual known as incubation was used in which illness was said to be cured by sleeping in a holy place. Bathing in supposedly curative waters was also thought to be beneficial and this practice may have been the origin of modern health spas. Later Greek doctors - Hippocrates being the most famous - were instrumental in pushing the science of medicine forward. Roman hospitals, based largely on Greek medicine, were first established around 100 BC to treat injured and ill soldiers. The rise of Christianity helped to transform hospitals into the care facilities we know today. In the 6th Century AD, the Hotel-Dieu of Lyon opened. It had a large hall lined with beds and emphasized treating the patient, not just the ailment. Monastic infirmaries in Europe and elsewhere cared for monks and outsiders alike. At the end of the Middle Ages, civil authorities increasingly began to take on the responsibilities of healthcare. By the turn of the 16th Century, England alone reportedly had more than 200 secular hospitals to care for its people. Archery Range ------------- Epoch: Middle Description: At the archery range players can train archery units. The archery range changes to tank factory in the Atomic Age. The use of the bow goes back at least 30,000 years, as clear depictions of bow- wielding hunters have been found in cave paintings from that time. Bows evolved into several distinct varieties, including the composite bow, the crossbow, and the long bow, all of which had their advantages and disadvantages in battle. Crossbows were better at close range and required less skill to use, while the longbow, though a difficult weapon to master, could fire light arrows 500 yards. Some archers - the Mongols of the 13th Century, for instance - even took to horse back, which provided them greater speed though diminished their aim while riding. To perform their best, archers, perhaps more than any other early soldier, needed training and practice. Some archers, such as English longbow men, trained from early age to become proficient with their weapon. Target shooting and drilling at an archery range helped to get archers into battle-ready condition. Archery ranges also provided a convenient storage facility for arrows and other equipment. Munitions Factory ----------------- Epoch: Atomic Description: At the munitions factory shells are made for high powered artillery weapons and other kinds of ammunition are also produced here. Modern day conflicts have involved the use of heavy artillery. A munitions factory is where the shells for the artillery pieces are made. In the atomic age these factories were constantly being bombarded with all kinds of offense. This was due to the fact that each side knew these factories produced the deadly weapons used in killing their soldiers. During World War II daily bombing raids were used by the Allies to try and crush the German war machine. British bombers would bomb German munitions factory during night and the Americans would bomb them during the day. Naval Yard ---------- Epoch: Atomic Description: The naval yard is where ships are produced, repaired, and resupplied. Today's navies have naval yards where they build, repair, and supply their arsenal. Most naval yards include docks, dry docks, and storage facilities. They are the heart and soul of any atomic age navy. These are usually prime targets for any army to destroy. Tank Factory ------------ Epoch: Atomic Description: The tank factory is where mobile artillery weapons known as tanks are made. This is an upgrade from the archery range. Tanks are used by just about every army today. Their armor hauled exteriors, mobility, and high fire power have made them a menace to the infantryman. The tank began to appear on battle fields during World War I. At first they were slow cumbersome vehicles but in the years to come they became more advanced. During World War II nothing was more feared than the German Panzer tank. Dock ---- Epoch: Atomic Description: Docks are where ships are moored near land. The dock as always been an important part of any civilization. It allows for deep water ships to be moored next to land. This makes it easier for ships to be loaded with passengers, cargo, or weaponry. In Empire Earth the dock goes through improvements through the ages. It first becomes available in the first epoch. During the first epoch it is the place where ships are built. Cannon Factory -------------- Epoch: Industrial Description: The cannon factory is where cannons are made during the industrial age. During the industrial age new gun powder weapons showed up on battle front. These new weapons were known as cannons. Usually they were cast in molds in special foundries. A simple name for these foundries is a cannon factory. Temple ------ Epoch: Paleolithic Description: The is where priests pray to their gods and heal units. Ever since people thought up religion they needed a place to gather and worship their god or gods. That was the temple. Later on the temple becomes the church. Siege Workshop -------------- Epoch: Bronze Description: The siege workshop is where siege weapons are constructed. Early high powered artillery weapons were known as siege weapons. They were called this because they were used to siege walled cities, castles, and forts. The siege workshop later becomes the cannon factory. Mech Factory ------------ Epoch: Late Information Age, Nano Age Description: Automated mechanized weapons (or Mechs) were introduced in the late 21st Century primarily to keep human beings out of harms way. For many years, few but the most devoted Tech Sergeants much cared if a Mech came back from a dangerous mission or not. The precursors to Mechs were small robots - remotely operated - which were used for reconnaissance and disposing of unexploded ordnance. Later, larger machines were lightly armed and sent into hostile areas to gather intelligence for their operators. The first truly autonomous Mechs appeared in the second half of the 21st Century once neural nets and processing power became sufficiently advanced to provide machines with rudimentary intelligence. In succeeding decades, continued advances in computers, materials, propulsion, and weapon systems lead to an explosion of Mech designs. Anti-infantry Mechs were created specifically to kill human soldiers. Airborne Mechs provided air support and recon. A small, stealthy Mech codenamed "Poseidon" was invented to capture other Mechs by introducing an invasive program into the target. As a result, later Mech designs incorporated anti-virus countermeasures in an effort to fend off such attacks. By the turn of the 22nd Century Mechs were standard equipment in all modern armies and Mech production facilities were common around the world. In addition to research & development and the actual production of Mechs, these facilities literally trained Mechs to fight using techniques not unlike those used to train humans. Over time, many people came to think of Mechs as sentient entities rather than disposable military hardware. LAND UNITS ---------- Citizen ------- Description: From its ancient Greek origins, the concept of citizenship has evolved over time. Yet one fact is true now as then: every civilization owes its very existence to the tireless efforts of its citizens. In Empire Earth, Citizens gather natural resources, construct and repair buildings, and transform Settlements into Town Centers and Capitols. Knight ------ Description: Mounted Knights were strong, well trained, and despotes their heavy armor, fast. Foot solders, unless organized into cohesive groups were at the mercy of charging knights. The advent of pikes, and later firearms ultimately ended the knight's battlefield supremacy. Knights make short work of swordsman in Empire Earth. Bronze Cannon ------------- Description: Cannon were often categorized by the weight of the cannonball they fired. This, a 12-pounder fired a 12-pound cannonball. Different kinds of shot, including explosive rounds or grapeshot, could be used depending on the target. The Bronze Cannon in Empire Earth is a 12-pounder, effective against massed infantry formations. Arquebus -------- Description: The development of the trigger-activated matchlock and shoulder-braced gunstock culminated in the arquebus, the most advanced small arm of the 15th Century. Thought their range and accuracy were inferior to the archers of their day, Arquebusiers started the steady march to modern warfare. The Arquebus is the earliest in the line of Empire Earth's gun infantry. A7V Sturmpanzerwagen -------------------- Built: 1917 Weight: 30 tons Max Speed: 15kph Max Range: 80km Unit Type: Vehicle Epoch: Atomic Description: On November, 1917, 474 British tanks achieved a major breakthrough against the Germans at the Battle of Cambrai. Though the Germans eventually drove the British back, tanks had demonstrated their potential in battle. Following this British victory, the Germans recognized there was a growing gap on the battlefield. Though the German War Ministry continued to express confidence in their troops' ability to deal with the new English weapon, they secretly gave the go ahead to contractors to develop a tank for Germany. The result, in late 1917, was the A7V Sturmpanzerwagen. The A7V designation was used to maintain secrecy; in German, it stood for "War Department General Division 7 Traffic Section." It was well armored and outfitted with one forward-facing 5.7 cm cannon and six Maxim MG08 machine guns, which covered the sides and rear of the tank. Only about 20 A7Vs were built due to material shortages during the war, not to mention the overall low priority given to the project. The new German tanks saw their first action at St. Quentin in March, 1918. Five A7Vs were set to take part in the offensive, but three had mechanical problems before the battle. The two remaining A7Vs, along with a few captured British Mark IV tanks, carried the day. A month later, the first tank versus tank battle took place at Villers-Bretonneux. The A7Vs fought well against the British Mark IV's, but this was largely due the their much thicker armor. Overall, the Mark IV was a better tank and the British crews had more combat experience. Several Mark IVs were destroyed or incapacitated during the battle, but many more A7Vs broke down or were captured. The A7V was prone to breakdowns and suffered from a number of other problem s, including: low ground clearance, poor trench-crossing ability, poor climbing ability, and underpowered engines. Between the front cannon and the first side-mounted machine guns was a gap in the A7V's field of fire. Drivers of the A7V would drive in a zigzag pattern to keep enemies from exploiting this weakness. M4 Sherman ---------- Built: 1941 Weight: 30 tons Max Speed: 38kph Max Range: 160km Unit Type: Vehicle Epoch: Atomic Description: The M4 "Sherman" medium-tank was the main American battle tank of World War II. It was also used by Britain, Russia, and other Allies. The M4 began production in 1941 and they were still in use at the end of the war. While in command of the 3rd Army, General George Patton used Sherman tanks to great effect during his 1944 dash across Europe. Although the Sherman was less powerful than its German counterparts (though later versions were faster and equipped with a larger cannon), it made up for its shortcomings by being available in great numbers. By converting automobile factories to manufacture tanks, the US pushed the production of Shermans up to 2,000 per month. Over 49,000 Sherman tanks were built during the war - more than all the tanks produced by Germany over the same time period. The Sherman was also a very reliable tank and rarely broke down in combat. Leopard 2 Main Battle Tank -------------------------- Built: 1979 Weight: 30 tons Max Speed: 45 mph Max Range: About 350 miles Weapons Armament: 120 mm main gun, two 7.62 mm machine guns Crew: 4 Unit Type: Vehicle Description: The Leopard 2 program began back in the 1960s. The US and West Germany were jointly developing a new main battle tank, known as the MBT/KPz-70 project. The agreement between the two countries stipulated that no separate national tank program would exist in either country during the joint project, though Germany was already developing the Leopard 1. When the Leopard 1 entered service in 1965, a contract was awarded in Germany to experiment with bringing the Leopard 1 up to the standard drafted for the MBT/KPz-70. When the US-German program was ended in the late 60s without a prototype, the Germans decided to continue with their own upgrade project. (The Americans went on to build the M1.) A new main gun, engine, multi-layer armor, and many other improvements went into the design of the Leopard 2. An improved fire control system and gun stabilizers allowed the main gun to fire while the tank was in motion. Water-tight construction let the Leopard 2 wade to a depth of 1.2 meters (about 4 feet) without any special preparation, but with snorkels and other gear added the tank could be fully submerged. Maintenance needs were kept to a minimum - even a complete engine replacement would take only 30 minutes. The first Leopard 2 tanks were delivered in 1979, and many other countries, including Canada, Switzerland, Spain, and the Netherlands, purchased the Leopard 2. Modernized models are still being produced today. A-17 "SkyWatcher" ----------------- Built: 2017-2029 Weight: 8,800 lbs Max Speed: 50 mph (level ground) Max Range: 325 miles Weapons Armament: Three missile tubes; STARK guided missiles Crew: 2 Description: The self-propelled AA-17, known in the field as the "SkyWatcher," was among the last anti-air missile defense systems to be built before the advent of high-energy weapons. Armed with long-range STARK (Surface-To-Air Retribution rocKet) guided missiles, the AA-17 was highly effective in its anti-air role. The STARK guided missile was originally designed for anti-aircraft cruisers, but was successfully adapted for use with the AA-17. The STARK's acronymic name was adopted in honor of the USS Stark, which had been tragically attacked by Iraqi aircraft in 1987, resulting in the deaths of 37 US sailors. The SkyWatcher's three-tracked design gave it remarkable stability and allowed it to cross rough terrain with ease. Its superior off-road performance and operational radius meant the SkyWatcher could be deployed to forward installations, field bases, and other remote strategic locations. State-of-the-art active and passive target acquisition systems allowed the AA-17 to find and track multiple targets simultaneously while keeping its own emitted signals to a minimum. The AA-17 was constructed from radar-absorbing composite materials, borrowed from the aerospace industry, which further reduced its vulnerability. These stealthy features, coupled with its mobility, made the AA-17 highly effective at evading air-to-ground retaliation. The SkyWatcher also featured an innovative modular design, allowing outdated components to be easily replaced with newer ones and making field improvements to the system a simple matter. M16 Antiaircraft Half-Track --------------------------- Built: 1942-1943 Weight: 19,800 lbs Max Speed: 45 mph Max Range: 215 miles Weapons Armament: Four .50 caliber machine guns Crew: 4 Description: The M16 half-track was a lightly armored antiaircraft vehicle that could fire more than 400 rounds per minute from its quad- mounted .50 caliber machine guns. Its fire rate, along with the guns' 360-degree turn radius, quick turn rate, and 7200 yard range, made the M16 a formidable antiaircraft weapon. The M16 was built on the chassis of the M3 personnel carrier and performed well both on and off road. M16s were used primarily for protecting infantry and tank columns from strafing enemy fighters. They saw action in both the Pacific and European theaters during WWII and in the Korean War. Trebuchet --------- Description: First built in Asia, the ultimate siege engine of the Middle Ages was the trebuchet. Trebuchets used a counterweight to generate a force that could hurl a 300 pound projectile over 300 hundred yards. Some of these machines were enormous, with counterweights in excess of 10 tons. Once properly aimed they could make short work of any wall. There is evidence that some trebuchets were fitted with wheels for mobility. But modern experiments have shown that the wheels also provided an extra benefit - they helped to control the tremendous recoil of the weapon. Siege Tower ----------- Description: Siege towers are mobile wooden structures deigned to protect warriors as they are transported up to, and over, and enemy's walls. Some in antiquity were so enormous that thousands of men were required to move them. Use Siege Towers in Empire Earth to storm an enemy's walls. Bison Main Battle Tank ---------------------- Built: 2105-2112 Weight: 54 Tons Max Speed: 62 mph (level ground) Operating Radius: Unlimited Armament: 2 laser canons (primary), two 7.62 mm machine guns (secondary) Armor: Focused Energy Dissipaters (FEDs) over conventional armor Crew: 2 or 3 Description: By the dawn of the 22nd Century, unmanned weapon systems were getting increasingly smarter and more sophisticated. But the cost of developing and deploying an army of intelligent machines was beyond the budgets of many nations. Additionally, some military circles still put their confidence in the adaptability, if not outright superiority, of humans on the battlefield. There was therefore a market for cheap yet effective modern weapons that were designed to be operated by human soldiers. One of the most successful human-operated weapons of this time period was the Bison Main Battle Tank. The Bison, developed by Armaments International, Inc. to appeal this specific arms market, traced its roots all the way back to the American M1A1. After the US had discontinued production of its last version of the M1 in 2032, Armaments International, just recently formed at that time, purchased the outdated tanks and began their own modification program. The Bison was actually designed around the modified chassis of the M1's last production model. The Bison, like most weapon systems of the era, was powered by inexpensive yet powerful fusion batteries - tiny self-contained fusion power plants that could survive in tact even if the tank itself were utterly destroyed. The batteries allowed the tank to run almost indefinitely without refueling. Separate reactors powered the tanks two main guns. Due to significant recharge times between shots, the designers adopted the dual main gun configuration to provide an acceptable rate of fire. Modernization of the weapons and other key systems allowed the crew of the Bison to be reduced to two: a driver and a gunner. A tank commander could ride in the tank if necessary, but he or she usually directed the tank via a secure aud/vid link from a centralized tactical command center, which accommodated all the tank commanders in a battalion. This configuration put one less person per tank at risk while simultaneously increasing battle effectiveness through improved coordination of forces. Specialized Mechs ----------------- Description: Machine intelligence continued to be refined throughout the late 21st and 22nd Centuries. Mechs became smarter, and the responsibilities with which they were entrusted increased accordingly. Large numbers were constructed as the Mech revolution reached its stride. But not all Mechs were mass produced in factories, destined to fill out the ranks of one army or another like so many pawns. Some were specially created to fill distinct roles on the battlefield, supporting or augmenting the more-standard troops. And a few were designed and built to be one of a kind - unique, individual entities who came to possess their own personalities, opinions... and passions. Laser Infantry -------------- Description: Laser Infantry formed the core of all national armies in the mid-twenty-first century. Though their mobility, versatility, and firepower made them ideal for many combat situations, these armies were the last to rely so heavily on human combatants. In Empire Earth, Laser Infantry are the last in the upgrade line that started with the primitive arquebus. Raptor ------ Description: Developed in the 2120s, the Raptor is armed with a long- range pulse cannon, which, in addition to explosive damage, creates an electrically-charged field that reduces a target's will to fight. Though completely autonomous, the Raptor requires close-range defensive support. In Empire Earth use the Raptor for strategic bombardment of enemy troop positions. SEA UNITS --------- War Raft -------- Description: Tens of thousands of years ago, seaworthy watercraft carried ancient peoples to remote islands. When necessary, there early rafts could be used to fight off on the open water. War Rafts in Empire Earth are proficient at sinking rival fishing boats. Agincourt --------- Launched: 1862 Displacement: 10,800 tons (fully loaded) Max Speed: 14.8 knots Length: 407 feet Unit Type: Naval Epoch: Industrial Description: The Agincourt was a steam-powered British battleship that was among the last warships built with sails, which were used to supplement the steam engines on long voyages. Her four 9-inch and twenty-four 7-inch rifled guns were arranged in a long, armored battery - one of the last times such a gun configuration was used as rotating gun turrets were about to come into widespread use. Originally fitted with muzzle-loading guns, she was converted to breach-loading weapons later in the 1860's. The Agincourt survived well into the 20th Century, and was finally broken up in 1960. Bismark ------- Launched: Feb., 1939 Displacement: Approx. 51,000 tons (fully loaded) Max Speed: 30 knots Length: 823' 6" Complement: 2,065 Unit Type: Naval Epoch: Atomic Description: The sinking of the German battleship Bismarck is one of the best known naval stories of the war in the Atlantic. Sent by the Germans to harass allied shipping in the North Atlantic, it was spotted off the coat of Norway by a British plane on May 18, 1941. The British immediately dispatched ships to intercept the Bismarck, including the H.M.S. Prince of Wales and, the pride of the Royal Navy, the H.M.S. Hood. The British force caught up to Bismarck near Iceland on May 24. In the ensuing battle, the Prince of Wales sustained heavy damage and the Hood was sunk with a loss of 1,416 men - all but 3 of her entire compliment. The Bismarck escaped with only light damage. More British ships arrived on the scene, including the aircraft carrier Victorious. After another skirmish, in which British torpedo bombers scored one hit that killed a crew member but did minimal damage, the Bismarck again slipped away. The British lost contact with the German battleship on May 25. The Bismarck was not spotted again until the next day. Naval groups from the West and North set off in pursuit while more British warships approached from the South. Late on May 26, repeated attacks by torpedo bombers finally scored two hits on Bismarck, one hitting in the rear and jamming the rudder. As a result, the Bismarck lost maneuverability and sailed uncontrollably toward the British fleet. The next morning, the British closed in. The battleships Rodney and King George V opened fire at 0847 hours. The Bismarck fired back, but, unable to maneuver, was an easy target. Within half-an-hour, the Bismarck had suffered multiple direct hits that had destroyed several turrets, taken out the fire control center, and killed most of the senior officers. The British warships continued to pound the Bismarck, which fired its last ineffective salvo at 0931. With the once mighty battleship now little more than a floating hulk, the surviving crew set scuttling charges. The British cruiser Dorsetshire moved in and fired several torpedoes, which exploded at about 1030. The Bismarck finally capsized and sank at about 1040 hours on May 27, 1941. Only 115 sailors of a crew of over 2,000 survived. In June, 1989, an expedition discovered the wreck of the Bismarck 600 miles off the coast of France in 15,000 feet of water. Enterprise ---------- Launched: Sept., 1960 Displacement: Approx. 93,000 tons (fully loaded) Max Speed: 30+ knots Length: Over 1,100 feet Area of Flight Deck: 4.4+ Acres Complement: Navy: Over 3,300; Air Wing: Over 2,500; Total: Over 5,800 Unit Type: Naval Epoch: Atomic Description: Many ships have proudly carried the Enterprise name, which can be traced back to a British supply sloop that was captured during the American Revolution. The seventh Enterprise (CV-6) was the first aircraft carrier to bear the name and is famous for its role at the battle of Midway and other naval engagements in the Pacific Theater during World War II. The eighth U.S.S. Enterprise (CVN-65) was the first nuclear powered aircraft carrier. Like its predecessor, it has had a distinguished career. In February, 1962, the carrier acted as a tracking station for the flight of Friendship 7, the United States' first orbital space flight piloted by Lieutenant Colonel John Glenn. In October, 1962, the Enterprise participated in the naval blockade of Cuba during the Cuban Missile Crisis. The Big E made six deployments to Southeast Asia from 1965 to 1972, becoming the first nuclear powered ship to engage in combat. She was also the first carrier to deploy the F-14A "Tomcat" and, in 1975, assisted with the evacuation of Saigon. The Enterprise has undergone several refits, the most extensive of which concluded in 1994. She is expected to remain in service well into the 21st Century. Henry Grace a Dieu ------------------ Launched: June, 1514 Displacement: Approx. 1,000 tons Armament: Over 150 bronze and iron guns Complement: 600-800 sailors and soldiers Unit Type: Naval Epoch: Imperial Descriptions: Commissioned by and named after Henry VIII, the Henry Grace a Dieu was the largest warship in the world when she was launched in 1514. Records of her career are spotty, but she was involved in several skirmishes with the French, which she survived. In 1553, she accidentally caught fire and sank while mooring at Woolwich. Leviathan --------- Launched: 2048 Displacement: Approx. 40,000 tons (normal) Max Speed: 37 knots (cruising), 41 knots (short burst) Length: 656' 2" Complement: 486 Unit Type: Naval Descriptions: Rounding out the mid-21st Century redesign of NATO's naval forces was the reincarnation of one of the previous century's greatest warships: the battleship. Use of the battleship had declined following WWII as aircraft carriers became the weapon of choice for the world's navies. Despite a brief resurgence in the use of battleships by the US at the end of the 20th Century, no new battleship designs had been produced for 100 years until NATO's "Leviathan" program began in 2041. Destroyers had filled multiple offshore roles for over 40 years, while aircraft carriers and long-range aircraft had provided the means for aerial bombardment. NATO wanted to compliment these existing sea- based combat capabilities with a well-protected and highly mobile vessel armed with the latest high-energy weaponry, which would give it both fantastic range and unprecedented firepower. The Leviathan Class Battleship was the result. Its main guns were capable of firing a contained plasma charge a distance of over 100 km (more than 60 miles). The Leviathan's powerful laser canons consumed colossal amounts of energy. Each of its four turrets had a dedicated fusion reactor, in addition to the main reactor needed to run the ship. The reactors were cross-connected to provide redundancy, allowing the guns to operate at lower power should one of the reactors go offline. Additionally, the reactors could be chained together to produce bursts of varying intensity. Though theoretically capable of producing a single energy burst of essentially unlimited power (given enough charging time), care had to be taken to keep charges below a certain safety threshold. If containment of a massive charge ever broke down it would cause a devastating onboard explosion, possibly resulting in the loss of the ship and its crew. One of the most remarkable achievements of the Leviathan program was the reduction of the crew size compared to earlier battleships. World War II era battleships routinely went to sea with well over 2,000 crewmen. The Leviathan, with its automated systems and low maintenance requirements, needed fewer than 500. The reduction in necessary crew space, in addition to the miniaturization that many standard shipboard systems and components had undergone over the previous half-century, resulted in a vessel only 200 meters in length displacing 36,000 metric tons. (Battleships this size had been at sea as far back as WWI.) This gave the Leviathan a huge power-to-weight ratio and therefore exceptional speed for a ship of its stature. It also provided the extra benefit of presenting a smaller target to enemies. The Leviathan was first used in combat in 2051 supporting a NATO action to eliminate a clandestine terrorist installation discovered in northern Africa. Nematocyst Class Destroyer -------------------------- Launched: 2039 Displacement: Approx. 8,500 tons (fully loaded) Max Speed: Approx. 37 knots Length: 464' 6" Complement: 78 Unit Type: Naval Descriptions: By the third decade of 21st Century, the nature of warfare was changing. The development of high-energy weaponry was in full swing and deployment of the first combat-ready lasers was close at hand. At sea, fleet modernization was badly needed to both prepare for and take advantage of this new class of weapons. The expanded NATO alliance began programs to redesign all the major categories of naval warships, starting with the destroyer. Every charter member contributed parts and/or systems to the project, with final assembly of the prototype vessel taking place in the UK. In April 2039, the first Nematocyst Class Destroyer was launched with great fanfare. The name referred to its ability to deliver a lethal sting to its targets. The Nematocyst's sea trials were nearly flawless and full production of the destroyer began soon thereafter in both Great Britain and the US. The Nematocyst borrowed many proven design concepts from the DD 21 Zumwalt Class Destroyer, developed by the US 30 years earlier. Communications, navigation, and the automation of basic shipboard functions were adapted from the previous design with some significant enhancements. Numerous stealth features were also incorporated, including minimized radar, acoustic, heat, and magnetic signatures. The biggest changes were made to the weapons, armor, and power system. High-energy lasers replaced surface projectile and missile armaments. A first-generation miniaturized fusion reactor provided the power needed to charge the weapons and run the ship. The reactor also allowed the Nematocyst to remain at sea indefinitely, coming into port only to replenish supplies and exchange crew members. Continuing the 21st Century trend of minimizing the complements of naval warships, the Nematocyst carried a crew of only 78 men and women. Ample living and work space helped to maximize quality of life while the vessel was at sea. Like its predecessors, the Nematocyst Destroyer played a multi-mission role: protecting larger ships and battle groups, supporting troop landings and deployments, and patrolling for hostile submarines. Over 350 Nematocyst Class Destroyers were produced from 2039 to 2057. Almost all of the ships performed beyond expectations, with service lives in excess of 35 years. Trireme ------- Launched: 5th Century BC Displacement: Approx. 40 tons Max Speed: 7+ knots Length: 120 feet Complement: Approx 200 plus a contingent of foot soldiers Unit Type: Naval Descriptions: Light yet sturdy and highly maneuverable, triremes ruled the Mediterranean for most of the 5th Century BC. They were used extensively by the navies of Persia, Phoenicia, and the Greek city- states. Triremes had a square sail on a single mast, but the sail and mast were stowed during battle in favor of the oars. Three rows of oars on each side of the ship were manned by many as 170 oarsmen, depending on the size of the vessel. At the Battle of Salamis in 480 BC, the Greek Commander Themistocles lured a much larger Persian fleet under King Xerxes into the straits near the island of Salamis. The outnumbered Greek triremes proved much more maneuverable than the Persian Galleys in the narrow straits. Through ramming and boarding tactics, the Greeks manages to sink about 300 Persian ships while losing only about 40 triremes. The remainder of the Persian fleet dispersed, delaying Xerxes planned invasion and giving the Greeks time to prepare their defenses. This victory signaled the beginning of the dominance of triremes, which lasted until the end of the Peloponnesian War in 404 BC. U.S.S Warrington DD-843 ----------------------- Launched: Sept.1945 Displacement: Approx. 3,500 tons (fully loaded) Max Speed: 35 knots Length: 390' 6" Complement: 22 Officers, 345 Enlisted Unit Type: Naval Descriptions: The Warrington (DD-843) was a Gearing Class Destroyer, commissioned just after the end of WWII. It was the third US warship given the name Warrington. Outfitted with surface guns, anti-aircraft guns, torpedoes, and depth charges, the Warrington was a versatile and formidable vessel capable of taking on many assignments. She went through an extensive refit in 1961-62 and became a guided missile destroyer used primarily in an anti-submarine role. The Warrington was deployed during the Cuban Missile Crisis, where it fired a warning shot to stop a Russian ship heading for Cuba. She was also on hand after the atomic sub USS Thresher was tragically lost with all hands in 1963. When on duty during the Vietnam War in 1972, the Warrington struck a mine in the Tonkin Gulf under somewhat suspicious circumstances. The ship was decommissioned and sold to Taiwan for scrapping in 1973. WW2 U-Boat ---------- Launched: 1936 Displacement: 753 tons (surface), 857 tons (submerged) Max Speed: 17.9 knots (surface), 8 knots (submerged) Complement: 44-48 Length: 220 feet Max Depth: Approx. 720 feet Unit Type: Naval Descriptions: German submarines or "U-boats" took a heavy toll on Allied shipping in both World War I and World War II. A number of designs were put into production to fill various roles. The Type VIIB U-boat was a very successful attack-sub during World War II. The VIIB carried more fuel and was a bit faster than its predecessor, the Type VIIA, and also had a second rudder for better maneuverability. Like the VIIA, the VIIB was armed with four torpedo tubes in the bow and one aft, but it carried three additional torpedoes for a total of 14. Twenty-four VIIB U-boats were built from 1936 to 1940, when the slightly larger VIIC went into production. U-48, the most successful U- boat of the war, was a Type VIIB. Commissioned in April ,1939, she sank 52 ships and damaged 4 more for total loss of more than 300,000 tons of shipping. U-48 was scuttled in May, 1945, as part of Operation Regenbogen to keep the German fleet from falling into the hands of the Allies at the end of the war.