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    Weapons/Tactics Guide by Mochan

    Version: 0.11 | Updated: 05/05/01 | Search Guide | Bookmark Guide

                             Half-Life Counter Strike
                          Weapons and Tactics Guide v.11
                        by Mochan <mosquiton@crosswinds.net>
                               last modified 5-5-2001
    Best viewed on a text processor with a fixed size font, width of 79 characters.
                                  MISSION STATEMENT
    This file is meant specifically for the Counter Strike player who is getting
    trounced all the time from lack of experience and/or knowledge of tactics.
    I am sharing in this guide all the tricks to help you even out the playing
    You can try out all the other guides floating around, but I will be a big
    rat bastard and tell you that mine is the best to pick up. ^_^
    But that's just me talking. Go see for yourself.
    This FAQ is also designed to make my name a household name and to
    promote the [gulay] way of life everywhere. By reading this FAQ you
    have condemned yourself to become a vegetable. Have a nice day.
                                    E-MAIL POLICY
    Whenever possible, use the Mailing List instead of my e-mail address.
    My e-mail address is <mosquiton@crosswinds.net> but PLEASE add a tag to 
    the subject header [CS FAQ] Make sure to use that tag exactly as I type it, 
    all caps!
    [CS FAQ]
    Don't forget.
    [CS FAQ]
    This will help me sort out all CS-related e-mail. >_<
    Since the last version (v.10) I have:
    - Benelli M3 Weapon Specific Tactics section (7D)
    - a strafe rant (5.b1)
    - Did a major overhaul in the weapons sections (IV) to compensate for v1.1
      - Various edits
      - Added a new category for Rate of Fire (Very Fast)
      - Lowered the accuracy of UMP, Five-SeveN, and all the snipers.
    - Added some binding techniques (5.a4e)  
    - Changed the UMP from Sporadic to Assault classification  (7.i))
    - Clarified some things with recoil (3.c)
    - Added an extra tip to MP5 sniping (7B)
    - Weeded out more typos
                                     MAILING LIST
    The Half Life: Counter Strike Weapons and Tactics Guide now has a mailing
    list. This is primarily for people who wanted me to send them updates as soon
    as I finished writing. Whenever I upload a new version to GameFAQs or to my
    website (www.crosswinds.net/~mosquiton) I will post a notice to the maliling
    To subscribe to the list, send mail to  <CSFAQML-subscribe@yahoogroups.com>
    To post to the list, send mail to       <CSFAQML@yahoogroups.com>
    The homepage of the list is at --  http://groups.yahoo.com/group/CSFAQML
    Any other info about the list, such as unsubscribing, should be found there. 
                                   TABLE OF CONTENTS
       1.a -- How to Use this Guide
       3.a -- Camping or Assaulting
       3.b -- Aiming: Accuracy and Recoil
         3.b1 - The Rule of Aiming
       3.c -- Basic Shooting Styles
       3.d -- Range
       3.e -- Damage: Armor and Location
         3.e1 - Location
         3.e2 - Armor
       3.f -- Stopping Power
       4.a -- Pistols
       4.b -- Shotguns
       4.c -- Submachine Guns
       4.d -- Rifles
       4.f -- Machine Guns
       4.g -- Other Equipment
       4.h -- Weapon Movement Speeds
       4.i -- Weapon Damage Table
       5.a -- General Techniques
         5.a1 - Listening
         5.a2 - Weapon Switching
           5.a2a - Super Weapon Switching
         5.a3 - Radar
           5.a3a -- Cheap Night Vision
         5.a4 - Miscellaneous Console Commands
           5.a4a -- Sensitivity
           5.a4b -- Crosshair
           5.a4c -- Quick Weapon Switching
           5.a4d -- Mouse Filter
           5.a4e -- Binding Technique
           5.a4f -- On the Fly Config Switch
         5.a5 - Speed Buying Technique
         5.a6 - End Reloading Technique
         5.a7 - Bunny Hopping
       5.b -- Defensive Techniques
         5.b1 - Side Stepping
         5.b2 - Ducking
         5.b3 - Jumping
         5.b4 - Shadow Technique
         5.b5 - Hit and Run Technique
         5.b6 - Crowd Defense
           5.b6a -- Hostage Defense
         5.b7 - Smart Reloading
         5.b8 - Continuous Movement Defense
         5.b9 - Flee from Fire Technique
         5.b10 - Backstabbing Technique (Uragiri)
           5.b10a -- Letting the Shadow Pass (Kage Yurutou)
           5.b10a -- Baiting the Enemy
         5.b11 - Hiding the Ghost (Yurei o Kakushite)
         5.b12 - Thrift Technique 
       5.c -- Offensive Techniques
         5.c1 - Stationary Aiming
         5.c2 - Hot and Cold Firing Technique
           5.c2a -- Jump Aiming
         5.c3 - Figure Eight Sidestep Technique
           5.c3a -- Anti-Arctic Technique
         5.c4 - Assault Weapon Sniping Technique
         5.c5 - Perpetual Motion Agressiveness Technique
         5.c6 - Find the Weakpoint
           5.c6a -- Finding the Blind Spot
         5.c7 - Money Flash Awareness Technique (Kane Kae Sen)
         5.c8 - Stealth Technique
         5.c9 - Team First, You Last
         5.c10 - Catching the Motion (Mugento Shunkan)
       5.d -- Dirty Tricks
         5.d1 - Adjusting Light Gamma
         5.d2 - X-Ray Vision
         5.d3 - Super Figure Eight Sidestepping
         5.d4 - Team Jumps
           5.d4a -- Hostage Jumps
         5.d5 - Sound Binds
         5.d6 - Auto Aim
         5.d7 - Smoke no More Technique  (Kemuri Muyougiri)
         5.d8 - Paralyzing Smoke Technique
         5.d9 - Mimic Technique
       7.i -- Weapon Archetype Guide
       7A. AI Arctic Warfare Magnum
       7B. H&K MP5-Navy
       7C. Kalashnikov AK-47
       7D. Benelli M3 Super90
    APPENDIX B -- BOT TRAINING GUIDE (still under construction)
     ii. CREDITS
    iii. ADDENDUM
                                I. INTRODUCTION
    This guide was written for the Half Life mod Counter Strike. CS needs
    no introduction, I believe it is currently the most popular
    multiplayer FPS game in the world. So popular that this unofficial
    MOD is now an official Half Life product.
    Now that Counter Strike is no longer a beta and has been officially
    released, I feel the time is ripe to release a new guide to help the
    new CS player on the way to fight the veterans on equal terms. Because
    of its new-found fame, more and more new players are coming out of
    the wood work. Sadly, these new players are woefully underclassed. Veterans
    have the advantage of knowledge and experience over the newbie. They're
    just too serious and take the fun away from the newbie. So, in the words
    of Mega Man X, it's "Time to get serious!" I got serious enough to
    write this guide to impart to the newbie one of the two things they need
    to get even: knowledge.
    Take note that just knowledge of these tricks will not make you an
    expert killer overnight! I am sure these techniques, tried, tested
    and proven over the years, will increase your playing skill tremendously,
    but in the end only practice and experience will make you a truly
    formidable CS killing machine. But these teachings, which I have learned
    from personal experience and from speaking with those better than me,
    are a good foundation to provide you the basic skills that will evolve
    into lethal killing techniques.
    1.a -- How to Use this Guide
    Although in theory I believe that clarity and conciseness is more important
    than volume, I am very poor in practice. Thus my ramblings are often very
    long. Much of what I wish to impart is contained in these long paragraphs,
    and should all be read to understand all that I am trying to say.
    However, for those with less patience, I have enclosed in "boxes" important
    tips that you should pay close attention to. Even for those reading
    everything, these enclosed boxes contain the most important points of the
    entire passage.
    After reading through the guide, don't be worried if you didn't understand
    some things. You can't be expected to learn everything in one sitting. Most
    importantly, you should get some practical experience, preferably right
    after a reading. Always remember, practice makes perfect. Also, repetition
    is the key to learning. Once you've read this guide, practice. Then read it
    again, and practice some more. You will gain more understanding with each
    reading and each practice session, in time leading to an eventual culmination
    of all the lessons. And with the many excellent CS Bots coming out (like
    Count Floyd's POD Bot), there's no excuse for not finding any punching bags
    to practice on.
    I also include cheesy quotes like this to spice the guide up. Ignore them
    as you wish, they're just there for decoration:
    "If the student does not wish to gain strength,
    he cannot become truly strong."
       -- Hiko Seijuro, Rurouni Kenshin
    If the guidelines I stated above seem too demanding, all I can say is that
    I'm doing this for your own good. I'm trying to mold you into the best
    player you can be. This isn't some overnight miracle guide. You have to
    work for it. The desire to be strong must be present, overpowering, enough
    for you to overcome all these hardships and strive to reach the goal. If
    you are going to be half-hearted about the process, not practicing or
    taking the time to understand all the tricks in this treatise, then you
    will not become strong.
    But in the end, keep in mind that Counter Strike is only a game, and
    anyone taking a game too seriously needs to be dragged out and roughed up.
    Anyway, to help get the info you need, be sure to check the Table of
    Contents and see what looks useful to you. Copy the section of interest and
    use your text viewer's find function to skip to the relevant part. I regret
    the need to resort to this technique, but my organizational and layout
    skills are horrible, as you can see.
                           II. BASIC FIGHTING ATTITUDE
    "A sword is a deadly weapon. Fighting techniques are what perfect killers."
       -- Himura Kenshin, Rurouni Kenshin (Hecto version)
    "A gun is a killing weapon. Fighting techniques are killing techniques.
    This will always be true."
       -- Me, paraphrasing the Hitokiri Battousai
    Remember that at all times a gun is a deadly weapon. Point it at
    someone only if you have the intention to shoot, and potentially
    kill. This is moral bullshit which I think people all people should
    remember. But also keep in mind that Counter Strike is just a game,
    and pointing a gun at someone in this game is done all in the spirit
    of fun. No hard feelings! But when you do point that gun at someone,
    be sure that you are whole-heartedly focused on aiming at him, and
    shooting to kill. Otherwise you will die and you'll be stuck as a
    ghost until the round ends.
    | Mental Focus and Determination are the most important traits of a killer |
    Keeping your mind focused allows you to react faster, and thus kill
    faster. That is why having the right attitude to killing is very
    important. You must be whole-heartedly devoted to the act of pointing
    your gun at your opponent, and squeezing the trigger. Hesitation will
    end up with you dead.
    "There is a world of difference in our resolve. Unlike you, I am
    staking my life on this!"
      -- Rouge, Soreyuke! Uchuusenkan Yamamoto Youko
    As a PC game player, I'm sure you are familiar with the concept of
    savegames. However, savegames do gamers a disservice by making them
    bad players. Why? Because with a save game, you don't value your
    life. You are not "staking your life" on the outcome, because if you
    die you can instantly reload. However, consider a game with no save
    game, or limited save point functions (like Hitman or Resident Evil).
    Because you can't save anywhere, you do your best not to die at any
    given point (especially if you're far from a save point). Most people
    don't notice this, but this is a crucial factor in forming your
    mental condition.
    In Counter Strike, you should adopt a more advanced version of this
    philosophy. You should play as if your life were depending on it, as
    if there were no tomorrow. This will put you in a far better mental
    state. You must be determined to win. Although I reiterate that this
    is just a game, sometimes you need to adopt a deadly serious attitude
    to go beyond your limits. I don't recommend this for friendly play,
    but if you really must win, you might have to take the game far more
    seriously than you normally would.
    In real life, I think this is what they mean by "living life to its
    "Live your life, Kenshin."
      -- Hiko Seijuro, Rurouni Kenshin.
    Regardless, you must always keep your mind running, even while just
    standing in one spot. If you slack off even for one second, your reflexes
    will drop, and you will be a dead man. I cannot emphasize this enough. A
    casual player will probably just take a passing interest while fighting,
    may even snooze a bit while camping. These players often end up dead. But
    if you seriously want to improve, keep your mind focused. That is the true
    key to victory; physical skills like aiming and shooting are secondary
    to this basic truth.
    "You can win a thousand battles, but you can only lose one!"
      -- Zaknafein, Homeland
    I firmly believe that the best fighter is the one who is ALWAYS on
    alert; never to let his mind slip at any point. I must confess that I
    myself have not achieved this level. Ever wonder why sometimes you
    have "hot streaks," or times when you seemingly manage to kill wave
    after wave of enemies without taking a hit, but sometimes you can't
    kill for the life of you? My theory is that it is a case of mental
    control. You achieve a hot streak when your mental focus is at its
    highest, and a losing streak when your mind is at a low. While I have
    not managed to achieve that highest level of perpetual mental focus,
    nor do I know anyone who has, I am sure it is possible. I like to look
    at historic warriors who are said never to have lost a single battle --
    Miyamoto Musashi, Yagyu Jubei, and so on -- to prove my point.
    It might help if you learn to meditate or do some other training to
    concentrate and focus your mind. Just a suggestion. Try taking up Zen,
    Yoga or some really intense sport if you really want to master Counter
    Strike, heheh. ^_^;
                        III. BASIC COMBAT TRAINING
    Now that you're hyped to kill your enemy, you need to learn some
    basic concepts regarding player movement in counterstrike.
    3.a -- Camping or Assaulting
    Now, in CS, each side, the terrorist and counter terrorists, have
    goals to achieve. Depending on the map, one side will usually be
    defensive or offensive. Indeed, some maps were meant to be very
    defensible for certain sides. Because of this, there are two main
    kinds of playing mindsets in CS: camping or assaulting.
    A camper is someone who sits tight in a very defensible position.
    People often despise campers because they are cowards who know
    nothing of honor and would rather hide behind a crate in a dark
    corner rather than fight head-on. Well, campers shouldn't let such
    taunts bother them; they do what they do to win, and camping is
    the way they know best to do this. Campers rely on patience, and
    often work in teams because no single person can cover all the
    critical points effectively. They wait for the enemy to take the
    battle to them. The team taking the defensive position, such as
    terrorists in a CS map, often makes use of camping techniques.
    An assaulter is someone who charges right into the fray. Whether
    the enemies choose to meet him in the same way, or whether they
    hide behind a rock is of no consequence; he will charge right in
    and make mince meat of his opponent as soon as he comes across him.
    They take the battle to the enemy. The team taking the offensive,
    like terrorists in a DE map, often go the way of assault.
    Now, each mindset has its advantages and disadvantages, but most
    people often fall somewhere in between -- they camp when they
    must, but they attack when the need arises. However, I've found
    that the truly great players who rack up lots of kills are often
    true bred in one of either of the two disciplines: the shameless
    camper who waits at the end of long corridors with his AWP, or
    the relentless attacker blaring away with his MP5.
    Campers have the advantage of position, and can stage ambushes.
    Defense is always stronger, they say, and campers can pick the
    most defensible position and stay there, waiting for the hapless
    assaulter to walk by, conveniently exposing their back to the
    camper. The drawback is that campers need lots of patience, and
    have to hone their reaction time greatly. Camping condones
    laziness, which dulls your reflexes. On average, a camper will
    develop slower reflexes than an assaulter. The worst part of
    camping is that they have little control over the flow of the
    game: they lend their destinies to fate, or more appropriately,
    to the actions of the assaulters.
    Assaulters, on the other hand, have the advantage of proactivity. By
    taking matters into their own hands, they call the shots: they do what
    they do, when they want to. They can stick together and attack in masse,
    while campers tend to spread out for defense. In other words, assaulters
    do what suits them best at any particular time. Because of inertia, a car
    in motion will accelerate faster than a car at rest. The same principle
    applies to people's brains from a physiological standpoint.
    | An assaulter will have a better reaction time than a camper: because |
    | they are always on the move, their minds are "in motion," not "at    |
    | rest" like a camper.                                                 |
    In theory an assaulter will often shoot first if he and a camper detect
    each other at the same time. This has been proven to me time and time
    again over the years.
    It is up to you to choose what path you really want to take. You
    have the potential to rack up the kills no matter what you are,
    but keep in mind that the key to racking up those kills and
    staying alive depends greatly on how other people behave. The
    real secret to CS tactical behavior is anticipating everyone else's
    moves, whether they are going to camp or not, and bring the
    appropriate tactic to bear.
    For instance, if you're planning to camp but all your team mates
    are going to assault, you probably won't be getting too many kills.
    Likewise, if you go assault, but all your team mates are going to
    camp, you'll die in seconds from lack of cover fire. I cannot stress
    the importance of team behavior: in a friendly game this is not so
    important, but in serious fights like tournaments, or if you're
    playing to win, having team tactics is vitally important. But I'll
    discuss that some other time, that's an advanced tactic. For now,
    just remember that teamplay is crucial in CS.
    Knowing your team is not the only thing you need to do; you also
    need to know your opponents. If they plan to camp, do you go in
    and assault, guns blaring, and hope to succeed? Or do you have to
    use the appropriate tactic to breach their defense? Just keep these
    things in mind for now, for I will not discuss them at this point.
    The important thing now is to recognize the different kind of players
    in the game: campers or assaulters. Although I mentioned that pure,
    true breds of each are often the better players, the best player will
    likely be the wily, cunning player who knows when to be a camper, and
    when to be an assaulter. Just keep in mind the basic strengths and
    weaknesses of each style, especially with regard to map type.
    | CAMPERS:                                               |
    | Strength: positional advantage (i.e. - sniping points) |
    | Weakness: no control over the flow of the battle,      |
    |           slower reaction time                         |
    |                                                        |
    | ASSAULTERS:                                            |
    | Strength: control over the battle                      |
    |           faster reaction time                         |
    | Weakness: prone to backstabbing and sniping            |
    Learning to be either a good camper or a good assaulter is vital
    in CS. If you're defending positions, like hostage areas for
    terrorists or bomb sites for counter terrorists, good camping
    skill will help. But keep in mind that a swift assault by the
    defensive team is both unexpected and can neutralize the enemy's
    advance just as effectively as a long camp-out. As a newbie, you
    should master one style first. The choice in, the end, lies in
    what kind of weapon you prefer: assault weapons or sniper weapons.
    As we'll discuss later, what weapon you use greatly influences
    your playing style. If you like weapons like the MP5, M4 and
    Steyr Aug, then you should learn to be a good assaulter. But if
    you prefer weapons like the Arctic, then camping skills will
    suit you well.
    3.b -- Aiming: Accuracy and Recoil
    Regardless of whether you camp or assault, the most important
    skill you must learn in CS is how to aim. This is the most
    crucial part of CS gameplay; if you aim well, your enemy is
    toast. If your aim is lousy, you're toast. Simple. Aiming is
    equally important no matter what weapon you use, it's just
    that different weapons have different aiming nuances. This
    will all be discussed in the individual weapon sections.
    There are two very important factors to keep in mind when aiming:
    accuracy and recoil. Weapons have different ratings for accuracy
    and recoil.
    Accuracy determines whether the bullet will go to the spot you're
    pointing at. You can tell a gun's accuracy by the size of the
    crosshair. The tighter the crosshair, the more accurate the gun.
    Your bullet will tend to go in the middle radius of the crosshair's
    lines. In addition, the more you shoot, the wider the crosshair
    becomes, decreasing your accuracy.
    Recoil is how much your gun will buck away from where you're pointing
    each time you fire a shot. The stronger the recoil, the harder it is
    to control the gun.
    Recoil and accuracy are affected by certain things. Four things 
    affect accuracy:
    1.) Movement
    2.) Jumping
    3.) Swimming
    4.) Ladders
    | While moving, your accuracy goes down |
    The amount by which it decreases depends on the weapon, but in general
    if you want your bullets to go where you aim, you should shoot while
    standing still. While you are jumping in the air, accuracy is virtually
    | Accuracy goes down while jumping |
    Unless you are using a very accurate weapon and are close to your
    opponent, you will likely not hit your opponent. The same goes for
    swimming and being on ladders.
    CS v1.1 NOTE: I have been getting reports that jumping accuracy has
    increased considerably in v1.1. I have done some extensive testing,
    and I have concluded this: 
    | Jump accuracy has NOT improved in v1.1! |
    Yes, that's right. I am not kidding. If anything, accuracy has
    actually gone DOWN while jumping. This is especially noticeable
    with the MP5.
    The only thing I can think of is that some people keep spraying 
    while jumping, and they get lucky headshots. Accuracy has
    definitely not improved, at least not by my tests, or by the
    experience of many of the trusted veterans at the LAN where I
    In fact, many of our die-hard MP5 fighters (one of whom never
    touched any other gun in his CS life) have even given up on 
    the MP5, since their "bunny combat" technique is no longer 
    working as it should.
    | Do NOT shoot while swimming |
    Swimming is not being in knee-deep water, swimming is when your feet are
    no longer on the floor, and your 3D model is doing a breast stroke. Do
    NOT shoot while swimming and expect to hit anything, unless you are right
    next to the target. Recoil is also substantially increased.
    | Do NOT shoot while climbing |
    Finally, do not shoot while on a ladder unless there is an emergency.
    Your accuracy goes down a bit, and worse, recoil goes up a lot. If you 
    must shoot, try to get off the ladder as soon as possible before shooting, 
    or make sure your target is at point-blank range. 
    3.b1 - The Rule of Aiming
    The general rule of thumb when aiming is simple.
    | Aim for the neck area of an opponent. |
    This gives you the greatest trade off of ease to hit and damage. The
    mid-section of the body is the easiest target, but you do more damage
    shooting the neck area. The most important reason to aim for this
    part, though, is to increase your chances of doing a head shot. A single
    shot to the head  is lethal for almost all guns, except those using 9mm
    ammo. You could try aiming for the head, but this is harder and is
    something you should focus on only after you have gained a lot of
    experience. Head shot techniques will be elaborated on later.
    For now, keep in mind the effect of recoil. Because of it your first bullet
    may hit its target, but the next ones won't. This is very important in CS,
    as one shot is often not enough to kill a fully-armored opponent. Another
    bonus to shooting the neck area is that recoil tends to push assault rifles
    and submachine guns upward. Thus, your first shot may hit the neck area, but
    the next shots might be head shots.
    Just keep in mind the effects of accuracy and recoil, and you will
    be on the road to mastering aiming.
    3.c -- Basic Shooting Styles
    The next consideration to learning the basic skill of aiming is that
    there are two basic methods of shooting: auto-fire and single-fire.
    People usually adopt one of these two methods due to their weapons;
    someone using an MP5 will more likely use auto-fire, while someone
    using an Arctic is forced to go single-fire.
    Auto-fire pertains to shooting at a target repeatedly as long as the
    ammo holds out. Single-fire is shooting single shots to hit the
    opponent, often done while sniping. Someone going assault usually
    utilizes auto-fire.
    I've noticed that most people prefer either auto-fire or single-fire.
    Those that prefer auto usually go assault and master the MP5, Carbine,
    Steyr Aug, or Commando. Those that go single-fire become masters of the
    lethal Arctic Sniper Rifle. Each style has its strengths, and you would
    do well to specialize in one style. Once you've gained familiarity with
    one style, you can experiment with the other.
    | At first, pick your style, auto or single, and stick to it |
    Auto-fire gives you a higher chance of hitting the opponent, but this
    is due to quantity and not quality. The more shots you fire, the more
    chances you have of hitting. But each individual bullet has less
    chance of hitting because of recoil. Most of the bigger guns let you
    engage in auto-fire just by holding the fire button down. Pistols,
    which have no automatic trigger, must be fired with rapid-succession
    presses to achieve an auto-fire effect.
    Auto-fire is useful in the the thick of the battle, speed is often of
    the essence, he who pulls the trigger first will hit the enemy first.
    However, do not be trigger happy! Because of recoil, many of your
    succeeding shots will be less likely to hit the target. ALWAYS aim
    carefully before pulling the trigger. Most beginners will aim in the
    general direction of the target, and even before the crosshair is at
    the target, will pull the trigger and never let go. This is, frankly,
    a waste of ammo and a good way to get killed.
    | Always put the target in the sights BEFORE pulling the trigger |
    This way, you won't waste the most crucial shot -- the first one,
    which has the highest likelihood of hitting. Succeeding shots
    have less chance of hitting due to recoil, and it is not uncommon
    for newbies to miss their target completely by just spraying their
    entire clip in a haphazard manner.
    Single-fire is used by the more skilled as a means of precision
    sniping. It is the intelligent way to get head shots. It is very
    useful to keep recoil under control, making sure your shots keep
    themselves on target.
    Because of recoil, some veterans prefer shooting in single-fire
    mode, especially when using high-recoil guns like the AK-47 and
    the Para machine gun.  By shooting just single bullets instead of
    sprays, one can minimize the effects of recoil. 
    | Shooting single-fire reduces the effects of recoil |
    This is because recoil effects are sharp after firing a shot, and 
    gradually dissipate. By firing at intervals, you give the recoil time 
    to dissipate. Note that this means guns with high rate of fire tend
    to accumulate a lot of recoil when shot at full-auto at high speed.
    All guns can be fired in single-fire, some harder than most. Pistols,
    the combat shotgun and sniper rifles are easy to fire in single shots.
    The assault rifles and SMGs, though need practice and a light tap on
    the fire button to shoot in single-fire.
    Also, single fire generally fires as fast as you can click. Of course,
    the gun will still limit how fast you can fire, but in some cases you
    can fire faster than the normal auto-fire trigger would allow. A good
    example would be the Sig 550 Commando. The trade-off, of course, is
    that you will spend some concentration on clicking the button furiously,
    rather than on whatever else you're doing (like aiming at the enemy or
    Aside from the two basic styles of firing, there is a third, which
    is a sort of hybrid of the two: burst-fire. Shooting in bursts of
    around 3 bullets is a favored method for sniping by some, because
    it allows them a better chance of hitting a target, without
    sacrificing much accuracy from recoil. To achieve burst fire, use
    a touch similar to single-fire, only hold the fire button slightly
    longer. Of course, pistols and sniper rifles can't achieve this,
    except for the Glock which has a special burst-fire option.
    3.d -- Range
    After learning to aim, you need to apply your aiming skills to four
    basic divisions of range: point blank, close, medium, and long. Unit
    of measurement for distance is hard to define, so I will talk in terms
    of landmarks on a map. Since DE_DUST is perhaps the most well-known
    map, I will use it to approximate the distances. These aren't the
    exact distances I prescribe for range, but are close enough.
    From the primary bomb-site (the one that isn't the CT terrorist base),
    imagine yourself at the edge of the map across the double doors. The
    bombsite is between you and the double doors.
    From this point to the bombsite is basically CLOSE range.
    From the bombsite to the double doors is MEDIUM range.
    Anything beyond the doubledoors is LONG range.
    POINT BLANK is right next to you, close enough to use a knife.
    | Remember that range affects your accuracy a lot |
    At point blank, you will always hit your target as long as he is in front
    of you, so accuracy and recoil is not a problem. Shotguns are lethal at
    this range.
    At close range, only the sniper rifles will have any real trouble
    hitting the mark under conditions of low accuracy (moving or being
    on a ladder). This is the maximum effective range of shotguns.
    Medium range is basically the maximum range for pistols and sub
    machine guns to fire accurately and still have a good chance of
    being on target. Shotguns will still do minimal damage due to the
    spreading of ammo.
    Long range is the domain of rifles and machine guns only. While it
    is still possible to hit using pistols and SMGs, it is far less
    It is important to note that auto-fire works well from point-blank
    to close range, but from medium to long range single-fire will more
    likely net you a kill. Also, using single-fire in close range is
    best left only to the highly-skilled, because otherwise the faster
    trigger finger of auto-fire will likely cut you to ribbons first.
    3.e -- Damage: Armor and Location
    The final important basic consideration is with the amount of
    damage you deal out. The damage you do to an opponent depends
    largely on which gun you are using, but regardless you can do
    more or less damage depending on two factors: armor and location.
    Shooting an opponent wearing armor will reduce damage done, while 
    hitting him in specific areas can cause more damage.
    3.e1 - Location
    Now, where you hit your opponent is also important. There are
    four basic damage regions in the Counter Strike body, in order
    of damage:
    Head  (greatest damage)
    Legs  (least damage)
    HEAD AREA - this is the smallest, hardest to hit area, but also
    takes the most damage. Most guns kill an unarmored, healthy head
    in one blow.
    BODY AREA - this refers to the entire torso, from the neck to the
    groin. It is the easiest to hit, and damage is moderate. 
    ARMS AREA - this refers to both arms, from the shoulder to the hand.
    Damage is slight.
    LEGS AREA - any part below the groin, up to the tip of the toe.
    Damage is almost non-existent here, and you do not slow the enemy
    in anyway (unlike in Action Quake). Avoid aiming for this part.
    3.e2 - Armor
    Armor helps absorb damage. Depending on the integrity of your 
    armor, the damage absorption will decrease. From experience, 
    some ammo types penetrate armor better than others.
    I am not entirely sure how each ammo type does against armor,
    but in general the rifle ammos (5.56 and 7.62) penetrate armor
    far better than the pistol and SMG ammo (9mm, .45, etc.).
    Apparently, the 9mm and the 12 ga. buckshot have the worst
    penetration among all ammo types. The .50 Action Express
    (used in the Desert Eagle) is very good against armor.
    Typically, the rifle rounds will do almost the same damage 
    whether the enemy is wearing armor or not. However, for the
    pistol rounds, damage is greatly reduced.
    Armor comes in two varieties: a vest which protects the body
    area only, and a helmet which protects both body and head.
    However, when you shoot at the neck area of an opponent, you
    are more likely to hit his head. Headshots are most feared;
    always buy full armor if you can afford it! It's the only
    real defense aside from cowering behind a rock.
    | Never skimp on armor. Buy the vest and helmet. |
    Many novice and even some intermediate players don't buy
    armor, thinking it's a waste of money. They often complain
    that they die almost instantly anyway with or without it.
    Believe me, armor makes a HUGE difference, especially
    since odds are several enemy agents will be using MP5s.
    When your dodging skills have increased and you are fighting 
    on more or less equal terms, you will notice how much armor 
    keeps your health up. And when fighting very accurate shooters 
    who aim for you head, that helmet is pure gold in determining 
    who will win the battle.
    3.f -- Stopping Power
    Another important consideration which I forgot to mention earlier
    (thanks Paul for reminding me) is stopping power. Have you ever
    noticed how, during a gunfight you thought you had your enemy
    dead in your sights, but suddenly you get hit and your gun shoots
    up, ruining your aim? Or how, while trying to run for cover, you
    are suddenly hit and you stop dead in your tracks, unable to dodge,
    and thus a sitting duck?
    These effects are attributed to something called Stopping Power.
    It is a very important tactical tool which makes killing an opponent
    without taking casualties easier. In this case, who gets the first draw,
    has a better chance of winning.
    All guns have some level of stopping power. Some, though, have
    better stopping power than others. The stronger the stopping power,
    the longer the opponent takes to recover, and the more off his aim
    will be. It's hard to pinpoint the exact levels of stopping power
    are for each gun. The stopping power seems to depend on the ammo
    type. Unfortunatley, it is very difficult to measure the stopping
    power of each gun, so I will refrain from giving estimates.
    Just remember this:
    | Stopping power can disrupt the aim and movement of an enemy |
    Because of this, it cannot be understated that hitting the opponent
    first can win you the duel entirely, for his shots will likely be
    thrown off target. He will also be momentarily stunned, making him
    an easier target.
                              IV. THE WEAPONS
    Now that you have a basic concept of recoil and accuracy, you are ready
    to learn about the weapons. There are six basic kinds of weapons in CS:
    pistols, shotguns, submachine guns, assault rifles, sniper rifles, and
    machine guns. Each have different ratings for recoil, accuracy,
    encumbrance, as well as different ammo types.
    As a player, you can have two guns with you at most: one primary weapon,
    and one secondary weapon. Only pistols are allowed for secondary weapons,
    everything else is a primary.
    Each gun is detailed as follows:
    NAME: The name of the gun (alternative v1.0 name) [Quick Buy Number]
    COST: How much the gun plus a full clip costs
    AMMO: The kind of ammo the gun uses
    CLIP/MAX: The size of the clip/maximum ammo you can carry
    CLIP COST: How much one clip costs (number of bullets per clip)
    ACCURACY: High, medium or low, high means very accurate
    MOVE ACC: High, medium or low, how accurate the gun is while moving.
    RECOIL: High, medium, or low, high means strong recoil
    RATE OF FIRE: Fast, medium, or slow. The speed between shots.
    AUTOFIRE: Yes or no, whether the gun can engage autofire or not
    SPECIAL OPTION: What happens when you press the special weapon function.
    NOTES: Other things you about the weapon, and my tips and advice.
    1.) Sniper Scope
         Sniper scopes let you zoom in on a far away target. There are two
         zoom sizes: 2x or 4x. I just call them that; I don't know if they
         really make your vision twice or four times as close. It's something
         I carried over from my Action Quake days.
         Activating the scope increases accuracy, and greatly decreases  
         any inaccuracy from moving and sidestepping. However, it also tends
         to decrease rate of fire. Further, using the scope warps your
         perception, making movement and aiming slightly tricky. And of course,
         it limits your vision (taking away your peripheral vision, so to speak).
         Also, as of CS v1.1, all the sniper rifles (Scout to Sig 550) have
         become completely inaccurate without the scope. However, with the
         scope on they become quite accurate.
    2.) Silencer
         Silencers remove muzzle flash and suppress the noise from firing.
         This makes them good for sneaking ambushing in dark conditions. There
         are some effects on the shot, though. I am not 100% sure, but it has
         to do with reducing bullet velocity.
         Realistically speaking, a silencer is supposed to reduce the velocity
         of your bullet to subsonic levels. Through extensive testing and
         experience, apparently the reduced bullet velocity makes your shot
         less accurate at range. It also decreases bullet damage. However, 
         recoil is somewhat reduced. What this means is that, in general, a
         suppressed weapon is better in close combat, while the unsuppressed 
         version is better for sniping at range.
         Quick tip: to quicly attach/remove the silencer, press your secondary
         fire button and do a quick weapons switch. When you switch back to
         the gun, the silencer will be on or off. This is much faster than 
         going through the entire attach/detach animation.
    Take note that in v1.0 of CS Sierra, apparently due to copyright reasons,
    decided to rename the guns with some weird, unknown, bogus names. I include 
    them here for those of you who only joined from v1.0 up, to clear any 
    confusion as to nomenclature. You can manually edit the TITLES.TXT file 
    in your CS directory which corresponds to the weapon names, allowing you 
    to change them back to what they're supposed to be. 
    4.a -- Pistols
    These are your choices available for your secondary weapon. It is crucial for
    your survival when you run out of ammo and do not have time to reload. Pistols
    have often have poor accuracy at range but are very accurate while moving.
    When using a pistol, in close range, be sure to side step a lot. Pistols also
    reload very quickly and are very light, allowing you to move very fast. The
    main disadvantage of the pistol is that, except for the Glock, they all have
    single-fire triggers. This means that you have to press furiously to
    achieve an auto-fire effect.
    When choosing your secondary, be sure to select a weapon that complements
    your primary. Determine this by weapon fighting-style. Primaries that
    mostly use auto-fire shooting should have a pistol with a large clip
    size and fast rate of fire (like the Glock or Five-SeveN). Those that rely
    on single-fire shooting should get strong ammo pistols that follow suit
    (like the USP or Desert Eagle).
    NAME: H&K USP .45 Tactical (K&M .45) [1-1]
    COST: $500
    AMMO: .45 ACP
    CLIP/MAX: 12/48
    CLIP COST: $25 (12)
    ACCURACY: Medium
    MOVE ACC: High
    RECOIL: Low
    RATE OF FIRE: Fast
    SPECIAL OPTION: Silencer
    NOTES: This is the standard issue CT gun. Counter Terrorists have the weapon
    advantage at the start because of this gun. With the .45 round, it is very
    strong, and is pretty good at medium range for sniping. A few shots is
    enough to kill anyone, even in full-armor. Using the silencer suppresses
    shot and muzzle fire, making you almost undetectable in low-visibility areas
    and decreasing recoil, but the trade-off is that you lose power and accuracy.
    It's a trade-off you have to weigh for yourself. I personally prefer going
    without the silencer. Anyway, the USP is a good solid handgun to which all 
    the other pistols are compared.
    NAME: Glock 18 Select Fire (9x19mm) [1-2]
    COST: $400
    AMMO: 9mm Parabellum
    CLIP/MAX: 20/100
    CLIP COST: $20 (20)
    ACCURACY: Medium
    MOVE ACC: High
    RECOIL: Low
    RATE OF FIRE: Fast
    SPECIAL OPTION: Burst-Fire Mode
    NOTES: The default weapon of terrorists. Unfortunately, most people will tell
    you the Counter Terrorists got the better end of the deal. The Glock is weaker
    and shares ammo with the MP5. The gun has two saving graces: it has a useful
    burst-fire mode and a clip-size of 20. The burst-mode gives you a shotgun-like
    attack at close ranging, firing three shots instead of one. However, it forces
    you to aim carefully as your firing rate suddenly drops. At close range, burst
    fire is very difficult to use unless you have the accurate aiming usually
    reserved for shotgun experts. The Glock is also less accurate than the USP
    at range, probably as accurate as the Sig Sauer 228. The biggest advantage of
    the Glock, though is its large clip size, which should appeal to people who
    prefer auto-fire attacks.
    NAME: Desert Eagle .50 AE (Nighthawk) [1-3]
    COST: $650
    AMMO: .50 Action Express
    CLIP/MAX: 7/35
    CLIP COST: $40 (7)
    MOVE ACC: High
    RECOIL: Medium
    RATE OF FIRE: Medium
    NOTES: This is my personal handgun of choice. With the .50 ammo, it is the
    most powerful handgun in the game, heck is more powerful than most of the
    primary weapons. Its biggest downside is that it has a clip size of seven, so
    make those shots count. Fortunately, it reloads fast so as long as you are
    going one on one, you can usually reload after killing one opponent. The
    Desert Eagle is also surprisingly accurate at medium to long range, probably
    due to the strong power of the ammo. It is capable of making headshots with
    surprising ease even at such a distance. To top it off, this is the only pistol
    capable of punching through thin walls, like the rifles. Most people who have
    mastered the single-fire firing technique often prefer this handgun. The only
    other problem aside from the small clip is the slow rate of fire; the slowest
    among all the pistols. 
    NAME: SIG P228 (228) [1-4]
    COST: $600
    AMMO: .357 Sig
    CLIP/MAX: 13/52
    CLIP COST: $50 (13)
    ACCURACY: Medium
    MOVE ACC: High
    RECOIL: Low
    RATE OF FIRE: Fast
    NOTES: This gun is similar to the USP pistol, but better in almost every
    aspect. It is the second strongest handgun, second only to the Desert Eagle,
    but with a bigger clip size. Although damage is fairly at a par with the
    USP, its armor penetration seems to be stronger. The only thing the USP has 
    over this gun is long range sniping. At long range, the P228 Sauer tends not 
    to be as accurate as the USP. And of course, it doesn't have a silencer --
    not really much of a disadvantage since recoil is barely an issue for pistols.
    Anyway, I don't find it worth the cost for a CT agent to purchase, as the
    improvements are marginal at best. It would be a good gun for a terrorist
    to buy in the first round, though. 
    NAME: Dual Beretta 96G (.40 Dual Elites) [1-5]
    COST: $1000
    AMMO: 9mm Parabellum
    CLIP/MAX: 30/120
    CLIP COST: $20 (30)
    ACCURACY: High* (see below)
    MOVE ACC: High
    RECOIL: Medium
    RATE OF FIRE: Fast
    NOTES: This is actually two Berettas, one in each hand. This option really
    reminds me of a cheap alternative to the MP5. They are practically the same,
    except that they fire slightly slower, have no autofire option, and are VERY
    SLOW to reload. However, considering that they are only $1000 and are a
    secondary weapon, they are a top-choice for many as secondary weapons, as they
    can serve as primaries, like an MP5. If you belong to the auto-fire rather than
    the single-fire school, this will likely be your secondary weapon of choice.
    One weird thing about this weapon, though. It's supposed to be very accurate,
    I think as accurate as the Carbine. But the shots don't go where they're
    supposed to. The two-hand option affects the aim a bit; the left gun shoots
    slightly to the left, the right to the right. This limits their usefulness
    outside of close quarters. Further, it has a horrendous reload time, worst
    among the pistols and almost as bad as the M249. Also, only terrorists can
    purchase it. All in all, the Berettas are basically just a Glock with a size
    30 clip.
    NAME: Five Seven [1-6]
    COST: $750
    AMMO: 5.7x28mm
    CLIP/MAX: 20/100
    CLIP COST: $50 (50)
    ACCURACY: Medium
    MOVE ACC: High
    RECOIL: Low
    RATE OF FIRE: Fast
    NOTES: This is the weakest pistol in the game, but pierces armor the 
    best. It is also singly the most expensive, and can only be bought 
    by CTs. The clip size and attack power will remind you of the Glock, but
    with stronger armor piercing ability and no burst fire. Overall, this 
    gun doesn't get a good grade because of its weak attack power, high
    price, and the fact that in v1.1 they made it about as accurate as
    the USP. It is no longer the best sniping pistol in the game! Still,
    it is one of only two pistols that punch through armor well (the
    other is the Eagle).
    TRIVIA: This gun is so new that, as of this writing, it has not had any
    real combat experience! Gun experts have no definitive data on its actual
    combat capabilities.
    4.b -- Shotguns
    Shotguns are a very distinct weapon-type which only specialists should use.
    These are not the same shotguns in Action Quake; these are very specific in
    use: close combat. They are very light, and encumber you only about a bit
    more than a pistol. They are lethal in close combat, but next to useless at
    medium or greater range. One of the nifty features of the shotguns is the
    ability to fire immediately after reloading just one shell. This split-
    second difference could mean the difference between life and death in certain
    situations where you run out of ammo but suddenly need to fire again.
    NAME: Benneli M3 Super90 (Leone 12 Gauge Super) [2-1]
    COST: $1700
    AMMO: 12 gauge
    CLIP/MAX: 8/32
    CLIP COST: $65 (8)
    ACCURACY: Medium
    MOVE ACC: High
    RECOIL: High
    RATE OF FIRE: Slow
    NOTES: This is a true specialist weapon, intended for those who have mastered
    the art of single-fire headshots. At close range or closer, one shot is enough
    to kill, provided you aimed for the general neck area. Unfortunately, the slow
    rate of fire means that, in most instances, you get only one chance to kill
    your opponent, if you miss the first shot, your enemy with an MP5 or other
    auto-fire gun will likely mow you down before you get a second chance. Aside
    from the one-shot kill potential at close range, this weapon has no other use.
    The buck shot scatters too much even at medium range, making it useless as a
    sniping tool, and it only really works against one opponent because of the
    slow rate of fire.
    NAME: Benneli XM1014 (Leone YG1265 Auto Shotgun) [2-2]
    COST: $3000
    AMMO: 12 gauge
    CLIP/MAX: 7/32
    CLIP COST: $65 (8)
    ACCURACY: Medium
    MOVE ACC: High
    RECOIL: Medium
    RATE OF FIRE: Fast
    NOTES: This works almost like M3, except that it has a slightly smaller clip
    and has auto-fire ability! Because of the auto-fire capability, it is possible
    to take on multiple opponents at close range with this gun. It also means you
    have more leeway for missing the first shot, as it is fast enough to fire
    again before you get plastered. However, the XM1014 is weaker than the M3,
    to compensate for its auto-fire ability.
    4.c -- Submachine Gun
    Submachine guns (SMGs) are great close range weapons. They are fairly light,
    heavier than a shotgun but lighter than most rifles, and are usually very
    accurate at close to medium range, even while moving. They are also relatively
    cheap. Their only real drawback is that they often do not have as much
    penetrating power as the real rifles, meaning armor does a good job of
    stopping them. Also, they tend to lose accuracy at long range because of
    shorter barrels and weaker ammo rounds designed for fast emptying up-close.
    NAME: H&K MP5-Navy (SMG) [3-1]
    COST: $1500
    AMMO: 9mm Parabellum
    CLIP/MAX: 30/120
    CLIP COST: $20 (30)
    ACCURACY: Medium
    MOVE ACC: High
    RECOIL: Low
    RATE OF FIRE: Fast
    NOTES: H&K's MP5 is the weapon of choice of most counter-terrorist agents both
    in CS and in the real world. Why? It's cheap, is remarkably accurate, handles
    perfectly, has a killer rate of fire, and reloads like a dream. Its only real
    drawback is the poor penetration power of its 9mm round. Other than that,
    it's perfect for assaults, and is also pretty good for sniping at medium range.
    In fact, recoil and accuracy are good enough that you can snipe in large bursts
    with this gun. Most people train getting headshots with the MP5 by simply
    aiming in the general head area and letting go. And they get results, too. This
    is the weapon of choice of most players proficient in the auto-fire technique.
    This gun is the biggest reason why you should always buy a full suit of kevlar
    every round: most of your opponents are likely to be using it. This is widely
    held by many in the CS community as the best gun for close combat. It is the
    standard from which I compare all other guns.
    NAME: Steyr Tactical Machine Pistol (Schmidt MP) [3-2]
    COST: $1250
    AMMO: 9mm Parabellum
    CLIP/MAX: 30/120
    CLIP COST: $20 (30)
    ACCURACY: Medium
    MOVE ACC: High
    RECOIL: Low
    RATE OF FIRE: Very Fast
    NOTES: This is a CT only gun which is basically a cheaper alternative to the
    MP5. It works almost exactly the same as the MP5, and is cheaper to boot.
    People who love the MP5 will feel right at home using this gun. There are a
    few minor differences. First, the MP5 is more accurate at range, while the TMP
    sprays better up close. Second, the Steyr TMP has a slightly faster rate of 
    fire (I think it's second fastest rate of fire in the game). Lastly, and most
    importantly, the Steyr does less damage than an MP5. Still overall, it's a 
    great bargain at only $1250, and if you're a CT and love using the MP5, you
    might consider changing to this to save money.
    NAME: FN P90 (ES C90) [3-3]
    COST: $2350
    AMMO: .338 Lapua Magnum
    CLIP/MAX: 50/100
    CLIP COST: 50$ (50)
    ACCURACY: Medium
    MOVE ACC: High
    RECOIL: High
    RATE OF FIRE: Very Fast
    NOTES: The FN P90 is one of the most advanced SMGs in the world. This gun can
    shred opponents in a flash, at close range anyway. Although it does the least
    damage among all the SMGs, it makes up for it with its armor-piercing ability
    and its very fast rate of fire (fastest in the game). The P90, with its 5.7
    ammo, is supposed to be good against armor in real life, so I think that this 
    is the one SMG in CS that does reasonably well against armor, compared to the
    other SMGs. Its main drawback is its poor damage. Also, it is quite inaccurate
    while moving compared to the other SMGs, and does not have the range of the 
    true assault rifles. And of course, it's quite expensive for an SMG. Sniping
    with this gun at long range is difficult, but possible, provided you use 
    single-fire shots. However, this gun was not made for sniping, and shooting
    auto-fire at medium range will already give you a very poor hit ratio. All in
    all, not as good as the MP5 for close range assaults. The biggest selling point
    of this gun is the 50 round clip, making reloads less of a concern. 
    TRIVIA: CS v1.0 calls its ammo ".338 Lapua Magnum," but you buy it at the
    same price, with the same increment, as the 5.7 round. That's because this
    gun does use the 5.7 round. Sloppy, Sierra, sloppy.
    NAME: Ingram MAC-10  [3-4]
    COST: $1400
    AMMO: .45 ACP
    CLIP/MAX: 30/96
    CLIP COST: $25 (12)
    MOVE ACC: Medium
    RECOIL: High
    RATE OF FIRE: Very Fast
    NOTES: The Mac-10 is a very volatile, uncontrollable weapon that can only be
    bought by terrorists. It is stronger than the MP5, but the recoil is also much
    stronger. Now, since I finished up with the MP5 recently, I've been playing
    with the Ingram more. I'm learning a lot of new stuff about this weapon! First
    off, I realized that this gun has a much faster firing rate than I previously
    realized. This ups its rating in my book tremendously. Still, the lack of
    accuracy and control still reduce its usefulness. It's still a weapon which
    you should buy when you're on a budget but need stopping power. Perhaps the
    worst aspect of this weapon is that you need to buy a whole lot of ammo, as
    each purchase of ammo gives you only 12 shots for $25 bucks. Not a good deal.
    When you consider how much ammo you have to buy, the MP5 is still cheaper.
    I like to think of this gun as a mini-AK, except that it doesn't have the
    accuracy and power that make the AK-47 a great gun. All in all, this is the
    stronger alternative to the MP5, minus the controllability.
    NAME: H&K UMP45 (K&M UMP45) [3-5]
    COST: $1700
    AMMO: .45 ACP
    CLIP/MAX: 25/100
    CLIP COST: $25 (12)
    ACCURACY: Medium
    MOVE ACC: Medium
    RECOIL: Low
    RATE OF FIRE: Medium
    NOTES: The UMP is an SMG very similar to the MP5, with two major 
    differences: it has a much slower rate of fire, and it uses the .45 ACP
    round. The boon is that it has better ammo, and thus does more damage.
    The problem is that its rate of fire is so slow that it puts you at
    risk in a close-quarters battle. This is easily the slowest among all 
    the SMGs for rate of fire. Another consideration is that it has a slightly
    smaller clip size. This gun also apparently has the least recoil among all 
    the automatic guns in the game. Perhaps my biggest beef with this gun is 
    that, like the Mac10, it only buys ammo in increments of 12, making 
    initial setup harder. 
    4.d -- Rifles
    Rifles are the real weapons in this game. They are expensive, but worth the
    price. They are very powerful, capable of tearing through opponents in just
    a few shots, can punch through walls and armor, and are very accurate for
    long-range fire. They usually pay for this in recoil, but all in all these
    guns are the lifeblood of many terrorists and counter terrorists. All rifles
    can pierce through walls and other obstacles to some extent.
    NAME: AK-47 (CV-47) [4-1]
    COST: $2500
    AMMO: 7.62 NATO
    CLIP/MAX: 30/90
    CLIP COST: $80 (30)
    ACCURACY: High
    MOVE ACC: Medium
    RECOIL: High
    RATE OF FIRE: Medium
    NOTES: There are two big reasons why people like playing terrorist: the AK-47
    and the Sig Commando. This is my personal terrorist-only gun of choice. The
    cheap price tag of the AK, combined with its incredible power and accuracy,
    made it the bad-ass assault gun back in the early days. Unfortunately, since
    beta 7 this gun was toned down by making extremely heavy, slowing your movement
    considerably. Still, the AK is a great gun. It is very accurate, making long
    range sniping a breeze. Its 7.62 round is so powerful, you will be killing
    many enemies with just a few shots. This is also one of the best guns to get
    headshots. The only real drawback of this gun, aside from its weight, is its
    powerful recoil. You cannot afford to use auto-fire with this gun; most of your
    shots will miss. That is why this gun is not really suited for assault, it is
    more of a mid-range sniping assault gun. Used in conjunction with single-fire
    sniping techniques, this is a very lethal specialist's gun, suitable for
    almost all combat conditions.
    TRIVIA: The AK may very well be the best-selling assault rifle in the world.
    NAME: Sig SG-552 Commando (Krieg 552 Commando) [4-2]
    COST: $3500
    AMMO: 5.56mm NATO
    CLIP/MAX: 30/90
    CLIP COST: $60 (30)
    ACCURACY: Medium
    MOVE ACC: High
    RECOIL: Medium
    RATE OF FIRE: Fast
    SPECIAL OPTION: 2x Sniper Scope
    NOTES: The Commando is a terrorist-only gun, and is arguably one of the best
    in the game. It combines accuracy and power with a 2x sniper scope, allowing
    you to pick off targets who haven't even seen you yet. It is the counterpart
    of the CT's Steyr Aug, over which it has the advantage of faster reload time,
    higher damage, less recoil and better handling. On the downside, rate of fire 
    is slightly slower than that of the Aug. Its only real drawback is that it
    is quite expensive. Still, overall, this gun is worth its price easily.
    NAME: Colt M4A1 Carbine (Maverick M4A1 Carbine) [4-3]
    COST: $3100
    AMMO: 5.56mm NATO
    CLIP/MAX: 30/90
    CLIP COST: $60 (30)
    ACCURACY: High
    MOVE ACC: High
    RECOIL: Low
    RATE OF FIRE: Fast
    SPECIAL OPTION: Silencer
    NOTES: This is a counter-terrorist only gun, the direct counterpart of the
    AK-47. It is easily the best all-around gun in the game. It has all the
    handling of the MP5, but is more accurate and powerful, making it easier to
    kill opponents close up and afar. Its only drawback is that it is far more
    expensive than most SMGs. Still, it is cheaper than most rifles. It is also
    slightly slower at firing than an MP5, and has slightly stronger kickback,
    but not by much, still getting a low recoil rating. This gun basically combines
    the sniping capability of the AK-47 with the assault handling ability of the
    P5, in a very light, maneuverable package. My only qualm with this gun is that
    it lost its 2x scope when the Steyr Aug came out around Beta 6. However, it
    did get something good in exchange: a silencer. It is my all-around weapon 
    of choice. Now, if only terrorists could buy it....
    NAME: Steyr AUG (Bullpup) [4-4]
    COST: $3500
    AMMO: 5.56mm NATO
    CLIP/MAX: 30/90
    CLIP COST: $60 (30)
    ACCURACY: High
    MOVE ACC: Medium
    RECOIL: High
    RATE OF FIRE: Fast
    SPECIAL OPTION: 2x Sniper Scope
    NOTES: This counter-terrorist only gun is the direct equivalent of the
    terrorist's Commando. Many people play CTs because of this gun. It is a great
    gun, although I personally find the Commando better. However, this gun has its
    merits. It has the smallest crosshair for any gun, and coupled with its strong
    ammo round and the sniper scope, suggests that it is the most accurate gun in
    the game. Its main drawback is its powerful recoil and very slow reloading 
    time. It also does the least damage among the 5.56mm guns. It does not handle 
    as well as the MP5, or even the Commando in close range while moving. However,
    it seems to have a slightly faster rate of fire. Overall, it is a
    good gun which can kill many opponents at most ranges pretty fast, and its
    sniper scope really helps out in those long range situations. If only recoil
    wasn't such a problem, this might have been my favorite assault rifle.
    NAME: Steyr Scout (Schmidt Scout) [4-5]
    COST: $2750
    AMMO: 7.62 NATO
    CLIP/MAX: 10/60
    CLIP COST: $80 (30)
    MOVE ACC: Low
    RECOIL: Medium
    RATE OF FIRE: Slow
    SPECIAL OPTION: 4x Sniper Scope
    NOTES: This gun is for the sniper on a budget. It is the cheapest of the sniper
    guns, and is very limited in use. It is only really effective at long range,
    because at close range you do not have enough time to fire two shots to kill
    someone, unless you can hit their heads all the time. The 7.62 round is strong
    enough that you can kill anyone, regardless of armor, in two hits, no matter
    where you hit them. It is the poor man's arctic, and is only really useful in
    the early game when people haven't saved enough to buy Arctics yet. Take note
    that, as of CS v1.1, sniper rifles no longer have a crosshair when the scope
    is not activated! Ah well, there goes the Scout's awesome accuracy. Like all
    the sniper rifles in CS, the Scout has two scope settings: 2x and 4x. By the
    way, although the gun has an auto-fire trigger (which shouldn't be the case,
    since this is a bolt-action gun), the rate of fire is so slow that it doesn't
    NAME: AI Arctic Warfare/Magnum (Magnum Sniper Rifle) [4-6]
    COST: $4750
    AMMO: .338 Magnum Lapua
    CLIP/MAX: 10/30
    CLIP COST: $125 (10)
    MOVE ACC: Low
    RECOIL: High
    RATE OF FIRE: Slow
    SPECIAL OPTION: 4x Sniper Scope
    NOTES: This is the most bad-ass gun in the game, and my ex-personal weapon of
    choice. The AWP is also known as the "one-shot" gun, because one shot is enough
    to kill anyone, regardless of health or armor. In fact, it is enough to kill
    three or maybe even more people standing in a straight line. That's how bad this
    gun is. Although this was without a doubt the best weapon in the early betas of
    the game, this gun has slowly been downgraded because of its unbalanced power.
    It is now terribly inaccurate, and the penetration of the ammo is not as strong
    as it used to be. Worse of all, you are no longer guaranteed of one-shot kills.
    Still, it is a very lethal weapon in the hands of a specialist. Just be sure to
    use the 2x sniper setting, or else your shot will go way off target; a result of
    the downgrading the gun went through. (Especially since you no longer have a
    crosshair). In the past, it was great for assaults, but ever since accuracy was
    downgraded to the most inaccurate gun in the game, it is now only useful for
    long-range combat. Still, master this weapon, and you easily have the potential
    to make the most kills in the game. As much as it pains me, I am inclined to
    say this is no longer the best gun in the game. That honor probably goes to
    either the M4A1 Carbine or the Sig552 Carbine Commando now. Oh, and as with the
    Scout, the AWP has an auto-fire trigger but it fires so slowly that it's as
    slow as a single-shot bolt-action rifle.
    TRIVIA: This is the same sniper rifle used in Action Quake.
    NAME: H&K G3/SG-1 (D3/AV-1 Semi-Automatic Sniper Rifle) [4-7]
    COST: $5000
    AMMO: 7.62mm NATO
    CLIP/MAX: 20/60
    CLIP COST: $80 (30)
    MOVE ACC: Low
    RECOIL: Medium
    RATE OF FIRE: Slow
    SPECIAL OPTION: 4x Sniper Scope
    NOTES: The G3 in CS is a weird gun. A normal G3 is supposed to be an assault
    rifle, but here it has been converted into a sniper rifle. Anyway, this gun
    has slightly less power than the Steyr Scout, but has a much faster rate of
    fire. It was meant for long-range combat for trigger-happy people. However,
    it is no match for an Arctic at such distances, and thus I don't find it very
    useful. Still, it is good for long range and can pass off as a somewhat decent
    assault weapon, if your aim is good. Otherwise, the rate of fire is still too
    slow to compete with an MP5 at close quarters. I don't really recommend this
    gun, because it is expensive and yet is not as effective as the Arctic. Still,
    if you're playing against people who don't use Arctics and want to snipe while
    using the auto-fire style, this is your gun. Oh, and as of v1.0, this is a
    terrorist-only gun. It is also quite cumbersome and you will move quite slowly.
    NAME: Sig 550 Commando (Krieg 550 Commando)  [4-8]
    COST: $4200
    AMMO: 5.56mm NATO
    CLIP/MAX: 30/90
    CLIP COST: $60 (30)
    MOVE ACC: Low
    RECOIL: Medium
    RATE OF FIRE: Slow
    SPECIAL OPTION: 4x Sniper Scope
    NOTES: This is a CT-only gun that was introduced in v1.0. It is probably the
    worst sniper gun in the game. It is not a good sniper/assault hybrid, because
    the rate of fire still means you will be eaten up by MP5s and its cousin, the
    Sig 552. Its damage, while stronger than most assault guns, is the weakest
    in the sniper class. Its strengths are its relatively cheap price (for a 
    sniper gun), its large clip, and its fast rate of fire. It also has a 4x
    sniper scope, which gives it a slight edge over the Aug and the 552 at long
    range. It also does the most damage among the 5.56mm guns in the game
    (although it does the least damage among all the sniper rifles). This gun 
    is best used when there are no "true" snipers on the field, against SMGs at 
    the edge of their effective range.
    4.f -- Machine Guns
    There is only one machine gun in this game, the FN Para. It is good only in
    the hands of a specialist, it is not the kind of gun a newbie should use.
    And yet, for some reason, newbies love to buy this gun. I wonder why?
    NAME: FN M249 Para (ES M249) [5-1]
    COST: $5750
    AMMO: 5.56mm NATO
    CLIP/MAX: 100/200
    CLIP COST: $60 (30)
    ACCURACY: Medium
    MOVE ACC: Low
    RECOIL: High
    RATE OF FIRE: Medium
    NOTES: This full-sized machine gun is a modified version of the M249. The M249
    was supposed to be the standard machine gun issue that would replace the M4 in
    the US Army. This gun is NOWHERE as good as the M249 is supposed to be, though.
    It is very, very heavy, easily the heaviest gun in the game. This gun is like
    an over-souped version of the AK-47, slow, but very painful and quite accurate.
    Still, I find this to be a rather pathetic gun, and the only reason I would
    recommend you buy it is for its huge magazine clip -- 100 shots. You practically
    don't need to reload at all, unless you splurge your fire on the walls of the
    opponent's encampment: the true use of this gun. The best use of the gun so far
    by my estimate. Hope to score hits by spraying on the walls. Otherwise, it is
    too slow for serious close combat use, is quite inaccurate except in small
    bursts, has virtually no accuracy while moving, and is very, very expensive.
    I'd pick it up if someone left it and I had no weapon, but I would never trade
    my AK-47 or Carbine for it.
    TRIVIA: Heavier guns tend to have lower recoil. Why does the M249 have
    such horrendous recoil?
    4.g -- Other Equipment
    Aside from guns, there are other things you can purchase to help you in
    your life and death struggle. These can be bought through the use of your
    buy equipment key. (Bind this as 'buyequip' -- see Binding Technique)
    NAME: Kevlar Armor [1]
    COST: $650
    NOTES: This will provide your torso area with extra protection. For more
    details, see the Damage section in Chapter III.
    NAME: Kevlar Armor with Helmet [2]
    COST: $1000
    NOTES: Same as normal armor, except the helmet works wonders in stopping
    those headshots. Buy this and not the first one whenever possible.
    NAME: Flashbang [3]
    COST: $200
    NOTES: Also known as the concussion grenade, flashbangs do no damage
    whatsoever, but blind anyone caught in its blast for an amount of time
    dependent on the victim's proximity. Looking up or away doesn't matter;
    you'll be blinded just the same. However, the blast does not go through
    objects, so you can keep your vision by ducking behind an obstacle.
    Most people frown on the flashbang, but those few seconds of blindness
    can be far more damaging than an HE explosion. You can carry up to two
    of these at a time.
    NAME: HE Grenade [4]
    COST: $300
    NOTES: Most players prefer this grenade. It explodes in a small radius,
    and anyone inside that radius is damaged a certain amount. This damage
    is almost never enough to kill anyone from full health, but is good
    enough to weaken enemies and damage their armor. Because of the blast
    radius, this is a favorite item for clearing several enemies in one
    fell swoop. You can carry only one of these at a time.
    NAME: Smoke Grenade [5]
    COST: $300
    NOTES: Most people consider this a useless item. However, it is perhaps
    the single most effective grenade to aid in breaching an enemy's well-
    camped position. Once thrown, it does no damage, but it releases a
    cloud of billowing smoke for a few long seconds. The smoke impairs
    the visibility of everyone. Needless to say, this is the perfect
    weapon to get past those sniper-prone areas.
    NAME: Defuse Kit [6]
    COST: $200
    NOTES: In bomb maps, CTs can purchase this to drastically cut down bomb
    defusal time. At $200, many CTs may find expensive, but it can mean the
    difference between winning the round (and the $2750 bonus) or losing.
    Most terrorists leave the bomb at a certain time to prevent getting
    killed. If they wait to the last possible moment, a CT who comes in
    after the terrorists have fled won't have enough time to disarm it
    (provided the server didn't mess with the bomb explosion time). However,
    with the defuse kit, the CT can make it just in the nick of time. Thus,
    terrorists up against CTs with defuse kits must stay to the death, or
    risk having the bomb defused.
    NAME: Night Vision [7]
    COST: $1250
    NOTES: This is one worthless piece of equipment. Although being able to
    see in the dark areas of the map is vital to CS, the Night Vision in
    this game is so poorly done that it's more of a headache than of help.
    It simply ups the gamma a bit and changes the palette to a greener
    color, but the palette change is volatile and quite painful to the eye.
    If you want night vision, there's a cheaper, better way: see the
    Dirty Tricks section.
    NAME: Knife
    COST: Free!
    SPECIAL FUNCTION: Sadistic Stab
    AUTOFIRE: Yes!
    NOTES: You don't actually buy this, you always have it. Since it is a
    weapon, I might as well discuss it. The knife in the early beta days
    was one dangerous weapon. Two or three slashes was more than enough
    to kill a fully-armored agent. Now, however, knife damage has been
    weakened drastically, making normal knife attacks less than half the
    strength of what they used to be. The special weapon function is not
    a setting change, but a secondary attack of the knife: the sadistic
    stab. This does roughly as much damage as the old knife used to do
    with a normal attack, but takes longer to execute. In the old days I
    would recommend switching to the knife whenever you were at point
    blank range. Nowadays, since it does so little damage, I hesitate
    to do such. If you manage to get the jump on your enemey, sure. Then
    again, maybe not.
    4.h -- Weapon Movement Speeds
    Right, different weapon weights contribute to different weapon speeds.
    Here is how movement speed is rated depending on what weapon you equip.
    This is a rough guide, estimated from experience.
    Knife, Grenades
    H&K USP, Glock, Desert Eagle, Sig P228, Five Seven
    Benelli M3, Benelli XM1014, Dual Beretta, Steyr Tactical Machine
    Ingram MAC-10, MP5, FN P90, Steyr Scout
    Steyr AUG, Sig Commando, M4 Carbine
    Krieg Commando
    G3/SG-1 Sniper
    Artic Warfare Magnum
    FN M249 PARA
    3.e1 -- Ammo
    These are the strengths of the different ammo types in Counter Strike,
    from weakest to strongest. Take note that this is by no means definitive,
    I did not check with the CS team or read a guide about them. Nor did I
    interview gun experts. Instead I relied on a much simpler method:
    I computed ammo to cost ratios! I honestly have no idea if this is
    accurate, but it seems to fit with my experience.
    Here is the order, from weakest to strongest:
    Cost Ratio     Ammo
    (0.66)      9mm Parabellum
    (1.00)      5.7x28mm
    (1.00)      .338 Lapua Magnum (5.7 P90 Round)
    (2.00)      5.56mm NATO
    (2.08)      .45 ACP
    (2.67)      7.62mm NATO
    (3.84)      .357 Sig
    (5.71)      .50 Action Express
    (8.13)      *12 gauge
    (12.5)      .338 Lapua Magnum (Sniper Round)
    * - the 12 gauge buckshot used in shotguns is a special case.
    Apparently, one buckshot shoots 8 smaller projectiles which
    are concentrated at the start of the shot, but which disperse
    as range increases. In close range, the highly concentrated
    buckshot can do almost as much damage as a .338, but from mid
    range it only does about as much as a 9mm, and at long range
    it does next to nothing (and might not even hit).
    Anyway, keep in mind that ammo does damage based on its size
    and the power of its gunpowder charge. In general, the 
    stronger the ammo, the more damage, but recoil also tends to
    be stronger. Also, remember that armor piercing ability
    varies: the best AP rounds are the 5.56mm, 7.62mm, 5.7mm,
    .50 and .338 calibre.
    4.i -- Weapon Damage Table
    Here is a rough table to show the comparative strengths of each
    gun. These are NOT the actual damage values for shooting an enemy! 
    The methodology used to obtain these values was shooting a hostage
    at point-blank range with each gun. While hostages take damage
    differently from a real agent, these values should help gauge
    the relative strength of each gun.
    A few things to remember: 
    * Armor skews the damage values as well. Certain ammo types do better 
    against armor than others. I was unable to test armor penetration.
    * Certain shots do more damage, mostly depending on your angle of 
    entry into the body. These provide "damage ranges." In the table,
    a single number is average damage, with minimum and maximum damage 
    given if the damage range is very big. Damage range is usually
    large when shooting the body, but more stable when shooting the
    * An X means a shot there killed the hostage in one shot.
    * The groin apparently is a critical hit area of the Body. Shooting
    there often gives the maximum Body damage.
    * Headshots are always lethal (to hostages, anyway)
    * With the exception of the AWP, these are currently v1.0 damage 
    values, not v1.1. I've only tested the AWP in v1.1, since the
    damage was apparently tweaked a lot. Hopefully I will be able
    to test out all the other guns in for v1.1 in future versions.
    Weapon      |        Body         Leg         Arm
    USP         |       70-90          15          25
     w/silencer |       60-70       10-15          20
    Glock       |       40-55          10          20              
    DEagle      |           X          20          40   
    P228        |       70-90          15          25
    Berreta     |       40-55          10          20
    Five Seven  |       40-60          10          10
    M3 Shotgun  |           X       70-80           X       
    XM1014      |           X       35-50       60-85
    MP5         |       50-80          15          25                
    TMP         |       40-60          10          15          
    P90         |       40-60          10          15
    Mac-10      |       60-80          15          20
    UMP         |       70-80          15       20-25
    AK-47       |       85-90          15          25
    Sig 552     |       70-90          15          25
    M4          |       70-90          15          25
     w/silencer |       60-80          15          25
    Aug         |       60-80          15          25
    Scout       |           X          35          55
    Arctic      |           X       50-60       85-90    
    G3          |           X          30          55
    Sig 550     |      80-100          20          30
    Para        |       60-90          15          25
    Knife       |       40-60          10          10
    Knife 2     |           X           X*         50
    * - I do not know why the secondary knife attack (sadistic 
    stab) does more damage to the legs than to the arms. I'm just
    reporting the facts.
    Grenades do variable amounts of damage, mostly depending on 
    proximity and facing from a target. I was unable to get specific
    damage values, but here are some things to know:
    * It is possible to kill a fully armored, 100% enemy agent with
    a direct grenade blast right below or slightly behind the target.
    * Grenades do more damage to an armored opponent with his back
    turned to the blast.
    That concludes weapon damage for now. Hopefully, I will be able to 
    make a damage table based on shooting real agents, armored or 
    unarmored. If anyone knows of a CS bot that has an option to stand 
    still, tell me so I can test it out on those things.
    Keep in mind that these are damage values to hostages only! Again,
    they are NOT the damage levels done to enemy agents!
    For now, here are some things I have confirmed regarding damage to 
    enemy agents:
    * It takes two headshots from a Glock, Beretta or TMP to kill
    an unarmored, 100% enemy agent.
    * Hitting team members with friendly fire on does significantly
    less damage. For instance, you can actually hit a teammate with 
    a headshot at close range with the Eagle and he will survive!
    Thus I did not use this methodology to get values.
    This is the meat of this FAQ, that which separates this from all the
    other guides. While these techniques may not be all there is to it,
    and certainly they may not be perfect, but these are the best techniques
    I have learned. I hope it's enough to help you become a better player. I
    eventually hope to put in every single tactic and technique I know, even
    the ones I don't use, because part of defeating your opponent is knowing
    how he operates.
    Now that we've discussed the basics and are familiar with the weapons,
    we can get to the nitty-gritty combat tactics. These are tactics which
    you will be using most of the time you play CS, be sure to learn them,
    and more importantly learn how to counter them!
    5.a -- General Techniques
    These tricks are useful for general CS play. Be sure to learn them
    and make them work for you.
    5.a1 - Listening
    "If you want to defeat me, you must not make a sound."
       -- Utsutsu Mujuro, Jubei Ninpucho
    Although while playing on a LAN it may be very noisy, listening still
    plays an important part in personal fighting tactics. The most important
    thing about listening is to listen for your opponent's weapon. Each weapon
    in CS sounds distinct, and by listening to the gun fire going on, you can
    determine what weapon your opponent is using. If you know what his weapon
    is, you can determine what kind of approach you can take to defeat him.
    These different techniques will be discussed later in the individual
    weapon strategies. In CS, it is imperative that you learn what each
    weapon sounds like, so that you know what you are up against, and thus
    can plan accordingly.
    | Listen for your opponent's weapon sounds |
    Another, more difficult skill to learn is listening for footsteps. If you
    don't have a friendly dead team-mate coaching you as to the enemy's location,
    your best recourse is to listen carefully for footfalls. Most people disregard
    this ability, but it is often crucial in ambushing enemy players. When you
    hear foot falls, keep quiet and sneak. You just might ambush an opponent.
    5.a2 - Weapon Switching
    "That's why they call me Himura Battousai, because I learned all the
    sword drawing techniques."
       --- Himura Kenshin, Rurouni Kenshin
    In CS, different weapons slow down your movement. The worst perpetrators are
    the Arctic, the AK, and the Para. Still, even if you're not using these
    weapons, weapon switching is important to get you where you want to go fast.
    Weapon switching can mean the difference when you are diving for cover from
    enemy fire.
    | Switch weapons intelligently! It can save your life, or at |
    | the very least get you to where you want to go faster      |
    At the start of the round, where it is crucial to get to the strategic
    points of the map as quickly as possible, changing your weapon to your
    knife or grenade is the single best tactic you can do, aside from buying
    your equipment as fast as possible. While buying equipment fast takes
    practice, anyone can switch to his knife. Many people laugh at those
    who charge at the start of the rounds with their knives, but they
    don't realize these knife-maniacs are doing it to get to the key points 
    as quickly as possible. This is one of the basics of good team strategy.
    The other important use of weapon switching is to get out of enemy fire.
    If you are outgunned and decide to strategically withdraw, you have two
    options: shoot back while side-stepping for cover, or change to your knife
    and make a mad dash for cover. Switching to your knife is the fastest way
    to escape.
    5.a2a - Super Weapon Switching
    This is an advanced technique which the advanced, mentally-developed
    players use. A player who has refined his awareness and reflexes to a
    razor's edge while assaulting will often be seen switching weapons
    continuously while marching into enemy territory. Many inexperienced
    people will think he is mad, but in truth he is doing so to speed up
    movement as much as possible while the enemy is gone. This is a very
    powerful technique; it enables one to move as if one were equipped
    with nothing (knife speed), but the moment an enemy shows up, the
    player immediately has his primary weapon ready -- an AK, a Para,
    whatever, and has it aimed at his opponent's head. Because of his
    lightning speed due to the weapon switching, lesser opponents have
    trouble hitting his fast moving body, and as soon as he sees the
    opponent, he opens fire. Dead enemy. Achieving the highest level of
    this technique takes long practice, but the lower levels of it are
    accessible to the intermediate player.
    A lower level use of this technique is to eliminate recoil and reload
    time. This is a favorite application of Arctic assault snipers. After
    shooting a well-aimed AWP shot (and hopefuly killing someone) an
    advanced Arctic fighter will quickly switch to knife or pistol, so
    you can move and dodge while waiting for your chance to shoot again.
    If you're fast enough, you can potentially switch back, ready to fire
    again, shortening rechambering time. Good Benelli M3 fighters use a
    variation of this technique, switching to their secondary to finish
    the job in case they missed the opponent's head. More on these techniques
    The advanced weapon switching technique is easily done by assigning
    a key to the "previous weapon" command, preferably one close to the
    movement keys. This way, a person can switch weapons easily with one
    button while moving. More skilled players do it the hard way: pressing
    1, 2, and 3 to switch from knife, primary and secondary while moving
    forward with the 'W' key. Practice whatever method you find best
    suited to you. Note that you can only achieve the quick version of
    the technique by turning "HUD_FASTSWITCH" on. (See console commands)
    Take note that while running, using the "LASTINV" weapon switch button,
    will switch almost instantaneously between weapons. This is very
    important for some guns, like the Arctic.
    5.a3 - Radar
    Most people wonder what that green thing at the top left of their
    screen is. It's actually a radar which tells you the position of your
    teammates! This is a minor concern, but keeping your eye on that HUD
    will let you determine where your opponents are, in case an enemy
    kills them. Just watch where the light blinks out. Don't overdo it,
    though, especially if you are at the front of your team. You wouldn't
    want to be caught looking at the radar when an opponent jumps in front
    of you and riddles you to swiss cheese.
    The best use of the radar HUD is to keep track of where the bomb or the
    VIP is. That way, you can easily defend the VIP, or pick up the bomb if
    someone kills the bomb-bearer.
    You can also actually turn the HUD off, to give you more visibility.
    The console command is "HIDERADAR". To get it back, type "DRAWRADAR 1"
    5.a3a -- Cheap Night Vision
    Here's a funny technique someone sent in. Notice how the radar HUD is
    a lightgreen color? If you are in a darkish area and look through that
    little circle, you'll find that it actually lights up the darker areas,
    as if it were a nightvision filter! Well, it's rather small and
    inconvenient, but hey, it's free.
    You can use this little quirk to scout out dark areas on the map.
    However, I really don't recommend doing this while assaulting or
    while walking since you have to look downwards to get the HUD at
    center-viewing level. I only recommend doing this when you're
    skulking around in a near pitch-black room.
    Take note that, like regular Nightvision, if it is pitch-black and
    there is really no light, this won't work at all (like in the hostage
    room in CS_ALPIN).
    5.a4 - Miscellaneous Console Commands
    This isn't really a technique, but you should know this anyway. Console
    commands are command-prompt style commands (ala DOS) which give you a
    lot of hands-on control over your environment. As much as possible, to
    be a truly good CS player, you should familiarize yourself with the
    console, and use it as much as possible over the GUI interface. It's
    like computer users: Windows users are often technically inferior
    compared to DOS or Linux users.
    To enable your console, be sure to start Counter-Strike with the -console
    switch. If you don't know what that means, follow these instructions:
    1.) Right-click on your Counter Strike desktop shortcut.
    2.) At the bottom of the menu is Properties. Click it.
    3.) The properties window will pop up. There are two parts,
        General, and Shortcut. You start in Shortcut by default,
        stay there, this is what you're interested in.
    4.) In the middle portion are three fields: Target Type,
        Target Location, and Target. You're interested in the
        third. It should read something like:
        "C:\program files\Halflife\cstrike.exe"
    5.) Add to this the switch "-console" 
        The new command should look something like this:
        "C:\program files\Halflife\cstrike.exe -console"
    6.) Click Apply, close the window with Ok, and you're set. Your
        console is now enabled the next time you start Counter Strike
        using this desktop shortcut. Congratulations! Now you can meddle
        around with all the console commands.
    Be sure to make good use of your console, you can type a lot of things
    there to improve your game. You can bring out the console by default
    by pressing the tilde key (`) beside 1, above TAB. Then you can type
    in commands. You can type multiple commands in one line by separating
    them with a semi-colon. (i.e. -- "ADJUST_CROSSHAIR";"SENSITIVITY 5")
    I will only include here the commands that will directly influence
    your gameplay. If you want a complete list of commands, go find
    another guide. What's here is strictly limited to the useful
    commands that affect your game. I will add other commands in the
    "Dirty Tricks" section, the ones which are quite unfair.
    5.a4a -- Sensitivity
    Be sure to adjust your mouse sensitivity to your needs. Type:
    Where X is a real number from 1-20. Twenty is very sensitive, and a short
    tug of your mouse will give you a 180 degree spin. This is useful for
    assaulters who need to see a wide area as fast as possible. Twenty,
    though is for the really skilled who have perfect mouse control. A
    setting of 10 or so is more than adequate for an assaulter, any greater
    may entail aiming difficulty. For snipers, a value of 2 to 8 is good,
    giving great control needed for precision. Some hardcore snipers use 1.
    5.a4b -- Crosshair
    Some maps have textures whose colors blend with your green crosshair.
    You can fix this and make aiming easier by changing the crosshair's
    color. To do this, type
    at the console. This will cycle from the five different cursor colors:
    light green, light red, light blue, cyan, and yellow. Be sure to select
    the color that suits the map best. Even if no cursor fits the map
    color, it still feels good to change the color to your favorite color.
    5.a4c -- Quick Weapon Switching
    You need to use this command to achieve the "Quick Weapon Switch"
    technique described earlier. When on, pressing your primary weapon
    button will bring out your weapon immediately, without you needing
    to press the fire button to select it from the weapon HUD.
    To turn on, type:
    5.a4d -- Mouse Filter
    Sometimes, you might notice that the movement while looking around
    with your mouse is not very fluid. This can be very detrimental to
    your aim, and is feared by snipers everywhere. More often than not,
    this is due to the mouse filter being switched off. You can switch
    it on in the config screen, but that takes too much time. Here's
    how to do it with the console:
       M_FILTER "1"
    5.a4e -- Binding Technique
    Binding commands to a key is a trick which has carried over from the
    Quake Engine. To bind a command to a key, type:
       BIND "X" "COMMAND"
    Where x is the key you want to bind the command to. For instance, to
    bind the adjust_crosshair command to the letter c, type:
    There are applications to this command, but I will discuss them later
    in the "dirty tricks" section. More mundane uses for this are easy
    like using the console to change your name, or your controls. Refer
    to other documents listing all the commands; I'm just enumerating all
    the tricks that can improve your gameplay performance and killing skill.
    The most powerful trick perhaps is the power to combine binds into a
    powerful hotkey technique. By combining commands, you can bind two or
    more commands into one key, for a variety of effects limited only by
    your imagination. Simply separate the commands with a semi-colon:
    The most obvious application of this is to power-up your buy menu
    hotkeys. For instance, you could have a "quick ammo" button to buy
    all the ammo you need in one stroke:
    This would purchase three clips of primary and secondary ammo
    each, at the bargain price of one keystroke!
    To select a menu option, use the command "MENUSELECT X" where X
    is the number on the menu you want. Menus are brought up by
    certain commands like "BUY" (which brings up the basic buy
    menu) and "BUYEQUIP" (which brings up the equipment menu).
    For instance, to buy a full suit of kevlar by pressing X:
    To close a menu, use the command select option "SLOT10" preceded
    by a couple of "WAIT" commands (to ensure the SLOT10 is read at
    the right time)
    You can also program a command to another command by using the
    ALIAS command. For instance, this would call the ADJUST_CROSSHAIR
    command whenever you type CHANGE.
    This is useful for making shortcuts to long, often-used commands
    such as the one for closing menus. For instance:
    Now you can use the command CLOSE to shut off a menu:
    Learn how to use the console and the binding commands! Old DOS-boys
    should have no problem picking this up, it's the impoverished Windows
    generation that I'm worried about. Shame on you Bill Gates, for 
    teaching a whole generation of computer users to be ILLITERATE!
    (or its equivalent in the computer world)
    I'm not a real expert on this stuff, and I'm just giving you
    the cursory information to get your started. For more in-depth
    descriptions of this, see the links section.
    5.a4f -- On the Fly Config Switch
    This is a useful technique to get you up and running as soon as
    possible in a LAN environment. In the CS directory is a file called
    CONFIG.CFG. This contains all your controls for CS, and is loaded
    when you start the game. What you do is rename that file as another
    file, say MOCHAN.CFG. This is now your very own personal config
    file, with all your binds and controls!
    Load this file from the console with the command:
    This will load all your controls and binds on the fly! Be sure to
    edit it manually to add the more esoteric commands (i.e. - the
    ones detailed in this section).
    Aside from use in LAN shops, this trick is also useful at home, for
    instance if you are sharing one computer with someone else, and you
    use different controls. This way, you can swap controls on the fly
    with a few key strokes!
    Also, certain commands do not get saved in the default config file,
    like the CL_XSPEED codes. Loading your custom config file with all
    these commands makes life so much more convenient.
    5.a5 - Speed Buying Technique
    "In the words of my idol Bruce Lee, to win, you must be fast."
       -- That guy on the Discovery Channel
    This is a technique which all serious CS players should master. Often, it
    is this technique which really separates the newbies from the veterans. At
    the start of each round, most inexperienced players fumble around the menu
    screens, pressing the "Buy Equipment Button" and looking at the gun
    selections. Then they "Buy Primary Ammo" and look over the "Buy Equipment"
    menu. Unfortunately for the Newbie, they were playing in AS_FOREST and the
    grizzled vet had already come over and shot him full of holes.
    To avoid this, you have to be very fast in the buy menu screen. You should
    at the very least be capable of buying everything in less than three seconds,
    faster if possible. The best players waste 0 seconds buying what they need.
    | Decide what you will buy before the next round starts |
    This is CRUCIAL. Read the text in the box above over and over and over until
    you have nightmares about it. I cannot stress the importance of this enough.
    Many people have quick fingers to buy the goods they want in record time, but
    may people hesitate at the start of the round because they do not know what
    they will buy. The trick is to decide what you will buy before the next
    round starts.
    Do not waste time looking at the pretty pictures and stats of the
    the different guns in the menu screen. That's why I included a weapons section
    in this guide; so that you can read the important stuff now, and not later
    while you're playing.
    The easy way to decide is to stick to a preferred weapon. This is a good
    idea for newbies, because to gain skill quickly, you have to specialize in
    one weapon type. The drawback here is that sometimes you might not have
    enough money to buy the weapon you want. Specializing in the Arctic, for
    instance, takes a while because you need two rounds on average -- three if
    you just won the last fight but lost the next two -- to buy one. Thus, an
    advanced mastery of this technique requires you keep track of your finances.
    Don't worry if you can't compute it all precisely, but you should be able
    to estimate how much you will spend.
    Now, some newbies like to hoard their money up to the maximum, $16000. This
    is a no-no. What good is all that money if you're not going to use it?
    Spend as you need; don't be afraid to buy that expensive Arctic if it will
    turn the tide to your favor! The only time you should be hoarding is when
    you're saving up to buy an expensive gun you need, like the Arctic.
    To help you manage your budget, here's the money table (taken from
    the CS manual which is in your CStrike directory)
    Action:                            You Get:    Your Team Gets:
    Kill a Hostage                      -$1500
    'Use' a Hostage                       $150        $100
    Kill Opponent                         $300
    Kill Team Mate                      -$3300
    *Terrorist Win by bombing                        $2750
    *Win by Elimination Hostage map                  $2000 + Hostage Bonus
    *Win by Elimination Bomb map                     $2500
    *CTs Defuse Bomb                                 $2750
    *CTs Win by Rescuing Hostages                    $2000 + Hostage Bonus
       Surviving Hostage Bonus                        $150 per hostage
       Rescuing a Hostage                $1000        $150
       Hostages Rescued Bonus                         $250 per hostage
    *Either Team Loses Round                         $1400
    Either Team Loses 2 Rounds Straight             $1400 + $500 per round
                                                      over 2 (to maximum $2900)
    You should be able to get a good estimate of how much money you will
    have in the next round using this table. Now, in most cases you will
    not know the outcome of the battle, unless there is an overwhelming
    reason for you to assume who will win (like the bomb is about to
    explode with no CTs in sight, or a 1 on 5 situation). As such, to
    properly estimate your balance in the next round, you must assume
    you will be defeated, to ensure that you can purchase whatever you
    had in mind.
    "To prepare to defeat your opponent is to first prepare for
    your own defeat."
      -- The Ookina, Rurouni Kenshin
    Of course you could get cocky and assume you will always win, but
    such an optimistic view can tend to get you in budget trouble. The
    best approach is the conservative approach, methinks.
    Thus, you must particularly memorize the bonuses I marked with an
    asterisk -- these are the bonuses which you cannot determine before
    the round ends, and which are the most useful for estimating how
    much income you will have next round. Other things, like killing
    an opponent or hostage, you can check before the round ends in most
    cases. Just keep in mind the ones marked with an asterisk. If you
    have a good head for figures, you can also figure in the hostage
    bonuses, but these are hard to keep track of, and doing so would
    really detract from the fun of playing.
    Next, make use of the prices I gave in the weapon guide. Also take careful
    note of whether you will buy armor, and how much ammo you plan to take
    along, and what peripherals (grenades, etc). Most people like fully loading
    their ammo, so I have also included the maximum ammo you can carry. Keep
    in mind that all weapons you buy come with a full clip, but no extra ammo,
    unless you had some previously. For instance, as a terrorist, if you buy an
    MP5 you will already have 40 rounds carried over from your default Glock.
    Remember that CTs start with 24 .45 ACP rounds, terrorists with 40 9mm
    Carefully plan how much money you will spend each round. It helps to
    remember how much you spend with the configurations you routinely buy. For
    instance, I like buying an Arctic with 10 extra rounds and a full suit of
    armor. That's $4750 + $125 + $1000, for a total of $5875. I also know how
    much I will spend for a fully-loaded MP5: $1500 + $80 = $1580, plus armor
    for $2580. Keep track how much money you expect to have, and compare it
    with your standard configurations. That way you can have smooth sailing
    while buying at the start of each round.
    | Use the Hot Keys and Quick Buy Numbers |
    Now that you've got a good grasp of the economics and the foresight to buy
    what you want, let's get to the actual buying techniques. Many newbies rely
    on the primary buy menu (defaults to F1, I think) to buy all their equipment,
    even their ammunition. This is a big no-no, because it takes more key clicks
    and wastes time. Instead, you should assign a key for the main buy menu only
    to buy guns, and three more hotkeys for the three important submenus: primary
    ammo, secondary ammo, and equipment.
    With these four hotkeys and the "Quick Buy Numbers" I notated in the equipment
    list, you can achieve godspeed in arming yourself. Quick numbers are the
    corresponding menu slots of certain items. For instance, the MP5 is [3-1] in
    the primary buy menu: assuming F1 is your hotkey for the buy menu, you would
    press F1 to bring out the buy menu, then '3' for SMGs, then '1' for the MP5.
    Check out the Quick Buy Numbers in the weapons list.
    This is how you should buy:
    Step 1: Before the round begins, know what to buy
    Step 2: Buy your main and secondary guns with the primary buy menu
    Step 3: Buy your ammo with the ammo hotkeys
    Step 4: Buy your armor
    Step 5: Buy other peripherals (grenades, bomb kit, etc)
    My controls are configured this way:      Bind Command
    F1 - Buy Menu                               BUY
    F2 - Buy Primary Ammo                       BUYAMMO1
    F3 - Buy Secondary Ammo                     BUYAMMO2
    F4 - Buy Equipment                          BUYEQUIP
    In case you haven't configured your controls properly, you can quick
    configure them using the binding technique. For instance, to bind
    the buy equipment menu to F4, type at the console:
       BIND "F4" "BUYEQUIP"
    Using Quick Buy Numbers, I can buy whatever configuration I chose ahead
    of time in a second or so. For instance, as a terrorist one of my favorite
    setups is an AK-47 with 2 extra clips, full armor, and a flashbang. As
    soon as the round starts, I very quickly press F1-4-1-F2-F2-F4-2-F4-3.
    Nine simple keystrokes, all in a few seconds. I am ready for action
    while most newbies are still deciding what weapon to buy.
    | Start moving the moment you buy items |
    Some servers have a few seconds at the start of the round to buy equipment,
    but many more do not. Thus, it is imperative to learn how to apply the
    buying technique above WHILE moving. It depends on your control setup, but
    if you modify your controls be sure to do to keep all your buy keys right
    next to your move keys, so you can achieve this technique. To ensure that
    you don't waste time and thus lose strategic ground, be sure to master
    buying while running. This is useful because most of the time you cannot
    press all those keys in under a second. Further, sometimes you may have to do
    twelve or more keystrokes, if you choose to buy a secondary weapon. This can
    take up to three seconds or even more, and those three seconds are crucial,
    best spent already running for your objective than standing at your base.
    FINAL NOTE: I haven't explored this fully, but you can if you want.
    You can use bind scripts to simplify this entire process. Imagine
    assigning one key for your "MP5 Configuration," and having to just
    press that one key to get fully suited up. Go see the links section
    for sites going in-depth in the use of scripts.
    5.a6 - End Reloading Technique
    This is a very simple technique that many people do not do. Most likely,
    they will reload at the start of the next round, which is a big waste of
    time. In order to achieve maximum speed, you should always start the
    next round fully loaded. Doing this is simple:
    | Reload the moment the previous round ends |
    It's as easy as that! Make it a habit to press your reload button as
    soon as your team wins the round. When the next round starts, your gun
    will automatically be fully loaded, even if you hadn't finished reloading
    yet (it happens with slow reload guns like the AWP, Steyr Aug, and FN Para).
    If you reload at the end of the round, you will be free to utilize the
    Speed Buying technique in the next round. Most importantly, you will
    be able to switch to your knife immediately and run for whatever key
    point you have to secure as soon as possible.
    5.a7 - Bunny Hopping
    This is a funny technique which is very hard to master. Actually, I
    haven't actually managed to pull it off yet, but Paul Kerr assures
    me that it works. You just need lots of practice.
    Remember in Thief Gold, where you could run, jump, and at the precise
    moment that you land jump again, and so on? With each successive jump,
    by spending as little time as possible on the ground, you increase your
    velocity, as if you were falling down a long pit. It's a bug which is
    present in almost all the older FPS games, Quake II included (and thus,
    Counter Strike by default).
    If you do this properly in CS, you can achieve inhuman speed while
    travelling in a straight line. This is actually bordering on being
    a cheat, but since its usefulness is limited and it is very, very
    difficult to pull off, I don't consider it as such. You actually
    have to work hard to pull this one off! Cheats are usually things
    which give instant results without training, so this thing is still
    valid in my book.
    5.b -- Defensive Techniques
    These techniques are invaluable for keeping yourself alive. Defense is the
    most important, more important than offense. Defense comes first. Most
    advanced offensive techniques can only be learned after first mastering the
    basic defensive movement techniques. To become a true fighting god, you must
    master the basic defensive movement techniques.
    5.b1 - Side Stepping
    Side-stepping is a very useful skill for staying alive. Even beginners
    have little trouble hitting a stationary target, but a moving target is
    far more difficult to hit. Especially when the target is moving from
    side to side, directly perpendicular to you. To ensure that your opponents
    have as much trouble as possible hitting you, the zig zag side stepping
    technique is essential.
    Basically, you just side step directly left and right when your opponents
    start shooting you. Barring taking cover and not showing yourself, this
    technique is the best defense against one-shot Arctic snipers. Assaulters
    should master this technique first and foremost, because they are often
    in the line of fire.
    | Side-stepping decreases your accuracy, but keeps you alive |
    The drawback to side-stepping is that your accuracy goes down dramatically.
    A shot you might have made easily while standing, will often go wild while
    side-stepping. Thus, you generally should only attempt side-stepping while
    fighting at close to mid-range, especially while using pistols or the more
    accurate assault weapons like the MP5 and M4 Carbine.
    TRIVIA: Everyone calls "side-stepping" "strafing." This owes to the
    morons at Apogee and id who erroneously called side-stepping strafing,
    thus leading an entire generation of gamers to believe that 'to strafe'
    means 'to sidestep.' In truth, however, to strafe simply means to fire 
    in rapid succession at a target. As good old Websters would put it: 
    strafe: to rake (as ground troops) with fire at close range and esp. 
            with machine-gun fire from low-flying aircraft
    There you go! Diablo II got it right, whereas Wolf 3D, Doom, and just
    about every mindless FPS game in the market got it wrong! Anyway, since 
    everyone uses it in that manner I suppose it's acceptable as 
    "colloquialism." Hey, when enough people start to believe something 
    long enough, it becomes true, right?
    5.b2 - Ducking
    Ducking is an important defensive technique, and is also an offensive trick.
    Ducking will help you take cover behind smaller obstacles, but it is also
    equally effective at making you a smaller target when in plain sight. The
    drawback to ducking, though, is that an opponent aiming for your body might
    get a headshot when you duck. Still, that is a calculated risk you will have
    to take, because ducking gives you the added advantage of increasing your
    accuracy as you counterattack. That is why ducking is also an offensive tactic.
    | Ducking increases your accuracy |
    In general, you must choose from one of these two techniques when fighting
    an opponent. You can either keep side-stepping while firing back in order
    to make yourself a harder target, but you also sacrifice your own accuracy.
    Ducking is less defensive, as you will be easier to hit than a side-stepping
    maniac, but the trade-off is that you will have an easier time hitting your
    opponent. It is your call, but you should adapt a tactic based on your
    opponent's weapon. For instance, if your enemy is using an MP5, ducking can
    be safe, but if he is using an Arctic, ducking is a stupid thing to do, and
    side-stepping would be better.
    5.b3 - Jumping
    Jumping is also a defensive technique which can save your skin. However, it
    is not as important a technique as side-stepping or ducking. Jumping is more
    the coward's technique: you will usually want to side-step and jump only when
    you have no intention whatsoever of fighting back. Unlike side-stepping and
    ducking which is meant as evasive techniques while counter-attacking, jumping
    should only be used for purely evasive purposes. Why?
    | Accuracy goes to shit while jumping |
    Remember this basic truth, and you'll go a long way in Counter Strike. Lots of
    newbies like jumping around while firing back at their enemies. Small wonder
    most of their shots miss. If you're going to attack while dodging, stick to
    side-stepping. Jumping while sidestepping is a purely defensive, escaping
    tactic. However:
    | Be careful jumping around an Arctic player |
    A skilled sniper will calculate the end of your jump and aim their, tagging
    you instantly as you land. Avoid jumping in plain sight of an arctic
    wielding opponent; it is a quick way to die. If you must jump, begin the jump
    where the opponent cannot see you, thus he will have trouble anticipating
    your jump and your landing. Or, jump only when the end point of your jump is
    concealed from the Arctic's deadly line of sight. Jumping also plays a role
    in Arctic-to-Arctic duels. More on that later.
    These are the basic movement-related defense skills. However, true defensive
    skills are awareness-based and not movement based, and are more tactical in
    nature. Most of these techniques I might eventually disclose in specific
    map tactics, but for now I will just give a general overview of the general
    advanced defense techniques, the mind-based techniques.
    5.b4 - Shadow Technique
    Since CS uses the Half-life engine, which emphasized dark shadowy corners for
    monsters to hide in, the CS environment is complete with dark places on the
    map where you can hide and, in general, make yourself less visible. One can't
    shoot what one can't detect, and making yourself hard to see is the key to
    exploiting this weakness. This technique is especially useful for campers.
    Be sure to find those spots on the map where you are given cover, whether by
    obstacles, shadows, or both. Surprise is a lethal weapon that is worth more
    than a hundred bullets. I may someday write specific map tactics to point out
    all these good hiding places. For now, a good example of the shadow technique
    is the CT-side of the sewers in DE_AZTEC. The back of the grate from the
    bridge is pitch-dark, and a CT agent wearing a dark skin is practically
    invisible from a terrorist coming from underneath the bridge.
    5.b5 - Hit and Run Technique
    This is what is called the "Style of the Ages." There is no better way to keep
    yourself alive than to shoot fast at the moment you see your enemy, and run
    like hell away after that shot. That is, shoot your enemy once, hoping to
    damage or kill him, but regardless run away and duck for cover as soon as the
    shot is fired. This gives your opponent no chance to react to you and do you
    harm, yet gives you the chance to kill him. This technique works best with an
    Arctic, but can be adapted for any gun. These guerilla tactics will harass and
    frustrate your enemy, if nothing else. And messing with your opponent's mind is
    one of the most important tactics in winning a battle. Needless to say, to
    succeed with this technique you must have pinpoint sniper accuracy in as quick
    a time as possible.
    Some people like to pop out again after hiding, but this is dangerous as your
    opponent knows where you are likely to come from, and the advantage of surprise
    is lost. The best course is to run away completely and flank the enemy to try
    to get at them from another angle they don't expect. It's easier said than
    done, but familiarity with the map and experience will help you achieve this.
    5.b6 - Crowd Defense
    If you're a smart, unscrupulous player and are not playing for the good of the
    team, one of the most effective defensive techniques is the crowd defense.
    Stick with your team, and be with them all the time! This is the best way to
    increase your chances of survival. Specifically, hide behind your teammates
    whenever an opponent shows up. This way, your teammate will likely get fragged
    before you, but he will hopefully have softened up your opponent, leaving you
    to clean-up the mess.
    This technique also works cooperatively while camping. Two heads is better
    than one, so to speak. When camping, it is best to camp in crowds. You can
    cover more area, and there is a good chance if the opposing team assaults,
    they will kill your other teammates instead of you. So make sure to use the
    shadow technique while camping and make yourself less visible than your
    teammates, so they will be hit first while you finish off the attackers!
    5.b6a -- Hostage Defense
    This is a varation of the Crowd Defense technique. When teammates are scarce,
    the next best alternative is to use hostages! By having hostages follow you
    around, you can easily get some cover from fire, and if you're good enough at
    dodging, your enemy might actually hit and kill the hostage, getting a
    whopping cash deduction. In fact, one of the cheap tricks I do for fun is get
    a hostage, hack it down to 7% life, and have it follow around. An enemy will
    shoot me, miss, and hit the hostage, depleting his money. Even better, I often
    get groups of the hostages and hack them down. Enemies love throwing grenades
    all the time, and it only takes one well-placed grenade to kill all of them,
    leaving the grenade thrower with no cash whatosoever.
    One of my nastiest techniques involves the Hostage and Shadow Defense
    techniques in the darkest corridor of CS_MANSION. Recall that corridor outside
    the hostage room? Hide in the intersection of the corridor, where it's really
    dark, and put a hostage to either side of you. CTs charging in will likely hit
    the hostages, killing them, and leaving you to mop up the mess. It's a very
    effective technique, though your enemies will probably curse you for the coward
    you are. ^_^
    5.b7 - Smart Reloading
    Reloading is an often ignored aspect of Counter Strike tactics. But knowing
    when to reload and when not to is one of the most crucial aspects of CS
    gameplay! Reloading tactics vary from weapon to weapon, and there are a lot
    of specific circumstances which one can learn only through experience. But
    I will try to give a basic theory of how to reload properly.
    Basically, you want to balance your reloads such that you are not
    reloading when an opponent is likely to show up, but you must also
    reload whenever the rounds in your clip is below the amount you need
    to make a kill.
    In general, you must gauge how much ammunition you need to kill one
    opponent. When you know this number, you should keep at least twice
    that number in your clip as much as possible. If you have less than 
    that, you should consider reloading.
    Reload sparingly, as much as possible don't reload at all. I see a lot
    of newbies get killed because they see an enemy, fire a few shots, which
    the enemy dodges easily as he ducks for cover. As the enemy disappears,
    the newbie immediately begins reloading, "to keep his guns at top capacity."
    Then as soon as they reload, the enemy pops out and shoots holes in them.
    This is really sad. Many novice players reload their MP5s even while they
    have 20 or more rounds in them. This is no good, the risk of getting caught
    reloading is greater than that of running out of ammo. Learning to balance
    when to reload when ammo is running low is crucial.
    The opposite extreme is also true. The newer players -- particularly those
    who have either not played an FPS before, or are used to Doom-style shooters
    where there is no reloading -- often do not reload at all. In the middle of
    a gunfight, they suddenly run out, and find themselves automatically reloading
    as they are still pressing the trigger button tight, out of ammo. The enemy
    will immediately smile at the clicking sound, and gun them down as they change
    the clip.
    The most important consideration, though, is enemy density and proximity.
    If it's the start of the round and enemies are far away, you can reload
    with no worry. But if it's late in the game and an enemy could be waiting
    just around the corner, reloading is dangerous.
    | Do not attack while reloading! |
    Doing so is one of the most idiotic things you can do, but sadly I see a
    lot of people do it (I myself am guilty of this at times). If an opponent
    suddenly shows up, you'll be dead before you even fire a single shot.
    A few basic tips to reloading:
     - When reloading, keep yourself covered. Reload either when you have a
       buddy backing you up, or after ducking behind a crate or empty corridor.
     - Do not move toward where an opponent could be hiding when reloading.
       Only actually start to reload when you are safely hidden and you are
       sure no enemy is hiding around you.
     - Be prepared to bring out your secondary if an opponent does jump you
       while reloading. This is your last-ditch effort to save yourself in
       case an enemy catches you with your pants down.
    In general, reloading also depends on your weapon. Weak weapons which require
    lots of shots to kill, like the MP5, should be reloaded as much as possible,
    whenever there is a lull in the battle. Stronger guns like the AK-47 and
    especially the Arctic, should be reloaded sparingly. I usually don't reload
    my AK until my ammo goes below 15, and I only reload my Arctic when I have
    less than 5 shots left.
    5.b8 - Continuous Movement Defense
    The final important mental technique is that of continous movement.
    | Never stay in one place for too long |
    Even a camper shouldn't stay in one place too long, for an enemy may
    go around and flank him, sneaking up on him from behind. Also, the
    use of continuous movement makes you as hard a target as possible at
    all times. CS players, particularly Arctic snipers, love nothing more
    than a stationary target. But someone who is constantly on the move
    will foil this expectation, making you far more difficult to kill,
    even if an opponent catches you by surprise.
    But, the most important use of continously moving around, is to constantly
    exercise your mind, keeping it from stagnating. This is an important
    physiological consideration, as allowing your mind to stagnate will dull your
    reflexes and make you easier to kill.
    5.b9 - Flee from Fire Technique
    This is a very basic technique which all CS players should learn, but
    surprisingly few put into action.
    What do you do when you walk into a room or clearing and suddenly the
    you hear gunshots, and if you're unlucky the screen might flash a bit
    as you are hit by some unseen sniper? There are two basic responses to
    this: first, the player looks around, trying to find the culprit, and
    shoot back. Second, the player ducks back the way he came like a coward.
    If you're the kind who does the first, then I commend you on your
    bravery but I condemn you for stupidity. I admit I still do this
    sometimes because my instinct is to kill kill! But chances are, this
    course of action will get you killed. Why? Because of the simple fact
    that you are already in your opponent's sights, while you have yet to
    locate your opponent. This is NOT favorable at all, and unless your
    opponent is using an underpowered gun or is stupid (or both), you will
    While under some circumstances it is to your benefit to quickly locate
    the opponent and fireback, in general it is the more prudent approach
    to back out quickly before you get your ass kicked. This is the
    "Flee from Fire Technique." Trust me, it will keep you alive more
    often than not.
    When not to use this technique? There are some situations when you will
    want to ignore this teaching. The first is when you are in an assault
    squad trying to break into the enemy's defensive position. A good
    example would be when playing CTs in CS_ASSAULT. In this case, death
    is practically inevitable, you would best be served by having a
    "I'll take as many of you down with me" mentality instead. But in
    general, this technique is the rule if you want to survive.
    Another instance you might want to ignore this rule is when you are
    using an Arctic Sniper Rifle, and the opponent who took potshots at
    you was using a Glock or something (you should be able to tell by
    the sound of the gun). In this case, it is your call whether you
    want to take the chance, but keep in mind your remaining health and,
    of course, your confidence in your sniping skill.
    5.b10 - Backstabbing Technique (Uragiri)
    When camping, it is best to camp with your other team members.
    But in those instances when you are alone or don't want to camp
    with team members, the usual camping tactics must be discarded
    in favor of "uragiri" techniques.
    If you are alone but choose to camp and hold a particular point,
    chances are you won't survive against a wave of enemies unless
    you are really good and/or using an Arctic. But if you don't have
    an Arctic, you must resort to the less valorous backstab.
    This should be discussed in detail in specific maps to point out
    the good backstab points, but I will explain here the basic theory.
    Backstabbing is done best with a good close-range weapon like
    a shotgun, MP5, Desert Eagle, or Carbine. First find a secluded,
    shadowy area where an opponent is likely to pass, but you are
    not likely to be seen behind cover. Hide in your niche and
    switch to your knife. This minimizes your visibility since the
    knife is very short.
    Now, when an enemy passes by, switch to your gun and riddle his
    back with holes. Simple, no? It is easier said than done, but
    with experience and knowledge of the best backstabbing points,
    you can pull it off. When you've gained enough skill in this
    technique, you will be able to spot the best backstabbing points
    in a map immediately. In the future, I hope to give out specific
    map strategies to point out these good backstab locations.
    Just be sure not to do it all the time, because the next time you
    do it your opponent may be ready. Take care when using the same 
    backstab location twice in a row. Move to other spots to outwit 
    your opponent. Teach him to fear the corners. When you've done 
    that, switch to the otherside so that when he checks the old 
    corner, he turns his back to you again. Happy backstabbing!
    5.b10a -- Letting the Shadow Pass (Kage Yurutou)
    This is an advanced modification of the backstab technique. Use it
    when you expect a lot of enemies, and when you are very confident
    in your hidden niche and your enemy's ignorance.
    Most players go for the backstab immediately as soon as an enemy
    passes by. This is fine, especially if the enemy is alone and has
    a good probability of spotting you. But what if he has friends?
    When camping in an unlikely position where the enemy is not
    likely to check, and when there are a lot of them (at least two of
    them passing you by), then it is often prudent to "let the shadow
    pass;" that is, let the second guy (or the last guy if there are
    more than two) get past you. ONLY then should you start shooting
    at their backs.
    This way, they will all have their backs turned to you! It is less
    likely for them to fire back at you under these conditions. If you
    had fired on the first guy, you might have killed him, but then
    the guy right behind him would likely make minced meat out of you.
    Have patience; if you weren't detected, then waiting a few seconds
    won't hurt you. Premature firing will. After you make sure no one
    else is coming, that's the when you shoot them all in the backs.
    Of course, if you are detected, then you have no recourse but to
    fire back and try to kill them before they kill you. It's just
    the risk that a backstabber takes.
    5.b10a -- Baiting the Enemy
    This technique was sent in by avielh, and I actually find it pretty
    funny yet very sound. Basically, before you go camp to do an ambush,
    you drop your secondary weapon in plain sight where the enemy is
    likely to pass, as "bait."
    Judging where the enemy is likely to come from, he will stop over
    the weapon to examine it, maybe even to pick it up. If this
    happens, you have the advantage of surprise as you jump out of
    your camping spot (out of sight from where you think he will come)
    and grab a quick kill.
    This seems to work best with certain guns. As a terrorist, the
    Dual Berettas, though expensive, are great because they look
    very distinct and are especially coveted by CTs, who can't buy
    it themselves. As a CT, maybe you could use the 5/7, but that
    gun isn't in demand as much. You could also try using a Desert
    Eagle, it's shiny and catches attention a lot, and many players
    (myself included) would rather have it than the default gun.
    Of course, don't use this trick too often.
    5.b11 - Hiding the Ghost (Yurei o Kakushite)
    This is a simple technique you should always keep in mind. In CS,
    as with just about all First Person 3D games, clipping (parts of
    character models passing through walls) is a big issue. What this
    means is that, if you stand next to a thin wall or door, parts of
    you might clip through it, making you visible from the other side.
    Needless to say, this makes you a great target for snipers and
    rifles on the other side.
    This is especially true for big guns with long barrels, like the
    AWP. No gun gives your position away like the Arctic sniper. But
    then, no gun takes advantage of this more than the Arctic. Just
    be sure not to point your gun over a thin door or wall -- it'll
    reveal you to any enemies on the other side. Try not to stick to
    walls too closely, either.
    I don't need to say this, but use this knowledge well to find
    enemies clipping through walls! And when you do, be sure to hit
    them with an AWP, Para, AK-47, or some other weapon with wall-
    punching ability.
    5.b12 - Thrift Technique 
    People tend to pick up the guns of dead opponents or comrades.
    There's nothing wrong with this, especially when there's a good
    gun on the ground and you're carrying squat.
    However, be careful because some cunning players leave guns on
    the ground on purpose. They may be waiting for you to pick up
    the gun and ambush you as you drop your weapon. Or, you could
    be totally unlucky and have an enemy randomly pass by just as
    you go for the gun.
    In general, stick to the weapon you bought at the start of the
    round. If you can do well with it, why change? Keeping your
    focus on the battle at hand, and not scavenging, can keep you
    But there are certain instances when you will want to change
    guns. For instance, you may have been low on cash and forced
    to buy an MP5, but instead are a sniper, and an AWP was
    conveniently left on the ground. Or maybe after a skirmish
    you were brought down to 10% life, so you decide to pick up
    that G3 or AWP so you can fight the rest of the round at
    range, increasing your survivability.
    Whatever the case, if you must pick up the gun then do it
    quickly. But it is often the better idea to rely on the gun
    you bought at the start, no ifs and buts about it.
    5.c -- Offensive Techniques
    These techniques were designed to kill, or help you while killing. They
    will reduce the chance of you dying while you are attacking, while increasing
    the mortality rate of your opponents. Combined with the defensive techniques
    earlier, these techniques will help shape you into the ultimate warrior.
    5.c1 - Stationary Aiming
    The most basic offensive technique is aiming while not moving. Those who
    like camping or otherwise not moving around should master this technique --
    such to the point that they can find the opponent's head on average in half
    a second. Since you aren't moving, you have to learn to kill quickly before
    your moving opponent hits you. This requires long hours of training to
    acquire a fast reaction time.
    One of the tricks to improve your stationary training is to keep your
    mind focused and busy. Never allow your mind to stagnate. An assaulter
    does this easily by constantly moving, but a camper can often forget when
    he stays glued to one spot. That is why campers need mental training even
    more than assaulters.
    | Keeping your mind sharp is the key to stationary aiming |
    Do not just think of anything, though. You must concentrate on the attack.
    Focus is necessary, keeping your mind busy is not just a matter of thinking
    random thoughts. If you think of just anything, it might distract your
    concentration away from your aim. One good mental exercise to do while
    camping is to mentally visualize how your opponent will look and move when
    he does show up at the point you are guarding.
    Another, simpler but more difficult technique to master is to be totally
    aware of everything you see and hear. This will keep your mind busy and
    keep you totally aware of every detail, heightening your senses and your
    reaction time. This is a difficult technique to master, but if you do it
    will increase the effectiveness of your camping a hundred fold.
    5.c2 - Hot and Cold Firing Technique
    This is an advanced form of the stationary firing technique, which is very
    useful for weapons that have low accuracy while moving. It is a combination
    of defensive movement techniques and stationary firing. Basically, you side
    step as usual when confronted by enemy fire. While dodging, you take aim,
    and when your aim is true, you suddenly brake, stopping your movement
    altogether, and fire. As soon as you fire, you move again, making yourself
    once again a hard target.
    This is a difficult technique to master and execute effectively, but when
    you do it will increase your offensive and defensive capabilities
    tremendously, especially while using single-shot low movement-accuracy
    weapons like the AK-47, the FN Para and the Arctic.
    5.c2a -- Jump Aiming
    This is an advanced form of the Hot and Cold Firing technique. You jump
    to avoid enemy fire, and while in the air you are already searching for
    your opponent. As soon as you land, you jam the trigger and smash your
    opponent with precision accuracy. This is important because accuracy is
    non-existent while in the air, and jumping is a very effective means of
    confusing enemy fire. This technique works best with the Arctic, but also
    works well with all the other weapons which have low accuracy while moving.
    5.c3 - Figure Eight Sidestep Technique
    While Hot and Cold firing was developed to increase the offensive/defensive
    capability of using low movement-accuracy weapons, the Figure Eight Side
    Step, often erroneously called "circle strafing," was developed to increase
    the attack and defense power of high movement-accuracy weapons like the MP5
    and M4 Carbine. This technique is perfect for literally running circles
    around your opponent while shooting holes in them. Basically, upon seeing
    your opponent, you sidestep either left or right. At the same time, you
    keep your cursor pointed straight at him, moving your mouse in the opposite
    direction of your sidestep. In this way, you make a curving movement around
    him, making yourself hard to hit while keeping him in your sights.
    As with all techniques, this is easier said than done, and only practice
    will make you a master of this technique. To complicate the matter, your
    opponent may have the same bright idea. This technique is the main reason
    why just standing or ducking in one place to shoot an opponent is so
    dangerous. It is by far the most effective side-step technique in all the
    FPS games because you also flank your opponent, as opposed to a simple
    left-right sidestep. This technique is especially useful against snipers,
    who often have low mouse sensitivity settings, making it harder for them
    to turn all the way to follow your movement.
    | While sidestepping, your shots tend to go in the opposite direction |
    Because of this, you should adjust your aim slightly to the left
    or right of your target, depending on which way you are moving.
    If you sidestep left, aim a bit to the left, because your shot
    will go a bit to the right, especially at longer distances.
    Take note that when you stop sidestepping, your shots will still
    be off to the left or right, if you were using auto-fire. It will
    eventually correct itself, the rate varies on each weapon. Usually,
    guns with lower movement accuracy correct slower. If you stop
    shooting, it will correct almost instantaneously (so Burst Fire is
    Remember that those few precious moments while the aim is correcting
    could mean the difference between life or death. Keep this in mind
    while aiming with the Figure Eight technique.
    5.c3a -- Anti-Arctic Technique
    The Arctic is the most dreaded weapon at range. All it takes is one hit, and
    you're history. That is why many people have developed many anti-arctic
    techniques to combat the feared AWP. While the most basic technique is to
    just keep moving eratically, and close in on the sniper, where his Arctic
    is not very useful, the best players have developed techniques to allow them
    to fight the Arctic sniper on equal terms, even at range.
    Fighting, duking it out with an arctic at range? Ridiculous! The way to go is
    to zigzag towards them, steadily closing the distance, right? Wrong! While
    this technique does work, it is very dangerous.
    | Moving forward decreases your sidewards velocity, thus making |
    | it far easier for the arctic sniper to pick you off           |
    The alternative anti-arctic technique is to stay at range, and instead
    devote all your movement ability to sidestepping directly left or right.
    This way, no movement is wasted going forward or backward. Arguably, this
    makes you a far more difficult target than someone zig-zagging forward,
    trying to close the distance. While side-stepping, you must engage in
    figure-eight sytle shooting, only you are not flanking towards the opponent.
    Fire in short bursts of 3 or so bullets, and one of them should hit your
    opponent and chip away at his life. As long as you keep moving left and
    right erratically and in no set pattern, you have a chance of surviving as
    your opponent's inaccurate Arctic will keep missing. This is by far the best
    technique developed for combating those annoying snipers, but is very
    difficult to master. Indeed, it is also very dangerous! Just remember that,
    if your sniper opponent is very good, you'll probably die no matter what
    technique you do. Thus, the best defense is often to just get out of sight
    and stay out of sight!
    There are other more advanced techniques to get around the problem,
    and it involves using smoke grenades and flashbangs. But those are
    advanced tactics which will be discussed later.
    5.c4 - Assault Weapon Sniping Technique
    Most people like to think that sniper rifles are good for sniping, and
    assault weapons are good for close combat. Period. No overlapping of
    roles. However, the best assault players are also those who can use
    their assault weapons for sniping at medium to long range when necessary.
    In fact, some of the best assault players I know started off as snipers
    to hone their aiming, and then went assault to showcase their skill.
    At any rate, as an assault player you will be more effective if you can
    fight at medium to long range with your weapon, and not just close range.
    This is the reason why the shotgun should be left to the specialist who
    only wants to fight at point-blank to close range. All the assault rifles,
    do well at medium to long range. Most SMGs still work well at medium range.
    Learning to use them at range is the key to becoming a good, well-rounded 
    CS player.
    | Sniping with assault guns requires skill in burst or single-fire shooting |
    You cannot expect to use auto-fire when fighting at range. You will simply
    be wasting ammo. Instead learn to aim at your opponent and shoot in small
    bursts. You will eventually wear out his armor and life and kill him, if he
    doesn't kill you first.
    If your opponent is not using a sniper rifle, you are better off being
    stationary and ducking while doing this technique. If your opponent insists
    on side-stepping while trying to hit you, you will be at the advantage at
    this range, because his shots will hit you far less often, whereas you will
    be shooting aiming for his neck area, and your shots are far more accurate.
    | When fighting at close range, the Figure Eight style is more effective. |
    | When fighting at mid to long range, ducking and sniping is better.      |
    The previous offensive techniques were based on the defensive movement
    techniques discussed earlier. However, like defense, the most potent
    offensive techniques are the ones which mold your state of mind. They
    are mind-based, mental techniques. Getting that agressive, killer instinct
    is the fundamental skill needed that is more effective than all the
    physical techniques metioned earlier.
    5.c5 - Perpetual Motion Agressiveness Technique
    This is the offensive counterpoint of the Continuous Movement Defense
    technique. The ultimate goal here is to stay in constant motion, in order
    to keep the mind perpetually sharp. Assaulters practice this technique
    almost unconsciously, as it goes hand-in-hand with their practice of
    assault. However, whereas the defensive movement technique's main
    purpose is to avoid getting flanked by the enemy and prevent making yourself
    an easy target, the Perpetual Motion Agression is focused to keeping your
    mind sharp while hunting out every single enemy you see.
    You want to get into a mindset where you are like a hunter, continously
    sniffing the air for the opponent. At the smallest sign of a target, you
    fire immediately, quickly and precisly, with lethal results. Many players
    achieve this mindset unconsciously, as a result of die-hard assaulting.
    But if you're not a true-bred assaulter, this mindset will not come to
    you naturally, and you must make an effort to slip into this kind of
    mindset. Again, your mental condition is the most important component of
    fighting; be sure to slip into this mindset whenever you are attacking,
    and you will surely increase your fighting level significantly.
    | Weed out hesitation and doubt |
    "To be human is to know the fear of death, yet keep on fighting."
       -- Gau Ban, Shadow Skill.
    There is no room in your mind for hesitation and doubt. These two will
    poison your resolve and drastically weaken your fighting skill. Don't
    dwell on the fact that you might be at the bottom of the kills score,
    or that you're about to face the high scorer, or that you only have
    5 life left. You must commit everything to the attack, and believe in
    yourself. That way, you will perform much better.
    While adopting a more defensive technique is prudent when your life is
    low, you must never allow yourself to succumb to the fear of death. As
    long as you are alive, you must continue to strive to fight and kill
    your opponent.
    "The Kuruda Mercenary who is still standing, cannot be defeated."
       -- Vow of the Kuruda Mercenary, Shadow Skill
    | Case Study: Point Men should NOT be cowards! |
    Know that this aggressive mentality is necessary for the point 
    man (the guy who heads the assault) in the squad. A friend of mine
    recently complained about how the CT leading him suddenly turned
    coward upon running into a terrorist wielding an AK-47 in the wine
    cellar of CS_ITALY. Because the pointman lost his nerve, he turned
    back, trying to go back through the doorway they came. As he did,
    the terrorist opened fire, cutting him and everyone behind him down.
    His teammates, who did not lose their nerve, could do nothing, as
    their view of the terrorist was obscured by their cowardly point
    Let this poignant example drive home the fact that being the point
    man means you should NOT hesitate. 
    | NEVER EVER backtrack and run into your teammates |
    | who are following you, under any circumstance!   |
    Even if you are blinded by a flashbang, you should try to move
    forward and duck for cover ahead of your teammates, not into them.
    Remember that the rest of your squad is counting on you to lead the 
    assault properly! Hesitation and doubt will only get you killed!
    5.c6 - Find the Weakpoint
    "There is nothing cowardly about my technique at all. To win a fight,
    you must attack your opponent's weak point."
       -- Saitou Hajime, Rurouni Kenshin
    This mental offense technique is very difficult to master. You need to
    get a feel for your enemy's fighint habits and tendencies. You have to
    be able to strike when they are most vulnerable. It is very hard to
    determine this in a computer game like CS, but it is possible.
    The easiest weakpoint for you to target is your opponent's reloading
    habit. Catching your opponent while he is reloading or out of ammo is
    the ultimate coup de grace which allows for a no-risk, easy kill. By
    watching out for when your opponent tends to reload, and by intently
    listening to the amount of fire he shoots out with his weapons, you
    can determine when he is vulnerable for an out and out charge. It is
    indeed difficult to be right all the time, but even if you just get it
    right half the time, you are already proficient in this skill.
    5.c6a -- Finding the Blind Spot
    "I have found her weakness! She is still unused to the lovely
    eye-patch, which obstructs her view from the left!"
       -- Koinosuke, Jubei-chan
    Another use of this technique is determining the right time when your
    opponent plans to strike, and charging before him. The benefit of this
    is simple. If your opponent plans to move forward, his attention is
    diverted straight ahead, and he is less likely to be able to respond
    to threats to his sides. The trick here is to immediately charge forward
    and flank your opponent as he is about to charge forward. Thus, you
    can make use of a Figure Eight flanking technique to get to his side,
    his "blind spot." Another way to do it aside from the Figure Eight is
    to do a Jump Aim technique and leap to his side. On average, opponents
    are less likely to hit you while you are jumping to his side at close
    range, and while you are on the way you must face him immediately, and
    upong landing (or even before then if you are close enough) let loose
    your bullets.
    One of the best ways to execute this is at the intersection of two
    corridors. The Figure Eight variation works well with the high move
    accuracy weapons like the M4 and MP5, while the jumping variation of
    technique works exceptionally well with close range weapons like the
    shotguns and also the M4. Upon spotting each other in a corridor, you
    quickly dodge to cover after firing some shots. As you have hidden,
    listen closely whether your opponent has decided to pursue you or not.
    If he is pursuing, you simply time your move as he is about to round
    the corridor or obstacle, and you can easily jump or sidestep to his
    blind side, finishing him off.
    5.c7 - Money Flash Awareness Technique (Kane Kae Sen)
    One of the largest problems of many players is that they keep on firing
    even after their enemy is dead. This accomplishes nothing but waste ammo
    and keep you unprepared for your next opponent. There are three ways to
    determine whether you have killed your opponent: the old-fashioned look
    at him and if blood spurts out he's dead way, looking at the who killed
    who text at the upper right, and looking at your money.
    Among these three ways, the last, your money, is the best option. Why?
    The graphical approach is hard because players can bleed a whole lot
    and still live, and it takes a while for their death animation to kick
    in. The who-killed-who text is instantaneous, but not very reliable
    because it displays anyone who's been killed; it is not necessarily
    your enemy.
    | Watch your money at the lower right of the screen. |
    | If it flashes green, your enemy is toast.          |
    The most reliable measure is your money, which pops up a bright green
    the moment you kill your opponent -- by far the best indicator to
    determine whether you've killed an enemy or not. The only drawback is
    that if your money is at $16000, it won't register. But that's a minor
    quibble, and if your money is at $16000 that means you must be having
    a winning streak anyway, no? This just serves as more incentive not to
    hoard up that money and spend it on worthwhile guns.
    5.c8 - Stealth Technique
    One important thing to remember in CS is that your footfalls can give you
    away. This only happens while running, which most people do all the time.
    However, if you simply walk, you will not make a sound. This means you
    can conceal your presence from enemies!
    The applications are varied, but when walking, it is easier to sneak up
    on people and knife them in the back for bonus points. You can keep
    your presence unknown while hidden behind a crate, waiting for your
    opponent to pass by. Regardless, keeping silent has its uses.
    To stay silent, use the "walk" button. You can configure this in your
    controls. If you want to bind it, the console command is "+SPEED".
    Take note that you must hold the button down; commands with "+" at
    the start usually remain active only while you press the button.
    To be even more silent, crouch. But this makes you move far too
    slowly; you may have trouble catching your quarry.
    | Be sure to crouch while climbing ladders. This will eliminate |
    | any noise, without slowling you down at all.                  | 
    This is assuming autorun is turned on. If autorun is off, using the
    speed command will make you run instead. I forget the command to
    turn autorun on and off at this moment. However, the default is on,
    and unless some weirdo messed with it (I hope not you!), there is no
    reason for it to be off. You will be doing far more running in this
    game than walking, after all.
    5.c9 - Team First, You Last
    This is another technique for unscrupulous people who believe in
    "better you than me." When assaulting, it is often the case that
    the first person spotted is the first one shot. Well, since this
    is the case 90% of the time, you would be a fool to go in, guns
    blaring, right?
    This is the sad truth of team assaults into enemy defensive
    territory. Unless you are all very good and lucky, and your
    opponents are lousy shots, some of you will die whenever you
    force your way through a position.
    The trick, of course, is to hang back and wait for a teammate
    to take the first step. Then follow in behind him. This should
    increase your survivability. Take care not to follow directly
    behind him in a line; if your opponent is using an arctic, the
    shot will kill both of you. Even if he isn't, an opponent
    waiting in ambush will tend to shoot with a little reaction
    delay, meaning he will hit YOU behind your teammate even if he
    intended to hit your teammate.
    Hmm, maybe I shouldn't have published this technique; maybe now
    no one will want to charge in first, hehehe. Still, not to
    worry. It never ceases to amaze me how many people are willing
    to be the sacrificial lamb and go first. And don't think only
    the newbies do this! The best players are also willing to charge
    in first: the reason is because this means they get first dibs
    in killing the enemy. And they have the skill to back it up.
    In the end, it's a trade-off between survivability and kills.
    You'll find that the best players have no qualms walking straight
    in with their MP5s, and they can kill one or two opponents easily
    without themselves dying. You decide what kind of player you are:
    the craven coward or the valiant vanguard.
    5.c10 - Catching the Motion (Mugento Shunkan)
    This is an advanced aiming technique which I now realize I should
    have included much earlier. It is actually the parent technique of
    Gulay Ryuu Hiken: Nigeto Sen. I did not explain how to achieve it
    to well there, but with a little basic theory I hope you will be
    able to grasp it easier here.
    Have you ever noticed how, when riding a fast moving car your eye
    is suddenly caught by an outstanding detail off to the side, and
    suddenly your see that object, whatever got our attention, in full
    detail, as if time slowed down for you to see that object's details?
    It could be a patch of red on a pedestrian's shirt, a bird flying 
    low alongside your window, or even a plastic cup discarded by the
    car in front of you. 
    Regardless of what it was, that thing caught your attention, and 
    for some reason you suddenly have a "moment of clarity" wherein 
    you attention is seeming focused entirely on that object, as if
    everything else were a blur except for that point, which is alive
    in all its detail. 
    This "moment of clarity" is the basis of the advanced aiming
    technique, Mugento Shunkan. Literally, it means "forever stopping
    the moment." Basically, what happens is that, to your mind's eye,
    you are freezing time to focus exactly on that single object at
    the center of your attention.
    What does this have to do with aiming and Counter Strike? Simple.
    If you can train yourself to consistently achieve that "moment of
    clarity," and direct it on an opponent (your center of attention),
    you will be able to aim at him easily, in that one perfect moment
    between seconds. And once your cursor finds him, he's dead.
    To be completely honest, I don't really understand the mechanics
    of this technique very well. I just know that it happens; I've
    experienced it many times. It is especially helpful for sniping,
    but it obviously can be applied to any sort of aiming (It has
    other applications as well, to be sure, but I won't go into that).
    For now, I can give some tips to help you achieve that "moment of
    clarity." The first thing to remember is that achieving this
    requires a LOT of practice. Next to that, you will need a conscious
    awareness to pull it off. You must be mentally aware that it is 
    possible, and that it will happen. If you are aware of it, 
    apparently it happens more often, and when it does happen you
    will be better able to take advantage of it. Herein lies the
    paradox of this, though: if you urgently will yourself to have
    these moments, apparently this increased desire of yours will
    push or block it! It's hard to explain, but all I can say is
    that you must be aware of the phenomenon and allow it to happen,
    that is, TRUST in it that it will happen, but you must NOT 
    desire it to happen, or force yourself to achieve it.
    Typically, these moments of clarity are quite brief, but usually
    sufficient for you to react if you were aware of it. However, I
    think that with sufficient training you can actually prolong these
    moments of clarity. Don't ask me how, though, I'm not a master of
    this technique, really.
    Hmm, now that I think about it, I think this explanation of the
    technique is even more confused than in the AWP section. Oh well,
    do as you will. If you get it, you get it. If you don't, you don't.
    I'm sure that somewhere out there are people who have mastered
    this technique. If you're lucky, you might find one and have him
    or her teach it to you more efficiently.
    All I can say is this: when you've learned this technique, you
    will be raising your kills substantially because you will be
    actively killing opponents with SKILL, not passively through
    5.d -- Dirty Tricks
    "How far are you willing to go for $1,000,000?"
       -- Sales Pitch, Survivor
    A win is a win, no matter how you achieved it. Machiavellian tactics
    will get you far in CS, although you might have to face social
    repercussions afterwards! ^_^  I will list here the basic concept of
    all the dirty tactics I know. If I were to write a specific map guide,
    I would be able to add more dirty techniques, but for now you will have
    to content yourself with the general, all-purpose tricks that work on
    most maps. Just remember that the end justifies the means, and that
    this is just a game! How far are you willing to go to win? With these
    techniques you can win, but you may be called an asshole for doing so.
    These "cheats" are "legal cheats," that is, they do not require the
    server to have sv_cheats enabled, or any kind of special software.
    You can use them on almost all servers, provided the console is enabled,
    the desktop isn't locked and most importantly the server did not disable
    the command. Most of the things I write here, though, are considered
    "unfair" by most players who know about them.
    I will not enumerate the "true cheats," the ones that require
    sv_cheats to be on. If you even want to use these cheats, you are
    either bored and want to have fun in a non-serious environment, or are
    a total loser. In either case, go somewhere else.
    5.d1 - Adjusting Light Gamma
    The Half Life engine has a lot of naturally dark spots, and the best way
    to get around this is by adjusting the light gamma! While CS is supposed
    to have some internal control over its light gamma, I've never gotten it
    to work. Thus, the alternative is to change your Windows video card
    settings manually! Of course this varies from computer to computer, but
    in general you simply need to left click on the Windows desktop, click
    on the properties, and click on the videocard display settings. Find the
    light gamma, pump it up, and you'll be seeing into those dark shadows in
    no time! The only drawback is that the game looks uglier from the excessive
    brightness. And of course, snow-tile maps like Tundra are an eyesore.
    5.d2 - X-Ray Vision
    This technique no longer works because CS v1.1 has apparently
    disabled it.
    5.d3 - Super Figure Eight Sidestepping
    This technique is no longer necessary because CS v1.1 has been
    fixed so that it is automatic.
    5.d4 - Team Jumps
    This is easily the most abused team-technique method to gain an advantage.
    Most Counter Strike maps have a spot or perch that is excellent for sniping
    or otherwise gaining a tactical advantage. These spots, however, are often
    out of the reach of a normal crouch-jump. The good part is, if a player is
    crouching down, you can actually jump on top of him, and use him as a
    stepping stone to get to higher places. With enough concerted effort, it is
    actually possible to jump on someone who jumped on someone to get onto even
    higher places. The potential to get to tactical places is practically
    unlimited; get a friend to crouch for you whenever you want to get to a
    high place and you'll immediately get a tactical advantage.
    This technique is often blantanly used in many maps. The CTs do it a lot in
    CS_ITALY to get to the roofs, the CTs also did it in CS_MANSION to get on
    top of the TVs. The scariest technique is in CS_ARABSTREETS, to get to the
    roof. Terrorists do it in DE_DUST to plant the bomb, in DE_AZTEC to get on
    top of the sneaky crate, in CS_ARABSTREETS to snipe from the building top,
    and so on. The potential is limited only to your imagination.
    5.d4a -- Hostage Jumps
    While most players know about the Team Crouch jumps, less people know about
    the Hostage Jump. This is the one dirty trick that gives terrorists a
    supreme advantage in CS maps. It lets a terrorist get to impossible tactical
    positions by himself, and with the help of a team mate, he can get to
    practically any high ledge on the map.
    It's simple. First use a hostage to get him to follow you. Position him
    underneath, next to the ledge you want to get up to. Then, from an elevated
    position (like the head of a crouching team mate), jump onto the head of
    the hostage. Be careful! This is the tricky part. You have to get on his
    head, and keep your balance to stay there. It's harder than it sounds, but
    once you've mastered the trick you should be able to do it easily. Once
    on top of the hostage, keep jumping repeatedly. As you jump, the hostage
    will "follow" you up, giving you a surface from your elevated position to
    jump again! As you do, the hostage goes up again, and so on and so forth.
    You can keep going up indefinitely with this technique, thus allowing you to
    scale any wall. Once you're on a position higher than the wall you want to
    get over, just jump forward and you're there! The best part is that you have
    a hostage with you, making it terribly difficult for the CTs to win by
    rescuing the hostage. Worse comes to worst, you can just cop-out and win
    the cheesy way by hiding out at your inaccessible spot with your hostage and
    waiting for the time to run out.
    This trick may give the terrorist a strong surprise advantage, but it is not
    an earth-shattering one, and certainly you need some skill to pull it off.
    As such, I don't mind using this cheat, and a good opponent can pick you off
    no matter what. So do what you must, and it's fun doing this to hear the
    curse of your opponent as you kill them from the most absurd places. One of
    my favorite places to use this technique is in the central building next to
    the bridge in CS_ITALY. Hardly anyone expects you to get up there.
    5.d5 - Sound Binds
    This is another cheap trick that only works on a LAN, or where your opponent
    can otherwise hear the sound coming from your computer. The point is to
    mislead an opponent who listens carefully to sound in order to derive his
    strategy. What you do is order your computer to play a specific sound when
    it's not supposed to, thus misleading your acutely-eared opponent.
    For instance, in CS_ITALY is radio which plays the tenor opera sound.
    A CT hearing a terrorist's computer with that sound will logically assume
    that the terrorist is in their base, when in actuality he could be somewhere
    else, waiting for the CT to turn his back to him as he enters the house.
    Or you could play the sound of an Arctic shooting. As you supposedly "shoot,"
    your opponent would expect that you are rechambering your gun, and thus he
    will jump out to attack you, only to be shot as you fire your real shot.
    The possibilities are varied, but the point is to mislead your opponent by
    making him think that you are doing something you are not. To do this, bind
    a specific sound to a key, so that whenever you press that key, the sound
    comes out.
    For instance, to bind the opera sound, you would type:
    Each time you press g, your computer will play the opera.
    To bind the sound of the arctic, type:
    You can check out all the sound files available in the CStrike directory
    under SOUND. Of course, these tricks don't always work, and depend largely
    on how much your opponent relies on his sense of hearing. And of course,
    it won't work over the Internet.
    5.d6 - Autoaim
    No, I do not use autoaim, and neither should you. In my opinion, using
    autoaim takes away a lot of the spirit and purpose of playing CS. Further,
    it seriously damages community spirit because legit none-autoaim players
    often feel really bad about someone who's killing them easily without
    exerting much effort. Autoaim is simply a cheap option which has no place
    in a world where the main point is to aim and shoot at people.
    Turn auto-aim off. You'll feel much better for it. Just turn it off in
    the config panel. There's also a server command to disable it, "SV_AIM 0".
    But if you must use auto-aim, you can turn it on with "SV_AIM 1". Take
    note, though, that many servers disable auto-aim on purpose, so typing
    that a million times won't do a thing.
    5.d7 - Smoke no More Technique (Kemuri Muyougiri)
    "Smoke is the single most powerful barrier in anime. When smoke
    is present, nothing, bar nothing, not even a kamehameha from
    Super Saiyan 4 Gokou, will do even the most infinetisimal amount
    of damage to the enshrouded target."
       -- Me, paraphrasing my friend who watches too much Dragon Ball
    Nothing is more annoying to a camping AWP sniper than a smoke
    grenade tossed right in his face. Well, okay, there are some
    things, but that is near the top of the list.
    There is a way around it, though. This doesn't actually get rid
    of smoke, but it reduces the effect of smoke, making it easier
    for you to see through it.
    Simply type:
    Actually, the first command I am not sure how it works, but it
    seems to decrease the amount of smoke marginally. The more important
    command is the second, which changes the appearance of smoke
    entirely. The default, fastsprites 0, is the kind of smoke you
    are probably used to: the grey, billowing smoke which obstructs
    Set to 1, the smoke will appear as a white colored mass which is
    more transparent and easier to see through. More importantly, it
    speeds up your machine because it is easier to render!
    Some people like to set fastsprites to 2; the smoke appears as a
    very ugly, low-res dark opaque sprite which totally obscures
    your view. However, because it is so low-res, the edges do not
    overlap well, providing PERFECT visibility within the cracks. I
    don't find this too helpful for the precision I need when using
    an Arctic, but it is good for verifying the presence of the
    enemy in the smoke.
    It is up to you which setting you want to use.
    5.d8 - Paralyzing Smoke Technique
    Alright, this technique won't actually help you win. Actually, it
    will probably contribute to your loss, as well as ostracize you
    from your team.
    By throwing the smoke grenade at an immobile teammate's face, you
    can actually make it stick there, and your teammate will be
    permanently unable to move for the rest of the round (or at 
    least until the grenade drains off at his feet). While this
    in incredibly hilarious, it is also very difficult to do. Your
    teammate must not be moving for you achieve this effect. You must
    get the angle and distance just right. I can't relate it further,
    you'll simply have to figure it out yourself. I myself cannot
    achieve this trick all the time.
    WARNING: do not use this technique when MP_FRIENDLYFIRE is
    on. I don't think your teammate will mind the 3,000 bucks
    he'll lose after the humiliation you put him through.
    Theoretically, it is also possible to use this technique on an
    opponent who is camping and whom you have managed to sneak up on.
    Of course, there would be no point to attempt this difficult and
    dangerous maneuver other than for style points because it would
    be so much easier for you to just do a headshot, or even stab
    the hapless opponent. Still, if you want a good laugh....
    5.d9 - Mimic Technique
    This is easily the dirtiest, most despicable "legal" trick
    available. I actually HATE this technique, I condemn it when
    I find it, and I don't like using it because it destroys the
    spirit of the game.
    Basically, this technique will make you look like a member of
    the opposing team. You'll still be part of your team, but you
    look just like one of them. This is done by skin-swapping, and
    it is PERFECTLY LEGAL in most servers.
    Since I really detest this cheat, I will not tell you how to
    These are the different cheap, dirty tricks that I have picked up from
    playing Counter Strike over the years. I may have missed some techniques,
    if I remember them I'll include them in a suceeding version. While some
    techniques should always be used, like the gamma trick and the diagonal
    movement trick, some should not always be used, lest the enemy learn it
    and get used to it.
    "Magic is magic only because it is rare, even magic becomes ordinary
    when it is used every day."
      -- Raistlin Majere, The Soulforge
    This is true of the team and hostage jumps, and especially with the
    sound bind tricks. Use them sparingly, and they'll catch your opponents
    by surprise more often.
                        VI. COUNTER STRIKE ETIQUETTE
    Right, I'm gonna keep this short and sweet, because this guide is about
    tactics, not manners. Anyway, I've been under duress lately about the
    various dirty tricks I published in this guide. Well, cheats have been
    a problem in on-line games for ages, and for many (myself included) they
    detract from the gaming experience. Some of the cheats I published help
    augment your skill, but some are annoying and take the fun of the game away.
    By publishing them, I sought to inform people about such cheats, so that
    they know if someone is short-changing them. I had also hoped that people's
    wisdom and integrity would stop them from using the more "evil" cheats.
    But apparently people used them anyway; I can't count the number of people
    writing in asking me how to do the Mimic Technique.
    Well, many of these "cheats," I feel, are quite legitimate and acceptable
    in normal play. Some people, though, would disagree. In the end, all I have
    to say is this:
    | Be sure to ask the people you're playing with what "cheats" they are |
    | okay with. If they don't like a cheat and ask you to stop, stop.     |
    Be considerate enough to respect another person's preference of playing.
    If you prefer to "cheat," I think you should give priority to the "regular"
    way of playing without cheats: that is how the game was meant to be
    played, after all.
    Many of the "dirty tricks" I gave, though, are accepted by most people.
    For instance, just about everyone is fine with the CL_XSPEED codes. Many
    people don't mind the GL_ALPHAMIN code. And hostage/team jumps are really
    part of the game.
    But some cheats, like the mimic technique, really detract from the spirit
    of good, clean fun. I feel that such cheats should not even be used. Take
    note that I've taken out how to do the more "evil" cheats.
    Anyway, you will see my stand on which "cheats" I feel are acceptable,
    and which are not. Regardless, you should always ask people if they
    are okay with a cheat or not.
    This is my stand:
    "Good" Tricks:
     Light Gamma
     Team Jumps
     Hostage Jumps
     Smoke no More
     Paralyzing Smoke
     Sound Binds
    "Bad" Tricks:
     Mimic Technique
     Switching to the enemy team when friendlyfire is on and shooting them
     Crashing the server for any reason
    More than anything else, always keep in mind that Counter Strike is
    a game, and in a game all players are supposed to have fun. Cheating
    can sometimes add fun to a game, but more often it takes it away.
    Remember that while even losers have fun (well, at least they should), 
    it's hardly fun losing to a cheater, and only a spoiled immature brat 
    has fun winning while cheating his opponents dry.
    I supposed if you don't mind compromising any principles or your
    self-integrity, it's alright to cheat "discreetly," or using a
    cheat your enemey is unaware of. In such a case, at least you
    don't spoil your enemy's fun. Just don't get caught.
    But take note, when playing a game of skill like Counter Strike,
    cheating really hurts you more than your opponent. Your opponent may
    not have as much fun because of you, but you suffer a worse fate: by
    relying on cheats, you cheapen your own skills and your own self-
    integrity. To me, that is a fate worse than death.
    Kindly keep these things in mind whenever you play.
    Finally, if you want to take steps against cheating, visit this
    website and support their cause:
                       VII. WEAPON SPECIFIC TECHNIQUES
    You've learned the general techniques to make you a good player. I've
    thrown in some general weapon techniques as well in the previous sections,
    but now we're going to go in-depth with the weapons, and hopefully you'll
    learn uses for each weapon that you never thought of.
    Unfortunately, I am not a master of all the weapons, so I cannot give
    in-depth knowledge of every single weapon's techniques. But some weapons 
    I have been using since day one, and I have mastered them (in my own way). 
    For now, I'll concentrate on the weapons I know best, and hopefully soon 
    I will outline how to use all the weapons. Anyone who knows how to use a
    weapon better than I do, you're welcome to write in.
    7.i -- Weapon Archetype Guide
    While each gun has its specific nuances which apply to itself alone and
    make it unique, many guns share similar qualities. From my observations,
    I believe that certain guns serve as "archetypes" for a particular playing
    style. These are the guns which serve as a "model" for using other the
    other guns.
    That is, other guns are used in basically the same way as the archetype.
    As such, you can refer to the guide for the archetypes when using the
    sub-guns. As I see it, here is how the weapon playing styles are broken down:
    Sniper Archetype: AI Arctic Warfare Magnum
    Assault Archetype: H&K MP5 Navy
    Shotgun Archetype: Benneli M3 Super90
    Sporadic Archetype: Kalashnikov AK-47
    Pistol Archetype: H&K USP .45 Tactical
    The Sniper Archetype is defined by a style which kills at long range
    with as few shots as possible. It is single fire and has a slow
    firing rate, and is of limited use close range.
    The Assault Archetype is characterized by good close range combat,
    with high rate of fire, auto fire, large clips but limited long-range
    capability. It is the antithesis of the Sniper Archetype.
    The Shotgun Archetype refers to a style which is strong at close range,
    with single shot increments. Similar in use to the Assault Archetype, 
    but differing in philosophy and style: emphasis is on single shot 
    instead of auto-fire, and is best for solo encounters at close to 
    mid-range, with no use whatsoever at long range.
    The Sporadic Archetype is an off-shoot of Assault which does not do 
    particularly well at either Assault or Sniping. Thus this style requires 
    you to make up for the short-comings in either class by finding the 
    middle ground. It is your job to find those "spots" where the gun 
    excels in, and stick to those conditions. Often, this means using 
    ambushes from cover to avoid enemy fire (guerrilla tactics).
    The Pistol Archetype is debilitated by single fire triggers, thus
    requiring repeated clicks to attack. This limits attack power. Of
    course, only pistols fall under this archetype.
    Aside from the archetypal guns, all the other guns for the most part fall
    somewhere in between all these archetypes. Still, they are usually most
    closely associated with one. Familiarity with the Archetypes makes it
    possible for you to use the associated guns quite proficiently by applying
    the same principles that govern the Archetype.
    For instance, if you are good with the Arctic, the Sniper Archetype weapon,
    you could use many of the principles for the Scout, which falls under the
    Sniper Archetype.
    Here is the main distinction of which weapons go where. They are listed
    in order of closeness to the Archetype.
    AI Arctic Warfare Magnum (4-6)
    Steyr Scout (4-5)
    H&K G3 Sniper (4-7) -- about equal mix Sniper and Sporadic
    Sig 552 Commando (4-8) --  almost more Sporadic than Sniper 
    Kalashnikov AK-47 (4-1)
    FN M249 Para (5-1)
    Ingram Mac-10 (3-4)-- very close to the Assault
    Benelli M3 Super (2-1)
    Benelli XM1014 (2-2) -- about equal mix Shotgun and Assault
    H&K MP5-Navy (3-1)
    Colt M4 Carbine (4-3) -- about equal mix Assault and Sporadic
    Sig 550 Commando (4-2) -- also uses Sniper techniques
    Steyr Aug (4-4) -- also uses Sniper techniques
    Steyr Tactical Machine (3-2) -- Sporadic tendencies
    H&K UMP45 (3-5) -- also has Sporadic tendencies
    FN P90 (3-3) -- also has Sporadic tendencies
    H&K USP .45 Tactical (1-1)
    Sig P228 Sauer (1-4)
    Glock18  (1-2) -- Shotgun in burst mode 
    FN Five-Seven (1-6) -- borders on Sporadic
    Desert Eagle (1-3) -- strong Sporadic tendencies
    Dual Beretta (1-5) -- strong Assault tendencies
    7A.  AI Arctic Warfare Magnum/Military  [4-6]
    Why Use the Arctic?
    "I am invincible! No one can defeat my shadow skill!
    My one single blow is... Invincible!"
      -- Kuruda Style Annihalation Technique: Martial Language
    The Arctic is easily the single most-feared weapon in the game. Why?
    Oneshot. That's why. All it takes is one shot, and you're dead. Any
    time. Anywhere. No other gun can claim the same.
    Keep these in mind carefully when you use the Arctic. You must
    play to compensate for these weaknesses.
    1.) Very heavy. It is the second slowest gun, and you will be an
    easy target while moving because of it.
    2.) Inaccurate. The Arctic is the most inaccurate gun in the game!
    Yes! I know it's a shock. You'd think a sniper rifle would be
    the most accurate gun in the game. Think again, the Arctic is
    the only gun with a likelihood of the shot going in a greater
    than 45 degree angle from where you're pointing. And it's
    actually very likely.
    3.) It's damn expensive. If your team keeps losing consistently, 
    you won't be able to buy it all the time.
    4.) Everyone hates it! No other gun has drawn as much ire from
    the gaming community that the developers had to continuously tone
    it down all the time. Because of this, the AWP a.) no longer has
    a crosshair, b.) fires much slower, c.) lost a lot of penetrating
    power, and d.) does so much less damage than it used to. Yipes,
    legshots are actually non-lethal now! 
    The [gulay] School of Sniping
    The following treatise will teach you how to fight the way the [gulay]
    clan fights with the arctic sniper! This is a very subjective portion of
    this guide, and details my personal Arctic fighting style. There are
    a few techniques here which are universal, but mostly they are how I
    fight. There are other ways to fight, but for now listen to what I have
    to say. ^_^
    In order to effectively use the Arctic, you need one thing:
    unwavering mental concentration. This is the most basic
    aspect of Arctic use. You must keep focused on each and
    every single shot. Remember: your one single blow is
    invincible. You must strive to hit the enemy with each
    shot. More than any other weapon, the Arctic requires
    steady, steely concentration.
    The warrior whose mind is scattered does not deserve to
    wield the Arctic.
    How to Use the Arctic: General Principles
    Use that Scope
    To compensate for the gun's terrible inaccuracy, you must as
    much as possible use the sniper scope. Without the zoom, your
    accuracy is the worst in the game, bar none. Your shots will
    go to the left, to the right, up or down, anywhere but where
    your crosshair is pointed. But at 2x or 4x zoom, accuracy is
    upped significantly, and you can expect pin-point accuracy as
    long as you are not jumping, moving, swimming, or on a ladder. 
    Remember this well.
    This was not always the case. Before beta 6, the Arctic was
    fairly accurate, perhaps as accurate as the FN Para. Because
    of this, the most dreaded creature was born: the Arctic
    Assault Sniper. There is nothing more terrifying than a
    rampaging agent who can run amongst the MP5s and M4s and
    kill with a single shot ALL the time. Since the Arctic
    Assault Sniper was so scary, the CS team apparently decided
    to tweak and downgrade the Arctic considerably.
    Know this: we Arctic warriors were once the proud and confident
    in our power; but the CS team took it all away from us! One day
    we will restore ourselves to our former glory and take what is
    our birthright! MWAHAHAHAHAHAHHAAAA!!!
    Still, even with the scope, accuracy is not %100. You will still
    miss far too often for my liking. Damn the tweaks that watered
    down the Arctic!
    Stay Alive
    How about the price tag? In order to afford the $4750, you MUST
    pinch pennies. One thing I used to do was not buy armor.
    This is alright IF and only if you plan to camp all day
    long. If you plan to go assault, this is a risky proposition,
    and dying is very scary: you wouldn't want to lose that AWP.
    "If you think like that, the hitokiri in you will well up.
    Live your life, Kenshin!"
      -- Hiko Seijuro, Rurouni Kenshin
    The single most important thing to keep in mind when using
    the Arctic: play to live! You must play as if dying is not
    an option. You have to draw on your inner strength to steel
    yourself against death. Because dying means kissing your
    expensive rifle goodbye.
    If you want to be an Arctic master, you must not take any
    unnecessary risks. You have to be sure that you can survive
    to fight the next round with your weapon intact.
    As an Arctic player, you must save up money a lot. You, more than
    any other player, want to have lots of spare money in reserve. Try
    to save up your money however which way you can, and staying alive
    is the best way to do that.
    Camping with an Arctic is the most logical choice. You can
    pick the place to defend, preferably one with a long narrow space
    for that enemies have to pass through. You want to find a place
    that is difficult to reach except by passing through a long,
    empty passage without cover. Good examples of such places are
    the bridge and the ends of the tunnel in DE_DUST, the sewer
    passage in the DE_AZTEC, and the ends of the mousehole in
    CS_MANSION. If you are going to camp with the Arctic, stick
    with it. Don't second doubt yourself and think of leaving; this
    only serves to waver your concentration, and when an opponent
    does pass by you will miss. Further, leaving your post means
    that an opponent can go through unmolested. You don't want that.
    However, the AWP is not a camping only weapon. Assault sniping is
    still possible, but only under certain conditions. Being an
    Arctic master isn't just about having a steady enough mouse arm
    to shoot at anyone you see. It's about playing to make those
    conditions possible. More on this later.
    For now, just remember this: camping is the obvious choice for
    the sniper, but the obvious choice is not always the best choice.
    You may keep yourself alive, but hiding out in your base like a
    chicken more often than not compromises team strategy and makes
    you lose in the end. The true use of the Arctic is to control
    the key points of the map, not to camp out in fear at your base.
    (although in some maps like CS_ITALY your base is a key point)
    Stay Away
    You are using a sniper rifle that has poor fighting ability up
    close, but lethal power afar. Needless to say, keep your distance
    from your opponents. While you could try to shoot them from up
    close, there is a good chance (about 50%) that your shot will not
    go where it is supposed to, unless you zoom. But if you use your
    zoom scope, your peripheral vision will be severely limited,
    making it hard to track someone doing a figure eight around you.
    Worse, since your perspective is magnified, your zoomed view
    will not reflect the usual sensitivity setting you are used to.
    It is as if your sensitivity was effectively increased while you
    are in zoom. The greater the zoom, the greater the perceived
    increase. Finally, your movement will seem sluggish, for the
    same reason.
    | Bottom line: stay away from your enemy |
    Body Aiming
    The AWP requires a special aiming philosophy. This is the only
    gun where you can justifiably break the general rule of aiming
    for the neck area, and aim for whatever body part is convenient.
    This is because the AWP can kill in one shot, whether you hit
    the hand or the foot or even the finger nail. When aiming with
    the AWP, go for the exactly middle of the body. This center
    provides you the easiest target. Do not even think of going for
    a head shot; you don't need to. If you get one, that's well and
    good, but it is totally unnecessary.
    Perhaps the biggest argument for aiming at the center is to
    allow for the gun's inaccuracy. Since the AWP is so innacurate,
    the shot will often go a bit up or down, left or right. As of
    CS v1.1, the fact that legshots are no longer lethal complicate
    things a bit. Now, I recommend aiming for the middle of the
    chest, as opposed to the middle of the body (stomach). You
    MUST get used to not hitting the legs, to preserve the
    integrity of the AWP's legendary killing power.
    These are general Arctic-using tips any player who wants to go
    sniping should know. Now, I will tell more of my personal fighting
    style when using the Arctic.
    Advanced [gulay] Style Arctic Tactics
    Aiming Philosophy
    As an AWP sniper, you must first learn that aiming is the fundamental
    aspect of sniping. Unlike the other guns which can get away with
    hap-hazard aiming (just pointing in the general direction and pressing
    the trigger), the Arctic requires precision aiming because you fire
    only one shot at a time. Unlike the other sniper rifles, though, which
    still generally go for the head, body aiming is the basic principle of
    the Arctic. You know where to aim, and you know that you only have one
    shot to do it. But there are two aiming methods that you must know to
    truly understand Arctic sniping philosophy.
    The first method is called Mouse Aiming: following the target with
    the mouse. This may sound like common sense, and actually, it is.
    But you must see the difference of this with the other method,
    which I call "Glide Aiming." Glide Aiming is keeping your mouse
    steady, and aiming at a target by sidestepping left and right.
    You rely on your lateral movement to aim, not your cursor movement.
    Glide movement is great for learning to snipe while side-stepping,
    thus allowing you to evade enemy attacks. The drawback is that this
    has a funny effect on your accuracy: it moves your shot a little to
    the direction in which you are moving. By mastering this change in
    trajectory, you will be able to compensate, and this technique of
    aiming is especially accurate at long range.
    However, do not use this technique! Or at least, don't get too used
    to it. [gulay] aiming philosophy and sniping tactics is based on the
    first method: mouse aiming. The more advanced techniques of the
    school require that you master this method. This is because the
    style's philosophy is "shoot as quickly as possible, then run away."
    Glide Aiming has a disadvantage in that it takes a bit longer for
    you to line-up the shot. That crucial time it takes to aim is its
    downfall, the crucial time that a [gulay] sniper takes advantage of.
    Aim with your mouse, not your feet.
    Mouse Sensitivity
    Mouse sensitivity is important for all CS players, but doubly so for
    the Arctic sniper. As a [gulay] sniper, you must accustom yourself to
    a particular sensitivity setting. This is vital, because split-second
    aiming is equal parts reflex and conscious thought, and your reflex
    movement directly corresponds to your mouse sensitivity. Select a
    sensitivity level and stick with it, so as not to confuse your sniper
    reflexes. I use a level around 5, buy you can work with whatever
    level suits you best.
    Early Game Tactics
    The Arctic is one of the most expensive guns in the game. Don't
    expect to be able to buy one until the third round, second round
    if you were lucky enough to kill enough enemies and/or rescue some
    hostages. If you've been losing straight and haven't gotten any
    cash bonuses from killing enemies or whatever, you may only be
    able to buy one by the fourth round. But believe me, it's worth it.
    If you seriously want to go the way of the [gulay], do NOT buy
    anything in the first two rounds. You want to have enough money
    to buy your Arctic by the third round. The [gulay] sniper forgoes
    all in the first two rounds in order to slaughter on the third.
    Low Ammo
    Most people who use Arctics buy the gun and stock up to the
    full thirty shells. We of the [gulay] sniping school scoff
    at this practice.
    The [gulay] sniper only carries into battle the ten shells that
    come with the Arctic, plus spare ammo of about 10, no more
    than 15. The reason for this is manifold. The most obvious
    is economics: AWP ammo costs 12 bucks a shot! It is the most
    expensive ammo in the game. But the real reason is to train
    you to kill as efficiently as possible with as few shots as
    possible. Your ultimate goal is to be able to kill one enemy
    with one shot, most of the time.
    The final reason why you should stock your ammo so sparingly
    is a macabre one: in case of your death, you want to make sure
    that whoever killed you will have as little ammo as possible.
    With luck, your killer may be reluctant to have little ammo, 
    and decide not to use your gun. At worst, if your killer is not
    used to the low ammo clip of your gun, it will leave a
    psychological fear of low ammo which will ruin his game.
    You have to get used to the scarcity mentality of ammo. Bringing
    along sparing ammo will train your mind to make each shot
    count. Further, this will teach you the next valuable skill:
    Minimal Reloading
    The Arctic can kill in one shot. This is such an innocuous fact,
    but it has one very powerful implication: ten shots is a lot!
    Your AWP, with its starting clip, can kill at least ten people,
    more if you get a two in one. And this is pretty realistic;
    unlike other guns, the AWP stands a fair chance of killing one
    person with each shot. An MP5, for instance, can theoretically
    kill 30 people with one clip, but this is highly improbable.
    With the AWP, though, this is much more probable.
    With the scarce ammo mentality learned earlier, you are now
    ready to learn a very crucial skill: minimal reloading. Most
    people like to reload their Arctics after one or two shots,
    when the enemy has been killed and no other is in sight.
    This is fine, but a true AWP sniper will scoff at this. Why?
    Because the slow reload time of the AWP is better spent either
    going back to the assault or carefully waiting for the next
    victim. You cannot run the risk of an opponent showing up
    while you are reloading your gun. If you're not waiting for
    another opponent, then surely you want to get to the next
    key point as quickly as possible, so instead of reloading
    you should switch to your pistol or knife. Thus, reload as 
    sparingly as possible.
    Further, remember that you should not develop the security
    blanket mentality for ten shots. Feel confident even with
    just five rounds in your AWP; it's more than enough! If
    you think that way, you'll improve your shooting, trust me.
    The [gulay] sniper should only reload when his ammo goes below
    5. Five shots is still enough to finish off two opponents, even
    with a few misses. With the Arctic, you should be "good to the
    last drop."
    Shotgun Sniping (Zoomless Arctic)
    Back in the early betas when the AWP was still accurate without
    the zoom, the prime skill you would need to learn was the art of
    "Shotgun Sniping." This basically means using your AWP like a
    shotgun: for a quick, decisive shot without the zoom. The reason
    for this is because the zoom impairs your peripheral vision, ups
    your perceived mouse sensitivity, and slows your perceived
    movement rate.
    Take note, though, that as of CS v1.1 the crosshair has been
    removed for all the sniper rifles, except the Sig550 (which
    is really an assault rifle after all). Shotgun Sniping just
    got a lot more difficult!
    While in truth you still have the same movement and sensitivity
    rates, your perception is warped by the magnification. This
    decreases your fighting ability greatly. Thus the need for
    shotgun sniping. Unfortunately, this art is no longer as powerful
    as before due to a loss of accuracy. Still, you must learn this
    art for close-combat defense in case an opponent gets close to
    Besides, you still have about 60% accuracy while standing, more
    than that if you kneel. In an emergency situation where you must
    defend yourself from a nearby opponent, this is your last
    desperate gamble. Without the zoom, track your opponent and
    concentrate. You only have one shot. If it misses, you will
    likely die. Bend the AWP to your will, and hopefully you will
    be able to get the shot to go where you are pointing. Be sure
    to duck, and pull the trigger. Pray the shot goes where it is
    supposed to.
    Close Combat Zoom
    The alternative to shotgun sniping, which is very difficult and
    which I do not really recommend, is to go the normal shotgun
    sniping, but at the last moment before the shot, engage the zoom.
    This will up the accuracy to what its supposed to be. However,
    this is very difficult, as you will require a split-second to
    engage the zoom before shooting. That split second means all
    the difference between life and death: in that moment your opponent
    could put a bullet in your head, or your aim could come off in that
    key instant. Still, this technique is an alternative if you do not
    trust the odds of the shotgun snipe.
    The most advanced form of this technique is coupled with one of
    the hidden techniques (Hiken) I will explain below. Anyway, some
    people actually do not play with the zoom crosshair at all! This
    is something you should consider to become a truly advanced
    sniper. Learn to visualize the target on your opponent without
    seeing the crosshair, and you will become a super sniper.
    The Desert Eagle
    The Desert Eagle is the [gulay] school preferred sidearm. Why?
    Because it is powerful. When you have the extra money (and only
    if you have the extra money), buy an Eagle to complement your
    AWP. Extra money is defined as money in excess of buying
    another AWP plus armor.
    The Eagle should fall in line with your shooting philosophy:
    kill with as few shots as possible. That is why it is the perfect
    handgun for the [gulay] sniper.
    You should switch to the Eagle whenever conditions are not
    favorable for assault sniping. In the close combat emergency,
    this is your final option. Important: when going for the
    shotgun snipe detailed earlier, do NOT consider the Eagle as
    an option. Think that you must make the shot, or you will die.
    If you are thinking of the Eagle already, this will destroy
    your concentration and increase the probability of missing
    the shot.
    Still, when you do miss the shot, you must be ready to switch
    to your pistol immediately.
    If you do not like the DEagle, then a good compromise is the
    Sig 228 or the USP. Although the Five Seven is now available,
    you should be wary of the size 20 clip. It's the same reason
    why you should avoid Glocks and the Dual Berettas: aside from
    their weaker ammo, these guns encourage auto-fire style of
    play. When training to be an Arctic master, this is debilitative
    and gets in the way of your training. You must stick to single-
    fire skill as much as possible; going auto-fire will regress
    your training.
    Later on, when you have become comfortable with the different
    firing techniques, you can experiment with the more "auto-fire"
    pistols. But for now, stick to the Eagle.
    Assault Sniper
    Assault sniping is no longer as effective as it used to be, but
    it is still an option. The trick to assault sniping it to create
    the conditions necessary for it to work: a narrow corridor where
    the opponent has little opportunity to dodge. Under these
    conditions, you can afford to go shotgun sniping at point blank
    range and expect good results.
    When going on the offensive, you as a sniper must choose the
    locations in the map which give you a good opportunity of
    hitting your opponent. A good example is, again, the tunnel
    in DE_DUST. Only go assault sniping in such places; otherwise,
    switch to your Desert Eagle or follow in the wake of a team
    mate who has a good close-combat weapon.
    Most importantly, when assault sniping, keep in mind the principle
    of Hot and Cold Firing.
    Hot and Cold Firing Technique
    As discussed in the Techniques section, hot and cold firing is
    moving, but at the moment before firing you instantly brake,
    and fire from a motionless position. This is invaluable for
    Arctic players who have to go assault for any reason.
    Be careful; some inertia is present in the CS engine, and it is
    not easy to stop immediately. Just letting go of the movement
    key is not enough; you must counter your momentum by lightly
    tapping the movement key of the opposite direction. This is
    not as easy as it sounds, but with practice you should be able
    to achieve it.
    By instantaneously stopping your movement, you will increase
    your assault sniping accuracy tremendously. Keep in mind, though
    that the Hot and Cold technique does not quite bring your
    accuracy to the same level as keeping still. Sometimes, you might
    want to duck instead of braking; it's more accurate, the only
    problem is that your aim will move a bit.
    Assault Sniping Two
    The previous lesson was about assault sniping at close range.
    However, the more common use of assault sniping will be doing
    it as sniping was meant to be: at medium to long range.
    Examples of this would be storming under the bridge in DE_DUST.
    In the case of long to mid range assault sniping, you proceed
    cautiously and use the Hot and Cold technique when you spot
    the enemy. However, I cannot stress how you must anticipate
    where the enemy is. It is highly probable that the opponent
    you will encounter in this case is a camper who is waiting
    for you to show. You must therefore be ready for him the
    moment you see him, and react swiftly.
    Aside from the Hot and Cold technique, you must learn the
    secret deadly sniping skills of the [gulay] school. These
    will be detailed later.
    For now, concentrate on positional awareness; this is the
    key to anticipating where your opponents will be found.
    Positional Advantage and Awareness
    The most important aspect of Arctic Mastery, though, still lies
    in your positional awareness. As mentioned earlier, developing
    the keen sniping eye is just half of the total skill: the other
    half is knowing where to be, and when.
    This is difficult to teach, and as with most advanced skills,
    experience is the best teacher. Specific map discussions would
    help imparting this knowledge, by pointing out which points are
    the most effective to cover.
    Still, the basic rules to consider can be outlined:
    1.) When camping, choose a remote position which is
        difficult to reach without exposure to the AWP.
    2.) When assaulting, choose enclosed spaces where
        potential targets will have difficulty dodging.
    3.) Seek out sniping points early in the game where
        you can steal a quick kill before running away
        to a more defensible spot. These points are usually
        vulnerable positions where the enemy will not expect
        you, but which are very narrow and offer an excellent
        shot. Upon making a kill or two, withdraw to a safer
    Style of the Ages
    "The Saotome Ougi is based on three principles: Speed, Seperation,
    and Strategy. In other words, run away until you think of
    something better."
      -- Saotome Genma, Ranma Nibunnoichi
    The third rule of positional awareness is what is called the
    "Style of the Ages." Shoot once, kill, and run away. Discovering
    such a point from which to use the technique is practically a
    free kill. And since you do it at the start of the round, most
    inexperienced players unfamiliar with your skill do not expect it.
    To best explain this skill, I will give an example from DE_DUST.
    You are a terrorist. This is the DE_DUST tunnel, where the
    majority of conflict in Dust occurs.
            to terrorist base
              |O  |
              |   |
       |-------   ----                           |--------
     --|            O \   the tunnel             |
     --|                          xO
       |O------------------------|   |-----------|
        _________________________|   |___________|
                                      \     O
                                       \             bomb
     <- to bridge    double doors -> \                site
       ______________        ________ \____________________
                     |      |
                    to CT base
                         O - Crates
                         x - Style of the Ages Sniping Point
    The Style of the Ages requires you to move with incredible
    speed to get to the key points before your opponents do.
    Here is one of the riskier, but highly-effective points.
    As a terrorist, make your way to the 'x' marked on the
    map. From there, aim towards the crack of the double
    doors that you can see. The faster CTs will probably have
    gone ahead to the bomb site, but from your vantage point,
    you will be able to easily snipe the slower ones still
    heading either into the double doors or into the tunnel
    where you are.
    The ones entering into the double doors are easy targets.
    The moment they are about to step through the thin slit
    to the bombsite, you shoot and they are history. This
    technique garners so many kills.
    Do not be afraid of the CTs who plan to enter into the
    tunnel! This is what I meant by narrow spaces. The
    entrance to the tunnel is a very narrow space; you can
    easily shoot any CT the moment he shows his face into
    that small entrance. However, upon grabbing a few kills
    and giving away your position, you should retreat to a
    safer position. There is such a thing as being too greedy;
    be sure to leave and get to a better position. Knowing
    when to withdraw is as important as the agression of
    getting there in the first place.
    That is the gist of the technique; this example will
    hopefully help you master the fine points of the Style
    of the Ages and assault sniping. That's what it's all
    about. Find points like this, and you have learned the
    other half of the important skill of Arctic Sniping:
    Positional Mastery. The other half is the usual camping
    points, of course.
    Instilling Fear
    Another important aspect of [gulay] sniping is to control or
    at least influence the movements of your enemy. I have always
    emphasized that mental state is the underlying key to winning
    your battles. As such, battle exists on two levels: the
    physical and the mental. You must learn to badger and scare
    your opponent for the twofold purpose of breaking his mental
    concentration and teaching him where to move.
    "Get out of my way, you maggot-infested piece of shit."
      -- Shinomori Aoshi, Rurouni Kenshin (Hecto version)
    By controlling key sniping points on the map, you can effectively
    limit your opponent's movements. It's the same principle as with
    the backstab technique: you scare your opponent with such deaths,
    teaching him to look out for those dark corners. As a sniper, you
    instead teach him to be wary of open spaces.
    A good example of this is for the terrorists in CS_MANSION. Most
    people think that the terrorists should cower in fear in the mansion
    while CTs assault to rescue the hostages. Wrong! Terrorists rule
    CS_MANSION, and snipers are the key to doing it. From the two top
    windows and the balcony, a sniper can control the middle field of
    the map and severely limit CT movement. Another terrorist must
    jump out of the house immediately on the terrorist's right side
    to cover the mousehole. When that has been accomplished, the CTs
    are deadly paralyzed with only one option: the sewers. And the
    sewer is so easy to defend from above ground.
    After you have instilled the fear of death in certain places,
    you must push the advantage in suceeding rounds. Presumably,
    your enemies are scared stiff of charging the well-beaten
    path, so they will tend to hang-out and camp a little farther
    back. Once that has happened, you repeat the vicious cycle,
    taking control of the ground they have relinquished, and
    expanding your circle of fear. By doing this, you can rout your
    A good example would be the Style of the Ages snipe point I
    showed earlier in DE_DUST. If you scare the CTs enough with
    that technique, they will eventually be so scared to pass
    the double doors that they will no longer rush to defend the
    bombsite. Which makes your job as terrorist really easy: no
    CTs to guard the bombsite, you can plant away.
    By using techniques like this to frighten your opponents, you can
    easily break their fighting spirit and mental concentration, and
    severely limit their physical movement: you have won the battle on
    both levels. The weapons best suited for teaching such fear is of
    course, the Arctic. Learn to use it to strike fear in the hearts
    of your foe, and you have mastered one of the key secrets of the
    [gulay] school.
    Some day, I hope to release detailed map strategies that will
    teach you how to utilize these psy-war tactics. For now, you
    must content yourself with the principles of it, and learn how
    to apply them on your own.
    Taunting (minumura)
    As a student of the [gulay] school of sniping arts, you should
    make it a habit to taunt your opponents. Even if you do not mean
    it, taunting is a great way to get under your opponent's skin
    and make him lose his focus. The degree of your taunting is
    totally up to you; if you're a congenial guy you can tone it
    down, but if you're a real asshole feel free to say whatever.
    But in the spirit of my teachings, you should taunt whenever
    For the pride of the [gulay] school, an acceptable form of
    taunting is to bind a message to a key. After killing someone,
    press the key to taunt. This becomes your "signature," and if
    you're good enough and do it regularly enough, that phrase
    will strike fear into the hearts of your opponent.
    This technique, thus, serves four purposes: to help instill
    fear, to ruin your enemy's focus, to establish your presence
    on the battlefield, and to simply make you feel good about
    yourself. Morale is important in battle, remember that!
    If you wish to take up the [gulay] battlecry, bind this
    message to a hotkey, to be pressed upon slaying an opponent:
    "Main Cannon, Eva Black, FIRE!!!"
    Of course, if you think that sounds corny, you are free to
    make up whatever taunt you want. I just have a personal
    bent towards anime quips.
    Finally, if you feel like being even more irritating, bind it
    to your attack key so that you say it each time you fire:
    I don't recommend that last bit, though. Even I haven't done that. ^_^
    Team First, You Last
    One of the great vulnerabilities of the Arctic is to close combat
    in unfavorable conditions. That is why you should make it a habit
    to rely on your teammates for protection. Following the "Team First,
    You Last" technique given in Chapter 5, you should under most
    conditions make your assault in the wake of a team member's charge.
    Even when doing mid to long range assault sniping, you should follow
    this lead. The reason is because at that range, enemy snipers are
    likely to be camping, unless you are so good that you can hit them
    that easily, the more unscrupulous sniper should let the team mate
    take the bullet, then come in and kill the opposing sniper.
    Still, valor is often required to win. If you're good enough and
    have confidence in yourself, feel free to charge in and take the
    key positions for yourself. This is especially true if your
    teammates are slower than you are -- no sense in wasting precious
    time waiting for someone to take the plunge for you.
    High Ground
    Camping and sniping is best done from a high position, where you
    can get a good view of your enemy, right? Wrong! Although common
    sense dictates this, the [gulay] school believes differently.
    Although you do get to see a larger area, you also expose yourself
    terribly to enemy vision. That's why I don't understand the logic
    of camping in a sniper tower. If you go to high ground for sniping,
    do it in an unexpected place in order to gain the advantage of
    surprise, not the advantage of height and vision. Sniper towers
    are often the first thing enemy snipers check.
    I have another personal preference for not wanting to stay in high
    places. Most people disagree with me, but I maintain that shooting
    from a higher position is actually harder than shooting from ground
    level. I also believe that shooting at a higher floor is easier than
    shooting at a lower level. Why?
    My reasoning is mathematical. Imagine yourself on a level, 2D plane
    (like the ground). From one point on that plane to any other, there
    are less lines. In contrast, imagine yourself on a higher point not
    on that plane. You'll find there are more lines to any particular
    point, because you are now on a 3D plane. The same goes true for
    someone aiming at someone on the same level, and someone aiming
    from a higher point. More lines, thus more aiming possibilities to
    cover. Make sense? I don't know if you'll agree with me, but that's
    how I see it.
    Further, aiming at a higher floor is actually easier, with similar
    reasoning. As discussed earlier, aiming from a higher point means
    your entire set of aiming possibilities lies on a plane -- more
    points. But aiming from a lower point to a higher level is simpler,
    because you do not see the entire floor. Instead, you only see a
    single line where the target will be moving from to shoot you. Thus,
    there is a smaller set of aiming possibilities -- a single line.
    It is therefore easier to aim at something higher, than to aim at
    something lower.
    To make this clearer, let me give a concrete example. Imagine the
    balcony in CS_MANSION or CS_ESTATE. A terrorist sniping from that
    balcony must cover an entire plane, the field below. A CT, however,
    need only look at the single line where his vision intersects the
    balcony. Make sense? I hope so.
    | In conclusion, a higher position will usually give you more   |
    | visibility, but make you an easier target. The main objective |
    | of going to higher ground is to gain surprise, not visibility |
    | or ease of targetting.                                        |
    These are ground rules of the [gulay] style sniping school. However,
    there is still more to learn: the special [gulay] style Arctic
    Techniques, the hidden killing techniques (hisatsu) which will help 
    you beat all opponents.
    |Movement Skill: Hyperspeed (Hisatsu! Shukuchi) |
    This technique is the advanced, Arctic-specific application of three
    general techniques: Weapon Switcing, Speed Buying and End Reloading.
    When you have mastered these techniques, you can learn the Shukuchi.
    The first order is to change to your knife at the beginning of the
    round. This will allow you to run as fast as possible to wherever
    you want to go (presumably to execute the Style of the Ages). That
    is the most basic use of Shukuchi.
    However, the advanced skill of Shukuchi is more than just speed at
    the start of the round. By learning to switch weapons all the time,
    you can get rid of one of the AWP's main drawbacks: weight. When
    running, utilize weapon switching and you will be able to run fast,
    as if you weren't using an Arctic.
    The final level of Shukuchi is in actual combat. Once you have
    mastered weapon switching, you can achieve tremendous speed in
    between shots of the Arctic. The trick is to change weapons
    exactly after you fire. Utilize the Hot and Cold firing
    technique first to stop while firing. After firing, switch
    to your knife or pistol immediately, to give yourself a quick
    speed burst to run away from enemy fire. Or, you can switch back
    to your Arctic again -- it is ready to fire! This can cut down
    on the severe rechambering time that slows down the AWP's rate
    of fire. Once you have mastered this technique, you will be a
    cannonball AWP sniper who can seemingly move like an MP5 fighter.
    | Sniping Skill: Shooting the Shadow (Hisatsu! Kage Utsugiri) |
    "You can run, but you can't hide from my .338 Lapua Magnum round!"
       -- Me
    This is the first deadly skill of [gulay] sniping. The AWP has
    the strongest penetration among all the CS guns. Take advantage
    of this by learning to locate enemies hiding behind rocks,
    crates, and other obstacles. They think they are safe, but
    flimsy obstacles offer no protection from a [gulay] sniper.
    The secret is to famliarize yourself with the common placement
    where a person will stand when hiding behind crates. Familiarity
    with the map is a must to master this skill. People tend to
    crouch precisely at the corners of such obstacles where they
    intersect with the wall. By using 3D-depth estimation, you can
    pinpoint their exact location, fire, and kill. The downside is
    that the AWP is no longer as powerful as before, so thicker
    crates may require you to shoot twice now to kill an armored
    opponent at full health. Still, learning this skill will strike
    even more fear into the hearts of the enemy, for you are
    teaching them that hiding is not a guarantee of safety.
    The more advanced application of this technique can limit
    movement on some maps. Certain defensive positions of opponents
    are easy to undermine with this trick. A good example is in
    CS_ASSAULT2K (or even in CS_ASSAULT). Terrorists like to camp
    out inside the warehouse to wait for the CTs. Many of them stay
    on the railway on the right side of the warehouse from the hostage
    room. Little do they know that that part of the map is on a similar
    level to the bridge outside. The crafty [gulay] CT sniper will move
    on to the bridge and aim at the wall, behind which is the long
    railway where the terrorists perch. Shooting a few shots here,
    you can easily kill any terrorists camping inside.
    This is the most advanced form of Kage Utsugiri. By studying the
    enemy's camping habits, you can eliminate them without a fight
    with a few well-placed shots. This skill is easily strengthened
    when you have a dead teammate coaching you where the enemy is
    hiding, but to master this technique you must learn the basic
    intuition that will guide your hand.
    SPECIAL NOTE: As of CS v1.1, Kage Utsugiri is no longer as
    fearsome or deadly as it used to be. Chances are, you may
    score a hit, but damage has been GREATLY decreased, so 
    typically it will take 2-3 shots to kill someone behind an
    obstacle. Too inefficient.
    | Sniping Skill: Flash of the Dark Sky (Hisatsu! Yuugusora Sen) |
    This is the second deadly skill of the [gulay] school. Most
    players find jumping as an easy and effective way of avoiding
    enemy fire. You, as a sniper of the [gulay] school, should
    teach him otherwise.
    To be able to kill a person the moment he lands is the aim
    of this skill. This is quite possible and logical because
    CS jump trajectory is very easy to plot and estimate. Unless
    your opponent is using stop-jumping techniques, you should be
    able to kill him easily at the end of his jump.
    The secret to this technique is to familiarize yourself with
    the jumping physics of the CS engine. Once you have done so,
    you can easily shoot down any jumping opponent with practice.
    | Sniping Skill: Instant Death Blow (Hisatsu! Shun Satsu Sen) |
    "Main cannon, Eva Black, Fire!"
      -- Yamamoto Youko, Soreyuke! Uchuusenkan Yamamoto Youko
    This is the third deadly sniper skill, the ultimate
    refinement of the camping art. With this technique, you can
    kill an opponent the very second he appears from your camped
    This skill is as much a mental skill as a physical one. To
    achieve it, you mind must be working at a fast enough level
    that your reaction time is at its zenith. This is a true
    camper's Arctic skill. By pointing at the spot where your
    opponent is most likely to appear, you fire immediately at
    hit him as soon as he appears.
    That is the physical aspect. The mental aspect is mastered
    by keeping the mind at the edge of activity. By utilizing
    mind exercise techniques, you can achieve this. Perhaps
    the best method to achieve this mental level is by being
    keenly aware of your breathing. A basic method is counting
    while exhaling, but not while inhaling as you breath at
    regular intervals. This will help train your mind to achieve
    the concentration needed to execute Shun Satsu Sen.
    The actual use of this technique, though, is not strictly for 
    camping, but rather for stopping at narrow passes where your 
    opponent is likely to show up or follow you. By waiting at a
    bottleneck and shifting to your 2x scope, you wait for an
    enemy to burst from cover and get into your sights. As soon
    as he does, shoot. He dies.
    In case you didn't figure it out, this is the technique used
    with the Style of the Ages.
    | Sniping Skill: Catching the Movement (Hisatsu! Nigeto Sen) |
    This is the fourth and final deadly sniper skill. As of the
    moment, this is the most advanced technique I have learned.
    I do not know if I care to call this my ougi, but it is at
    the moment my finest achievement.
    By finely honing your mental concentration, you can exist in
    a world which has one purpose: shooting a moving enemy in an
    eyeblink. With this technique, you can track down a moving
    opponent, estimate his position, and shoot with lethal
    results. This all occurs in a very short span of time.
    This technique requires intense, constant concentration. To
    train it, an ideal spot is at the end of a tunnel where an
    opponent can suddenly enter. Keep your cursor aimed at the
    spot directly next to the wall where the enemy is likely to
    come from. His movement the moment he comes from the edge
    of the wall should register in your mind. As he moves away,
    swing the mouse immediately in his direction. When you fire,
    you should be able to hit him.
    By training in this fashion, you can master this technique.
    Do not confuse this skill with the instant death technique:
    Shun Satsu Sen. This is a different skill beyond that technique.
    It allows you a fluidity to kill opponents not from a set point.
    Master it, and you can kill any opponent anywhere from mid to
    long range. Combined with Shun Satsu Sen, this is the lethal
    technique to kill in an eyeblink. Perhaps you could call it
    Shun Ten Satsu (Instant Heavenly Murder), in honor of Tenken
    no Soujiro, God's gift to nature.
    "I see, you make an attack using the speed of the Shukuchi.
    It is indeed worthy of being called Shun Ten Satsu."
      -- Himura Kenshin, Rurouni Kenshin
    | Sniping Skill: Two Headed Dragon Flash (Hiken! Nipun Ryuu Sen) |
    "I dodged it...  Ack! Sword and sheath..."
      -- Udo Jinee, Rurouni Kenshin
    This is an extra technique which is not fully in use by
    the gulay school. However, anything goes, and if you
    learn this technique it might save your life. Use it
    when when someone gets too close to you for comfort, but
    you're too low on life for comfort.
    Simply switch to your handgun before the skirmish begins,
    and use figure eight sidestepping to hit your opponent.
    The aim is to stun him, not kill him. When you get in
    that one good shot to stun him, switch to your AWP. Since
    you already hit him with your handgun, your AWP should be
    pointed straight at him. Shoot and finish him off while 
    he's stopped. 
    Most pistols have decent stopping power, meaning if you hit 
    your opponent (particularly the chest) they will be stunned
    for a moment, their aim knocked up and unable to move.
    This makes it easier to kill them quickly with your
    AWP at close range.
    Of course, this is not easy to do, and it is crucial
    that you get the initiative and hit them before they
    hit you. There is also the argument that, if you already
    hit them with the pistol, why bother switching to the AWP?
    Why not finish him off with the pistol? Well, the answer
    here is that this technique should be used as a last
    ditch effort when you are down on life and you run into
    someone at close range. If you have a little life and
    your opponent has a lot, trying to finish him off with
    your pistol is not a good idea, especially if he's
    packing a true assault weapon. But, if you can nail him
    with the AWP, then his high life is not an issue. The
    problem is hitting with the single fire AWP -- it can be
    quite a problem, and all your enemy needs is one shot as
    well, and he probably has a fast-firing weapon.
    The way to increase your chances is to stun him with your
    hand gun, since it has a high rate of fire, then switch
    to the AWP and finish him off. This technique works well
    with the stock terrorist gun -- the Glock. It also works
    with the USP, but the USP is strong enough to finish a
    weakened opponent by itself. I don't recommend this
    technique with the Eagle, though. If you're using an
    Eagle, just rely on it to finish the enemy off: it's
    strong enough.
    How to Defeat the Arctic
    This section is for people who want to go up against the arctic.
    However, by knowing your own weakness, an Arctic player can
    compensate and adjust his fighting style. The AWP player should
    know this just as well, if not better, than his opponent.
    One of the things to consider is to learn how your opponent aims:
    whether they use Glide Aiming or Mouse Aiming. It is often easy
    to tell. If your opponent is side-stepping at range with the funny
    gait that only the AWP, then you are sure he is Glide Aiming. If
    he is standing still or kneeling down, then you know he is Mouse
    The key to surviving an arctic attack is to watch the point of his
    gun. Before the sniper has drawn a bead on you, his gun will be
    pointing away from you. You will still actually be able to see
    the barrel and stock of the AWP. However, once the gun is pointed
    at you, all you will see is a dot as the barrel lines up with your
    eye. It is at this crucial moment that you either jump or dash or
    do whatever movement you feel is appropriate. In that split second
    before he fires, you must move as fast as you can, for your life
    depends on it. If you can achieve this, then you have learned the
    basic skill needed to survive an AWP sniper.
    The next skill you will have to learn depends on you. What weapon
    are you using? If you are using an MP5, Carbine, or other automatic
    weapon, then you should engage in the Anti-Arctic Technique that was
    detailed in Chapter 5 (under offensive techniques). You can use the
    same technique as well using a pistol, although it will be harder.
    If you are using a shotgun, don't even think about it. You have
    practically no chance of winning. Duck for cover, and find a way
    to get closer while under cover. You can also run the gauntlet
    and try zig-zagging closer to your opponent, but that is highly
    risky and not a very smart thing to do.
    Barring these techniques, you could use a smoke grenade and/or some
    flashbangs to get closer. Smoke Grendades are the sniper's worst
    Things get interesting, however, when the weapon you are using is
    a sniper as well. Then, we get an intersting sniper duel.
    The Arctic Duel
    Regardless of whether you use a G3, Scout, Krieg or AWP, the
    fundamental rules of sniper duelling is the same. But the
    culmination of this ancient dance is the classic Arctic vs.
    Arctic. It is very funny to see two AWP snipers locked in a
    ferocious duel as they strut left and right, occasionally jumping,
    firing earth-shaking shots all the while.
    There are two basic courses of action for a sniper in a sniper
    duel. The first is stand the opponent off and attack relentlessly,
    hoping to hit him first. This is where the scenario I painted
    earlier occurs: two snipers hopping around like idiots at the
    ends of a vast expanse. Here, you must rely on the various
    basic offensive-defensive techniques outlined earlier: Hot and
    Cold Firing, Jump Aiming, Ducking, and Sidestepping. Just keep
    going until one of you wins or gives up.
    "I'll teach you who you picked a fight with."
      -- Yamamoto Youko, Soreyuke! Uchuusenkan Yamamoto Youko
    But the smart dueller will not fall for such an insane joust.
    The motto of the [gulay] skill is to shoot first, then run away.
    Regardless of whether you hit or not. If you missed, that's where
    the Arctic Duel starts. As you miss, your opponent will shoot back
    at you. What you do is you hide back from where you came from, just
    enough so that you are no longer visible. You should still have a
    view of a part of your opponent's side of the field. If your
    opponent is predictable (and stupid), he will try to follow after
    you, trying to get into position to shoot you. What he doesn't know
    is that you are prepared for him.
    After you have taken cover, sit in place, aim at where he is likely
    to appear, and engage the Shun Satsu Sen. The moment he appears, fire.
    You have the Shun Satsu Sen on your side, your aim is set, you should
    win easily.
    However, if your opponent is less predictable, or has some shred of
    common sense, he will not fall for the trap and follow you. He will
    stay in place as well, and attempt a Shun Satsu Sen of his own. The
    solution to this is simple. You take the battle back to him. But you
    do NOT edge out to get a glimpse of him. That would be stupid. What
    you do is you JUMP from cover and land a goodly distance from where
    his gun is pointed. Utilizing the Jump Aiming technique, finish him
    off as you land.
    Now, what if your opponent tries the same technique on you? Then put
    together the deadly sniper skills of the [gulay] school: Yuugusora
    Sen and Nigeto Sen -- catch his movement and let loose with flash of
    the dark sky. He will be toast.
    One last consideration: if you get into the Arctic duel and your
    opponent ducks for cover, you can either chase after him with the
    Jump Aiming technique, or make use of the first sniping skill:
    Kage Utsugiri, Shooting the Shadow. Hit him behind wherever he's
    hiding and end the battle.
    Of course, you might wonder what's stopping your opponent from doing
    the same stuff to you? Well, from my experience, the majority of
    snipers do not follow the philosophies of [gulay] sniping. Surely
    there exist people who use some of its techniques, and there are
    probably others who know all these techniques as well. And of
    course, as of this writing, many people now have access to these
    techniques. Still, the majority of people will probably act the
    predicatable way -- the way which the [gulay] sniping school was
    formulated to defeat. People who run after you when you duck for
    cover, people who zigzag towards you, these are the most common
    reactions of the majority of players. Be assured that this skill
    is the "sneakier" skill that will give you the edge.
    And in the end, what it all really boils down to is a battle of
    skill. When you both use the same techniques, the victor is the
    one who is better, and in most cases, the one who is the luckier.
    That is the harsh way of the Arctic Duel.
    Stop The Jump (Tobu o Tomete)
    An added tidbit that is limited in use. It's a funny technique,
    but can help you defeat those snipers who've mastered Yuugusora Sen
    (catching the jump). Someone who has learned the Yuugusora Sen can
    catch you at the end of your jump easily. To make it more difficult
    for the sniper, you can "stop" your jump mid-air and screw his aim.
    While jumping in one direction, simply tap the key in to move in
    the opposite direction. This will make you freeze in mid-air, and
    fall straight down. While this doesn't always work, it makes you
    far more unpredicatable, and could save your life from the dreaded
    AWP sniper.
    7B.   H&K MP5-Navy  [3-1]
    The MP5 is the archetypal weapon for the assault, quick firing
    close-range combat guns. Most of these techniques apply as well
    for the other guns in its class: the TMP, the P90, the M4 Carbine,
    and even the the Mac-10.
    (In the absence of the other gun sections, use this as reference)
    Why Use the MP5?
    It is arguably one of the finest, if not the best close combat weapon
    in the game. It has insane firing rate, unparalleled handling and is
    still quite effective for sniping at medium range. All this for the
    incredible cheap price of $1500. Win or lose, you can buy this gun.
    Any time. All the time.
    1.) Poor attack power. While stronger than the other guns with the
    same ammo type (TMP, Glock, Berreta), the 9mm still does weak damage
    and has poor penetration at best.
    2.) Limited range ability: the MP5 is a killer up-close, but is a
    little inaccurate at range. You can still steal some kills at
    medium range, but long range is dubious. The weak attack power also
    means a luck shot at range is less likely to do much damage compared
    to the rifles.
    3.) Weak against armored opponents. Again, a consequence of the 9mm round.
    It will take about five shots to kill a healthy armored opponent.
    How to Use the MP5: General Principles
    | Always Sidestep |
    The MP5 has the second best handling in the game (best is the TMP). This
    is true even while going full-auto. Thus, to be truly effective with the
    MP5, learn to sidestep while attacking. Always. Master the Figure Eight
    technique if you want to be able to kill opponents while taking minimal
    or no damage.
    | Use Full-Auto Fire as much as possible |
    Because the MP5 has very weak attack power, you must compensate by firing
    full auto, to do as much damage as quickly as possible. And since the MP5
    has minimal recoil and great close-range accuracy even while moving, this
    is not a problem.
    | Fight at Close Range |
    While the MP5 can peform reasonably well at medium range (but not
    long range), it isn't a match for the true rifles or even some of
    the pistols and SMGs. No, the MP5 was built for close-range combat,
    assaults in particular, and you should take advantage of this.
    Thanks to its great handling, the MP5 can easily outperform all
    the assault rifles in close combat, in spite of its weaker attack
    power. Train to kill with the MP5 in close quarters, and you will
    be surprising the M4, Aug, and Commando users in close combat.
    | Go for the Headshots! |
    The MP5 is the best gun to go for headshots up close. It is relatively
    easy to get them with the gun, thanks to the many shots you fire and
    the accuracy/controllability. And unlike the TMP, its closest rival, the MP5
    can actually kill an unhelmeted opponent with one headshot, two with the
    helmet. The TMP needs two shots unarmored, more (four, I think) with the
    For the best results, aim, as always, for the general neck area. Hold
    your gun cursor at the general neck area while you are moving around,
    and when you spot an enemy SIDESTEP first then quickly move the cursor
    horizontally until you reach his head. Fire the moment your cursor touches
    his shoulder, and keep firing while sidestepping madly. Using the Figure
    Eight technique, keep sidestepping while keeping the cursor fixed on his
    MP5: Other Techniques
    Sniping Tactics
    The MP5 is still relatively good for sniping at medium range, but even
    then there is a good chance your shots will not be accurate and shoot
    around your crosshair. Far too often have I seen my shots hit around a
    target's head at medium range.
    Still, for sniping at medium range, you can still kill an opponent
    with headshots. Body shots are easier to do, but are not very effective
    because you need something like five or more shots to kill an armored
    person, and at this range only one in every three shots might hit the
    target. When sniping with the MP5, your best recourse is to try for
    the head.
    At medium range, it is still quite possible to shoot full-auto and get
    decent results. This will increase your chances of hitting the target
    and killing him faster. However, I personally prefer going burst fire
    for the most part.
    At long range, I always use burst fire, and I recommend that you should,
    too. However, the more prudent thing to do would be to get closer and
    not engage in long-range combat. Especially if you are up against one
    of the rifles better suited for this kind of combat.
    | When sniping with the MP5, sidestep |
    Regardless of whether you use auto or burst fire, always sidestep
    while sniping with the MP5. Rely on your rate of fire to hit your
    opponent. The only exception is when your opponent is unaware of
    your presence, in which case sniping while crouching is a good idea.
    Take note that it is also easier to use bursts while sidestepping
    than full-auto. Full-auto is easier to do while crouching.
    Crouching in a medium range duel is often the thing to do when using
    the rifles, but doing so with the MP5 is dubious, especially when
    up against the rifles. The MP5 simply does not have the accuracy
    to compete. So stick to sidestepping.
    If you do decide to snipe while crouching, pay attention to your
    first shot. If it hits on target, go auto-fire all the way. If it
    is off target, stop firing, aim, and shoot again. Only go autofire
    when the first shot is on target.
    The reason for this is because auto-fire causes succeeding shots
    to trace around the first shot. If you continue firing when the
    first shot is off, all succeeding shots will probably be off, too.
    Make sure the first shot is true, and the rest will follow.
    | Use your Pistol for sniping |
    However, when I am forced into a medium range confrontation, I actually
    prefer to switch to my pistol. In general pistols, with their single fire
    triggers, are actually better than the MP5 for sniping. They generally
    share the same range and accuracy, but most pistols have better ammo and
    some, like the beretta and the five-seven, have better accuracy. Recoil
    is also much lower, making it easier to keep on target.
    When you want to fight medium or even long range and you have no
    intention of side-stepping, switching to your pistol is often a
    better idea.
    Only stick to the MP5 when you plan to fight at that range while
    sidestepping -- such as when using the Anti-Arctic technique (5.c3a).
    And when you sidestep, go burst.
    Sidearm of Choice
    Although while using an AWP the Eagle is the only way to go for me, with
    an MP5 this may be different, and there is no "Gulay School of MP5."
    When I play with the MP5, I tend to stick with the default weapon until
    I have enough money to spare to buy a sidearm. The great thing about the
    MP5 is that, since it is so cheap, you can easily afford to buy a sidearm
    on a regular basis.
    In my case, I like to pick a secondary that can act as my sniping weapon.
    I personally find that the MP5 is really best for close range, and not
    sniping, and that many pistols are actually better for the purpose. In
    general, I like to get the Desert Eagle, but that's only because it is
    my favorite sidearm. The power of the .50 is intoxicating, and it is
    suprisingly good for sniping. Because of the power, three or so shots is
    enough to kill at range, one if you're lucky enough to get the head.
    Aside from the Eagle, as a CT I like to get the Five-SeveN. Since it is
    quite accurate, it is a great choice for sniping. As a terrorist, I might
    have recommended the Dual Berettas, but I have reservations about this;
    the largest being that it uses the same ammo. I hate sharing ammo for
    my primary with my secondary.
    Thus when using the MP5, I tend to avoid having the Glock or Berettas
    for my secondary. The perfect secondary would be the Five Seven, or
    failing that the Sig Sauer is a good alternative.
    Take note that the Desert Eagle is only good as a sniping alternative
    to the MP5. Avoid using it in close quarters, as the MP5 and Eagle
    use very different philosophies. The MP5 has a large clip size and
    tends toward auto-fire. The Eagle has a small clip and tends to
    single fire. These two will be in conflict. That's why the best
    sidearm for the MP5 is actually still the Five-SeveN, and for
    Terrorists the Glock is just fine. You should always keep yourself
    in an auto-fire mindset when using the MP5.
    In general, having a sidearm is not as important for an MP5 user as it is
    for, say, an AWP user. The MP5, being able to perform reasonably well under
    most conditions, needs no sidearm. For the most part, since I try to avoid
    ranged skirmishes while using the MP5, the only time I switch to the pistol
    is when I run out of ammo.
    Thinking about changing to your secondary tends to distract you from
    sing the MP5 to its fullest capacity -- in close combat.
    Kamikaze Run
    This technique is very useful when your team is on the losing side
    and cash is low for everyone. Take note that this technique is best
    used in a group, rather than individually.
    At the start of the round, being low on cash, just buy an MP5. That's
    it. Don't buy any extra ammo, don't buy a pistol, don't buy pistol
    ammo, don't buy armor.
    Then go along with your buddies into a blitzkrieg rush, taking the
    fastest path to the map objective (bombsite, hostage point, or where
    the enemy is likely to be) that's obscured and good for close combat.
    Have the mentality of "I'll take as many of you down with me as I can."
    When you meet the enemy, throw caution to the wind and go for the kill.
    Chances are, the enemy will be taken aback by the sudden intensity of
    your assault. You practically are like madmen charging in with your
    MP5s. Having no extra ammo is very important: it gives you a "do or die"
    attitude which heightens your killing instinct.
    Once the enemy is down and if you're still alive, pick up their guns,
    they probably have a good expensive rifle or something, since they've
    been winning.
    The point of this technique is to save money while giving yourself a
    reasonable chance of killing at least one opponent. It has the advantage
    of costing only $1500, and since you buy only one thing, you have a lot
    of speed at the start. And since you should do this in a group, the
    bloodlust is pretty terrifying.
    If you survive the run, you can pick up your enemy's gun free of charge.
    If you die, then at least you saved up some money for next time.
    Regardless, your weapon on the ground is empty (since you bought no
    extra ammo), and any opponents looking to pick up your gun may be
    disappointed that there's nothing inside.
    Using this technique for one round is usually enough to net you a
    better gun and armor in the next round. If you're going for an arctic,
    consider using this technique twice in a row.
    Take note that this technique also works well with the other cheap
    SMGs, such as the TMP or the Ingram.
    Bunny Combat
    Although jumping greatly decreases your accuracy, it makes it more
    difficult for an enemy to hit you. Use this to your advantage with
    the MP5 when you are up-close. Although in the past I said the MP5
    doesn't suffer much from the jumping inaccuracy, as of v1.1 this is
    no longer true. It is FAR more difficult to succeed with this
    technique now, so use the MP5 Bunny Combat at your own risk.
    When jumping with the MP5, try to flank the enemy with the jump
    while keeping the cursor aimed at his head. As soon as your aim
    is true, let loose and when you hit the ground, keep running 
    around him. If neither of you are dead yet, repeat the process.
    I've found that this fast-paced bunny combat really wastes lesser
    shrubs who haven't quite gotten their CS legs yet, or against
    snipers who tend to remain stationary while trying to aim at you.
    Alternately, upon facing your opponent, you can duck while aiming
    vertically towards the enemy. As soon as he is within your vertical
    sights, start hopping up and down while still crouching. This tends
    to really disorient the enemy. If he isn't familiar with the
    technique, he will have at first adjusted his aim down to compensate
    for your ducking, but when you jump this throws his aim of a second
    time. Chances are, his shots will hit your feet instead of your
    chest or head, doing minimal damage. All the while, keep your cursor
    trained at his chest or neck while hopping, and you will be doing far
    more damage.
    It is especially useful against a stationary opponent, since 
    typically your aim will be at his chest, and once you duck and
    jump the crosshair typically goes straight to his head, giving
    you a clean high-damage shot.
    This alternate stationary jump-ducking trick is very useful against
    opponents of equal caliber as you, but who might be surprised at the
    move. Beware not to use it to often against them, though; if they're
    good, they'll probably figure out to aim up when you are about to
    jump, and that tends to waste you faster than you can waste him.
    How to Defeat the MP5
    "Our fighting style has never lost a battle. Because we always run
    away, we never have the chance to lose."
      -- Grand Master of the Wind Style, Lunar 2: Eternal Blue
    The best defense against the MP5, without a doubt, is to keep your
    distance. When using just about any other gun (except the shotguns),
    keeping yourself at medium to long distance from an MP5 player will
    increase your survivability a lot. MP5s are simply devastating at
    close range, but less terrifying at range.
    Pistols, for instance, I've generally found to work better at sniping
    than the MP5. If you're armed with just a pistol, stay away and snipe
    from a distance, where your lesser recoil gives you the edge.
    Assault rifles also follow suit. Most assault rifles do not have the
    high-level of handling the MP5 has, and good MP5 players exploit this
    fact. But all rifles have stronger ammo, and better accuracy. Thus,
    try to stay away from the MP5 and kill him at medium range. With a
    sniper rifle, do it at long range.
    However, the fun really begins when you both have assault weapons.
    The MP5 Duel, although usually over in a few seconds, is one of the
    most exciting (and common) aspects of Counter Strike.
    In these cases, the general guidelines above apply. Side step, side
    step, side step. That's the best way to ensure you survive. Try the
    Bunny Combat every now and then to throw your opponents off.
    Most of all, with the MP5, never be afraid to fight in close quarters.
    Close combat is your domain. Don't ever be afraid at this range,
    no matter if your opponent uses the XM1014, the Aug, the Para, or is
    a master assault Arctic sniper. Don't hesitate. Move in, and kill.
    7C.   Kalashnikov AK-47  [4-1]
    The AK-47 is the archetypal sporadic weapon. Most of these techniques apply 
    as well for the other similar guns: the Mac-10, the M249 Para, and the UMP.
    (In the absence of the other gun sections, use this as a reference)
    Why Use the AK-47?
    Bang for your buck. No other gun gives you so much power and ranged
    accuracy for such a cheap price. It is great for long range bursts,
    and the 7.62mm ammo can kill an armored enemy in two or three hits.
    It is the strongest-damaging gun among the assault rifles. Finally,
    priced at $2500, it is very affordable even for the terrorist on a
    1.) HEAVY. Only two guns impede your movement more than this gun. In
    other words, you're an easy target.
    2.) Killer recoil. Few guns have such a strong kickback. You know the 
    old saying "Lightning never strikes the same place twice?" You could 
    apply that to this gun in autofire mode.
    3.) Slow rate of fire. The AK-47 has one of the slowest rates of fire
    among all the auto-fire guns. 
    How to Use the AK-47: General Principles
    Burst and Single Fire
    The AK-47 has one of the worst recoils in the game. What this means is that
    your first shot will typically be dead on, but the second and subsequent
    shots will likely spray elsewhere. Because of this, you should refrain from
    using auto-fire with the AK-47 as much as possible. In general, stick to
    two or three bullet bursts with this gun. This gives you the best ratio for
    killing power and controllability.
    | With the AK-47, three shot bursts is best |
    Aim Before You Shoot
    Aside from the single shot sniper rifles, no other gun benefits more from
    this simple rule. Since the recoil gives you a solid first shot, but dubious
    succeeding ones, the first shot is vital. Thus, aim before you shoot, unlike
    with other guns with less recoil where you can spray all over.
    Headshot Mania
    Because of the power of the AK-47, a single headshot will kill anyone, 
    regardless of health or armor. By aiming at the general neck area of any
    opponent, the recoil of the AK-47 tends to make your second shot hit the
    head as the gun kicks up. 
    While you should strive to make the first shot be a head shot, the recoil
    of the gun actually makes it likely that your subsequent shots will hit
    the head. By learning this nuance of the AK-47 and mastering it through
    practice, your kills will soar.
    To Sidestep or Not To Sidestep
    While the AK-47 has decent handling, it is nowhere near as good as that
    of the MP5 or other true assault guns. Because of this, you should side
    step sparingly when using the AK-47. I believe that, instead of side-
    stepping, you should focus on aiming and killing quickly instead of
    defense. Throw defense out the window. Learn how to kill as quickly as
    possible with lightning fast aiming. The AK-47 has the bullet power to
    do so.
    Besides, since BETA 7, the AK-47 was downgraded to be very heavy. It slows
    you down a LOT. Moving and sidestepping simply doesn't provide you as
    much defense while wielding the AK. 
    | Aim is more important than Evasion |
    Thus, in general, when in a face-to-face combat situation, I find that 
    ducking and shooting is the preferred technique with the AK-47, as opposed 
    to figure eight sidestepping. 
    If you're in long range battle with a sniper, by all means keep moving!
    But against other guns like the MP5, Aug, and Commando which have lesser
    fire power, you're better off just being quicker on the draw and better
    with the aim. To achieve that aiming accuracy advantage, duck and shoot. 
    You have more potential of dealing damage than if you sidestep.
    Sporadic Ambush Mentality
    The AK-47 suffers from three main disadvantages. They are:
    1.) Terrible Recoil
    2.) Slow Movement Speed
    3.) Slow Rate of Fire
    However, it has two important advantages:
    1.) Strong fire power
    2.) Superb Accuracy
    These weaknesses mean that the AK-47, like all the sporadic guns, does not
    particularly excel as a frontal assault weapon. The recoil makes it difficult
    to kill consistently at close range, as you will usually lose to the more
    controllable assault guns. To aggravate this, the slower Rate of Fire means
    you cannot deal as much damage as quickly as the assault guns, and the slow
    movement deprives you of the maneuvering advantage of the Figure Eight form.
    Thus, you must make up for this by playing the Sporadic way. You have to be a
    little sneakier than usual. The first vital rule is to have cover close by at
    all times. By ducking to and from cover, and shooting while doing so, you 
    greatly increase your chances of killing an opponent while reducing the risk
    to yourself. 
    It may seem that this is common sense for all guns, but it works more 
    effectively for sporadic guns than assault guns, because sporadic weapons
    tend to have more killing power in short, sporadic bursts. The AK-47, for
    instance, has more power than an Aug. It can do more damage in that instant
    darting from cover than the assault gun. And unlike the sniper guns, which
    tend to require more aiming time, the Sporadic gun has a good chance of 
    hitting a target without as careful an aim.
    Since cover is essential, you often want to keep your distance from the
    assault guns that are more dangerous at close range. In addition, most
    sporadic guns have good accuracy for mid-range attacks. Thus, the Sporadic
    class tends to work better at mid range than close range. 
    Ambushes, thus are important methods for the Sporadic gun. While ambushing 
    works for all guns, it is doubly important for a Sporadic gun because
    the strong firepower usually means that extra second of surprise is enough 
    to kill any opponent.
    | With Sporadic Guns, do quick ambushes and duck back to cover |
    Other guns in the Sporadic class share this pattern of strengths and 
    weaknesses. While the specifics for each gun differ a bit, they generally
    all conform to this pattern. The Mac-10, for instance, is not as effective
    for assaults as, say, an MP5. This is because the recoil screws your aim.
    As for its strength, it may not have the range accuracy of the AK-47, but 
    it is strong in bursts because of the very fast rate of fire and .45 ammo. 
    Within a shorter span of time, it is more effective than the MP5 at
    dealing damage. It is thus sporadic in short bursts at very close range.
    What this means is that they do not operate as well for frontal assaults as 
    the true assault guns. Thus, you have to compensate by playing a little 
    sneakier than usual. Although I said that in a frontal combat situation 
    you generally have a better chance of surviving by focusing on aim instead
    of side-stepping, the true sporadic mentality impels you to avoid getting
    in frontal combat situations in the first place.
    AK-47: Other Techniques
    Sporadic Side Step Technique
    Unlike the "Assault Figure Eight Side Stepping Technique" used for the MP5
    and other assault guns, the AK-47 requires a slightly modified sporadic 
    side-step technique.
    In Assault Figure Eight, you usually engage an enemy in a head-on fight as
    you rush his position. Because you keep your facing towards your enemy while
    sidestepping, you are actually moving towards your enemy while (thus you tend 
    to curve around your opponent, like the arc in an '8'). You are effectively
    flanking around your enemy.
         Figure Eight Assault Side Step:
                   -> B
              A       C
    However, for a sporadic gun, you generally do not want to move towards your
    opponent. Your concern is to get to the next patch of cover. Thus, an AK-47
    sidestep is best done from two points behind cover, like a doorway or two
    opposite crates in a tunnel. 
               Sporadic Sidestep:
    Doorway Diagram:           Tunnel Diagram: 
            C                 ---------------------        [] -- crate or
    ------|   |-------                 A  []                   other obstacle
    ------|   |-------                            C          
        A --->  B                      B  []
    A is your starting point, then you rush and sidestep from A to B, pointing
    towards C (your enemy) and firing in that brief instant between cover.
    To achieve this kind of sidestep, you must adjust your movement such that
    you do not move towards your opponent like a Figure Eight Assault side
    step would. In Figure Eight, you typically just move either left or right
    while changing your facing to match your opponent. With Sporadic Side Step,
    you will be pressing your back movement key a bit to keep from getting
    closer to the enemy.
    To increase your survivability, it is also a good idea to jump when darting
    from point A into the open. 
    AK-47 Sidestep Burst Firing
    The effective way to shoot while doing a Sporadic Sidestep is in quick 
    bursts. While sidestepping from cover, point your gun towards your target.
    Use a modified sort of Glide Aim (moving the cursor to your target by
    sidestepping) mixed with Mouse Aiming (pointing your cursor at your target).
    As soon as your cursor goes over your enemy, tap the trigger button 
    lightly, thus attacking either single fire or with a short burst. 
    This keeps your aim from dissolving, thus you can fire again in a split
    second. Continue this until you reach cover. If your opponents do not
    charge you, you can make another sorty backwards, though this is
    dangerous if your opponent decides to wait at the other end to fire at
    you. Instead, you should leave that area and find another spot to do
    a sporadic ambush.
    AK-47 Aerial Strike
    "No matter the fighting style, one cannot defend an attack from the air."
      -- Hennya, Rurouni Kenshin
    This is the only defensive technique an AK-47 player should use during
    skirmish assault duels. In a close quarters assault duel, MP5 and other
    fast assault gun fighters will likely figure eight sidestep. Occasionally,
    they will bunny hop. The AK-47 player should ALWAYS bunny hop as a 
    defensive technique.
    Side-stepping is not as effective because you move rather slowly. But
    while your lateral movement is limited, your vertical movement is not.
    Jumping with the AK-47 is as fast as jumping with an MP5, so if you
    are looking for a defensive technique while sniping, jump. 
    Learn to do the jump aim, and while in the air, let go with bursts of
    your AK-47. Attacking your opponent in this way should make you a 
    harder target. Most of the time, enemies will hit your legs as you
    jump, minimizing damage.
    Close Combat
    The secret to winning duels with the AK is to aim carefully and strike
    true. But if you miss the first shots with your AK burst, you are in 
    deep trouble. In this case, you have three options.
    1.) Auto-Fire Like Crazy
    This is the easiest and likely the best option. Just auto-fire at the 
    enemy, and pray you hit him. When doing this, try to compensate for the 
    recoil by aiming downwards. It is difficult to score a kill this way, 
    but waiting a bit to wait for the recoil to wear off for another burst
    is a worse alternative. By the time you fire another shot, an MP5
    player will have gunned you down.
    2.) Run Away
    If the reckless option doesn't suit you, switch to your knife and jump
    and run away like hell. This is actually a very stupid option to do,
    because turning your back to your enemy is stupid at best. If you are
    right next to cover (having spurted out from cover following sporadic
    mentality) you might be able to get away with this trick. Be wary of
    stopping power, though.
    Otherwise, modify it a bit. Jump away, but don't turn your back. Instead, 
    jump away to stall for time and shoot back with a second three-shot burst.
    3.) Switch to your Secondary
    This is the alternative to the first option. Instead of auto-firing with
    your AK, switch to your secondary. However, this is not a good proposition,
    because switching does take time, and time is what you do not have in a 
    close combat duel. The only time you should do this is when your AK's
    recoil is so bad that none of your auto-fire shots are on target.
    In general, though, you should just stick to auto-firing, and try to
    compensate your aim. The other two options are risky gambles at best.
    AK-47 Sniping
    The AK-47 is easily the best scopeless gun for sniping. In fact, I find 
    that it actually performs better than the Sig 552 or Aug at times. This
    is mostly due to its great accuracy and powerful 7.62 round. 
    Do not be afraid to snipe with the AK-47. It is a powerful weapon for
    ranged combat, even at long range. When sniping with the AK-47, it is a
    usually a good idea to crouch for sniping. Against all other guns
    except the true sniping rifles, you will usually have the advantage. 
    Just calm down, crouch, draw a bead on your target, and aim carefully,
    keeping his general chest area at the center of your crosshair. When
    you've done that, fire a quick burst of two shots.
    By keeping your aim at his chest area, the first shot has a good chance
    of hitting there to do some damage, and the second shot has a good
    chance of recoiling upwards to do a head shot. 
    Alternately, if you can visualize the target's head area fairly
    well (usually at medium range), you can aim directly for the head
    and use single shot attacks.
    | When sniping with the AK-47, use single or two round bursts |
    Learn how to do single shot bursts with the AK-47; it is perhaps
    the one assault rifle that benefits the most from single fire.
    How to Defeat the AK-47
    The AK-47 is a difficult gun to go up against. To defeat it, you
    must exploit its two main weaknesses:
    1.) Heavy and thus slow-moving
    2.) Powerful recoil
    The first weakness is exploited best by opposing snipers. The AK-47
    may be a good sniping weapon, but it is not a match for an AWP or
    other true sniper rifle. If you are using a sniper rifle and are
    situated in a good sniping position, you have little to fear from
    the AK-47. Just relax and keep your aim ready when the AK-47 player
    bursts out of hiding to try for some shots.
    Most likely, an AK-47 player will realize he's out-gunned and try
    another approach.
    If you are using an assault gun, defeating the AK-47 player is a
    little trickier. The second weakness must be exploited as well as
    the first. 
    Going head-on against an AK-47 player works, but not all the time.
    There is still a good chance that a lucky shot will nail you, 
    despite the recoil. And a good AK-47 player will aim carefully 
    instead of avoiding you, so be careful.
    To increase your chances in an assault duel against an AK-47, you
    must figure eight sidestep around the enemy. You should focus on
    making yourself as hard a target as possible. Do not try to get into
    a "brute force" match (both duck and shoot it out from crouching
    positions) with the AK-47, you will likely lose.
    7D.   Benelli M3 Super90  [2-1]
    The M3 is the archetypal shotgun weapon. Most of these techniques apply 
    for other similar guns: the XM1014, the Glock on burst-mode, and practically
    even the Scout and AWP in better days.
    (In the absence of the other gun sections, use this as a reference)
    Why Use the M3?
    It's relative cheap, being in the upper bounds of the SMG price range.
    For this price, it packs incredible power at close range -- one-hit
    kills are not uncommon. It's also very light and hardly slows you
    1.) Very slow rate of fire - in CQB (close quarters battle) you 
    will typically get only one shot.
    2.) Poor range - its maximum effective range is close up. Any
    further reduces attack power a lot.
    3.) Slow reload - reloading all 8 shells takes a while. Fortunately,
    the pump action lets you fire each time you load a shell.
    How to Use the M3: General Principles
    Go for the Neck
    First and most important rule of the M3: hit their head (or around
    their). At point blank to close close range, this ensures you a 
    one-hit kill, regardless of health or armor! The great thing about 
    the M3 is that the shot radius is rather large, meaning that it is 
    much easier to get a head shot with this than any other gun, on a 
    one-shot basis.
    While it may be easier to get headshots with other guns with the
    "spray mentality," again that's a case of higher probability from
    multipile smaller probabilities (as discussed in Shooting Styles
    in 3.c). But singularly, the M3 is the best gun for head shots.
    Because of the radius, a shot to the neck is practically a head
    shot, and will kill your opponent in one shot at point blank to
    close range. Therefore, always go for the neck, since it is 
    generally an easier target than the head. Even hitting the upper 
    chest area tends to kill opponents in one shot.
    Close Range
    The second important rule: keep it close. Do NOT even think of
    fighting at long range. At medium range, you will still be
    able to do damage to your enemy, but this will be at a minimum,
    and if your opponent is using any other class of gun he will
    have the advantage. 
    Your maximum effective range is close range, go for point blank
    as much as possible. The reason is because buckshot is actually
    something like 8 individual shots which dissipate in a cone-
    shaped radius the farther it goes from your barrel. At point
    blank all shots are more or less bunched together, and when
    they hit they will do incredible damage, enough to kill 
    At close range this still holds true, but disperses a bit. However, 
    at this range the dispersal is very small, and what happens is that 
    damage is not compromised, but the radius of your attack is increased, 
    making headshots easier! Although I have had experiences where close-
    range attacks did not kill outright, this is more the fault of my bad
    aiming than anything else. At close range, a neck/head shot will kill 
    instantly regardless of health and armor.
    Move, Move, Move
    "Muge! Muge! Muge!"
      -- Ikari Shinji, Shin Seiki Evangelion
    You can move quite fast with the M3 equipped; almost as fast as 
    a pistol. Use this to your advantage by always being on the move 
    when in a duel. Since you will be fighting at close range, and 
    shotgun movement accuracy is very good, you can use the figure-
    eight sidestep technique without fear. Just aim carefully while
    you sidestep, and you shouldn't have any problems.
    Unlike other guns, crouch aiming is almost defintely out of
    the question. There is practically no benefit or advantage
    to be gained from crouching; you will only be making yourself
    an easy target. With the shotguns, the trick is to move, move,
    The sidestepping technique should be your basic movement skill
    with the M3. However, there are more advanced ways to make use
    of the M3s mobility, which I will discuss later.
    The Duel
    Because of the M3's slow-firing rate, you should as much as 
    possible focus on fighting only one opponent. Taking on two
    opponents is difficult at most with the M3.
    M3: Other Techniques
    One Shot
    Because of the M3's slow attack speed, you will typically have
    only one shot to kill your enemy before he kills you. Make it
    count! As with the Arctic and Scout, you must train yourself
    to master single-fire, and to make the shot under intense
    pressure -- when the enemy is right in front of you.
    To achieve this kind of marksmanship and accuracy consistently,
    intense mental focus is required. No lapses are allowed, you
    must achieve that shot no matter what. You will likely want to
    learn the Mugento Shunkan technique (5.c10) to effectively
    use the M3 shotgun. When you see the enemy, catch his movement
    and focus on his head/neck, aim, and fire. Eventually, you will
    be doing it faster and faster, until you can achieve it 
    Two-Headed Dragon
    Although the ideal scenario is a one-shot kill at close range,
    far too often you will likely hit the enemy, but be a little
    off and thus be left with a weakened, but live, opponent who
    will no doubt be extremely pissed and rearing to tear your head
    If you wait until you finish the pump action of your shotgun,
    you will likely die. Thus, it is imperative that you make it
    a habit to smoothly switch to your secondary the moment after
    you shoot the buckshot. As soon as you switch, if you did not
    see the green Money Flash at the bottom right indicating your
    enemy's death (see Kane Kae Sen, 5.c7) get your pistol to
    aim and shoot carefully to finish him off.
    Since your opponent will already have been weakened (assuming
    you did not miss), one or two pistol shots should be enough
    to finish him off. Under [gulay] philosophy, the ideal sidearm
    for the M3 is the Desert Eagle. Without a doubt, a hit from a
    shotgun and a hit from the Deagle will kill any opponent.
    However, the default guns for either team (USP and Glock) are
    equally suitable. The USP is strong and fast enough, and if
    one shot won't kill, it's easy enough to pump a second shot.
    The Glock, on the other hand, is practically the perfect
    sidearm compliment: turn the burst-fire mode on, and the Glock
    becomes a mini hand-held shotgun. The firing philosophy for a
    shotgun and a Glock in burstmode is very similar; to use your
    Glock as the follow-up to your M3 attack is obvious.
    In the LAN where I play, it is usually the terrorists who use
    the shotgun, not the CTs. I don't think this is a coincidence.
    The terrorists, defaulting with the Glock, no doubt feel a
    kinship with the M3. And of course, terrorists usually have
    the better camping positions.
    Hiken! Nibuki Renkan
    The M3, after firing, has a slow recovery time as you engage
    the pump action. The Glock, in burstmode, has a slow recovery
    time after firing. Now, think about the weapon-switching
    technique. What do you get?
    The secret technique (Hiken) -- Nibuki Renkan. Start with your M3, 
    and upon firing switch immediately to your Glock (burst mode) to
    fire. Upon firing the Glock in turn will have a firing delay, 
    and so switch back to your M3, which is now ready to be fired
    It may feel rather awkward at first, but when practiced long 
    enough and mastered, you will be able to achieve a smoothness
    with this dual attack combo which will give you versatility to
    surpass the M3's limitations.
    The other way to get around the M3's limitations is to stage ambushes.
    Shotgun players are well-known for their ambushing techniques. Playing
    sneaky lends well to the M3, to compensate for problems in fighting
    multiple opponents. Follow the guidelines for the "Style of the Ages"
    technique in the Arctic section (7A), and find camping spots where
    people are likely to pass without you being detected. Hopefully I
    will be able to release map-specific tactics to point out these
    spots. For now, use the guidelines as indicated in 7A to find your
    special camping spots.
    An extension of the ambush is to use suprise in a frontal ambush.
    This is the same as the "Finding the Blindspot" technique as told
    in (5.c6a): the M3 Aerial Assault.
    M3 Aerial Assault
    From cover, like behind a crate or the edge of a corridor, the M3
    is lethal to approaching enemies. From that position of cover,
    listen intently for your opponent's approach. As soon as he passes
    the critical "ambush point" you jump from your position across him,
    and as you pass the ambush point while in mid-air you aim for his
    head, and shoot. As you land at your end point, your opponent should
    be dead.
     See this diagram:
    A - your position
    B - your ending position
    X - the enemy
    Y - ambush point
           A        B              A ---->  B                       A -> B 
    ==========  Y          ==========   X              ==========   X
            ||  ^                  ||                          ||
            ||  |                  ||                          ||
            ||  X                  ||                          ||
       Figure 1                  Figure 2                 Figure 3
    Opponent approaches       As opponent reaches       Still in mid-air, you
    your covered position     point Y, you jump out     blast his head off as
                              towards point B           pass him, eventually
                                                        landing at point B
    With practice, this technique works perfectly, killing the
    opponent the instant you leap out to see them. This technique
    has the advantage of you not being subjected to risk, as you
    are secluded in point A. 
    The very instant you jump out, the opponent likely will not
    have the time to shoot properly at you. He will likely be
    surprised, and if he does get a shot off it will be poorly
    aimed, going off to nowhere or, if he was aiming at head
    level, it will hit your feet, doing minimal damage.
    More likely, though, you will have the initiative and fire
    first, killing him with a headshot before he can react. I've
    used this technique even on seasoned veterans and it gets even
    them all the time (as long as you perform the technique
    Mid-Range Sniping
    One final note about the M3. Although long-range shooting is just
    about out of the question, I've managed to defeat many opponents
    at close-medium range many times. By carefully aiming at their
    head, sometimes the buckshot dispersion isn't significant enough
    to soak the damage, and you can achieve kills in this manner. If 
    you use the hot and cold firing technique (5.c2), it can increase
    your accuracy even more, making medium range sniping more
    effective. Typically, you will take down a fully-armored, healthy
    opponent to about %50 with a well-aimed shot like this. If the
    enemy is not wearing armor or is injured, you have a chance of
    actually killing him. Needless to say, if you manage to ambush
    an opponent in this manner, you may get off 2 shots, enough to
    kill even a healthy, armored opponent.
    I only advise doing this under special circumstances where the
    opportunity presents itself, though. I do not recommend actively
    getting into these situations. Remember, the M3 is best close up.
    How to Defeat the M3
    Defeating the M3 is simple. All you have to do is remember its
    chief weakness: short range. By keeping your distance, you can 
    outgun an M3 player anytime, even using your pistol.
    Of course, most M3 players are smart enough not to get into
    long range altercations. In this case, the best way to avoid
    dying to buckshot is be aware of the map and avoid getting
    into M3 ambushes. Without a doubt, a good M3 player will be
    biding his time somewhere waiting for you to come close enough
    for an ambush.
    Defeating the M3 is, as such, a mental game of avoiding the
    compromising situations where the M3 can do you the most damage.
    If you get into a sniping battle with the M3, count your stars
    if you're alive after the first shot and quickly get distance
    between yourselves. The farther away you are, the less deadly
    the shotgun is. As you do, I suggest switching to your pistol
    if your primary isn't a particularly good ranged weapon (like
    the Mac-10). If you've grown strong enough in aiming and
    evasion, there should be no problems.
    If you do get into a close-range battle with the M3, you have to
    rely on your reflexes to give you the initiative. You have to 
    shoot first, and shoot true. You have to kill him before he
    gets off his shot. Quite frankly, this is VERY difficult, since
    any other gun aside from the AWP will likely need more time to
    kill than the M3. Also remember that M3 players like to move
    around a lot to make themselves harder to hit (like MP5 players).
    If the M3 player does get his shot off, just pray he misses your
    head. If he does, you can relax a bit, becuase your gun now has a
    good chance of finishing him off.
    The M3 Duel
    A close-quarters duel between two M3 players is very rare, but 
    when it happens all I can say is that it tends to be the fastest,
    most brutal duel in the game. Each combatant is trying to kill
    the other in one shot, in as fast a time as possible. All you 
    can do is hope that you're the one whose aim is true.
    Scripting Links
       This section contains some useful links to help you learn the fine art
       of scripting. This is important to make full use of your console.
       Thanks, Paul for the links!
    Map Tactical Links
       In the absence of specific map tactics in my guide, refer to these
       sites. Hopefully one day I will muster the resolve to make my own
       map tactics. But for now, these will have to do.
    Bot Links
       These are links to Counter Strike bots. Bots are a great way to practice
       without embarassing yourself in front of other people, and you can play
       with them any time! I'll write a bot training guide soon.
    Map Links
       Go here to download some maps. Sometimes you go to a server and find that
       they have maps you don't. Or maybe you're sick of playing the same old
       levels over and over again. Whatever, find them here.
    Anti-Cheat Links
        Sick of cheating? Well, check this site out.
    Aimbot Links
        Hah! You wish. As if I'd condone the use of such pathetic trinkets.
    Miscellaneous Links
       This is the homepage of this guide's mailing list:
       This is where you can find the latest version of this guide:
    APPENDIX B -- BOT TRAINING GUIDE (still under construction)
    Some tips to help you train and increase your skill. Hmm, for
    now, I suggest you get Pod Bot. It's a fun bot to play with!
    But for real tough training, try NNBot. It cheats, though.
    Q: When will the next version of the guide be out?
    A: It can take me any amount of time to do an update. It mostly depends on
       how much free time I have, as well as whether I have access to a computer.
       I share a PC with my brother, so I don't have the freedom to work on this
       just whenever. Sometimes, I get an update out in a week. Sometimes, a 
       month. Hopefully, the time lapse will never reach a year.
       Rest assured, when a new version comes out, you will hear about it at
       the mailing list.
    Q: What mailing list?
    A: The Counter Strike Weapons and Tactics Guide Mailing List. (CSFAQML) 
       I created it to notify people when a new version of the guide is out.
       However, you can also use it to send me comments as well as talk about
       the FAQ itself. To subscribe, send mail here: 
    Q: I want to post your guide at my web site! Please let me!
    A: Go ahead. Who am I to argue? ^_^ Just don't change the content. You
       could format it better to make it look more presentable, but please
       don't make it say something it didn't, and kindly don't "cut and paste"
       and plagiarize anything.
    Q: How long have you been playing Counter Strike?
    A: I've been on board since Beta 1, but I stopped playing at intervals.
       I wasn't exactly impressed by Beta 1. But as more features and better
       graphics came in, I began playing CS more and more, especially around
       Beta 5, when the CS craze began overtaking the Action Quake and Rogue
       Spear craze over here.
    Q: What is your ICQ number?
    A: Sorry, I don't have ICQ at the moment.
    Q: Aw, but I wanted to have a match with you!
    A: There've been a lot of people writing in, telling me that they want to
       fight me. They think I'm a skilled player. Well, I'm here to debunk
       that myth. I am actually a very average player in the LANs I frequent.
       If you guys think I'm good, I'd love to introduce you to the people who
       kick my ass on a regular basis! In fact, many of the techniques I detail
       here were taught to me by these masters. I haven't even mastered many of
       the techniques I discuss.
    Q: So that means I can't have a match with you?
    A: Not unless you frequent the LANs I go to. I don't play CS on-line, 
       sorry. Maybe when I get a DSL or cable connection. You can pray that
       I get a DSL connection soon. I am applying for a DSL connection from
       a certain service provider, but they are SO slow taking care of their
    Q: How do I activate the console? HELP!
    A: Read the revised portion of the guide. Section 5.a4, I think.
    Q: The Mimic Technique won't work!
    A: Good! I am finally beginning to realize that I am doing the CS community
       at large a disservice by showing people how to do this cheap trick. While
       my initial intention really was to educate people about cheats (and thus
       take steps against them), I think what's happening is that more newbies
       are swayed by the promise of the cheap power it gives. Don't use this
       cheat! Grow strong with your own skills! Use this only if you and a bunch
       of friends want to do it for fun. In the next revision, I may take out
       how to do the 'bad' cheats altogether.
    Q: Where is the MP5 guide? I want it now!
    A: It's there already! Now you have to wait for the AK-47 guide....
    Q: Where are the map specific techniques? I want to kick-ass in DE_DUST!
    A: Sorry, that part of the guide is not even confirmed yet. It's really hard
       to do it, because to properly explain such techniques I'd have to make a
       diagram of the map. If ever, this will probably be the last thing I add.
       I'm not a very graphically-oriented person, sad to say. Fortunately, there
       are some sites on the net which provide map strategies. See the Links
    Q: What do you think of Estrada?
    A: Yes, believe it or not, someone actually asked me this question! Only
       one person did, though, so it's not really a Frequently-Asked Question.
       Still, it was funny, and it was a foreigner who asked me this! I wanted
       to put it here because it was fun and, if you think about it, it's quite
       related to Counter Strike. A terrorist could plant the bomb in Estrada's
       residence and solve the problem once and for all! Heck, I wouldn't be
       surprised if a "Counter Terrorist" team would be sent to "silence" the
       deposed president. I mean, the US tried to do that with Fidel Castro for
       years, right? HAHAHAHAA!!!
    Q: What about <insert game question here>? I want to know about it!
    A: If you're writing a question about a specific game-related thing, be
       sure to read the entire guide thoroughly. The answer might be there.
       Failing that, I suppose it's alright to ask a clarifying question to me
       directly. Just be patient, though, and use the [CS FAQ] tag.
    Q: I want to contact you! Will you answer me?
    A: If you're writing a friendly letter to chat, that's fine. If you're
       writing in to point out a mistake, make a suggestion, argue a point,
       or give criticism, that's alright. But I'd rather receive friendly
       mail praising my name. <hint hint> ^_^;
    I am not affiliated with Sierra, Valve, or the CS Team in any way. This is an
    unofficial guide I am putting together, mainly for personal amusement, and as
    an effort to help the growing Counter Strike community, particularly newbies.
    You can do whatever you want with this file, because frankly I don't have
    the time, interest or resources to do anything to you. However, I'd
    appreciate it if you do not rip me off, and that you do not use this file
    for any form of profit (or if you do, give me a cut! :) Using it for websites
    to attract hits is fine. Anyway, bottom line is, I hope you acknowledge
    whatever you do with this FAQ by giving me credit where it's due.
    If you see any glaring errors, want to contribute something, want to disagree
    with me, want to marry me, want to shout your head off, praise my genius, send
    death threats, or whatever, feel free to e-mail. I'm open to suggestions or
    whatever or what not, and since the information herein could be entirely
    fallible and inaccurate. If you do send in something that I include, you will
    be credited for it.
    NOTE: Throughout the document I use the masculine pronoun. Call me
    chauvanist, I don't care. I do it to simplify my writing.
    ii. CREDITS
    I'm gonna give credit where it's due.
    Gooseman - and the rest of the CS Team. Thanks a lot for making this addictive
    game and wasting hundreds of hours of my life. I'll never get those hundreds
    of hours back! And to think I also had quite a backlog from Action Quake....
    Count Floyd - for making POD Bot, currently the best bot for CS and the bot
    I use to get a fun work-out when I'm not fragging innocent humans. Hmm,
    since I'm thanking Floyd-hakushoku I guess I should also thank Botman....
    Terraknight - he wrote the first CS FAQ I saw on the web. It influenced and
    inpsired me to write my own, I guess. While I don't agree with a lot of what
    he said, I respect his opinions. While his work did inspire this, I did NOT
    rip-off stuff from his FAQ! I swear! I would never shortchange a fellow
    Hal - for giving me a conscience
    [EED] Beej - for Sig 550 and drawradar info
    payataz_zealot - for telling me how to change weapon names
    Paul Kerr - for all those tricks and techniques, such as the Bunny Hop
    and the many useful links. Gomen if I didn't credit everything!
    Wavehawk - for all the useful gun info tidbits and the long,
    interesting conversations. Love Hina #8 is out.
    avielh - for the baiting trick, cheap nightvision and other stuff
    GenEx - my favorite party LAN for CS. Been there since Star Craft and Action
    Quake, now we're still playing CS. Blech.
    Glitch Snack Bar - for making those great tasting paninis for consumption
    while killing terrorists and counter-terrorists alike.
    GameFAQs - for giving this guide a home.
    [gulay] Clan - One day I'm going to take over Counter Strike! MWAHAHAHAAA!!!
    [GAY] Clan - for inspiring all those cowardly backstabbing techniques, thanks
    guys! (er, gays)
    If I forgot anyone, feel free to write in and give me a piece of your mind.
    Good night!
    iii. ADDENDUM:
    In the future, this guide hopes to have:
    - More techniques; I'm sure I missed some
    - Specific Map techniques
    - Japanese sounding names for most, if not all, the techniques
    - More funny-sounding quotes from anime and other media
    - More links to useful sites
    - Team tactics guide. Most of these tactics are personal; but true CS play
      is teamplay
    - Bot training guide to improve your skills in private
    - Personal training tips
    - no typos. I am lazy. I don't usually bother to edit.
    - better editing. Too many wasted words.
    - better formatting. An ASCII logo would look great.
    - better organization.
    - agent-based Damage Table for all Weapons, with and without armor.

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