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    Technical FAQ by HQH

    Updated: 11/27/99 | Search Guide | Bookmark Guide

    Unofficial Half-Life FAQ
    By: HQH
    E-mail: HQH51
    Format: HTML 
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    number(s) to lead you to your desired information(s).
        [1.1] About
        [1.2] Accuracy
        [1.3] Contact
        [1.4] Credits
        [1.5] Foreword
        [1.6] Notices
            [1.6.1] Disclaimer
            [1.6.2] Distribution
            [1.6.3] Trademark/Copyright
    [2] FAQ: HALF-LIFE
        [2.1] General
            [2.1.1] Audio Music
            [2.1.2] CD Key Location
            [2.1.3] CD Related
            [2.1.4] Configuration
            [2.1.5] Console
            [2.1.6] Content Control
            [2.1.7] Cuts From Game
            [2.1.8] Definition Of Half-Life
            [2.1.9] Frames Per Second
            [2.1.10] Game Engine
            [2.1.11] Game of the Year Edition
            [2.1.12] Graffiti/Spray paint
            [2.1.13] Half-Life Demo
            [2.1.14] Half-Life For Mac
            [2.1.15] Half-Life Game Launchers
            [2.1.16] HL.exe/HLDS.exe
            [2.1.17] How Many Levels/Maps
            [2.1.18] Linux Version
            [2.1.19] Location Damages
            [2.1.20] Playing/Recording Demo
            [2.1.21] Requirements
            [2.1.22] Running Custom Levels
            [2.1.23] Screen Shots
            [2.1.24] Symmetric Multiprocessing (SMP)
            [2.1.25] Weapons
                [] About
                [] Descriptions
                [] Gauss Jump/Fall
                [] Secondary
                [] Underwater Usage
                [] Weapon Calling
            [2.1.26] What's My Half-Life Version
            [2.1.27] When Installing
            [2.1.28] Whole New Game
        [2.2] Multi-Player
            [2.2.1] Bots
            [2.2.2] General
                [] Beginners Information
                [] Cheats
                [] Getting Started
                [] Map Cycles
                [] Models/Skins
                [] Observer Mode
                [] Orange Bar
                [] Talk While Playing
                [] WON.Net
            [2.2.3] Hosting Server
                [] About
                [] Half-Life Primary Server
                [] Kick Players Off
                [] LAN and Internet players
                [] Linux
                [] Tracking Statistics
            [2.2.4] Lag/Latency/Ping
                [] General
                [] Yahn's Explanation I: Latency Vs. Ping
                [] Yahn's Explanation II: Why HL/TFC Slow?
                [] Yahn's Explanation III: Laggers Creating Lag?
            [2.2.5] Modes
                [] Co-op
                [] Deathmatch
                [] Teamplay
                [] Team Fortress Classic
            [2.2.6] Options
                [] Internet
                [] LAN
                [] Modem To Modem
                [] Serial
            [2.2.7] Proxy
                [] Wingate
                [] Winroute
            [2.2.8] Team Fortress Classic
                [] Classes
                [] Maps
                [] FAQ
            [2.2.9] Testing Multi-Player Maps Offline
        [2.3] Single-Player
            [2.3.1] 3rd Person View
            [2.3.2] Autosave
            [2.3.3] Barneys
            [2.3.4] Cheats
                [] How To Skip Level
            [2.3.5] Fun Things To Do
            [2.3.6] High Jump
            [2.3.7] Learn How To Play
            [2.3.8] Long Jump
            [2.3.9] Man In Blue/G-Man
            [2.3.10] Preserving Saved Files
            [2.3.11] Saved Games
            [2.3.12] Walkthrough
            [2.3.13] Who You Play As
        [3.1] Commercial
            [3.1.1] Opposing Force
            [3.1.2] Team Fortress II
        [3.2] Modifications
            [3.2.1] Action Half-Life
            [3.2.2] Classic Capture The Flag
            [3.2.3] Cold Ice
            [3.2.4] Counter-Strike
            [3.2.5] DMPlus
            [3.2.6] Firepower
            [3.2.7] Jailbreak
            [3.2.8] Kenders That Kill
            [3.2.9] Lambda Arena
            [3.2.10] Oz
            [3.2.11] Rocket Crowbar
            [3.2.12] Sven Co-op
            [3.2.13] Science and Industry
            [3.2.14] Team Fortress Classic
        [3.3] Total Conversions
        [4.1] CFG Files
        [4.2] Creating Custom Levels
        [4.3] Crosshairs
        [4.4] Pak Files
        [4.5] SDK
        [4.6] Worldcraft
            [4.6.1] General
            [4.6.2] Installing
            [4.6.3] Mailing List
            [4.6.4] Tutorials
            [4.6.5] WC Editing FAQ
        [5.1] Extras
            [5.1.1] Maps
            [5.1.2] Models
            [5.1.3] Multi-Player Modes
            [5.1.4] Valve Multiplayer Package
        [5.2] Patches
            [5.2.1] v1.0.0.6
            [5.2.2] v1.0.0.8
            [5.2.3] v1.0.0.9
            [5.2.4] v1.0.1.0
            [5.2.5] v1.0.1.3
        [6.1] Before Getting Started
            [6.1.1] Readme.txt
            [6.1.2] Scan/Defrag
            [6.1.3] Update Files
        [6.2] Bugs/Errors
            [6.2.1] Icons Being Moved
            [6.2.2] Installing/Running Game
                [] Bad Surface Extents
                [] Can not find 'vids:cvid'decompressor
                [] Cbuf_AddText: Overflow
                [] CD Key
                [] Could not exec 3dfx/opengl/joystick.cfg
                [] Crosshair Messes Up
                [] Dial Up Connection
                [] Doesn't Support Raster Operations
                [] Gfx/shell/btns_main.bmp
                [] Got A Velocity Too Low On Gib
                [] Invalid page fault in module HW.DLL
                [] Kb_keys.lst not found
                [] MCI File Playback:### MMSYSTEM ##
                [] Overflow 350 Temporary Ents
                [] SZ_GetSpace
                [] Unable To Validate CD
                [] Your HL Executable Has Been Modified
                [] Your HL Installation Corrupted/Outdated
                [] Z_Malloc: Failed On Allocation Of xxx Bytes
            [6.2.3] LAN
            [6.2.4] Multi-Player Mode
                [] .hpk has a bogus # of directory entries
                [] Attempting to connect to Won
                [] Bad Protocol
                [] Can't Swim In Water Using Jump Key
                [] Client.dll
                [] Custom file missing wad3 id
                [] File Mechwine Not On Server
                [] Host_Error:CL_Parseserver Message
                [] Pldecal.wad
                [] Stuck On Elevator
                [] Stuck On Ladder
                [] Using Decal ### Without A Name
                [] Warning: U_Remove on full update
                [] Wonau_w95.dll/Woncr_w95.dll
                [] Wsaenotsock
            [6.2.5] Patch/Update Half-Life
                [] Corrupted Installation Detected
                [] Not a valid previous version
                [] Your HL Is v1.0.x.x And You Have v1.0.x.x
            [6.2.6] Single-Player Mode
                [] Barney Dies
                [] Stuck/Die On Elevator
                [] Uninstalling
                [] Zoom
            [6.2.7] Timedemo
                []  Demo Protocol Outdated
        [6.3] CD Key
            [6.3.1] CD Key In Use
            [6.3.2] Editing
            [6.3.3] Lost CD Key
        [6.4] Copying Half-Life On CD-R/RW
        [6.5] Direct X
        [6.6] PC Hardware
            [6.6.1] CD-ROM
                [] Audio Music
            [6.6.2] Controller/Joystick
            [6.6.3] CPU
                [] 3DNow!
                [] MMX
                [] SSE
            [6.6.4] Modem
                [] WinModem
            [6.6.5] Sound
                [] A3D
                [] Audio Music
                [] EAX
                [] Losing Sound During Gameplay
                [] Repeating Sound Loops
                [] Sound Blaster Cards
                [] Stuttering
            [6.6.6] Video
                [] 3dfx
                [] 3DWarning
                [] Blue Water
                [] D3D
                [] Decals
                [] Matrox
                [] Multiple 3D Cards
                [] Open GL
                [] Screen Not Aligned
                [] Slow Menu
                [] Nvidia
                [] Video Tearing
                [] Video Too Dark
                [] Visual Enhancements
        [6.7] Virus
        [7.1] Enhance Sound Effects
        [7.2] Half-Life Tweaks
            [7.2.1] Autoexec.cfg
            [7.2.2] Multi-Player
            [7.2.3] Parameters
        [7.3] PC Tweaks
            [7.3.1] Bandwidth
            [7.3.2] Windows 9x
                [] Defrag
                [] ScanDisk
                [] Turn Them Off
                [] Virtual Memory
        [7.4] Updates
            [7.4.1] Drivers
            [7.4.2] Half-Life
            [7.4.3] PC
        [8.1] Forums
        [8.2] Utilities
        [8.3] Web Sites
    [9] HISTORY
    [1.1]: About
    Welcome to v11.27.1999 of the Unofficial Half-Life FAQ. v11.27.1999 is the 
    fourteenth revision. 'Unofficial' means that
    this FAQ is not supported by Valve nor Sierra. FAQ stands for: (F)requently 
    (A)sked (Q)uestions.
    Revision classification works something like this: it goes by the date. Plain 
    easy and simple. Forget about v1.xxx to v2.xx. Those are just a hassle to keep 
    up. I rather use the date as the version of the document. Date versions are 
    easier to keep up with, because it's easy to tell when it was released and from 
    what date it was.
    This is how it's laid out: v.<day>.<month>.<year>. Isn't that easy? The version 
    denotes the date, in which tells you that every information in this FAQ document 
    is as accurate as possible, up to that date, which is the version.
    This HLFAQ is and shall be updated regularly on a regular basis on my terms of 
    when it should be updated. The only time that this HLFAQ would be necessary to 
    be updated, would be when a patch for Half-Life would come out. Always expect 
    the HLFAQ to be updated a few days after the patch is released. I need a few 
    days after the patch is released because I want to gather as much information or 
    if there are anything needed to be said about the patch.
    This FAQ was done from resources of the U.S. (English) version of Half-Life and 
    Windows 98. Some parts of this HLFAQ would vary in platforms and countries. 
    Beware for those of you that do not live in the U.S.A. Some parts may not apply 
    to your country, nor do I not note about it. Proud to be made in the U.S.A.
    Any following updates to this HLFAQ can be access at: 
    http://members.xoom.com/HQH51/ Please always check to see if there's an updated 
    version of this HLFAQ as I tend to add more solutions and information about 
    [1.2]: Accuracy
    I'm trying to be correct and accurate as possible. Please don't hold me for 
    accuracy, because everybody has to make some mistakes sometime in their lives. 
    If you have any information, or any further information on what is in here, then 
    please provide them to me and I'll be sure to place them where they should be 
    and for accurate future reference. 
    If you find any instructions wrong or solutions that are incorrect, then please 
    let me know. I pulled these solutions that were found on the internet and other 
    resources, so don't hold me for accuracy. These solutions are provided as is.
    Also remember that every information found in this HLFAQ is as accurate when the 
    FAQ was published. So anything found after the HLFAQ's release would not mean 
    error in the HLFAQ. The HLFAQ just needs to be updated.
    [1.3]: Contact
    If you have any relevant information to contribute, then please provide me with 
    the best grammar, and understanding English so that I could place them where 
    they should be and for accurate future reference. Any submitted information will 
    be under review and be kept as my own property. Please only send legitimate 
    answers. I don't want rumors or false solutions in this HLFAQ. Only valid and 
    correct solutions to the problems.
    If you have any questions related to Half-Life and its solutions from this 
    HLFAQ, I would be sure to answer any, if I can, with my knowledge in certain 
    parts that is, what is limited to my experiences with the game and its solutions 
    given. But please try what solutions are given in this HLFAQ first before coming 
    to me. Don't be surprised if I say that the solution is in the HLFAQ. So, read 
    this HLFAQ before asking any help from me.
     I do not do the following, but not limited to:
    -give walkthroughs/help with single player mode, because it's been a long time 
    since I played it
    -give any CD-Keys, so go buy the game
    -make any mods/levels for you, so learn how by your own
    -send Half-Life to you, so go buy the game
    -answer any mods, like TFC, etc... questions, so visit their mod site and bug 
    the authors
    -answer Opposing Force questions, as I do not have the add-on pack
    Also, I would not give out "direct" acknowledgements or credits to solutions 
    given. Please read section 1.4 to find out why. Even if you say 'give me 
    credits' in any message sent to me, I will not give you direct credits. Don't 
    bother doing this. 
    Last but not least, any comments/suggestions for the author is acceptable 
    (hopefully not a lot of flames/threats). No SPAM please. Also, messages have to 
    be in English for me to understand of course. Anything other than English will 
    be trashed.
    My e-mail addresses are:
    HQH51@aol.com (primary; use this prior to secondary e-mail address)
    HQH51@hotmail.com (secondary; if primary address no longer available)
    You could also reach me at this newsgroup: alt.games.half-life
    For e-mailing me, it is wise to email to both of my accounts to make sure that I 
    may get your e-mail.
    [1.4]: Credits
    Credits go to most of the people on alt.games.half-life and many other different 
    sources on the internet. Also, a big credit goes to Valve for creating a kick 
    ass game for PC and Sierra On-Line for publishing it. And last but not least, 
    anybody who contributed to this FAQ.
    You see, I can't really give "direct" credits to people who gave me solutions or 
    help me out on the HLFAQ. Because I'm taking precautions not putting down names, 
    because if I do, there will be people who would send in solutions already, when 
    someone else already gave me the solution, and when I do publish the HLFAQ, they 
    would wonder why they aren't getting the credits that they deserve. So that's 
    why the above says it all about giving out credits.
    All I want for me is credit on gathering all these information and putting it in 
    the HLFAQ. That's it. I don't want to claim most solutions found in this HLFAQ, 
    because most of them aren't mine. 
    [1.5]: Foreword
    Please read through the whole HLFAQ if possible. You might not know until you 
    try something on accident and fix things that make Half-Life all better. You'll 
    never know until you find out. This HLFAQ is on its fourteenth revision. Also I 
    might add that around this time, it's Half-Life one year anniversary. An add-on 
    pack is also released - Opposing Force.
    [1.6]: Notices
    Just a few words of notices.
    [1.6.1]: Disclaimer
    The purpose of this FAQ is to aid the public regarding questions about Half-
    Life, by Valve. In no way should this promote suicidal, killing others, killing 
    in any other fashion, or result to violence.
    I, the author, claims no responsibility what so ever, if anything from this 
    HLFAQ corrupts, damages, screws up, faulted with, created errors, or do anything 
    else that harms your computer, creating data lost, or anything with you or with 
    the world for all I care, I claim no responsibility!
    [1.6.2]: Distribution
    I. Sending copies
        A. The copies are exact and complete
        B. The copies give credit to the author
        C. The copies are in the original form
    II. Distributing this work
        A. Remains original from work and should not be edited
        B. Does not charge a fee for copying or distribution
    III. Distributed form includes the author's notes and information
        A. The distributed form is not in any magazine or within software 
    (permission may be obtained from author)
    If you have any questions about distributing this HLFAQ of any kind, don't wait 
    on it - contact me. We'll discuss it. 
    [1.6.3]: Trademark/Copyright
    (c) 1998 Sierra On-Line, Inc. or Valve L.L.C. All rights reserved. (r) and/or 
    (tm) designate trademarks of, or licensed to Sierra On-Line, Inc., Bellevue, WA 
    98007. This product contains software technology licensed from id Software, Inc. 
    ("id Technology"). id Technology (c) 1996-1998 id Software, Inc. All rights 
    Me, myself, and I, the author of this FAQ!
    If this HLFAQ doesn't provide you the solution you're looking for, you may try 
    at these websites:
    Won.net's Trouble Shooting Guide
    Sierra's Tech Support Knowledge Database
    PC Game's Half-Life FAQ
    [2.1]: General
    Half-Life was released around Thanksgiving of 1998. It was named game of the 
    year. The game is great, especially the single player mode.
    [2.1.1]: Audio Music
    Half-Life has some cool sound tracks on the CD. Sound tracks are playable from 
    track 2 through track 28. Most of them are just background sound FXs, but there 
    are some that are techno like music. Audio tracks 15 and 25 are one of the best 
    ones. Try those tracks. You'll love them. 
    [2.1.2]: CD Key Location
    If you're looking for the CD Key for Half-Life, the CD Key is on the back of 
    your Half-Life's jewel CD case. It's a 13 digit
    number in this format: xxxx-xxxxx-xxxx. It runs down the side vertically. The CD 
    Key is printed on a King Quest advertisement. For foreign countries, some are on 
    a sticker. If you find that you do not have the CD Key anywhere found on the 
    jewel CD case, return the game back immediately and get yourself a new copy and 
    this time, you should get one with a CD Key included.
    [2.1.3]: CD Related
    How many CDs does Half-Life come in?
    -Was rumored to be two, but only one CD. Valve compressed the files so that it 
    can fit all under one CD. 
    Is there any pirate protection?
    -Yes, there are two kinds: CD check and CD Key.
    How much space does the game takes up?
    -Full installation; about 366 MB on FAT32 or 460 MB on FAT16. There are no other 
    alternatives. If you don't have at least 500 MB of free space, then you're 
    doomed and "Shit Out-of Luck" (SOL). I say 500 MB free space, because take the 
    save games into account, which the save games are over 1 MB per each saved games 
    and add-on maps in the near future for downloads. See what I mean?
    What's installed on my HDD?
    -Everything except for the music sound tracks.
    Is there any options to cut down the installation? It takes up too much space!
    -No. No options are given. Full installation is the only option. But you can 
    remove some of the movie files that are useless (well, sort of) in the Half-Life 
    folder. Dig deep in all of the folders in Half-Life and look for any files that 
    has an extension of .avi or .mpg. Those are the movie files. There should be 
    about four of those movies taking up a lot of space. Delete them.
    Can I share the game with my fellow friends?
    -Yes and no. Yes: You can if you want to. No: If you do, and if your friend 
    tries out the multiplayer part of the game, then you're SOL,because you can't 
    play because your friend just stole your entire internet access identification 
    for Half-Life.
    Once I install the game, do I need the CD to play?
    -Yes, it checks the CD if it's there, and if you're gonna play audio music from 
    the CD (not sound effects), then you need the CD. The only time that you do not 
    need the CD is playing multiplayer mode.
    Does multiplayer mode require the CD?
    -No, you can play without the CD. No patches required to do so.
    Is there background music for Half-Life?
    -Yes there is, but only at certain times. It doesn't play background music in 
    loops. Certain spots can only call on the background music, and it won't loop. 
    So, you will only get to hear it once, and it'll all go quiet again.
    [2.1.4]: Configuration
    To configure Half-Life, launch Half-Life-> Configurations-> Controls. If you 
    edit a file called config.cfg (v1.0.0.9+), then do not do it anymore. Half-Life 
    regenerates that file every time Half-Life is executed. You will lose everything 
    changed in that file. See section 4.1 for further details.
    [2.1.5]: Console
    To be able to use the console in Half-Life in single player mode, you must do 
    one of the following:  
    1. Start Menu-> Run-> type in: <x>:\<hl dir>\Hl.exe -console
        hl dir=Where Half-Life's directory resides in
    2. Create a shortcut of Hl.exe, then-> (right click on the created shortcut) 
    Properties-> Shortcut tab-> Target box-> put in " -console" after hl.exe. 
    Example: hl.exe -console 
    3. Update the game to at least v1.0.0.9 and the console option will be listed in 
    the main menu. 
    4. Update the game to at least v1.0.0.9 and go to Start Menu-> Programs-> 
    Sierra-> Half-Life-> Half-Life Console. 
    After enabling the console, you could access the console throughout the game by 
    pressing the [~] key (near the [Esc] key). In a multiplayer game, the console is 
    already accessible. Just hit the [~] key and it should bring down the console. 
    For some foreign country keyboards, try the [`] key, next to the [1] and [Esc] 
    To get more information on the console, visit: 
    To assign another key to access the console, issue this command in the console: 
    bind "<key>" toggleconsole 
    [2.1.6]: Content Control
    Are there people out there that feel that your kids shouldn't be influenced by 
    all these blood and guts or if you feel that some of the aspects of Half-Life 
    may not be appropriate, then do the following to reduce the violent visuals in 
    Half-Life: Launch Half-Life-> Configuration-> Content Control-> Check the box 
    'Active content control' and put in a password. Make sure you know the password, 
    or you may need to uninstall the game to remove the content control.
    [2.1.7]: Cuts From Game
    When Half-Life was released, some of the models and weapons that were found in 
    reviews on the internet didn't make it. They were cut at the final version, but 
    still embedded in the game, but not all the way finished. Here's a quick look at 
    some of what was cut out from the game: http://www.contaminated.net/half-
    [2.1.8]: Definition Of Half-Life
    Half-Life can be defined as: the time required for half of a sample of 
    radioactive atoms to decay. For an example: The radioactive isotope Iodine 
    ([mass]131/[atomic #]53) of 1 gram, has a half-life of 8.07 days period. So, 
    starting off with 1 gram, there is no half-life (0 day). After one half-life 
    period (8.07 days), Iodine is now only .5 gram. After two half-life periods 
    (16.14 days), Iodine is now only .25 gram. This process keeps repeating on and 
    on... The time increases as the mass of the radioactive isotope shrinks. Half-
    life of radioactive ranges from seconds to many years. All radioactive samples 
    have different half-lives. 
    [2.1.9]: Frames Per Second
    There are a few ways to get frames per second (fps):
    1. During mid game, type the following in the console:
        developer 1
        host_speeds 1
    This should provide real-time fps during game play.
    2. Use the -gamegauge parameter. Check it out in section 7.2.3 Parameters. It 
    will tell you how to use it.
    3. Record a demo or get one, then within the console, type the following: gg 
    <demo's name>
    You do not need to type the demo's name with the three letter extension. Just 
    the file name, that's it. Check out section 2.1.20 to know how to record your 
    own demo. You may not need to type in cl_gg 1. Also, when running gg (Game 
    Gauge), Half-Life will dump a file call fps.txt in the \Half-Life\Valve\ 
    directory. Open that up and it'll tell you your fps records.
    4. During mid game, type this in the console: timerefresh. Although to me, this 
    is very unrealistic number, can't be trusted.
    5. Record a demo or get a demo, then type this within the console: timedemo 
    <demo's name>
    Do not type the demo's name with the three letter extension. Just the file name, 
    that's it. Check out section 2.1.20 to know how to record your own demo. 
    [2.1.10]: Game Engine
    Valve originally licensed the source for Quake from id Software and they began 
    working on that code around October of 1996. Between that time and the time they 
    finished Half-Life in October of 1998, they modified/removed/created something 
    like 70% of the code.
    [2.1.11] Game of the Year Edition
    The only difference with the original version of Half-Life and the Game of the 
    Year Edtion of Half-Life is the program's version, a redesigned box, the TFC 
    mod,Edition and the inclusion of Worldcraft v2.1 beta. The program version of 
    GotYE is at v1.0.0.9, while the original program version is at v1.0.0.5. The 
    only reason to buy this game is for people who haven't bought the game and save 
    time downloading a 20 MB patch (you have to do so on the original version, 
    because it's at v1.0.0.5). The GotYE is patched up to v1.0.0.9, but it doesn't 
    stop there. You will be required to download other patches if you want to play 
    multiplayer that is. The current version of Half-Life is at v1.0.1.3.
    Note that some versions of Game of the Year maybe at v1.0.1.1. To check what 
    version you have currently with Half-Life, see section 2.1.26.
    [2.1.12]: Graffiti/Spray paint
    Is it true?
    -Yes it is.
    How many times can I spray paint?
    -Once per life in multiplayer, then every frag that you get, you can spray paint 
    again. Also can be spray painted more than once if the server sets the 
    decalfrequency from its defaulted 30 seconds value. Defaulted every 30 seconds, 
    you can spray paint again after ever 30 seconds. For single player mode, it's 
    how much decalfrequency is set to. To check this out, type this in the console: 
    decalfrequency and whatever number goes after the command is the numbers of 
    seconds to delay for the next spray paint action to be available.
    Example: decalfrequency 1
    This means that you can spray paint after every 1 second.
    Can I make my own graffiti?
    -Yes, please refer to the readme.txt for instructions.
    I see people with cool graffities. Can I use their graffities?
    -Yes it can. There's a decal ripper that at: 
    Sometimes I spray paint and the image is reversed or flipped upside-down.
    -The reasons is how the textures of the wall/floor/ceiling are arranged and 
    aligned in the game. You got to put up with it. Nothing can be done. 
    Can I change the time on how long I can spray paint again?
    -For single player, just drop down the console and type this in: decalfrequency 
    Where xx = how many seconds delay do you want it to be before you can spray 
    paint again. Example: decalfrequency 1 This means that you can spray paint after 
    every 1 second. For multiplayer, the server can only set how much decalfrequency 
    can be.
    [2.1.13]: Half-Life Demo
    There is currently a demo released for Half-Life. The only demo that there is of 
    Half-Life is Half-Life: Uplink. You can get the demo at the following places: 
    Please be aware that the demo is about 48.5 MB (about 50,872,079 bytes), and 
    would consume a lot of time downloading. It is also easy to get the demo 
    corrupted, so be prepared to re-download it again if it's necessary. The demo 
    needs less than 100 MB to be used when installed (about 89.1 MB on FAT32). 
    The demo is done by PCGamer and Valve, and it takes place after Half-Life's main 
    settings (the retail game that is).  Cheats can only be fully usable if you use 
    the lite (down below) version. For the demo version, there are some cheats that 
    you can use like getting the weapons that only appear in the version, like the 
    MP5, etc. 
    If you're looking for a walkthrough for this demo, here's a link to a 
    walkthrough for this demo: 
    If you have the full retail version of Half-Life, and want to play the new 
    levels from the Half-Life: Uplink, then here's a 3.7 MB
    download instead of the 48.5 MB (lite version). Note: you must have the full 
    version or it won't run. Here's the link:
    Here's the storyline for this demo:
    Set 48 hours after the containment failure at the Black Mesa Lab, Half-Life: 
    Uplink finds Gordon Freeman attempting to manually adjust the uplink tower so he 
    and some scientists can reach the lower level of the compound. Along the way, he 
    faces all sorts of horrors... 
    [2.1.14]: Half-Life For Mac
    Bad news. After the announcement of a Macintosh version of Half-Life being 
    developed, the Mac version of Half-Life has been canceled. Read the original 
    From: Gabe Newell
    There's been a lot of speculation about Half-Life for the Macintosh - its 
    feature set, its compatibility with the PC version, and so on. Andrew Meggs at 
    Logicware has been doing a good job on the port, and it's mostly done. At this 
    point we've spent a bunch of money on the Mac product and have spent a lot of 
    time thinking about what we need to do to make sure Macintosh users are happy 
    with it when it ships.
    Which is why we are canceling the Macintosh version of Half-Life.
    When we started Mac Half-Life, there was a lot of optimism about the opportunity 
    for Macintosh games. As someone who worked on Macintosh software starting in 
    1983 before the 128K Mac had shipped, it was pretty exciting to think that there 
    was going to be a resurgence in the Mac gaming market.
    However, as we got closer to shipping the product and reality set in, it was 
    increasingly obvious that in order for us to break even on the Mac version, much 
    less be profitable, we were going to have to cut some corners. OK - I guess we 
    won't have Team Fortress Classic available at shipment. Maybe people will accept 
    it if we update them with TFC later. OK - I guess I understand why we don't have 
    an automatic update facility. Maybe people will accept that they have to 
    manually update. OK - I guess I understand why we might carve out a separate 
    multiplayer space for Mac users from PC users because of the on-going 
    interoperability issues. Maybe that won't be the disaster I think it will be.
    But the more I thought about it, the more I felt that this was nonsense. Our 
    existing Half-Life customers are really happy with us. They were happy with the 
    original game, they were happy when we released TFC, they were happy with our 
    on-going investment in Half-Life, and there's even more coming for them in the 
    next couple of months. They are happy because we do our best for them, and 
    that's what they expect from us in the future. Given the realities of the Mac 
    gaming market, our Mac customers were always going to be mad at us. They were 
    always going to be second-class customers where we couldn't invest to the same 
    degree in the Mac version as we did elsewhere. I don't want to be in that 
    business. I would much rather we just eat the money we've spent so far than take 
    money from Mac customers and short-change them.
    It's disappointing to me on a personal basis that we won't ship Half-Life for 
    the Mac. Everyone here, and I'm sure the people at Logicware are disappointed. 
    The Mac gamers who were looking forward to Half-Life are undoubtedly 
    disappointed as well. However that's a lot less disappointment than what would 
    have happened if we had tried to get Mac gamers to accept second-class treatment 
    on an on-going basis.
    Here's the original announcement of Mac version of Half-Life being developed:
    Macintosh Half-Life Press Release
    BELLEVUE, WA (April 23, 1999) -- Sierra Studios(tm) announced today their hit 
    game Half- Life will be available for Macintosh gamers this fall. Originally 
    developed by Valve Software, the Macintosh version of the game will be developed 
    by Southern California-based Logicware, recognized for Macintosh gaming 
    development and well-known for working with some of the top computer game 
    publishers in the industry. "The PC version has sold nearly one million units 
    worldwide - bringing Half-Life to the Mac is a natural next step, especially 
    since there is such unwavering devotion in the Macintosh gaming community," said 
    Jim Veevaert, director of marketing for Sierra Studios. "We are excited to be 
    working with a company like Logicware that has such a strong reputation in the 
    Mac gaming market." Half-Life combines the visceral action of legendary action 
    games like Quake with great storytelling in the tradition of Stephen King. Named 
    Game of the Year by 40 publications worldwide, it is by far one of the most 
    popular first-person action thriller games on the market. More information can 
    be found at www.gameoftheyear.com. 
     Logicware was formed in 1995 to create fun, cutting edge games for computers 
    and console systems. Founded and run by entertainment industry veterans, 
    Logicware has developed a multitude of original titles and conversions on a 
    variety of platforms. In late 1997, Logicware began publishing games for the Mac 
    OS. Logicware is now one of the premiere game publishers for the Macintosh 
    market. Logicware is located east of Los Angeles in Covina, California. Sierra 
    On-Line, Inc. is one of the original developers and largest worldwide publishers 
    of interactive entertainment and productivity software. Sierra is comprised of 
    five brands: Sierra Attractions(tm), SierraHome(tm), Sierra Sports(tm), Sierra 
    Studios(tm), and Dynamix(tm), a Sierra Company. Sierra is a division of Havas 
    Interactive, whose holdings also include Knowledge Adventure(r), Blizzard 
    Entertainment(r) and WON.net(tm). 
    [2.1.15]: Half-Life Game Launchers
    Here are some game launchers that are offered for Half-Life. Some of these game 
    launchers contain more special options than others. These are all sorts of 
    launchers. Be sure to visit all of them to know what they are. Here they are:
    [2.1.16]: HL.exe/HLDS.exe
    HL.EXE = Half-Life main game program that you use to play the game.
    HLDS.EXE = (H)alf (L)ife (D)edicated (S)erver for multiplayer hosting program 
    [2.1.17]: How Many Levels/Maps
    Straight off from the CD:
    -96 maps for single player mode
    -8 maps for multiplayer mode
    -7 maps for hazard course mode
    Single player levels (17 of them in order):
    1. Anomalous Materials
    2. Unforeseen Consequences
    3. Office Complex
    4. We've Got Hostile
    5. Blast Pit
    6. Power Up
    7. On A Rail
    8. Apprehension
    9. Residue Processing
    10. Questionable Ethics
    11. Surface Tension
    12. Forget About Freeman
    13. Lambda Core
    14. Xen
    15. Gonarch's Lair
    16. Interloper
    17. Nihilanth
    [2.1.18] Linux Version
    There is only a Linux version of the server side of Half-Life. No clients have 
    been available. To check out the server side program for Linux, visit section for further details.
    [2.1.19]: Location Damages
    Half-Life offers location damage. Head shots counts more and damages more than 
    any other body parts. It would take less shots to kill if shot in the head. 
    Shoot anywhere else, it would take more to kill. Location damage are: head, 
    arms, legs, and chest. Head shot beats the chest shot beats the arms and legs 
    shots. So aim for the head to take more damage! Head shot counts three times as 
    much. Everything else to the body is one times the damage. Location damage is 
    provided in single player and multiplayer mode. So take advantage of the 
    location damage. 
    [2.1.20]: Playing/Recording Demo
    To record a demo, type this in the console: record <filename>. The filename part 
    is anything you wish to call the demo as. It is best to have it under 8 
    characters. To play the demo, type this in the console: timedemo <filename>
    If there's a custom made timedemo that you want to use, then put the timedemo 
    under the \Half-Life\Valve\ folder and then do the above to play the timedemo. 
    If you are using the timedemo to tell how much fps your computer is pumping out, 
    visit section 2.1.9.
    For any other mods that the timedemo was recorded in, that's where you find it. 
    Say, you recorded a timedemo from TFC. The timedemo of the TFC session can be 
    found under \Half-Life\TFC\.
    Any timedemo found on the internet or where ever available, only the timedemo 
    that was recorded under Half-Life can only be played back under that original 
    version. Say I recorded a timedemo under v1.0.0.6 for Half-Life. Only v1.0.0.6 
    can play back that timedemo only. No other version of Half-Life can play them 
    Any timedemo that was recorded on a analog connection or any connection that has 
    very high latency on the internet, there will be apparent skips/jumps when 
    played back. People with very low latency should be able to record fine.
    With v1.0.0.8 patch, the timedemo option is corrupted and can't be used. Upon 
    running the timedemo, at the end of the timedemo, Half-Life would crash, and 
    dump you back out on the desktop, and perhaps a GPF (General Protection Fault) 
    error message. So be warned, timedemo won't work with v1.0.0.8 only . Other 
    versions would work, but not with v1.0.0.8. Getting the latest patch, v1.0.0.9 
    or higher, the timedemo should work.
    With v1.0.1.0 patch, the option to play back single player timedemo is not 
    available and will return an error stating that the map is different from the 
    [2.1.21]: Requirements
    Windows(r) 95, Windows 98 or Windows NT 4.0
    Pentium 133+, 24 MB RAM
    SVGA, high color (16-bit)
    2x CD-ROM drive
    Windows-compatible sound card
    Mouse, keyboard
    Pentium 166+
    32 MB RAM
    3D accelerator card (Open GL or Direct3D)
    32-bit Internet Service Provider (ISP)
    28.8+ modem or LAN
    [2.1.22]: Running Custom Levels
    To run custom made user maps like single player made levels, do the following:
    1. Place the .bsp file(s) into <HDD>:\<Half-Life's directory>\Valve\Maps\
        Example: C:\Sierra\Half-Life\Valve\Maps\
    2. Get into Half-Life's console and type this in: map <level's name>
        Example: map boot_camp
        Edit your HL parameter to be like this: hl.exe +map <level's name>
        Example: hl.exe +map crossfire
        Note: leave out the .bsp file extension, it's unnecessary.
    Note: the maps used in the examples are multiplayer maps. Just use the actual 
    names of the single player maps. Note 2: when playing the single player made 
    levels, beware that you may not get the HEV/HUD on your screen. You may actually 
    need to find the HEV suit somewhere in the level somewhere. But there are levels 
    made that you may not use the HEV/get HUD.
    [2.1.23]: Screen Shots
    To take screen shots during mid game in Half-Life, all you need to do is hit the 
    key [F5]. However, you can take unlimited screen shots depending how much free 
    space you have where Half-Life is installed. There are pictures that take around 
    300 KB to a few MBs or so depending on what Half-Life was rendered in. Software 
    mode provides small file size pictures while Open GL/D3D are big file sized 
    pictures. You can find the pictures dumped under \Half-Life\ folder.
    [2.1.24] Symmetric Multiprocessing (SMP)
    For those people who runs SMP, Half-Life does not take any advantages. Half-Life 
    was not coded to take in any SMP instructions.
    [2.1.25]: Weapons
    Here are some information on the weapons in Half-Life. By the way, there are 
    reloading action, so there's some realistic to reloading ammunition into these 
    weapons. If you happen to switch to a different gun when it's out of shells, and 
    you come back to the weapon again, you got to reload it.
    []: About
    How many weapons are given in the game?
    -14 weapons to choose from, to be exact.
    What are the weapons?
    -357 Magnum
    -9mm hand gun
    -Egon (gluon gun)
    -Gauss (tau cannon)
    -Hand grenade
    -Hornet gun
    []: Descriptions
    -357 Magnum: One powerful revolver hand gun
    -9mm Hand gun: Basic pistol
    -Crossbow: Bows and arrows, felt tipped explosives (multiplayer only)
    -Crowbar: What it sounds like and says
    -Egon (gluon gun): Bluish hosing lightning gun
    -Gauss (tau cannon): Yellow radiation shard shooter - could 'rocket jump', acts 
    like a rail gun and could shoot through walls
    -Hand grenade: What it sounds like and says
    -Hornet gun: Shoots out hornets
    -MP5: A sub machinegun with grenade (M203) launching capabilities
    -RPG: (R)ocket (P)ropelled (G)renade launcher with laser guided assistance
    -Satchel: Just like a pipe bomb, and could be detonate anytime
    -Shotgun: Pump action shotgun, also a double shotgun, two in one style
    -Snark: A small creature that attacks living creatures
    -Tripmine: A laser trip mine
    []: Gauss Jump/Fall
    Gauss jump is a term that is given to how the Gauss gun can be used. Just like 
    the 'rocket jump' from Quake x series, Gauss jump is actually the same thing, 
    except that it's not done by a rocket launcher, but the Gauss gun instead.
    All you have to do, is grab the Gauss gun, charge up the gun by holding down the 
    alternative fire (secondary fire) key down, letting the gun charge up to 9 
    cells, look at the floor, and release the payload and up you go! The difference 
    with Gauss gun, is that you don't really need to jump at all, like the rocket 
    jump in Quake x series to get even higher elevations.
    The Gauss jump can only be used in multiplayer. Beware, the Gauss jump does not 
    give you damage, like the rocket jump does in Quake x series does. But the only 
    damage that you're going to get from this Gauss jump is, when you fall down from 
    that great heights that you just achieved.
    Gauss fall just means charge up the gauss gun via secondary fire and when you're 
    about to fall and hit the ground hard and lose life, you would fire into the 
    ground, giving you an air break and fall down safely and lose no health.
    []: Secondary
    Here are some secondary firing using these weapons:
    -357 Magnum: zooms in (only in multiplayer)
    -9mm Hand gun: rapid fire
    -Crossbow: zooms in
    -Gauss: charge up to 9 cells and fires in straight beam
    -Hornet gun: rapid non-heat seeking style
    -MP5: grenade (M203) launcher
    -RPG: laser guide assistance
    -Satchel: lay down another satchel
    -Shotgun: double barrel shotgun style
    []: Underwater Usage
    Here are some weapons that work under water:
    -9mm hand gun
    -Hand grenade
    -Hornet gun
    []: Weapon Calling
    Weapons are divided into five sections. They are bound to the numbers from 1-5 
    on the keyboard. The five sections are as followed:
    1: Crowbar
    2: Pistol; 357 Magnum
    3: MP5; Shotgun; Crossbow
    4: RPG; Gauss; Egon; Hornet gun
    5: Hand grenade; Satchel; Trip mine; Snark
    To access the weapons, press the number x amount of times to cycle through the 
    collection of weapons to select what you want. For an example: If you want to 
    get the 357 magnum, press the number 2 twice to access the 357 magnum.
    [2.1.26]: What's My Half-Life Version
    Here are some ways to check what Half-Life version you are running:
    1. Go to where HL.exe exists (default at C:\Sierra\Half-Life\). Right click on 
    the HL.exe and select Properties. Select the Version tab. In the Item name box, 
    select the Product version. It will then display the version number to the right 
    box under Value.
    2. Go into the console of Half-Life and type in: version
    3. In the console up in the right hand corner, it will tell the version of the 
    4. In the main menu down in the lower right hand corner, it will tell the 
    version of the game's version. (v1.0.1.3+) 
    Note: If you bought the original Half-Life, the version is at v1.0.0.5. If you 
    bought Half-Life: Game of the Year, the version is at either v1.0.0.9 or 
    [2.1.27]: When Installing
    Check out section 6.2.2 for information on installing Half-Life.
    [2.1.28]: Whole New Game
    The game could be played over again by extracting out a file called skill.cfg 
    from the pak0.pak. Get the editor that would extract this file at: 
    http://www.planetquake.com/qped/. Getting this file would allow you to change 
    the damage and the health of all the weapons and enemies in the whole game.
    [2.2]: Multi-Player
    Here are some multiplayer information.
    [2.2.1]: Bots
    Bots, shorten from robots, are AI (artificial intelligence) controlled by the 
    computer. These are virtual opponents that you can play against in multiplayer 
    mode offline (not being on the Internet). This means that you can play 
    multiplayer mode without being on the Internet, since you now have virtual 
    players to play against. For now, currently, the bots available are only known 
    to work for deathmatch. No mods (like TFC, Counter-Strike, etc...) have bots 
    There are currently some bots. Here are the site to get these bots:
    http://www.contaminated.net/phineas/ - The Phineas bot
    http://www.telefragged.com/thefatal/jumblow.shtml  - The Jumbot bot
    To check out on the developers of bots, check out these sites:
    [2.2.2]: General
    Here are some general information about multiplayer mode for Half-Life.
    []: Beginners Information
    It is advised that you venture through Half-Life multiplayer menu and set up 
    your configurations. Also, using the Quick Start for Internet Games can be 
    useful for the first few times before you advance to using the in game server 
    []: Cheats
    You can cheat in multiplayer mode, granted that you're hosting your own server. 
    You need to enter in sv_cheats 1 before starting the game, or switch maps to 
    take the cheats into affect. You can use the regular cheat codes for single 
    player mode in multiplayer mode. The only codes that won't work would be the god 
    mode and noclip mode.
    []: Getting Started
    To get started for multiplayer mode, it is advised that you go through the Half-
    Life multiplayer menus and set up your configurations. Also, create a cfg that 
    has some multiplayer tweaks for online. See section 7.2.2 for multiplayer 
    []: Map Cycles
    There is a file called mapcycle.txt in your \Half-Life\Valve\ directory. 
    Whenever hosting, edit this file and put in whatever maps you want it to rotate 
    after a certain limit of the level to end going to the next map.
    []: Models/Skins
    Bundled with Half-Life, Half-Life offers you five choices to pick which models 
    should represent you in multiplayer: Scientist, HGrunt, Helmet, Gordon, or Gina. 
    The default is on Gordon or Helmet. To pick others, make sure you hit 
    previous/next to see what you like to pick.
    A model is like a human being. A skin is like the clothes for the human being. 
    Models are edited and change its polygons around. A skin is just like some 
    clothes for the models. So try not to confuse the two. A model is a few hundred 
    KBs big, and the skins a few KBs.
    If you downloaded models, and use them in multiplayer, then youneed to know 
    this: if other people have the model that you have and currently using, then 
    they can see you. If the opponents don't have the model that you got, then they 
    see you as some other kind of model, replaced by the five originals if they 
    don't got the model that you're using.
    To manually install models/skins, create a directory named after the model/skin 
    under \Half-Life\Valve\Player\
    To know how to make skins, then go to http://www.contaminated.net/wavelength/ 
    To view the models from a program instead of doing a test run in a LAN game, go 
    here and get the program:
    If you want to learn how to create models, go to 
    By the way, you'll be required to have some 3D program, especially 3D Studio Max 
    (More than $3000). But if you don't have 3D Studio Max, then you can get 
    Milkshape 3D at: http://www.swissquake.ch/chumbalum-soft/ 
    []: Observer Mode
    The only way to be in observer mode is to have the server to set the command 
    "mp_forcerespawn 0" (no quotes, and it's a zero). If the command is set to 0, 
    then all you need to do to get into observer is to die. After dying, don't press 
    anything. You will then be shifted to an observer view. There's no way to move 
    throughout the map, so you're stuck in one spot to view action.
    [] Orange Bar
    That orange bar that you see under your health when first time logging into the 
    server to play means that you're downloading other people's decals. You can 
    disable by going to section 7.2.2 and check it out.
    []: Talk While Playing
    Here are two great programs to use during gameplay:
    1. Roger Wilco: http://www.resounding.com 
    2. BattleCom: http://www.shadowfactor.com 
    These two programs add new strategies to online gaming. This allows you and your 
    buddies talk while playing, transmitting voice and hear the warnings faster than 
    typing the warning messages out. Provided that you have a blazing fast 
    connection, then it's worth the download to try out these programs. A warning 
    for those who have less than a 56k modem: don't even think about getting it. 
    Sending the voice takes away at least 1KB of your uploading bandwidth. Now when 
    playing and talking, expect to lag like hell if there are more than 2 people on 
    the server. These programs should be used on high bandwidth connections. But 
    like I said, this is a warning for you low bandwidths people who want to try 
    this thing out.
    [] WON.Net
    People have mistakenly to have thought that when they get connected to the 
    internet and launch Half-Life, and when they log onto a server, they think that 
    they're actually playing on WON.Net's server. This is very false. When you try 
    to connect to the server, you only log onto WON.Net's authentication server so 
    that your CD Key can be checked. After it's authenticated, you are then 
    disconnected from WON.Net's authentication server and then onto your real server 
    that you wish to be on. Read section for further details on the 
    [2.2.3]: Hosting Server
    Here are some words about hosting a server.
    [] About
    Please keep in mind that for folks out there that have less than an ISDN who 
    decides to host and knows nothing about bandwidth and serving a server should 
    not host. Most people out there who thinks a 56k modem can handle more than 1-2 
    clients is wanting a slap in the face. Please don't try to run a server with a 
    56k modem, except that you just want to host it between you and your friend, 
    then that's fine. But if you decide to host with a 56k modem running a server 
    with 2+ clients on your server, on the internet, then don't even think about it. 
    Let those who have higher bandwidth do it. 56k modem doesn't have the bandwidth 
    on what it got to require to hold more than 2 clients. If you do decide to host 
    with your 56k modem and wonder why your client(s) have such a high latency and 
    you have such low latency, then you really need a slap. I'm sorry to say, but 
    you would really need a slap. 
    A minimum ideal spec of a PC server would be the following: 
    CPU: Pentium II
    RAM: 64MB of RAM 
    Bandwidth: ISDN speed or higher 
    The above is just for minimal serving server, like for 2-4 players. Any higher, 
    and the requirements for a good server with many clients will shoot straight up.
    Whenever hosting a server, like on the internet, beware that your server and 
    your IP address will be broadcast all over the world in seconds. Yes, this is 
    true. Your server will be enlisted in Half-Life's own built in server browser. 
    Anybody can join in at will.
    The only way to keep the server private between your friends, you would have to 
    make a password for the server. You'll see the password option when you're going 
    to host, if you do it in the Half-Life menu. They will have to enter the 
    password and it'll be limited to you and your friends. Make sure your friend 
    knows the password, because when they do connect to your server, Half-Life will 
    prompt them with the password box and needs the password to connect to your 
    When hosting, all you need to know, is your own IP address. You can get your IP 
    address by going to Start Menu-> Run. Type in: winipcfg. From there, it'll give 
    you your IP address. Now, write down that number and give it to your friends.
    After giving the IP address to your friends, all they have to do now is just 
    drop down their console, type in:
    connect xxxxxxxxx
    Where xxxxxxxxx = your IP address
    You wouldn't need to worry about the port number, like 27015 or whatever after 
    your IP address. Half-Life should take care of that. Your friends should connect 
    after typing in connect xxxxxxxxx.
    A good site to get some more information about hosting a server is at: 
    http://www.contaminated.net/server/ . This site has commands and tips to make 
    your life easier hosting a Half-Life server. 
    Http://halflife.pcgame.com/console/server.htm is a site that has a list of 
    server commands. Also, here's a site for FAQ Server: 
    If you're running HLDS.exe (Half Life Dedicated Server program), and you want to 
    play on your own server, you need to add this command to HL.exe: -port 27016
    This will allow you to connect to your own dedicated server. If you don't use 
    this parameter command, then you will not be able to connect to your own 
    dedicated server. This command changes what the dedicated server listens on what 
    port. Default is 27015.
    One easy way to run a server is go to this site: http://hlman.stomped.com/. This 
    site provides a program for you to use and to configure the server easier. If 
    people are having problems connecting to your server, try adding "sv_validate 0" 
    (no quotes) to \Sierra\Half-Life\valve\server.cfg and add "setmaster none" to 
    your \Sierra\Half-Life\valve\autoexec.cfg. You can now log on to the server 
    without validation.
    If you host a Half-Life server, like say at work, and you go home and play on 
    your work's server, you can also set aadministration password for the remote 
    server. At the work's Half-Life server, type: rcon_password "<desired password>" 
    and at home on your computer type:rcon_password "<the desired password>". If you 
    want to change something, like the map, all you have to do is type: rcon 
    "<command>" to change the settings for your server. Example: rcon map datacore
    [] Half-Life Primary Server
    There's a free serving program for people who would like to make a Half-Life 
    server without buying the game. This is only the server side and not playable. 
    The downloadable file link is: http://ftp.won.net/pub/half-
    life/hlserver4013.exe. Get that program. It is v4.0.1.3 (the latest, Valve 
    decided to change the first digit to not confuse with client patch, instead of 
    1, it's now going to be a 4). Beware, this is only a server side program (you 
    can't play) and the program is very big when downloading. The program is about 
    87,111,918 Bytes (85,070 KB or 83 MB).
    There's a mailing list for people interested in discussion about Half-Life/TFC 
    dedicated server issues, for Win32. To join the list, mail 
    majordomo@lists.caitiff.com with "subscribe hlds" in the body. If you have 
    install questions or problems, email the mailing list: hlds@lists.caitiff.com.
    [] Kick Players Off
    If you have some corrupted people making an ass out of themselves, and you don't 
    like them on the server, you can do the following things to get rid of them:
    1. Kick them off your server: To do this, pull down the console, and type kick 
    <user name>. Ex: kick Jack
    2. If they come back repeatedly on your server and abuse the server, you can ban 
    those S.O.B.s by the following: bring down the console, and type status. Write 
    down the username's IP address. Now, still in the console, type in addip 0 <IP 
    address>. Addip is the command to invoke banning a certain IP address. Following 
    the command addip is the number zero. Zero means banned permanently from the 
    server. Change the number (the number is in minutes) other than zero to let the 
    person come back on for a certain amount of minutes you specified. <IP address> 
    is the IP address that you wrote down when you typed in status in the console. 
    Input the IP address that you want to banish that person off your server. After 
    issuing the addip command, confirm the banning of an IP address by typing in the 
    console listip. After this, kick the player off once more and then that would be 
    the last that you would ever see that jerk on your server.
    If you have a player using the ~ or ` anywhere in the name, then there's another 
    way to kick them off instead trying to hit the ~ or ` key and end up pulling 
    down the console. Do the following:
    1. Bring down the console and type in: status
    2. Scroll up/down the console and find the appropriate player that you want to 
    kick off via their id #.
    3. After finding the player, type this into the console: banid 0 <id #> kick
    Banid is the usuage of using id to ban, the 0 is for how many minutes they can 
    join back in, which is never, <id # is from the status>, and kick is the command 
    to kick them off while you ban them.
    [] LAN and Internet players
    If you want to host a server over the internet and want your LAN to play on the 
    server with you, do the following things from the console:
    sv_lan 0 (to allow internet opponents to join)
    sv_lan 1 (to allow LAN opponents to join)
    Note: if you put sv_lan to 0 (zero), then only the internet people can join the 
    game. If any LAN players want to join in the game, then you need to set it to 
    sv_lan 1. But if you do set it to sv_lan 1, then no internet players can join 
    until you put it to 0 (zero).
    [] Linux
    For those who runs a Linux OS, and would like to run a Half-Life server side 
    only (not playable, exactly like Half-Life Primary Server, but just for Linux), 
    then you're in luck. The link to the Linux version is: 
    http://ftp.won.net/pub/half-life/linux1010b.tar.gz. There's a mailing list for 
    people interested in discussion about Half-Life/TFC dedicated server issues, for 
    Linux. To join the list, mail majordomo@lists.caitiff.com with "subscribe hlds" 
    in the body. If you have install questions or problems, email the mailing list: 
    hlds@lists.caitiff.com. There's a GUI program to control Linux HLDS. You can 
    check it out at http://linuxhlds.halflife.org/. 
    If you want to run at least two or more HLDS, go to 
    http://www.fileplanet.com/index.asp?section=209&file=29184 and download the file 
    and check it out.
    []: Tracking Statistics
    There are programs out there that would track your server with frag statistics 
    and other goodies and log them to the file/web for view of player frags and 
    other goodies depending on the program being used. Here are a few programs to 
    check out: http://aeons.gametown.de/AEstats/ (Linux only)
    http://www.uwm.edu/~zachkarp/halfStats (Linux only)
    There is also a program that came with Half-Life v1.0.1.3, that can track TFC 
    statistics. Review the TFC manual for this option.
    [2.2.4]: Lag/Latency/Ping
    Here are some information about lag/latency/ping.
    []: General
    Latency, which is measured in milliseconds on average packets sent, and a single 
    packet message sent to the server and back is called ping. It is best to keep 
    this ping/latency low if possible. You do not want a high number.
    Lag is created from two things: your computer components and the internet. The 
    faster your computer, the lower the latency. The faster and bette quality of 
    your internet connection, the lower the latency. Get the point?
    It might not be your hardware or connection device holding you behind and 
    creating lag, but it could be your ISP. Poor ISP is the leading cause of high 
    latency. If you're one of the people who uses major ISPs, like AOL, tough luck. 
    You're gonna need it, because their routers and connections are terrible. Major 
    ISPs are not made for gaming, but for fancy on-line surfing on the web types 
    (like AOL). Ditch your ISP and go for local ones. Local ones should cost less 
    than the major ISPs and offer more quality data transfer and less lag!
    To kill lag as much as possible, check out section 7. Get your computer up to 
    speed as much as possible with those tips. 
    People with pings less than 150ms are usually referred to as 'Low Ping Bastard' 
    (LPB), usually use high quality connections, like digital connections such as 
    ISDN, cable modems, T1s, etc... People with pings higher than 150ms are usually 
    referred to as 'High Ping Bastard' (HPB) or 'High Ping Warrior' (HPW), usually 
    use analog modems. Playable range can be considerable from anywhere of 0ms to 
    400ms. Any higher than the playable range, you're lagging like hell.
    Sometimes, people call each other 'campers'. Campers are people who sitsin a 
    respawn area of any kind - either weapons or the places where people respawn 
    once they die, and get a 'cheap' kill with one good blow from a good weapon to 
    get a quick frag. Frag is a term to use for 'kills'. So that means that if you 
    kill someone, then that means that you just got one frag. You could see your 
    latency during a multiplayer game by pressing the [Tab] key (defaulted key to 
    produce a chart showing who is playing, the latency, the frags, and the deaths). 
    If you got another key assigned for the multiplayer result chart, then press 
    that key.
    If you want to try and improve your latency, visit section 7.2 to check out what 
    you can do.
    []: Yahn's Explanation I: Latency Vs. Ping
    Yahn from Valve wrote entitled 'Latency vs. Ping':
    "The way Half-Life determines the 'latency' value shown in its scoreboard is 
    different than what users generally call 'ping'. The word latency is a 
    deliberate decision to emphasize that the value shown is a better representation 
    of actual network play than a mere ping. How is ping calculated and how is 
    latency different.
    Ping is a simple round trip time for a message from one computer to another. It 
    is independent of whether the machine is playing a game etc. It generally is a 
    best case communication round-trip time.
    In Half-Life, the server tracks round trip times for packets that it sends to 
    the client. The problem that arises is that the client, if it is not running at 
    a high framerate, can have the message sitting in its network queue for a 
    significant amount of time. For instance, a client that is chugging along at 10 
    fps ( yuck! ) is using about 100 milliseconds to process each frame. The 
    scenario goes like this, on average, you can assume that a message arrives some 
    time during that 100 ms. window. If you assume it can arrive anywhere in that 
    time frame, it's quite possible that the client has already read messages from 
    the network for that frame. If so, then you have to wait 100 ms. until the next 
    time the message queue is read. Then the client must act on the messages. 
    Finally, the client sends its next movement command to the server. When the 
    server receives this movement command, it looks at when it sent out the message 
    that the movement command corresponds to and computes the latency based on that 
    round trip time. If the server is not running at a high frame rate, or even it 
    it's running at 40 fps or so, then it's message queue can lead to inflation of 
    the round trip time as the client's reply sits in that message queue. These 
    numbers are somewhat exaggerated, but you see the point. The server computes the 
    ping over the last 64 messages it received from the client ( ignoring dropped 
    packets ). If the client sees any kind of transient network backlog, or low 
    framerate, it can really skew the overall average latency that is reported.
    So the road to better latency values involves trying to improve your framerate 
    as much as possible, as well as playing on servers that are running at decent 
    tic rates. ( Such things as video mode, max number of decals, and other settings 
    can have a huge impact on framerate ).
    This brings up another misconception about benchmarking HL performance. In HL, 
    the timedemo and playdemo commands do not work the same way as in other 
    Quake/Quake2 engine games. In particular, demos always try to play back in the 
    same amount of time it took to record them. Thus a demo that is 10 seconds long 
    and has 240 frames will always play back in roughly 10 seconds. It could be that 
    less frames are rendered on a slow playback machine. But, at most, 240 frames 
    will be rendered ( in this example ). The bottom line is not to use HL demos for 
    any benchmarking. Much better is to use "timerefresh" in a known spot ( or 
    several of them ) to get an idea of your framerate. Or to run with host_speeds 
    set to 1 -- which prints out the current frames per second to the notification 
    area at the top of the screen. These provide a useable benchmark.
    Finally, some folks are wondering about how the HL front-end determines network 
    speed ( number of green or red dots ). In particular, there is a misconception 
    that those numbers somehow reflect the round-trip message time between the 
    WON.net master server and the particular server listed. This is simply not the 
    case. The protocol works like this. A quick connection is made to the WON.net 
    master server by your machine to request a raw list of IP addresses for all 
    currently running servers. Once you get this list, you don't talk to WON.net 
    anymore. Instead, your machine then contacts each server it has an IP address 
    for. The time you send out a message to that server is marked and when you get a 
    response is also marked. The difference in time is used to determine the network 
    speed. It's really that simple.
    In, however, we try to get a more accurate number by sending ten simple 
    'ping' requests to each server and waiting for responses to each one. We count 
    the number of responses received, and each of the round trip times for any 
    responses. These numbers are averaged to arrive at a more accurate round trip 
    time. But these numbers do not reflect the framerate dependencies that I 
    describe above for the 'in-game' experience. If you run hl.exe with -
    numericping, then the green dots are replaced with two numbers, the round trip 
    time in milliseconds and the percentage of packets that did not generate a 
    response to the 'ping' request. In v1.0.0.8, we added a way for server operators 
    to broadcast certain information about the quality of their servers. We don't do 
    this by default, as some server operators might not want such information 
    exposed to users. But if the server operator runs the server and sets the cvar 
    'sv_type' to 1, then when the server is queried by the HL front-end, GameSpy, 
    PingTool, or some other server querying program, then the value of sv_type 
    returned will include the type of operating system being used by the server ( 
    e.g., Win32 or Linux -- note, the Linux server has not been released yet ), the 
    CPU MHz of the server ( e.g., 450 ), and whether the server is a listen server ( 
    'hl.exe' ) or a dedicated server ( 'hlds.exe' ). Of course, the best experiences 
    occur on dedicated server running at high speed using Linux. The only 
    information we don't have at our disposal is the servers bandwidth ( e.g., T1, 
    etc. )."
    []: Yahn's Explanation II: Why HL/TFC Slow?
    Yahn from Valve wrote this to counter someone's question of why HL/TFC is slow 
    and network code is crap:
    "A thing to remember about higher pings in general is that for most users TFC 
    runs at a lower framerate than QW ever did. We have a lot of cool technology in 
    there fighting for CPU bandwidth (our animation system and higher polygon count 
    models, 16 bit color, realtime DSP of the sound information, more complex/time 
    consuming game .dll code, overlayed client.dll HUD elements). All of these 
    things lower framerate a bit compared to the somewhat older and definitely 
    simpler technology displayed in QW. If your framerate (or the server's) is 
    lower, then there is more "dead" time where the network layer has received 
    messages but the machine cannot process them because it is off doing something 
    else like rendering a frame. This leads to increased "ping" values, as you 
    The other thing to remember that can cause poor net performance is bandwidth 
    usage. We've made some significant steps in this direction, but we still want to 
    improve (i.e., lower) our bandwidth usage even more. In fact, we want to lower 
    bandwidth usage quite drastically. The reason why is that if a client on a modem 
    is receiving too much data for their connection, they start to fall behind on 
    the relentless flow of data coming in. They quickly get more and more backlogged 
    and eventually they get flooded out (1000+ ping, e.g.). This is especially 
    prevalent in the following conditions: 
    Client framerate too high: In the current TFC release, each frame the client 
    renders results in a request for the server to send an update packet. This is 
    exactly the same networking model as QW. However, today's machines are so much 
    faster than the ones around when QW rolled out the door that it's quite 
    conceivable to request too much data from the server (especially when there are 
    a lot of players in your PVS or there is a lot of entity traffic in the area). 
    You can mitigate this by capping your framerate at a reasonable number (e.g., 
    fps_lan or fps_modem 20 or 30). In addition, you must have the proper rate 
    setting for your machine. It's okay to choke a lot of packets at times, but it's 
    never okay to flood yourself out by not having the rate setting right for your 
    connection. This is an area where we are making a lot of changes in future 
    technology to eliminate the need for framerate capping and to smooth out the 
    server to client update stream. 
    Rate setting incorrect. We have code in the engine and client to meter the 
    amount of data being sent over the wire to avoid the backlogged "ping of death" 
    condition above. Currently, however, this relies on a user's ability to choose / 
    tweak the correct rate setting. We've considered schemes to automatically adapt 
    the rate setting based on packet loss and choked packets (among other 
    parameters), but coming up with a solution that works in all cases is tricky. 
    Again, we are doing a lot of research into these issues right now. 
    Pushlatency set to the wrong value. This really only goes to the perception of 
    lag on your movements, but generally you'll want to fully compensate for your 
    latency by keeping this value substantially negative (e.g., -1000). Note that if 
    pushlatency is set to higher than your latency in the negative, we just ignore 
    the part that goes past your actual latency, so you don't have to try to "tune" 
    this number that carefully if you want full prediction of movements. Just set it 
    far enough negative and you won't have to worry about it. The whole set it to 
    "minus one half of your latency" guideline is a bit too esoteric for me, you 
    might as well use prediction to it's fullest and set it to minus some big number 
    and let prediction predict all of your movements up to the current time. 
    Bandwith usage: Half-Life's entity system is just way more complicated than QW's 
    ever was. Remember, most of the entity system in Half-Life was initially 
    instituted to support single player Half-Life. Of course, in the single player 
    game there was zero latency and no bandwidth constraint. For any of our future 
    games having a heavy multiplayer component, this system has some problems. We 
    will be spending a lot of time investing in technology that lowers the bandwidth 
    needed to replicate entity state information and interesting visual effects over 
    the network. The fruits of this research should show up in our products soon. 
    Prediction: Predicting things on the client requires a reasonable balance 
    between how much game-specific code and state information you want to have on 
    the client and a few other considerations. In the future, we are going to want 
    to be able to predict things on the client fairly robustly. As I mentioned 
    earlier, we're looking into opening up player physics to MOD authors so that the 
    client and server can do the right thing and allow prediction to work better 
    than it has in the past. This will translate into much smoother player movement 
    in our games."
    []: Yahn's Explanation III: Laggers Creating Lag?
    I asked this question to Yahn: "There are some people that stated that if 
    someone with high latency on a server is playing, it lags other clients as well. 
    Is this true on TCP/IP? IPX/SPX is known for this... But TCP/IP? Bunch of LPBs 
    (low ping b@st@rds) complain about this every time someone with high latency 
    joins in on the server. This is yet one of those myths/facts that is needed to 
    be cleared up on the internet. I don't know the answer, but it would help if you 
    explained it." and he replied with the following:
    "I'm pretty skeptical that there is any veracity to this. The only thing that 
    makes sense is that the additional player increases the CPU load on the server 
    because that guy is now a physical object interacting with the world. However, 
    one player shouldn't make much of a difference, so that seems a bit unlikely. As 
    far as the UDP/IP layer goes, there should be no difference. The new player 
    appears to the server just like any one else connected does. So I think it's 
    just a misperception (possibly intentional), but if someone can quantify it with 
    a repeatable case, I'd be highly interested. Barring that, I think this also 
    could be low-ping folks trying to keep the "easy kill" high-pingers off their 
    machines (of course, there are a lot of high-ping players who can still play 
    extremely effectively against the low-pingers)."
    [2.2.5]: Modes
    Here are some Half-Life multiplayer modes.
    []: Co-op
    I am sorry to say that Half-Life does not support Co-op, even though it had the 
    co-op command. But there's a way around it, although it is not hassle free and 
    have a few bugs: http://planethalflife.com/aftershock/coop/.
    []: Deathmatch
    Deathmatch is what it sounds like - free for all (basically). The objective is 
    to go around and stay alive and start killing. You want to die less and kill 
    []: Teamplay
    After the v1.0.0.8 patch release for Half-Life, Team Play is introduced. 
    Teamplay is almost like deathmatch, although you play as a team. How this work 
    is, teams are determined by what models you choose. Say you be a scientist. 
    Doesn't matter what color you are, but whoever else on the server that plays on 
    the Teamplay server, that is a scientist, would be on your team. And not matter 
    how much rounds you dump into your team mate, he/she probably won't die, unless 
    the server sets mp_friendlyfire to 1. How the score goes, works like this: of 
    all that is on your teammate, which would be all the scientists, would all 
    combine their scores and yours, to a total of a team consists of scientists. It 
    would show 'Scientists' and then the combinations of all your frags, deaths, and 
    the average latency of your entire team.
    The fastest way to switch teams is to pull down the console and type this in: 
    model <model's name>. Where <model's name> would be the models provided with 
    Half-Life like Gordon, Gina, Scientist, Helmet, or HGrunt. Make sure you type in 
    the correct name of the models/skins, or you just created a misspelled team name 
    and defaulted your skin to any of the five original models and you would be the 
    only one on that team.
    Also for team play, you can talk to your own teams, without the other people on 
    different teams see what is intended for your own team members. Defaulted is the 
    'u' key, enabling you to talk only with your team members. If you bind the 'u' 
    key to some other function, then type this in the console: bind x 
    "messagemode2". Where x is the key that you wanted to be pressed to access the 
    talk-to-team-member mode. Also, make sure you have the quotes around the 
    Additional teamplay options, teamplay lets you drop weapons to your teammate. To 
    do this, bind a key to "drop". Example: bind x "drop". Where x = any key. This 
    cool option drops your current weapon that you have in your hands. Say you have 
    a MP5 in your hands. You execute the drop command. You would then drop your MP5 
    and all the associate ammo for the weapon. The dropped item would then appear as 
    a green cylinder pack just like the regular ones in the deathmatch mode when you 
    kill people and out ejects the green cylinder pack. This option is best used 
    with your teammate when they don't have ammo/weapon.
    So to recap all that is Teamplay, just pick a model and that's how you either 
    change teams or create a team. Beware, that you're playing Teamplay mode, and 
    sometimes, you can't kill your teammate, hence don't be saying, "someone's 
    cheating, and I can't kill him/her!"
    []: Team Fortress Classic
    Team Fortress Classic (TFC) is Valve's new add-on for Half-Life that combines 
    the thrilling first-person multiplayer gameplay of the original Team Fortress 
    with Half-Life's leading edge technology. In Team Fortress Classic, you play one 
    of nine roles or classes, such as Medic, Soldier, or Engineer, and then join 
    your teammates online or over a LAN to battle against enemy teams. Each class 
    has unique weapons, items, abilities, and style of play. Check out section 2.2.8 
    for more information.
    [2.2.6]: Options
    Here are some options provided for Half-Life multiplayer connections.
    []: Internet
    To play on the internet, first of all, you need to connect to the internet 
    somehow. After that, you need to get the latest patch for Half-Life, which is 
    v1.0.1.3 so that it can allow you to play, or you won't be able to play because 
    most of the servers are v1.0.1.3. For beginners, launch Half-Life-> Multiplayer-
    > Internet Games.
    []: LAN
    After the v1.0.0.8 patch release, Half-Life now supports these two protocols 
    that can be used for LAN games: IPX and TCP/IP. To play TCP/IP, each PC would 
    need to be assigned unique different IP address, with the same subnet mask. A 
    max of 5 users can use the same CD Key in LAN mode (not playing on the 
    internet). If you're new to LAN, then please visit this site to know what to do 
    about LAN games: http://www.lanparty.com. If you're having problems with LAN, 
    check out section 6.2.3 for some solutions to try. For any beginners, visit the 
    above link to know how to set up a LAN game first.
    []: Modem To Modem
    With 2 PCs with modem calling each other over phone lines, go here: 
    http://www.zipworld.com.au/~otser/modem.htm. This is a guide for Quake games, 
    but it is still the same technique to use modem to modem games.
    []: Serial
    With 2 PCs with a null modem/serial cable, go here: 
    [2.2.7]: Proxy
    Here are some information about proxies, with the usage of Wingate and Winroute. 
    When v1.0.1.0 patch was released (Mar 27, 1999) for Half-Life, Valve and WON.net 
    decided to change the authentication server port 7001 to 7002. Make sure the 
    port is changed or it won't work.
    []: Wingate
    Wingate can be used to try and play through proxies/firewalls. You can get it 
    at: http://www.wingate.net. Detailed proxy setup for Half-Life:
    For Wingate 2.1d and 3.0 (you can get 2.1d from the above URLs):
    Half-Life Auth Server: TCP 7002 -> half-life.east.won.net:7002
    Half-Life WON Server: TCP 6003 -> half-life.east.won.net:6003
    Half-life Server Master: UDP 27010 -> half-life.east.won.net:27010
    Half-Life Game Server1: UDP xxx -> ip.address.of.game.server:270xx
    Half-Life Game Server2: UDP 27015 -> another.game.server:27015
    Then connect to the game using the console: Connect wingate:27015
    Also for Wingate 3.0:
    Editing the file called hosts located in the C:\windows directory and put in the 
    IP of your Wingate machine followed by the
    half-life.east/won.net. like this:
    -- Hosts --
    <your.pc.ip.address> half-life.east.won.net
    - or -
    <your.pc.ip.address> half-life.west.won.net
    []: Winroute
    Here's a web site that will tell you how to set up the game with WinRoute: 
    http://members.tripod.com/taniswolf/. The site to get WinRoute is: 
    [2.2.8]: Team Fortress Classic
    You can get Team Fortress Classic with patch v1.0.0.9 or higher for Half-Life. 
    Half-Life v1.0.0.9 or higher includes the TFC mod. Below are some information on 
    []: Classes
    Here are brief details. You can get further details by accessing the TFC manual. 
    Here are the nine classes listed with information:
    #1: SCOUT Details:
    #1 Crowbar
    #2 Shotgun
    #4 Nailgun
    Primary: Concussion
    Secondary: Caltrop
    Display Flag Status.
    Further info: This is mainly for offense. Use this guy to go and get flags/keys. 
    The scout has great speed, and the fastest out of all the classes, so that's his 
    main advantage.
    #2: SNIPER Details:
    #1 Crowbar
    #2 Sniper Rifle
    #3 Auto Rifle
    #4 Nailgun
    Primary: Hand Grenade
    Toggle Rifle Zoom
    Further info: This is mainly for defense. Use this guy to snipe out easy targets 
    in the open battlefield. If you hold down the primary fire key while using the 
    sniper rifle, your rifle would charge up, and your laser would brighten up a 
    lot, indicating the fully charged rifle. Charge it up for more power in the 
    killing rifle bullet for more damage.
    #3: SOLDIER Details:
    #1 Crowbar
    #2 Shotgun
    #3 Super Shotgun
    #5 Rocket Launcher
    Primary: Hand Grenade
    Secondary: Nail Grenade
    Further notes: This guy can be on offense or defense position. Average all 
    around, but slow. You can rocket jump with the soldier. Just make sure you have 
    enough life so you don't kill yourself in the process.
    #4: DEMOLITION MAN Details:
    #1 Crowbar
    #2 Shotgun
    #4 Grenade Launcher
    #5 Pipebomb Launcher
    Primary: Hand Grenade
    Secondary: MIRV Grenade
    Detonate Pipebombs
    Set Detpack : +det5,+det20,+det50
    Further notes: This guy can be on offense or defense position. Use pipebombs to 
    set traps, or go berserk with the grenade launcher. The grenade launcher are 
    blue grenades, and the pipebomb launcher are yellowish/green grenades. Max of 8 
    pipebombs permitted at one time.
    #5: MEDIC Details:
    #1 Medikit/BioWeapon
    #2 Shotgun
    #3 Super Shotgun
    #5 Super Nailgun
    Primary: Hand Grenade
    Secondary: Concussion Grenade
    Select Medikit
    Further notes: This guy is mainly for defense. The medic is used to heal wounds 
    of your injured teammates. Also can regenerate health in a few seconds, gaining 
    2% each. Can also heal itself when poisoned, so no need to call for another 
    medic to cure. It is fun when using the medikit and run at the opposing side and 
    try to heal them. Instead of healing the opposing side, you actually infect them 
    with poison. They will die very slowly, health decreases slowly. The infected 
    can run around, and if touch by any other person would get infected.
    #6: HEAVY WEAPONS GUY Details:
    #1 Crowbar
    #2 Shotgun
    #3 Super Shotgun
    #5 Assault Cannon
    Primary: Hand Grenade
    Secondary: MIRV Grenade
    Select Assault Cannon
    Further notes: This guy is mainly for defense. Here's a great tip: don't fire 
    too long, or you'll get, um... Find out for yourself if you're that curious. 
    Moves very slowly, when firing the assault cannon.
    #7: PYRO Details:
    #1 Crowbar
    #2 Shotgun
    #4 Flamethrower
    #5 Incendiary Cannon
    Primary: Hand Grenade
    Secondary: Napalm Grenade
    Select Flamethrower
    Further notes: This guy can be on offense or defense position. If you torched 
    the opponent, the opponent will still be on fire for a few seconds.
    #8: SPY Details:
    #1 Knife
    #2 Tranquilizer Gun
    #3 Super Shotgun
    #4 Nailgun
    Primary: Hand Grenade
    Secondary: Hallucinogenic Grenade
    Open Disguise menu
    Further notes: This guy is mainly used for offense. The funniest class that I 
    enjoy using. You can disguise yourself as the other team and run around acting 
    like you're on their side. Although you can be detected, just by the opponents 
    laying the cursor and try to I.D. you, they would know. If you are being 
    I.D.'ed, it will report the opponent's name and so they'll know it's a spy. By 
    the way, when tricking someone to be on their team, and they accept the 
    knowledge, when they turn their back on you, pull out that knife and knife them 
    in the back! Back stabber.
    #9: ENGINEER Details:
    #1 Spanner
    #2 RailGun
    #3 Super Shotgun
    Primary: Hand Grenade
    Secondary: EMP Grenade
    Open Build menu
    Further notes: This guy can be on offense and defense. The engineer can build a 
    sentry gun, higher up the sentry gun's level, and just walk off and attack.
    []: Maps
    Here are the six official released maps for TFC:
    2 Fortresses - Capture The Flag
    Map file name: 2fort.bsp
    OBJECTIVE: Enter the enemy Base and make your way to where their Flag resides in 
    the Basement. Grab it and bring it back to your Battlements. Place it on the 
    raised square to Capture it.
    SCORING: 10 points per Capture.
    OTHER NOTES: Flag carriers drop the Flag when they die. Dropped flags return to 
    their Base after 60 seconds.
    Canalzone 2 - Territorial Control
    Map file name: cz2.bsp
    OBJECTIVE: Take Flags from your Base and place them on the Command Points 
    situated throughout the map. Use the map in your base to see who owns each 
    SCORING: 1 point for every 30 seconds you hold a Command Point.
    OTHER NOTES: Flag carriers move at half-speed.
    Hunted - Assassination/Escort
    Map file name: hunted.bsp
    OBJECTIVE: The Hunted must reach the truck alive. The Assassins need to kill The 
    Hunted. The Bodyguards need to protect The Hunted.
    SCORING: If The Hunted dies, the Assassins get 25 points. If The Hunted reaches 
    the truck, he and the Bodyguards get 50 points.
    OTHER NOTES: Whenever The Hunted dies or makes it to the truck, all players are 
    moved back to their starting positions.
    Push - Football
    Map file name: push.bsp
    OBJECTIVE: Grab the ball from the warehouse in the center of the field. Run it 
    into the ENEMY base and place it on the raised square to score a goal.
    SCORING: 10 points per goal.
    OTHER NOTES: Ball carriers drop the ball when they die. Dropped balls stay where 
    they are. All players are reset whenever a goal is scored.
    The Rock - Capture The Flag Variant
    Map file name: rock2.bsp
    OBJECTIVE: Steal the Keycard from the enemy Warden's office. Take it across to 
    the other side of the enemy Base and hit the switch to release the Gas. Don't 
    bring the Keycard back to your own Base.
    SCORING: 15 points to each Gas Release.
    OTHER NOTES: To survive the Gas, get a protective suit from behind the marked 
    doors, or hide under the water.
    The Well - Capture The Flag
    Map file name: well.bsp
    OBJECTIVE: Enter the enemy Base and make your way to where their Flag resides in 
    the Tower. Grab it and bring it back to the base of your Tower. Place it on the 
    raised square to Capture it. The flag will then return to the enemy Base.
    SCORING: 10 points per Capture.
    OTHER NOTES: Flag carriers drop the Flag when they die. Dropped flags return to 
    their Base after 60 seconds.
    []: FAQ
    If this FAQ doesn't answer any questions, then visit 
    http://www.halflifehq.com/independent/tfc/Official.html for another FAQ for TFC.
    On August 24th, there were presents all over the server(s) that I've joined in 
    on. What gives?
    -It's Team Fortress's anniversary.
    I finally got the TFC patch. When I go into the multiplayer options, I don't see 
    any models to choose from. What gives?
    -You don't choose your model in the multiplayer options. You actually make your 
    choice inside the game when playing. You'll be able to choose from nine classes 
    in the middle of the game. So just join a game and a menu will be presented to 
    you to choose a class upon entering the game.
    I'm playing and then suddenly I see someone using my online name. Tell them to 
    stop using my name!
    -That may not be the case. They're maybe spies. Spies may use your name to try 
    and disguise on your team. For example, you're the only engineer on your team. 
    If the spy picks to disguise as an engineer, then the spy will take your name. 
    But if there are several engineers on your team, then Half-Life will randomly 
    pick one from your team of engineers. If there are no engineer classes on your 
    team, then Half-Life randomly picks a name from your team. Go ahead, see if 
    anyone else is using your name! Pull down the scoreboard and see if there's 
    anyone besides you with your name.
    How can I detect a spy?
    -Well, there's a lot of ways, but here are two ways:
    1. A scout comes near the spy and it will reveal that the spy who tried to fool 
    your team by disguising as your teammate will return as a normal spy and the spy 
    will be revealed who's true team the spy is on.
    2. Pull out your shotgun and shoot at the person. If the person is on your team, 
    then your teammate won't bleed. If you see the person bleeding when upon 
    shooting, start chasing after that opponent! He's a spy!
    I'm slowly losing life, and I see a gas mask on my HUD. What do I do?
    -You are being poisoned by the bioweapon of the opposing team's medic. What you 
    can do is call a medic on your team to come and heal your poison.
    How come when I play TFC, the other team seems to have an advantage like hurting 
    me more, etc...?
    -Because of these two variables:
    tfc_balance_scores 1 (enable score balancing)
    tfc_balance_teams 1 (enable team balancing)
    If set to one, then the losing team gets a boost to catch up and try to match 
    the other team's score. It's just trying to balance out and help out the losing 
    team to make it a fair game.
    I can't hear footsteps in the game! How come?
    -The option is defaulted off on the server side. So it's the server host that 
    would need to change it to on to enable the footsteps.
    In the Hunted mod of TFC, I see the president play as an assassin/bodyguard. Is 
    this cheating?
    -This is just a bug/glitch in TFC. However, it can also mean that someone cheat, 
    but not as always.
    How do I build a sentry/dispenser?
    -Press the "special" key to access the menu. From there, you can build what it 
    How do you put ammo in the sentry gun?
    -Put out your spanner (wrench looking weapon) and hit your sentry gun with it. 
    It will then give you a menu.
    How do I fix my sentry gun?
    -Use your spanner or wrench looking weapon, and hit the sentry gun. A menu would 
    provide you with an option to fix your sentry gun.
    Is it possible to rocket jump?
    -Yes, it is possible to rocket jump. Pick the soldier class, look down, fire the 
    rocket while jumping, and you should jump very high.
    What are the classes?
    -Check out section for more information.
    When using the demolition man, how come I can't set the detpack (C4) for more 
    than 5 seconds, even though it says that it can set up to 50 seconds?
    -You need to bind a key. Here's the examples with 3 timings given:
    bind <key> "+det5" (5 seconds)
    bind <key> "+det20" (20 seconds)
    bind <key> "+det50" (50 seconds)
    On The Hunted map, why can't there be more Assassins?
    -The map limited it to a maximum of 5 assassins.
    What are the objectives of the maps?
    -Each map have their own distinctive objectives. Check out section for 
    more information.
    Is there a way to execute my autoexec.cfg/x.cfg files under TFC?
    -Yes, place your autoexec.cfg/x.cfg under \Half-Life\Valve\TFC\
    directory and do what you usually do how to enable your cfg file.
    Is there other information about TFC?
    -There are some in this FAQ, so scroll down further. Also, read the TFC manual 
    that came with v1.0.0.9+ patch. Upon installing v1.0.0.9+ patch, you did check 
    the box that says to put a link on your desktop for the TFC manual did you? It's 
    also in the Start Menu under Sierra program group. Another great site with great 
    expanded information is: http://www.planethalflife/modcentral/tfc/tfc.htm. It's 
    ModCentral's Guide to TFC. Check it out if you got the time.
    [2.2.9]: Testing Multi-Player Maps Offline
    To play multiplayer maps, there are three ways:
    1. Get into Half-Life's console and type this in: map <level's name>
    Example: map boot_camp
    Note: you might need to issue the command "deathmatch 1" (no quotes) prior the 
    map command
    2. Edit your HL parameter to be like this: hl.exe +map <level's name>
    Example: hl.exe +map crossfire +deathmatch 1
    3. Go through the Half-Life Multiplayer Menu and selecting the map would be the 
    easiest way, but the slowest way.
    [2.3]: Single-Player
    Half-Life offers three modes to play in:
    Easy: Monsters are weak and are easy to kill.
    Normal: Monsters are strong and are easy to kill.
    Difficult: Monsters are strong and are difficult to kill.
    [2.3.1]: 3rd Person View
    The game lets you play like Tomb Raider style, where you get to see yourself in 
    action. Bring down the console and type in this: "thirdperson" or "chase_active 
    1" (no quotes).
    To change position of seeing your character, type this in the console:
    cam_idealyaw 0      (see the model from behind)
    cam_idealyaw 180  (see the model from the front)
    cam_idealdist 64    (sets the preferred distance from the player model for the 
    chase cam)
    cam_idealpitch 0    (sets the preferred pitch for the chase cam)
    chase_back 100     (sets the preferred cam distance from the player when backing 
    chase_right 0       (sets the preferred offset to the side for the chase cam)
    chase_up 16        (sets the preferred offset up for the chase cam)
    To disable the 3rd person view, type in this: "firstperson" or "chase_active 0" 
    (no quotes).
    Be careful when you play 3rd person view. Here are the reasons
    why you should play 3rd person view if you:
    1. Don't mind about not seeing the HUD. (health, armor, ammo)
    2. Don't mind about not being able to aim correctly. Basically, no crosshair.
    3. Don't mind about not being able to hear what the HEV announces.
    4. Don't mind seeing where you get hit. (red signs)
    Note: You can't use 3rd person view in multiplayer. You can only use it if the 
    server sets sv_cheats to 1, then you can use it.
    [2.3.2]: Autosave
    This is a built in feature of the levels that you play in Half-Life. Nothing can 
    be done about it. It requires to edit the levels, which is never going to be 
    done. Live with it. No patch will disable this feature. Maybe annoying feature, 
    but that's how it is.
    [2.3.3]: Barneys
    In the single player mode, you get to use the Barney(s) to assist your goals and 
    mow down enemies. Some people wonder how many can be used at one time to assist 
    with your goals. Well, the answer is unlimited. But the problem with more than 
    two is that if you happen to pass a doorway or a tight corridor or something 
    narrow space, then some of the Barney(s) will get stuck and freeze up. Then you 
    have to talk them one by one to get them through.
    If you are wondering where they get the name Barney from, it's from a show 
    called Andy Griffen Show. Barney is a cop in that show, so they just took that 
    name and plug it into the nameless security guard and now known as Barney.
    [2.3.4]: Cheats
    To be able to cheat in Half-Life, you must run the game with this command: -
    console. Add this command after HL.exe. You could do the following things to 
    achieve it:
    1. Start Menu-> Run-> type in: <x>:\<hl dir>\Hl.exe -console
        hl dir=Where Half-Life's directory resides in
    2. Create a shortcut of Hl.exe-> (right click) Properties-> Shortcut tab-> 
    Target box-> put in -console after hl.exe
    3. Half-Life to be at least v1.0.0.9 and the console option will appear in the 
    main menu.
    After enabling the console, you could access the console throughout the game by 
    pressing the [~] key (near the [Esc] key). After that, to be able to start 
    cheating, bring down the console and type this in: sv_cheats 1. Now, pass one 
    loading point of the game, and the cheating option should be enabled. You can 
    reload a saved game to access temporary cheats, but not all cheats will be 
    enabled. Some cheats will work if a level isn't loaded. Other cheats will not 
    work until you pass a loading point of a level and it will be enabled (like 
    impulse 101). You must pass a loading point to enable it.
    To cheat, bring down the console by pressing the [~] key, type in the following 
    things and press enter afterwards):
    god (type in god again to turn off god mode)
    noclip (type in noclip again to turn off noclip mode)
    impulse 101 (this gives almost everything)
    /give item_antidote
    /give item_battery
    /give item_healthkit
    /give item_longjump
    /give item_sodacan
    /give item_suit
    /give ammo_357
    /give ammo_9mmclip
    /give ammo_buckshot
    /give ammo_crossbow
    /give ammo_egonclip
    /give ammo_gaussclip
    /give ammo_mp5clip
    /give ammo_mp5grenades
    /give ammo_rpgclip
    /give weapon_357
    /give weapon_9mmhandgun
    /give weapon_crossbow
    /give weapon_crowbar
    /give weapon_egon
    /give weapon_gauss
    /give weapon_handgrenade
    /give weapon_hornetgun
    /give weapon_mp5
    /give weapon_rpg
    /give weapon_satchel
    /give weapon_shotgun
    /give weapon_snark
    /give weapon_tripmine
    map xxxx
    c0a0 c0a0a c0a0b c0a0c c0a0d c0a0e
    c1a0 c1a0a c1a0b c1a0c c1a0d c1a0e
    c1a1 c1a1a c1a1b c1a1c c1a1d c1a1f
    c1a2 c1a2a c1a2b c1a2c c1a2d
    c1a3 c1a3a c1a3b c1a3c c1a3d
    c1a4 c1a4b c1a4d c1a4e c1a4f c1a4g c1a4i c1a4j c1a4k
    c2a1 c2a1a c2a1b
    c2a2 c2a2a c2a2b1 c2a2b2 c2a2c c2a2d c2a2e c2a2f c2a2g c2a2h
    c2a3 c2a3a c2a3b c2a3c c2a3d c2a3e
    c2a4 c2a4a c2a4b c2a4c c2a4d c2a4e c2a4f c2a4g
    c2a5 c2a5a c2a5b c2a5c c2a5d c2a5e c2a5f c2a5g c2a5w c2a5x
    c3a1 c3a1a c3a1b
    c3a2 c3a2a c3a2b c3a2c c3a2d c3a2e c3a2f
    c4a1 c4a1a c4a1b c4a1c c4a1d c4a1e c4a1f
    c4a2 c4a2a c4a2b c4a3
    []: How To Skip Level
    To do a level skip, you must do the following: 
    1. Enable the console.
    2. Enable the cheat codes by "sv_cheats 1".
    3. Do a quicksave where you're currently at if you haven't done so.
    4. Do a quickload. Now, the important part here is to pay attention to what the 
    console displays. Look for the following context: cxax. Where x could be any 
    numbers. The cxax is the name of the level that you maybe on. There would be a 
    few of these displayed in the console, so pick one of them, and enter a number 
    higher than it is. For an example: you see c1a0 in the console. If you want to 
    skip the current map, you need to then type in the console: map c1a1. To know if 
    the map is available, look in section 2.3.4 (above this section) to see if 
    there's a valid map. If not, go onto the next higher one.
    [2.3.5]: Fun Things To Do
    Here are some fun things to do on your first day at the job (Anomalous Materials 
    level in the beginning of the game):
    -To the left of the main entrance (the lobby where the reception desk is), there 
    is a deactivated computer console. You can see partial edge of the computer 
    console on top of a shelving area next to the collection of TV screens. Go to it 
    and activate it.
    -At the reception desk where the guard is at the main entrance, go to the back 
    side of the desk and there should be a button near the guard's keyboard. Press 
    -In the scientist lounge room area (where there's two soda machines are and a 
    scientist sitting at a table and another roaming within the place trying to get 
    a soda), go to the microwave and press the button for less than 10 times (you'll 
    hear an increase high pitched sound FX each time you press the button).
    -In the room (near the MIB talking to a scientist) that has three scientists 
    (one at the drawing board, one at a laptop, and one just walking around). To the 
    left of the entrance door, there's a light switch. Press the switch.
    [2.3.6]: High Jump
    To do a high jump, simply jump. While jumping, press the crouch key, and from 
    this, it would make your character tuck their legs in while jumping in mid air. 
    This would enable you to jump on crates that you can't get on if you do a 
    regular jump. If this can't help you, see section 2.3.7 for details.
    [2.3.7]: Learn How To Play
    Half-Life offers a tutorial mode for players who wants to get use to Half-Life's 
    offerings, or for people who just bought their first FPS ((F)irst (P)erson 
    (S)hooting) game. You go through almost everything that you got to know before 
    playing the game. From Half-Life Main Menu, click on Hazard Course and you're on 
    the way to learn how to do some cool stuff and learn a couple of movements of 
    Half-Life's offerings, especially the long jump move that everybody gets 
    confused of.
    [2.3.8]: Long Jump
    To do a long jump, you must move forward. While moving forward, simply press the 
    crouch key, and then press the jump key right after crouching, and that should 
    launch you very far. To get a better learning of this, see section 2.3.7 for 
    [2.3.9]: Man In Blue/G-Man
    Here comes the MIB... It's that MIB! I see him! Well, for you all who wonder who 
    he is, or what is he, from the past, shooting him, trying to kill him with 
    anyway possible, but seems to be immune to all attacks, you will soon find out. 
    Beat the game, and you should find out who he is and why you see him through out 
    the game.
    He is also called "G-Man". You can also play as the G-Man model under 
    multiplayer. Go to this site: 
    http://www.planethalflife.com/dl/dl.asp?planethalflife/HLMPC.zip and download 
    the Valve Multiplayer Package and there are additional multiplayer things with 
    this package.
    As I wonder, one day in social studies class, there was a video shown and what 
    caught my attention was a word mentioned "G-Men". As I thought about it, it 
    actually does fit in somewhat. G-Men were government agents - working in 
    conjunction of the FBI and to crack down crimes. I don't know where the crime 
    fits in, but it sure makes a lot of sense where the word G-Man came from and how 
    it surely describes the MIB as some government agent. Wow, it sure showed that I 
    did learn something in school.
    There is something weird about his briefcase. If you cheated, and use the 
    'noclip' command, go into his brief case and be confused what you see in the 
    briefcase. It is recommended that you do this at the end of the game just for 
    the hell of it.
    [2.3.10]: Preserving Saved Files
    When reinstalling/removing Half-Life, all you need to keep the saved files is to 
    copy the directory \Half-Life\Valve\Save\ and put it somewhere safe. After 
    reinstalling Half-Life, put that directory back and you should have all your 
    saved games back safely and be able to play where you last left off.
    [2.3.11] Saved Games
    There are three saving techniques for Half-Life:
    1. Autosave: automatically saves between each important events during the level
    2. Quicksave: pressing the defaulted [F6] for quick save; [F7] for quickload.
    3. Manualsave: going through the menus and access the save menu.
    Note: When updating Half-Life (patching), there is no worry about incompatible 
    versions. The saved games will work under any current version of Half-Life.
    [2.3.12]: Walkthrough
    [2.3.13]: Who You Play As
    You play as Gordon Freeman, a new employee at Black Mesa in New Mexico. More 
    details are given at the beginning of the single player mode introduction of the 
    train ride to work. By the way, you're late for work.
    [3.1]: Commercial
    Here are some commercial products to be released for Half-Life related.
    [3.1.1]: Opposing Force
    Half-Life just got word that it will have an add-on: Opposing Force. Visit 
    http://www.opposingforce.net to find more about Opposing Force. Opposing Force 
    gone gold on November 10, 1999, and then released on Friday, Novermber 19, 1999. 
    Here's a link to an Opposing Force FAQ: http://sol.wctownhall.com/OpFor/. When 
    getting Opposing Force, it is required that you have the retail version of Half-
    Life, at least v1.0.0.9.
    [3.1.2]: Team Fortress II
    Team Fortress II was going to be an add-on for Half-Life. But, the creators 
    decided to change the add-on part and make it a stand-alone product, which it is 
    a new game to be installed on the HDD. You are going to pay this product at a 
    full game retail price, just like Half-Life.  The official name of the product 
    is Team Fortress II: Brotherhood of Arms. Here are some links for TF2:
    [3.2]: Modifications
    Below, I listed the mods currently available for download, even if it's in beta. 
    Go to http://www.planethalflife.com/modcentral/ to get more info on other mods 
    that are not listed below. You can also use the 'Custom Game' option from Half-
    Life's main menu to see other mods available for download.
    [3.2.1]: Action Half-Life
    [3.2.2]: Classic Capture The Flag
    [3.2.3]: Cold Ice
    [3.2.4]: Counter-Strike
    [3.2.5]: DMPlus
    [3.2.6]: Firepower
    [3.2.7]: Jailbreak
    [3.2.8]: Kenders That Kill
    [3.2.9]: Lambda Arena
    [3.2.10]: Oz
    [3.2.11]: Rocket Crowbar
    [3.2.12]: Sven Co-op
    [3.2.13]: Science and Industry
    [3.2.14]: Team Fortress Classic
    Valve decided to release TFC, for Half-Life, which is ported from Quake to Half-
    Life. The release date was 4/6/99. Check section 2.2.8 for more information on 
    TFC. Here's a link to check out TFC officially: 
    [3.3]: Total Conversions
    Here's a list to total conversions being made: 
    General editing information can be found at 
    [4.1]: CFG Files
    Autoexec.cfg is an automatic start up configuration file for Half-Life. You can 
    create this file easily, by creating a blank text file, and rename it, giving it 
    the last three file extensions ".cfg", hence the file "autoexec.cfg". This file 
    is very useful if you keep on typing in the commands that you often use. Putting 
    those commands that you use every time you play Half-Life, it would 
    automatically execute the command(s) into Half-Life's configuration and you 
    should never touch that command again, unless you want to change the current 
    value of the command. Any commands that can be used within the console of Half-
    Life can be placed in this autoexec.cfg. To get autoexec.cfg to execute itself 
    regularly upon Half-Life's start up, place the autoexec.cfg into the directory 
    \Half-Life\Valve\. But to make sure that it works, execute it upon every change 
    you make to the autoexec.cfg to ensure that the commands are accepted. Bring 
    down the console and type in: exec autoexec.cfg.
    For those who edit the config.cfg, do not edit it any further, because what you 
    just put in there will not be used. Half-Life regenerates that file every time 
    Half-Life is executed. Put it in a self name cfg file or in the autoexec.cfg so 
    that it can be executed when Half-Life starts automatically. That's why 
    sometimes you wonder why those commands that you just put in the config.cfg 
    don't work.
    To make it easy on you, here's a link to create an autoexec.cfg, or actually 
    commands to be put into the autoexec.cfg: 
    http://www.voodooextreme.com/tweak3d/autoexec/halflife/. Remember, autoexec.cfg 
    is a based text file, and is also needed to be created from scratch. Just create 
    a blank text file, like autoexec.txt, then placing commands in the text file, 
    and then rename it to autoexec.cfg.
    Any other <name>.cfg can be executed by just entering this in the console:
    exec <name>.cfg
    That should execute a custom made cfg. Make sure that the custom cfg is where it 
    should be, like for examples:
    For regular Half-Life DM and Teamplay, put the cfg in \Half-Life\Valve\
    For Half-Life TFC, put the cfg in \Half-Life\TFC\
    When creating any cfg, make sure to put a carriage return (an empty line) at the 
    end of the file. Error symptoms are Barneys (security guards) dying without any 
    indication of harmful effects done to them.
    When installing the game, only D3D.cfg exists, but opengl.cfg does not. D3D.cfg 
    could be found in \Half-Life\Valve\hw\ directory. You have to create opengl.cfg 
    manually and place it in \Half-Life\Valve\hw\.
    To know what are the best commands to put in your D3D.cfg/Opengl.cfg, please 
    refer to:
    Shockwave: http://www.voodooextreme.com/reverend/flash/Main.html
    Regular: http://www.voodooextreme.com/reverend/Main.html
    It has a lot of command explanations that helps you decide if the gl_x commands 
    are worth using.
    [4.2]: Creating Custom Levels
    Worldcraft is the only necessary program to create custom made levels for Half-
    Life. See section 4.6 for more on Worldcraft. There are also other programs than 
    Worldcraft that can create custom levels for Half-Life. Here are a three of 
    QERadiant: http://halflife.qeradiant.com/
    Qoole: http://www.qoole.com/
    Quark: http://www.planetquake.com/quark/ 
    [4.3]: Crosshairs
    You can edit the color of the crosshairs in Half-Life or even how they look. 
    Visit this site to find out how: http://members.aol.com/rjdriver/bullseye.htm.
    [4.4]: Pak Files
    To view all the goodies that Half-Life uses, like the models and sound FXs to 
    the maps that are used in the game, just go to:
    http://www.planetquake.com/qped/ and download the QpedII program. This is a pak 
    viewer and it could extract files from the pak0.pak that came with Half-Life. 
    Another pak viewer is Pak Explorer, at http://quakestuff.telefragged.com/. By 
    using any of these two programs, you can also extract anything found in the 
    [4.5]: SDK
    Stands for (S)oftware (D)eveloper's (K)it. You can download the SDK at 
    http://ftp.won.net/pub/half-life/sdk/. There are two flavors to download - the 
    standard (largest file, around 13MB) or minimal (smaller than the standard, 
    about 11MB). To get started on programming the mod that you intended, here's a 
    couple of links with some tutorials to help you: http://hlpp.cjb.net/ and 
    [4.6]: Worldcraft
    Here are some Worldcraft topics. I am not going to cover Worldcraft specifically 
    in this HLFAQ. There's a WCFAQ already, so read that instead. Below are some 
    general broad topics brought up for Worldcraft that I can handle. More 
    technical/complex information about Worldcraft should be read in the WCFAQ. Two 
    links are given in section 4.6.5.
    [4.6.1]: General
    Is Worldcraft included with Half-Life?
    Where could it be found?
    -Only on Half-Life CD, which should be at the root directory of your CD-ROM 
    drive. The file name is wc20full.exe.
    Is Worldcraft shareware or full version?
    -Full version.
    What version is Worldcraft?
    -v2.0 beta from Half-Life CD. It is now up to v2.1 beta.
    Where can I get Worldcraft news?
    What is the link to WC v2.1 beta upgrade?
    Can Worldcraft that came with Half-Life be used to build other game levels, say 
    like Quake, etc...?
    -Almost impossible. The only Worldcraft that is compatible with other games, you 
    need to use the old Worldcraft v1.6.
    Can Worldcraft create TFC maps?
    -Yes. Go get the WC v2.1 beta and you should have the option to do so.
    Does Worldcraft offer any manuals and/or technical help?
    -No manuals included with the editor and/or technical help. It is because this 
    editor is in a beta stage. But it does offer a basic tutorial. It is under Help 
    How to install Worldcraft so that I could avoid any mishaps?
    -Check out section 4.6.2.
    How to set up Worldcraft?
    Can Worldcraft open up the maps/levels that Valve did?
    -Well, sort of. But this requires several steps to achieve this goal. First, you 
    need to get a program that can open up .pak format. You can get one by going to 
    section 4.2 and get QpedII. Then after getting that, open up the pak0.pak from 
    \Half-Life\Valve\ and go under Map directory of the pak0.pak. You will then see 
    *.bsp. Extract what map/level you want and export it. After exporting, you need 
    to get a program called WinBSPC, which converts .bsp formats to .map format, 
    which Worldcraft would understand. WinBSPC can be found at: 
    http://www.botepidemic.com/gladiator/download.shtml. Go to that page and scroll 
    down to "WinBSPC". Download the appropriate file. Use WinBSPC to convert the 
    .bsp format to .map format, and then open up the .map format with Worldcraft, 
    and there you go, you have successfully ripped one of Valve's map/level.
    [4.6.2]: Installing
    When some people installed Worldcraft, some of the textures and other things 
    were corrupted when using WC. To fix this, try installing WC without any 
    spacing, and in the same hard drive as Half-Life. When WC installs, it included 
    a space. Removing the extra space would fix the corruption (i.e.: Program 
    Files). To avoid any mishaps, follow the installation guides found at: 
    [4.6.3] Mailing List
    This is for those who wants to join on a mailing list about Worldcraft 2.x 
    "Something many people request is to be emailed when something new is happening 
    with Worldcraft. This is pretty hard to do without a mailing list. So, now, 
    there is a mailing list. :) To subscribe, send mail to: 
    listadmin@valvesoftware.com and in the first line of the email, put the line: 
    subscribe wc_announce Don't worry about the email's subject line, and don't put 
    anything else in the message body. A little while after sending that, you should 
    be emailed asking for confirmation to be added to the list. Reply to that email 
    with the confirmation number, and you're finished. This is strictly an 
    annoucement mailing list - you will not be able to post to it. When any new 
    information is available about the status of Worldcraft 2.x, I will post it to 
    the mailing list."
    Well, not much of a mailing list, but it's good for those who are into 
    Worldcraft announcements and so forth.
    [4.6.4]: Tutorials
    Here are some that could be found here:
    [4.6.5]: WC Editing FAQ
    If you have questions about editing or running Worldcraft, then here's a couple 
    of links that you don't want to miss:
    A listing of official releases from Valve and only from Valve.
    [5.1]: Extras
    Here are some things to consider checking them out as they're from Valve only.
    [5.1.1]: Maps
    1. Crossfire (v1.0.0.8+ patch update)
    2. Double Cross 
    3. Frenzy (v1.0.0.8+ patch update)
    4. Rust Mill 
    5. Team9 (Valve Multiplayer Package)
    [5.1.2]: Models
    1. Barney (v1.0.0.8+ patch update)
    2. Cannibal (Valve Multiplayer Package)
    3. G-Man (Valve Multiplayer Package)
    4. Recon (Valve Multiplayer Package)
    5. Robot (v1.0.0.8+ patch update)
    6. Santa Claus (http://halflife.gameplex.net/hlinc/files/santa.zip)
    7. Skeleton (Valve Multiplayer Package)
    8. Too Much Coffee Man (ftp://ftp.pcgamer.com/tmcm.exe)
    9. Zombie (v1.0.0.8+ patch update)
    [5.1.3]: Multi-Player Modes
    There are currently three multi-player modes that you can choose from in Half-
    Life that comes standard to Half-Life patches:
    1. Deathmatch: Plain killing
    2. Teamplay: Plain killing, but with teams (v1.0.0.8+)
    3. Team Fortress Classic: Objectives with teams (v1.0.0.9+)
    [5.1.4]: Valve Multiplayer Package
    The contents are:
    1. G-Man multiplayer model - the infamous guy with a briefcase. Ted Backman, 
    2. Recon grunt multiplayer model - the human military commander. Ted Backman, 
    3. Cannibal multiplayer model - a humorous comic book character from Chuck 
    Jones' twisted childhood.
    4. Skeleton multiplayer model - low visibility, low contrast model. Hard to play 
    against. Steve Theodore/Chuck Jones, modeler.
    5. New decals - collection of multiplayer decals including flags, political 
    parties, barnyard animals and other images from, yes, you guessed it, Chuck 
    Jones' twisted childhood.
    6. Team9.bsp - a new team map intended for 4 on 4 competition. Developed by Doug 
    Wood, who did the Bounce map. 
    [5.2]: Patches
    Here's the list of the current patches released for Half-Life, and containing 
    the list that it fixes for each of the patches. You can get the latest patch by 
    running the Sierra Utilities and select the AutoUpdate option. The current 
    version of Half-Life right now is v1.0.1.3. It is always a good idea to run 
    Sierra's AutoUpdate utility to get the latest Half-Life version. 
    When using the AutoUpdate feature, the patches that are downloaded for Half-Life 
    are stored under \Half-Life\~SIGSpat\. Just rename the files to exe extension 
    and you can store it somewhere else to reuse it at a later time. 
    You can manually download patches for Half-Life. Here are the official places 
    that you can get them:
    US versions only:
    ftp://ftp.sierra.com/pub/patches/pc/ (west coast of US)
    ftp://ftp2.sierra.com/pub/patches/pc/ (east coast of US)
    All foreign/US versions only:
    http://ftp.won.net/pub/half-life/ (via FTP)
    Note: for the foreign version, select the appropriate folder for your country's 
    http://www.won.net/channels/action/half-life/downloads.html  (website links) 
    [5.2.1]: v1.0.0.6
    Date released: ??, 1998
    Update v1.0.0.6 addresses:
    1. Disabled the music track check in CD Authentication. One problem that some 
    people faced was that they have CD-ROM drives that either can't play the music 
    tracks or they have disabled CD audio on that device. We've disabled the portion 
    of the CD authentication that checked for the music tracks since it was tripping 
    up legitimate customers. Of course they still won't hear the music until they 
    get their CD audio fixed, but they would have that with any game that uses CD 
    2. Adjusted the default configuration for multiplayer to be more appropriate for 
    people with lower speed modems or with high ping/bad packet loss.
    3. The default rate for LAN games is now set to 9999. Previously the LAN rate 
    was being set to the be the same as the Internet rate.
    4. Removed the WON authentication attempts for LAN games. LAN games are limited 
    to a single Class B address range.
    5. Fixed an uninstall issue that may affect custom locations.
    6. Fixed an A3D underwater sound bug.
    [5.2.2]: v1.0.0.8
    Date released: January 13, 1999
    Update v1.0.0.8 addresses:
    1. Improved multiplayer performance through bandwidth optimizations and better 
    prediction. Modem users will see less apparent lag as a result.
    2. Added support for IPX based LANs.
    3. Added teamplay option for multiplayer games.
    4. Added option to limit total number of decals you can see in multiplayer. Try 
    setting 'r_decals 500' if you're experiencing slowdowns after long periods of 
    game play.
    5. Joysticks can now be used to move at the same time a mouse is used to look.
    6. The server ping can now be shown as a numeric value instead of green dots. 
    Use the "-numericping" command line option when launching hl.exe.
    7. Improved ladder performance in multiplayer.
    8. Added EAX 4 speaker support.
    9. Fixed bug that allowed bypassing of ammo reloading.
    10. Fixed bug where train sounds and rocket sounds would play repeatedly in 
    multiplayer games.
    11. Increased number of regional multiplayer servers.
    12. Increased accuracy of ping calculations in the Internet Games menu.
    13. More accurate latency score in game for other players.
    14. Fixed bug preventing climbing ladders when playing with a joystick.
    15. Added 3 new player models (Security guard, military robot, zombie) and 2 
    multiplay maps (frenzy.bsp, crossfire.bsp). 
    [5.2.3]: v1.0.0.9
    Date released: April 7, 1999
    Update v1.0.0.9 addresses:
    1. This update will install Team Fortress Classic. Launch Half-Life as normal 
    and click on the 'Custom Game' button. Click on the 'Activate' button to load 
    Team Fortress Classic as the currently selected game.
    2. Launcher now supports downloading of custom modifications for Half-Life. 
    Clicking on the custom game button will bring up a list of the current games on 
    the Half-Life modification sever.
    3. Launcher now shows if a server is a dedicated, listen, or Linux server.
    4. Launcher detects if servers are running the same version of Half-Life as you.
    5. Support for pinging multiple master servers added.
    6. Sorting options are now more robust in the launcher.
    7. Server passwords are checked before game engine is started.
    8. Dedicated server logging added.
    9. Dedicated server will now echo all client talking to the dedicated server 
    10. Open GL multitexturing optimized.
    11. Open GL decal usage optimized.
    12. Single player game will no longer open up a Dial-Up connection box for 
    Internet Explorer 4.0 users.
    13. Fixed 'Used Decal # without a name problem.
    14. Decal downloading streamlined.
    15. Fixed timedemo/demo playback problems.
    [5.2.4]: v1.0.1.0
    Date released: May 27, 1999
    Update v1.0.1.0 addresses:
    1. Dedicated server is now a console application, making remote administration 
    2. Server browser downloads server information based on bandwidth.
    3. Reduced data sent on server updates, making updates faster.
    4. Dedicated server optimized.
    5. Team Fortress game code optimized.
    6. Invalid authentication after attempting to join a full server bug fixed.
    7. Empty sever list on low-bandwidth connection fixed.
    8. Water prediction code optimized.
    9. DNS lookup on LAN servers fixed.
    10. Latency values are more accurate in launcher.
    [5.2.5] v1.0.1.3
    Date released: August 18, 1999
    Update v1.0.1.3 addresses:
    1. Mod browser now supports .zip file compression.
    2. TF Stats included with this update. This will take server log files and 
    create a webpage with the results of the match. Refer to 
    \halflife\tfc\TFStats.htm for instructions.
    3. Server now allows banning by userid. Refer to TFCServer.htm located in your 
    \halflife\tfc\manual folder.
    4. Updated TFC manual with information on running a TFC server.
    5. Fixed problem where too many packets were being sent at signon that was 
    causing problems for cable modem users.
    6. Team 4 can now score on 4 player TFC maps.
    7. Fixed soldier's nail grenades in TFC.
    8. Demo Playback fixed.
    9. Userinfo overrun fixed.
    10. Spies feigning in doorways will no longer drop all clients on server.
    11. Grenades will no longer detonate if you change teams.
    12. Dedicated server no longer requires hw.dll for authentication.
    13. Dedicated server will heartbeat with +map in the command line.
    [6.1]: Before Getting Started
    Here are some suggested ideas to take into consideration.
    [6.1.1]: Readme.txt
    Why is it that almost some percentage of people who buy software or any other 
    products don't read the freaking 'readme.txt'??? This file here, is your 
    solution friend and could solve most of the complaints that are produced! Please 
    take an advantage and go and read the 'readme.txt' file located at the base of 
    Half-Life directory.
    [6.1.2]: Scan/Defrag
    It is recommended that you use ScanDisk to scan for HDD errors and use Disk 
    Defragmenter to defragment your HDD. Visit section for defragmentation 
    information, and section for ScanDisk information. 
    [6.1.3]: Update Files
    It is best to have the most updated drivers for your components of your 
    -Video Card
    -Sound Card
    -OS (Win9x/WinNT patches)
    The patches/drivers can solve problems that are currently present on your 
    system. It can also boost performance and fix glitches. Another thing to take 
    into consideration, are the updates on Half-Life itself. Currently from the 
    release of this HLFAQ, Half-Life is already up to v1.0.1.3. 
    To get updates on Half-Life, see section 5.2 for further details about getting 
    updates/patches for Half-Life. Please note that when you install patches, get 
    the correct ones if you download them from sites, other than using the Sierra 
    Utilities. Make sure you get the correct one. v1.0.0.5 is the CD release 
    version. If you want to know prior getting the patches and what the patches 
    offer, please go to section 5.2. 
    [6.2]: Bugs/Errors
    There's an unofficial bug list out on the internet. If you want to see a list of 
    bugs of Half-Life, then the URL is: http://www.halflife.org/bugs/. My advise is 
    to update all your drivers and see if any of the solutions found in this HLFAQ 
    would help you out before searching in that bugs list. To me, that bugs list 
    don't tell much. Also, that bug list has been discontinued and getting old. Not 
    much useful now.
    [6.2.1]: Icons Being Moved
    Go get a program called WinTidy95 from www.pcmag.com or www.winmag.com and all 
    your problems will be solved. Stops desktop icons from getting screwed up and 
    moved on the desktop.
    [6.2.2]: Installing/Running Game
    When you get ready to install Half-Life, please keep in mind about these things:
    -Make sure you have at least 366 MB (FAT32) to 460 MB (FAT16) of HDD space to 
    install the game. After that, make sure you have at least another good 40 MB to 
    80 MB of HDD space for Virtual Memory (Win9x handles it, unless you specify).
    -Get the latest version of Half-Life to get rid of some bugs. The latest version 
    when this HLFAQ was released is v1.0.1.3.
    -Get the latest drivers for your video card. Most problems are caused because of 
    old drivers not being updated. Sierra will give you a html form listing video 
    card manufactures. Please use it to update your video card drivers. You get the 
    list of manufactures after installing Half-Life and also gives an option in the 
    game menu. Getting reference drivers are the way to go. Forget getting the 
    manufacture that made the video card. Go to the chipset's manufacture. They 
    would probably offer more stable drivers. Reference drivers are mostly newer 
    than the one from your video card's manufacture.
    -Get the latest drivers for your sound card.
    -Close down all other programs that runs in the background except for Explorer 
    and Systray. This should be a must do priority.
    -Before installing, scan your HDD/memory for any viruses. CIH virus is the 
    common virus that disables Half-Life to be played. See section 6.7 for tips on 
    getting rid of viruses.
    -Put your background color depth to 16-bit hi color mode. You can try 32-bit hi 
    color mode later, but you need at least v1.0.0.9 patch though. 16-bit hi color 
    mode is the minimum. So switch whatever mode to 16-bit mode to see if Half-Life 
    can run. After that, you can go from 16-bit to 32-bit color modes. To enable 32-
    bit color mode, see section 7.2.3 and look for the parameter "-32bbp". There 
    will be an explanation about it.
    -"Your Half-Life installation has become corrupt or out of date" error message: 
    check section
    If there are problems installing the game, try these few suggestions:
    Go to My Computer-> (right click) Properties-> Manager Device-> CD-ROM-> <your 
    CD-ROM's name>-> Properties
    1. Uncheck if it's checked on the box DMA. If it is uncheck, then check the box 
    for DMA. Now accept the change and reboot.
    2. If suggestion #1 does not work, then uncheck the box Sync Data. If it's 
    uncheck, then check the box. Now accept the change and reboot.
    3. Mix up the combinations of these two and see if it works for the last resort.
    4. If those suggestions doesn't work, take it over to a friend's house or 
    someone with a computer and install it on their computer and see if it works. If 
    it does, then you have a corrupted CD-ROM drive.
    5. If taking over to a friend's house doesn't work, return the defective product 
    and get a new one.
    It's usually due to DMA or/and Sync Data that causes the errors or problems for 
    installing Half-Life or running the CD.
    After installing Half-Life, and you can't play the game, please look up these 
    sections to fix the problem:
    -Section 6.7: Virus
    -Section 6: Troubleshooting
    -Section Dial Up Connection
    -"Your Half-Life Executable has been modified. Please check your system for 
    viruses and then re-install Half-Life" error message: check out section
    -"Your Half-Life installation is corrupted or out of date" error message: check 
    out section
    -If you get the black "Loading" screen, you may need to update your video card 
    If you get some General Fault errors, then it can be what you run in the 
    background, so close down all programs that may interrupt installation. Also, 
    another thing that would lead to GF errors would be your CD-ROM drivers. Hunt 
    down new drivers for it and update it to see if you can get to install it.
    []: Bad Surface Extents
    If you get this error, try lowering/changing your resolution. If it doesn't 
    work, try reinstalling the game.
    []: Can not find 'vids:cvid'decompressor
    You get this error when Half-Life starts up. It's because it's trying to play 
    the two introduction videos for Half-Life. Not much of an importance, but to fix 
    it, you can download the latest Windows Media Player 6.1+. Not only you get a 
    great player, but your video codecs are up to date and the latest.
    [] Cbuf_AddText: Overflow
    Using the parameter -zone xxxx should fix this problem. Go to section 7.2.3 to 
    learn more about it and how to use it if necessary.
    []: CD Key
    Before first when playing, Half-Life requires you to input the CD key for Half-
    Life. The CD key is located on the back of your Half-Life CD case. You should be 
    given like this: xxxx-xxxxx-xxxx Where x=corresponding and respective numbers 
    found on the back of the CD case.
    If it tells you that you have an invalid CD key, try it again. If it still does 
    it, try putting in the - character in between the numbers. If all fails, then 
    you probably have a key that is probably created by error when distributing. All 
    I could say is bring it back to the store and trade in another copy. Check out 
    section 6.3 for further CD Key solutions.
    [] Could not exec 3dfx/opengl/joystick.cfg
    Do not worry about these missing cfg files. They were not available when you 
    installed the game. You are actually to create one if you need to. Other than 
    that, it is unnecessary and should be ignored.
    If you decide to create one of the cfg files, put them under \Half-Life\Hw\ 
    directory. Be sure to check out section 4.1 to know what to do about the cfg 
    []: Crosshair Messes Up
    There were problems reported that when getting some patches, like the 3DNow! or 
    the Open GL/Mini drivers screws up the crosshair in the game. To fix this, try 
    this command from the console:
    gl_flipmatrix 1
    []: Dial Up Connection
    This bug blocks Half-Life from running. If you have your speakers on, you would 
    here a Windows 'ping' sound, which Half-Life would crash and the game only shows 
    a black screen. This bug, tries to connect you to the internet, when not needed. 
    If you alt-tab, you would see the DUN trying to connect you to the internet. To 
    disable this bug, go to Start Menu-> Run. Type this in:
    <HDD>:\<HL Dir>\hl.exe -noip
    HDD=Hard Drive HL is on
    HL Dir=HL's directory
    Another way to try and disable this bug, is load up Internet Explorer 4.0-> 
    View-> Internet Options-> Connections tab. Now, find the option where it asks 
    you for 'Connection'. It should list two radio button choices:
    -Connect to the Internet using a modem
    -Connect to the Internet using a local area network
    What you want to choose, is the 'connect to the internet using a local area 
    network'. Choose it, click OK.
    For Internet Explorer 5.0, load it up-> Tools-> Internet Options-> Connections 
    tab. Select the "Never dial a connection". You can also go through the "Use the 
    Connection Wizard to connect your computer to the Internet" and click the Setup 
    button. After launching it, select that you want to connect through LAN (third 
    radio button choice).
    [] Doesn't Support Raster Operations
    If you get the error "Your video card does not support the necessary raster 
    operations...", Then try this solution: On the Desktop (right click)-> 
    Properties-> Settings tab-> Advanced...-> Performance tab. In the Performance 
    tab, slide the pointer left to decrease the usage of your video card. It may 
    enable you to play the game and not crash. Slide it even more if it doesn't 
    work. Keep on sliding it down more until you get to none, which would be your 
    last chance of getting it to work.
    If that does not fix the problem, then the problem maybe your video card 
    drivers. See if you could update your video card drivers and see if it works.
    If all fails, then you're doomed to getting this game to work correctly.
    []: Gfx/shell/btns_main.bmp
    This error: Could not open bitmap file 'gfx/shell/btns_main.bmp' is produced by 
    when installing the game. The only way to fix this is to free a lot of space on 
    your HDD!!! What it means is that, the game is trying to inflate a file called 
    pak0.pak that is compressed on the CD, to 295,809 KB, in which it's almost about 
    300 MB needed. So, free your HDD space, giving the file some room to fit on your 
    HDD. Remember, the whole game needs at least 366-460 MB to be installed onto the 
    HDD. 500 MB is recommended for saved games. 366 MB (FAT32) is the minimum free 
    space on your target HDD to be installed to.
    If you don't have 460+ MB free on your HDD, delete files that are not in use. If 
    this can't be accomplished, then you can't install the game and play it. Reason 
    number two is that pak0.pak was never or was not completely installed. Check to 
    see if it's completely there under \Half-Life\Valve\ folder. Remember, the 
    pak0.pak must be there and be around 295,809 KB or else you need to re-install 
    the game again. If re-installing still gives you a corrupt pak0.pak, check below 
    for reason number five.
    Reason number three is that this error comes up would mean something is 
    accessing the pak0.pak. I ran into this problem when I had QpedII opening up 
    pak0.pak and Half-Life running. It wouldn't permit QpedII editing pak0.pak or 
    exploring it if Half-Life is going to be running. Close anything that could have 
    access to this pak0.pak file and it wouldn't give you this error anymore.
    Reason number four could be that there can be a bad or loose IDE cable. This can 
    be possible. Also, uninstall and reinstall Direct X 6 can also help try to solve 
    this solution.
    Reason number five could be your CD-ROM/DVD drive. Sometimes, this error happens 
    a lot because of the CD-ROM/DVD drives suck or defective. Check out section 
    []: Got A Velocity Too Low On Gib
    You only get this message when a gib may fall through infinite space in the 
    level. Just ignore this or if you just can't stand reading the error, don't use 
    the developer mode (-dev or developer 1) and turn it off by removing -dev or 
    input developer 0.
    [] Invalid page fault in module HW.DLL
    If you get this error, there is currently no exact solution at all. The only 
    suggestions that I can give you is to:
    1. Install the latest version of Half-Life
    2. Update all of your hardware drivers, like video card, sound card, etc...
    3. It's because you installed other softwares, for instance, if you have 
    Internet Explorer 5.0, it maybe the cause for it. Some reported that if upon 
    removal of IE5.0, then they don't get the error any more.
    The problem lies in the OS, softwares, and drivers currently loaded on your PC. 
    That is all I can say about this error. If you get this error while playing 
    single player, then I suggest you skip that level (level warp) and go on to the 
    next one. But you need to do the cheat codes though. I am sorry, but it's the 
    only way if you want to continue of the problem persists.
    If you get this when playing multiplayer mode, and it suddenly crashes and gives 
    you that error, I don't know what to tell you but try again whatever you tried 
    to do if necessary.
    [] Kb_keys.lst not found
    Error: kb_keys.lst not found. This error usually comes after this error: Could 
    not open bitmap file 'gfx/shell/btns_main.bmp'. This usually means that the 
    pak0.pak is not all there. There maybe an installation problem. Reinstall the 
    game. Check out section for the solution.
    Another thing that can trigger this error is the removal or modifying the 
    pak0.pak. This will then require you to reinstall the game.
    []: MCI File Playback:### MMSYSTEM ##
    If you get any error like "MCI File Playback:### MMSYSTEM ## Unable to play file 
    on specified device, file may be corrupt or in incorrect format", then you may 
    not have the correct video compression codec driver. To fix this, you should go 
    to http://developer.intel.com/ial/indeo/video/driver.htm. Get v5.1 Codec from 
    Another fix is to visit this site: 
    Another fix is to visit this site: http://members.xoom.com/tdp/mmsystem296.htm
    Other than that, it's just that the video codec file types are screwed up/edited 
    in the registry. So don't worry if you can't view the two intro movies. It's not 
    special anyhow. So this error isn't holding you back on playing Half-Life 
    []: Overflow 350 Temporary Ents
    If you get this error, it just means that there are too much entities rendered 
    in current screen. Just ignore this or if you just can't stand reading the 
    error, don't use the developer mode (-dev or developer 1) and turn it off by 
    removing -dev or input developer 0.
    []: SZ_GetSpace
    This error happens when you're running Half-Life, over stuffing a <x>.cfg file. 
    This happens because the <x>.cfg is too big. Shrink the size down as far as you 
    can. You can try to avoid this by adding -zone xxxx after hlds.exe or hl.exe. 
    For example, Start Menu-> Run. Type in: C:\SIERRA\Half-Life\hl.exe -zone 1024
    It means that it would give about extra 1 KB memory into the cfg's.
    []: Unable To Validate CD
    Sometimes, this error would come up, saying that you need the CD. It's pretty 
    much straight forward: put the original legit Half-Life CD in and let it satisfy 
    the checking. There are a couple of reasons that this error comes up:
    1. You have a warez game
    2. You don't have the CD
    3. You created a screwed up CD-R/RW backup of the game
    4. It checks for the music tracks on your Half-Life CD, but your PC's CD-ROM 
    drive somehow doesn't get the operation or acknowledge that it's there
    5. You have more than one CD-ROM drive
    To fix problem one, simply buy the game. To fix problem two, either get the CD 
    back from someone you lend to, find the CD, or buy the game if you're pirating 
    the software. To fix problem three, please refer to the section about "Burning 
    Half-Life On CD-R/RW". To fix problem four, get and install v1.0.0.6 patch or 
    later. It disables the audio music track authentication check and should allow 
    you to play. To fix problem five, just make sure you put the CD in your primary 
    CD-ROM drive or disable your second CD-ROM drive. 
    []: Your HL Executable Has Been Modified
    As soon as you run Half-Life (or the Half-Life dedicated server HLDS.exe), Half-
    Life checks itself to determine if the Half-Life executable you are running has 
    been damaged or altered in any way. The most likely causes of such damage are:
    1. computer viruses (very common)
    2. corrupt portions of a user's hard disk drive (rare)
    For number 1, visit section 6.7 will show you how to proceed. For number 2, just 
    run ScanDisk to check errors on your HDD. You may need to reinstall Half-Life.
    []: Your HL Installation Corrupted/Outdated
    There are two reasons why for this to happen:
    1. Virus (very common)
    2. Half-Life version needs to be updated (sometimes common)
    To take care of reason 1, see section 6.7 to know how to take care of it. To 
    take care of reason 2, you just need to download the latest Half-Life patch. You 
    may get this error if you tried to update your Half-Life. If so, then that means 
    that you got a virus. Check out section 6.7. 
    [] Z_Malloc: Failed On Allocation Of xxx Bytes
    To fix this error, use the -zone xxxx parameter. Check out section 7.2.3 on how 
    to use the parameter. The cause of this error maybe caused by oversized cfg 
    files. Cut down the size and you might eliminate the problem.
    [6.2.3]: LAN
    There are some people out there that reported some problems running a LAN game 
    of Half-Life. Try these solutions below.
    1. When trying LAN hosting, but you get a black screen, [Alt]+[Tab] and you 
    would probably see the DUN box. Close it down. That's your problem right there.
    2. Problem is that when running LAN, the console stops at IPX protocol. The 
    solution is to disable DNS configuration. To do so, go to Start Menu-> Settings-
    > Control Panel-> Network-> TCP/IP Dial-UP Adapter-> Properties-> DNS 
    Configuration-> Disable DNS. Make sure you write down your DNS if there is one.
    3. Try hitting the Esc key.
    4. Make sure that Internet Explorer sets itself to connect to the internet via 
    LAN. To do so, launch IE4-> View-> Internet Options-> Connection tab-> Connect 
    to the Internet using a local area network
    5. Problem is WON Authentication. Go here and get a small utility (27 KB):
    All this program do is adjust the file hosts.sam in the \Windows\ directory. If 
    you know what to edit, then do it. Make sure it has " localhost" (no 
    quotes) and nothing else.
    6. Could not get IPX socket name. IPX disable. Reason: WSAENOTSOCK. If you get 
    this error, try and see if you could use solution number 2 above and see if it 
    works. You also need to enable IPX/SPX from the Network via Control Panel. 
    If you're running a LAN and have multiple computers sharing one IP address, and 
    want to connect to the internet to play, considering that you have working 
    separate CD Keys, then try this solution: Create Half-Life shortcut to give 
    Half-Life a parameter of this: -port 270xx
    Computer 1: hl.exe -port 27025
    Computer 2: hl.exe -port 27035
    Computer 3: hl.exe -port 27045
    This should work, considering how servers do it, but no guarantees.
    [6.2.4]: Multi-Player Mode
    Here are some known fixes for errors/bugs in MP mode.
    []: .hpk has a bogus # of directory entries
    If you have this problem, all you need to do is delete a file called custom.hpk. 
    It can be found under \Sierra\Half-Life\Valve\ directory.
    [] Attempting to connect to Won
    When upon joining on a server, and it hangs on the command 'Attempting to 
    connect to Won', then that means that WON.Net's authenticating server must be 
    down. Check back in a little while and see if you can try play. Another thing to 
    try is to restart your computer in case of a bad connection with your PC on the 
    []: Bad Protocol
    When trying to connect to any server, and happens to give you this message, "bad 
    protocol", that means that you have a different Half-Life version than the 
    server that you're trying to connect. Either the server is hosting with an 
    outdated Half-Life version, or you don't have the latest Half-Life version. Just 
    run Sierra's Utilities-> AutoUpdate to get the latest Half-Life version. 
    []: Can't Swim In Water Using Jump Key
    If you are having trouble swimming up when you are standing on the ground 
    underwater, try setting fps_lan to a number less than it is currently set to at 
    the console. To check what is set to, type this in the console: fps_lan.
    []: Client.dll
    If you get an error saying that you're running a different client.dll, then 
    here's the solution: All you need to do is uninstall Half-Life, and then go and 
    delete the remaining folder of Half-Life, even though nothing seems to be in 
    them. Once deleting the folder(s) associated with Half-Life, then reinstall the 
    game and it should work fine. 
    Another quick fix is to copy the client.dll from \Sierra\Half-
    life\valve\cl_dlls\ and paste it in \Sierra\Half-life\tfc\cl_dlls and that 
    should work. If not, then do the long way solution above instead. 
    [] Custom file missing wad3 id
    To fix this problem, delete the custom.hpk file found under any of \Half-Life\ 
    directory, like for example, there's one under \Half-Life\Valve\. This should 
    fix the error.
    []: File Mechwine Not On Server
    It is an error in Crossfire. It basically means that in the level, Half Life 
    couldn't find the file "mechwine.wav". It's an ambient sound contained in the 
    pack file (pak0.pak). Just ignore this error. It won't cause any problems.
    [] Host_Error:CL_Parseserver Message
    Error: Host_Error:CL_Parseserver Message:Bad server message. Here are two 
    solutions that I can come up with and possibly an explanation:
    1. Quit out of Half-Life; restart Half-Life back up again and try to log on the 
    2. Reboot or shutdown and restart the PC. then see if you can connect to the 
    I can't really point in a general lead, but this error usually ends up on the 
    server side. Some times it can be the client's fault. Something maybe wrong with 
    Half-Life when loaded up. This error happened to me quite a few times, 
    especially if the server is running the map Doublecross. But also, if I restart 
    Half-Life or reboot my PC, then I can finally bypass that error. This is one 
    strange error. 
    [] Pldecal.wad
    Don't worry about too much of this file. If it can't write to it, then it's 
    okay. This file only holds the decals (spray paints) that may have been 
    downloaded, or tried to download decals and write to the file, but you disabled 
    downloading the decals.
    []: Stuck On Elevator
    There were some people who reported that when going up the elevator, it gets 
    stuck and rubber bands you around. The solution to this bug is simply: Duck. 
    Crawl way from it. It should work. I know it, because I got stuck a few times, 
    and ducking would solve the problem. For future warnings, don't stand close to 
    the edges of the elevator. Stand in the middle if possible so that this problem 
    will not occur.
    []: Stuck On Ladder
    If you are getting stuck on the top of the ladder in a multiplayer game, make 
    sure that the server you are on does not have the variable sv_airaccelerate set 
    to zero. Any value other than zero will work properly.
    []: Using Decal ### Without A Name
    Getting v1.0.0.9 or higher patch should fix this problem. But if the patch 
    fails, then all you need to do is delete every thing in this folder: 
    \Sierra\Half-Life\Logo\ and that should get rid of the error. If you made a 
    custom decal for yourself, make sure you don't delete it and leave it in the 
    If you recorded a demo during a deathmatch online, then I suggest that you allow 
    your computer to download the custom decals from the opponents on that server or 
    you would probably get this error. So leave the download of decals on to try and 
    avoid this error. If you get this error when trying to playback the recorded 
    demo, I don't know what to say, but that demo is worthless and nothing can be 
    done about it.
    []: Warning: U_Remove on full update
    This message is given because you lagged big time (major data loss). You can 
    also try another solution, that may work. Use this command: cl_nodelta 1. It 
    worked for some people, so give it a try. But be warned: it can add additional 
    lag, because I've tried it before, and it makes lag worse than before. But if it 
    cures this problem, then be my guest on using it.
    The only way to cure this annoying problem is to have a clear connection to the 
    internet as possible. You only get this error when you lag. This can contribute 
    by having call waiting. Disable call waiting if you can. I hate it when someone 
    tries to call, because it would lag and the connection would most likely be out 
    of sync and it probably disconnect from the internet or takes a moment to re-
    sync with the game. 
    Anything else that causes interruption to your internet session can cause this 
    too. Line noise, background popups, downloads, whatever, can cause it. 
    []: Wonau_w95.dll/Woncr_w95.dll
    Error: A required .DLL file, WONAU_W95.DLL was not found! You get this error 
    because when installing the patch, the file names were truncated and renamed 
    them as DOS filenames. You'll find those two files (if one is missing, the other 
    is bound to be the same) in your \Sierra\Half-Life\ folder. It is named 
    wonau_~1.dll. Rename it to wonau_w95.dll. The second one that is woncr_~1.dll 
    Rename that to woncr_w95.dll. It should now be fixed.
    [] Wsaenotsock
    Error: could not get IPX Socket name. IPX disabled. Reason: Wsaenotsock. If you 
    get this error, it means that IPX/SPX is diabled. Enable it through the Network 
    from Control Panel and/or remove the -noipx parameter from HL.exe if you put it 
    there. There's nothing wrong with this error unless you want to use IPX to play 
    on LAN servers that don't want to use TCP/IP.
    [6.2.5]: Patch/Update Half-Life
    The only problem with patches that I notice are that either you downloaded them 
    and perhaps tried to resume/got disconnect and tried to resume it will end up 
    corrupting them (highly possible). So you're gonna need to download the patches 
    non-stop without interruptions. HL patches are highly sensitive to the CRCs and 
    easily corrupt.
    Also, there was a wide spread problem with patch v1.0.1.0, stating that you 
    tried to apply the v1.0.1.0 patch over v1.0.0.6, in which you really have 
    v1.0.0.9. Check out section for the instructions how to take care of 
    this problem.
    [] Corrupted Installation Detected
    It maybe:
    1. The patch that you just downloaded is corrupted. Go and re-download it again.
    2. Your Half-Life game is corrupted. Scan for a virus first (make sure you're 
    using a good virus detector to really make sure that you don't have a virus on 
    your PC.). If no virus are found, uninstall the game, delete the remaining 
    folders that couldn't be removed from the un-installation program, and reboot. 
    Then re-install it.
    [] Not a valid previous version
    You may get this error because you downloaded the wrong patch (wrong version for 
    your game's version). You need to know first and check to see that you are 
    getting the correct update patch for your version. Be sure to get the right 
    patch, like for the US game or for foreign game versions. There are separate 
    patches for different languages.
    []: Your HL is v1.0.x.x and you have v1.0.x.x
    If you happen to run across this kind of scenario; this started to spread with 
    v1.0.1.0 patch: I've downloaded a patch for my outdated Half-Life, which is at 
    v1.0.x.x and the patch I got is v1.0.x.x. It reports that my Half-Life version 
    is even lower than it is, and I know that I got the correct patch for my current 
    version of Half-Life. When it updates, it says that the patch is incorrect to 
    update your Half-Life version. I know that I got the correct patch for my Half-
    Life version. Well, here's the solution:
    1. Locate the file named sierra.inf
    2. Open it up and scroll down until you run into something like this:
    ; Version is the version of the application. This is also used by
    ; EREG to identify the product
    3. Change PatchVersion=1.0.x.x to whatever your current patched version of Half-
    Life is at. Replace the x's with the actual numbers of your current Half-Life 
    Another good solution, is to download the full update file to Half-Life. Take 
    for example - get the patch 10051013.exe. This will update your Half-Life CD 
    version to the latest version which would be v1.0.1.3. This would mean hours of 
    download (on a slow connection of course). It is suggested to try the above 
    solution first before getting the full patch.
    [6.2.6]: Single-Player Mode
    Single-player mode bugs/errors that are widely known are listed below. 
    []: Barney Dies
    No, not the purple dinosaur. I'm talking about NPC, you know, the security 
    guards that help you during the game. Sometimes, they just die straight out 
    (don't confuse this with the scripting of some Barneys dying because they're 
    suppose to). Well, this is a bug. To fix this bug, make sure to put a carriage 
    return (an empty line) at the end of the opengl.cfg/d3d.cfg/x.cfg file(s). Error 
    symptoms are Barneys (security guards) dying without any indication of harmful 
    effects done to them. 
    []: Stuck/Die On Elevator
    Just like the level We've Got Hostile, sometimes in the game, you would just get 
    stuck for no reason at all and perhaps lose life slowly. The only cure that 
    would be reasonable to try is to duck and then crawl. So just duck, and go 
    forward while crouching! It should free you from the sticky bug. Next time, just 
    stand in the middle of the elevator platform and avoid standing near the edges 
    of the elevator platform.
    []: Uninstalling
    There's a little malfunction with Half-Life's uninstall program with the out of 
    the box version (the one straight from the CD without any patches). If you 
    attempt to uninstall, it would wipe out all and everything that is contained in 
    the parameters of Half-Life. Say you installed Half-Life like this: 
    C:\games\Half-Life\ If you do, and you uninstall, then it would wipe out Half-
    Life and also the directory of \games\. So, if I were you, I'd keep Half-Life 
    simple in it's own directory, or patch the game up to at least v1.0.0.6 to 
    remove the little mishap with the un-installation program.
    []: Zoom
    This cheap-zoom-in feature can be used with almost any weapons in the game. All 
    you have to do, is put out a crossbow. Now, hit the secondary fire mode. This 
    would zoom in. Now, hit 'F6' for quicksave, and then do a quickload 'F7', and 
    this should bring you to a zoom in bug feature. Now, just switch to any weapon 
    and you'll stay in that zoom bug almost forever, although using any other 
    weapons, the movement is a little jerky. To undo this bug, just switch back to 
    the crossbow, and hit the secondary fire mode and this should zoom out.
    [6.2.7]: Timedemo
    Any known errors about timedemos for Half-Life. To be sure that timedemos can be 
    ran, know what version it was compiled under which Half-Life version, as it 
    can't run on any other version of Half-Life than the one that was created from.
    []: Demo Protocol Outdated
    If you get this error, it is because you ran the timedemo on the wrong version 
    of Half-Life. By that, it means that say the timedemo was created on v1.0.0.5 of 
    Half-Life. You can only run the timedemo at v1.0.0.5 only. You can not run on 
    any other version of Half-Life. Find another timedemo for your current Half-Life 
    [6.3]: CD Key
    Some information about CD Key below. If you can't find the CD-Key, visit section 
    [6.3.1]: CD Key In Use
    If you bought a legit Half-Life game, and it happens that someone is using your 
    CD Key, then you need to contact Sierra so that they can terminate the current 
    CD Key and re-issue you a new one. Go to one of Sierra's web site with the 
    appropriate country and send them an e-mail about the problem. Here are the 
    Internet USA: http://www.sierra.com (support@sierra.com)
    Internet United Kingdom: http://www.sierra-online.co.uk
    Internet France: http://www.sierra.fr
    Internet Germany: http://www.sierra.de
    From those internet sites, go there and go under Tech Support.
    [6.3.2]: Editing CD Key
    If you're one of those people who installed the Half-Life warez game, or 
    borrowed your friend's CD, and then went out and bought your own, and now want 
    to use your own CD Key, then here's a way to remove your old CD Key: Start Menu-
    > Run. Type in regedit. Go to this registry key: 
    HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\Valve\Half-Life\Settings. Look for the header KEY. 
    Delete this registry data, and then run Half-Life again, and it'll ask you for 
    the CD Key again. 
    There seems another place for the CD Key than the above. Here's the second 
    location to check: HKEY_CURRENT_USER\.default\Software\Valve\Half-Life\Settings. 
    Again, look for the header KEY. Delete this registry data and run Half-Life.
    [6.3.3]: Lost CD Key
    There are three thing you can do:
    1. Exchange the game for another from where you got it from.
    2. Send the game to the following address and once they get it, they will send 
    you another copy (U.S. residents only):
    Sierra On-Line Exchanges/Returns
    4100 West 190th Street
    Torrance, CA 90504
    3. Make a photo copy of the back of the CD case, Top of the CD itself and a copy 
    of the sales receipt and fax it to 1-425-644-7697 with the subject ATTN: Tech 
    support Adventure. Once they get it, they will send you a code (U.S. residents 
    If you have any further questions just reply to this e-mail or feel free to 
    contact them at support@sierra.com (US only). You can also find further 
    information at:
    Internet USA: http://www.sierra.com
    Internet United Kingdom: http://www.sierra-online.co.uk
    Internet France: http://www.sierra.fr
    Internet Germany: http://www.sierra.de
    From those internet sites, go there and go under Tech Support. Little bit edited 
    from a Sierra Technical Support e-mail to fit readers, so it doesn't sound like 
    it's meant to someone else. No other information was left out that is considered 
    important. Everything here is what needed. Note that parts are only for US 
    residents only. Please visit the correct web site link to get the correct email 
    address for Sierra's support.
    [6.4]: Copying Half-Life On CD-R/RW
    I've seen people complaining that they can't do copies of Half-Life on CD-R/RW 
    discs. Let me say this: yes, it can be done, but there's one problem: foreign 
    Half-Life games, like German, French, etc. are bigger in format size. That's the 
    bad news. You'll need to find some CD-R/RW that could hold a little bit more 
    than 650 MB to duplicate Half-Life entirely. For the United States version, 
    making duplicates of the game should be no problem.
    In order to burn exact duplicates of Half-Life, you need to burn the game by 
    "tracks"-some what format like what audio CD music go by. On the United States 
    version, I can confirm that there are 28 tracks that are needed to copy in order 
    to have the full exact duplicate of the original master legit copy of Half-Life. 
    Why can I confirm it? Because I already made a duplicate back up copy for my own 
    personal use. It took about an hour and a few minutes to duplicate the game 
    (using a 2x writer, HP 7200i+ CD-RW). For the foreign Half-Life game, I can't, 
    because I don't have any version of it. I don't know how big, but some said that 
    the CD contained a little bit more extra. So you're gonna have to find a bigger 
    CD-R/RW disc to duplicate Half-Life.
    I used the Adaptec's Copy CDs program. I don't know about any other programs, 
    because I don't know any and all I know is that this program did the trick for 
    me. Just find any program out there or get any program that would allow you to 
    duplicate CDs by tracks or perhaps mirror the whole CD. For CDs that are much 
    larger than the typical 650MB CD (for foreign copies of Half-Life), just copy 
    the data part of the game. Leave out the audio tracks. That will save a lot of 
    space. But you will need to patch the game up to at least v1.0.0.6 to work. But 
    you will have no audio CD if you do it like this. Be warned: I haven't tested 
    this yet.
    By the way, after copying Half-Life, and testing to see if the CD-R/RW copy 
    works, and you get an error that says that the CD is invalid, or Half-Life 
    requires CD, all you need to do is patch your Half-Life game up to at least to 
    v1.0.0.6 to get rid of the audio authentication crap. I don't know what's left 
    off when burning Half-Life, but anyway, that's how you fix the problem.
    [6.5]: Direct X
    The latest, Microsoft release Direct X 6.1. DX 6.0 is on the Half-Life CD. You 
    can get the latest version of Direct X via: http://www.microsoft.com/directx/. 
    If you have any trouble with Direct X x.x, then you can remove Direct X x.x by 
    getting a program at: http://www.ebrink.com/dxun/Direct.htm.
    [6.6]: PC Hardware
    Here are some PC hardware troubleshooting solutions and some information. Make 
    sure that you read these sections carefully. Some solutions are placed where the 
    subject fits, but can fit in some other places. So be careful on reading some of 
    these solutions.
    [6.6.1]: CD-ROM
    Having at least a 2x CD-ROM drive is good enough, because the only use of the 
    CD-ROM is playing music during the game, which it doesn't need to be like 24x or 
    so. Also, updating your CD-ROM drivers would generally help. Go to your CD-ROM 
    manufacture's web site and download any new released drivers for your CD-ROM 
    drives. If there are problems installing the game, try these few suggestions:
    Go to My Computer-> (right click) Properties-> Manager Device-> CD-ROM-> <your 
    CD-ROM's name>-> Properties
    1. Uncheck if it's checked on the box DMA. If it is uncheck, then check the box 
    for DMA. Now accept the change and reboot.
    2. If suggestion #1 does not work, then uncheck the box Sync Data. If it's 
    uncheck, then check the box. Now accept the change and reboot.
    3. Mix up the combinations of these two and see if it works for the last resort.
    4. If those suggestions doesn't work, take it over to a friend's house or 
    someone with a computer and install it on their computer and see if it works. If 
    it does, then you have a corrupted CD-ROM drive.
    5. If taking over to a friend's house doesn't work, return the defective product 
    and get a new one.
    []: Audio Music
    If for some reason, you don't hear music, then it's:
    1. CD music cable
    2. CD music is off
    3. CD music volume is off
    To fix problem one, you need to open up your PC and check to see if the CD-ROM 
    drive has a digital cable running to your sound card from your CD-ROM drive. To 
    fix problem two, try this: Start Menu-> Settings-> Control Panel-> Multimedia-> 
    CD Music tab. From here, make sure you select your CD-ROM drive that would play 
    the audio music and make sure you check the box at the bottom so that it could 
    play digital music, and make sure the volume slider is all the to right so that 
    the volume is to the highest.
    For problem three, you can check the volume just like above, or also from the 
    Volume Control, where you see the yellow horn near your clock in the task bar. 
    Load it up and see if your CD audio volume is up high. If you don't have Volume 
    Control, then go and grab your Windows 9x CD-ROM, stick it into your drive, Go 
    to Start Menu-> Settings-> Control Panel-> Add/Remove Programs-> Windows Setup-> 
    Multimedia-> Volume Control (check it)-> Apply.
    If nothing works, see if your CD-ROM could play the music from Half-Life CD. Use 
    MS's Media Player or any audio CD player and see if you could play any sound 
    tracks from 2 through 28. If you can't play any, then your CD-ROM don't support 
    the music.
    [6.6.2]: Controller/Joystick
    There are some information referring to some controllers in the readme.txt. 
    Please read the readme.txt for some information. For the best result, upgrade 
    your controller's drivers to the latest date available.
    When using a joystick and you encounter a crosshair problem, try the following: 
    Start Menu-> Settings-> Control Panel. Select the Advanced
    tab in Game Controllers. For the "Port Driver", make sure that "Poll with 
    interrupts enabled" is not checked.
    [6.6.3]: CPU
    Half-Life should support most of the CPUs out there today. Half-Life officially 
    supports MMX and unofficial 3DNow! CPU instructions. No word yet on SSE 
    []: 3DNow!
    There is a patch out there, that enables support of AMD's 3DNow! instructions 
    for only the K-6-2 processors. The link are:
    http://www.amd.com/products/cpg/k623d/drivers.html (3dfx)
    http://www.3dnow.net/ (3dfx and Rendition)
    Please be aware that the 3DNow! drivers can only work with Rendition or Voodoo2 
    video cards. These are not official 3DNow! patch for Half-Life.
    After downloading/unzipping, copy the file 3dfxglam.dll into \Half-Life\gldvr\ 
    and go to section and follow those instructions on how to use this 
    3DNow! driver. It's the same procedure on how to install the driver just as that 
    section talks about Open GL driver. Just replace opengl32.dll with 3dfxglam.dll. 
    After following those instructions, make sure that you do select the 3DNow! 
    drivers from the video menu. This instruction is only for 3dfx Voodoo2 cards. 
    For the Rendition, download it at the second link and follow the readme.txt. It 
    provides instructions in there for 3dfx and Rendition.
    If you get the blue screen of death, and the error message is FXMEMMAP.VXD 
    related, then here's the solution: In the QuakeII 3DNow! package, there's a file 
    called fxmemap.vxd. Copy that file and place it under \Windows\System\. It may 
    be older, but it may fix your error. Please back up the original before copying 
    the older version if so. This file can only be found in the first link of the 
    3DNow! patch.
    Note: if you use these hacked drivers, be warned that your crosshair may go 
    corrupt and be out of order on your HUD screen. To fix the problem with your 
    crosshair location, bring down the console and type this in: gl_flipmatrix 1.
    []: MMX
    Half-Life may not enable MMX support. To enable MMX support, type this in the 
    console: r_mmx 1.
    []: SSE
    The only use of SSE instructions may be found in Direct X 6.1 and perhaps your 
    video card drivers. So download those to have maximum performance out of your 
    Pentium III.
    [6.6.4]: Modem
    Always update your modem drivers to the latest. Having a 14.4 modem to play this 
    game is not recommended. You will lag when there's a lot of people on the server 
    that you would play. 28.8 is minimum, but a 56k non-window modem is recommended 
    to get best performance.
    []: WinModem
    Winmodem is not the best choice for online gaming. In fact, they just plain out 
    suck. The reason is that Winmodem relies on the CPU to do most of it's job. 
    That's a major no-no, and a small performance hit to your overall PC speed. 
    Avoid getting a Winmodem at all cost. Don't care if it's a low price. Get cheap 
    stuff, suffer cheap stuff's consequences. Go and buy a regular modem, and make 
    sure it's not a Winmodem.
    [6.6.5]: Sound
    There are some information referring to some sound stuff in the readme.txt. 
    Please read the readme.txt for some information. For the best result, upgrade 
    your sound card's drivers to the latest date available. Half-Life takes 
    advantages of the following two major APIs: Creative's Environmental Audio (EAX) 
    or Aureal's A3D (A3D).
    []: A3D
    Half-Life supports A3D Vortex 1 & 2 chipset. Get the v2.xx A3D drivers in order 
    for A3D to function correctly with Half-Life or else your A3D enhancements will 
    not exist. If using your A3D sound card sounds crappy, like low noise, and some 
    bad environmental noise mixes, then try these values into the console:
    s_distance 18
    s_2dvolume 0.88
    s_verbwet 0.15
    s_min_distance 8
    s_refgain 0.34
    If turning on A3D, and you get a big performance hit, losing some fps, then use 
    this command: s_geometry 0. You may lose some of the positional sounds, but not 
    much quality hit, but at least it should give back some fps for faster 
    performances. Make sure you have at least v1.0.0.8+ for Half-Life. Also download 
    the latest sound card drivers for your A3D sound card. Always install the 
    reference drivers if your sound card manufacture hasn't updated their drivers. 
    You can get the latest drivers at http://www.a3d.com/html/download/drivers/ Once 
    you downloaded the latest drivers, delete the a3dapi.dll file in the Half-Life 
    directory, only the copy in \windows\system\ is needed. The one in Half-Life's 
    directory is kind of old. 
    []: Audio Music
    If for some reason, you don't hear music, then it's:
    1. CD music not enabled in the game
    2. CD music is off
    3. CD music volume is off
    To fix problem one, go through the configuration and into audio and check the 
    box Play CD Music. To fix problem two, try this: Start Menu-> Settings-> Control 
    Panel-> Multimedia-> CD Music tab. From here, make sure you select your CD-ROM 
    drive that would play the audio music and make sure you check the box at the 
    bottom so that it could play digital music, and make sure the volume slider is 
    all the to right so that the volume is to the highest.
    For problem three, you can check the volume just like above, or also from the 
    Volume Control, where you see the yellow horn near your clock in the task bar. 
    Load it up and see if your CD audio volume is up high. If you don't have Volume 
    Control, then go and grab your Windows 9x CD-ROM, stick it into your drive, Go 
    to Start Menu-> Settings-> Control Panel-> Add/Remove Programs-> Windows Setup-> 
    Multimedia-> Volume Control (check it)-> Apply.
    If nothing works, see if your CD-ROM could play the music from Half-Life CD. Use 
    MS's Media Player or any audio CD player and see if you could play any sound 
    tracks from 2 through 28. If you can't play any, then your CD-ROM don't support 
    the music.
    []: EAX
    4 speakers 360 degrees sound is supported after v1.0.0.8 patch. You will need to 
    get the v1.0.0.8 patch or higher to enable full 360 degrees of sound with 4 
    speaker support. If not, you would only get 180 degrees 2 speaker support (you 
    can hear from the rear, but will sound the same as your 2 front speakers would), 
    which would suck.
    []: Losing Sound During Gameplay
    If you lose sound during gameplay, then you can try this quick fix to see if you 
    can get it back: Hit Esc key during gameplay. Then hit Resume Game option once 
    in the menu. If your PC is nice enough, it might give you sound back. Works for 
    many people who loses sound if they Alt-Tab out of the game. If that doesn't 
    work, then you might need to terminate your current game and load it back up. 
    Update your sound card drivers is highly advised if there are any.
    []: Repeating Sound Loops
    If for some reason, the sound FXs loop and replays through the whole event, say 
    the explosion sound FX gets looped and played again and again and again, making 
    your ears hurt and have to restart Half-Life, then I got the cure for you. To 
    stop the looping sound FX, type this in the console: stopsound. That should stop 
    any sound FX that is currently played. Everything else should go back to normal 
    after it's executed.
    []: Sound Blaster Cards
    If you have a SoundBlaster sound card, you will find that the sound skips and 
    sounds horrible. To try and solve this problem, right click on "My Computer" 
    icon. Select "properties". Click the "+" sign next to the "Sound, video and 
    games controllers" listing. Double click the <your Sound Blaster sound card's 
    sound interface to produce sound FX>. Click the "Settings" tab. Make sure the 
    "Allow Full-Duplex operation" check box is checked. Click "OK". Reboot.
    Another thing to try is bring down the console. Type this in: snd_noextraupdate 
    1. This fixes the Sound Blaster 64 AWE, letting the users to leave it on high 
    sound quality. I don't know if it'll work on other Sound Blaster x cards, but 
    give it a try. If it still stutter, make sure you try out section 
    section in this HLFAQ. Also, fiddle around with the checking the boxes in the 
    settings of your sound card interface stuff. Take a look around. If you have 
    Sound Blaster Live!, it is recommended that you should update your SBL! drivers.
    []: Stuttering
    Try these solutions and see if they could cure your stuttering problems with the 
    1. Bring up the console and type this in: _snd_mixahead x.xxx
    Where xx.xxx=any number, like 0.145. Try different numbers if it doesn't work. 
    Fiddle with the number until it improves.
    2. From the Start Menu-> Run, type in this:
    <x>:\<HL dir>\hl.exe -wavonly
    x=HDD; HL dir=HL's directory
    3. Bring up the console and type this in: snd_noextraupdate 1
    [6.6.6]: Video
    There are some information referring to some video stuff in the readme.txt. 
    Please read the readme.txt for some information. For the best result, update 
    your video card's drivers to the latest drivers available. Half-Life takes 
    advantages of the following two major APIs: Open GL or Direct 3D. Half-Life 
    could also be run under software mode, but it does not take advantage of 3D 
    accelerator cards. Just uses a lot of CPU MHz power to render the game.
    If you happen to run Half-Life, and it would just crash, then try this solution: 
    On the Desktop (right click)-> Properties-> Settings tab-> Advanced...-> 
    Performance tab In the Performance tab, slide the pointer left to decrease the 
    usage of your video card. It may enable you to play the game and not crash. Keep 
    on sliding it more left if you still got problems until you reach none. After 
    reaching none, and you see no improvements, then you're SOL.
    []: 3dfx
    Half-Life supports 3dfx cards by Open GL via Mini GL. Please also update your 
    3dfx video card drivers. You could get both drivers for your 3dfx cards at 
    http://www.3dfx.com. You will be greeted by a choose your location page. After 
    choosing the appropriate location, pick the link Drivers on the next page. Then 
    choose the appropriate video card that you have and get the drivers. Remember to 
    get the drivers for your video card and Mini GL (they are two different set of 
    Whatever you do, when you run Half-Life, go through the menu first so that you 
    can pick how Half-Life can be run under which hardware acceleration. When you 
    get to the Video options menu, pick what drivers should be used under Open GL, 
    do not pick 'default'. It's slow. Pick the other choice given, which would be 
    3dfx Mini Driver. Note: you must update your Mini GL drivers if necessary. See 
    the above paragraph for the information. If you try to run the game without 
    updating the Mini GL driver, you will get a black screen and may say 'Loading', 
    and it won't go further. This means that the Mini GL that you have is out dated 
    on your PC. Go and get the latest Mini GL.
    If you have a Voodoo1 and get this error: 'Expected VXD version V1.2, got V1.1', 
    then that means that you need to update your Voodoo1 drivers. They are outdated 
    on your machine. Go grab the latest at http://www.3dfx.com. If you get this 
    error: "Mutual exclusion prohibits this", then this means that there are two 
    programs try to use the Voodoo2 card at the same time. Do Ctrl+Alt+Del to see if 
    any program that can be using your Voodoo2 card. Also try getting the latest 
    reference drivers for your Voodoo2 at http://www.3dfx.com might help solve the 
    problem. It maybe sometimes be the drivers' fault for that error.
    Some people have been experiencing problems with their gamma settings with 3dfx 
    cards and the v1.0.1.0 patch. The gamma settings for your 3dfx card with 
    v1.0.1.0 patch are decided by the 3dfx control panel installed with your card's 
    drivers. This was a change to allow users of some 3dfx hardware to set their 
    gamma to a higher setting than was allowed in the Half-Life game, as the game 
    was too dark. To allow your gamma settings on 3dfx hardware to be decided by the 
    Half-Life game, run Half-Life with this command line parameter: -3dfxgamma 
    If you have a Voodoo2 card, and want to squeeze extra speed out of it, you would 
    want to overclock it. To find out how, go to: 
    []: 3DWarning
    For the first time when running Half-Life, and decide to choose the hardware 
    mode, like D3D or Open GL, a warning message comes up. If it keeps coming up, 
    then you could disable it. Follow these instructions: Start Menu-> Run. Type 
    regedit and hit OK. Go to this registry setting: HKEY_USERS-> .DEFAULT-> 
    SOFTWARE-> Valve-> Half-Life-> Settings. Change the 3DWarning key: Right click 
    on 3DWarning-> Modify. Change the 0 (zero) into a 1. After all this, press OK. 
    Now it shouldn't give you any more hassle about the 3D Warning crap. Make sure 
    you don't screw up in the registry. If you do, then you're doomed and you have 
    to reinstall Windows and everything else you got on your computer.
    []: Blue Water
    If you finally encounter water, and you jump in, and all the sudden, it goes all 
    blue, then you've got a problem. The problem is this: it's your video card or 
    video card drivers. You need to get updated video card drivers and see if that 
    could cure the glitch with rendering underwater scenes. If getting an updated 
    driver won't fix your blues, then you can use a quick workaround -switch to 
    software mode, get where you need to go and get out of the water, and then 
    switch back to your original hardware rendering style. This blue water mostly 
    happens with D3D hardware rendering.
    []: D3D
    Direct3D Input sometimes seems lagged. If your input seems to lag behind the 
    visual display on occasion, type this in the console: gl_d3dflip 1.
    If you use D3D as your hardware rendering for Half-Life, and you see textures as 
    'grayed out', only black boxes, etc, then there maybe a big problem. The problem 
    is that your video card, perhaps your video card drivers too, are either too old 
    or can't handle D3D. The first thing you could do is to update your video card 
    drivers. This may solve the problem. If updating your video card drivers won't 
    help, then that only means that your video card can not handle D3D rendering 
    (a.k.a. your video card sucks). Only one solution exists for this kind of 
    problem: dump the current video card and go buy one that can do it. 3dfx's 
    Voodoo x and nVidia's TNTx/GeForce video cards are good ones to go on.
    []: Decals
    Some video cards out there, have problems creating/placing decals (blood, bullet 
    holes, etc...). Some could only view from a specific angle, some disappears if 
    close, reappears if far way. To fix this problem, type this in the console: 
    gl_polyoffset xx
    Where xx=any number, fiddle around with the numbers until you get it right. Try 
    these values: 0.1,-0.1, 1, -1, 20, or -20. .001 fixes i740 video cards, 20 fixes 
    TNT video cards.
    []: Matrox
    If you can't see underwater other than in software mode, then you need to get 
    the latest patch for your video card. Go to http://www.matrox.com and get the 
    latest patch/drivers for your video card and it should correct your mishap with 
    underwater adventures. Try the beta drivers to see if they work.
    []: Multiple 3D Cards
    Go to http://www.3dfiles.com/utility/ and go under Multiple Video Cards section. 
    Click the link and it should give you multiple programs to choose from to let 
    you switch from 3D cards, like the TNT/Voodoo x for an example.
    []: Open GL
    Please visit your video card manufacturer's web site and see if your video card 
    supports it. If it does, find your video card drivers for Open GL, may also be 
    called ICD. After getting any essential Open GL files from your manufacturer's 
    web site, install them to enable Open GL support for your video card.
    Some video cards just install supporting drivers and use their own Open GL 
    coding, Installable Client Drivers (ICD). For instance, 3dfx's Open GL file is 
    called 3dfxogl.dll (this file can be renamed as opengl32.dll). But you can use a 
    generic Open GL called opengl32.dll, should be about 753,808 bytes big (about 
    736 to 737 KB). It can be found under C:\Windows and C:\Windows\System\. If you 
    don't have the generic Open GL file, then here's the link to get it: 
    PCs older than Win95 OSR 2 should get that file linked above to fix the Open GL 
    and upgrade the file. Get this file, because it's a fix. This is v1.1 of Open 
    GL. Some video cards rely on this generic Open GL driver. In order to use the 
    generic Open GL driver, you must install your video card drivers that supports 
    Open GL first. There are some video card manufactures that support Open GL by 
    just updating your video card drivers and then just download a file for Open GL, 
    which would usually be opengl32.dll. This for sure was done by ATI for their 
    Rage Pro (started for GLQuake). If you are given the file opengl32.dll, it is 
    needed to be placed it where Half-Life would detect it and so that you could 
    play using hardware rendering. Copy the opengl32.dll into C:\SIERRA\Half-
    Life\gldrv\ (assuming that's the installation default directory).
    After copying the opengl32.dll, you need to edit a file to make Half-Life see 
    the file. The file should be drvmap.txt within C:\SIERRA\Half-Life\gldrv\ the 
    same directory. Open it up with a text editor. Now, it should have something 
    like this:
    Default Default
    3dfxgl.dll 3dfx Mini Driver
    Now, to make Half-Life see the opengl32.dll file, type this in:
    opengl32.dll Open GL
    So it should look like this within the file:
    Default Default
    3dfxgl.dll 3dfx Mini Driver
    opengl32.dll Open GL
    ^^^^^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^
    File's name and name to see listed in the game. Now, save the file and Half-Life 
    should let you run Open GL. So, start up Half-Life, and go to Configuration-> 
    Video Mode selection. Now, select Open GL. To the left, it should give you a box 
    listing several choices. The box is left on Default if it's not messed with. 
    Now, click the down button arrow and choose Open GL, or whatever you named it 
    back in the drvmap.txt. Hint: It's not going to be the choices Default or 3dfx 
    Mini Driver. It should be what you named it in the drvmap.txt. Now run the game 
    and it should be accelerated in Open GL.
    []: Screen Not Aligned
    Whenever you play, and you start up the game, the viewing area screen slides 
    like an inch off from the regular windows setting, and you need to re-adjust the 
    screen. Well, it may have to do with your refresh rate. People with two video 
    cards, like a primary 2D card and a 3D card, would likely to see this problem. 
    It is because two of the video cards are using the same refresh rate. To try and 
    fix this problem, you need to assign one of the video card a different refresh 
    [] Slow Menu
    If the in game menu slows down so much, try this solution: Start Menu-> Run-> 
    Type in regedit-> Find the key CPUMHZ under: 
    HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\Valve\Half-Life\Settings\. Open up the CPUMHZ key and 
    edit the value from 0 (zero) to 1. That should make the menu fly by quicker. 
    Reverse the number if it ends up doing the opposite.
    []: Nvidia
    Please get the reference drivers (Detonator) for your TNT boards. The URL is: 
    http://www.nvidia.com/Products.nsf/htmlmedia/software_drivers.html so that the 
    game would work at its best for your Open GL hardware rendering.
    There's a site out there that have TNT tweaks, especially for Half-Life: 
    When switching between Open GL and D3D with a TNT card, decals may not display 
    correctly. To fix this, type this in the console: gl_polyoffset 4.
    If you are having unreadable text when using TNT, then do the following: Right 
    click Desktop-> Properties-> Riva TNT-> Additional Properties-> Direct3D. Set 
    auto-mipmap to trilinear, mipmap detail to best image quality. Then go to 
    advanced and enable fog table emulation.
    For the TNT2, it is advised to use the reference drivers off of Nvidia's web 
    site. Check it out at http://www.nvidia.com and download the latest drivers for 
    your TNT2. Note: TNT2 can use TNT drivers (some of them).
    []: Video Tearing
    When running the game under hardware rendering, sometimes, there are tearing and 
    lines cut from here to there. There are several reasons why:
    1. Fast refresh rate
    2. V-Sync enabled
    3. Old non-up-to-date video drivers
    4. The game itself
    To fix problem one, lower the refresh rate, by right click on Desktop-> 
    Properties. To solved problem two, disable V-Sync. To solve problem three, get 
    updated drivers from your video manufacturer's web site. To fix problem four, 
    enter this in the console (only if you're running D3D or Open GL hardware 
    acceleration mode): gl_keeptjunctions 1.
    []: Video Too Dark
    If the video settings are too dark and you can't see anything, then you can try 
    and up the brightness on your monitor's settings. If that doesn't help, then try 
    these two commands in the console:
    gamma #
    brightness #
    # = any number from 0 through whatever. 0 = dark, 5 = 5x brighter, etc... Do not 
    try double digits/triple digits until you tried up to 9 and still say it's 
    If you have a 3dfx card and updated Half-Life v1.0.1.0 or higher, then there's a 
    command that will let you follow how gamma is set up from your video card 
    properties found when right click on desktop. The command is a parameter to be 
    used with Half-Life. It's -3dfxgamma. Go to section 7.2.3 to check out the 
    information about the usage of the parameter.
    []: Visual Enhancements
    Anthony "Reverend" Tan, devoted some of his time to create a good guide, of 
    telling what variables are good for your PC and to enjoy the game to be used 
    with Half-Life. Better known as 'tweaks', which are to find the best 
    configurations and to take advantages of their usage to make the game a better 
    way to play it than before. Based on Voodoo2 results. It'll work with other 
    video cards, but results will vary. HALF-LIFE Visuals Tweak Guide at:
    Shockwave: http://www.voodooextreme.com/reverend/flash/Main.html
    Regular: http://www.voodooextreme.com/reverend/Main.html
    [6.7]: Virus
    This one word makes the computer go nuts! Okay, I've seen a few problems. Some 
    of the problems, like can't upgrade to v1.0.0.8 or can't run game because 
    hlds.exe is incorrect version, etc... This is a result of a virus on your 
    computer. Yes. There is a virus on your computer. Don't doubt me. But if your 
    current virus scanner don't see any virus whatsoever, you should get one that is 
    the latest. You can get a good virus checker at: http://www.avp.com. Here's a 
    quicker and faster way to get rid of the WinCIH virus if you know you got this 
    one: http://www.pspl.com/download/cleancih.htm. Go there and it will have 
    instructions on how to use the cleancih.exe to clean out all the WinCIH viruses.
    Please be aware, that this is the main cause of why it gives you that message 
    that hlds.exe is corrupted or incorrect version, etc. The virus that you may be 
    looking for is the WinCIH virus. It alters program files and changes the file 
    not to resemble itself anymore. The programs will continue to work, but it is 
    best to remove this WinCIH virus ASAP. This CIH virus can be cleaned. Other than 
    that, there can be other viruses that can affect Half-Life. Here's a short 
    information on the WinCIH virus: There are three variants (1.2, 1.3 and 1.4) of 
    Win95.CIH virus. These variants can be identified from the text string present 
    in the virus code. The variants 1.2 and 1.4 are reported to be in the wild and 
    spreading. Win95.CIH.1.2 and 1.3 do the damage on 26th of April only and 
    Win95.CIH.1.4 does it on the 26th every month. Win95.CIH.1.4 is also the most 
    frequently reported variant.
    [7.1]: Enhance Sound Effects
    Okay, this isn't none of those hidden stuff that Microsoft slapped into their OS 
    or is this trick new. It's been there forever, so it's not new. You can try to 
    get 3D sound by going to Start Menu-> Programs-> Accessories-> Entertainment-> 
    Volume Control-> Advanced. Under Advanced Controls for Volume Control, go under 
    the 'Other controls' and it should have a box and have an option for "3D Effect 
    Enable". Check this box and get ready to be amazed like I did. Some other sound 
    cards have different options, but be sure to check it out what it got to offer.
    If you don't have Volume Control, then go and grab your Windows 9x CD-ROM, stick 
    it into your drive, Go to Start Menu-> Settings-> Control Panel-> Add/Remove 
    Programs-> Windows Setup-> Multimedia-> Volume Control (check it)-> Apply. Some 
    sound cards may give you this option, so it's all up to your sound card. If you 
    don't see the 3D Effect Enable option, then that means that your sound card 
    can't do 3D effects, or somewhat.
    [7.2]: Half-Life Tweaks
    Here are some Half-Life tweaks to try out. Here's a link for Half-Life tweaks: 
    http://www.tweak3d.net/tweak/hl/. Try that link out if anything below doesn't 
    make sense.
    [7.2.1]: Autoexec.cfg
    It is recommended that you should create a cfg file, let it be autoexec.cfg so 
    that it can load some of tweaking commands or anything for Half-Life. This would 
    save your butt from typing repeated commands that you always want to use when 
    playing Half-Life. Take a look at section 4.1. There's also an automated 
    autoexec creator for people who needs some visual to help them make an 
    autoexec.cfg. Here's the link: http://www.tweak3d.net/autoexec/halflife/.
    [7.2.2]: Multi-Player
    Here are some tips and tweaks to get some improvements out of MP online:
    To see what's your lag, in a graph format, access the console (follow section 
    2.1.5, to find out how to get it). Now, type this in the console: r_netgraph 1. 
    Green represents lag. The higher the green lines go, it shows how long data 
    packets get to your PC. You actually want short green lines. Red represents data 
    lost/data dropped. You do not want red lines. If you get too much of these, 
    you'll see opponents skipping around. Yellow represents too much data for your 
    connection. You need to raise your rate xxxx to see if you can eliminate the 
    yellow lines. Other than that, you have a limited bandwidth connection. Blue 
    means corrupted data. To turn off the net graph, type in this: r_netgraph 0. 
    R_netgraph has other settings too. If you use r_netgraph 2 or 3, it displays 
    more in depth information about your network stats. Here is what Yahn has to say 
    about it: "r_netgraph 3 allows you to monitor bandwidth usage over the server to 
    client channel. I wouldn't worry about r_netgraph 2, as r_netgraph 3 has all of 
    the additional information in it. Here's how it works: The green hashes up the 
    side of the HUD represent 50 bytes each of data each. As the graph moves from 
    right to left, each vertical column represents a message from the server that 
    the client received (or dropped, or was choked, or was invalid). The way to read 
    the part above the white divider is as follows: the yellow chunk is player data, 
    the purple is entity data (non-player entities), the blue is temporary entities 
    info, and the green is sounds. The full message size is indicated with a little 
    gray dot. For our future games (and possibly for future updates to Half-Life / 
    TFC multiplayer), we expect to see substantial decreases in the yellow and 
    purple parts and we believe we can almost completely eliminate the blue and 
    green lines. To see why this is important, fire up a game of HLDM, turn on 
    netgraph 3 and fire the shotgun with the alternate fire key (i.e., fire both 
    barrels). Look at the netgraph when you do this, there's a lot of data (~100 
    bytes) created to get all of the shotgun effects over to the client (sound, 
    bullet decals, shell ejections, muzzleflash, punching the clients view, etc.). 
    This data flow is not an issue in single player, but a big issue in multiplayer. 
    We're investing a lot of research into technologies that will save us bandwidth 
    in this area. What this will translate to is a much better play experience on a 
    28.8 or 56K modem (less lag, etc.), something that we think is critical to the 
    continued on-line success of Half-Life / TFC, and any of our future titles." 
    To mess around with your bandwidth connection, access the console. Now type this 
    in the console: rate xxxx. Where xxxx=any four digit number, prefer around 2600-
    4800 for analog modem users, and 4800+ for higher/quality/digital connections 
    like ISDNs, T1s, etc. 2600=28.8 modem, 4800=56k modem. If the rate is set lower 
    than your connection is at, say if you have a 56k modem, it is unwise to put 
    rate at 2600. You got twice the 28.8 modem connection, so put rate as 4800. If 
    you do set the rate lower, then that means that there's a possibility that 
    you're going to get yellow lines in the netgraph. To reduce yellow lines, raise 
    the rate xxxx higher than it is. Just think as the digits as number of 
    characters (or bytes) per second your connection can handle. If your rate is set 
    higher than 5000, then you will then need to switch over to using the command 
    fps_lan xx instead.
    To add more to the rate xxxx command, there's a command to try and stop "ice 
    skating" across the whole level because the result of lag. Bring down the 
    console, and type this in: pushlatency -xxx. Where -xxx=any digit number, prefer 
    1/10th of your rate xxxx. Example: in game rate 4800. Put the -xxx to 480. So 
    this is what the command would look like this in the console: pushlatency -480. 
    Others insist on a negative number half of your latency while in game. You can 
    try that too, but I didn't see good results when I went under -480. But it 
    depends on you, so you decide which is the best. 
    To limit how much data would be sent to you, there's a command to limit how much 
    should be sent. The command in console is: fps_modem xx. Where xx=any double 
    digit number, designed for how much fps you should get to have a good game. Put 
    it to 20 or something. Remember, whatever number you put, that's how much fps 
    you are going to get. And that's the limit fps you're going to see. If you put 
    10 for the fps_modem, then you're going to get maximum of 10 fps for the 
    duration of your game play. Don't be stupid and assign the number like 100. If 
    you do, don't be surprised if your ping jumps up (for some reason, if I jack 
    this number very high, nothing happens, but it's a warning that it might 
    happen). The lower the number, the lower the lag. 
    Another thing that is very good, is to disable pretty looking graffities. Yes, 
    I'm talking about the ones that you have to download, especially when you just 
    enter the game, and then find out that you are downloading other people's 
    decals, which lagged and bogged your connection down. To disable this annoying 
    feature, then type this into the console: r_decals 0. But, if you want to see 
    some decals, it's best to set r_decals to a low number. I have mine set to 
    r_decals 256, meaning that the game will only allow a maximum of 256 decals to 
    be present in the game at the whole time. If decals reach the max, then they 
    will clear from the memory and would just keep cycling through and through. Kind 
    of like if you run out of memory, then it will remove the first decal and let 
    the latest decal appear - kind of like chronological order. You must have at 
    least v1.0.0.8 to do this if you want to set a limit on decals. 
    The last and best thing to stop lag, especially just connecting to the server is 
    use this command: cl_download_ingame "0". This disables all decal downloads. 
    It's that little orange bar that is under your health, that downloads decals, 
    which is annoying and lags you to death if you're just joining the game, or 
    someone who just joined the game. If you want to try and tweak your connection 
    quality, please take a visit to section 7.3.1 for Bandwidth. This would be the 
    last thing to do before you go crazy.
    [7.2.3]: Parameters
    How to use these parameters are easy. To do this, for example: Start Menu-> Run.
    Type in: C:\Sierra\Half-Life\hl.exe -<command>
    Example: C:\Sierra\Half-Life\hl.exe -noip
    Here are the current available parameters/flags to use:
    This enables 32-bit true color mode rendering of the game. You must have 
    v1.0.0.9+ patch for Half-Life in order to do this. Also make sure that gl_dither 
    is set to 0 (zero) (example: gl_dither 0).
    This allows your gamma settings on 3dfx hardware to be decided by the Half-Life 
    This enables the usage of the console, where commands can be used and to tweak 
    some commands that can alter the game to be more efficient or degrade to he||. 
    This also skips the two short movie introductions.
    This enables Direct3D hardware rendering mode. This command is only available 
    from v1.0.0.9+ patches.
    This is "developer" mode. It just prints out a lot of developer debug messages. 
    Not recommended to use it, because it eats up some CPU power to display those 
    commands when you don't really need to see it. So don't use this command unless 
    you want to troubleshoot Half-Life.
    This runs Half-Life in full screen mode.
    -game <game's name>
    This is to enable Half-Life to play modification games other than to go through 
    the menu to select them. This is a shortcut. An example to this command would be 
    TFC. So it'll look like this: -game tfc. Don't bother doing this if you're 
    playing the normal Half-Life game.
    -gamegauge <demo name>
    This runs the demo in Game Gauge mode. This is a benchmark utility that runs a 
    demo as fast as possible and stores the framerate in a file called fps.txt in 
    the Half-Life directory. Where <demo name> is the demo that you used to record 
    during a gamin session or downloaded off he internet. When typing in the <demo 
    name> part, leave out the three letter extension.
    This enables Open GL hardware rendering mode. Use the -gldrv command too if 
    using this command.
    -gldrv <driver name>
    This selects the Open GL driver. The two choices are "Default", "3dfxgl.dll" and 
    any other driver(s) listed in the drvmap.txt.
    -heapsize x
    Where x is how much RAM you got in KB. Say you got 32 MB of RAM. Replace x with 
    16384. Don't be foolish and replace the x with more than what you got in RAM. 
    People with more than 64 MB of RAM sometimes feel that it's not using the RAM 
    being supplied. Well, they're right. This command invokes to show Half-Life all 
    the RAM that you have and it can be used. The reason with half of the RAM you 
    got, because Windows would already used half your RAM for it's OS. Putting it to 
    32768 wouldn't do anything.
    This is to skip the two avi's in the beginning.
    This is useful when you get that D.U.N. box to go away and to give you no IP 
    address. Remove this command whenever playing on the internet. If not, then you 
    will fail to connect to any servers.
    This is only to remove that annoying IPX error crap whenever starting up Half-
    Life all the time. Put this in and you don't have to see the IPX error any more. 
    This just disables IPX network protocol.
    This is very useful and great. Instead of the in game Half-Life server browser's 
    green dots used, it will then instead be replaced by numbers of latency, as in 
    pings. Only available in v1.0.0.8 or later versions of Half-Life.
    -particles <number>
    This is useful for those who build levels for Half-Life. This is useful to 
    search for leaks in the maps. The <number> is to set aside some buffer space.
    -port 27016
    Use this with HL.exe. This allows you to play on your own server after running 
    HLDS.exe. This assigns HL.exe port 27016, so that it won't conflict with 
    HLDS.exe's port 27016 (defaulted). Use this whenever you want to play on your 
    own dedicated server.
    This enables Half-Life to be rendered in software mode.
    This enables Half-Life to start in a window mode, instead of fullscreen.
    When this is used, upon launching Half-Life, it would bring you to the console 
    the first thing, no intro movies or the menu, just the console.
    -w <#>
    This sets the video mode display width. Where <#> is the width in pixels of 
    desired video mode display.
    This disables Direct Sound and plays SFX in wav files. A fix for some sound 
    cards that have stuttering problems. Also removes that annoying "no directsound 
    driver" error message when loading up Half-Life. Use this command if you get 
    that error message, besides, you don't have directsound drivers, so just use 
    this command. Beware: there's a bug with this command. It will cause the 
    resolution to be locked at 320 by 240 on start up on the games. You will need to 
    change the resolution in the menu every time upon launching Half-Life.
    This enables Half-Life to start in a window mode, instead of fullscreen.
    -zone <###>
    This allocates more memory to scripting files, like autoexec.cfg and so forth. 
    Replace <###> with any number, preferred the number that the error gives when 
    scripts are too big.
    [7.3]: PC Tweaks
    Here are some tips/tricks on how to speed up your PC before you go out and spend 
    a fortune to upgrade to get more speed out of your PC.
    [7.3.1]: Bandwidth
    Here's a good link to a site that have some good internet tweaks and information 
    for you:
    http://www.voodooextreme.com/3Fingers/stuff/nettweak.htm. Visit it, and it 
    should get you going about internet tweaks to make your connection 
    better/faster, although not guaranteed. But it's worth a try. Even though this 
    web page is meant for cable modem tweaks, it can also be used for other high 
    bandwidth connections. Here are some sites:
    Be warned when trying those tweaks above. Some people reported good downloading 
    speeds, but Half-Life became choppy. Make sure you back-up your registry before 
    trying any of those tweaks.
    Here are some web pages that has some modem tweaks that you can try out:
    [7.3.2]: Windows 9x
    Here are some quick PC performances at the last moment to speed things up before 
    you go insane. For even more tweaks, visit these site:
    []: Defrag
    Defrag is going to be your favorite word. If you don't know what this word 
    means, take a dictionary and look up the word 'defragment'. But if you can't 
    find the word, look for 'fragment' and take the opposite of that word and you 
    should find out what I mean. To get to the point, do the following: Start Menu-> 
    Programs-> Accessories-> System Tools-> Disk Defragmenter This would rearrange 
    files to a big piece so that the files aren't spread everywhere on the HDD, 
    shortening the HDD's life span. Make sure you do 'full defragmentation' if you 
    decide to go into Options. If you have two HDD, then go to the section 
    to find out a tip.
    []: ScanDisk
    Before doing anything else, first let's clean off any errors on your HDD before 
    doing other things. You need to clean off errors before doing anything else 
    because the errors would still exist after you do anything else. So, let's use 
    ScanDisk, found at: Start Menu-> Programs-> Accessories-> System Tools-> 
    ScanDisk. After loading ScanDisk, make sure you select the option 'Standard' 
    under 'Type of Test'. Also, make sure you check every HDD listed in the box. 
    Now, click the button 'Advanced...' and enable the following recommended 
    1. Display Summary: Always
    2. Log File: No Log
    3. Cross-Linked Files: Delete
    4. Lost File Fragments: Free
    5. Check Files For: Invalid File Names, Invalid Dates And Times, and Duplicate 
    Run ScanDisk with those options enabled and fix any errors that are given. 
    Always delete cross-linked files, always free up lost file fragments, and always 
    fix invalid things. Most of these errors are useless to bring them back, so do 
    what's best for your HDD(s).
    []: Turn Them Off
    In no way should any other programs run in the background when playing any 
    games. It is ridiculous, unless you want it to and take up valuable resources 
    and speed away from the game. You want everything dedicated to your game and 
    only your game. So shut down everything in the background, even your desktop 
    wallpaper - yes, those take up memory. Put the background to none should do the 
    trick. To shut down anything that runs in the background, give it the three 
    finger salute: [Ctrl]+[Alt]+[Del]. Close everything except Explorer and Systray.
    []: Virtual Memory
    Virtual Memory is the next in line if your RAM fails to hold the information. 
    This is kind of a bad thing. Virtual Mem. is slow, because it is cached on your 
    HDD. But another bad thing is that Microsoft programmed it to resize it whenever 
    it thinks it needs more room.
    To take care of your Virtual Mem., create a solid file for it to use. Do the 
    following: My Computer-> (right click) Properties-> Performance tab-> Virtual 
    Memory-> Let me specify my own virtual memory settings.
    For the Hard disk, if you have two, select where the swap file should be. To 
    make this decision easier, put it on the HDD that  is not the one running your 
    game. If you have one, you have no choice, but to leave it as C drive. For the 
    Minimum and Maximum variable, put it as the same number for both. It depends on 
    how much free space you have on the HDD that you're putting the swap file on. 
    Putting 200 MB worth and dedicated to VM would be nice. Do it if you can. If you 
    can't, 80 to 100 should do it. A minimum of 40 would do it, but it might spring 
    up an error message saying that there are none left for VM, so put at least 80 
    MB of VM.
    For you people that have more than one HDD, defrag the HDD that would be the 
    source of the VM swap file. To do this, change your swap file to the other HDD. 
    This would clear any obstacles stopping the speeding access of the VM swap file.
    [7.4]: Updates
    Some update suggestions.
    [7.4.1]: Drivers
    It is always wise to update old and outdated drivers with the newest and latest 
    drivers if possible. It is always a solution if something doesn't work. Drivers 
    do fix glitches and may speed up the hardware(s) associated with the drivers, 
    especially video cards. That's where you see drivers affect the most.
    [7.4.2]: Half-Life
    It's always wise to update Half-Life. It's recommended that you update Half-Life 
    to at least v1.0.0.8 if you're just only playing single-player mode. For those 
    who plays on the internet, then that that would mean that you are required to 
    get the latest patch, which is v1.0.1.3.
    [7.4.3]: PC
    Well, this is all opinion right here. It's the deciding factor for games to run 
    better and smoother if you got the budget to do so. Upgrading your computer is a 
    nice thing, with new hardware to run the latest games. If you have a low budget, 
    consider a RAM update, and then a video card update, considering if you have at 
    least a Pentium MMX that is.
    To me, a decent video card, like a Voodoo or TNT card would do fine. Having at 
    least 64 MB of RAM should also be a must. For the CPU, it should be more than a 
    Pentium 200 MMX to get some juice out of the game. It's not recommended to have 
    A3D sound card to accelerate sound FXs, because it takes some % of CPU power to 
    give you good sound FXs. So turn the  off or avoid getting them, if you have a 
    low end PC. Now, if you have a monster speeding PC, then that's another story.
    [8.1]: Forums
    -newsgroup for Half-Life
    -newsgroup for Half-Life editing related
    -newsgroup for Half-Life: Team Fortress Classic
    -newsgroup for Half-Life binary files
    -forum for planethalflife web site
    -official Half-Life forum from Sierra
    [8.2]: Utilities
    -EGN: Game ping/list program
    -GameSpy: Game ping/list program
    -ICQ: A message/pager/chat program, used to keep in touch with friends
    -PingTool: Pinging program
    [8.3]: Web Sites
    Here are some of the websites that you can start off looking for Half-Life 
    information. Not all sites are listed:
    -dedicated to Half-Life maps
    -dedicated to building Half-Life maps
    -Half-Life tutorials for creating maps
    -dedicated to Half-Life
    -Once as I.AM.Half-Life site
    -dedicated to Half-Life, site a.k.a. www.planethalflife.com
    -models for Half-Life multiplayer
    -dedicated to SP and MP maps for Half-Life
    -spray painting (graffities)
    -dedicated to Half-Life with up-to-date news
    -dedicated to Half-Life
    -dedicated to Team Fortress Classic maps
    -official Half-Life site
    v.11.27.1999 - Fourteenth version released.
    v9.4.1999 - Thirteenth version released. Once text based, now HTML.
    v8.22.1999 - Twelfth version released.
    v6.1.1999 - Eleventh version released.
    v5.9.1999 - Tenth version released
    v4.24.1999 - Ninth version released.
    v4.10.1999 - Eighth version released.
    v2.27.1999 - Seventh version released.
    v2.1.1999 - Sixth version released.
    v1.23.1999 - Fifth version released.
    v1.16.1999 - Fourth version released.
    v1.9.1999 - Third version released.
    v1.1.1999 - Second version released.
    v12.22.1998 - First version released.
    (c) 1998, 1999 and beyond, HQH. All rights reserved.

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