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    FAQ/Walkthrough by DSimpson

    Version: 0.51 | Updated: 01/17/05 | Search Guide | Bookmark Guide

                                   Civilization III
                      "How to win friends and Conquer people..."
                                   January 17, 2005
                                     Version 0.51
                            Written by:  Dan Simpson
                                 Email:  dsimpson.faqs@gmail.com
      If emailing me, use this subject:  Civilization 3 v 0.51
      (Emails that don't use this subject will be deleted, avoid using all CAPS)
                                     Email Policy: (read before emailing me!)
              If you see any mistakes, or have anything that you want to add
              please email me!  I will, of course, give you full credit for
              your addition, and be eternally grateful to you.  Email addresses
              are not posted in the FAQ, unless you specifically state that
              you want it to be.
              Also, if you have a BUG of some sort, try downloading and
              installing the Patch first.  Sure, it's a large download, but it
              fixes a large variety of problems.
    You will find the most up to date version of this FAQ at:
    Be sure to pick up the 1.29f patch for Civ III: (see the Patch Info section
    below for more details)
    This FAQ looks best in a fixed-width font, such as Courier New.
    This Document is Copyright 2002-2005 by Dan Simpson
    Civilization III is Copyright 2001 by Infogrames/Firaxis
    I am not affiliated with Sid Meier, Firaxis, Infogrames or anyone who had
    anything to do with the creation of this game.  This FAQ may be posted on any
    site so long as NOTHING IS CHANGED and you EMAIL ME telling me that you are
    posting it.  You may not charge for, or in any way profit from this FAQ.
    What's New in 0.51:
        Changed my email and updated the format.
      For a complete Version History, check out the Final Words Section at the end
      of the FAQ.
                                  Table of Contents:
        i.   Civilization III, What's Different?
       ii.   Patch Info (v1.29f)
      iii.   Using the Map Editor
        1.   Game Basics (or, So You've Never Played a Civ Before?)
        2.   The Civs
             2.1   Civ Specific Strategies
        3.   Building an Empire
        4.   Culture
        5.   Diplomacy
        6.   Dealing With Corruption
        7.   Science
        8.   Wonders of the World
        9.   War, What is it Good For?
             9.1   The Combat Engine Demystified!
       10.   Winning the Game
       11.   Extra City Names
       12.   A Brief History of Each Civ (Or, Why This Civ Is In The Game)
           Final Words...
    i. Civilization III, What's Different?
      Quick Definitions:
        Civ - Civilization, usually a stand-in for one of the players (CPU or 
              Human). An example Civ would be the French. Civ also is the standard
              abbreviation for the game, Civilization. Thus, Civ III is short for
              Civilization III.
        Tech - Technology, one of the researchable techs in the game
        SMAC - Sid Meier's Alpha Centauri
      Major Changes:
        * The Addition of Culture. Now each city you construct has a "Culture
          Modifier" that will increase its boundaries, and later increase the
          borders of your empire. Culture has other effects as well, such as
          impressing other Civs, and even as a tool for stealing their cities.
          Culture is acquired by building certain buildings, temples, colosseums,
          wonders, etc.
        * Civilization-specific advantages. These advantages are listed in the
          section below called "The Civs." What these amount to is different
          bonuses when playing a different Civ. One Civ might receive an extra
          Scout unit at the beginning, while another has faster workers. Each Civ
          also has a Civ-specific unit, such as the Roman Legionnary, which
          replaces a standard unit (in this case the Swordsman).
        * Barbarians are completely different. Before, Barbarians simply appeared
          on the map and attacked, now they have little villages where they are
          based out of. The village will generate units that are used to attack
          your country. This can be fixed by sacking the village, either with
          military force, or simply having the culture level expand out to include
          the village (which automatically disperses it). Taking a barbarian
          village nets you some money as well. Such villages are always rebuilt
          just outside your culture somewhere, so you must be vigilant.
          Also, Barbarians can no longer capture your cities. They can, however,
          kill your settlers and workers. This leads to one strategy, if you have
          a settler about to be killed by a barbarian, have him build his city
          quickly. Instead of dying, your city gets attacked, but with no defense
          the barbarians just take some money and leave. (Barbarians can also kill
          population and destroy buildings, but with a size 1 city that you just
          built, this isn't a problem.)
        * Diplomacy is completly revamped. You can trade for more things, and just
          generally get more out of the diplomacy screen. For example, instead of
          just being able to trade maps, you can trade your Territory Map (the land
          within your culture) or your whole World Map (all that you have 
        * Golden Ages. Gone are the generic "golden ages" (when you researched
          Philosophy in Civ II you got a free tech, not so in Civ III), replaced
          by a more useful golden age. When you meet a condition of your Civ (it
          could be building a wonder, or winning a battle, it all depends on the
          type of Civ you are playing), you enter a Golden Age, where food and
          production is greatly increased.
            Tip:  DO NOT change governments while in a Golden Age, or you'll lose
                  all the benefits while your Civ is in Anarchy.
      Unit Changes:
        * Units no longer have home cities, they are supported by the Empire as a
          whole. The early governments can simply support a number of units per
          city for free, after which you start paying 1 gold per unit. (Republic 
          and Democracy ALWAYS pay for units) That's right, units no longer require
          resource SHIELDS to support. Also, settlers no longer require FOOD to
        * Speaking of settlers, they now cost TWO population to build, and no
          longer build improvements (irrigation, mining, roads), that job has
          fallen to the new WORKER unit. Workers cost ONE population point to
          build. Both are considered NON-COMBAT units and cannot defend cities.
          In fact, if attacked by an enemy Civ, they get captured and will now
          work for the enemy. (Settlers are converted into 2 workers... no one
          will build cities entirely with foreigners)
        * Old units can be upgraded in any city that contains a barracks. This
          involves a small fee for the upgrade (the fee gets larger the more 
          "steps" that must be upgraded. For instance, upgrading a Rifleman to
          Infantry is cheap, but upgrading a Spearman to Infantry would be a lot
          more money). Leonardo's Workshop no longer automatically upgrades units,
          it merely makes it more cost effective.
        * No more diplomats, spies, or caravans (as units). The functions of these
          units has been rolled into the Diplomacy screen (SHIFT-D, or press the
          on-screen button). As soon as you contact a Civ (by which I mean that
          you see one of their units/cities), you can talk to them, trade for
          resources and so forth. Spying is split between your Embassy and the
          later Intelligence Building (which you can build after you get the
          Espionage tech).
            Note:  To build an embassy in a Civ, double-click the STAR icon that is
                   attached to your capitol city.
                   To set up an Espionage mission, double-click the pentagon icon
                   that is attached to the city that built the Intelligence 
            Note:  Since there are no Caravans, there is no FOOD caravan. The only
                   food your city gets, it must produce itself.
        * Unit "firepower" was removed. See the "Combat Engine Demystified" section
          below to see how combat is figured out now.
        * Artillery-type units now Bombard rather than attack. This is a special
          attack that will damage (but not destroy) enemy units. If attacking a
          city there is also a chance to kill civilians, or destroy buildings.
          Naval units and Air units can also bombard the landscape.
        * Units have more levels than just "Veteran." They start as "Regulars"
          advance through battle (or barracks) to Veteran then from there become
          Elite. This isn't new if you played SMAC, but is if your last game was
          Civ II. Also, there is no longer an offensive bonus associated with
          being Veteran/Elite, it simply gives you more Hit Points. See the
          "Combat Engine Demystified" section below for more details.
        * Privateers are back! (OK, so they were only in Colonization, but still)
          These wonderful units allow you to attack other naval vessels freely,
          because no one knows that it is your Privateer! Of course, in order for
          these to be effective, you'll want the Patch (v1.16f) which upgrades
          their attack strength to 2 (from 1).
        * Elite units, when victorious in battle, have a chance to produce a GREAT
          LEADER. Leaders are awesome and have 2 great powers, as we'll see below.
          They are considered NON-COMBAT units, and must be protected until they
          can get back to your cities and do one of the following:
            - Hurry Production. The leader is the only force on earth that can
              hurry-up a wonder, but their Hurry ability works on any city
              improvement. Send the leader to a city, then hurry, no matter how
              much production is left, that improvement is now complete. I
              usually used this AFTER building at least one army, as several
              WONDERS require that you have a VICTORIOUS ARMY (the Pentagon
              requires that you simply POSSESS 3 armies at the time). Often I'd
              send him to one of my FRONTIER cities (where they are built next to
              the enemy, or near a large empty area), and switch that city to
              build the most production-intense WONDER. Back to leader, who HURRIES
              the production and finishes the wonder in ONE TURN.
            - Build an Army. You need armies to win tough military campaigns, but
              they have other nice effects as well. For starters, you NEED an
              army to win a battle before you can build the Heroic Epic "small"
              Wonder (which increases the odds that Elite units produce Leaders) or
              the Military Academy which can produce Armies itself.
              Armies work by grouping numerous units together (3 originally, but
              you can get 4 once you build the Pentagon). When you attack with an
              army, the best offensive unit in the army attacks, but Hit Point
              losses are spread amongst all the units, so the army doesn't die
              until all the combined Hit Points have been lost. So, say you combine
              3 Elite Knights together; your army now has 15 Hit points. Now you
              can safely attack nearly anything and know that even if you lose
              10 or more rounds of combat, you'll still win in the end.
                Note:  Once you add a unit to an army, there is NO WAY to get it
                       out of the army. There is also no way to UPGRADE an armies
                       units. (they also can't Pillage, for some reason) So, once
                       you have all the Army related "small" Wonders (Heroic Epic,
                       Military Academy and the Pentagon), consider disbanding your
                       old armies and producing new ones to replace them. Armies
                       cost 400 shields to build, and can only be build in cities
                       with the Military Academy. Disbanding an old army nets your
                       city 100 shields, which can be a great way to get some
                       improvements built.
      Terrain and Resource Changes:
        * There are now Strategic Resources and Luxury Resources.
          Strategic Resources (Iron, Horses, etc.) are what allow you to build the
          better units in the game. You can't build Swordsmen without Iron any
          more than you can build Horsemen without Horses. Each Civ starts out by
          at least SOME sort of strategic resource. If you don't get one, you may
          have to trade with other Civs to get it.
          Luxury Resources (Wine, Spices, Silks, etc.) make your citizens happy.
          Simply have a road on the resource (within your culture) and have that
          road lead to your capitol is enough. If the resource is OUTSIDE of your
          culture, I'd send a settler to fix that, but you could also send a worker
          to build a road to it, then the Worker can found a COLONY. Colonies ONLY
          bring in resources (also Strategic resources), and need to be defended
          lest they be destroyed by hostile barbarians.
            Note:  If your culture expands to the area where the colony is placed,
                   the colony vanishes... as it is no longer needed.
          Each Luxury makes one person in each city (that is connected to the road)
          happy. There are 8 luxury resources, so if you have them all then 8
          people are now happy (less if there is significant War Weariness). If
          you build a Marketplace this effect is increased by a lot. Now the first
          2 luxuries make one person happy each, but the next 2 luxuries each make
          2 more people happy. The next 2 luxuries after that make 3 people happy,
          and the last 2 luxuries each make 4 people happy. Thus, if you have
          access to all the luxuries (either by getting them yourself or trading
          for them), one of the first buildings you'll want in each city is a
        * Irrigation now requires access to Fresh Water. This is usually a river,
          but inland lakes work just as well. And of course, you can irrigate from
          your previous irrigations. This makes for some interesting Worker 
          projects when you have to get water out to the drier areas of your 
          empire. Once your city has access to water, it counts as a source of
          fresh water, and you can irrigate from it. Also note that your 
          irrigations can be run diagonally and still have fresh water. Electricity 
          eliminates the need for this, allowing you to irrigate anywhere.
            Note:  You can no longer irrigate Hills in Civ III.
                   Also, there are no more Engineers, so you cannot transform the
                   terrain either. When you build a city on a desert, it will
                   stay a desert.
        * No more Farmland improvement. Railroads will now increase the effects of
          mines or irrigated land by 50%. Notice that it improves only what you
          have built, it doesn't just provide a bonus to what is there. For
          example, a railroad on a square that produces 2 food and 2 shields
          (which would be a mined grassland) would improve ONLY the "mine" giving
          you an extra Shield.
        * Forests, when cut down by your workers, will give a shield bonus (10) to
          the closest city. This does not affect Wonders, which don't take the
        * Rivers run between land squares now, and provide no movement bonus.
          Land near a river gets one extra Commerce. There is a defensive bonus
          when a unit attacks another across a river. Also, until the Engineering
          tech is discovered, rivers are considered to be "un-bridged," so even
          when you build a road across a river, it won't help.
        * Altitude and visibility. Normally units can see 1 square in all 
          directions. However, when they get close to a mountain or a hill, they
          can see it from 2 squares away. When they get to the top of a mountain
          or a hill, they can see in all directions for 2 squares. Hills cannot
          see over Jungles, Hills and Mountains, while Mountains can't see over
          other Mountains. Usually if I want to place a unit near an enemy Civ, I
          look for the nearest Mountain and fortify there... it also has a great
          Defensive Modifier! (see the "Combat Engine Demystified" section)
        * Jungles and Floodplains come with a chance for Disease. Disease, though
          not terribly common, affects you in 2 ways: One, cities built near these
          terrains can have citizens die from disease; Two, units on these terrains
          can themselves just die from disease. Not sure if the Hospital reduces
          these effects.
            Note:  Your city doesn't have to be RIGHT NEXT TO one of the terrains,
                   if it has Jungle or Floodplains ANYWHERE in its "city radius"
                   it has a chance for disease.
        * Impassable Terrains. Catapults and Cannons can't enter Jungles or
      Changes to Cities:
        * Production Queue. You can now instruct cities to build one thing after
          another. You add items to the queue by holding SHIFT while you click
          what you want to add. Replacing an item already on the queue requires
          that you click that item, then SHIFT-click the new item to replace it.
            Note:  Greyed-out improvements are ones that you cannot build at the
                   moment. This usually means that you are building that 
                   improvement (almost always a Wonder) in another city. Wonders
                   can also be greyed out if you try to switch production from
                   one thing to the Wonder (it won't let you). Which means that
                   you can't Hurry the production of a Temple and try to switch it
                   to an Oracle (to build it faster).
          If you have a queue that you want to SAVE for future cities, press
          SHIFT-Q to save it, then later just Q to load it.
        * War Weariness. Republics and Democracies don't like to be at war, and
          will tend to become unhappy while at war. The longer a war goes on, the
          worse the effect will be. This can be somewhat countered with Temples,
          Cathedrals, Luxuries and so on (things that NORMALLY reduce unhappiness
          work just fine), as well as Police Stations and the Universal Suffrage
          Wonder (things that reduce War Weariness itself). Nothing will ever
          eliminate the effects of war weariness. In fact, in a Democracy, War
          Weariness has such an effect that you won't want to declare war on
          anyone, and even when you do, you'll want peace as FAST as possible.
          Look on the bright side, at least units outside of the city don't cause
          unhappiness as they did in Civ II.
        * Small Wonders. These bad boys can be built by ALL civilizations, not just
          the first to get them. Their effects are in many ways, better than those
          of the Great Wonders. These are listed in the "Wonders of the World"
          section below.
        * Conquering Cities. You get an option to "raze" the city, which is
          terribly useful. Cities that ARE captured will have "resistors", elements
          of the population that are against your rule. Captured cities also lose
          all their improvements, meaning that even when the resistance is quelled,
          the populace is very unhappy (especially if you're still at war with
          their homeland). And at least until the patch, cities of 1 population
          aren't automatically razed. (With the Patch, they are)
        * You can now use the Tech Tree directly to set tech goals. Want Monarchy,
          but can't research it yet? Set it as your Goal. On the Science Adviser
          screen there is the tech tree, click on Monarchy and he'll get all the
          advances needed to get to Monarchy. This screen also comes up when you
          get a new tech (under "What's the Big Picture?").
        * Ages. There are now 4 ages to the game, from ancient to modern. While in
          one age, you can't get techs from the next age. In fact, the beginning
          techs of an age have no prerequisite other than that you be in that age.
          You advance in Age when you have MOST (not all) of the techs in your
          current age. Researching techs from previous ages is then easier to do,
          and comes at a reduced cost.
      What's Gone:
        * Bribery. No spies equals no unit bribery. Your armies will remain your
        * Engineers. Your workers are upgraded automatically with new skills when
          you gain the right tech. I do miss the 2 movement of engineers, though.
          You also can't Alter the terrain (that is, turn Plains to Grassland).
        * Fundamentalism.
        * The Senate. Now you can declare war on whomever you please as a Republic
          or a Democracy. The only thing stopping you is the War Weariness once
          you're at war.
        * Tax/Science/Luxury caps. Now you can set these rates to whatever you
        * Zones of Control. Your armies used to (in Civ II) have an area around
          them where enemy armies could not tread. This is gone. So, no more
          setting just a FEW units to guard your border; if you want to keep the
          enemy out, you must fortify the ENTIRE border.
          Some units (and units that are fortified in a Fortress) get a Free Attack
          on units that cross their sights.
        Note:  Saved Games are very large. If you find yourself saving often (and
               why wouldn't you?) your hard drive will get filled up rapidly.  Be
               sure to every once in a while go through and delete your old and
               useless saved games.
                 C:\Program Files\Infogrames Interactive\Civilization III\Saves\
               Alternatively, you could just have ONE save per civilization 
               session. Consider: You play as the French, so your saved game is
               always called "French1". Every time you save, you save over this
               game. If you ever need to go back to an OLDER save, there are still
               the auto-saves available. This way you don't create a large archive
               of old games.
    ii. Patch Info
      Patch Info page:  http://www.civ3.com/patches.cfm
      Direct Download Link:  ftp://ftp.infogrames.net/patches/civ3/Civ3v129f.exe
      Important!  If you are running Windows XP, the 1.16f patch does work, but to 
      get the game to run with it, you may need to make one small alteration to a 
      game file.  Here is what to do:
      1. Open up the Civilization3.ini file. Don't know how? Go to Start > Run >
         then type Notepad.exe. From here go to File > Open >
         C:\Program Files\Infogrames Interactive\Civilization III\Civilization3.ini
      2. This is a list of game options.  At the bottom of this list add this line
         exactly as it appears:
      3. If you had any Compatibility Modes set up to play the game before the
         patch, turn these OFF. You will no longer need them.
      4. Play and enjoy!
      Note:  I do not believe that the later (1.29f) patches require this work-
             around.  I will leave it in, anyway.
      To see exactly what is changed (and there is a LOT) I recommend reading the
      README.TXT in your game folder:
        C:\Program Files\Infogrames Interactive\Civilization III\README.txt
      You can use Notepad or Word to read it.
    iii. Using the Map Editor
      Civilization III ships with a somewhat functional Map Editor (found in the
      same Start Menu group as the game).
      First off, you can't actually create scenarios with the map editor. Yes, I
      know there is a Scenario menu, but no, you can't make one. Yet.  There is
      also no way to ZOOM OUT on your map to get the big picture.  Annoying since
      there isn't a mini-map either. What does this mean? That you will probably
      want to just randomly generate a map (Map > Generate Map), and then start
        Patch Note:  The later patches add the Zoom Out functionality, as well as
                     a Mini Map (although the Mini Map sometimes needs to be closed
                     and reopened to get it to work).
      The Map Generation options are the same here as when you start a new game,
      map size, land type, and so on.  World Seed affects the position of special
      resources (and other things) on the map. There's no particular reason to use
        Note:  To edit the Rules for the map, you need to click on the Tools menu,
               then UNSELECT the "Use Default Rules" option. This unlocks the
               Rules menu.
               With the Patch, this option is found in the "Scenario" menu, and
               you SELECT "Custom Rules."
               Also note, the edited rules only count for your created map.  If
               you go to a normal game, the rules will be the default rules.
        Note:  To change the map size (by which I mean to make a larger map than
               "Huge" or a smaller map than "Tiny"), you need to edit the Rules
               BEFORE generating your map. Go to the World Sizes Rule, and change
               the dimensions of the map. Remember that really large maps will
               drag down game performance.
      Next thing to know, once you have a map, is that you can't set where YOU will
      start a game.  All you can set is a generic "Set Player Starting Location",
      which you may or may not use (it could go to the CPU). If you do want to
      "cheat" your game, what you can do is improve one of the Starting Locations.
      Then when you load up the map in the game, if you don't start at the right
      place, restart (CTRL-SHIFT-Q) and try it again.
      There are 3 main items in editing a map: the Terrain itself, the Resources
      (both strategic and luxurious) and the "Overlays" (such as "Goodie" huts and
      Rivers). These 3 buttons are on the toolbar (they're the green ones, with the
      "wheat" in the middle). To the right of those buttons are the Terrain Brush
      sizes, from small to large, followed by the Generate Random Map button.
      By default the editor uses Desert tiles 1x1 in size.
    1. Game Basics (or, So You've Never Played a Civ Before?)
      This section is intended for people who have never played any of the Civ
      games before, and those who don't even have Civ III and are curious about it.
      Anyone else, feel free to skip to the next section, "The Civs."
    2. The Civs
      Commerical Civs experience less corruption, and produce more Commerce in
      large cities. This bonus works the best during the middle ages when your
      cities are large enough to produce the bonus commerce. Not sure how much
      corruption is reduced, but it isn't by that much.
      Expansionist Civs start with an extra unit, the Scout, which has 2 movement
      points. Early in the game this is a good advantage to exploration. Barbarian
      villages produce more money when captured. Goodie Huts are more profitable 
      and never produce Barbarians. Scouts are the real treat here since you can 
      avoid building Warriors for exploration purposes, your scout works just fine.
      Both of their bonuses are for the beginning of the game ONLY. Scouts are
      decent, but only until you get Horsemen. And getting bonuses from Goodie Huts
      is nice, but only if there are Goodie Huts to find.
      Industrious Civs have faster workers (2x, this bonus stacks with Replaceable
      Parts for a 4x bonus) and the "city" squares produce extra shields when the
      population goes over 6.  My personal favorite as the super-fast workers are
      nice, you'll be able to expand your empire at a faster rate with fast workers
      building roads everywhere. Why not just take a non-industrious civ and simply
      build MORE workers? Well, instead of having to spend shields and population
      building extra workers, you could use those same shields and pop to build
        Note:  Industrial Workers seem to work slower while in Anarchy.
               Captured Workers do not get the Industrial Bonus. This holds true
               if you aren't Industrial yourself and capture Workers from an 
               Industrial Civ.
      Militaristic Civ's units advance in rank faster (from veteran to elite) and
      produce more Leaders. Barracks and Coastal Fortresses are cheaper to produce
      by 50%. My second favorite on the list for the simple reason that you get
      more leaders, which allows you to build armies quicker, more often and to
      better effect. Also with a lot of leaders so you can VERY QUICKLY build any
      wonder you like.
        Tip:  The first leader you get should ALWAYS create an Army. This army then
              needs to immediately attack an enemy Civ's unit. Why? There are
              two Small Wonders that require having a Victorious Army, while one
              requires that you have three armies.
              Heroic Epic      - Must have had a victorious army
              Military Academy - Must have had a victorious army
              Pentagon         - Have three armies on the map at one time
      Religious Civs get Temples and Cathedrals at half cost. That is it takes
      half the Production Shields to build them. They also change governments
      quicker having only 1 turn at Anarchy.
      Scientific Civs get a similar bonus for Research Buildings: Libraries,
      Universities and Research Labs. At the start of each Age, scientific Civs
      get an extra Tech for free.
    A Quick Reference Table:
      Civ       Traits    Free Techs                         Special Unit (Replace)
      -------   --------  ---------------------------------  ----------------------
      America   Ind, Exp  Masonry, Pottery                   F-15     (Jet Fighter)
      Aztec     Mil, Rel  Warrior Code, Ceremonial Burial    Jaguar Warrior  (War.)
      Babylon   Rel, Sci  Ceremonial Burial, Bronze Working  Bowman        (Archer)
      Britain   Exp, Com  Pottery, Alphabet                  Man-o-War    (Frigate)
      China     Ind, Sci  Masonry, Bronze Working            Rider         (Knight)
      Egypt     Ind, Rel  Masonry, Ceremonial Burial         War Chariots (Chariot)
      France    Ind, Com  Masonry, Alphabet                  Musketeer  (Musketman)
      Germany   Mil, Sci  Warrior Code, Bronze Working       Panzer          (Tank)
      Greece    Sci, Com  Bronze Working, Alphabet           Hoplite     (Spearmen)
      India     Rel, Com  Ceremonial Burial, Alphabet        War Elephants (Knight)
      Iroquois  Exp, Rel  Pottery, Ceremonial Burial         M. Warrior  (Horseman)
      Japan     Mil, Rel  Warrior Code, Ceremonial Burial    Samurai       (Knight)
      Persia    Mil, Com  Warrior Code, Alphabet             Immortals  (Swordsmen)
      Rome      Ind, Mil  Masonry, Warrior Code              Legionnary (Swordsmen)
      Russia    Exp, Sci  Pottery, Bronze Working            Cossack      (Cavalry)
      Zulus     Mil, Exp  Pottery, Warrior Code              Impi        (Spearman)
    The Special Units:
      These are roughly sorted by date, or when the Civ would have access to the
      special unit.  I figure the best special units are the ones you get early in
      the game to give you an advantage over your enemies. Gaining a special unit
      late in the game is almost useless.
        Jaguar Warrior - Aztec - One of only 2 special units that can be built
          (1-1-2)                immediately, and this one is a doozy. Consider
                                 this, there are 2 units at the beginning of the
                                 game with 2 movement points, the other being the
                                 scout, and the Jaguar Warrior is the only one of
                                 those that can attack. Use mostly for exploration
                                 purposes. The Jaguar has the same stats as the
                                 Chariot, but costs half as much to build. Use the
                                 Jaguar to map out the world quickly, then have
                                 settlers fill it in with cities.
                                 Because of this unit, the Aztecs (a Religious,
                                 Militaristic Civ) can also be seen as a half-
                                 Expansionist. They get a unit comparable to the
                                 scout (and can defend itself, unlike the scout).
                                 The Aztecs can thus probably explore the map
                                 quicker than anyone else.
        Hoplite        - Greek - The only other unit that can be immediately built,
          (1-3-1)                even though it requires Bronze Working (one of
                                 the techs the Greeks start with, conveniently
                                 enough). The Hoplite is a Spearman with +1 to
                                 Defense, giving him the same stats as the
                                 medieval Pikeman. This gives the Greeks the first
                                 Age and the first half of the second age to have
                                 the BEST DEFENSIVE UNIT in the game. Plus, 
                                 Hoplites are cheaper to produce than Pikemen, so
                                 even when you get Feudalism, you will still want
                                 Hoplites. Oh, and Hoplites don't require Iron
                                 either (Pikemen do).
        Impi            - Zulu - The Impi is a Spearman with +1 to movement.  This
          (1-2-2)                gives you a Fast unit without having to find
                                 horses (nice). However, Zulus don't start with
                                 Bronze Working, so they would need to get that
                                 first to get their special unit, which could take
                                 40 turns. If possible, trade to get Bronze 
                                 Working. Impi are the only units with 2 movement
                                 that can DEFEND until Knights, so use them
                                 accordingly. Send in armies of Horsemen, guarded
                                 by your Impis. They'll move in SWIFLY, but
                                 SECURELY with the same defensive rating of
                                 Spearmen. With Impis and Horsemen together, you
                                 can actually Blitz in the ancient era!
                                 Plus, just like all multi-movement units, the Impi
                                 will retreat if they are losing a battle, a nice
                                 bonus for a spearman to have.
        War Chariots   - Egypt - The War Chariot is a chariot with +1 attack, 
          (2-1-2)                giving them the same ratings as a Horseman. They
                                 also don't start with the Wheel and would need to
                                 research it. Also, unlike the Impi, chariots
                                 require Horses. The advantage? Horsemen cost
                                 twice as many shield to build as War Chariots,
                                 making them cheap and fast attack units. Difficult
                                 to mount a successful invasion with due to the
                                 time to research the Wheel; most enemies will have
                                 spearmen by that point.
                                 However, like other "wheeled" units, the War
                                 Chariot cannot enter jungles or mountain areas.
        Bowman    - Babylonian - An archer with +1 to their defense. Requires one
          (2-2-1)                level of tech to get (Warrior Code), which could
                                 take up to 40 turns to get (or you could trade
                                 for it, or find it in a Goodie Hut). If, and only
                                 if, you get the Bowmen early enough, you can use
                                 them to good effect, they're the best early unit
                                 in the game. However, they become ineffective
                                 after Iron Working.
        Mounted Warrior - Iroquois - A Horseman with +1 to attack strength.  This
          (3-1-2)                Makes them the most deadly fast attack unit until
                                 the Knight, but still a difficult unit to use
                                 without infantry support (Spearmen, for example).
                                 Same attack as the Swordsmen, but with the benefit
                                 of being a fast unit. Requires horses to build.
        Legionnary    - Romans - My personal favorite special unit, the Legionnary
          (3-3-1)                is a Swordsman with +1 defense. With 3 attack
                                 power and 3 defensive power, the Legionnary is a
                                 good, all-around fighting force. They can be used
                                 by themselves to attack other nations, without
                                 the benefit of a special "defensive" unit to
                                 protect them. Outclassed only when the Knight
                                 appears, the Legionnary will terrorize the ancient
                                 world. The only limit on legionnaries is that it
                                 requires Iron Working to build, and Iron in your
                                 resource box.
        Immortals    - Perians - The Immortals are also Swordsmen, but they get +1
          (4-2-1)                to attack power rather than defense. This makes
                                 them just as strong on offense as a Knight
                                 (although without the defense or the movement).
                                 Since you get Immortals an entire AGE before
                                 Knights appear, there is plenty of time to smite
                                 your foes with them... So long as you get Iron
                                 Working early enough, and have a source of Iron,
                                 that is.
        War Elephant - Indians - Essentially War Elephants are knights that require
          (4-3-2)                NO resources to build (normally you need Iron AND
                                 Horses). Great advantage if you don't HAVE Iron
                                 or Horses, not so good if you DO. They have no
                                 other bonuses, their attack and defense are
                                 identical to the Knight.
        Samurai     - Japanese - Another Knight replacement, this one doesn't 
          (4-4-2)                require horses (but still needs iron). Apparently
                                 Samurai can run quite well. The Samurai gets +1
                                 to his Defense. A good mix of offense and defense,
                                 in fact he'll be the best defender of the age,
                                 just as good as Musketmen even. Although Gunpowder
                                 is close to being researched at this time, Samurai
                                 still don't need Saltpeter, and unlike Musketmen,
                                 can also attack. (The Samurai is SLIGHTLY more
                                 expensive to build than a Musketman)
        Rider        - Chinese - The final Knight replacement, this one gets +1 to
          (4-3-3)                its movement, giving it the range of the Cavalry.
                                 Also, because of its 3 movement points, the Rider
                                 exerts a "zone of control" and gains an attack of
                                 opportunity automatically whenever an enemy unit
                                 moves by. The Rider still requires both Iron and
                                 Horses, but until Military Tradition and the
                                 Cavalary come around, there isn't anything faster
                                 or stronger.
        Man-O-War    - English - A replacement for the Frigate, the Man-O-War gets
          (3-2-4)                +1 to its attack power. I don't see the point
                                 here, for two reasons. One, naval units aren't
                                 all that useful in the game. (Although there are
                                 a great many things you can do IN SUPPORT of land
                                 units with naval units) Two, frigates give way to
                                 Ironclads within only a few advances, thus the
                                 Man-O-War won't be the king of the seas for long.
        Cossack      - Russian - A Cavalry with +1 to its defensive power. The
          (6-4-3)                extra point of defense is nice, but not too
                                 terribly useful. It amounts to the same difference
                                 between Pikemen and Musketmen. Cossacks will
                                 still lose to Cavalry most the time, and even
                                 Knights half the time (assuming no defensive
                                 bonuses, such as fortifications and hills). Still,
                                 were your Cossack to get in trouble in enemy
                                 territory, he could FIND a mountain to fortify on,
                                 he'd be that much safer than a similar Cavalry.
        Musketeer     - French - A musketman with +1 to attack power. Probably the
          (3-4-1)                second most useless unit in the game (I don't much
                                 care for the Man-O-War either). Despite having
                                 +1 attack power, the musketeer is STILL a
                                 defensive unit, and attacking with a defensive
                                 unit is fairly silly. The only real positive here
                                 is that if your cities are attacked, you could
                                 counter-attack with better power than if you had
                                 just a musketman. (Although I would still just
                                 wait until a Knight or Cavalry came by to clear
                                 the enemy out)
        Panzer       - Germans - The Panzer is a Tank with a +1 movement rate.
          (16-8-3)               The great drawback of normal tanks (as compared
                                 with cavalry) is the lessened movement. The
                                 Panzer fixes this (at least for the Germans).
                                 This unit is ideally suited for the same purpose
                                 as its historical equivalent, go in there and
                                 Blitz the enemy. Slip AROUND the enemy strongholds
                                 at the border to the soft interior. Pick off
                                 the weaker cities, workers; then destroy their
                                 road network.
        F-15        - American - Like a Jet Fighter, but with +2 to bombard, and
          (8-4-1/6)              the "precision" bombing feature (doesn't work
          (4b 2r)                unless you have the patch). Also, building an
                                 F-15 may trigger a Golden Age for the Americans.
                                 As for its bombard ability, it also gets a +1 to
                                 its rate of fire, giving it essentially an extra
                                 bombard attack.
    2.1  Civ-Specific Strategies:
      Babylon, the Cultural Warriors
        Babylon is the only Civ that gets both Religious and Scientific. Why is
        this significant? Because those 2 bonuses each make buildings cheaper to
        build. Religious and Scientific buildings all create culture... in other
        words, Babylon will be the center of the world's culture!
        So, instead of going to war with someone, go build a city by their empire,
        and quickly build in a Temple, Library, University, Cathedral. With a high
        culture rating empire-wide, you should quite easily start to siphon off
        their cities.
        Also consider reversing the order and go: Library, Temple, University,
        Cathedral.  With Library first, your Culture rating will be higher.  And
        after 1000 years, when culture rates for buildings double, your libraries
        will be producing 6 culture, while temples would only be at 4.
    3. Building an Empire
    The Ancient Era:
      Decision 1:  Where to build your capitol?
      Answer 1:    Where you start. No matter what resources are just a few too
                   many squares away, it isn't worth the time to move out and build
                   your capitol late. Even moving out just ONE square puts your
                   empire behind everyone else, and with a smart enemy AI against
                   you, you'll need every turn to your advantage.
                   Of course, if you're started in a COMPLETELY terrible area
                   (such as a Tundra), you may just want to quit and start over.
      Decision 1B: Should I set my Worker to Automatic?
      Answer 1B:   No, unless you really don't like doing it yourself. Automation
                   is all well and good, but doesn't offer the control of doing it
                   There are some very useful Automation commands you can give:
                     A       - Automate Worker, he'll work on what the CPU wants
                     SHIFT+A - Automate Worker; Worker won't alter pre-existing 
                               improvements (so he won't irrigate your mined 
                     SHIFT+I - Automate Worker at THIS city, only. The Worker will 
                               stay with the nearby city and improve it.
                     SHIFT+P - Automate Worker; Worker will automatically clean up 
                               POLLUTION. This is the single most useful automation 
                               in the game. Once you start getting pollution, set 
                               at least SIX (more if you have a larger empire) 
                               workers to pollution control. I doubt that you'll 
                               get 6 pollutions appearing in a turn, however, the 
                               workers can gang up on a single pollution and get 
                               rid of it much quicker.
                               Note:  If there is no pollution around, this command
                                      won't work. If an already automated settler's
                                      turn comes up and there is no more pollution,
                                      the automation ends.
                     SHIFT+F - Automate Worker; Worker will ONLY clear forests. 
                               Not sure about the value of this one.
                     SHIFT+J - Automate Worker; Worker will ONLY clear jungles. 
                               Better than forests, as jungles take more time and 
                               more workers.
      Once you have your capitol built, you must decide what to do next. This 
      depends on who you are playing:
        Expansionist - Send out your Scout to explore the area. Build one warrior
                       to defend your empire (Spearmen if you have them), then next
                       build a Settler to found new cities.
        Scientific   - Build 2 warriors for exploration, then one Spearman for
        Everyone Else - Build several Warriors, 2 to explore and one to defend your
                        city. (Or a Spearman if you can)
        Note:  I only recommend ONE warrior for city defense at the beginning for
               several reasons. First, your only enemy at the moment is the
               Barbarian tribes. Barbarians are weak, and probably will lose to
               your warrior. Even then I've never had Barbarians attack my capitol.
               Second, you don't want warriors for defense, you want them only to
               explore (and if you have Scouts, you don't want them at all).
               Essentially the defending Warrior is a placeholder unit, staying
               home until a Spearman is ready, that is, until Bronze Working is
        Tip:   Make sure that your cities are defended by your 2 best defensive
               units at ALL times.
        So, my capitol build queue will often look like this:
        Basically you want to be building a Settler WHENEVER you have 3 or more
        population points. If you have good FOOD (Grain or Cows) in your city, then
        you might want to build more settlers.
      Decision 2:  What should your Worker be doing? Irrigation, Roads or Mines?
      Answer 2:    Mines and Roads, don't irrigate. This is a general rule, here
                   are some specifics (and some reasoning).
                   Grassland (minerals, or without) - Mine with Road
                   Plains - Irrigate with Road
                   Desert - Irrigate with Road
                   Hills, Mountains - Mine with Road
                   Tundra - Plant Forest (not available until Engineering)
                   Why? While under a despotism, no piece of land can produce more
                   than 2 food. Grassland start with 2 food, so irrigation has no
                   benefit. However, if you add a MINE to the land, then it 
                   produces +1 production. Also, due to population limits (your
                   city won't grow past 6 until Aqueducts, or a River; nor past
                   12 without a Hospital) your cities don't need the extra food at
                   ALL. So, mine those grasses!
                   There is, of course, an exception. Cities that don't have much
                   food (either because they're in a desert, tundra, or too close
                   to the mountains) need irrigations to keep them going.
                   Also, cities that have many High Production squares (i.e. a
                   mountain square with Gems or Gold) probably need irrigation on
                   their grasslands.
      Tip:  Mine all grasslands while despotism. Mine all grasslands with Minerals 
            until that city gets a Factory, then reduce production/pollution by 
            irrigating those mined areas.
            ALTERNATIVELY, production produces pollution, but then so does 
            population. You could keep the extra production, thus limiting the size
            of the city. Then wait until you can build Mass Transits to irrigate
            the land to grow the city.
            Generally I try to avoid building Hospitals until I am close to getting
            Mass Transits.  I don't much care for Global Warming.
            Remember that population increases your Civ Score.
        As soon as you get any cities built, have your Worker run a road out to
        that city to keep a network of cities going. If possible, have the Worker
        build the road out BEFORE you build the city. This isn't so important right
        now at the beginning of the game, but becomes more so when you need access
        to resources (such as Iron) to build specific units (such as Pikemen) in
        that new city.
        Your new city's Queue should be a little different:
          Warrior (Spearman, if possible)
          Warrior (Spearman)
        Thus your second city is geared to Expand the Empire.
        Once you get several cities, you can cut back growth a bit and have your
        new cities work more on buildings than settlers...
          Spearman (switch with Temple if still in Despotism, or at war)
      Decision 2B:  Suppose I build nothing but Workers and Settlers to EXPAND THE
                    EMPIRE quickly?
      Answer 2B:    Always a popular strategy, building NOTHING but cities.  There
                    are many good reasons to try this method.
                      1.  There is only so much land, and many competitors.
                      2.  Strategic Resources belong to whomever finds them and
                          takes them.  The same is true for Luxuries.  Your long
                          term success in Civ3 depends on getting these items, and
                          if you don't have to trade for them, you can sell them.
                      3.  High populations = good scores.
                    There are several drawbacks as well:
                      1.  Low defense.  Your empire is now far flung with no
                          centralized military, or particularly strong city (in
                          terms of production, science, or well, anything).
                          Almost any Civ out there could attack you, and probably
                      2.  Slow tech advancement and low taxes.
                      3.  No Culture!  Ancient Culture adds up better than Modern
                          Culture because you have more time in the ancient world.
                          A temple built in 3000 BC will VERY soon have 4 culture,
                          where a temple built in 1000 AD will have 4 just before
                          the end of the game.
                    I don't really like the TOTAL EXPANSION method. I'll tend to
                    build a lot of cities faster than the CPU, but not to the
                    severity that I'm ignoring civil improvements (Libraries,
                    Temples, etc.) and Wonders.
      Decision 3:  What should you be researching?
      Answer 3:    Tough call, especially since all the Civs start with different
                   initial techs.
                   Consider this: You need to get the Special Resources (iron,
                   horses, etc.), so you may want to research with that in mind.
                   For example, take the Wheel first to find horses, then get
                   Iron Working to find iron. Once you spot the resource, 
                   immediately send out a settler to claim that land for your
                     Tip:  Someone else get to the resource first? Well, if they
                           didn't build on TOP of the resource, there is a way
                           to get it back non-violently. Send a settler to build
                           a city RIGHT NEXT TO the resource. Then engage in some
                           cultural warfare. Build the temple, library and any
                           other cultural building you can get.
                           When your city's Total Culture is greater than the
                           other Civ's city, your city gets the terrain square and
                           the special resource as well.
                           Remember, that this works in reverse as well, and that
                           the enemy Civ's could do the exact same thing to you.
                           Also, if the enemy city's culture ever exceeds yours
                           (say, they caught up by building a wonder), then they
                           take the resource back.
                   If you are a Scientific Civ, you need to get Literature so you
                   can start building your Cheap Libraries. (Check the Big Picture,
                   or the Science Adviser to plot a path to the appropriate tech
                   that you want. If you want to research Literature, but can't
                   get it right now, on the science adviser screen, click 
                   Literature, and your Adviser will get all the techs needed to
                   get it)
                   Good Early Techs:  The Wheel/Horseback Riding (to find horses)
                                      Iron Working (to find Iron, and build armies)
                                      Code of Laws (courthouse)
                                      Literature (library, Great Library)
                                      Monarchy (so much better than Despotism)
                   Remember that you CAN trade for techs that you don't have, as
                   well as gaining them through the Great Library (if you get it).
        The Empire should now be set up mostly to manufacture Settlers to expand
        its borders. Typically only the first few cities I build are required to
        continually build settlers (and even then, they might only build 2 settlers
        before switching to Cultural improvements). This is because once you get
        enough cities, the empire can expand much more easily.
        Here is a VERY basic run-through of what I'm talking about (assume that
        I also build in military units):
          City 1 -- > Settler    City 1 -- > Settler     City 1 -- > Temple
                                 City 2 -- > Settler     City 2 -- > Settler
                                                         City 3 -- > Settler
                                                         City 4 -- > Settler
          City 1 -- > Settler    City 1 -- > Wonder
          City 2 -- > Temple     City 2 -- > Settler
          City 3 -- > Settler    City 3 -- > Temple
          City 4 -- > Settler    City 4 -- > Temple
          City 5 -- > Settler    City 5 -- > Settler
          City 6 -- > Settler     etc...
          City 7 -- > Settler
        Follow this for a while and you'll expand VERY quickly. I generally stop
        doing this once I get Literture, then I build libraries in my Core Cities
        (the oldest ones). All frontier cities continue to build settlers to expand
        the empire, of course.
      Decision 4:  When should I go to war with my annoying neighbors?
      Answer 4:    Rarely, and only when you can win. In general, the best time to
                   attack your enemies is when you have a superiority in some way.
                   What you need is one of the following:
                     Better Units - either through superior Tech, or Special Units
                                    (such as the Persian Immortals, or the Roman
                     More Units   - Try to build a horde of horsemen. Not too
                                    advanced, and will lose more often than not, 
                                    but, hey, you have enough forces to win in the 
                     A Clear Tactical Advantage - Such as a Civ from another
                                    continent that built a few cities on your
                                    continent. This way you can attack their cities
                                    and they can't get reinforcements in to attack
                                    you before their cities are taken.
                   This brings up another point, researching specific techs with
                   war in mind. For example, while playing as the Persians, the
                   first tech I got was Iron Working so that I could build
                   Immortals. In the Ancient Era, there is NO better unit than the
                   Immortals, in fact, they don't become obsolete until the Knight!
                   If you can get Iron Working by 3000 BC, that should give you
                   3000 years of military superiority. The same applies to all
                   Civs that have early Special Units, such as the Romans.
                   (For more information, check out the previous section, 
                   "The Civs," or the later section, "War, What Is It Good For?")
      Decision 5:  When should I switch governments? (from Despotism to Monarchy,
                   or even straight to Republic)
      Answer 5:    If you're a Religious Civ then it truly doesn't matter when you
                   switch. Religious Civs switch governments near instantly.
                     Tip:  Regardless, I always switch governments JUST BEFORE the
                           turn ends. This avoids any civil disorder on the
                           immediate turn, and lessens its effects overall.
                   If you're NOT religious, try to get to Monarchy quickly, but
                   don't go out of your way to research Monarchy at the expense of
                   other better Techs (Literature comes to mind). As soon as you
                   get a better government, you need to take stock of your empire
                   to decide if the time is right to switch.
                   When NOT to switch:
                     If you're within a few turns of producing a Wonder OR
                     If the enemy is only a few turns behind you in producing a
                     When you're at war. (you lose all production while in Anarchy)
                     If you're in a Land Rush battle with another Civ. Even a
                     lapse of a few turns could let the enemy get all the good
    The Middle Ages:
      Decision 6:  Should I go straight for Knights? Take over the world?
      Answer 6:    Yes. The single best tactical advantage in the game comes when
                   the first Civ discovers Chivalry. Even better is if you can get
                   Cavalry before other Civs get their first Knights!
    The Industrial Age:
    The Modern Era:
      Convert all captured workers into population, then if you are a Despotism,
      turn those workers into improvements by Force Labor.
      Special Resources CAN be depleted, but this is a random effect, not caused
      by overuse. Example, I had 2 sources of Iron, one I had had for many years,
      one just added to the road network. Well, the one I just barely got 
      disappeared within a few turns, while the other Iron stayed with me until
      the end. (Conversely, Special Resources can APPEAR as well, but this is FAR
      less likely)
      Captured Cities can REVERT back to their original owner, based on the rules
      of Cultural Conquest. Thus if you capture a city under Despotism, you may
      want to Force Labor the citizens to death. If you do this to clean out the
      population (down to 1), then let it grow again (such that the new citizen
      is from YOUR nation's culture), Force Labor one last time to get rid of the
      foreigner. This is less likely in the later patches.
    4. Culture
      The base values used to determine the chance of city flipping are as follows:
      a) The number of foreign nationals in the city in question (resisters are
      counted twice), and b) The number of the 21-tile city-radius squares of the
      city in question that fall inside your cultural borders.
    5. Diplomacy
      You can trade for pretty much anything in Civ III, trouble is, is the trade
      worth it to you?  Remember these few concepts:
        1. Nothing is free, everything has a cost.
        2. Every diplomatic move should be based on something more, don't trade on
           a whim. (the CPU doesn't)
        3. Consider the value of what you have, don't sell it for less than it is
      Let's start at the beginning. NOTHING IS FREE AND EVERYTHING HAS A COST.
      This just means that there is no free ride here, you won't get everything
      you want. Consider this, you want Rome's World Map, but don't want them to
      have yours (a sensible precaution, see the section on "War, What is it Good
      For?"). You might think it worthwhile to give them a mere 50 gold, while they
      want 3 of your better techs.
        Note:  You can't trade techs that they can't currently research. In other
               words, if you are in the Modern Era, and they're still mired in the
               middle ages, you can't give them Fission.
      Also, even if you do get a great deal, there may be political costs involved.
      Suppose you blackmail England into giving you one of their cities. ("Give
      me 'New London' or else!") They may give in to your demand and hand over the
      city, but their attitude towards you will shift. They'll be more likely to
      attack you in the future, and less likely to help you.
      Only engage in diplomacy when you need to; EVERY DIPLOMATIC MOVE SHOULD BE
      means that you should avoid "trolling" for a deal. Only trade away your
      extra spice, for example, when you need to get something, say, their newly
      updated World Map. Also consider the consequences of what you are trading.
      If the CPU feels that you are getting a way too good deal (even if they
      accept it) there are negative political consequences, namely that they don't
      like you as much.
        Note:  Unconfirmed, but when I create a large number of deals, I seem to
               get a negative reputation as a "crafty" ruler. As near as I can tell
               this makes other Civs start their trading sessions by offering me
               worse deals than usual.
      Tech Trading:
        The Value of tech, if you choose to buy or sell it, depends upon how many
        other Civs have that tech. For example, if you are selling Music Theory to
        the ONLY Civ that doesn't have it, they won't pay much for it. However, if
        you are the FIRST Civ to get Music Theory, and decide to sell it, you'll
        get much more for it.
        So, if you are going to sell your techs, try to sell first to the richest
        Civ out there. If you need an idea of what the tech is worth, ask them what
        they are willing to deal for it (by first placing the tech in your side of
        the deal, then asking what they're willing to pay for it). Once that is 
        done, then try increasing the deal. So long as they are willing to buy it,
        the deal is good.
          Tip:  Selling your excess techs is a neat alternative to having a tax
                rate. Consider, if you set your Science to 100%, you make no money,
                right? However, you should be creating new techs faster than the
                other Civs. So, sell out your excess techs for cash. Then use that
                cash to create new techs. Repeat.
                Remember that you can't research tech faster than 4 turns per tech.
                Try lowering the science rate, if you want. You may find that your
                science researches no faster at 100% than 40%. (see the "Science"
                section below for more details)
                Also, try to sell your techs to ALL the Civs out there (unless you
                plan to go to war with them, or think they might attack you),
                starting with the richest and going to the poorest.
      Resource Selling:
        On my last game, my major strategy was to acquire more Strategic
        Resources than the other players. Specifically, I got a near total
        monopoly in Horses, and had at least 2 of every other resource. This
        allowed me to sell these resources at VERY favorable rates, especially
        when the other Civs started wanting to build Cavalry.  They needed my
        Cavalry, and I wanted their money.  I managed to get 20-40 gold per turn
        from 4 different Civs.
          War Note:  Civs that can't afford to pay their debts every turn may
                     declare war on you as an alternative to bankruptcy.  Odd,
                     but true.
    6. Dealing with Corruption
      There are a surprising few ways to deal with Massive Corruption that occurs
      in Huge maps (or even large empires on the smaller maps).
      Each map size has an "Optimal City Number."  Once you build more cities than
      that number, you get more corruption in EVERY city.
        Tiny        12
        Small       14
        Standard    16
        Large       24
        Huge        32
      That isn't to say you shouldn't build more cities than the "optimal," just
      that you'll have to deal with the consequences.
      Difficulty level also influences corruption.  Under the easy options, more
      cities can be at "optimal," under the harder options, fewer.
        Chieftan     100%
        Warlord       95%
        Regent        90%
        Monarch       85%
        Emperor       80%
        Deity         70%
      So, logically, a Deity Huge map would have only 22 optimal cities (32 * .7).
    Reducing Corruption Tactics
      1.  Courthouses in EVERY city.  Generally I build Courthouses immediately
          after Libraries.  UNLESS that city has 95% corruption (i.e. you can SEE
          only 1 production shield, and 20 red corrupted shields), then I build
          them much sooner.
      2.  Roads.  Cities hooked up to the roads have less corruption.
      3.  Government.  Democracy is best.  Don't even TRY Communism.  Although it
          "shares" corruption, this rarely is helpful, usually just pulling your
          good cities down to the level of your bad cities.
      4.  We Love the King Day!  Happy people are productive people, so do what it
          takes to make everyone happy.  Raise the Luxury Rate, find new Luxury
          Goods, or purchase Luxuries from other Empires.
            Tip:  There are ways to STEAL luxuries and resources from other Civs.
                  This ONLY works if their city is relatively new. Their culture
                  can't have expanded out more than once (to the 2 square radius).
                  Build a city RIGHT NEXT TO their city, as close as possible to
                  the resource.  Rush-build cultural buildings until your culture
                  overwhelms the enemy's and you gain the resource.
                    .  .  .       .  Empty land
                    .  X  R       X  Enemy City
                    .  .  .       R  Resource
                    .  .  .  .  .      .  Empty land
                    .  X  R  Y  .      X  Enemy City
                    .  .  .  .  .      R  Resource
                                       Y  Your new city
                  This is a similar idea to the "Culture Bomb."
          Remember, Marketplaces and Banks each increase the Luxury rate in that
          city by 50% (just as they do with Taxes).
          To get a "We Love the King Day" your city needs at least 6 people in it,
          and they must all be HAPPY people.
      5.  Palace position.  The closer a city is to your palace, the less
          corruption it experiences.  Thus, if your palace is on the FAR SIDE of
          the empire, you should consider moving it.  However, you might want to
          think about where to place your Forbidden Palace...
      6.  The Forbidden Palace works just like a Palace, reducing corruption to all
          the cities that surround it.
          What I like to do with the Forbidden Palace is to build it near my
          original Palace.  Find the center of your core cities, and build your
          Forbidden Palace there.  This may be wasteful for your cities on the
          frontier, and you might think it more efficient to build the Forbidden
          Palace there.  But I wouldn't.  I'd move the ACTUAL Palace out to the
          CENTER of the Frontier.  This way all your cities are close to a Palace
          of some kind.  And better still, should your empire expand further, you
          could still move the Palace outwards so your new cities could get the
            Tip:  A Leader can build the Palace instantly.  If you don't NEED to
                  use a Leader to build an Army (and you should only do THAT once),
                  or hurry a Wonder (you should only do that if another Civ is
                  close to beating you to the punch), then save that Leader and
                  start considering sites to build the Palace.
            p   x   x    x   x   x            x  Your Cities
                                              p  City with Palace
          x   x   x   x    x   x   x
            x   x   x    x   x   x
            p   x   x    x   x   x            x  Your Cities
                                              p  City with Palace
          x   f   f   x    x   x   x          f  Possible site for Forbidden Palace
            x   x   x    x   x   x
            x   x   x    x   x   x            x  Your Cities
                                              p  Possible site for Palace
          x   f   f   x    p   p   x          f  Possible site for Forbidden Palace
            x   x   x    x   x   x
      7.  (Patched games only)  Police Stations also reduce corruption, just like
    7. Science
      Early in the game you want as much science as possible. In fact, the first
      thing you do when you play the game is set the science rate as high as 
      possible. I usually set it as high as I can while still making some money.
      Later when I have money I set it higher to get tech faster.
      The fastest you'll ever gain a tech is in 4 turns. The slowest is 40 turns
      (pre-patch is 32). Therefore if you learn nothing else from this guide, learn
      this: Don't always assume that a high Science Rate will get you the best
      results. Sometimes as low as 20% science will still get you the tech you want
      just as fast as 100%.
        Tip:  Whenever your next advance gets to 1 or 2 turns left, go to the
              Domestic Adviser and play with the tax/science rate. Try to raise
              taxes / lower science and see if the advance goes further out. If it 
              is still 1 or 2 turns away (i.e. it hasn't changed), then keep the 
              new tax rate. This way you'll get more money and won't lose any 
      Bear in mind that you don't have to research for tech yourself, you could
      just buy it from other Civs. Once you have the new tech, you could then turn
      around and sell it to all the other Civs in the world. You may not be able
      to make a profit on this, however, as the price people are willing to pay
      is reduced when more people know the tech. I suppose everyone likes 
      "exclusive rights."
        Tip:  If you're REALLY low on money, but still need to keep up in Science,
              you could do BURSTS of taxes.  Temporarily set the Tax Rate to 100%.
              Rake in the money for a turn, then turn Taxes down as much as you can
              bear.  Don't worry about losing money, so long as you can afford to
              get the next advance.
              Remember to follow the above Tip as well.  When the advance gets to
              2 or 1 turns remaining, check to see if you can recover some taxes
              from the science rate.
    8. Wonders of the World
      I have attempted to rate (and explain) the wonders, and then sorted them
      according to when they should appear in your game (i.e. ancient wonders are
      listed first, modern ones last).  The rating of wonders goes from A (the
      best) to F (the worst). It is pointless to rate Small Wonders in this manner
      since there is no competition to build them. Once you are able, you can build
      them whenever and wherever you want.
      Rating takes into account several things: Usefulness of Wonder, Length of
      Usefulness, Cost to Build and Culture Rating.
      Wonders are destroyed only if their city is RAZED to the ground.
      Beneath the wonder I list a few quick stats, the cost to build, the base
      culture score (remember that culture increases over time), the requirement(s)
      needed to build and the tech that makes the wonder obsolete.
        Note:  There is no way to increase the speed of construction on a wonder,
               besides increasing the production rate of the city.  You don't get
               the shields back when you disband a unit, and cutting down a forest
               won't get you the 10 extra shields either.
               Leaders can instantly finish wonders for you.
        Tip:  Keep in mind that you cannot switch production from a City 
              Improvement to a Wonder, but you CAN switch from one wonder to 
              another. Also, you can switch production from the Palace to a Wonder. 
              So, if you have no wonders to build, currently, but know that a good 
              wonder is just around the bend, have one of your cities (not your 
              capitol, for obvious reasons) start on the Palace. When you get the 
              new Tech and can build the new Wonder, switch production.
        Tip:  In addition to the above strategy, I'd also do this:  When you are
              building a less-than-stellar wonder, and a better one comes along,
              switch production to the better wonder. Why build a Lighthouse, when
              you can build Copernicus?
      Here are the ratings:
        A - Don't miss this wonder!
        B - Try not to miss this, but don't worry if you do.
        C - Get it if you have nothing better to do.
        D - Get ONLY if you're bored.
        F - Probably should skip this one.
    Large Wonders:
        The Colossus - B - Produces one extra COMMERCE in all squares that produce
                           COMMERCE. Thus, a size 6 city with a Colossus would
          Cost: 200        theoretically produce 7 more commerce than before. A
          Culture: 3       size 12 would produce 13 more, etc. This effect is nice
          Req: Bronze Wrk  by itself, especially at the beginning of the game when
          Obs: Flight      you need bonuses to research. Combine it with Libraries,
                           Marketplaces and so forth and the bonuses start to add
                           To really get the effects from it, you need to wait and
                           build Copernicus and Newton in the same city. With a
                           library and a University the bonus becomes incredible.
                           By my inexpert calculations you can get over 100 extra
                           science points by having the Colossus in this situation.
                           Colossus is rated a B because its effects span the
                           better portion of 3 ages. Downsides are that it effects
                           one city, and it's difficult to build wonders at the
                           start of the game.
                           Usefulness: C
                           Length:     A
                           Cost:       B
                           Culture:    C
        Great Library - A - Do NOT pass this one up, whatever you do. If you
                           never even use it, simply keeping it out of the hands of
          Cost: 400        your rivals is reason enough. Any tech that is known to
          Culture: 6       any 2 other Civs is automatically given to the owner
          Req: Lit.        of the Great Library.
          Obs: Education
                           This also brings up the Lazy Library strategy to getting
                           new Tech. Once you have the Library, it works for a
                           good long time, getting you all the techs in the world.
                           So, just sit back, relax and wait for Techs to come to
                           you. This is where the Lazy Library part comes in...
                           drop your research rate to nothing and let the other
                           Civs do your research for you. You won't get the
                           latest and greatest techs, but you will eventually
                           get them.
                           The Great Library's Usefulness makes up for its other
                           deficiencies, such as its high cost and fairly short
                           Usefulness: A
                           Length:     C
                           Cost:       C
                           Culture:    A
        Pyramids     - B - The Pyramids are a decent wonder, made better by the
                           fact that they never go obsolete. For every city on the
          Cost: 400        same continent as the Pyramids, it gives them a free
          Culture: 4       Granary. Granaries work to double the population growth
          Req: Masonry     by halving the food requirements for the city to grow.
          Obs: Never       Getting free Granaries in every city is quite the
                           bonus as Granaries have a cost of 60 shields and a
                           maintenance of 1. So, with a one time cost of 400 
                           shields, you save every future city 60 shields and your
                           empire 1 gold. The Pyramids "pay for themselves" after
                           only 7 cities.
                           That said, if you miss building the Pyramids, it's a
                           bummer, but isn't the end of the world.
                           Usefulness: B
                           Length:     A
                           Cost:       C
                           Culture:    B
        Great Lighthouse - D - The Great Lighthouse is not terribly useful,
                           especially on Pangaea and Continent maps. However, on
          Cost: 400        Archipeligo and other island intensive maps, up its
          Culture: 2       grade to a C. The Lighthouse allows your ships to
          Req: Map Making  leave the coast and enter the "sea" squares. You still
          Obs: Magnet.     can't safely travel on the "ocean" squares, however.
                           Also has the bonus effect of +1 movement for your ships.
                           Why do I think the Lighthouse is an F? First there is
                           the high cost to build. Instead of wasting time building
                           the lighthouse, you could be building more settlings,
                           armies, workers, etc. Its two main powers go from
                           useless to next to useless (unless you are on an island
                           intensive map); gaining access to sea squares
                           essentially only lets your ships go out one extra
                           square from land. The extra naval movement is nice, but
                           hardly necessary.
                           Usefulness: D
                           Length:     C
                           Cost:       C
                           Culture:    D
        Great Wall   - C - The Great Wall has 2 major effects, it doubles your
                           combat strength versus barbarians (it doesn't specify
          Cost: 200        whether you gain this bonus to offense, defense or
          Culture: 2       both) and also doubles the effect of city walls. Since
          Req: Constr.     city walls vanish when your cities grow above 6
          Obs: Metallurgy  population points, that isn't as useful as it appears.
                           As for its primary power, that against barbarians,
                           that too isn't too useful since barbarians die pretty
                           easily as it is.
                           Usefulness: C
                           Length:     C
                           Cost:       B
                           Culture:    D
        Hanging Gardens - B - The Hanging Gardens is a neat wonder, and are even
                           better the harder your difficulty level is. The Gardens
          Cost: 300        make 3 unhappy people content in the city that built it,
          Culture: 4       as well as 1 unhappy person per city in the rest of your
          Req: Pottery     empire.
          Obs: Steam P.
                           Consider the alternative to making unhappy people into
                           contented people, raising the "luxury" rate to 10-20%,
                           and you can easily see why this Wonder is useful.
                           Usefulness: B
                           Length:     B
                           Cost:       B
                           Culture:    B
        Oracle       - C - The Oracle doubles the effect of your temples, allowing
                           them to make 2 citizens content, rather than the usual
          Cost: 300        one.
          Culture: 4
          Req: Mysticism   The trouble with the Oracle is that it works just like
          Obs: Theology    the Hanging Gardens, but just a little worse. For
                           starters, it only works if your cities already have a
                           temple, the Gardens work on any city. Although the
                           cost and culture are about the same, the Oracle has a
                           shorter length of time as it is tied to Theology,
                           which you get an entire Age earlier.
                           Usefulness: B
                           Length:     D
                           Cost:       B
                           Culture:    B
        Adam Smith's Trade Co. - C - Not nearly as useful as its Civ II version,
                           this Adam Smith's only pays for city improvements that
          Cost: 600        deal with trade: Marketplace, Bank and Harbor. In a
          Culture: 3       city that has all three that is a bonus of 3 gold,
          Req: Economics   otherwise it is just a bonus of 2 gold per city per
          Obs: Never       turn.
                           The economics of this unit are OK, but they do add up
                           rapidly. Even in a modest empire of 10 cities, that is
                           20 gold saved per turn. This wonder never expires 
                           either, which is nice. If it didn't come late in the
                           middle ages, it would be a really useful wonder.
                           Usefulness: B
                           Length:     B
                           Cost:       D
                           Culture:    C
        Copernicus Observatory - A - Research is king in Civ III, and wonders that
                           increase research are wonderful. Copernicus has the same
          Cost: 400        effect as another later wonder, Newton's University, but
          Culture: 4       since it comes sooner it is rated higher. Copernicus
          Req: Astronomy   doubles the science rate in one city, preferably the
          Obs: Never       city that has the Colossus for a double bonus. Then
                           later add the Newton's University to this city for a
                           very good bonus, indeed. Also, don't skimp out on
                           Libraries and Universities just to build Wonders, or
                           you're science rate won't be what it could be.
                           Usefulness: A
                           Length:     B
                           Cost:       B
                           Culture:    B
        JS Bach's Cathedral - B - JS Bach makes war within a Democracy possible.
                           JS Bach makes 2 unhappy citizens in every one of your
          Cost: 600        cities on the continent content. In other words, it
          Culture: 6       works like the Hanging Gardens x2. As mentioned above
          Req: Music Th.   its effect is most appreciated during War Weariness
          Obs: Never       when your normally happy people are upset with your
                           prolonged military campaigns.
                           Bach has 2 main drawbacks: 1, it only works on one
                           continent, so if you are on islands it won't work so
                           well; and 2, it only makes unhappy people content. If
                           you don't have any unhappy people, it won't do anything.
                           (Think Regent difficulty and lower, their happiness is
                           greater than in the more difficult levels) Bach is much
                           more useful in Monarch or higher, but it is still useful
                           in all levels.
                           Usefulness: B
                           Length:     B
                           Cost:       C
                           Culture:    A
        Leonardo's Workshop - F - Don't get this one, unless you have a city with
                           high production and nothing else to build. Or you just
          Cost: 600        NEED to have all the wonders. In Civ II Leonardo was a
          Culture: 2       must-have, in Civ III, avoid it. What it does now is
          Req: Invention   to reduce the cost to Upgrade units in barracks.
          Obs: Never       However, it is usually better to disband old units and
                           build new units elsewhere.  Add to that a high cost,
                           low culture and a middling length and you get one crappy
                           Usefulness: F
                           Length:     C
                           Cost:       C
                           Culture:    D
        Magellan's Great Voyage - C - Magellan is certainly better than the 
                           lighthouse, if only because it will last until the end
          Cost: 400        of the game, however, only build it if you have no
          Culture: 3       better wonders to build.
          Req: Magnetism
          Obs: Never       Usefulness: C
                           Length:     C
                           Cost:       B
                           Culture:    C
        Newton's University - B - The same arguments apply here as they did to
                           Copernicus: Science is King! The Newton's University
          Cost: 400        gets some demerits for coming later than Copernicus,
          Culture: 6       even though they are essentially the same wonder.
          Req: Gravity
          Obs: Never       That said, if you can only build ONE of the 2, build
                           Newton. Why? Better Culture.
                           Usefulness: A
                           Length:     C
                           Cost:       B
                           Culture:    A
        Shakespeare's Theater - D - Shakespeare's primary effect, making 8 unhappy
                           people into content people is next to useless. No one
          Cost: 400        city needs that type of contentment, and if one does,
          Culture: 8       then the rest of your empire is likely falling apart!
          Req: F Artistry  That said, it does produce the BEST culture bonus in
          Obs: Never       the game, and if culture is your strategy to victory,
                           you may want this one anyway.
                           One interesting sidenote, I usually get the tech Free
                           Artistry AFTER going to the Industrial Age, which means
                           that I have much higher production than normal and can
                           produce Shakespeare at a record pace.
                           Usefulness: F
                           Length:     C
                           Cost:       B
                           Culture:    A
        Sun Tzu's Art of War - B - Or as it is more popularly known, "A Barracks in
                           Every City." And unlike in Civ II, this Sun Tzu never
          Cost: 600        goes out of style. This is a Must Have for any
          Culture: 2       militaristic Civ, or anyone who wants to save ONE gold
          Req: Feudalism   for every city with a barracks. And hey, having one less
          Obs: Never       thing to build means that you can build more things
                           quicker! That's 40 production shields that can go to
                           building that temple.
                           The major downside is that it only gives free barracks
                           to cities on the same continent. If you are on a world
                           with many islands, this wonder isn't so useful.
                           Usefulness: A (C if you're on Islands)
                           Length:     C
                           Cost:       C
                           Culture:    C
        Hoover Dam   - B - The Hoover Dam gives every one of your cities on the
                           continent a FREE Hydro Plant (240 production shields, 3
          Cost: 800        gold maintenance). As you can see by the stats of the
          Culture: 2       Hydro Plant, this is quite the good wonder. Consider
          Req: Electronic  this, Hydro Plants produce NO pollution, but can only
          Obs: Never       be built in cities with access to a river. But with the
                           Hoover Dam, ALL your cities on the continent get a Hydro
                           Plant, not just ones with rivers.
                           It takes only THREE cities getting this effect to make
                           it cost-effective.
                           Usefulness: A
                           Length:     C
                           Cost:       A (steep cost to build, but actually saves
                                          production and money)
                           Culture:    C
        United Nations - C - Without the United Nations in hand, the Diplomatic
                           Victory condition will never be reached. Get it if you
          Cost: 1000       want to win that way (or just to prevent the CPU from
          Culture: 2       doing the same).
          Req: Fission
          Obs: Never       Usefulness: B
                           Length:     C
                           Cost:       D
                           Culture:    C
        Theory of Evolution - B - This was an "A" wonder back in Civ II but saw its
                           effects diminished in Civ III. It still gives out 2
          Cost: 600        free techs, but this time these are "Optional" techs.
          Culture: 3       By optional I mean the techs that are not required to
          Req: Scientific  advance from one age to the next.  These are:
          Obs: n/a           Ancient:     Horesback Riding
                             Medieval:    Chivalry
                                          Free Artistry
                                          Military Tradition
                                          Music Theory
                                          Printing Press
                             Industrial:  Advanced Flight
                                          Amphibious Warfare
                           Still, free tech is free tech... two less things you
                           have to research yourself.
                           Usefulness: B
                           Length:     n/a (it's an instant effect)
                           Cost:       B
                           Culture:    C
        Universal Suffrage - B - The only Wonder that deals with War Weariness
                           head-on. Combine this with Police Stations in every
          Cost: 800        city and you get some nice reductions on War Weariness.
          Culture: 4       This wonder is what makes war BEARABLE in Democracy.
          Req: Industr.    Without it, I wouldn't even attack anyone. (Although
          Obs: Never       you COULD just manipulate events until the enemy Civ
                           declared war on YOU... that doesn't create War
                           That said, if you aren't a democracy this isn't as
                           critical... Even a Republic could go without it. It has
                           War Weariness but nowhere near as much as a Democracy.
                           And the other three governments don't even HAVE War
                           Usefulness: A
                           Length:     C
                           Cost:       C
                           Culture:    B
        Cure for Cancer - C - Makes one unhappy citizen in each city content.
                           Similar effect to JS Bach, but counts for EVERY city,
          Cost: 1000       not just the ones on the same continent. The 2 wonders
          Culture: 3       do stack (3 total unhappy to content), so if you already
          Req: Genetics    have JS Bach, then rate this a "B". Also, if you have
          Obs: Never       cities on many islands rate this a "B".
                           However, at the time you get this, your cities should be
                           fairly stable making this wonder a nice addition, but
                           hardly necessary.
                           Usefulness: C
                           Length:     D
                           Cost:       D
                           Culture:    C
        Longevity    - F - Another that falls under the too-late category. If you
                           could do this back in the middle ages, or even the
          Cost: 1000       industrial ages this would work. However, getting it in
          Culture: 3       the MODERN era makes it useless. Why? By that point the
          Req: Genetics    entire world should be populated, even on a Huge map.
          Obs: Never       If the world is populated completely, the last thing you
                           need is doubled population growth.
                           Get this one only if you want the +3 culture.
                           Usefulness: F
                           Length:     D
                           Cost:       D
                           Culture:    C
        SETI Program - D - Back in Civ II this was another "A" wonder, now it's
                           just a "D". SETI now just doubles scientific research
          Cost: 1000       in a city. This is all well and good, but it comes so
          Culture: 3       late in the game that most of the research is already
          Req: Computers   DONE. What's even left? Besides, by this point in the
          Obs: Never       game your research rate might be maxing out at 50% (or
                           even 40-30 or 20%), that is, having research set at 50%
                           produces tech at the same rate as 100%. At best SETI
                           will allow you to raise the tax rate.
                           For best effect, put SETI in the same city as Copernicus
                           and Newton.
                           Usefulness: C
                           Length:     F
                           Cost:       D
                           Culture:    C
        Manhattan Project - F - Avoid nuclear missiles, they're nothing but
                           trouble. Any nuclear strike will probably mess up the
          Cost: 800        planet forever (global warming) and certainly won't
          Culture: 2       win you any friends. Also, when this wonder is built,
          Req: Fission     EVERYONE gets access to nuclear weapons... if they have
          Obs: Never       the tech for it. So, try to let this one go... the CPU
                           may build it later, but you'll get access to its effects
                           too, no reason to build this one.
                           Usefulness: F
                           Length:     F
                           Cost:       C
                           Culture:    D
    Small Wonders:
        Forbidden Palace - A - The most major force in corruption-reduction is your
                           Palace, and the Forbidden Palace mirrors that nicely.
          Cost: 300        The idea is to divide your empire in 2 halves. In the
          Culture: 2       center of one half, place the Palace, in the center of
          Req: Special     the other place the Forbidden Palace. Thus, corruption
          Obs: Never       is kept as low as possible.
                           You get the option to build the Forbidden Palace based
                           on the number of cities you have, and the type of map
                           you are on. The larger the map, the more cities it takes
                           before you can build it.
                           Placing the Forbidden Palace for BEST effect is a bit
                           of a trick. You may want to wait until your empire is
                           finished expanding. Or at least until you know where
                           your expansion will finish.
                             Tip:  Still expanding the empire and want to wait
                                   until you KNOW where to place the Forbidden
                                   Palace? Try this: Near where your Palace is,
                                   in the middle of the most cities, build the
                                   Forbidden Palace. Then later in the game when
                                   you want, build the Palace out in another
                                   place in the empire. If you need to, you can
                                   always move the Palace later, but you can't
                                   move the Forbidden Palace once placed.
                           Usefulness: A
                           Length:     A
                           Cost:       B
                           Culture:    D
        Heroic Epic  - B - The Heroic Epic can be built only AFTER you have had a
                           Victorious Army in the field. Remember that an army is
          Cost: 200        built after you get a Great Leader, send it to a city,
          Culture: 4       and then add units to it.
          Req: Special
          Obs: Never       The Heroic Epic's primary purpose, increasing the odds
                           of Great Leaders appearing is good (better if you are
                           already a Militaristic Civ), but its best benefit is
                           the culture benefit. It starts out as a modest 4
                           culture, but since you build it so early its culture
                           will double out to 8, the same culture as the
                           Shakespeare's Theater. (which likely won't double in ITS
                           culture rating)
                           Getting more Leaders is wonderful (heh) as it allows you
                           to instantly build any Wonder you want. In fact, after
                           you use your first Leader to build an army to build
                           the Heroic Epic, all future Leaders should Hurry 
                           Wonders. (You can produce more armies later when you get
                           the Military Academy)
                           Usefulness: C (B if you are militaristic)
                           Length:     A
                           Cost:       A
                           Culture:    A
        Military Academy - B - Allows the construction of armies (which cost 400
                           shields to produce). Armies, while not invinceable, are
          Cost: 400        still incredibly useful. You won't win every battle with
          Culture: 1       an army (although I've never lost one), but they are
          Req: Mil. Trad.  still very strong. In fact, the CPU AI doesn't like to
               Special     attack a full-strength (or even half-strength) armies,
          Obs: Never       even if they could win. This allows you to move in
                           all sorts of other units with your Armies, and they'll
                           all be perfectly safe.
                           Like the Heroic Epic, the Military Academy requires that
                           you have had a Victorious Army (and the Military 
                           Tradition tech).
                           Usefulness: B
                           Length:     B
                           Cost:       B
                           Culture:    F
        Wall Street  - A - Gives a 5% interest return on your treasury. This
                           interest caps out at a max return of 50 gold per turn,
          Cost: 400        which you would get with an treasury of 1000 gold.
          Culture: 2       Essentially for every 20 gold you have in your inventory
          Req: 5 Banks     you make another 1 gold in interest.
          Obs: Never
                           The requirement here is that you must have 5 banks built
                           in your empire.
                           Usefulness: A
                           Length:     B
                           Cost:       B
                           Culture:    D
        Battlefield Medicine - C - A nice little wonder (hence it being a Small
                           Wonder) that allows your units to Heal while still in
          Cost: 500        a foreign culture area. Useful, but not necessary.
          Culture: 1
          Req: 5 Hosp.     Usefulness: C
          Obs: Never       Length:     C
                           Cost:       C
                           Culture:    F
        Intelligence Agency - B - The Intelligence Agency allows you to open
                           up some Espionage on your enemies (and your friends).
          Cost: 400        Once built, you need to plant a spy in the enemy
          Culture: 1       capitol, which you do by double-clicking the Agency
          Req: Espionage   icon attached to the city that built it. (Much the same
          Obs: Never       way your Embassy Icon is attached to your Capitol)
                           Not sure what affects the success of whether your spy
                           gets planted, but it might deal with how suspicious the
                           other Civ is of you. The better their mood is towards
                           you, the better success you should have.
                           Once inside, your Spy can pull off some missions:
                             Propaganda - same effect as an enemy city joining out
                                          of awe for your culture, you get a free
                                          enemy city.
                             Steal Plans - Shows you all the troops your enemy has,
                                          check your Military Adviser
                             Sabotage -   Have your spy go destroy an improvement
                             Disease -    Have your spy disease the population of
                                          a city, killing its people
                             Steal World Map
                             Expose Spy - Your spy goes on Counterintelligence and
                                          searches your capitol for an enemy spy.
                           Negatives? Other Civs really hate it when you spy on
                           them and could declare war on you, or just plain hate
                           you forever.
                           Usefulness: B
                           Length:     C
                           Cost:       B
                           Culture:    F
        Iron Works   - A - One of the best wonders, period. Better than most of the
                           "Great" wonders, in fact. The Iron Works DOUBLES the
          Cost: 300        production in a city. Since any city that CAN build it
          Culture: 2       (one with both Coal and Iron) would have high production
          Req: Iron&Coal   anyway, their production AFTERWORDS will be phenomenal.
          Obs: Never       And if built before Industrialization is discovered, the
                           pollution effects are far less.
                           The trick is, IF you can even build this one. Getting
                           Coal and Iron in the same city is tricky... because
                           you won't see Coal at ALL until you get Steam Power.
                           So, chances are, even if it is POSSIBLE to get a city
                           with both, you might end out splitting the resources
                           between 2 nearby cities without realizing it. But if you
                           do get it... wow!
                           Usefulness: A
                           Length:     C
                           Cost:       A
                           Culture:    D
        The Pentagon - C - Nice to have, but not necessary. The Pentagon allows 
                           your armies to add an extra unit, bringing them up to
          Cost: 400        4 units total. This gives your armies a maximum Hit
          Culture: 1       Point of 20. Not many units out there could survive 20
          Req: Special     hit points of army attacking them. Give this one a "B"
          Obs: Never       if you're a militaristic Civ.
                           Similar to the other "army" wonders, the Pentagon
                           requires that you have 3 armies in the field. I would
                           recommend building the armies with the Military Academy
                           and NOT with Leaders. Only one leader should build an
                           army, the rest are for Wonders.
                           Usefulness: B
                           Length:     C
                           Cost:       B
                           Culture:    F
        Apollo Program - C - Allows the Space Race victory condition. You can't
                           build spaceship parts without it. If that's your goal,
          Cost: 400        then this gets an "A", otherwise it's a "C".
          Culture: 2
          Req: Space Fl.   Usefulness: C
          Obs: Never       Length:     D
                           Cost:       A
                           Culture:    D
        Strategic Missile Defense - C - Only necessary if someone built the
                           Manhattan Project, but if it's necessary, then by all
          Cost: 500        means build it before someone Nukes you. A 75% chance
          Culture: 1       to survive a nuclear attack is better than your current
          Req: Int. Def.   0% chance!
          Obs: Never       In addition to the tech, Integrated Defense, you must
                           also have built 5 SAM batteries.
                           Usefulness: B
                           Length:     D
                           Cost:       B
                           Culture:    F
    9. War, What is it Good For?
      War can now be declared at any time, by anyone.  No more Civ2-style Senates
      blocking your invasions.
    Basic Concepts
      Hit Points - Roughly the life force of the unit.  Goes up as they unit
                   Conscript 2 HP
                   Regular   3 HP
                   Veteran   4 HP
                   Elite     5 HP
                   Advancements are given 2 ways:
                     Barracks (City creates Veteran units)
                     Winning a battle (Unit gets +1 status, such as going from 
                     Conscript to Regular or from Veteran to Elite)
      Great Leader - 1 in 16 times when an Elite unit wins a battle, a Great Leader
                   will appear.  He can then go on to form an Army, or Hustle the
                   production of a city.
      Army       - Created by a Great Leader or built by the Military Academy.  
                   Collection of 3 or 4 units.  Each unit still attacks one by one,
                   however, the whole Army's hit points are joined together, so
                   none of the units die until the Army as a whole dies.
                   To get a Unit into an Army, send the Unit to the same Square as
                   the Army and press the "L" button on your Keyboard.  This Loads
                   him into the army (same command as you would use to Load a unit
                   onto a Ship in port).
                     Warning:  You CAN NEVER unload a unit from an Army!
                     Tip:  Obsolete Armies' disband value is at 100 production
                           shields.  A great way to boost production for cities
                           with high corruption.
                   (Patched games only) The Army can attack multiple times, so long
                   as it can still move. So, if the Army has Knights or Cavalry, it
                   can attack twice or three times a turn, respectively.
    War Basics
      General Idea:  Always have enough troops to win a war against any opponent.
                     Also, don't depend too much on having BETTER weapons than the
                     enemy; Number Count Too.
      Specific Idea:  Fortifying your borders is an aggressive move, but also a
                      necessary one.  Fortify any border when that Civ is less than
                      Neutral to you.  Definitely fortify if they become Furious at
                      Fortifications prevent war.
                      Enemy Civs attack when they see weakness, and fortified
                      borders aren't weak.
      General Idea:  It is always better to have the enemy attack you first.  There
                     is a vast difference in War Weariness if you didn't start the
                     conflict.  That said, ALL long conflicts create war weariness.
      Specific Idea:  Back to Fortifying the Border idea.  You don't want to 
                      Declare War yourself, the War Weariness would kill your 
                      fragile Democracy. Now, suppose that you want to be 
                      attacked... what if you showed a weak, undefended city to 
                      your rival.  Just behind that spot, you stockpile a TON of
                      troops, just out of his visual range.
                      He attacks, you counter-attack, and war begins, but isn't
                      your fault in the least.
      Prelude to war:  If at all possible, try to get your enemy's map before you
      declare war on them. Why? So you can seek and destroy their cities. The trick
      is to get their map without giving them anything of value. You don't want to
      give them YOUR map, for example, or they might flank your entire empire and
      sack your weakest cities (which is what you want to be doing, by the way).
      Usually the best thing to trade out is GOLD to get their TERRITORY MAP (world
      map is nicer, but is usually more than twice as difficult to get). If you're
      attacking soon, trade on a PER TURN basis... if you declare war, the payments
        Tip:  Can't get their map? Try finding another Civ that is willing to give
              you their WORLD MAP. Very often you will get your enemy's map with 
              I can't state this enough... DON'T TRADE OUT YOUR OWN MAP! Ever! It's
              bad tactically in the beginning of the game as it reveals your
              weaknesses, and it's bad late in the game as it shows other Civs 
              where they can build cities (usually in the small "culture holes" 
              between YOUR cities).
      War amounts to finding an advantage, exploiting it, then forcing a settlement
      in your favor. Well, that's the basic idea, anyway, pulling it off is a
      trifle more difficult than that.
      First you find an advantage. This is the trickiest part. What I mean by an
      advantage is any possible way for you to defeat your enemy. This could be
      superior units, good positions, or just good tactics. For example, while
      playing the Romans, I used their special unit, the Legionnary, to great 
      effect in my war on the English. I started that war when I realized that I 
      had a far superior unit to anything that they could throw at me. Using 
      nothing but Legions I devastated the English to the point that the CPU had to 
      restart them elsewhere on the map. Another way to get the advantage on the 
      enemy is to get into a good position, then attack. A quick example would be 
      to find a large enemy city, fortify a defensive unit up on a nearby mountain 
      (for defense) and with offensive units attack. If you can take (or destroy) a 
      large city, you have damaged them far more than if you pick off a few of
      their outlaying cities. Finally there is good tactics. For one thing, the 
      frontline of the war should ALWAYS be near their cities, not yours. If the 
      fighting is close to your empire you will start to lose cities. You can't 
      always help this, especially if you didn't start the war.
      Once you've found your advantage, time to exploit it. If you have a superior
      unit and can crush their cities easily, don't stop. Keep going until your
      advantage disappears, or your enemy does.
        Tip:  Can't defeat any enemy units?  Try pillaging their landscape. It's
              quick, easy and effective. I always aim at their roadways first. Why?
              You can't use enemy roads (those within the culture area of an enemy
              Civ), and they can, which allows them to move forces at yours 
              quicker. Of course, destroying their mines and farmlands also weakens 
              their cities. Horsemen (and by extension, Knights and Cavalry) are 
              great at this as their extra movement allows them to move to a square 
              then pillage.
      Keep throwing units at the enemy until they are defeated.
        Note:  So, what are you going to do with all the workers you've been 
               capturing? Keep them? Disband them? (The CPU does this one, possibly
               to prevent you from recapturing them, they'll even disband their
               own workers that they recaptured back from you.) If you are an
               industrious Civ, and the captured workers are NOT industrious, I'd
               just disband them where they are. Industrious workers work twice as
               hard, and this bonus does not extend to captured workers. Also, if
               you send them to Join your cities, they'll be much more upset if you
               are at War with the Civ they came from. For example, capture a Zulu
               worker, put him in your city, and continue to attack, and he'll be
        Note:  So, do you Raze cities when you capture them, or do you keep them?
               Couple of things to keep in mind. First, all the improvements are
               destroyed when you take the city. For large cities (6 population or
               more) this can be a real problem as there is no temple/colloseum
               to placate them. Second, there is a resistance to put down, and 
               until it is, you can't Hurry production to build anything. So, say
               you capture a size 9 city, it gets 4 resistors. Therefore if you put
               in enough troops to quell the rebellion, the resistance might end in
               4 turns. Then you have a VERY unhappy city (especially if you are
               still at war with their country) and will probably need to stop them
               from working the field, causing starvation. Another disadvantage of
               taking cities versus razing them is that the city is placed where
               the other Civ wanted it, not where you wanted it. So, it may be too
               close to your other cities, or built just one square away from a
               Cow resource (+4 food and +1 shield). Finally captured cities lose
               their acquired Culture, so a city that had 100 culture, resets back
               to zero.
               Usually I just raze the city. Feel bad about it? Don't! You aren't
               actually slaughtering the city, just burning it to the ground. Its
               population is converted to workers (not on a one-to-one ratio, a
               city of 9 might give you 3 workers) and the city is gone. Once that
               is taken care of, send in your own Settler (with strong military
               defense, of course) and build your own city where you want it.
               Diplomatic consequences to this are minimal. The only Civ that 
               REALLY cared about the city is probably already as mad at you as
               they're gonna get.
      Of course, one can't always attack until their nation is destroyed, there are
      other factors at play. First, if you are a Republic/Democracy, there is War
      Weariness to contend with. Second, they might have cities you don't know 
      about (and therefore can't find). This brings us to my final point, which is
      to know when to sign a Peace Treaty and end the war. For starters, you need 
      the enemy Civ to talk to you, which they might not even do for the first few 
      turns of the war. As long as they ignore your Diplomacy Requests, the war 
      must go on.
        Tip:  Never attack a superior opponent. Sounds obvious, but you might be
              tempted to try it if you got enough units by one of their cities. 
              Your idea might be to take the city, then sue for peace, however, 
              your enemy will probably just ignore you and sack your cities.
              The exception to this rule is if the enemy Civ is far away from your
              empire. That way you can attack them, and they won't be able to get
              to your empire for quite a few turns.
        Tip:  Don't want to attack a superior opponent, but how about annoying 
              them? After they build a new city, but before the culture expands, 
              consider pillaging any roads leading from this new city back to their 
              empire. They can't get mad at you because the roads are outside of 
              their culture. Makes for a lot of fun if you can find mines and 
              irrigations out where you can freely pillage. (This happens more 
              often when cities have been destroyed, then later rebuilt)
      OK, this is all well and good, you say, but what do you do if you are 
      attacked? Well let's go back a ways, to War Prevention. Civs don't generally 
      attack other Civs with superior militaries. Don't want to get attacked? Then 
      build units. Another way to avoid conflict is to Trade with other Civs. If 
      you provide them with Incense and Spice, then when they attack you, each of 
      their cities would lose 2 happy people, possibly throwing those cities into 
      disorder. Do they want that? Probably not. Then again, maybe they're sick of 
      trading for the resource and want to simply take it from you.
        Tip:  Don't trade out military resources to possible enemy Civs. (Iron,
              Horses, Saltpeter, etc.)  Feel free to trade to Civs that aren't 
              close enough to attack you, however.
    The Quick and Dirty War
      There are long term objectives, and short term objectives.  The Quick and
      Dirty War solves the short.  You see a city (or bit of terrain) that you
      need for something, declare war, send in the troops and take it out.  Simple.
      I run these when I need to take a Resource before it becomes too late.
      Example:  I just discover Refining, but learn that there is NO OIL IN MY
                TERRITORY.  Bad.  I still have a tactical advantage over my
                nearest competitor (I have Cavalry, he doesn't), so I declare war,
                seize a city near Oil, and fend off his troops until he's ready to
      Problems?  Just because you got what you wanted in one turn doens't mean
      that the enemy will immediately settle.  He'll probably immediately strike
      back at your ill-gotten city.  Keep your troops together, but launch strikes
      into his territory to keep him occupied.
        Tip:  Taking several enemy cities is a wonderful distraction.  He'll have
              to deal with multiple cities while you only care about one.
      Of course, Quick and Dirty wars have a way of turning on you, or even 
      becoming long drawn out wars.
    Good Strategies
      - Gain allies.  Or at the very least, try to cut ties to your enemy.  You
        don't need to get Military Alliances against your enemy (I'd avoid
        Military Alliances, anyway), just keeping everyone from Trading with your
        foe is plenty.
      - Cut off resources/luxuries.  This could be by blockading all his port 
        cities, thus preventing trade, or by Pillaging a road over Iron.  A Civ
        without Iron cannot build Knights.  It's a lot easier to defeat an army of
        spearmen and longbowmen, than an army of knights.
        And without luxuries, the enemy population will be very unhappy.
      - Use Armies!  The enemy Civs will very rarely attack an Army that contains
        good units (I typically use Knights and Cavalry in an Army).  Thus, if you
        take over an enemy city, you're more likely to keep it with an Army.
        However, Armies are not invinceable, no matter how overwhelming they might
        appear.  Don't push them too hard, and get them healed up in a Barracks
        after battles.
    9.1  The Combat Engine Demystified!
      Ever wonder why your Tank just lost to a Swordsman? Ever feel blue that your
      Infantry just got wiped off his mountain fortress by a Musketman? Well, I
      can't help that, what I can do is explain how it happened.
      In past Civ games, veteran status affected their abilities. This is no more,
      now Veteran/Elite status only changes the number of "hit points" that unit
      Hit Points:
        Conscript  2  (found only when "goodie" huts give you a unit)
        Regular    3  (the default level)
        Veteran    4  (with barracks)
        Elite      5
      Units advance in "level" by winning battles, either by attacking or getting
      attacked. So long as they win, they have a chance of gaining a level. Elite
      units are ONLY possible when a Veteran unit wins a battle, you cannot build
      Elite units.  When Elite units win a battle, there is a chance that a Great
      Leader will appear.
        Note:  Militaristic Civ's units gain levels more often and have more Great
               Leaders appear.
      In a battle, the two fighting units will attack each other until one is dead.
      These battles take place in rounds, where each round one of the combatants
      will lose a HP. Who loses the HP depends on the attack strength of the
      offensive unit and the defense strength of the defender. Add these numbers
      together, then divide your attacker's strength by the new number to find out
      how likely he is to win a round.
                                 Offensive Unit's Attack Strength
      Round % =   ----------------------------------------------------------------
                  (Offensive Unit's Attack Strength + Defender's Defense Strength)
      Thus, a Swordsman attacking a Warrior has a 75% chance to win each round.
      (75% = 3 (Swordsman) / (3 + 1 (Warrior)))  In such a way, every unit has a
      chance to win a round.  And although unlikely, even the worst unit could win
      EVERY round. From our previous situation, the Warrior had a 25% to win each
      round. Not too bad for a unit with 1 defense.
        Note:  Want to save before battle, then reload if it goes poorly for you?
               Won't work (at least, not that easily) as all the "random" battle
               results are predetermined. (I believe that this is called "seeding")
               So, if your Swordsman dies at the hands of the Warrior, reloading
               and attacking again won't change a thing, he'll die in exactly the
               same way.  In fact, if you attack with a similar unit (say, another
               Veteran Swordsman) to another similar unit (another Warrior) you'll
               also lose.
               To get out of the Seeded results, you need to find a different
               battle (say, an Elite Horseman attacking a Warrior somewhere else)
               or to save, quite and restart the game entirely.
               Also, with later patches, this option can be turned OFF.  When
               creating a new game, you get the option to "Preserve Random Seed."
               If this is checked, then all battles will have the same outcome,
               no matter if you save-reload to try it again.
        Note:  Difficulty Level does NOT affect the probability of winning in 
        Note:  Non-combat units cannot defend themselves, they simply get captured
               or destroyed. Naval units caught in port count as non-combat units
               and are immediately sunk.
        Note:  There does not APPEAR to be a "Hasty" attack penalty. This penalty
               was applied in previous games when a unit attacked with less than
               one full movement point left. (Such as a Musketman walking down a
               road 2 squares then attacking) This resulted in an attack penalty.
               However, this doesn't seem to be the case in Civ III.
    Defensive Bonuses:
      Most Terrain             --  10% defense bonus
      Attacking Across a River --  25%
      Forest/Jungle            --  25%
      Unit is Fortified        --  25%
      Hills                    --  50%
      Unit in Fortress         --  50%
      Unit in Walled Town      --  50%
      Unit in City (7-12 pop)  --  50%
      Unit in Metropolis (12+) -- 100%
      Mountains                -- 100%
      Defensive bonuses are added together before being applied. A unit fortified
      on a fortressed mountain would get 175% bonus (25% + 50% + 100%), nearly
      tripling their defense.
      So, a Musketman on a hill would have a base Defense of 4, but with the
      defensive Hill bonus, would have a defense of 6.  Were he fortified his
      defense would be 7.  Add in a fortress and that leaps up to 9.
    Attacks of Opportunity:
      Using a D&D term here, but it fits. In Civ III there exists the concept of a
      "free shot" that a unit can take on another unit when it moves away.  Units
      within a fortress automatically get this, as do most Ranged attack units
      (by which I mean Archers, Musketmen, Riflemen, etc.) and Fast attack units
      (Horsemen, Knights, Cavalry).  A free shot gives the unit a chance (based on
      their normal battle roll) to do 1 HP of damage to the fleeing unit.
      Your unit gets ONE free shot per turn no matter how many units move by. So,
      if 8 musketmen walk by your Cavalry, he'll get a shot at the first one, but
      none at the remaining 7.
      Available only to "fast" units (movement of 2 or more).  If a fast unit is
      losing a battle to a non-fast unit, (i.e. he is reduced to 1 HP), he will
      withdraw to a nearby square. Fast units will retreat from ANY battle, either
      on attack or defense. Remember you cannot withdraw from another fast unit
      (they are fast enough to pursue). Also, your unit will NOT withdraw at 1 HP
      IF his opponent is also down to 1 HP. Why? I guess that it becomes do-or-die
      Many units have a bombardment rating (catapults, artillery, naval vessels,
      bombers, etc.). Bombardment does not work like a normal attack in that a
      combat is not initiated. What it does is attempt to destroy the other unit.
      All the stats for hitting appear to be the same, so an artillery with its
      12 bombard value would have a 75% to hit a musketman. If the bombardment
      succeeds, the attacked unit loses HP. Bombardment units have a Rate of Fire
      involved as well. Thus, the artillery gets 2 attacks per shot, if both hit,
      the target loses 2 HP.
        Note:  Artillery, Catapults and other land bombard units can be captured,
               but only if the capturing Civ has the tech sufficient to build
               the unit on their own.
      You can also bombard cities (either to damage their defending units, or to
      destroy its population/improvements) and terrain tiles (which acts like the
      PILLAGE function).
    10. Winning the Game
    Conquest Victory
      There are 540 turns in the game, 126 occuring in the BC era.
      4000 BC to 2750 BC  -  25 turns, 50 years per turn
      2710 BC to 1750 BC  -  25 turns, 40 years
      1725 BC to  750 BC  -  40 turns, 25 years
       730 BC to  250 BC  -  50 turns, 20 years
       260 BC to 1250 AD  - 100 turns, 10 years
      1255 AD to 1750 AD  - 100 turns,  5 years
      1752 AD to 1950 AD  - 100 turns,  2 years
      1951 AD to 2050 AD  - 100 turns,  1 year per turn
      Your final score of a Conquest game (that is, you killed all your opponents)
      is your normal score, plus a special Conquest bonus. (Consider all BC dates
      to be negative)
      Conquest bonus = (2050 - Date) * Difficulty Modifier
        Cheiftain - 1
        Warlord   - 2
        Regent    - 3
        Monarch   - 4
        Emporer   - 5
        Deity     - 6
    Cultural Victory
    Diplomatic Victory
    Out-Of-Time Victory (Generic Score Victory)
    Space-Race Victory
    11. Extra City Names
      Not content to start naming your cities "Washington 2", "London 2" or
      "Rome 2"?  Well here are some ADDITIONAL city names for each Civ.  These are
      names taken from the actual Culture's involved.  Another idea for new city
      names is to take them from other Civ's. For instance, if you go destroy the
      French city "Orleans" maybe your next city built should steal that name.
      Salt Lake City
      San Antonio
    12. A Brief History of Each Civ (Or, Why This Civ Is In The Game)
      There is always some controversy as to why this or that Civ was or was not
      included in the game. Most people wonder why the Americans are included, when
      they have so little history. After all, the game starts in 4000 BC, while
      there were no Americans around. And where are the Mongolians? The Hittites?
      Sumerians? Spanish? Dutch? Portuguese? Many of these had claims to world
      power at one point or another. Well, I can't explain why some cultures
      didn't make the cut, but I can try to explain why those that are in the game
      This is tricky for a few reasons:  One, the land was always there, and Two,
      it was always occupied by someone. Britain was lived on by Celts for years
      before the Romans arrived, while America was filled with native peoples
      spanning back millennia. What I look at is when the land becomes occupied by
      the "right" culture. For example, when does Britain become full of British?
      Then I look at the peak of each Civ's power. How long were they a world
        Colonies - Virginia Founded 1607 - First time I consider an "American" to
                                           begin to exist, i.e. an Englishman
                                           living in America.
                   Stamp Act 1765        - First time the colonies really worked as
                                           a cohesive unit, working together.
                                           Before this, one was a "Virginian" or a
                                           "New Yorker" before an American.
        Independence Declared 1776 (achieved 1783, Treaty of Paris)
                                         - America managed to win the war while
                                           winning only a small number of the
                                           battles (and Saratoga was won mostly
                                           due to British fatigue).
                                         - Also, French involvment in the
                                           revolution influenced their own French
                                           revolution just a few years later.
        USA - Constitution 1789-90       - United States of America officially
        Wars - Britain 1812              - USA wins this war mostly by not losing.
                                           Andrew Jackson wins a battle at New
                                           Orleans... weeks after the war ended.
             - Mexico 1846               - In order to gain California and Texas,
                                           a little war was created. Although
                                           technically started by a Mexican attack,
                                           the US was mostly responsible for
                                           starting the war.
             - Civil War 1861            - Lincoln's Presidency meant war as the
                                           southern states seceded. At points the
                                           war was desperate enough that the
                                           western states threatened to secede as
             - Spanish War 1898          - The US takes on its first European power
                                           and wins in spades. Sure, Spain was on
                                           the decline, but a win is a win. With
                                           the victory, the US takes Cuba, Guam,
                                           Hawaii, the Philippines and Puerto Rico.
                                           As per an agreement made before the war,
                                           Cuba is let go. The US fought a bitter
                                           guerilla war in the Philippines for
                                           years before finally letting it go.
             - World War I               - The US enters the war in the final years
                                           and effectively ends the war. Not by
                                           fighting, but by simply adding more
                                           troops such that the Central Powers felt
                                           outnumbered and surrendured.
             - World War II              - Late again to the war, the US fought
                                           Japan almost entirely on its own. The
                                           addition of US troops in Europe was
                                           useful, but more useful were the
                                           supplies it sent to Britain before
                                           entering the war directly.
        Present                          - US is the lone super-power, which seems
                                           to bring more negatives than positives.
                                           The US military can strike at any point
                                           in the world within hours, has nuclear
                                           capabilities that are unsurpassed, and
                                           diplomatic connections with most every
                                           nation on earth. The US has enough world
                                           clout that the United Nations is based
                                           in New York City.
        Total Existence:    394 years (colonies to 2001)
        National Existence: 212 years (constitution to 2001)
        World Power Status: 103 years (Spanish War to 2001)
        Superpower Status:   46 years (World War II to 2001)
        Tenoctitlan founded in 1325
        Empire - Rebellion from Tepanecs 1431 - The "Aztec Empire" was an alliance
                                           of 3 cities that threw off the rule of
                                           the Tepanecs who had held power in the
                                           area since the fall of the Mayans many
                                           centuries before.
               - Montezuma I 1440        - Responsible for most of the early
                                           expansion of the empire.
               - Further Expansion 1502  - The empire spread in all directions,
                                           conquering directly (or indirectly
                                           blackmailing) the surrounding peoples.
                                           Since the Aztec Empire was surrounded on
                                           all sides by enemies, it was in a state
                                           of constant warfare. Much of the area
                                           was already developed, and the Aztecs
                                           attempted to control the trade networks
                                           already in existence with some success.
                                           After a successful battle, the enemy
                                           warriors were then sacrificed. To keep
                                           newly conquered areas loyal, citizens
                                           from existing cities were sent out to
                                           populate the new colonies.
               - Tenochtitlan            - At its height, the capitol city held
                                           200,000 citizens, which may have been
                                           as high as 4x that of its nearest rival.
               - The Spanish 1519        - When the Spanish arrived, they found
                                           many allies around the capitol city who
                                           wanted to overthrow the aztecs.
               - The End 1521            - Tenochtitlan fell in 1521, effectively
                                           ending the Aztec domination of the
                                           region, placing all the Mexican peoples
                                           in the control of the spanish.
        Present - Mexico                 - One could argue that Mexico is descended
                                           from the Aztecs (the word Mexico itself
                                           is derived from "Mexica" the Aztec word
                                           for their own nation). However, since it
                                           was controlled by the spanish for so
                                           long, Mexico as it exists today has
                                           little in common with the Aztecs.
        Total Existence:     196 years
        National Existence:  90 years (formation of the empire until conquered by
                                       the Spanish)
        World Power Status:  Never (didn't leave Central America)
        Superpower Status:   Never
        Mesopotamia - 4000 BC            - The Babylonia region (another name for
                                           Mesopotamia) has been occupied for a
                                           long time. We'll simplify by saying that
                                           the Sumerians came first.
                    - Hammurabi 1792 BC  - Babylon becomes a major player in the
                                           region under Hammurabi. His empire
                                           didn't really survive his death, but his
                                           Code of Laws and the idea of central
                                           authority lived on.
                    - Assyrians          - After the collapse of Babylon, various
                                           other factions assumed power, eventually
                                           it slid to the Assyrians. The Assyrians
                                           held power from 911 BC until 626 BC.
                    - Neo-Babylonia 626 BC - A Chaldean took power from Assyria
                                           and founded his own dynasty, called the
                                           Chaldean or Neo-Babylonian. After a
                                           civil war with the Assyrians, Babylon
                                           was on top.
                    - Persian Empire 539 BC - Babylon was annexed into the Persian
                                           Empire, which eventually became the
                                           Macedonian Empire (Alexander the Great)
                                           in 323 BC.
        Total Existence:     3461 years (from 4000 BC to the Persian Empire)
        National Existence:  2337 years (not counting the Assyrian regime)
        World Power Status:  Never (part of world powers when conquered, never one
        Superpower Status:   Never
        Prehistory -
                         < < < < < Final Words.... > > > > >
    This FAQ was written entirely using the GWD Text Editor:  (shareware)
    Spiffy Links:
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      Official Civ III site  --  http://www.civ3.com/
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    Shameless Self Promotion:
      I am Dan Simpson (dsimpson.faqs@gmail.com) and have also written FAQs for:
        NES:      Disney Adventures in the Magic Kingdom
                  Final Fantasy -- Magic FAQ
                  The Legend of Zelda
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                  Aerobiz Supersonic
                  Utopia: Creation of a Nation
        Genesis:  StarFlight
        PSX:      Thousand Arms -- Walkthrough
                                -- Forging/Dating FAQ
        PS2:      Madden NFL 2001
        XBOX:     Star Wars: KotOR II: The Sith Lords -- FAQ/Walkthrough
                                                      -- Influence Guide
        PC:       AD&D Rules FAQ, 2nd and 3rd Editions
                  Baldur's Gate & Tales of the Sword Coast -- FAQ/Walkthrough
                                                              NPC List
                                                              Creature List
                  Baldur's Gate II & Throne of Bhaal -- FAQ/Walkthrough
                                                     -- Items List
                                                     -- Class FAQ
                                                     -- Creature List
                  Civilization III (incomplete)
                  Colonization -- the Single Colony Strategy Guide
                               -- the Cheat Guide
                  Drakan: Order of the Flame
                  Dungeon Hack
                  Icewind Dale & Heart of Winter -- FAQ/Walkthrough
                                                    Items List
                                                    Kresselack's Tomb Map (JPG)
                                                    Burial Isle Map (JPG)
                                                    Shattered Hand Map (JPG)
                  Icewind Dale II                -- Items List
                  Master of Magic (revision)
                  Pharaoh (currently being edited by Red Phoenix)
                  Planescape: Torment  -- FAQ/Walkthrough
                                          Items Listing
                  Rollercoaster Tycoon
                  Sid Meier's Alpha Centauri
                  The Sims
                  Ultima 4: Quest of the Avatar
                  Ultima 7: The Black Gate
                  Ultima 7 Part 2: Serpent Isle
                  Ultima Underworld -- Keyboard Commands
                  Ultima Underworld II -- Keyboard Commands
                                       -- Spell List
      All of my FAQs can be found at:
    Version History:
      Version 0.4  January 2, 2002  137k
        Everything is new. Many sections are still incomplete at this stage.
      Version 0.5  September 12, 2002  148k
        Filled in the "Dealing with Corruption" section.  Added small nuggets of
        info to various other sections.  Updated the "Patch Info" section, and
        removed the description of the patch... which would now double the size
        of this FAQ!
      Version 0.51  January 17, 2005  148k
        Changed my email and updated the format.
    This Document is Copyright 2002-2005 by Dan Simpson
    Civilization III is Copyright 2001 by Firaxis/Infogrames
    I am not affiliated with Sid Meier, Firaxis, Infogrames or anyone who had
    anything to do with the creation of this game.  This FAQ may be posted on any
    site so long as NOTHING IS CHANGED and you EMAIL ME telling me that you are
    posting it.  You may not charge for, or in any way profit from this FAQ.

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