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    FAQ/Strategy Guide by JChamberlin

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                        Age of Empires: The Rise of Rome
                        System: PC/Windows
                        Author: Jim Chamberlin
                        Version: FINAL (12/30/04)
      << Disclaimer >>
      This document is Copyright © 2001 Jim Chamberlin.  All Rights Reserved.
    Version -  0.1   Everything is new, of course.
               0.2   Added the rest of the buildings and technologies.
               0.3   Worked on some of the civilizations.
               0.4   Finished up the FAQ.
               0.5   Added the URL of my WWF SmackDown! FAQ.
               0.6   Minor Changes.
               0.7   Added the URL of my Sid Meier's Alpha Centauri HTML FAQ.
               0.8   A minor change.
               0.9   A minor change.
               1.0   A minor change.
               1.1   A few minor changes.
               1.2   A few changes.
               1.3   A few minor changes.
               1.4   A few changes.
               1.5   A minor change.
    If you have anything you would like to submit, please do so.  Send it to
    [red_phoenix_1@hotmail.com].  I would appreciate it if you would put "Age of
    Empires The Rise of Rome" in the Subject Line.  It helps me weed through my
    mailbox without deleting something important.  I don't consider SPAM and Porn
    important, if you know what I mean, although some of you may think otherwise.
                                    Table of Contents
        1.      Introduction History
        2.      Changes from Age of Empires
        3.      The Buildings
              - Academy
              - Archery Range
              - Ballista Tower
              - Barracks
              - Dock
              - Farm
              - Fortification
              - Government Center
              - Granary
              - Guard Tower
              - House
              - Market
              - Medium Wall
              - Sentry Tower
              - Siege Workshop
              - Small Wall
              - Stable
              - Storage Pit
              - Temple
              - Town Center
              - Watch Tower
              - Wonder
        4.      The Units
           A.   Miscellaneous
              - Villager
              - Priest
           B.   Infantry
              - Axeman
              - Clubman
              - Slinger *New Unit*
              - Short Swordsman
              - Broad Swordsman
              - Long Swordsman
              - Legion
              - Hoplite
              - Phalanx
              - Centurion
           C.   Archery
              - Bowman
              - Improved Bowman
              - Composite Bowman
              - Chariot Archer
              - Elephant Archer
              - Horse Archer
              - Heavy Horse Archer
           D.   Cavalry
              - Scout
              - Camel Rider *New Unit*
              - Chariot
              - Scythe Chariot *New Unit*
              - Cavalry
              - Heavy Cavalry
              - Cataphract
              - War Elephant
              - Armored Elephant *New Unit*
           E.   Siege Weapons
              - Stone Thrower
              - Catapult
              - Heavy Catapult
              - Ballista
              - Helepolis
           F.   Boats
              - Fishing Boat
              - Fishing Ship
              - Trade Boat
              - Merchant Ship
              - Light Transport
              - Heavy Transport
              - Scout Ship
              - War Galley
              - Fire Galley *New Unit*
              - Trireme
              - Catapult Trireme
              - Juggernaught
        5.      The Technologies
           A.   Storage Pit (Origin)
              - Toolworking
              - Metalworking
              - Metallurgy
              - Bronze Shield
              - Iron Shield
              - Tower Shield *New Technology*
              - Leather Armor for Archers
              - Scale Armor for Archers
              - Chain Mail for Archers
              - Leather Armor for Cavalry
              - Scale Armor for Cavalry
              - Chain Mail for Cavalry
              - Leather Armor for Infantry
              - Scale Armor for Infantry
              - Chain Mail for Infantry
           B.   Market (Origin)
              - Wheel
              - Woodworking
              - Artisanship
              - Coinage
              - Craftsmanship
              - Domestication
              - Stone Mining
              - Gold Mining
              - Siegecraft
              - Plow
              - Irrigation
           C.   Government (Origin)
              - Alchemy
              - Architecture
              - Aristocracy
              - Ballistics
              - Engineering
              - Nobility
              - Writing
              - Logistics *New Technology*
           D.   Temple (Origin)
              - Polytheism
              - Monotheism
              - Mysticism
              - Jihad
              - Fanaticism
              - Astrology
              - Afterlife
              - Martyrdom *New Technology*
              - Medicine *New Technology*
        6.      The Civilizations
              - Ancient Chosen a.k.a. Chosen
              - Assyrian
              - Babylonian
              - Carthaginian *New Civilization*
              - Egyptian
              - Greek
              - Hittite
              - Macedonian *New Civilization*
              - Minoan
              - Palmyran *New Civilization*
              - Persian
              - Phoenician
              - Roman *New Civilization*
              - Shang
              - Sumerian
              - Yamato
        7.      Civilization Comparisons
        8.      Tools of the Trade (James Mecham)
        9.      Codes
       10.      Credits
    1.     Introduction
      Age of Empires: Rise of Rome is an expansion pack for the very popular PC 
    game, Age of Empires.  It was released to the public basically to provide us 
    with a slight enhancement to the game while they worked on Age of Empires II: 
    Age of Kings.  Being an expansion pack, not much is expected of it in most 
    conditions.  This one, in my opinion, did a decent job.  We knew Microsoft and 
    Ensemble Studios must have been really busy at making a heck of a game in Age 
    of Kings, if they had to send out an add-on.  Microsoft also knew that this 
    would make the corporation a little more deeper in the pocket with another Age 
    of Empires game, even though it was only an add-on and it cost less that a full 
    2.     Changes from Age of Empires
      The changes to The Rise of Rome weren't grand, but they did change a little
    bit.  There weren't very many changes either, although they added a few more
    technologies, units, and civilizations.  Below is a small list I whipped up to
    illustrate this.
    .--------------------========= C H A N G E S =========-------------------------.
    |                             ¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯                                  |
    |                                                                              |
    |  o  Four new civilizations: Carthaginian, Macedonian, Palmyran, and Roman.   |
    |                                                                              |
    |  o  Five new units: Armored Elephant, Camel Rider, Fire Galley, Scythe       |
    |     Chariot, and Slinger.                                                    |
    |                                                                              |
    |  o  Four new technologies: Logistics, Martyrdom, Medicine, and Tower Shield. |
    |                                                                              |
    |  o  Four new campaigns.                                                      |
    |                                                                              |
    |  o  New ability to queue the production of units.                            |
    |                                                                              |
    |  o  New Gigantic map size.                                                   |
    |                                                                              |
    |  o  New map types: Continental, Mediterranean, Hill Country, and Narrows.    |
    |                                                                              |
    |  o  Double-clicking a unit selects all units of that type on the game screen.|
    |                                                                              |
    |  o  New Random civilization option so if you don't know which civilization   |
    |     you're playing until the game starts.                                    |
    |                                                                              |
    |  o  You can display the game settings (map type, map size, etc.) during the  |
    |     game by clicking the MENU button on the menu bar, and then clicking      |
    |     "Scenario Instructions."                                                 |
    |                                                                              |
    |  o  When you hear a sound cue (such as an attack warning), you can press the |
    |     HOME key or click the middle mouse button to go to the trouble spot.     |
    |     Pressing the key multiple times cycles through the location of the last  |
    |     five sound cues.                                                         |
    |                                                                              |
    |  o  Stone Throwers, Catapults and Heavy Catapults now receive a limited      |
    |     predictive firing benefit from Ballistics, based on the target unit's    |
    |     speed. All slow units in range are hit, some medium units are hit and    |
    |     all fast units are missed.                                               |
    |                                                                              |
    |  o  Persian civilization no longer has the farming penalty.                  |
    |                                                                              |
    |  o  Some random maps contain cliffs.                                         |
    |                                                                              |
    |  o  Allied Town Centers are visible when you start an allied game.           |
    |                                                                              |
    |  o  The population indicator and timer appear at the top of the screen when  |
    |     you press F11.                                                           |
    |                                                                              |
    |  o  The Hot Key to build a Swordsman is now Z.                               |
    |                                                                              |
    |  o  The Hot Key to build a Scout is now T.                                   |
    |                                                                              |
    |  o  If you select the Full Tech Tree option before starting the game, you    |
    |     can't build Fire Galleys.                                                |
    |                                                                              |
    |  o  In multiplayer games, there is now an in-game option to change the       |
    |     population limit using the Game Settings.                                |
    |                                                                              |
    |  o  Chat is automatically set to Allies Only in an allied multiplayer game.  |
    |                                                                              |
    |*This information was taken from the Age of Empires: Rise of Rome Game Manual*|
    |                                                                              |
    3.     The Buildings
    Age: Bronze
    Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center, Barracks, and Stable.
    Cost: 200 Wood
    Hit Points: 350
    Note: The Academy lets you train elite infantry units, including the
    Hoplite, Phalanx, and Centurion.  Researching Architecture increases the
    hit points and decreases the construction time of this building.  The
    academy was the Greek equivalent of a school.  Students, usually only free
    men and favored slaves, received an education at the academy.  Subjects of
    study included the typical fare of schools but also politics, athletics,
    and military training.  The most rigorous of the Greek academies were those
    of Sparta, where boys were taken from their parents at an early age and
    educated in a military environment.  The academy prepared the individual
    for service to the state as a citizen and as a soldier in the phalanx.  In
    one of the remarkable encounters of history, the future Alexander the Great
    was educated at the Academy of Aristotle.
    Age: Tool
    Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center and Barracks.
    Cost: 100 Wood
    Hit Points: 350
    Note: The Archery Range lets you train archers, including the Bowman,
    Improved Bowman, Composite Bowman, Chariot Archer, Elephant Archer, Horse
    Archer, and Heavy Horse Archer.  You must build the Archery Range before
    you can build the Siege Workshop.  Researching Architecture increases the
    hit points and decreases the construction time of this building.  The bow
    was developed as a hunting weapon long before the first towns appeared and
    was easily adapted to warfare.  Because the bow allowed fighting from a
    distance and from behind cover, archers did not have to fight face- to-
    face with their enemy.  As the first civilizations grew in size and their
    armies grew correspondingly, formal training of archers was instituted.
    As part of this training, bowmen practiced shooting on archery ranges to
    improve accuracy.
    Age: Iron
    Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center, Granary, researched the
    Watch Tower, upgraded to the Sentry Tower, upgraded to the Guard Tower,
    researched Ballistics, and upgraded to the Ballista Tower.
    Upgrade Cost: 1800 Food, 750 Stone
    Cost: 150 Stone
    Hit Points: 200
    Attack: 20
    Armor: -
    Range: 7
    Special: Fire Rate once every 3 seconds
    Upgrade of: Guard Tower
    Upgrade at: Granary
    Note: The Ballista Tower is the ultimate tower.  It has more attack
    strength than the Guard Tower.  You must research Ballistics before you
    upgrade to the Ballista Tower.  Towers are defensive structures that fire
    missiles at enemy villagers and military units within range.  Researching
    Architecture increases the hit points and decreases the construction time
    of this tower.  Alchemy increases attack strength.  Ballistics increases
    accuracy.  Woodworking, Artisanship, and Craftsmanship increase range.
    The tower discovered on the wall at the ancient site of Jericho served
    several purposes.  It extended the visual range of lookouts that would be
    watching for the approach of raiders and other visitors.  An early warning
    might have been the difference between a successful defense and the fall
    of the town.  The tower was a superior firing position for archery.  Bowmen
    shooting down had an advantage in range and penetration power of arrows
    versus enemies shooting up.  Enemies hiding at the bottom of the wall may
    have remained visible to archers in the tower.  The tower itself was an
    independent bastion that could serve as a defensive position of last resort
    if the wall was carried.  The Ballista Tower was the ultimate defensive
    fortification of the ancient era.  It could withstand a lajor attack and
    was equipped and designed to take a heavy toll on attackers.
    Age: Stone
    Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center.
    Cost: 125 Wood
    Hit Points: 350
    Note: The Barracks lets you train infantry, including the Clubman, Axeman,
    Short Swordsman, Long Swordsman, and Legion.  You must have built the
    Barracks before you can build the Archery Range, Siege Workshop, Stable, or
    Academy.  Researching Architecture increases the hit points and decreases
    the construction time of this building.  When the first armies came into
    being, places were needed eventually to make weapons, store weapons, drill
    troops, and house troops.  The Barracks in Age of Empires represents these
    Age: Stone
    Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center.
    Cost: 100 Wood
    Hit Points: 350
    Note: The Dock lets you create boats, including the Fishing Boat, Fishing
    Ship, Trade Boat, Merchant Ship, Light Transport, Heavy Transport, Scout
    Ship, War Galley, Trireme, Catapult Trireme, and Juggernaught.  The Dock is
    also where fishing vessels deposit food and trade vessels deposit gold from
    trading.  Researching Architecture increases the hit points and decreases
    the construction time of this building.  The earliest boats were simply
    tied up to rocks or trees on shore to take on or drop off cargo or were
    physically pulled onto the beach.  Later, wooden structures were built out
    into the water to facilitate loading and unloading.  Docks were also safer
    for ships because ships could avoid being beached, which strained the hulls
    and increased leaking.  When the dock was extended beyond the shallows,
    even larger ships could be tied up, farther improving efficiencies.
    Age: Tool
    Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center, Granary, and Market.
    Cost: 75 Wood
    Hit Points: 50
    Note: The Farm provides a reliable supply of food, which can be gathered by
    a villager.  Because Farms produce food at a fixed rate, assigning more
    than one villager to work on a Farm does not increase its productivity.
    Farms eventually go fallow, in which case you can build another one.
    Researching Architecture increases the hit points and decreases the
    construction time of this building.  Domestication, the Plow, and
    Irrigation increase Farm production.  The humble farm was the foundation of
    the great civilizations of antiquity and most human societies since.  The
    farm was the technological advance that provided the large and dependable
    supplies of food necessary for civilization to arise.  Farming began when
    edible seeds and fruits were preserved from one growing season and
    systematically planted in prepared ground the following season.  The plant
    that resulted were nurtured and protected until the edible produce was
    suitable for harvest.  Important farming advancements in ancient times
    included irrigation of rich but arid land, the plow that opened the soil
    for receiving seeds, and the continual selection of seeds from the most
    succesful plants that gradually improved food plant yields.
    Age: Iron
    Prerequisites: You must heave built the Town Center, Granary, researched the
    Small Wall, upgraded to the Medium Wall, and upgraded to the Fortification.
    Upgrade Cost: 300 Food, 175 Stone
    Cost: 5 Stone
    Hit Points: 400
    Upgrade of: Medium Wall
    Upgrade at: Granary
    Note: The Fortification is the ultimate wall. It has more hit points than
    the Medium Wall.  Walls are defensive structures that can be built around
    your empire or important areas.  Villagers and military units cannot move
    through standing walls, however, they can attack the walls.  Stone
    Throwers, Catapults, Heavy Catapults, Ballistas, and the Helepolis are
    particularly effective for destroying walls.  Researching Architecture
    increases the hit points and decreases the construction time of this wall.
    The great civilizations of ancient times built ever- larger fortifications
    to protect their important cities and frontiers. Herodotus reported that
    the walls of Babylon were sufficiently thick that a chariot could be driven
    on them around the city.  Archaelogy indicates that large walls were not
    invulnerable- every great ancient city appears to have been stormed
    eventually- but only a large and well- equipped army could surmount them.
    Age: Bronze
    Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center, Granary, and Market.
    Cost: 175 Wood
    Hit Points: 350
    Note: The Government Center lets you build additional Town Centers, and
    research technologies that improve your buildings and military units,
    including Writing, Architecture, Engineering, Aristocracy, Alchemy,
    Nobility, and Ballistics.  Researching Architecture increses the hit points
    and decreases the construction time of this building.  The government
    center was the administrative center of the town, village, city, kingdom,
    or empire.  It was often the palace of the strongman or king.  It was here
    that justice was dispersed, records kept, taxes collected and stored,
    diplomacy conducted, and plans made.  The development of the government
    center spurred technology such as architecture through the commission of
    public works and writing for the keeping of records.  The expansion of
    kingdoms led to a hierarchy of elites, often a nobility, that were needed
    as middle managers when the expanse of lands exceeded the ruler's ability
    to control directly.  The provinces of the Persian Empire, for example,
    were ruled like independent stores by satraps who owed tribute and
    allegiance to the king in Susa.
    Age: Stone
    Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center
    Cost: 200 Wood
    Hit Points: 350
    Note: The Granary lets you build walls and towers, including the Small
    Wall, Medium Wall, Fortification, Watch Tower, Sentry Tower, Guard Tower,
    and Ballista Tower.  You must research the Granary before you can built the
    Market.  Foragers and farmers can deposit food from Farms and forage sites
    at the Granary instead of the Town Center.  Researching Architecture
    increases the hit points and decreases the construction time of this
    building.  Following the advance of farming, humans faced the first time
    the happy problem of how to safely store large quantities of food grains.
    The Granary made it possible to preserve growing season surpluses for
    consumption during winter months.  The Granary was a central location where
    grain could be warehoused, guarded, and distributed fairly as needed.  The
    need to protect food supplies was an early reason for building walls and
    fortifications.  Without protection, the surpluses in the Granary were
    easily taken by raiders from nearby hunting and gathering groups.
    Age: Iron
    Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center and the Granary, and
    researched Watch Tower, upgraded to Sentry Tower, and upgraded to Guard
    Upgrade cost: 300 Food, 100 Stone
    Cost: 150 Stone
    Hit Points: 200
    Attack: 6
    Armor: -
    Range: 7
    Special: Fire rate once / 1.5 seconds
    Upgrade of: Sentry Tower
    Upgrade at: Granary
    Note: The Guard Tower has more hit points, attack strength, and range than
    the Sentry Tower.  The Guard Tower can be upgraded to the Ballista Tower.
    Towers are defensive structures that fire missiles at enemy villagers and
    military units within range.  Researching Architecture increases the
    construction time of this tower.  Alchemy increases attack strength.
    Ballistics increases accuracy.  Woodworking, Artisanship, and
    Craftsmanship, increase range.  The tower discovered on the wall at the
    ancient site of Jericho served several purposes.  It extended the visual
    range of lookouts that would be watching for the approach of raiders and
    other visitors.  An early warning might have been the difference between a
    successful defense and the fall of the town.  The tower was a superior
    firing position for archery.  Bowmen shooting down had an advantage in
    range and penetration power of arrows versus enemies shooting up.  Enemies
    hiding at the bottom of the wall may have remained visible to archers in the
    tower.  The tower itself was an independent bastion that could serve as the
    defensive position of last resort if the wall was carried.  The Guard Tower
    was a superior fortification, well- designed for holding out against attack
    and for bringing weapons to bear on an attacker.
    Age: Stone
    Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center.
    Cost: 30 Wood
    Hit points: 75
    Note: A House supports up to four villagers, military units, or boats.  You
    must have enough houses before you can create new units.  If a House is
    destroyed, you do not lose the units it supported, but you must build new
    houses before you can build new villagers, military units, or boats.
    Researching Architecture increases the hit points and decreases the
    construction time of this building.  Shelter increased in importance when
    humans expanded their range farther away from the equator in the wake of
    the receding ice sheets and into climates of wide seasonal variation.
    Growing hman populations quickly occupied the few natural shelters available
    in these areas.  The provision of man- made shelter made existence in
    challenging and variable climates possible.  Without houses, year- round
    populations could not have increased beyond minimums.
    Age: Tool
    Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center and Granary.
    Cost: 150 Wood
    Hit points: 350
    Note: The Market lets you build Farms, pay Tribute to other civilizations,
    and research technologies that improve your military units and the
    effectiveness of your villagers, including Woodworking, Artisanship,
    Craftsmanship, Stone Mining, Siegecraft, Gold mining, Coinage,
    Domestication, the Plow, Irrigation, and the Wheel.  You must build the
    Market before you can build the Government Center or Temple.  Researching
    Architecture increases the hit points and decreases the construction time
    of this building.  The specialization made possible by the development of
    agriculture created the need for a place where craftsmen could meet to
    barter their wares for those of others and for food.  The Market in each
    town and village was the place where barter and exchange took place.  The
    development of the Market marked the change from the small hunting/ foraging
    group that shared its harvest to the much more complex economy that rose
    with the rise of towns and cities.  Specialization resulted in efficiencies
    of scale and greater overall production fairly among the food providers
    and specialists.  The profit motive spurred innovation to increase
    production.  The potter, for example, looked for ways to make more and
    better pots for the same effort to increase the amount of food that he
    could obtain by trading pots.
    Age: Bronze
    Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center, Granary, researched
    Small Wall, and upgraded to Medium Wall.
    Upgrade Cost: 180 Food, 100 Stone
    Cost: 5 Stone
    Hit points: 300
    Upgrade of: Small Wall
    Upgrade at: Granary
    Note: The Medium Wall has more hit points than the Small Wall.  The Medium
    Wall can be upgraded to the Fortification.  Walls are defensive structures
    that can be built around your empire or important areas.  Villagers and
    military units cannot move through standing walls; however, they can attack
    the walls.  Stone Throwers, Catapults, Heavy Catapults, Ballistas, and the
    Helepolis are particularly effective for destroying walls.  Researching
    Architecture increases the hit points and decreases the construction time
    of this wall.  One of the earliest human setlements yet discovered is the
    city of Jericho near the Jordan River in modern Isreal.  This site from
    7000 B.C. is remarkable for possessing a stone masonry wall, dry moat
    around the wall, and a tower.  At an astonishingly early date, Jericho
    demonstrated that the ancients understood principles of fortification that
    would carry forward essentially unchanged until the development of
    gunpowder.  The Medium Wall is a defensive structure built of stone or other
    substantial construction to withstand a protracted attack.
    Age: Bronze
    Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center, Granary, researched
    Watch Tower, and upgraded to Sentry Tower.
    Upgrade cost: 120 Food, 50 Stone
    Cost: 150 Stone
    Hit points: 150
    Attack: 4
    Armor: -
    Range: 6
    Special: Fire rate once / 1.5 seconds
    Upgrade of: Watch Tower
    Upgrade at: Granary
    Note: The SEntry Tower has more hit points, attack strength, and range than
    the Watch Tower.  The Sentry Tower can be upgraded to the Guard Tower.
    Towers are defensive structures that fire missiles at enemy villagers and
    military units within range.  Researching Architecture increases the hit
    points and decreases the construction time of this tower.  Alchemy increases
    attack strength.  Ballistics increases accuracy.  Woodworking, Artisanship,
    and Craftsmanship increase range.  The tower discovered on the wall at the
    ancient site of Jericho served several purposes.  It extended the visual
    range of lookouts that would be watching for the approach of raiders and
    other visitors.  An early warning might have been the difference between a
    successful defense and the fall of the town.  The tower was a superior
    firing position for archery.  Bowmen shooting down had an advantage in
    range and penetration power of arrows versus enemies shooting up.  Enemies
    hiding at the bottom of the wall may have remained visible to archers in
    the tower.  The tower itself was an independent bastion that could serve as
    the defensive position of last resort if the wall was carried.  The Sentry
    Tower was an improved fortification of strong materials and designed for
    Age: Bronze
    Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center, Barracks, and Archery
    Cost: 200 Wood
    Hit Points: 350
    Note: The Siege Workshop lets you build siege weapons, including the Stone
    Thrower, Catapult, Heavy Catapult, Ballista, and Helepolis.  Researching
    Architecture increases the hit points and decreases the construction time
    of this building.  The earliest fortifications yet discovered date from
    7000 B.C., but evidence of siege weapons doesn't appear until much later.
    We can assume, however, that siege equipment was in use long before the
    first evidence that has survived.  Evidence of a scaling ladder does not
    appear until about 2500 B.C.  The earliest record of a simple battering
    ram comes from 1900 B.C.  Amore powerful ram plus the undermining of walls
    appears by 880 B.C.  The mobile siege tower first appears one hundred years
    later.  The catapult was invented by Greeks in 397 B.C.  There were no
    further significant advances in siege engines until the advent of gunpowder.
    Siege weapons were researched and built in siege workshops.
    Age: Tool
    Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center, Granary, and researched
    Small Wall.
    Research cost: 50 Food
    Cost: 5 Stone
    Hit points: 200
    Research at: Granary
    Note: The Small Wall is the wealest of the walls.  Upgrades include the
    Medium Wall and Fortification.  Walls are defensive structures that can be
    built around your empire or important areas.  Villagers and military units
    cannot move through standing walls; however, they can attack the walls.
    Stone Throwers, Catapults, Heavy Catapults, Ballistas, and the Helepolis
    are particularly effective for destroying walls.  Researching Architecture
    increases the hit points and decreases the construction time of this wall.
    Age: Tool
    Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center and Barracks.
    Cost: 150 Wood
    Hit points: 350
    Note: The Stable lets you train cavalry units, including the Scout, Cavalry,
    Heavy Cavalry, Cataphract, Chariot, and War Elephant.  You must build the
    Stable before you can build the Academy.  Researchinf Architecture increases
    hit points and decreases the construction time of this building.  The
    horses that survived the last Ice Age were relatively small animals unsuited
    for riding or pulling.  They were hunted out of existence in the Americas
    and domesticated first for food on the steppes of Asia.  Over many
    generations of selective breeding, they grew large enough to be of use other
    than as food.  One issue that had to be resolved was how to harness them
    without causing choking.  Humans eventually learned to ride, first from the
    rear, non- control position over the hips, and then from the forward
    position that we are familiar with today.  The first evidence of horses
    being ridden appears in the second millenium B.C., although it is generally
    accepted that they were ridden earlier in Asia.  The Stable represents the
    application of animals, primarily the horse, to warfare, first pulling
    chariots and then carrying warriors.  Detailed records survive from Assyria
    and elsewhere related to the acquisition, training, equipping, and
    employment of horses in battle.
    Age: Stone
    Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center
    Cost: 120 Wood
    Hit points: 350
    Note: The Storage Pit lets you research technologies that improve the armor
    and attack strength of military units, including Toolworking, Metalworking,
    Metallurgy, the Bronze Shield, the Iron Shield, Leather Armor for Infantry,
    Scale Armor for Infantry, Chain Mail for Infantry, Leather Armor for
    Cavalry, Scale Armor for Cavalry, Chain Mail for Cavalry, Leather Armor for
    Archery, Scale Armor for Archery, and Chain Mail for Archery.  Hunters,
    fishermen, and miners can deposit meat, fish, stone, wood, and gold at the
    Storage Pit instead at the Town Center.  Researching Architecture increases
    the hit points and dcreases the construction time of this building.  The
    storage pit was the functional equivalent of the granary, but for meat
    instead of grain.  Storing meat presented special problems because it
    spoiled so quickly and easily.  Meat was generally stored by drying or
    salting.  The Storage Pit also represents the tool- and weapon- making
    skill of hunting societies, leading eventually to metalworking, making war,
    and armor making.  In this capacity it also serves as a storehouse and
    collection point for the raw materials of tool and weapon making: wood,
    stone, and gold (representing all metals).
    Age: Bronze
    Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center, Granary, and Market.
    Cost: 200 Wood
    Hit Points: 350
    Note: The Temple lets you train Priests and research technologies that
    increase their powers, including Polytheism, Mysticism, Astrology,
    Monotheism, Afterlife, Jihad, and Fanaticism.  Researching Architecture
    increases the hit points and decreases the construction time of this
    building.  The temple was a religious center.  It was often the earthly
    home or point of communication with a particular god or goddess.  Priests
    or priestesses in the temple acted as the servants of the resident god or
    goddess and managed contact to and from the people, plus instruction,
    rituals, petitions, and answers to questions.  The most common form of
    petition was the prayer.  Another was the provision of gifts that supported
    the temple and its servants.  A less common petition was the sacrifice of
    animals or even humans.  The general belief of the time  was that the more
    elaborate a temple, the taller it was, and the more grand, the more disposed
    the god or goddess would be to provide good weather, rainfall, and crop
    yields, while keeping away pests, disease, and human invaders.
    Age: Stone
    Prerequisites: You must already have a Town Center, and you must have built
    the Granary, Market, and Government Center.
    Cost: 200 Wood
    Hit Points: 600
    Note:  The Town Center lets you create villagers and advance to the next
    Age.  It is also where villagers can deposit food, wood, gold, and stone.
    The Town Center supports four villagers, military units, or boats.  Priests
    cannot convert Town Centers.  After you build a Government Center, you can
    build additional Town Centers to expand your civilization's dominance and
    build Town Centers closer to distant resources.  You can also replace your
    Town Center if it is destroyed in combat.  Researching Architecture
    increases the hit points and decreases the construction time of this
    building.  Allvillages and towns had an administrative center that was the
    site of governmental power and leadership.  In the earliest villages this
    might have been the leader's home.  Later it might have been the king's
    palace.  The center was often the place where important supplies, especially
    food surpluses, were stored.  Vessels for storing grain and oil were found
    in the ruins of the Palace at Knossos of Crete.  Some of the earliest
    accounting records yet found were clay tablets left in long- forgotten
    storerooms in ancient Sumeria and in Hittite cities.  The destruction of the
    town center usually meant the destruction of the town's governmental
    Age: Tool
    Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center, Granary, and researched
    Watch Tower.
    Research Cost: 50 Food
    Cost: 150 Stone
    Hit points: 100
    Attack: 3
    Armor: -
    Range: 5
    Special: Fire rate once / 1.5 seconds
    Research at: Granary
    Note: The Watch Tower is the weakest of the towers.  Upgrades include the
    Sentry Tower, Guard Tower, and Ballista Tower.  Towers are defensive
    structures that fire missiles at enemy villagers and military units within
    range.  Researching Architecture increases hit points and decreases the
    construction time of this tower.  Alchemy increases attack strength.
    Ballistics increases accuracy.  Woodworking, Artisanship, and Craftsmanship
    increase range.  The Watch Tower was a simple tower, easily built, and
    intended mainly to give early warning.
    Age: Iron
    Prerequisites: Advance to the Iron Age
    Cost: 1000 Wood, 1000 Stone, 1000 Gold
    Hit points: 500
    Note: Building a Wonder can be a victory condition that wins the game or it
    can provide score points.  You can build more than one Wonder.  Researching
    Architecture increases the hit points and decreases the construction time
    of this building.  A Wonder is a massive structure, a crowning achievement
    of technology, resources, and construction time for civilizations that build
    one.  Examples of historic ancient wonders are the Egyptian Pyramid, the
    Great Wall of China, and the Athenian Acropolis.  You must advance to the
    Iron Age before you can build a Wonder.  Priests cannot convert a Wonder.
    4.     The Units
           A. Miscellaneous
    Age: Stone
    Prerequisites: Build the Town Center
    Cost: 50 Food
    Hit Points: 25
    Attack: 3
    Armor: 0
    Range: 0
    Speed: Medium
    Create at: Town Center
    Villagers can be assigned different tasks (these are mentioned much earlier in
    this FAQ).  Hunters and villagers used in combat have increased attack strength.
    Researching Stone Mining increases stone mining efficiency.  Siegecraft
    increases stone mining efficiency and allows villagers to destroy walls and
    buildings.  Gold Mining increases gold mining efficiency.  The Wheel increases
    speed.  Jihad increases combat strength.
    Most people of ancient times lived their lives working to make a living
    primarily as hunters, gatherers, and fishermen originally, and later as farmers
    and herders.  The agricultural revolution that began around 8000 B.C. freed
    more and more people from the daily persuit of substenance as food production
    became more dependable and efficient.  New specialists included potters,
    metalworkers, builders, scribes, leather workers, woodworkers, traders, and
    professional soldiers.  By the endo of the ancient period, food production
    employed less than half the population within civilized cultures.
    Age: Bronze
    Prerequisites: Build the Town Center, Granary, Market, and Temple.
    Cost: 125 Gold
    Hit Points: 25
    Attack: 0
    Armor: 0
    Range: 10
    Speed: Slow
    Train at: Temple
    A Priest heals friendly and allied units and converts enemy units. If your
    diplomacy is set to Neutral or Enemy, your military units will attack Priests
    from other civilizations.
    Researching Astrology allows faster conversions. Mysticism increases hit
    points. Polytheism increases speed. Fanaticism speeds Priest rejuvenation after
    conversion. Monotheism allows conversion of enemy Priests and buildings.
    Afterlife increases range.
           B. Infantry
    Age: Tool
    Prerequisites: Build the Town Center, Barracks, and upgrade to the Battle Axe
    Upgrade Cost: 100 Food
    Cost: 50 Food
    Hit Points: 50
    Attack: 5
    Armor: 0
    Range: 0
    Speed: Medium
    Upgrade Of: Clubman
    Train at: Barracks
    The Axeman has more hit points and attack strength than the Clubman.  The Axeman
    cannot be upgraded.  However, you can research the Short Swordsman, which is
    stronger than the Axeman.
    Researching Toolworking, Metalworking, and Metallurgy increases attack strength.
    Leather Armor, Scale Armor, and Chain Mail increase armor.  The Bronze Shield
    and Iron Shoeld increase piercing armor.
    The increasing population and wealth of the earliest civilizations made it
    possible to support standing armies available at all times for defense and
    attacking neighbors.  The first professional armies were probably built in
    Sumeria and Egypt.  These early civilizations had much time to protect and were
    sufficiently wealthy to provide protection.  Sumerian artwork from around 2500
    B.C. provides evidence of an early army, in this case lines of soldiers,
    possibly in formation, equipped with identical armor, helmets, and weapons.
    Age: Stone
    Prerequisites: Build the Town Center and the Barracks.
    Cost: 50 food
    Hit points: 40
    Attack: 3
    Armor: 0
    Range: 0
    Speed:  Medium
    Train at: Barracks
    The Clubman is the weakest of the infantry units.  The Clubman can be upgraded
    to the Axeman.
    Researching Toolworking, Metalworking, and Metallurgy increases their attack
    strength.  Leather Armor, Scale Armor, and Chain Mail increases their armor.
    The Bronze Shield and Iron Shield increases piercing armor.
    The first soldiers were local people called up for military duty in times of
    emergency.  These temporary soldiers were commonly armed with a mace, usually
    a club with a stone head.  This was an inexpensive weapon and one that could be
    used effectively with a minimum of training.  Clubmen were at a disadvantage,
    however, when facing the better- trained and armed professional soldiers that
    eventually appeared to defend the early farming civilizations.  The mace had
    little practical use other than in combat against humans.  It appeared  long
    before the first civilization, indicating that the roots of warfare go far back
    into prehistoric times.
    Age: Tool
    Prerequisites: Build the Town Center and the Barracks.
    Cost: 40 Food, 10 Stone
    Hit Points: 25
    Attack: 2
    Armor: 0
    Range: 4
    Speed: Medium
    Special: +2 attack against archers; +2 armor against missile weapons, Ballista,
             Helepolis; increased attack against walls and towers
    Train at: Barracks
    The Slinger is an infantry unit used to defend against early archer and Watch
    Tower attacks.
    Bronze Shield, Iron Shield, and Tower Shield increase piercing armor.  Alchemy
    increases attack strength.  Stone Mining and Siegecraft increase attack
    strength and range.
    Note: Slingers do not get armor upgrades from Leather Armor, Scale Armor, and
    Chain Mail.
    =Short Swordsman=
    Age: Bronze
    Prerequisites: Build the Town Center, Barracks, and research Short Sword.
    Research Cost: 120 Food, 50 Gold
    Cost: 35 Food, 15 Gold
    Hit Points: 60
    Attack: 7
    Armor: 1
    Range: 0
    Speed: Medium
    Train at: Barracks
    The Short Swordsman is not an upgrade of the Axeman.  It is a seperate unit with
    more hit points, attack strength, and armor than the Axeman.  The Short
    Swordsman can be upgraded to the Broad Swordsman.
    Researching Toolworking, Metalworking, and Metallurgy increases attack strength.
    Leather Armor, Scale Armor, and Chain Mail increase armor.  The Bronze Shield
    and Iron Shield increase piercing armor.
    The short sword represents an evolutionary step in infantry weapons.  The spear,
    mace, and axe were relatively easy to manufacture and use, but somewhat
    cumbersome in actual hand-to-hand combat.  Following the discovery of bronze,
    it became possible to manufacture short swords that were basically enlarged and
    strengthened knives.  These were much easier to wield in hand-to-hand combat
    and improved the effectiveness of infantry who carried them.  Short swords were
    carried as a second weapon by spearmen or pikemen, such as the Greek hoplites.
    The most famous short sword of antiquity was the gladius adopted by the Roman
    legions from the Spanish allies of Carthage.  The gladius was especially
    effective in the dense legion fighing formations that presses tightly against
    their opponents and restricted movement.
    =Broad Swordsman=
    Age: Bronze
    Prerequisites: Build the Town Center, Barracks, research the Short Sword, and
                   upgrade to Broad Sword.
    Upgrade Cost: 140 Food, 50 Gold
    Cost: 35 Food, 15 Gold
    Hit Points: 70
    Attack: 9
    Armor: 1
    Range: 0
    Speed: Medium
    Upgrade of: Short Swordsman
    Train at: Barracks
    The Broad Swordsman has more hit points, attack strength, and armor than the
    Short Swordsman.  The Broad Swordsman can be upgraded to the Long Swordsman.
    Researching Toolworking, Metalworking, and Metallurgy increases attack strength.
    Leather armor, Scale Armor, and Chain Mail increase armor.  The Bronze Shield
    and Iron Shield increase piercing armor.
    The appearance of bronze short swords led to further advances in weaponry as
    competing cultures sought an advantage in military technology over their
    neighbors.  Where the early short sword was primarily a piercing weapon, the
    broad sword evolved as a slashing weapon.  The width of the blade increased
    strength sufficently to support a slashing attack that could cut into armor and
    break short swords designed for stabbing.
    =Long Swordsman=
    Age: Iron
    Prerequisites: Build the Town Center, Barracks, research the Short Sword,
                   upgrade to the Broad Sword, and upgrade to the Long Sword.
    Upgrade Cost: 160 Food, 50 Gold
    Cost: 35 Food, 15 Gold
    Hit Points: 80
    Attack: 11
    Armor: 2
    Range: 0
    Speed: Medium
    Upgrade of: Broad Swordsman
    Train at: Barracks
    The Long Swordsman has more hit points, attack strength, and armor than the
    Broad Swordsman.  The Long Swordsman can be upgraded to the Legion.
    Researching Toolworking, Metallworking, and Mettalurgy increases attack
    strength.  Leather Armor, Scale Armor, and Chain Mail increase armor.  The
    Bronze Shield and Iron Shield increase piercing armor.
    The long sword represents the culmination of infantry weapon development in
    antiquity.  It was designed for both piercing and slashing, combining the best
    of both the short and broad swords.  The long sword was make possible first by
    advances in bronzeworking and improved by the discovery of iron.  Some 
    historians believe that the development of long swords by barbarian cultures 
    was a key factor in the catastrophe of 1200 B.C., when most of the civilized 
    cultures of the Mediterranean and Middle East were overrun.  The long sword in 
    various forms remained an important military weapon until the advent of 
    Age: Iron
    Prerequisites: Build the Town Center, Barracks, research the Short Sword,
                   upgrade to the Broad Sword, upgrade to the Long Sword, research
                   Fanaticism, and upgrade to Legion.
    Upgrade Cost: 1400 Food, 600 Gold
    Cost: 35 Food, 15 Gold
    Hit Points: 160
    Attack: 13
    Armor: 2
    Range: 0
    Speed: Medium
    Upgrade to: Long Swordsman
    Train at: Barracks
    The Legion is the ultimate infantry unit.  The Legion has many more hit points
    and more attack strength than the Long Swordsman.  You must research Fanaticism
    before you can upgrade to Legion.
    Researching Toolworking, Metalworing, and Metallurgy increases attack strength.
    Leather Armor, Scale Armor, and Chain Mail increase armor.  The Bronze Shield
    and Iron Shield increase piercing armor.
    The Roman legion was the ultimate military formation of antiquity.  The legion
    was a 4200-man unit at full strength, broken down into 120-man units called
    maniples.  Most of the maniples went into battle as separate blocks of men in
    a square formation that looked something like a checkerboard from above.  Ten
    maniples fought as skirmishers in loose order to the front line of blocks.
    They attacled the enemy infantry line with sling stones, arrows, and javelins
    as the two armies closed and then fell back between gaps in the blocks.  They
    may have moved to the edges of the battle to protect the Roman line and harass
    the enemy line.  The heavy infantry blocks moved forward, throwning javelins
    just before the clash.  Gaps in the blocks may have been filled in by a second
    row of blocks containing more experienced soldiers.  The third and final row of
    blocks was the smallest but contained the most experienced veterans who served
    as the legion's reserve.  The basic legion might have attached cavalry, archers,
    engineers, and artillery, depending on the task before it.  At its peak, the
    Roman Empire had legions deployed all along its frontiers, defending against
    barbarians, putting down revolts, expanding the empire, and maintaining order.
    Age: Bronze
    Prerequisites: Build the Town Center, Barracks, Stable, and Academy.
    Cost: 60 Food, 40 Gold
    Hit Points: 120
    Attack: 17
    Armor: 5
    Range: 0
    Speed: Slow
    Train at: Academy
    The Hoplite is the weakest of the elite infantry units.  Upgrades include the
    Phalanx and Centurion.
    Researching Toolworking, Metalworking, and Metallurgy increases attack strength.
    Leather Armor, Scale Armor, and Chain Mail increase armor.  The Bronze Shield
    and Iron Shield increase piercing armor.  Aristocracy increases speed.
    Greek infantry soldiers of the Classical Age were called hoplites, from the name
    of their large shields, called hoplons.  For battle they wore a cuirass
    (breastplate), helmet, and greaves.  They were armed with a long spear or pike
    and sword.  Hoplite armies fought each other hand-to-hand in the dense phalanx
    formation that faced the enemy with a bristling wall of spear points staggered
    at chest level.  Fighting at close range in such a formation required a
    commitment to training and discipline that became a way of life.  Hoplites were
    the best infantry units in the world for many centuries until being supplanted
    by the more flexible and functional Roman legionnaires.
    Age: Iron
    Prerequisites:  Build the Town Center, Barracks, Stable, Academy, and upgrade
                    to Phalanx.
    Upgrade cost: 300 Food, 100 Gold
    Cost: 60 Food, 40 Gold
    Hit points: 120
    Attack: 20
    Armor: 7
    Range: 0
    Speed: Slow
    Upgrade of: Hoplite
    Train at: Academy
    The Phalanx has more attack strength and armor than the Hoplite. The
    Phalanx can be upgraded to the Centurion.
    Researching Toolworking, Metalworking, and Metallurgy increases attack
    strength.  Leather Armor, Scale Armor, and Chain Mail increase armor. The
    Bronze Shield and Iron Shield increase piercing armor. Aristocracy increases
    The phalanx was a Greek heavy infantry formation used from about 800 B.C. to
    the conquest of Greece by the Romans in the second century B.C.  The Greek
    infantry, called hoplites, formed a square that could quickly face in any of
    four directions.  Each man carried a pike or spear up to 12 feet in length.  As
    the formation advanced, it presented an imposing wall of spear points to its
    front.  Hoplites carried a large shield and wore a bronze helmet, cuirass
    (breastplate), and graves.  All free men in the Greek city-states trained in the
    phalanx.  The discipline and drill required to make the phalanx work permeated
    the entire Greek culture.  Greek infantry fighting from the phalanx was the
    finest in the western world for several centuries.  No other infantry faced it
    in hand-to-hand combat and won until the new tactics of combined arms made it
    obsolete.  The last great success of the phalanx was in Alexanger the Great's
    campaign against the Persians, although in that army, it fought as part of a
    combined arms army.
    Age: Iron
    Prerequisites: Build the Town Center, Barracks, Stable, Academy, upgrade to
                   Phalanx, research Aristocracy, and upgrade to Centurion.
    Upgrade cost: 1800 Food, 700 Gold
    Cost: 60 Food, 40 Gold
    Hit points: 160
    Attack: 30
    Armor: 8
    Range: 0
    Speed: Slow
    Upgrade of: Phalanx
    Train at: Academy
    The Centurion is the ultimate elite infantry unit. It has more hit
    points, attack strength, and armor than the Phalanx. You must research
    Aristocracy before you can upgrade to the Centurion.
    Researching Toolworking, Metalworking, and Metallurgy increases attack strength.
    Leather Armor, Scale Armor, and Chain Mail increase armor.  The Bronze Shield
    and Iron Shield increase piercing armor.  Aristocracy increases speed.
    The smallest tactical unit in the Roman army trusted with independent maneuver
    was the 120-man maniple.  Each maniple was commanded by a centurion, a veteran
    promoted from the ranks after demonstrating bravery, skill, discipline, and
    leadership.  The maniple was roughly equivalent to the modern infantry company,
    and the centurion was a combination of modern infantry captain and top sergeant.
    Centurions were the backbone of the legions that build and defended the Roman
           C. Archery
    Age: Tool
    Prerequisites: Build the Town Center, Barracks, and Archery Range.
    Cost: 40 Food, 20 Wood
    Hit points: 35
    Attack: 3
    Armor: 0
    Range: 5
    Speed: Medium
    Train at: Archery Range
    The Bowman is the weakest of the archers. The Bowman cannot be upgraded.
    However, you can research the Improved Bowman, which is stronger than
    the Bowman. Other archers include the Chariot Archer, Elephant Archer,
    and Horse Archer.
    Archers fire arrows at enemy villagers, military units, boats, and buildings
    within their range.
    Researching Alchemy increases attack strength. Ballistics increases accuracy.
    Leather Armor, Scale Armor, and Chain Mail increase armor.  Woodworking,
    Artisanship, and Craftsmanship increase range.
    The bow was an important military weapon from the time of the first armies, 
    being easily adopted from hunting animals to warfare.  Archers required less 
    discipline and leadership in battle because they were not expected to engage in 
    hand-to-hand combat, a terrifying experience.  Bowmen fought from a distance on 
    the battlefield, from behind walls or other cover, and from ambush.  They were
    usually not decisive in battle on attack because they could not physically take
    ground from the enemy like infantry could.  They acted mainly as defensive 
    troops that disrupted enemy formations prior to the decisive moment when the 
    infantry clashed.  If barrages of arrows could cause casualties and lower 
    morale of the enemy prior to the clash, friendly infantry had a better chance 
    of breaking the will of the enemy infantry had being victorious.
    =Improved Bowman=
    Age: Bronze
    Prerequisites: Build the Town Center, Barracks, Archery Range, and research
                   Improved Bow.
    Research cost: 140 Food, 80 Wood
    Cost: 40 Food, 20 Gold
    Hit points: 40
    Attack: 4
    Armor: 0
    Range: 6
    Speed: Medium
    Train at: Archery Range
    The Improved Bowman is not an upgrade of the Bowman. It is a separate
    unit with more hit points, attack strength, and range than the Bowman.
    The Improved Bowman can be upgraded to the Composite Bowman.
    Archers fire arrows at enemy villagers, military units, boats, and buildings
    within their range.
    Researching Alchemy increases attack strength.  Ballistics increases accuracy.
    Leather Armor, Scale Armor, and Chain Mail increase armor. Woodworking,
    Artisanship, and Craftsmanship increase range.
    The simple bow was improved by using better materials and by better training.
    Employing better wood or strips of laminated wood increased the tensile strength
    of the bow, increasing power and thus range.  Arrows were improved also by such
    changes as matal arrowheads.  In modern times, hundreds of bronze arrowheads
    were recovered from an archaelogical excavation of the battlefield at
    Thermopylae.  On this site, a Spartan force under Leonidas had perished under
    a hail of Persian arrows after delaying the huge Persian army for many days.
    =Composite Bowman=
    Age: Bronze
    Prerequisites: Build the Town Center, Barracks, Archery Range, research
                   Improved Bow, and upgrade to Composite Bow.
    Upgrade cost: 180 Food, 100 Wood
    Cost: 40 Food, 20 Gold
    Hit points: 45
    Attack: 5
    Armor: 0
    Range: 7
    Speed: Medium
    Upgrade of: Improved Bowman
    Train at: Archery Range
    The Composite Bowman has more hit points, attack strength, and range
    than the Improved Bowman. Other archery units include the Horse Archer
    and Elephant Archer.
    Archers fire arrows at enemy villagers, military units, boats, and buildings
    within their range.
    Researching Alchemy increases attack strength. Ballistics increases accuracy.
    Leather Armor, Scale Armor, and Chain Mail increase armor. Woodworking,
    Artisanship, and Craftsmanship increase range.
    The composite bow was developed in Asia was also known as the oriental or
    recurved bow.  It reached the Mediterranean and Middle East by the beginning of
    the second millennium B.C.  It was made of layers of wood glued together rather
    than a single piece.  The composite material was then bent outward at each end
    to increase tension.  The result was a very powerful bow that doubled the
    effective range of the short bow.  Egyptian engravings depicting the Battle of
    Kadesh show Rameses II and other Egyptian archers using composite bows.
    =Chariot Archer=
    Age: Bronze
    Prerequisites: Build the Town Center, Barracks, Archery Range, and research
    Cost: 40 Food, 70 Wood
    Hit points: 70
    Attack: 4
    Armor: 0
    Range: 7
    Speed: Fast
    Special: High resistance to conversion; triple attack against Priests.
    Train at: Archery Range
    The Chariot Archer is a powerful archery unit that combines the speed
    and mobility of the Chariot and the attack strength of the Improved
    Bowman. Other mounted archery units include the Elephant Archer, Horse
    Archer, and Heavy Horse Archer. You must research the Wheel before you
    can train Chariot Archers.
    Researching Nobility increases hit points.  Researching Alchemy increases
    attack strength. Ballistics increases accuracy. Leather Armor, Scale Armor, and
    Chain Mail increase armor.  Woodworking, Artisanship, and Craftsmanship increase
    Around 1700 B.C., two existing technologies of military consequence, the chariot
    and the bow, were merged to create a fearsome new military weapon--the chariot
    archer.  Armored archers carried in fast chariots dominated the battlefields of
    the civilized world for the next 500 years and remained useful for some time
    after that.  In the open ground of the settled plains and river valleys, the
    chariot archer was devastating due to its speed, mass, and firepower.  Chariot
    archers were typified by the Egyptian nobility and pharaohs of the New Kingdom,
    1552-1069 B.C., who prided themselves of their archery.  The first recorded
    battle of history.  Megiddo in 1460 B.C., was fought with chariot carrying
    The chariot archer was the dominating battlefield weapon from China to Greece
    from about 1600 to 1200 B.C., according to the historical and archaelogical
    record.  The long reign of chariot armies was due to several factors, including
    most importantly the placement of a composite bow archer in the basket with the
    driver and using the chariot as a mobile firing platform.  The fast-firing
    chariot archer was devastating against slow, poorly armored infantry in the
    open areas of the civilized cultures.  The glorious vision of elite archers from
    the nobility fighting from their expensive chariots and wheeling around the
    battlefields at will prevaded all civilized cultures of the time.
    =Elephant Archer=
    Age: Iron
    Prerequisites: Build the Town Center, Barracks, and Archery Range.
    Cost: 180 Food, 60 Gold
    Hit points: 600
    Attack: 5
    Armor: 0
    Range: 7
    Speed: Slow
    Train at: Archery Range
    The Elephant Archer combines the hit points of the War Elephant and the
    attack strength and range of the Composite Bowman. Other mounted archery
    units include the Chariot Archer, Horse Archer, and Heavy Horse Archer.
    Researching Alchemy increases attack strength. Ballistics increases
    accuracy. Leather Armor, Scale Armor, and Chain Mail increase armor.
    Woodworking, Artisanship, and Craftsmanship increase range.
    Attempting to use elephants in combat posed a number of problems, including the
    central one of how the elephant would fight and cause casualties.  One answer
    was to place a box on the elephant's back from which archers could shoot.  The
    archers were protected by the box and could fire down into the melee below.
    That worked only as long as the elephant remained standing and within range of
    the enemy.  In the years following the death of Alexander the Great, many
    western kings adorned their armies of ancient India used elephants more
    succuesfully for many centuries.
    =Horse Archer=
    Age: Iron
    Prerequisites: Build the Town Center, Barracks, and Archery Range.
    Cost: 50 Food, 70 Gold
    Hit points: 60
    Attack: 7
    Armor: 0
    Piercing Armor: 2
    Range: 7
    Speed: Fast
    Special: +2 piercing armor against Ballista, Helepolis, and missile weapons.
    Train at: Archery Range
    The Horse Archer is a fast archery unit with strong attack strength and
    range. The Horse Archer can be upgraded to the Heavy Horse Archer.
    Other mounted archery units include the Chariot Archer and Elephant
    Researching Nobility increases hit points. Researching Alchemy increases attack
    strength. Ballistics increases accuracy.  Leather Armor, Scale Armor, and Chain
    Mail increase armor. Woodworking, Artisanship, and Craftsmanship increase range.
    The chariot archer was replaced eventually on many ancient battlefields by
    horse archers.  This transition took place during the dark age following 1200
    B.C.  Mounted warriors fighting with composite bows made up many of the
    barbarian armies on the Asia steppes.  This type of unit was embraced by the
    Assyrians first and eventually by their rivals.  Two horse archers had twice
    the firepower of one chariot archer, were much more flexible in where they could
    go on the battlefield, were only half eliminated by the loss of one horse, and
    avoided the expense of the chariot itself.  Horse archers rarely dominated
    fighting as the chariot archers had, however, because advances in armor and
    tactics relegated horse archers to a supportive role.  The hordes of horse
    archers employed by the Persians against Alexander, for example, were no match
    for his Companion cavalry, heavy Greek infantry, and skirmish troops.  The
    Great Wall of Chine was built to restrict the movements of barbarian horse
    archers from the north.
    =Heavy Horse Archer=
    Age: Iron
    Prerequisites: Build the Town Center, Barracks, Archery Range, research Chain
                   Mail for Archers, and upgrade to Heavy Horse.
    Upgrade cost: 1750 Food, 800 Gold
    Cost: 50 Food, 70 Gold
    Hit points: 90
    Attack: 8
    Armor: 0
    Piercing Armor: 2
    Range: 7
    Speed: Fast
    Special: +2 piercing armor against Ballista, Helepolis, and missile weapons.
    Upgrade of: Horse Archer
    Train at: Archery Range
    The Heavy Horse Archer has more hit points and attack strength than the
    Horse Archer. You must research Chain Mail for Archers before you can
    train the Heavy Horse Archer.
    Researching Nobility increases hit points.  Researching Alchemy increases
    attack strength. Ballistics increases accuracy. Leather Armor, Scale Armor, and
    Chain Mail increase armor.  Woodworking, Artisanship, and Craftsmanship
    increase range.
    In a few armies of the late ancient period the Horse Archer was equipped with
    helmet and limited body armor.  This made the archer less vulnerable to arrows
    himself.  The Heavy Horse Archer could get closer to the enemy and do more
    damage with bow fire with less risk to himself.  Heavy Horse Archers were not a
    common unit, however.  They were difficult to train, except for those cultures
    who were hoesr archers by common practice.  Body armor for archers was a luxury
    that most armies could not afford.
           D. Cavalry
    Age: Tool
    Prerequisites: Build the Town Center, Barracks, and Stable.
    Cost: 100 Food
    Hit points: 60
    Attack: 3
    Armor: 0
    Range: 0
    Speed: Fast
    Train at: Stable
    The Scout is the weakest cavalry unit. The Scout cannot be upgraded.
    However, you can train Cavalry, which is stronger than the Scout. Other
    cavalry units include Heavy Cavalry, Cataphract, Chariot, and War
    Researching Nobility increases hit points. Toolworking, Metalworking, and
    Metallurgy increase attack strength.  Leather Armor, Scale Armor, and Chain
    Mail increase armor.
    An important innovation in military tactics was the provision of skirmish, or
    light, troops that scouted ahead of the main body when an army was on the move.
    While it was important to form solid, disciplined ranks of spearman or other
    infantry for the shock of hand-to-hand combat, these dense formations were
    vulnerable to surprise.  It was the functional of scouts to keep the army
    commander informed of the tactical situation and locate enemies so the main body
    was brought into combat at the right place and time.  At the Battle of Kadesh in
    1275 B.C., Ramses II of Egypt did not investigate reports that the Hittite army
    was far to the north.  Instead he advanced one of his four divisions across the
    Orontes River and was attacked while his second was still crossing.  Ramses
    managed to win the battle, but the lack of proper scouting put his army in
    =Camel Rider=
    Age: Bronze
    Prerequisites: Build the Town Center, Barracks, and Stable.
    Cost: 70 Food, 60 Gold
    Hit Points: 126
    Attack: 6
    Armor: 0
    Range: 0
    Speed: Fast
    Special: Attack bonus against all cavalry, horse archers, and chariots.
    Train at: Stable
    The Camel Rider is used by desert civilizations to defend against cavalry
    attacks.  Camel Riders do not receive a cavalry bonus against infantry.
    Nobility increases hit points.  Toolworking, Metalworking, and Metallurgy
    increase attack strength.  Leather armor, Scale armor, and Chain Mail increase
    Age: Bronze
    Prerequisites: Build the Town Center,  Barracks, Stable, and research Wheel.
    Cost: 40 Food, 60 Wood
    Hit points: 100
    Attack: 7
    Armor: 0
    Range: 0
    Speed: Fast
    Special: High resistance to conversion; double attack against Priest.
    Train at: Stable
    The Chariot is a fast, two-wheel cavalry unit pulled by horses. You
    must research the Wheel before you can build the Chariot.
    Researching Nobility increases hit points. Toolworking, Metalworking, and
    Metallurgy increase attack strength. Leather Armor, Scale Armor, and Chain Mail
    increase armor.
    Chariots originated in Sumeria before 2500 B.C. as four-wheeled carts pulled by
    onogers.  These chariots were slow and cumbersome compared to later chariots,
    but provided a protected platform for spearman and archers.  How they were used
    in combat remains unclear, although all charging animals were intimidating on
    the battlefield.  At this time, the horse was not widely domesticated in the
    civilized  parts of the world.  In the first half of the second millennium B.C.,
    the chariot basket was reduced in size and mounted on only two wheels.  Horses
    were substituted eventually to provide greater speed.  The fast two-wheeled
    chariot was especially intimidating in battle because of its speed and the shock
    value of charging horses.  At this time horses were rarely being ridden.
    Charioteers became the elite of the civilized armies for the next 600 or so
    years.  Chariots were often manned by the nobility because of their elite 
    status, the glory to be won, and the high cost of building and maintaining 
    chariots and their horse teams.
    =Scythe Chariot=
    Age: Iron
    Prerequisites: Build the Town Center, Barracks, Stable, research the Wheel and
    Cost: 1200 Wood, 800 Gold
    Hit Points: 120
    Attack: 9
    Armor: 2
    Range: 0
    Speed: Fast
    Special: High resistance to conversion; double attack against Priests.  Scythed
             wheels damage adjacent enemy units.
    Train at: Stable
    The Scythe Chariot is an upgrade of the Chariot.  It has more hit points, more
    attack strength, and more armor.
    Toolworking, Metalworking, and Metallurgy increase attack strength.  Leather
    Armor, Scale Armor, and Chain Mail increase armor.
    Age: Bronze
    Prerequisites: Build the Town Center, Barracks, and Stable.
    Cost: 70 Food, 80 Gold
    Hit points: 150
    Attack: 8
    Armor: 0
    Range: 0
    Speed: Fast
    Special: Cavalry charge bonus (+5 attack against infantry)
    Train at: Stable
    Cavalry is not an upgrade of the Scout. It is a separate unit with more
    hit points and attack strength (including +5 attack against infantry,
    except for slinger) than the Scout. Cavalry can be upgraded to Heavy
    Cavalry. Other cavalry units include the Chariot and War Elephant.
    Researching Nobility increases hit points. Toolworking, Metalworking,
    and Metallurgy increase attack strength. Leather Armor, Scale Armor,
    and Chain Mail increase armor.
    Horses were domesticated around 4000 B.C. for use as work animals.  They first
    appeared in the Middle East around 2000 B.C. but were kept only as expensive
    pets.  Gradually they were found useful in the civilized world as draft animals,
    but were rarely ridden.  The concept of cavalry was introduced to the Assyrians
    from the plains of Russia during the dark age that followed the catastrophe of
    1200 B.C.  The Assyrians added cavalry to their armies in order to fight the
    barbarians on the plains to their north.  Israelite kind Solomon was renowned
    for his large cavalry force.  It eventually became clear that cavalry was more
    efficient that cnariots.  Two men, each on his horse, were more useful that two
    men in a chariot that could be disabled with increasing ease.  Cavalry was
    cheaper tomaintain that chariotry and could enter more difficult terrain, but
    was no less fast and intimidating to infantry.
    =Heavy Cavalry=
    Age: Iron
    Prerequisites: Build the Town Center, Barracks, Stable, train Cavalry, and
                   upgrade to Heavy Cavalry.
    Upgrade cost: 350 Food, 125 Gold
    Cost: 70 Food, 80 Gold
    Hit points: 150
    Attack: 10
    Armor: 1
    Piercing Armor: 1
    Range: 0
    Speed: Fast
    Special: Cavalry charge bonus (+5 attack against infantry); +1 piercing armor
            against Ballista, Helepolis, and missile weapons.
    Upgrade of: Cavalry
    Train at: Stable
    Heavy Cavalry has more attack strength and armor (including +1 armor against
    missile weapons) than Cavalry. Heavy Cavalry can be upgraded to the Cataphract.
    Other cavalry units include the Chariot and War Elephant.
    Researching Nobility increases hit points. Toolworking, Metalworking, and
    Metallurgy increase attack strength. Leather Armor, Scale Armor, and Chain Mail
    increase armor.
    Heavy cavalry was distinguished from other cavalry by equipment and battlefield
    role.  It was considered heavy because the warriors and horses usually wore some
    metal armor, including breastplates, helmets, and greaves.  The horses were also
    oversized to more easily carry an armored man and to intimidate foes.  While
    most cavalry acted as skirmishers and scouts on the battlefield, heavy cavalry
    was a shock weapon, held back for the proper moment to charge into enemy
    formations and ride them down.  Heavy cavalry was rare in antiquity because the
    saddle and stirrup had not yet been invented.  It took an excellent rider to
    ride into a shock batle and use a lance effectively.  The most famous heavy
    cavalry of the time was the Companion cavalry of Alexander the Great.  These
    men were horsemen from birth on the plains of Thessaly and Macedon.  Part of
    their devastating success in battle against the Persians may have been due to
    the novelty of their wedge-shaped charges, unprecedented at that time.
    Age: Iron
    Prerequisites: Build the Town Center, Barracks, Stable, research Cavalry,
                   upgrade to Heavy Cavalry, research Metallurgy, and upgrade to
    Upgrade cost: 2000 Food, 850 Gold
    Cost: 70 Food, 80 Gold
    Hit points: 180
    Attack: 12
    Armor: 3
    Piercing Armor: 1
    Range: 0
    Speed: Fast
    Special: Cavalry charge bonus (+5 attack against infantry); +1 piercing armor
             against Ballista, Helepolis, and missile weapons.
    Upgrade of: Heavy Cavalry
    Train at: Stable
    The Cataphract is the ultimate cavalry unit. The Cataphract has more hit points,
    attack strength and armor than Heavy Cavalry. You must research Metallurgy
    before you can upgrade to the Cataphract. Other cavalry units include the
    Chariot and War Elephant.
    Researching Nobility increases hit points. Toolworking, Metalworking, and
    Metallurgy increase attack strength. Leather Armor, Scale Armor, and Chain Mail
    increase armor.
    The cataphract was an improvement on ancient heavy cavalry represented by
    Alexander the Great's Companions.  The Companions wore only helmets, greaves,
    and cuirass (breastplate).  Cataphracts wore chain mail that covered more of the
    body and often armored their horses partially also.  This gave greater 
    protection against arrows and hand-to-hand weapons.  Cataphracts were very 
    expensive to equip, however, and appeared in the armies of only the most 
    warlike and wealthy cultures.
    =War Elephant=
    Age: Iron
    Prerequisites: Build the Town Center, Barracks, and Stable.
    Cost: 170 Food, 40 Gold
    Hit points: 600
    Attack: 15
    Armor: 0
    Range: 0
    Speed: Slow
    Special: Trample damage to all adjacent enemy units; attack strength cannot be
    Train at: Stable
    The War Elephant is a cavalry unit with many hit points and special
    attack. The War Elephant causes trample damage to all adjacent enemy
    units. The War Elephant's attack strength cannot be upgraded because
    it already causes so much damage to other units. For example, if ten
    men attack a War Elephant, all ten men receive 15 points of damage, so
    that the War Elephant causes 150 points of damage per round.
    Researching Leather Armor, Scale Armor, and Chain Mail increases armor.
    Elephants were tamed in antiquity but never domesticated.  They were most useful
    as beasts of burden, but were employed in battle by several cultures, including
    the Phoenicians, Persians, and Indians.  Elephanmts were much more intimidating
    than horses and much tougher as well.  In addition, horses avoided elephants,
    making elephants, in theory, a great weapon against enemy cavalry.  In practice,
    unfortunately, elephants rarely proved useful.  They were difficult to acquire,
    train, and maintain.  Hannibal attempted to take elephants across the Alps to
    attack Rome, but only one survived.  No account of Alexander the Great's battles
    makes any mention of Persian elephants being effective.  Elephants were 
    difficult to control in battle and were likely to charge in any direction but 
    the one desired, especially after being wounded.  They were apparently more 
    dangerous to friend than foe, being already nearer to friends and most likely 
    to charge away from perceived danger through the friendly army arrayed around 
    =Armored Elephant=
    Age: Iron
    Prerequisites: Build the Town Center, Barracks, Stable and research Iron Shield.
    Upgrade Cost: 1000 Food, 1200 Gold
    Cost: 600
    Attack: 18
    Armor: 2
    Range: 0
    Speed: Slow
    Special: Trample damage against all adjacent enemy units; attack strength 
    cannot be upgraded. Increased attacking vs. walls and towers; +1 armor against 
    missile weapons, Ballista, and Helepolis
    Upgrade Of: War Elephant
    Train at: Stable
    The Armored Elephant is an upgrade of the War Elephant. The Armored Elephant 
    has Siegecraft, more attack strength, armor and piercing armor. 
    Leather Armor, Scale Armor, and Chain Mail increase armor.
           E. Siege Weapons
    =Stone Thrower=
    Age: Bronze
    Prerequisites: Build the Town Center, Barracks, Archery Range, and Siege 
    Cost: 180 Wood, 80 Gold
    Hit points: 75
    Attack: 50
    Armor: 0
    Range: 10
    Speed: Slow
    Special: Fire rate once/5 seconds; small damage area; minimum range 2.
    Build at: Siege Workshop
    The Stone Thrower is the weakest of the siege weapons. Upgrades
    include the Catapult and Heavy Catapult. Other siege weapons include
    the Ballista and Helepolis.
    Siege weapons are used to attack military units, buildings, towers, and walls.
    Researching Alchemy increases attack strength. Ballistics increases accuracy.
    Engineering increases range.
    The stone thrower was an artillery weapon based on the principle of the lever.
    The stone thrower fired a heavy missile, usually a large stone or stone wrapped
    in burning oily rage.  The missile was placed in a large basket at the end of
    the throwing arm.  Tension was built up on the other end of the arm while the
    throwing basket was held taut against the fulcrum.  When released, the throwing
    arm swung up and forward until checked, throwing the missile.  Stone throwers
    were used primarily against fixed positions, especially cities and 
    fortifications.  Stones were used to knock down walls to open way of an 
    infantry assault.  Fireballs set wood rubble on fire, buring out the 
    defenders.  Small stone throwers were also used on the battlefield to disrupt 
    massed enemy fortifications, although the enemy rarely easy targets within 
    range.  The stone thrower was invented around 400 B.C. by Greeks seeking to 
    capture an island fortress off the coast of Sicily.
    Age: Iron
    Prerequisites: Build the Town Center, Barracks, Archery Range, Siege Workshop,
                   and upgrade to Catapult.
    Upgrade cost: 300 Food, 250 Wood
    Cost: 180 Wood, 80 Gold
    Hit points: 75
    Attack: 60
    Armor: 0
    Range: 12
    Speed: Slow
    Special: Fire rate once/5 seconds; medium damage area; minimum range 2.
    Upgrade of: Stone Thrower
    Build at: Siege Workshop
    The Catapult has more attack strength and range and damages a larger
    area than the Stone Thrower. The Catapult can be upgraded to the Heavy
    Catapult. Other siege weapons include the Ballista and Helepolis.
    Siege weapons are used to attack military units, buildings, towers, and walls.
    Researching Alchemy increases attack strength. Ballistics increases accuracy.
    Engineering increases range.
    The stone thrower continued to evolve over time following its invention around
    400 B.C.  Improvements increased the size or range of the missile and the
    mobility of the catapult.
    =Heavy Catapult=
    Age: Iron
    Prerequisites: Build the Town Center, Barracks, Archery Range, Siege Workshop,
                   upgrade to Catapult, research Siegecraft, and upgrade to Heavy
    Upgrade cost: 1800 Food, 900 Wood
    Cost: 180 Wood, 80 Gold
    Hit points: 150
    Attack: 60
    Range: 13
    Speed: Slow
    Special: Fire rate once/5 seconds; large damage area; minimum range 2.
    Upgrade of: Catapult
    Build at: Siege Workshop
    The Heavy Catapult has many more hit points and more range than the Catapult.
    You must research Siegecraft before you can upgrade to the Heavy Catapult.
    Other siege weapons include the Ballista and Helepolis.
    Siege weapons are used to attack military units, buildings, towers, and walls.
    Researching Alchemy increases attack strength.  Ballistics increases accuracy.
    Engineering increases range.
    The heavy catapult was a powerful siege weapon, representing the greatest 
    advance in siege weaponry during ancient times.  It was employed against 
    fortifications and on the battlefield.  It broke down fortification walls, 
    allowing attackers to break in.  On the battlefield, smaller missiles could be 
    fired in a shower against dense formations of soldiers to cause casualties and 
    disrupt morale at long range.  Enemy armies that could be softened and shaken 
    before the hand-to-hand clash of infantry were at a decided desadvantage.
    Age: Iron
    Prerequisites: Build the Town Center, Barracks, Archery Range, and Siege
    Cost: 100 Wood, 80 Gold
    Hit points: 55
    Attack: 40
    Range: 9
    Speed: Slow
    Special: Fire rate once/3 seconds; minimum range 3.
    Build at: Siege Workshop
    The Ballista can be upgraded to the Helepolis. Other siege weapons include the
    Catapult and Heavy Catapult.
    Ballistas are used to attack military units, buildings, towers, and walls.
    Researching Alchemy increases attack strength. Ballistics increases accuracy.
    Engineering increases range.
    The ballista was an early artillery weapon that fired missiles, primarily large
    bolts or spears.  It was used in attacks on cities or fortified positions
    because it could cause structural damage and casualties from a great distance.
    When it could be deployed on a battlefield, it was especially useful against
    dense formations of troops.  In this situation, one shot could cause multiple
    casualties.  The ballista was invented in the second half of the first 
    millennium B.C., probably by Greek engineers.  It functioned like a large 
    crossbow.  Tension was built up in the engine by twisting leather, and then 
    released, propelling the missile down a guided trough and into flight.
    Age: Iron
    Prerequisites: Build the Town Center, Barracks, Archery Range, Siege Workshop,
                   research Craftsmanship, upgrade to Helepolis.
    Upgrade cost: 1500 Food, 1000 Wood
    Cost: 100 Wood, 80 Gold
    Hit points: 55
    Attack: 40
    Range: 10
    Speed: Slow
    Special: Fire rate once/1.5 seconds; minimum range 3.
    Upgrade of: Ballista
    Build at: Siege Workshop
    The Helepolis has more range and a faster fire rate than the Ballista.  You
    must research Craftsmanship before you can upgrade to the Helepolis. Other
    siege weapons include the Catapult and Heavy Catapult.
    The Helepolis is used to attack military units, buildings, towers, and walls.
    Researching Alchemy increases attack strength.  Ballistics increases accuracy.
    Engineering increases range.
    The helepolis (Greek for "city killer") was one of the most advanced weapons of
    antiquity and a remarkable demonstration of ancient engineering ingenuity.  It
    was in fact an automatic siege weapon that fired ballista bolts.  The top
    loading lagazine of the helepolis was a horizontal funnel in which were laid
    bundles of bolts.  These were fed by gravity into the chanber of the weapon.  A
    clever gearing mechanism automatically recocked the helepolis and fired.  Human
    operators needed only to keep it loaded and aimed, plus providing power by
    cranking.  The original of the machine was abandoned outside the city of Rhodes
    when a besieging army withdrew.  It has been reconstructed on paper from
    contemporary sketches and descriptions of that only known example.
           F. Boats
    =Fishing Boat=
    Age: Stone
    Prerequisites: Build the Town Center and the Dock.
    Cost: 50 Wood
    Hit points: 45
    Attack: 0
    Armor: 0
    Range: 0
    Speed: Medium
    Special: Boats are twice as resistant to conversion as other units.
    Build at: Dock
    The Fishing Boat provides food by gathering fish and depositing them at
    the Dock. The cargo capacity of a Fishing Boat is greater than the
    carrying capacity of a villager. The Fishing Boat can be upgraded to
    the Fishing Ship.
    The Fishing Boat represents a small, vessel for use by one or a few fishermen.
    The first boats were probably dugout canous, made from a single large log.  
    These were excavated by fire and adze.  Despite the passage of time and great
    technological advances in all areas, there are more log- hull boats in use today
    of any other single type.
    =Fishing Ship=
    Age: Bronze
    Prerequisites: Build the Town Center, Dock, and upgrade to Fishing Ship.
    Upgrade cost: 50 Food, 100 Wood
    Cost: 50 Wood
    Hit points: 75
    Attack: 0
    Armor: 0
    Range: 0
    Speed: Fast
    Special: Boats are twice as resistant to conversion as other units.
    Upgrade of: Fishing Boat
    Build at: Dock
    The Fishing Ship has more hit points and is faster than the Fishing Boat.
    The never-ending quest for food eventually enticed humans out onto lakes, 
    rivers, and oceans in search of fish.  Fish of greater size and variety were 
    often found in deeper offshore waters.  Fishing ships, larger than small 
    canoes, were developed to control larger nets.  Fishing ships were able to hold 
    greater quantities of processed fish before return to land was required.
    =Trade Boat=
    Age: Stone
    Prerequisites: Build the Town Center and the Dock.
    Cost: 100 Wood
    Hit points: 200
    Attack: 0
    Armor: 0
    Range: 0
    Speed: Fast
    Special: Boats are twice as resistant to conversion as other units.
    Build at: Dock
    The Trade Boat lets you trade with other civilizations to increase your
    stockpile of gold. The Trade Boat can be upgraded to the Merchant Ship.
    Small boats were used by Stone-Age peoples for trading across rivers, lakes, and
    oceans.  We know, for example, that tool stone found on Aegean Islands was
    brought to the mainland and other islands by traders long before large seagoing
    boats existed.  Primitive trading boats were usually dugout canoes, papyrus
    bundles, or hide boats with a limited cargo capacity.  They probably carried
    only limited quantities of valuable trade goods, such as carvings, ivory, furs,
    tool stone, decorative minerals, and amber.  Large bulk cargos could not be
    carried profitably in small trading boats.
    =Merchant Ship=
    Age: Bronze
    Prerequisites: Build the Town Center, Dock, and upgrade to Merchant Ship.
    Upgrade cost: 200 Food, 75 Wood
    Cost: 100 Wood
    Hit points: 250
    Attack: 0
    Armor: 0
    Range: 0
    Speed: Fast
    Special: Boats are twice as resistant to conversion as other units.
    Upgrade of: Trade Boat
    Build at: Dock
    The Merchant Ship lets you trade with other civilizations to increase your
    stockpile of gold. It is faster and has more hit points than the Trade Boat.
    As civilization spread around the Mediterranean Sea, Indian Ocean, and China 
    Sea, larger trading ships came into use to carry bulk cargos such as olive oil 
    from Greece, cedar wood from Lebanon, grain from Egypt, and rice from China.  
    Typical ancient Merchant Ships had keels and were built of planks, but did not 
    have interior framing.  They carried a single mast for a mainsail and were 
    steered with a large paddle.  Their broad beam allowed for cargos far beyond 
    those of dugout canoes.  Recent underwater discoveries of ancient merchant 
    ships indicate they had good sailing qualities and required only a small crew.
    =Light Transport=
    Age: Tool
    Prerequisites: Build the Town Center and the Dock.
    Cost: 150 Wood
    Hit points: 150
    Attack: 0
    Armor: 0
    Range: 0
    Speed: Medium
    Special: Boats are twice as resistant to conversion as other units.
    Build at: Dock
    The Light Transport lets you transport up to five villagers, military
    units, or Artifacts across water. The Light Transport can be upgraded
    to the Heavy Transport.
    The earliest use of boats in war was probably to carry men across rivers, lakes,
    or seas to raid and plunder.  The most suitable boat for this purpose was built
    as a compromise between speed and capacity.  Raiders did not want to spend long
    periods in boats making a crossing and needed to surprise their enemies.  The
    boat also had to carry a reasonable number of raiders and have room for anyone
    to be brought back.  The fastest boats of ancient times were galleys powered
    by sails when possible but mainly by oars.  The Greek penteconter with 50 oars
    was a common transport from troops.  In most cases, the crew of oarsmen became
    raiders when they reached their destination.
    =Heavy Transport=
    Age: Iron
    Prerequisites: Build the Town Center, Dock, and upgrade to Heavy Transport.
    Upgrade cost: 150 Food, 125 Wood
    Cost: 150 Wood
    Hit points: 200
    Attack: 0
    Armor: 0
    Range: 0
    Speed: Fast
    Special: Boats are twice as resistant to conversion as other units.
    Upgrade of: Light Transport
    Build at: Dock
    The Heavy Transport lets you transport up to ten villagers, military units, or
    Artifacts across water. The Heavy Transport has more hit points, is faster, and
    carries more units than the Light Transport.
    Ships build carrying military units replaced smaller galleys when armies grew
    larger and targets became more valuable and better defended.  It became 
    necessary to move ever-larger armies for invasion, and to bring siege engines 
    and supplies along for extended sieges of coastal cities.  The Heavy Transport 
    represents a large sailing ship, something like a Merchant Ship, build mainly 
    for capacity at the expense of speed.
    =Scout Ship=
    Age: Tool
    Prerequisites: Build the Town Center and the Dock.
    Cost: 135 Wood
    Hit points: 120
    Attack: 5
    Armor: 0
    Range: 5
    Speed: Fast
    Special: Boats are twice as resistant to conversion as other units.
    Build at: Dock
    The Scout Ship is the weakest of the war vessels. Upgrades include the War
    Galley and Trireme. Other war ships include the Catapult Trireme and
    War vessels fire at enemy villagers, military units, and boats within range.
    Researching Alchemy increases attack strength.  Ballistics increases accuracy.
    Woodworking, Artisanship, and Craftsmanship increase range.
    The first true warships built to attack and sink other ships were galleys with
    a heavy ram mounted at the front.  The warship attempted to ram an enemy ship
    and stave in its hull, causing it to take on water if not sink.  Early warships
    were almost oar-powered torpedos, consisting of a light, floating hull manned by
    oarsmen.  A sail, if present, was used only in transit, not in battle.
    =War Galley=
    Age: Bronze
    Prerequisites: Build the Town Center, Dock, and upgrade to War Galley.
    Upgrade cost: 150 Food, 75 Wood
    Cost: 135 Wood
    Hit points: 160
    Attack: 8
    Armor: 0
    Range: 6
    Speed: Fast
    Special: Boats are twice as resistant to conversion as other units.
    Upgrade of: Scout Ship
    Build at: Dock
    The War Galley has more hit points, attack strength, and range than a Scout
    Ship. The War Galley can be upgraded to the Trireme.
    War vessels fire at enemy villagers, military units, and boats within range.
    Researching Alchemy increases attack strength. Ballistics increases accuracy.
    Woodworking, Artisanship, and Craftsmanship increase range.
    The appearance of the ram triggered an arms race in ship design.  Hulls were
    strengthened to support ever-heavier rams on the bow.  As hulls grew larger,
    more oarsmen were required to provide power.  A deck was added and a second
    group of oarsmen was placed there.  This increased power without increasing
    length, but the deck made the ship somewhat instable.  A ship with two levels
    of rowers was called a bireme.
    =Fire Galley=
    Age: Iron
    Prerequisites: Build the Town Center, Dock, and upgrade to War Galley.
    Cost: 115 Wood, 40 Gold
    Hit Points: 200
    Attack: 24
    Armor: 0
    Range: 1
    Speed: Fast
    Special: Boats are twice as resistant to conversion as other units. +5 damage 
             from Ballista, Helepolis, +10 from other seige weapons
    The Fire Galley is a short range vessel used to defend other ships. Fire 
    Galleys are superior to Triremes in one-on-one combat. Fire Galleys take 
    additional damage from Ballistics, Helepolises, Stone Throwers, Catapults, 
    Heavy Catapults and Juggernauts, whose heavy artillery can shatter the Fire 
    Galley's burning fire pots and set fire to the ship. 
    Research Alchemy increase attack strength. 
    Note: You can't build Fire Galleys if you select the Full Tech Tree option 
    before starting a game.
    Age: Iron
    Prerequisites: Build the Town Center, Dock, upgrade to War Galley, and upgrade
                   to Trireme.
    Upgrade cost: 250 Food, 100 Wood
    Cost: 135 Wood
    Hit points: 200
    Attack: 12
    Armor: 0
    Range: 7
    Speed: Fast
    Special: Boats are twice as resistant to conversion as other units; fire rate
             once/2 seconds.
    Upgrade of: War Galley
    Build at: Dock
    The Trireme has more hit points, attack strength, and range than a War Galley.
    The Trireme cannot be upgraded. However, you can research the Catapult Trireme,
    which is stronger than the Trireme.
    War vessels fire at enemy villagers, military units, and boats within range.
    Researching Alchemy increases attack strength. Ballistics increases accuracy.
    Woodworking, Artisanship, and Craftsmanship increase range.
    Ancient ship designers tried numerous tricks to get more power for warships,
    including putting more men on single oars.  The most successful was a trireme,
    three tiers of single rowers per side.  This ship provided resonable
    maneuverability and speed.  It appeared around 600 B.C. and made up the bulk of
    Mediterranean navies for several hundred years after 500 B.C.
    =Catapult Trireme=
    Age: Iron
    Prerequisites: Build the Town Center, Dock, upgrade to War Galley, upgrade to
                   Trireme, and research Catapult Trireme.
    Research cost: 300 Food, 100 Wood
    Cost: 135 Wood, 75 Gold
    Hit points: 120
    Attack: 35
    Armor: 0
    Range: 9
    Speed: Fast
    Special: Boats are twice as resistant to conversion as other units; fire rate
             once/5 seconds; small damage area.
    Build at: Dock
    The Catapult Trireme is not an upgrade of the Trireme. It is a separate vessel
    with fewer hit points and a slower fire rate than a Trireme but it has much
    more attack strength, range, and is armed with a Catapult, which can fire at a
    location instead of at a particular unit. The Catapult Trireme can be upgraded
    to the Juggernaught.
    War vessels fire at enemy villagers, military units, and boats within range.
    Researching Alchemy increases attack strength. Ballistics increases accuracy.
    Engineering increases range.
    The ultimate warships of antiquity were advances on the trireme that occurred
    after the death of Alexander the Great.  These ships were first broadened so
    that multiple rowers could apply power to each oar.  Based on limited
    descriptions and detailed figures from crew and rowers, it is believed that the
    largest ships of this perios may have had catamaran hulls.  The broadening of
    ships and decks added weight and further reduced speed and maneuverability, but
    increased stability.  Decks supported catapult artillery and large marine
    contigents.  Ships engaged each other primarily with missile fire and boarding.
    Age: Iron
    Prerequisites: Build the Town Center, Dock, upgrade to War Galley, upgrade to
                   Trireme, research Catapult Trireme, research Engineering,
                   and upgrade to Juggernaught.
    Upgrade cost: 2000 Food, 900 Wood
    Cost: 135 Wood, 75 Gold
    Hit points: 200
    Attack: 35
    Armor: 0
    Range: 10
    Speed: Fast
    Special: Boats are twice as resistant to conversion as other units; fire rate
             once/5 seconds; medium damage area.
    Upgrade of: Catapult Trireme
    Build at: Dock
    The Juggernaught has more hit points and range and causes damage to a larger
    area than the Catapult Trireme. Like the Catapult Trireme, the Juggernaught is
    armed with a Catapult, which can fire at a location instead of at a particular
    unit. You must research Engineering before you can upgrade to the Juggernaught.
    War vessels fire at enemy villagers, military units, and boats within range.
    Researching Alchemy increases attack strength. Ballistics increases accuracy.
    Engineering increases range.
    The most remarkable advances in war ships appeared on the Mediterranean before
    the conquest of the entire region by Rome.  These ships could reach enormous
    size, carrying crews of several thousand rowers and marines.  They fought by
    firing catapults at each other until close enough to grapple and board.  The
    largest were too slow to effectively ram each other.  Because of their size and
    slowness, they could not operate far from shore and needed substantial support
    from supply ships carrying food and water for the crew.  The largest were show
    ships, built in an arms race that emphasized size and expense instead of
    5.     Technologies
           A. Storage Pit
    Age: Tool Age
    Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center and Storage Pit.
    Cost: 100 Food
    Benefit: This provides a +2 attack for your hand- to- hand units.
    Note: The first metals put to use were those found in a relatively pure
    state on the earth's surface, including gold, silver, and copper.  Gold
    could be worked in its natural state.  Experimentation with it eventually
    suggested electrum (a natural alloy of gold and silver) and copper could
    also be hammered into useful shapes.  Learning how to extract copper from
    ore and shape it into tools was an important milestone in the rise of
    civilization because it opened the door first to making bronze and then
    to making iron.  Cast copper tools were an important advance over stone
    tools, but were too soft to have a long, useful life.  The discovery of
    bronze, made by alloying a small amount of tin with copper, ushered in a
    2000- year Bronze Age.  Cast bronze tools dramatically increased the
    efficiency of workers.  Bronze weapons were superior to those made of
    stone and copper.  Armies equipped with bronze swords, spears, and
    arrowheads had a critical advantage over more poorly equipped armies.
    Age: Bronze
    Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center and Storage Pit, and
    researched Toolworking.
    Cost: 200 Food, 120 Gold
    Benefit: This provides a +2 attack for your hand- to- hand units.
    Note: The discovery and use of iron to make tools and weapons was one of
    the most important advances in civilization.  Some historians consider the
    use of iron to be one of the distinguishing characteristics separating
    civilization from barbarism because the new tools were less brittle, could
    hold better edges, and held edges for a longer time without resharpening.
    Most importantly, iron ore was much easier to locate than copper and tin,
    making iron tools cheaper and more readily available.  By 1000 B.C., iron
    tools were being made that were as good as the best ones of bronze; by 500
    B.C., iron had largely supplanted bronze from Europe and Asia.  The expanse
    and scarcity of bronze had restricted its use to the elite and wealthy.
    Iron tools and weapons were available to nearly everyone.
    Age: Iron
    Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center and Storage Pit, and
    researched Toolworking and Metalworking.
    Cost: 300 Food, 180 Gold
    Benefit: This provides a +3 attack for your hand- to- hand units.
    Note: You must research Metallurgy before you can upgrade to the
    Cataphract.  The use of iron spread throughout the Mediterranean, Middle
    East, and Asia during the first millenium B.C., and some areas became
    especially adept at the new science.  Certain campgrounds added to the
    molten metal increased the strength of the resulting tools.  New forging
    techniques also resulted in better tools.  The best iron tool workers made
    superior weapons that were an important advantage in battle.
    Age: Bronze
    Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center and Storage Pit.
    Cost: 150 Food, 180 Gold
    Benefit: This provides a +1 armor against the Ballista, Helepolis, and
    missile weapons.
    Note: The shield was probably the first piece of military equipment
    developed to protect a warrior.  The earliest were made of wood or wood
    and hide, and were in various shapes.  They were carried in the hand or on
    the forearm and used to ward off blows or missiles in battle.  Shield
    designs and materials evolved to keep up with advances in weapons.  Wood
    and hide shields were easy to smash with bronze weapons, so bronze shields
    were developed.  Bronze shields also provided better defense against
    missiles.  Arrows, especially with metal points, were prone to lodge in
    wooden shields.  This increased the weight of the shield and made it more
    unwieldy.  Roman legions threw spears at barbarian formations mainly so
    they would pierce and weigh down the enemy's shield just before closing.
    Arrows and other missiles deflected off bronze shields without penetration.
    Age: Iron
    Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center and Storage Pit, and
    researched the Bronze Shield.
    Cost: 200 Food, 320 Gold
    Benefit: This provides a +1 armor against the Ballista, Heleoplis, and
    missile weapons.
    Note: The iron shield replaced the bronze shield when swords and other
    weapons of iron became common. Iron shields were not only expensive to
    make, but also more effective in stopping all hand- to- hand and missile
    weapons.  The basic iron shield remained in use until firearms made
    personal shields on the battlefield obsolete.
    Age: Iron
    Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center, Storage Pit, researched 
    Bronze Shield, and researched Iron Shield.
    Cost: 250 Food, 400 Gold
    Benefit: +1 infantry armor against Ballista, Helepolis, and missile weapons.
    Note: The Romans adopted a tall rectangular shield that gave them advantages in
    battle when used properly.  The size of the shield protected more of the body. 
    The Romans fought in tight rectangular formations of approximately 100 men 
    called maniples.  The shields of the men in the maniple presented a continuous 
    front, or shield wall, which protected them greatly from missile fire.  They 
    developed a formation variant called Testudo (turtle).  In this formation, the 
    shields covered all four sides and the heads of the men, allowing them to 
    advance under missile fire.  This was useful when advancing toward a gap in an 
    enemy wall.
    Age: Tool
    Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center and Storage Pit.
    Cost: 100 Food
    Benefit: This provides a +2 armor for your Archery Range units.
    Note: Soldiers have sought ways to protect themselves in combat since the
    beginnings of warfare.  Long before the use of metals, leather was
    employed to make helmets and body armor that could stop, or at least
    soften, blows from blunt and edged weapons.  Leather was easy to work
    with, it was light and not overly restrictive of movement, it could be
    fitted to the wearer, and it was usually plentiful and inexpensive.
    Leather remained an important material for body armor throughout the
    Bronze Age due to the high cost of metal armor.  It wasn't until far into
    the Iron Age that metal armor was available for common soldiers.
    Age: Bronze
    Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center and Storage Pit, and
    researched Leather Armor for Archers.
    Cost: 125 Food, 50 Gold
    Benefit: This provides a +2 armor for your Archery Range units.
    Note: The use of metals to make weapons was matched by using metals to
    make better armor.  Among the first improvements in widespread use were
    breastplates and greaves of bronze.  The breastplate protected the torso
    while greaves protected the legs below the knee.  Both of these items
    protected only the front of the soldier, saving the weight and cost that
    all- around protection would entail.  Breastplates and greaves were worn
    by hoplites of the phalanx, for example, during the glory years of
    Greece.  When used together with a large shield and bronze helmet, they
    left little of the soldier's body exposed to attack.  Bronze armor was an
    example of scale armor, or plate armor, in which metal plates provided
    Age: Iron
    Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center and Storage Pit, and
    researched Leather Armor and Scale Armor for Archers.
    Cost: 150 Food, 100 Gold
    Benefits: This provides a +2 armor for your Archery Range units.
    Note: Chain mail was a type of body armor made of iron circlets woven
    together into a cloak.  The interlocking chains of iron protected the body
    somewhat from weapons that slashed or pounded.  Chain mail was also
    flexible and allowed more freedom of body movement than armor made of
    metal plates.  The disadvantages of chain mail were that it required a lot
    of care, was heavy, and was expensive to make.  Chain mail was worn only
    by wealthy or powerful individuals who could purchase or demand its
    Age: Tool
    Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center and Storage Pit.
    Cost: 125 Food
    Benefits: This provides a +2 armor for your Stable units.
    Note: The same as above.
    Age: Bronze
    Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center and Storage Pit, and
    researched Leather Armor for Cavalry.
    Cost: 150 Food, 50 Gold
    Benefit: This provides a +2 armor for your Stable units.
    Note: The same as above.
    Age: Iron
    Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center and Storage Pit, and
    researched Leather and Scale Armor for Cavalry.
    Cost: 175 Food, 100 Gold
    Benefits: This provides a +2 armor for your Stable units.
    Note: The same as above.
    Age: Tool
    Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center and Storage Pit.
    Cost: 75 Food
    Benefits: This provides a +2 armor for your Barracks and Academy units.
    Note: The same as above.
    Age: Bronze
    Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center and Storage Pit, and
    researched Leather Armor for Infantry.
    Cost: 100 Food, 50 Gold
    Benefits: This provides a +2 armor for your Barracks and Academy units.
    Note: The same as above.
    Age: Iron
    Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center and Storage Pit, and
    researched Leather and Scale Armor for Infantry.
    Cost: 125 Food, 100 Gold
    Benefits: This provides a +2 armor for your Barracks and Academy units.
    Note: The same as above.
           B. Market
    Age: Bronze
    Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center, Granary, and Market.
    Cost: 175 Food, 75 Wood
    Benefits: Villager speed is increased by 30%.
    Note: You must research the Wheel before you can build a Chariot or
    Chariot Archer.  The use of the wheel for transport was discovered in
    Sumeria sometime after 3400 B.C. and derived from the potter's wheel that
    appeared first.  The Sumerians learned that in a small cart, a donkey
    could pull a load equal to three times what it could carry on its back.
    The wheel revolutionized transport and had an important impact on the
    battlefield as well.  By the Bronze Age, chariot archers were dominating
    warfare on the open plains.  The wheel was apparently used only for
    children's toys in ancient America, probably because of the rough
    geography and the lack of an animal like the ox or horse.
    Age: Tool
    Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center, Granary, and Market.
    Cost: 120 Food, 75 Wood
    Benefits: You receive a +2 woodcutting ability and a +1 range for missile
    Note: The small stone blades that characterized the New Stone Age
    (neolithic period) made possible finer techniques in many areas, including
    woodworking.  The larger and more unweildy stone tools of the past were
    capable of crude cutting and carving only.  Better woodworking improved
    other tools and weapons, making possible the bow and arrow and spear
    Age: Bronze
    Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center, Granary, and Market,
    and researched Woodworking.
    Cost: 170 Food, 120 Gold
    Benefits: You receive a +2 woodcutting ability and a +1 range for missile
    Note: The discovery and use of first copper and then the much more useful
    bronze tools and weapons was a dramatic leap in technology.  Bronze,
    especially, posessed a hardness, strength, and ability to hold an edge
    that far surpassed the best stone tools, making it much more useful when
    working with stone, wood, hides, meat, and other materials.  Cultures that
    used bronze had a decided economic and military advantage over those that
    did not.
    Age: Iron
    Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center, Granary, and Market,
    and researched Gold Mining.
    Cost: 200 Food, 100 Gold
    Benefits: This provides you with free tribute and increases your Gold
    Mining productivity by 25%.
    Note: The first true coins were minted in ancient Lydia, now part of
    modern Turkey.  These first coins were made from electrum, a naturally
    ocurring malleable alloy of gold and silver.  Coins, and money in general,
    proved an important facilitator of trade and economic progress.  Money
    acted as a storehouse of value, a medium of exchange, and a standard of
    value, as it continues to do today.  Following the conquest of the Persian
    Empire, the concept of coinage or as adopted by the Greeks and spread by
    them throughout the Hellenistic world.
    Age: Iron
    Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center, Granary, and Market,
    and researched Woodworking and Artisanship.
    Cost: 240 Food, 200 Wood
    Benefits: You receive a +2 woodcutting ability and +1 range for missile
    Note: You must research Craftsmanship before you can upgrade to the
    Helepolis.  The discovery of inexpensive ways to make iron was as great a
    technological leap over bronze making as bronze was over stone.  Iron
    surpassed bronze in every critical characteristic- hardness, strength, and
    the ability to hold an edge before needing to be resharpened- Plus one.
    Iron was much easier to acquire than were copper and tin, making it
    available to all cultures and for all uses.  Historians consider the
    ability to make and use iron ore one of the distinctions between barbaric
    and civilized culture.
    Age: Tool
    Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center and Granary, and
    researched Market.
    Cost: 200 Food, 50 Wood
    Benefits: You receive a 75% increase of food production to your farms.
    Note: The revolution in agriculture involved both the development of
    animals.  The ability to control and manage herds of milk- and meat-
    producing animals also served to free humans from the drudging and
    desperation of continual hunting and gathering.  Herding did not lead
    necessarily to a sedentary village life, however.  The need to find pasture
    often meant that herding societies remained nomadic, at least for part of
    the year.  Domesticated sheep and goats first appear in the archaelogical
    record around 7500 B.C. in the Zagros Mountains to the east of the Tigro
    and Euphrates River valleys.  Cattle were domesticated around 600 B.C. in
    both the Sahara and Egypt, perhaps near simultaneously.  Domestication of
    cattle alone may have been for responsible for a doubling of world human
    population in a few generations.
    Age: Tool
    Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center, Granary, and Market.
    Cost: 100 Food, 50 Stone
    Benefits: Your stone mining is increased by +3.
    Note: Wood for building was scarce in most places where civilizations
    first arose.  Vast forests just did not exist in these predominately arid
    regions.  The principle building material for common uses was mud bricks,
    sun- dried at first and then fire- baked.  In some areas important
    structures such as temples, palaces, tombs, and fortifications were built
    of stone when it was available.  Much information about ancient Egypt was
    preserved because of the permanence of stone.  Equilalent structures in
    Mesopotamia collapsed into mounds of earth after many centuries of neglect
    and weathering.  Acquiring non- wood building  materials through brick
    making or quarrying was the object of Stone Mining.
    Age: Tool
    Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center, Granary, and Market.
    Cost: 120 Food, 100 Wood
    Benefits: The gold mining production is increased by +3.
    Note: Gold washed down the hills and mountains was probably the 1st metal
    with which humans experimented.  It was sufficiently soft and pure to be
    fashioned easily into objects of beauty for adornment and trade.  The
    value of gold remained high as populations increased because of demand for
    it continued to exceed supply.  Because of this value, the trail of gold
    was followed back to the source of the alluvial nuggets.  Gold mining was
    developed to obtain ore from which the pure metal could be extracted.
    Many of the most beautiful objects that survive from antiquity are made of
    gold, including hundreds of items from the Egyptian Pharaoh, Tutankhamen's
    Age: Iron
    Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center, Granary, and Market,
    and researched Stone Mining.
    Cost: 190 Food, 100 Stone
    Benefits: Villagers can destroy walls and towers, and your stone mining
    ablity is increased by +3.
    Note: You must research Siegecraft before you can upgrade to the Heavy
    Catapult.  Despite the written records and depictions of cities and
    fortifications being stormed with the aid of siege equipment, starvation
    was the only certain and effective way to take strongholds before the
    gunpowder age.  The defender of a strong position, with adequate troops,
    food, and water, had all the advantages.  Physical assault of strongholds
    was a difficult proposition accompanied regularly only by those armies
    posessing siegecraft- the necessary equipment, resolve, leadership, elan,
    discipline, and skill.  Examples from ancient history were the army of
    Alexander the Great that conducted 20 sieges over a ten- year period, most
    after the fall of the Persian Empire; the Hittites, the Assyrians, and the
    Age: Bronze
    Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center, Granary, and Market,
    and researched Domestication.
    Cost: 250 Food, 75 Wood
    Benefits: You receive a 75% food production increase to your farms.
    Note: The first agriculturists planted seeds by hand using digging sticks
    to open the ground.  The invention of the plow made it possible to more
    easily prepare farmland for planting.  The plow ripped open long rows for
    seeding, burying unwanted plants and cutting unwanted roots in the
    process.  When pulled behind domesticated animals, such as oxen, food
    production per farmer and per acre again increased.  The plow has
    continued to evolve since ancient times.  For example, U.S. President
    Thomas Jefferson invented an improved version.
    Age: Iron
    Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center, Granary, and Market,
    and researched Domestication and the Plow.
    Cost: 300 Food, 100 Wood
    Benefits: You receive a 75% food production increase to your farms.
    Note: One of the key steps in the agricultural revolution was
    understanding and managing irrigation.  Observation of the natural world
    revealed eventually the relationship between planted seeds, good soils,
    sunlight, water, and resultant crops.  Large- scale irrigation in both
    Mesopotamia and Egypt turned the rich but arid soils near the rivers into
    rich farmlands and made possible the rise of the great civilizations on
    earth.  Building the dams and channels to irrigate these lands required
    sophistication of government, construction, and engineering not seen
    previously in any society.
           C. Government
    Age: Iron
    Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center, Granary, Market, and
    Government Center.
    Cost: 250 Food, 200 Gold
    Benefits: You receive a +1 attack ability for your siege and missile
    Note: The beginnings of chemistry can be traced back to ancient attempts
    to make gold and silver out of base metals, to find a universal cure for
    disease, and to discover secrets of prolonging life.  The experiments and
    secrecy of the alchemists gave them an aura of mystery and magic.
    Alchemists were both feared and sought out for help.  In an ancient world
    of little scientific understanding, mystery, and magic had power.
    Age: Bronze
    Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center, Granary, Market, and
    Government Center.
    Cost: 150 Food, 175 Wood
    Benefits: Building construction is increased by +33% and the hit points of
    your buildings and walls are increased by +20%.
    Note: The art and science of designing and constructing buildings arose
    from the practical need to provide first shelter, then storage for food
    reserves, and then defenses for both.  One of the specializations that
    appeared in the first towns was the builder whose skills and techniques
    continue to evolve today.  Builders and architects worked with the
    materials available to construct buildings and fortifications.  Over time
    new techniques of architecture improved the efficiency, strength, and
    utility of construction.
    Age: Iron
    Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center, Granary, Market, and
    Government Center.
    Cost: 175 Food, 150 Gold
    Benefits: The speed of your Academy units is increased by +25%.
    Note: The Aristocracy was a privileged class, usually hereditary, that
    arose within many cultures.  Aristocrats generally derived their power
    from control of farmland and the attendant infrastructure of people,
    towns, and manufacturing- supported food production.  They kept power at
    the pleasure of the ruler, as long as they acceded to his wishes.
    Aristocrats may also have had military responsibility, especially when on
    the frontier of the kingdom or empire.  In many cultures the aristocrats
    provided the senior officer corps or elite troops of the army.  Commanders
    of the armies and navies of Athens, for example, were elected from among
    the aristocracy of landowners.
    Age: Iron
    Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center, Granary, Market, and
    Government Center.
    Cost: 200 Food, 50 Gold
    Benefits: It increases the accuracy of missile and siege weapons.
    Note: You must research Ballistics before you can upgrade to the Ballista
    Tower.  The use of missile weapons for war presented challenges that
    hunting with the bow did not.  Hunters stalked game and shot ideally at a
    stationary target.  War targets were often armored, partially shielded, or
    moving.  Effective use of the bow and other missile weapons required
    tactics and training.  Bowmen of low skill were taught to fire in barrages
    at an area rather than at specific targets.  Better- trained archers
    learned to shoot for specific parts of the target, including the horses of
    chariots or cavalry.  Ballistics, the study of projectile flight, was
    derived from the name of an ancient missile weapon, the Ballista.
    Age: Iron
    Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center, Granary, Market, and
    Government Center.
    Cost: 200 Food, 100 Wood
    Benefits: The range for your siege weapons is increased by +2.
    Note: You must research Engineering before you can upgrade to the
    Juggernaught.  Ancient engineers were able to build remarkable structures
    even though the raw materials and tools with which they could work were
    often limited.  The Egyptian pyramids, for example, were built of multiton
    stone blocks using only the fulcrum and lever, wedge, ramp, sledge, and
    rollers.  The pyramid builders of 2600 B.C. used tools made only of wood
    and copper.  Advances in engineering were slow and based primarily on
    practical experience until advances in mathematics, especially from the
    Greeks, led to the new experimentation and techniques.
    Age: Bronze
    Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center, Granary, Market, and
    Government Center.
    Cost: 175 Food, 120 Gold
    Benefits: There is a hit point bonus of +15% for Cavalry units, Chariot,
    Chariot Archer, Horse Archer, and Heavy Horse Archer.
    Note: Within ancient tribal groups an early hierarchical structure
    centered around the strongman, who probably took power in a physical
    contest, led the group, and enjoyed special privileges.  As populations
    increased, the hierarchy expanded.  Layers of nobility, a class of society
    privileged due to fighting prowess or wealth, grew between the stronghold,
    or king, and common people and slaves.  The nobility served as
    administrators and sub- commanders of the army.  Examples of nobility were
    the Persian satraps, who ruled provinces of the Persian Empire, and
    Alexander the Great's Companion's, who commanded parts of his army and
    formed the core of his heavy cavalry squadrons.
    Age: Bronze
    Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center, Granary, Market, and
    Government Center.
    Cost: 200 Food, 75 Gold
    Benefits: You share exploration with allies.
    Note: The advance of writing is benchmark technology often used to separate
    those cultures that were civilized from those that were barbaric.  The key
    importance of writing is that it allowed information to be stored and
    passed on easily, thereby accelerating the accumulation and spread of
    knowledge.  Writing is believed to have been invented between 4000 and
    3000 B.C. in Sumeria.  The first writing was in simple pictures called
    pictograms that gradually evolved into symbols representing the picture.
    Egyptian hieroglyphics first appeared between 3300 and 3100 B.C., and are
    thought to have been inspired by cuneiform, the Sumerian symbolic writing.
    Writing appeared in China after 1600 B.C.
    Age: Bronze
    Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center, Granary, Market, and
    Government Center.
    Cost: 180 Food, 100 Gold
    Benefits: Barracks units only count as half a unit toward your population, so 
    you can essentially exceed the population limit by Training Barracks units.
    For example, if your population limit is 50 and you build 20 normal units, you
    can train 60 Barracks units eithout exceeding the population limits.
    Note: The science of supplying armies on the march was called logistics.  The
    Assyrians were the first great army to employ logistics consistently, and this
    allowed them to operate regularly at great distances from their home bases.
    Armies on campaign needed food, forage for animals, equipment, armor, and
    weapons.  In most cases, food was acquired from the countryside through which
    the army was moving.  But if an army paused to beseige a town, it exhausted
    local supplies quickly.  Food and forage had to be brought in or the army was
    forced to retire.  The tools of logistics were supply wagons, pack animals,
    depots, and troops to keep the roads open.  The great conquerors of antiquity
    mastered logistics.
           D. Temple
    Age: Bronze
    Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center, Granary, Market, and
    Cost: 120 Gold
    Benefits: Your priests move +40% faster.
    Note: The first religions embraced a multitude of gods, each associated
    with one aspect of life.  There might have been a sun god, a moon god, a
    god of the forest, a god of the river, and so on.  The multitude of gods
    was useful in understanding how the world worked and in directing petition
    and prayer for specific help and relief.  The existence of multipple gods
    increased the power of priests because each god had special needs and
    abilities that needed interpretation.  The ancient Egyptians, for example,
    worshipped around 2000 gods.  Many of these were any local deities, but
    others were held sacred throughout the country.
    Age: Iron
    Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center, Granary, Market, and
    Cost: 350 Gold
    Benefits: Your priests can convert enemy priests and buildings (except for
    Town Centers and Wonders.)
    Note: The belief that there is only one God has evolved from the Persian
    religion of Zoroastrianism down through Judaism to many of the more
    popular religions of today.  Whether monotheism is an advancement or not
    is a subjective question.  The widespread popularity over time and the
    fervor of adherents indicates that monotheistic religions have more
    successfully met the requirements of a religion than other beliefs that
    have fallen aside.
    Age: Bronze
    Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center, Granary, Market, and
    Cost: 120 Gold
    Benefit: Your Priests' hit points are doubled.
    Note: Mysticism was a spiritual discipline that sought to achieve contact
    with gods or other perceived realities through contemplation, trances, or
    meditation.  It was induced or enhanced by drugs in some cases, and it was
    part of many ancient beliefs.  For religions seeking to explain the great
    unknown, the apparent ability to communicate through media unknown to the
    average person was a powerful selling point.  Because peopledream every
    night, it was a logical step to believe that a few members of the group
    could somehow make sense of dreams or see through the confusion to
    communicate with another dimension.
    Age: Iron
    Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center, Granary, Market, and
    Cost: 120 Gold
    Benefits: It increases the attack, speed, and hit points of villagers, but
    decreases their gathering efficiency.
    Note: The word jihad can mean a crusade or struggle, and comes from the
    holy war of Islam directed against all that defied the word of God as
    written in the Koran.  The equivalent of jihad can occur in any society
    brought to a peak of emotion by religious fervor or other means.  The
    value of the jihad to society is that the people caught up in the emotion
    of the enterprise place their best interests, even their lives, second to
    the purpose of the crusade.  The jihad was especially effective at a most
    desperate time when survival of the group hung in the balance.
    Age: Iron
    Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center, Granary, Market, and
    Cost: 150 Gold
    Benefits: Your Priests rejuvenate 50% faster after converting a unit.
    Note: You must research Fanaticism before you can upgrade to Legion.
    Religion evolved to provide a spiritual foundation and understanding to
    life once humans became sufficiently intelligent to ponder the great
    terrifying questions of our existence.  A disturbing byproduct of the
    spread of religion was fanaticism- the intense, unquestioning devotion to
    the ideas and leadership of other humans.  Fanatics were capable of ant
    act, even at great risk to their lives, and were especially dangerous
    enemies in war.
    Age: Bronze
    Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center, Granary, Market, and
    Cost: 150 Gold
    Benefits: Your Priests convert enemy units 30% faster.
    Note: Ancient observers of the stars and the heavens noted the correlation
    between the sun, the seasons, and the success of crops.  The study of
    celestial events was an early step in the attempt to understand and
    control the uncertainties of life and became an important part of many
    early religions.  The sun god, Ra, for example, was the most powerful of
    the Egyptian gods.  Priests who could determine the start and end of the
    growing seasons, foretell the phases of the moon, and predict terrifying
    eclipses greatly enhanced their power in society.  The power of astrologers
    increased when their subjects believed that the influence of the stars and
    planets on human affairs could be divined from celestial positions and
    Age: Iron
    Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center, Granary, Market, and
    Cost: 275 Gold
    Benefit: The range of your Priests is increased by +3.
    Note: An important question that ancient religions attempted to address
    was what happens when people die.  Many religions held that there was an
    afterlife, a place or existence that continued once a person's time on
    earth ended.  The promise of an attractive afterlife was a powerful
    inducement for behavior that conformed to the goals of a particular
    religion.  Fervent believers in an afterlife might give up their lives to
    serve their gods.  Well- considered religions that offered a good return
    for acceptance, including an attractive afterlife, grew more in power and
    influence than those that did not.  Christianity, for example, promised
    everlasting life to everyone of faith, not just to the rich buried in great
    tombs with servants and goods.
    Age: Iron
    Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center, Granary, Market and Temple.
    Cost: 600 Gold
    Benefit: Lets you instantly convert an enemy unit by sacrificing one of your
    Priests.  You cannot use Martyrdom to convert an enemy Priest.
    Note: To convert a unit using Martyrdom-
    1. Click on a Priest.  Right-click on the enemy unit you want.
    2. After the Priest starts converting, press the DELETE key.
    Age: Iron
    Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center, Granary, Market and Temple.
    Cost: 150 Gold
    Benefit: Increases Priest healing rate.
    Note: Through trial and error, humans learned that certain herbs and plant
    products possessed midicinal qualities.  The invention of writing made it
    possible to record this knowledge and pass it on to following generations by a
    method other than oral transmission.  The science of medicine progressed
    gradually, improving the quality and length of life.
           6. The Civilizations
           Ancient Chosen
    (2333 to 108 B.C.)
    The Korean Peninsula was invaded by successive waves of Neolithic peoples,
    but the culture of the area changed little until the use of bronze
    implements began around the fifteenth century B.C.  The Bronze Age brought
    significant change to Korea.  Recovered bronze spear points and arrowheads
    indicate conquest and warfare were widespread.  Towns protected by earthen
    walls appeared.  Funerary dolmens (rock shelters covered by enormous
    capstones) indicate the rise of a stratified political and social
    The Bronze Age in Korea lasted until the fourth century B.C.  During the
    Bronze Age, the first large political groupings of walled town states
    arose.  The most advanced of these was Ancient Chosen.
    The state of Ancient Chosen was located in the valleys of the Liao and
    Taedong Rivers, in the southwestern part of what is now North Korea.  It
    occupied the Taedong River basin originally and spread its influence
    gradually over a large region of the peninsula.
    The Ancient CVhosen capital was Wanggom- song, now modern P'yongyang (the
    capital of North Korea).
    =The Rise To Power=
    The power of Ancient Chosen grew from around 2333 B.C. to the end of the
    fourth century B.C.  The Ancient Chosen expanded possibly due to better
    agriculture and population growth, better use of newly available iron
    weapons, better leaders, or all of the above.  When the Chinese kingdom of
    Yen encountered the Ancient Chosen culture, they referred to them as being
    arrogant and cruel, which suggests that the Ancient Chosen were formidable
    Despite the apparent strength of Ancient Chosen at the end of the fourth
    century, they went into decline, nevertheless, following the arrival of
    the Yen kingdom across the Liao River.  The Chinese overlord in control of
    the Liaotung Peninsula changed several times during the next century and
    the political upheaval fostered an immigration of Chinese political,
    military, and economic power into Ancient Chosen.  One refugee, named
    Wiman, built a power base among the other refugees and eventually drove
    the Ancient Chosen king from his throne around 190 B.C.
    The new kingdom, called Wiman Chosen, was a hybrid of Korean and Chinese
    influences.  Due to its superior military and economic strength, it
    subjugated smaller Korean states to its north, east, and south.  This
    placed the Wiman Chosen between the now dominant Han Chinese and the
    remaining Korean states in the south, allowing it to control trade between
    the two regions.  For three generations, the Wiman Chosen dominated north
    central Korea.
    The principal economic activity of Bronze and early Iron Age Korea was
    agriculture.  Rice was the main food crop of southern Korea.  Raising
    livestock (oxen, horses, pigs, and dogs) was more important in the north.
    The basic farming unit was the village, made up of headmen, free peasants,
    and a few slaves.  Peasants and slaves worked mainly on communal farms.
    There were some peasant- owned lands as well.  The fre peasants were
    heavily taxed and provided labor to the state.  They were not permitted to
    bear arms or serve in the armies.
    =Religion and Culture=
    The leaders of the early walled towns in Korea performed both political
    and religious functions.  The dignity and authority of these leaders was
    enhanced by their acknowledged descent from a sun god.  Political and
    religious power split gradually into two separate functions as the
    confederation grew in size.  Rituals were thereafter directed by
    The primitive religion of prrehistoric Korea was based on animism and
    shomanism.  Primative priets were magicians who attempted to move the gods
    by evocation.  By the time of Ancient Chosen, priests prayed to the gods
    humbly and earnestly for favor.
    The ancient Koreans believed in the immortality of the soul and buried
    their elite with elaborate ritual.  They also practiced divination.  The
    two most important festivals of the year were tied to the growing season.
    In the spring, they prayed for abundance, and in the fall, they celebrated
    Village communities were governed by a ruling elite that kept order,
    allocated land and resources, collected taxes, and provided security.  The
    individual communities were held together in confederation by military and
    economic means.  Ancient Chosen took the name wang (king) for its leader
    about the time that the nearby Chinese kingdom of Yen employed the same
    Little is known about the armies of Ancient Chosen except that they were
    standing armies and not levies of peasants.  Evidence of horses and
    chariots is not widespread, suggesting that only the richest warriors
    could afford these enhancements.  Bronze spear points and arrowheads from
    the early days of the Ancient Chosen suggest an army of spearmen and
    archers.  Later finds include bronze daggers and spears of distinctive
    styles, iron daggers, and iron spear points.  The daggers suggest that
    these short weapons were used by infantry for close combat in addition to
    The prowess of Ancient Chosen armies can be inferred from their expansion
    and dominance of the region and the comments about Ancient Chosen recorded
    by their Chinese neighbors.
    =Decline and Fall=
    Unified China under Han Dynasty was not pleased by Wiman Chosen's growth
    and control of eastward trade, and was concerned about a possible alliance
    between Wiman Chosen and the Hsiung-nu (barbarians then expanding out of
    Mongolia into Manchuria).  The aggressive Emperor Wu of Han launched an
    attack against the Wiman Chosen when diplomacy failed to bring them to
    heel.  The Wiman Chosen were a tough adversary but were weakened by
    defections and collaborations among the nobility.  The Wiman Chosen
    capital fell in 108 B.C., and the kingdom came to an end.
    The legacy of the Ancient Chosen was a Korean culture that remained
    separate from that of China, despite the proximity and influence of that
    enormous neighbor.
    (1800 to 600 B.C.)
    The only thing that I can say to introduce the Assyrians is the fact that
    they were very powerful and fierce.  They have legendary barbarity, as well.
    Assyria was located in northern Mesopotamia (modern Iraq) along the Tigris
    River.  It was settled after Sumer to the south but was dominated by the
    Sumerians both culturally and politically during its early history.
    The capital of Assyria was Ashur for most of its existence, but moved to
    other sites when kings built new palaces.  Other important cities and
    capitals in the Assyrian homeland were Nineveh, Arbela, Khorsabad, and
    =Rise to Power=
    Around 2000 B.C., Assyria was invaded by Semitic barbarians called the
    Armorites.  By 1800 B.C. an Armorite king of the Assyrians had established
    control over most of northern Mesopotamia.  Their power was short- lived
    in this period, however, due first to the rise of Babylonia under Hammurabi
    and then the rise of the Mitanni in modern Syria.
    The period 1363 to 1000 B.C. was the Middle Assyrian Empire.  Several
    strong kings reasserted Assyrian independence and then began encroaching
    on neighboring empires.  The Assyrians avoided destruction during the
    catastrophe of 1200 B.C., perhaps they were already embracing the new
    military tactics and weapons that the older kingdoms were not.  In the
    political vacuum of the ancient dark age, the Arryrians prospered.  By
    1076 B.C. Tiglathpileser I had reached the Mediterranean to the west.
    The New Assyrian Empire, 1000 to 600 B.C. was the peak of their conquests.
    Their empire stretched from the head of the Persian Gulf, around the
    Fertile Crescent through Damascus, Phoenicia, Palestine, and into Egypt as
    far south as Thebes.  Their northwestern border was the Taurus Mountains
    of modern Turkey.  Other than the vestiges of what had once been the Minoan
    (Crete), Mycenean (Greece), and Hittite (Turkey) cultures, all areas of
    pre- catastrophe civilization in the West were ruled by Assyria.
    The Assyrian economy was based on agriculture and herding, but the Assyrians
    also benefited  by being situated astride some important trade routes.
    They are not remembered as traders in their own right, perhaps only tax
    collectors on traders went through. During the New Empire period, they
    profited from the taxes and tribute they collected from their various
    provinces and vassal states, including even Egypt for a few years.
    =Religion and Culture=
    The Assyrian religion was heavily influenced by that of its Mesopotamian
    predecessors, mainly Sumeria.  The chief god of the Assyrians was Ashur,
    from whom both their culture and capital take their names.  Their temples
    were large zaggurats built of mud bricks, like their neighbors to the south.
    The principal activity of the rich was hunting from chariots, appropriate
    for such a war- like culture.  Despite their fearsome reputation, the
    Assyrians embraced civilization.  They wrote using cuneiform and decorated
    their cities leberally with reliefs, painted stonework, and sculpture.
    The king was the head administrator of government, supported by local
    provincial governors.  The palace was the site of government.  Advisors
    consulted the omens before important decisions were made.
    Provinces and vassal cities were required to pay taxes and tribute in the
    form of food, goods, gold, labor, military supplies, and soldiers for the
    army.  An extensive network of roads and grain depots were built during
    the New Empire to speed communication and armies moving to trouble spots.
    The Assyrians built on a large and lavish scale, using mostly mud bricks,
    but also stone that was more readily available than it was further south.
    Several New Empire kings built extensive palaces and decorated them with
    the booty of war and the tribute of vassal states.  Palaces were also
    decorated with painted stone reliefs, extensive gardens, and man0 made
    streams.  A common decorative fixture was the LAMASSU- a winged hybrid
    creature, part bull and part man.
    The first Assyrian armies were peasant spearmen.  Following a series of
    military reforms around 800 B.C., however, they employed a standing army
    of conscripts and professionals.  This army was better armed, armored,
    and supplied than most of its enemies, giving it important advantages.
    The New Empire armies benefited from cheap iron used for improved swords
    and armor.
    The Assyrians were among the first to adopt the concept of the integrated
    army made up of an infantry core for shock, supported by light missile
    troops and a mobile wing of chariots, camelry, and cavalry.  The army was
    capable of fighting on the plains where chariots and then cavalry were
    critical, as well as in rough terrain where horses and chariots had little
    use.  They campaigned regularly to the north and east against barbarians
    that posed a threat.  The elite of the army for many years were the
    charioteers, followed by the cavalry when chariots bacame obsolete.
    The Assyrians were accomplished at the art of capturing walled cities.
    Their historical records recount numerous city assaults and the brutality
    that followed.  Inhabitants were either killed or sent to another corner
    of the empire as slaves.
    =Decline and Fall=
    The brutal policies of subjugation and exorbitant demands for tribute and
    taxes made the Assyrians unpopular masters.  Despite the ferocity of their
    reprisals, vassal states contnually revolted given an opportunity.  Weaker
    kings were unable to hold the empire together in the face of internal and
    external pressure.  In 612 B.C., the capital at Nineveh fell to a
    coalition of Babylonians and Medes.  The Babylonians were in revolt
    (Babylon had been sacked in 648 B.C.) and the Medes (from modern western
    Iran) were seeking retribution for past Assyrian invasions of their lands.
    The last Assyrian army was defeated soon thereafter by the same coalition
    and the Assyrians as a separate culture disappeared from the world's stage.
    The Assyrians are remembered from their boastful inscriptions and biblical
    references as ferocious warriors.  Whether they were significantly more
    brutal than was normal for the time is unclear.
    For several centuries, however, they were the greatest military power in
    the civilized world.  Their armies were innovative, and they appear to
    have been among the first to use large bodies of cavalry effectively.
    They certainly influenced the Persian armies that followed them.
    They are not remembered for any significant advances in technology,
    philosophy, the arts, or science.  Their cities have been piles of rubble
    for thousands of years now and have not given up fabulous treasures that
    can compare with those of Egypt and Greece.
    (1900 to 539 B.C.)
    The Mesopotamian city- state of Babylon twice expanded to become an
    important world empire before being absorbed by Persia.  Its two great
    expansions were sufficiently remarkable to earn it a place in history
    beside the two other great Mesopotamian cultures, the Sumerians and
    Assyrians.  Between its Old and New Empire periods, Babylonia devolved
    back into a small but rich city- state that was captured occasionally by
    its neighbors.
    The predominate inhabitants of Babylon changed several times over its
    existence, although the culture remained relatively constant and distinct.
    The Amorites, the Kassites, and the Chaldeans were all Babylonians at
    least once.
    The Babylonians took their name from their capital and only major city,
    Babylon, located on the Euphrates River west of Sumeria and south of
    Assyria.  It was well- placed on the river for agriculture and for trade,
    but had no natural defenses.  A strong leader and strong army were needed
    to defend it.  Determined attackers were able to sack the city on numerous
    occasions during its history when such a leader or army was not available.
    =Rise To Power=
    Babylonia was founded as a kingdom around 1900 B.C. by Semitic Amorite
    barbarians who overran much of Canaan, Akkad, and Sumer one hundred years
    earlier.  In 1792 B.C. the small kingdom was inherited by Hammurabi who
    ruled until 1750.  During those 42 years, Hammurabi extended the kingdom
    to ecompass all of Sumer to the east and Akkad to the north.  He also
    defeated the barbarian Gutians in the Zagros Mountains to the northeast
    who had previously sacked Akkad.  He also pushed back the Elamites (east
    of Sumer) and the Assyrians (north of Akkad).  This was the first great
    Babylonian empire.
    Following Hammurabi's death, the empire fell into gradual decline.  In
    1595 B.C. Hittites drove down the Euphrates and sacked Babylon, plundering
    the city and deposing the Amorite kings.  This ended the first empire.
    Within 20 yearsm new invaders called the Kassites had settled around
    Babylon, establishing a new dynasty.  The Kassites were neither Semetic
    nor Indo- European, and probably came from east of the Zagros Mountains.
    The Kassites ruled Babylon for several centuries before being coquered by
    the Assyrians in 1158 B.C.  Descendants of the Amorites had restored
    control by 1027 B.C.
    During the Eighth and Seventh Centuries, the Chaldeans, new Semitic
    immigrants to the area, and the Assyrians fought for control of Babylon.
    The Assyrians claimed sovereignty for a while but sacked the city once as
    punishment for rebellion.
    A Chaldean sheik seized the Babylonian throne and then destroyed the
    Assyrians with the help of the Medes.  The Chaldean Dynasty and the New
    Empire lasted from 626 to 539 B.C.  The revived Babylonians overran most
    of the Assyrian Empire from the Persian Gulf to the boarders of Egypt.
    In 597 B.C. Nebuchadrezzar II captured Jerusalem and forced its king and
    nobles into exile.  When the puppet ruler of Jerusalem rebelled, the city
    was taken again in 586 B.C. after an eighteen- month siege.  This time
    much of the population was deported to Babylon and their descendants
    remained there until released by the Persians.  This period of Hebrew
    history was called the Babylonian Captivity.
    The basic economy of Babylonia was typical for Mesopotamia at the time.
    Irrigation and dikes controlled the waters of the Euphrates River,
    providing bountiful harvests of grain, vegetables, and fruit in normal
    years.  These foods were supplemented by herds of sheep and some cattle.
    The Babylonians traded food surpluses for raw materials like copper, gold,
    and wood, which they used to manufacture weapons, household objects,
    jewelry, and other items that could be traded.
    The fabulous wealth of the New Empire (626 to 539 B.C.) derived from
    controlling the east- west and north- south trade, primarliy thanks to
    control of Phoenicia, Syria, and the other Levant ports.  This area had
    been the nexus of civilized trade for over a thousand years, and, for that
    reason, the prize for every empire and pseudo- empire of the age.  Not
    long after the end of the Babylonian New Empire, the shift of much trade
    to the central and western Mediterranean reduced the importance of this
    =Religion and Culture=
    The Babylonians worshipped many gods, but chief was of these was Murduk,
    god of the city of Babylon.  Marduk was represented by a dragon in the
    artwork that decorated the city.  Festivals were held throughout the year
    in honor of specific gods to assure their favor.  The New Year festival
    for Marduk assured the fertility in their fields.
    For a brief time the New Empire was among the richest in the world.  The
    city reflected that wealth in its extensive and highly decorated monuments.
    The interior of the Temple of Marduk was reportedly converted with gold.
    At the center of a great and rich trading empire, the people of Babylon
    had access to exotic goods and manufactured items throughout the world.
    The New Empire government of Babylon adopted many of the Assyrian imperial
    practices, which probably contributed to its own short life.  The king had
    overall administrative power, in addition to his central role in important
    religious rituals.  Governors ruled important provinces on behalf of the
    king, but most of these were Babylonians appointed from outside the local
    area.  Local puppets were often left in place to rule local kingdoms, but
    this occasionally led to revolt, as in the case of Jerusalem.
    The city of Babylon was destroyed and rebuilt several times, usually on
    top of the old ruins.  Buildings and walls were constructed of mud bricks,
    first sun- baked, and then baked with fire.
    The Babylon of the New Empire period was one of the wealthiest cities in
    the world.  The Chaldean kings rebuilt the city and established its
    reputation for splendor for all time.  The Euphrates River passed through
    the middle of the city and was directed around its four sides through a
    moat.  Inside the moat were double walls.  The Greek historian Herodotus
    claimed that the outer wall was so wide that a chariot with four horses
    could drive along it.  There were several city gates, each named after an
    important god.  The Ishtur gate opened on the sacred Processional Way that
    led to the ziggurat and Temple of Marduk.  The gate, sacred way, and
    temples were decorated with bright blue glazed tiles depicting real and
    fantasy animals in relief.
    The two sides of the city were connected by a bridge.  The east side
    contained the palace and temples, including many ziggaurats.  The greatest
    of these, built by Nebuchanezzar II, had seven levels with a small temple
    to Marduk at the top.  This zaggurat was probably the Tower of Babel
    mentioned in the Bible.  Nebuchanezzar also built the Hanging Gardens of
    Babylon, a multistoried ziggurat decorated with trees and plants to
    resemble a mountain.  According to legend, the gardens were built to
    remind one of his wives of her mountain homeland.  The Hangine Gardens
    were one of the seven wonders of the ancient world.
    Little is known of the Babylonian military from either the Old or New
    Empires, although Hammurabi's army of the Old Empire may have made
    important use of chariots when these were first coming into use.
    The New Empire armies probably copied much from the Assyrians.  This would
    suggest that Babylonians made extensive use of cavaly, especially mounted
    bowmen.  Foot troops probably used iron weapons and wore iron helmets and
    some chain mail armor.  The Babylonians and their less advanced allies,
    the Medes, took three leavily fortified Assyrian cities in short
    succession, suggesting they had mastered the Assyrian techniques for
    storming cities.
    =Decline and Fall=
    Following seven turbulent years that saw three new kings in succession and
    two rebellions, in 556 B.C. the last of the Chaldean Dynasty, Nabonidus,
    took the throne of Babylon.  He worshipped the moon god, Sin, but
    neglected local affairs and important religious rituals associated with
    other gods.  For several years he did not perform the important New Year
    festival in the name of Marduk, the deity of Babylon, that renewed the
    fertility of the land.  He also introduced reforms that gave effective
    control of temple finances to himself.
    The unrest and dissatisfaction these events fostered came at a time when a
    new power to the east, Persia, had been gradually expanding and spreading
    its influence.  Under Cyrus I, the Persians had first overthrown their
    masters. the Medes, and then expanded to the northwest into Anatolia.
    During these conquests, Cyrus demonstrated a high degree of tolerance and
    clemency that encouraged others not to resist.
    When Cyrus turned against the Babylonians, he was welcomed by a large
    segment of the population, including the influential priests.  Cyrus first
    defeated Nabonidus in battle at Opis.  Nabonidus fled to Babylon but the
    city surrendered without a fight on October 12, 539 B.C., and the last
    Babylonian king went into captivity.  The Jews and other peoples held in
    Babylonian captivity were freed.  The entire New Empire of Babylon became
    part of the Persian Empire and Babylonia ceased to exist as a separate
    entity and culture.
    The first Babylonian empire is best known for the Law Code of King
    Hammurabi, circa 1750 B.C., purportedly handed down by the god Shamah.
    The laws themselves are preserved on a 90- inch stone stele that was
    uncovered in Susa in modern times.  It has been carted off by the Elamites
    following their sack of Babylon in 1158 B.C.
    The New Empire of Babylon was noted especially for its wealth and grandeur.
    This was reported in Old Testament accounts from the period of the Hebrew
    Babylonian Captivity and by the Greek historian Herodotus who visited the
    city.  The most impressive features of the city were its walls, the Ishtar
    Gate, the ziggurat and temple to Marduk, the Processional Way, and Hanging
    (800 to 146 B.C.)
    During the beginning of the last millennium B.C., the Phoenicians began
    establishing colonies around the Mediterranean to compete with the Greeks for
    trade.  The most important Phoenician colony was Carthage.  It was founded
    aroung 800 B.C. near modern Tunis in North Africa.  Although the home cities in
    Phoenicia were repeatedly conquered and subjugated, the colony of Carthage
    prospered and expanded to become one of the greatest powers of the Western
    True to their Phoenician heritage, the Carthaginians became great seafarers,
    traders, and colonizers.  There is some evidence that they circumnavigated
    Africa and very questionable evidence that they reached the Americas.  They
    capitalized on the trade of Iberian silver and Brtish tin.  Carthaginian
    settlements spread along the North African coast, into western Sicily, Sardinia,
    Corsica, Minorca, and much of Spain.  In the third century, they bagan a titanic
    clash with the rising power of Rome.
    The Punic Wars between Rome and Carthage were fought to decide which power would
    dominate the Western Mediterranean.  The first war (264-241 B.C.) was fought
    over Sicily.  The Romans were not a naval power but built fleets from scratch 
    based on the plans of a captured ship.  Their first two fleets defeated
    Carthaginian fleets but were in turn lost to storms.  Their third fleet
    completed the defeat of the Carthaginians at sea.  The Carthaginians were 
    forced out of Sicily, and lost Corsica and Sardinia as well.
    The Second Punic War (218-201 B.C.) was a temproary improvement of Carthaginian
    fortunes and a near victory.  The war was triggered by the great general
    Hannibal who marched out of modern Spain, across modern France, and into modern
    Italy across the Alps with a large army, including war elephants.  In a
    brilliant campaign of 16 years, Hannibal defeated the Romans at every turn, 
    although he lacked the critical strength to take Rome itself and end the war.
    Unable to defeat Hannibal's army in Italy, the Roman attacked the Carthaginians
    first in Spain and then in North Africa.  Hannibal was called out of the Italy
    to defend the homeland.  At the decisive battle at Zama, the Romans destroyed
    the Carthaginian army.
    Carthage was forced to give up its overseas possessions, pay a large indemnity,
    reduce its fleet, and become subservient to Rome.  By 150 B.C., the city had
    recovered and was seen again as a threat.  When the Carthaginians attacked 
    Numidia, a Roman ally, the Romans responded by attacking Carthage once more.
    This time the city was destroyed utterly and its power broken forever.  A
    symbolic furrow was plowed through the city and sown with salt to show that the
    city would not be allowed to revive.
    (5000 to 30 B.C)
    The Egyptian culture was one of the oldest and most long- lived of
    antiquity.  It benefited from an abundance of good farmland, nearby
    mineral resources, and a good strategic position.  Despite occasional
    invasion and internal strife, it endured as a distinctive culture for
    nearly 5000 years.
    Ancient Egypt occupied almost the same area as modern Egypt does today.
    Its civilization stayed very close to the Nile River.  Because it was
    almost entirely surrounded by desert, enemies could approach only from the
    west and southeast along the Mediterranean coast, from the south down the
    river valley, or directly over the sea.
    During its long history, the capital of Egypt was located at various times
    in Heirakonpolis, Memphis, Herakleopolis, Thebes, It- towy, Akhetaten,
    Tanis, Sais, and Alexander the Great in 331 B.C.  Greek overlords, the
    Ptolemaic dynasty, ruled from here until 30 B.C.
    =Rise of Power=
    Agriculture was brought to the Nile Valley prior to 5000 B.C. by immigrants
    from the highlands of Palestine.  By 3000 B.C., acriculture had spread
    southward up the Nile.  Flooding was under control and irrigation put much
    more land under cultivation.  The adundance of food led to large
    populations and increased wealth for the area.
    The early history of Egypt was a period of consolidation.  Two separate
    kingdoms rose and vied for power along the river.  Around 3100 B.C., King
    Menes of Upper Egypt conquered Lower Egypt and established the First
    Between 3100 B.C. and 1300 B.C., the Egyptians struggled with Nubians and
    Kushites up the Nile to the south.  Forts and garrisons held the frontier
    but during periods of weakness these were destroyed.  Around 1300 B.C. the
    Nubians suffered an important defeat and were neutralized as a thread for
    about 500 years.
    Egypt's Dynasty XIII, 1783 to 1640 B.C., was very weak.  During this period
    the frontier forts to the south were lost and Semitic immigrants from the
    east moved into the delta.  These immigrants, called the Hyskos, took
    control of the entire delta region in 1674 B.C.  The Hyskos eventually
    adopted Egyptian culture and language, and introduced the horse and chariot.
    The New Kingdom was founded by Dynasty XVIII in 1552 B.C., following a
    successful war to drive out the Hyskos.  This dynasty was the great age of
    the warrior pharaohs and Egyptian empire.  The prevent further incursions
    from the east, the Egyptians attempted to establish control over the
    kingdoms in the Levant and Palestine.  During this period they vied for
    control with the Hittites and Mitanni, as well as the local kings.  The
    Egyptians were the dominant power in the Near East until around 1200 B.C.
    when the entire area was overrun by barbarians.
    Egypt was an agricultural society dependent on the water and soil brought
    down each year by the Nile from the highlands of Ethiopia.  Extensive
    irrigation made it possible to farm fields not adjacent to the river but
    still close enough to be inundated each year and receive new sediments.
    The principalcrops were wheat and barley that were used to make bread and
    beer, the staples of their diet.  They also grew fruits and vegetables and
    raised cattle, pigs, sheep, goats, geese, ducks, and pigeons.  The
    abundance of food meant a large population and allowed the export of food.
    The Nile passes through several hilly regions and some of these were rich
    in minerals.  The nearby Sinai Peninsula also held mineral riches.  Unlike
    some other ancient cultures, the Egyptians had relatively easy access to
    copper and gold, further increasing their wealth.  The hills were sources
    of granite, limestone, and sandstone that they used for construction.
    The Egyptians were one of the first cultures to build boats and they
    eventually took these out into the Mediterranean.  Egypt became an
    important Mediterranean part of call as trade increased because it was it
    was a rich market for both buying and selling.  Principal Egyptian exports
    were grain, food, linen, perfume, and manufactured goods.  Important
    imports were timber, slaves, silver, horses, pottery, and wine.
    =Religion and Culture=
    The Egyptian religion had over 2000 gods, though only a few of these were
    predominant.  The important gods had a home town where their principal
    temple was located.  One of the most important was Ra, the sun god,
    understandably critical to an agricultural society.
    They believed in a life after death.  They referred to this as the "next
    world," and thought it was somewhere to the west.  They developed elaborate
    burials and embalming to preserve the body for this second life.  Goods
    and servants were buried with royalty and nobles to serve them.
    The ancient Egyptians believed their kings were descended from the sun god,
    Ra.  They believed they could communicate with the gods through the king.
    The king had absolute power but was required to perform several important
    duties.  He was responsible for the harvest and irrigation of crops.  He
    directed the government, trade, and foreign policy.  He enforced the laws
    and led the army.  During the New Kingdom, the pharoahs usually commanded
    their armies in the field.
    Reporting directly to the pharaoh were two viziers, one for Lower Egypt
    based in Memphis, and one for Upper Egypt based in Thebes.  Below the
    viziers were rural districts controlled by governors and towns controlled
    by mayors.  These officials carried out the pharaoh's orders and collected
    taxes.  Scribes kept the records.
    The Egyptians had no coinage until they were conquered by Alexander the
    Great.  All workers paid taxes by turning over a percentage of their
    production, whether it was fish, grain, trade goods, pottery, or other
    goods.  In addition, each household had to provide a laborer for several
    weeks each year for mining or public works.  The pyramids were probably
    built by laborers putting in their annual service.
    The Egyptians were among the first cultures to possess the necessary
    population and wealth to build standing armies of professional soldiers.
    Prior to the Hyksos introduced the horse and chariot, which were quickly
    adopted by the Egyptians in turn.  The dominance of the Near East by New
    Kingdom Egypt, from 1600 to 1200 B.C., was primarily due to the large and
    powerful chariot armies sent into battle there.  These chariots carried a
    driver and composite bow archer and were the elite of the army.
    =Decline and Fall=
    Egypt survived the catastrophe by 1200 B.C. by fighting off several major
    attempted invasions.  They went into decline, nevertheless, following the
    death of Rameses III who was the last of the great warrior pharaohs.  Their
    decline was partly due to trade coming to a virtual halt for several
    generations.  A series of weak kings and civil wars over succession to the
    throne also eroded their strength.
    In 728 B.C., Egypt was conquered by Nubia and held for 60 years.  In 665
    B.C., the Assyrians completed a conquest of Egypt by sacking Thebes.  A
    new native Egyptian dynasty arouse in 664 B.C., eventually throwing out
    the Nubians and asserting their independence from Assyria by stopping
    payment of tribute.  In 525 B.C., Egypt was conquered again from the east,
    this time by Combryses II of Persia.  When the Persians faltered in their
    war with the Greeks, the Egyptians reclaimed their independence briefly
    before succombing once more to Persian invasion by 332 B.C.  Within a year,
    however, the Persians themselves were gone, destroyed by Alexander the
    Great who was accepted by the Egyptians as their pharaoh.
    Greeks ruled Egypt as overlords from the time of Alexander the Great until
    30 B.C. when Cleopatra VII, th elast of the Ptolemaic dynasty, and Mark
    Antony were defeated by Octavian.  Egypt thereafter became part of the
    Roman Empire.
    The ancient Egyptians are remembered for the quality and quanity of
    cultural objects that have survived to the present, including the Pyramids,
    the Sphinx, the treasures of Tutankhamen's tomb, the other monuments and
    temples of the Nile Valley, hieroglyphics, mummies, and papyrus.  They are
    also rememberdd in the West because of their prominent role in the history
    of ancient Israel as recounted in the Old Testament.
    (2100 to 146 B.C.)
    The ancient culture with the broadest and most long- lasting impact on the
    future of Western civilization was that of Greece.  The Greeks dominated
    the known world militarily for only a brief period, but their cultural
    influence spread farther and lasted much longer.  Rediscovered in the West
    in large part after the Medieval Dark Age, it was an important foundation
    for the growth of modern western civilization.
    The Greeks never formed a unified kingdom, but existed as city- states,
    sometimes working together and sometimes at war with each other.  At the
    zenith of Greek military power under Alexander the Great, they were a
    collection of city- states in cooperation.
    Greek culture was centered on the mainland of modern Greece spread to the
    islands of the Aegean, into the lower Balkans, across the Aegean to the
    western coast of Anatolia, to Sicily, to parts of North Africa, and to
    southern France (Marseilles was founded as a Greek colony).  The campaigns
    of Alexander greatly expanded the culture, establishing it in central
    Anatolia, the Levant, Egypt, Syria, Mesopotamia, and Persia to the borders
    of India.  In the early second century B.C., it was possible to travel from
    the south of modern France to India using only Greek to communicate.
    As a collection of city- states, there are usually no capital of the Greek
    culture.  During the Bronze Age, Mycenea was one of the strongest and
    richest citadels.  During the Archaic and Classical periods, Athens (the
    cultural center) and Sparta (the strongest military power) vied for
    prominence.  During the brief Greek apogee under Philip and Alexander, the
    de facto capital was the Macedonian city of Pydna.  Following the death of
    Alexander, is empire was eventually divided into three parts.  The
    Antigonid Dynasty ruled Greece and Macedonia from Pydna.  The Selucids
    ruled Mesopotamia, Anatolia, Syria, the Levant, and Persia from a newly
    built built city, Selucia, on the Tigris River.  The Ptolemies ruled Egypt
    from another newly built city, Alexandria.
    =Rise To Power=
    The history of ancient Greek culture is divided into several periods: the
    Bronze Age (2100 to 1200 B.C.), the Dark Age (1200 to 800 B.C.), the
    Archaic Period (800 to 500 B.C.), the Classical Age (500 to 336 B.C.), and
    the Hellenistic Period (336 to 30 B.C.).
    The Bronze Age saw the rise of the first cities on the mainland.  These
    were predominately fortified palaces on hilltops.  This culture was named
    after its greatest citadel, Mycenea.  Excavation of Mycenea by Heinrich
    Schlieman in the 1870s revealed fabulous burial tomb treasures.  The
    Mycenean culture disappeared around 1200 B.C. following attacks by
    barbarians.  The city of troy was also sacked around this time.
    The catastrophe of 1200 B.C. (described earlier) devastated the economy of
    Greece and ushered in a Dark Age that lasted about 400 years.  Gradually
    civilization reappeared at old sites, such as Athens, and at new sites such
    as Sparta and Corinth.
    By 800 B.C., the city- states of the mainland were economic and military
    powers.  During the next 300 years, the Archaic Period, the Greeks expanded
    by establishing colonies across the Aegean in Anatoloa (Ionia) and along
    the central and western Mediterranean coasts.  They vied with the
    Phoenicians for colony sites and trade.  The Archaic Period came to an end
    when the rising eastern power of Persia came into conflict with the Greeks
    over the Anatolian coast.
    The period of 500 to 336 B.C. was the Classical Age of Greece, dominated
    first by wars with Persia and then the Peloponnesian civil war between
    Athens and Sparta.  Although this period is defined by military events, it
    was also a time of many important cultural advances.
    The Hellenistic Period takes its name from the Greek word Hellene (meaning
    Greek).  This period began with the installation of Alexander as king of
    Macedon following the assassination of his father.  In 13 years of military
    campaigns, Alexander conquered most of the known world and spread the Greek
    culture behind his armies.  After Alexander's premature death in 323 B.C.,
    his empire was eventually divided into three parts.  Although these parts
    fought each other and gradually shrank due to rebellion and attack, the
    culture of the civilized world remained primarily Greek.
    Grains and bread were staples of the Greek diet but they could be grown
    only in a few fertile areas.  Most of Greece was hilly and not suitable for
    large farms on the scale of Egypt or Mesopotamia.  Farmers grew fruits and
    vegeatables where they could clear fields.  On the hillsides they grew
    olives for food and oil.  Further up the hills they grew grapes for wine.
    Horses were raised mainly in Thessaly and Macedonia where there were open
    grasslands.  Elsewhere they were kept only by the rich.  Cattle were kept
    mainly for milk, pigs and poultry for meat, and sheep for leather and meat.
    Seafood supplemented diets in coastal areas.
    The Greeks were renowned for pottery that was both functional and beautiful.
    Decorations on pottery revealed much about the ancient Greek culture to
    historians.  By carefully studying the changing styles of pottery, his-
    torians were able to date it and then use chards to help date excavations
    and other objects found with it.
    The Greeks took advantage of their georgraphic position between the Aegean
    and Mediterranean Seas to engage in trade.  City-states traded among them-
    selves and overseas.  Thessaly and Macedonia exported horses, for example,
    while Athens exported honey and silver.  Important Greek exports were oil,
    wine, pottery, sculpture, metalwork, cloth, and books.  Their most
    important import was grain from the Black Sea region, Egypt, Italy, Sicily,
    and Cyprus.  Other important imports were timber, wool, linen, copper,
    dyes, silk, spices and ivory.
    Coins were first used in Lydia, a small kingdom in northwestern Anatolia,
    at the end of the seventh century B.C.  The concept quickly spread to the
    Ionian Greek colonies and then throughout the Greek culture.  The most
    popular coins were made of silver.  City-states celebrated their
    independence by minting their own coins showing a representative symbol
    (the owl for Athens and the Pegasus for Corinth, for example).
    =Religion and Culture=
    The Greeks believed in many gods who were responsible for the living and
    the dead.  Their gods were very human-like - they got married, had
    children, felt love and jealousy, and sought revenge.  Legends of the gods
    taught what pleased and what angered them.  The principal gods were the
    twelve Olympians thought to live on Mount Olympus.  They were lead by Zeus,
    ruler of the heavens.  Temples were built to provide earthly homes for
    individual gods.  The Parthenon in Anthens, for example, was dedicated to
    the goddess Athene.  Inside was a statue of Athene made of gold and ivory
    that stood over forty feet high.  Offerings of jewelry, pottery, and
    sculpture were given to the temple.  Animals and birds were given to the
    priests for sacrifice.  Festivals were held to please individual gods and
    persuade them to be munificient.
    Before an important project was started, an oracle orsoothsayer was con-
    sulted to learn the will of the gods.  The most famous of these was the
    Oracle of Delphi, where a prientess called the Pythia would voice the will
    of Apollo.  Priests would interpret the Pythia's often vague replies.  In
    one famous example, Croesus, the king of Lydia, asked whether he should
    invade Persia or not.  He was told such an invasion would destroy a great
    kingdom.  He assumed the Persians were the kingdom in questions, but in
    fact Lydia was conquered by Persia.
    Women in Greece lead generally sheltered lives and had little active role
    in society.  They took their social status from their husbands.  The
    emphasis was on having sons and raising them to be citizens and soldiers.
    Boys were given an extensive education in reading, writing, arithmetic,
    music, poetry, dancing, and athletics.  Both mental and physical develop-
    ment was stressed.
    Music, poetry, and theater were an important part of the Greek culture.
    All Greek cities and colonies built a theater or amphitheater.
    Society consisted of two main groups - free people and slaves.  Slaves
    were owned by free people and were employed as servants and laborers.
    Slaves were purchased in international slave markets or were prisoners of
    war.  Free men in Athens were either citizens, born to Athenian parents,
    or metics, born outside of Athens.  Both groups were required to serve in
    the army, but only citizens could become government officials or jurors.
    An independent city-state was called a polis.  Each consisted of the city
    and surrounding countryside.  The largest of these was Athens, with about
    one thousand square miles of territory.
    During the Archasic Period, most city-states were governed by a group of
    rich landowners.  These were the aristoi, meaning best people, or the
    aristocrats.  Resentment of aristocratic rule lead to riots when traders
    and craftsmen began to prosper but had no say in government.  Beginning
    around 650 B.C., individuals called tyrants were allowed to rule to keep
    the peace.  Government was improved under an enlightened tyrant but the
    system was susceptible to corruption.  In 508 B.C. Athens introduced a new
    system called democracy, in which all citizens took part in their
    government.  Women, foreigners, and slaves had no say.
    Greek homes were simple structures of mud and brick but their public
    buildings, expecially temples, were beautiful structures of stone.  A
    distinctive feature of Greek architecture was the use of columns supporting
    horizontal lintels.
    During the Bronze Age, the armies of the individual palaces were mainly
    chariots manned by the richest citizens.  These armies were destroyed by
    barbarians around 1200 B.C., sending Greece into its Dark Age.
    During the archaic Age, the aristocrats at First dominated the army as
    cavalry because they alone could afford horses.  Foot soldiers came from
    the poorer classes that could not afford horses or better weapons and armor.
    Eventually trade and wealth increased, while the cost fell for new weapons
    made of iron.  The cavalry was replaced in importance by a new army of
    well-equipped foot soldiers called hoplites.
    Each city had a different system for raising its army.  In Athens, all free
    men aged 20 to 50 could be called upon in time of war.  Each of the ten
    Athenian tribes had to provide enough troops for one regiment and one
    commander, called a strategoi.
    Hoplites carried on their left arm a large round shield that extended from
    neck to thigh.  The shield was decorated with a symbol from their family,
    tribe or city.  They wore bronze helmets with a horsehair crest on top to
    make the soldier look taller and more powerful.  For body protection they
    wore a cuirass of bronze, or leather and bronze, from shoulder to chest,
    plus bronze greaves on the front of the lower legs.  Their weapons were a
    long spear and a short iron sword.
    Hoplites fought in the phalanx, a square of men usually eight ranks deep.
    It was important that the phalanx move and fight together.  Flutes and
    other musical instruments helped from keep in step.  The terrifying hand-
    to-hand clash of opposing phalanxes called for extreme courage and dis-
    The Greeks distained the use of cavalry and skirmish troops using bows,
    slings, or javelins/  As long as they fought amoung themselves or were
    lucky, this was not a problem.  Extensive contact with other military
    systems during the Persian Wars eventually convinced them that the phalanx
    needed to be supported.  The ultimate Greek army employed heavy and light
    cavalry, light infantry, and skirmishers in support of its heavy hoplite
    =Decline and Fall=
    Following the death of Alexander the Great, the city-state of mainland
    Greece attempted to rebel against Macedonian rule but were defeated in the
    Lamian War of 323-322 B.C.  During the next 40 years, the War of the
    Diadochi contested the division of Alexander's empire.  It was eventually
    divided into three kingdoms (Greece, Egypt, and Persia).  These three
    kingdoms made up the Hellenistic world.
    The Antigonid Dynasty ruled Greece and Macadon but lost control of their
    colonies in southern Italy to the Romans in 275 B.C.  The Greeks supported
    Carthaginians against Rome during the Punic Wars and paid for that once the
    Carthaginians were destroyed.  Three Macedonian Wars against Rome resulted
    in the end of the Antigonid Dynasty in 168 B.C.  Following an unsuccessful
    Macedonian revolt, the city-states of Greece became provinces of the Roman
    Empire in 146 B.C.
    The Selucid Dynasty attempted to rule what had been the enormous Persian
    Empire.  This proved impossible and parts began rebelling very quickly.
    By 180 B.C. the Roman general Pompey seized the Selucid kingdom and
    incorporated it into the Roman Empire.
    The Ptolemaic Dynasty consisted only of Egypt. Because of its relative
    seclusion and wealth, it lasted the longest of the three Hellenistic
    kingdoms.  Queen Cleopatra VII and her husband Marc Antony of Rome were
    defeated in battle by Octavian at Actium in 32 B.C.  The last Ptolemy
    committed suicide and Egypt became part of the Roman Empire in 30 B.C.
    Greek language and culture spread behind Alexander the Great's armies.  The
    Romans in turn adoped much of the Greek culture, preserving it and
    spreading it to new parts of the world.  After the fall of Rome, Greek
    culture was preserved and expanded upon within the Byzatine Empire and in
    the Arab world, and passed on to the West following the Renaissance.
    The legacy of ancient Greece has had an impact on many diciplines,
    including medicine (the scientific approach to medicine; the Hippocractic
    Oath taken by doctors), mathematics (Euclidean geometry; the Pythagorean
    theorem), literature (the Iliad and the Odyssey), theater, poetry,
    sculpture, language (the Bible's new Testament was written in Greek;
    thousands of words passed on to modern languages), architecture (the White
    House; the British Museum), history (herodutus is regarded as the father
    of history), politics (democracy), philosophy (all philosophical studies
    since Plato have been referred to by one writer as mere footnotes to his
    work), science (the scientific method; laws of nature; the classification
    of plants and  animals; the heliocentric theory), athletics (the Olympic
    Games), and trade (Greeks established trade routes to India and the Silk
    Road to Asia).
    (2000 to 1200 B.C.)
    The extent of the Hittite civilization and empire was rediscovered only
    within the last hundred years.  The Hittites had been mentioned several
    times in the Olds Testament, but were considered only bit players.
    Excavations of sites in Turkey and Syria, plus the dicipherment of
    inscriptions and recovered clay tables, revealed that the Hittites were a
    world power at one time, rivals of the Egyptians and conquerors of Babylon.
    The Hittite empire was centered in Asia Minor (modern Turkey).  At its
    maximum, it extended from the Aegean coast of Anatolia, east to the
    Euphrates River, southeastward into Syria as far as Damascus, and south
    along the eastern Mediterranean coast of the Levant.  Hittite King Mursuli
    sacked Babylon around 1600 B.C. but did not attempt to hold the region.
    Historians do not know where the Hittites originated or how they got to
    Asia Minor.  Studies of their language indicate that they were probably
    of European origin and migrated south through the Balkans or past the
    eastern end of the Black Seam sometime around 2000 B.C.
    The greatest Hittite capital was at Hattusas, outside the modern Turkish
    town of Bogazkoy in north central Turkey, inland from the Black Sea.  This
    city has previously been the capital of the Hatti, a local kingdom that was
    conquered by the Hittites around 1900 B.C.  The name Hittite derives from
    the name of the Hatti.  The capital was moved to Hattusas around 1500 B.C.
    and the city was noted for its massive walls and placement in rugged
    =Rise to Power=
    Around 2000 B.C. when the Hittites entered Asis Minor, the region was
    populated by small yet sophisticated, kingdoms each no larger than a
    thousand people.  The Hittites began expanding their kingdom around 1900
    B.C., using both force and diplomacy to bring rival city-states and
    kingdoms in Asia Minor under control.  The Hittite kingdom went through
    several periods of expansion and contraction until around 1400 B.C.
    Beginning then, several strong kings in succession expanded the Hittite
    empire across all of Asia Minor, into Syria, and beyond the Euphrates
    River.  The push into Syria brought the Hittites into conflict with the
    Egyptians who also sought to dominate this area.
    For several generations the Hittites and Egyptians remained diplomatic and
    military rivals.  The great battle of Kadesh was fought between these
    superpowers around 1300 BC and was commemorated in Egypt by a great
    pictoral relief, an epic poem, and an official written record.  After
    several decades of uneasy stalemate, the two powers signed a peace treaty
    and mutual defense pact, perhaps in response to growing Assyrian power to
    the east.  A copy of the treaty was inscribed on the walls of an Egyptian
    temple at Karnak where it can be read today.  Duplicate copies of this
    treaty on clay and silver tablets were also found by archaeologists in both
    The Hittite imperial boundaries encompassed a diverse geography, including
    expansive grassy plains, mountains, sea coast, river valleys, and desert.
    Their economy was based mainly on grain  and sheep raising, but they also
    possessed large deposits of silver, copper and lead ore.  They were adept
    metalworkers and among the earliest makers of iron, although during their
    time iron was more valuable than gold and not available in any quantity.
    They were an important provider of copper and bronze to Mesopotamia.  When
    they attempted to control the trade to and from that area by extending
    their influence into Syria, the Levant, and upper Euphrates River region,
    they came into conflict with the Egyptians.
    =Religion and Culture=
    The Great Temple at Hattusas, below the hill on which the palace stood, was
    the religious center of the empire.  The Hittite king was also the high
    priest of the kingdom and split his time between government, religious
    duties, and conquest.  The king's dual role was useful in unifying the
    culture of the kingdom among its diverse peoples.  Each year the king/high
    priest traveled extensively to preside at festivals.  These personal
    appearances brought in rich donations and helped stablize the realm.
    Hittite religion was polytheistic.  It was tolerant of other beliefs and
    flexible about incorporating new gods already worshipped by newly conquered
    peoples.  Their supreme deity, Teshub, the Storm God, was borrowed.
    Hittite culture discovered so far pales in comparison to that of their
    contemporaries in Babylon and Egypt.  We have only a few bronze and stone
    statuettes, seal impressions, and rock carvings to judge their artistic
    ability.  One enduring symbol from their artwork is the double-headed eagle
    that was adopted as a national symbol by both Austria and Russia.
    They used cuneiform for writing as well as their own heiroglyphics.  They
    patterned their laws on those of Babylon, though they tempered their
    Some researchers believe that the early Hittite government was the first
    constututional monarchy.  The pankus, probably an assembly of noblemen,
    monitored the king's activites in relation to their laws and probably had
    the power to remove and install kings as needed.  Because they had no law
    of succession until circa 1500 BC, the death of a king prior to then often
    triggered a struggle for power.  The authority of the pankus waned as the
    empire  began to grow and after a law of succession was adopted.
    During the empire years, the Hittite ruler was called the Great King.  Each
    year the rulers of vassal states brought gifts to Hattusas and pledged
    their loyalty.  In return for military protection and favorable trading
    status, vassal states contributed money and troops to the empire.
    Extensive records and correspondence preserved on clay tablets have
    revealed much detail about Hittite diplomacy and politics.  Decipherment of
    specific tablets connected the Hittites was two of the most famous events
    in antquity - the sacking of the legendary city of Troy from the Iliad and
    the death of the Egyptian boy Pharaoh Tutankhamen.  Diplomatic letters to a
    city on the east coast of Asia Minor helped establish the site of the city
    of Troy.
    In 1353 BC the greatest Hittite king Suppiluliuma I, was besieging the city
    of Carchemish that controlled an important ford and trade route over the
    Euphrates River.  During the siege he received a letter from Ankhesenamun,
    the newly widowed wife of Tutankhamen.  The queen of Egypt asked that
    Suppiluliuma send one of his sons to be her new husband and king of Egypt.
    The stage was set for a very important alliance by marriage.  Suppiluliuma
    took too long to investigate and negotiate, however.  An Egyptian
    courtier-priest seized the widow and the throne, and peace between the two
    great powers was not arranged until 70 years later.
    Hittite foot troops made extensive use of the powerful recurved bow and
    bronze tipped arrows.  Surviving artwork depicts Hittite soldiers as stocky
    and bearded, wearing distinctive shoes with curled-up toes.  For close
    combat they used bronze daggers, lances, spears, sickle-shaped swords, and
    battle-axes shaped like human hands.  Soldiers carried bronze rectangular
    shields and wore bronze conical helmets with ear flaps and a long extension
    down the back that protected the neck.  They were apparently very competent
    at conducting sieges and assaulting cities that resisted.
    They were possibly the first to adopt the horse for pulling light
    two-wheeled chariots and made these vehicles a mainstay of their field
    armies.  Egyptian engravings of the Battle of Kadesh show three men in the
    Hittite chariots using spears, but other evidence suggests that they
    carried only a driver and archer.  Perhaps the chariot archer replaced the
    chariot javelin thrower.  Hittite chariot armies were feared by most of
    their contemporaries.
    =Decline and Fall=
    Following the establishment of peace with Egypt around 1280 BC, there
    ensued 80 years of relative peace and prosperity for much of the civilized
    world.  During the great catastrophe circa 1200 BC, however, the Hittite
    empire was suddenly destroyed.  The fortifications at Hattusas were thrown
    down and the city burned. Stone sculptures were smashed apart. It is not
    known by whom, but it is possible that the Hittite armies fell off in
    ability during decades of relative peace while the growing riches of the
    empire made it an ever more attractive target, probably to barbarians from
    the west and north.  The Kaskans, barbarians from the Russian Steppes,
    penetrated the empire around 1300 BC and plundered Hattusas.  They may have
    returned to finish the job for good.
    The legacy of the Hitties is limited because they were lost as a culture
    until rediscovered only recently.  They are remembered in the Bible as
    relatively small but sturdy warriors, but for little else.  A small
    remembrance of the Hittites is their pointed shoes with turned-up toes seen
    in many carvings and reliefs that survive.  This style of shoe is still seen
    occasionally in Turkey as ceremonial dress.
    (323- 146 B.C.)
    The Macedonians were a Greek people that populated the south central Balkan
    Peninsula.  In 338 B.C., King Philip II or Macedonia conquered the Greek city-
    states.  Philip's son, Alexander the Great, conquered nearly every civilization
    from Egypt to India, building a huge empire in which culture and art flourished.
    After Alexander's death in 323 B.C., his empire went through many years of
    turmoil as his senior generals and family members vied for control.  By 
    301 B.C., Alexander's mother, wife, son, and half brother had all been murdered.
    Following the battle of Ipsus that year in Asia Minor, the empire was divided 
    into four kingdoms--Macedonia, Thrace, Egypt, and Persia.  Although Egypt and
    Persia initially claimed Syria, Persia annexed it by 281 B.C.  In 277 B.C., 
    Antigonos Gonatas (one of Alexander's generals) became king of the Greek Kingdom
    of Macedonia and established the ruling Antigonid dynasty, which reigned until
    its conquest by the Romans.  Together with Syria and Egypt, Macedonia became 
    one of the three great kingdoms of the Hellenistic world.  Macedonia's attempt
    to expand its territories met opposition from Pyrrhus and the confederation of
    the city-states of central and southern Greece.  (Athens bribed its was out of
    the confederation and became a neutral state, but never regained its past
    During the 3rd century B.C., Pyrrus came to the aid of the Greek colonies in
    southern Italy and Sicily that were fighting the Romans in Italy.  The early
    victories by Pyrrhus were so costly and had so little affect that the Greeks
    were forced to withfraw by 275 B.C.  During the Second Punic War the Greeks
    actively aided Hannibal against the Romans.  In this same period, the Greeks
    fought the Romans, who had invaded Illyria to put an end to piracy in the
    By 202 B.C., the kingdom of Macedonia was struggling to maintain control of the
    city-states of the Greek Peninsula, which were joining together in rebellion.
    A small Roman army came to their aid and, by 196 B.C., defeated the Macedonian
    army.  Macedonia's power revived and the Romans invaded again in 172 B.C.,
    defeated the kingdom of Macedonia at the battle of Pydna in 168 B.C., and
    removed the Antigonids from power.  The Romans attempted to leave the other
    Greek city-states on their own, but the kingdom of Macedonia took up army again.
    The Romans invaded in 149 B.C. and made the kingdom of Macedonia a Roman
    province.  Roman patience with the other Greek city-states were exhausted by
    unrest in Corinth in 147 B.C., so they beseiged and sacked that city in 146 B.C.
    As a lesson to the other city-states, the citizens of Corinth were sold into
    slavery, the buildings were torn down, and anything of value was shipped home
    to Rome.
    (2200 to 1200 B.C.)
    Primitive agricultural communities sprang up around the Aegean Sea by 6000
    B.C., but this area lagged behind Egypt and Mesopotamia in advancing toward
    civilization.  For reasons not yet understood, the island- based Minoan
    culture made a sudden leap forward around 2000 B.C. and became the first
    civilization of Europe.  The sudden take- off may have been stimulated by
    trading contact with Mesopotamia through Levant ports of through contact
    with Egypt.  One theory suggests that refugees from Egypt during a time of
    turmoil may have emigrated to Crete and brought technology and ideas with
    The Minoan culture was centered on the island of Crete, but extended to
    other nearby islands, including Thera and Rhodes.  They may have colonized
    the Anatolian coast at Miletus and elsewhere.  By the extension of trade,
    they influenced the developing Greek culture on the mainland and other
    Aegean islands.
    The palace at Knossos on Crete was the capital of the Minoan civilization.
    It remained a hidden ruin until rediscovered and revealed in the twentieth
    =Rise of Power=
    The Minoans were an economic power, not a military one.  They preserved
    their economic advantages by apparently controlling ship traffic in the
    Aegean and Mediterranean Seas.  For approximately 800 years, they dominated
    trade in these regions. They were so secure on their islands, protected by
    their ships, that they never fortified their cities.
    Crete was rich in natural resources, including farmland, water, supplies,
    timber, copper, building stone, and access to the sea.  The Minoans were
    prosperous thanks to agriculture and fishing, but grew rich primarily on
    The Minoans grew grain, fruit, herbs, and olives.  Grain, wine, olive oil,
    timber, ceramics, and manufactured goods were theri principal exorts.  They
    imported tin, silver, gold, linen, luxury items, and raw materials for
    =Religion and Culture=
    The high standard of living, the relative abundance of food and other good
    things, and the security of their island homes gave the Minoans an outlook
    on life substantially different from other contemporary cultures.  Perhaps
    because life was good, worship and communication with gods was not
    stressed.  They built no great temples.  Their religion was dominated by
    female goddesses who protected the household, the crops, and the animals.
    The Minoans made regular offerings of food, statues, and other objects.
    The Minoans may have practiced human sacrifice at one time.  There is a
    famous tale of a minotaur, half man, half bull, who lived in a labyrinth
    beneath the palace.  Young people were sacrificed to the minotaur each
    year.  The high priest or king may have worn a bull mask for the sacrifice,
    creating the illusion of half man, half animal.
    They believed in an afterlife and buried the dead with food and possessions
    that would be of use.  Two sacred symbols were bull horns and the double-
    sided axe.
    The Minoans developed a hieroglyphic writing system around 2000 B.C.,
    perhaps following trading contract with the Egyptians.  By 1900 B.C., they
    had developed a new script now called Linear A.  Athird script called
    Linear B came into use as Knossus around 1450 B.C.  To date, onlu Linear B
    has been deciphered, but most of the surviving examples are accounting
    records that reveal little about their history and culture.
    Surviving artwork shows the people of Crete engaging in the sport of bull-
    jumping.  The significance of this activity is not known.  Young men and
    women are depicted approaching a charging bull, grabing it by the horns,
    and somersaulting over the animal's back to land behind it.
    The everyday life of the Minoans was pleasant and relatively free of war
    and unrest, as witnessed by the richness and exuberance of their frescos,
    wall paintings, and decorative objects.
    The great palace at Knossus was also a giant warehouse.  The distribution
    of food and other goods may have been organized from here.
    The only king whose name survives was Minos.  It may be that the word,
    Minos, referred to the office, not the man, like the Egyptian term, pharaoh.
    The Minoans had little apparent need for an army, relying instead on their
    navy to keep any enemies from approaching.  Minoan ships were galleys,
    manned by rowers on both sides.  Narrow galleys were fast and maneuverable,
    allowing them to overtake slower sailing ships of the day.  They did not
    employ rams at this early date, according to the evidence of surviving
    =Decline and Fall=
    The idyllic life of the Minoans was disrupted by natural disasters.  The
    archaelogical remains indicate that the palace of Knossus was destroyed by
    an earthquake in 1700 B.C. and rebuilt.  The nearby island of Thera was
    partially sunk by a volcanic eruption and the resulting tidal wave probably
    struck Crete, causing extensive damage.  The Minoan culture suffered from
    recurrent earthquakes and the Thera explosion, but the extent of the damage
    and its effect on their civilization is debated.
    There are two main scenarios for the end of the Minoan culture.  According
    to the oldest theory, mainland Greeks invaded around 1450 B.C., essentially
    destroying the culture, although it lingered for 700 years more until
    mainland Greece itself was overrun.  In the second scenario, based on more
    recent research, the Minoans suffered through disaster and a resulting
    loosening of their control of sea trade and movement, but did not succomb
    to the mainland Greeks.  The Minoans were instead destroyed along with the
    Myceneans on the mainland by barbarians as part of the catastrophe of 1200
    B.C.  Evidence suggests that by 1180 B.C., the Cretans had moved from
    coastal towns and palaces to defensive city sites high in the hills.
    Attacks and the threat of further attacks were the probable cause of this
    The Minoans are remembered today for their fabulous palace and frescoes at
    Knossos, now partially restored.  It may have been the largest and most
    beautiful palace of the late Bronze Age.  They are also remembered for
    their mysterious writings, some of which continue to defy linguists.
    (64- 273 A.D.)
    Following the collapse of the Seleucid empire in 64 B.C., a no-man's land
    existed in the Middle East between the Roman empire to the west and the Parthian
    empire to the east.  The people of Tadmor, a desert city located at an oasis on
    the east-west trade route, established a desert police force that protected the
    trade between Damascus and the Euphrates River.  They grew rich on this trade
    and their city became known to the Romans as Palmyra.  Around 17 A.D. Palmyra
    became part of Roman Syria while retaining much independence and its desert
    army.  In 129, Palmyra was granted the status of a free city and later was made
    a Roman colony.
    After the Persians defeated and captured the Roman emperor Valerian in 260, a
    Palmtran nobleman was made Dux Orientis and given Roman support.  The Palmyran
    army defeated the Persians and reconquered Mesopotamia.  Following the 
    suspicious murder of the Dux Orientis in 267, his wife Zenobia took the throne 
    and claimed the title of Augustus for her infant son.  The Romans were
    suspicious of these charges but an army they sent east was defeated by Zenobia,
    who was a competent war leader.  The Palmyrans then occupied Egypt and pushed
    the Goths back out of Asia Minor.  By this time the Palmyran empire stretched
    from Asia Minor to Mesopotamia to Egypt.  Its army consisted mainly of archers,
    horse archers, and heavy cavalry.
    The Romans could not ignore the revolt of the Palmyrans and the loss of the
    grain supplies from Egypt.  One army was dispatched to Egypt to reestablish
    control there.  The Emperor Aurelius led a second army into Syria and defeated
    the Palmyrans twice at Antioch and Emesa.  Roman light cavalry bested the
    Palmyran cataphracts.  Palmyra was beseiged and surrendered.  Queen Zenobia was
    caught trying to flee but was allowed to retire into exile after being paraded
    through the streets of Rome.  Palmyra revolted once more after the emperor 
    departed, massacring the Roman garrison.  The legions returned quickly and
    sacked the city.  It continued to exist for many more centuries but never
    returned to prominence.
    (700 to 332 B.C.)
    The Persians were originally one of the several Aryan tribes that migrated
    into modern Iran from the plains of southern Russia around 1400 B.C.  They
    settled the southwest corner of the Iranian plateau, on the north shore of
    the Persian Gulf, on lands vacated by the Elamites who had been conquered
    and enslaved by the Assyrians.  The Persians were separated from the great
    civilizations of Mesopotamia by the Zagros Mountains.
    At its peak, the Persian Empire stretched from the Indus River across the
    Near East to the eastern Mediterranean coast, south into Egypt along the
    Nile to Sudan, across Anatolia, and into Thrace and Macedonia.
    During the history of the Persian Empire, five cities served as the royal
    capital.  The first was Pasargadae, built by Cyrus to commemorate his
    victory over the Medes.  It was remote and impractical as an administrative
    capital.  Babylon was rebuilt by Cyrus as a royal capital for his use when
    affairs brought him to Mesoptamia.  Darius moved the empire'sadministration
    to Susa, the old Elamite capital, perhaps for efficiency.  It was well-
    located at the hub of a road and water transport network.
    The extreme summer heat of Susa drove the Persian court first to the higher
    altitudes of Ecbatana, the old Median capital in the Zagros Mountains.  In
    520 B.C., Darius began building the greatest of the Persian capitals at
    Persepolis.  Construction of Persepolis was interrupted for long periods
    and was not completed nearly 200 years later when the city was sacked and
    burned to the ground by Alexander.
    =Rise To Power=
    The Persians settled on relatively poor and remote lands where they were
    little troubled by first the Elamites to their west, then the Assyrians who
    destroyed the Elamites around 640 B.C., and then the Medes (to their
    northZ) nd resurgent Babylonians who conquered Assyria in 609 B.C.
    Throughout this period, the various petty Persian kings were vassals of the
    richer and more advanced Medes.  Cyrus II became king of the small Persian
    kingdom of Anshan in 559 B.C.  Within ten years he had subjugated the
    eastern part of Persia and established a reputation among even his rivals
    as a natural leader to whom men gravitated.  When the Median king attempted
    to reassert control over Persia around 550 B.C., the Median army revolted
    on the battlefield, handing over their king to Cyrus and surrendering their
    own capital at Ecbatana.  The Median Empire, stretching across northern
    Mesopotamia into Anatolia, underwent a nearby bloodless change of
    management.  Cyrus II was now Cyrus the Great, founder of the Persian
    Cyrus then conquered in quick succession the Lydians of Asia Minor (led the
    King Croesus of legendary wealth who had invented coins), Greek colonies on
    the Aegean coast, the Parthians, and the Hyrcanians to the north.  In 541
    B.C., he marched into the steppes of Central Asia, establishing a fortified
    border along the Jaxartes River.  In 540 B.C., his 19th year as king, Cyrus
    turned on his onetime ally, Babylon.  After one battle, the army and people
    of Babylon surrendered their king, city, and empire that stetched from
    southern Mesopotamia to Phoenicia.  Before Cyrus could expand into Egypt or
    toward Greece, however, he was killed fighting nomadic tribesmen who were
    threatening his eastern provinces.
    The first successors to Cyrus conquered Egypt, gathered new provinces in
    North Africa, and extended the empire into India to the Indus River.  They
    turned next against the Greeks who were commercial rivals of Persian
    Phoenicia.  In 513 B.C., a huge floating bridge was built across the
    Bosphorus Strait, linking Asia and Europe.  The Persian army took Thrace
    and Macedonia to cut off grain to the Greeks, but could not subjugate the
    elusive Scythians.  This was the peak of the Persian Empire.  The stage was
    set for the mighty struggle with the city- states of Greece that lasted 50
    The early Persian economy was based on herding because the land was so poor
    for agriculture.  The Persians attributed their toughness to the meager
    lifestyle to which they has been acclimated for generations.
    The sudden acquisition of the Median Empire, Lydia, Babylon, Egypt, and
    gold- rich areas in India made Persia an economic powerhouse.  It controlled
    the rich agricultural areas of Mesopotamia, the grasslands of Anatolia, the
    trade routes in every direction, and rich deposits of metals and other
    resources.  Great King Darius instituted many economic innovations and
    reforms: systematized taxation; standardized weights, measures, and monetary
    units (the first successful widespreaduse of coins); improvedtransportation
    routes, including the 1600- mile Royal Road from Susa to Sardis and an early
    Suez Canal; royal trading ships; promotion of agriculture; a banking system;
    and promotion of international trade.
    =Religion And Culture=
    The Persian kings and nobility were Zaroastrians, a religion named after its
    founder, Zarathustra, called Zoroaster in Greek.  Zarathrustra conceived his
    religion around 600 B.C., and it had great influence later on Judaism,
    Christianity, and Islam.
    Zoroastrianism was monotheistic, centering on one supreme god who created
    everything material and spiritual.  The powers of good and evil worked on
    humans who had to choose constantly between the two.  An eternal afterlife
    of pleasure or torment were the possible results of god's judgement after
    death.  These concepts of monotheism, good versus evil, free will, and
    posthumous reward or punishment were a departure from the polytheistic
    religions prominent in the area previously.  These concepts greatly influenced
    religions that followed.
    The head of the Persian government was the king whose word was low.  His
    authority was extended by a bureaucracy led by Persian nobles, scribes who
    kept the records, a treasury that collected taxes and funded building projects
    and armies, and a system of roads, couriers, and signal stations that
    facilitated mail and trade.  In the early years when the army was predomin-
    ately Persian, it capably preserved the internal and external peace.
    Much of the empire was divided into provinces called satrapies, ruled by a
    satrap.  All of Egypt was usually a single satrapy, for example.  The satraps
    were normally Persians or Medes to help ensure their loyalty.  They ruled
    and lived like minor kings in their own palaces.  Some satraps became strong
    enough to threaten the king.  Strong kings kept their satraps in check by
    holding close the reins of the armies and the treasury.
    All Persian men to the age of 50 years were obligated to serve in the armies
    of the Persian Empire.  Greek historians report that boys were trained in
    riding, archery, hand- to- hand combat, and mounted combat.  At the age of 20
    they were eligible for military service.
    The army consisted mainly of four types of units: spearmen for infantry shock
    combat, foot archers to act as skirmishers, light cavalry mainly with bows,
    and heavy cavalry that wore some armor and carried spears.  In the early
    years of the empire, the predominantly Persian army was highly motivated and
    responsive on the battlefield, making it a dangerous foe.
    The elite of the Persian army were the Ten Thousand Immortals, so called
    because the unit was always kept at a full strength of 10,000 men.  The loss
    of any man to death or incapacitation was immediately made good by promotion
    from another unit.  One thousand of the Immortals were the king's personal
    In its later years, the ratio of Persians to provincial levies declined.
    The hardened army of desciplined and well- trained Persians was replaced by
    a mixture of formations, weapons, and methods.  These troops lacked the
    discipline of the Persians and proved difficult to maneuver and employ on
    the battlefield.
    =Decline And Fall=
    The Persian Empire peaked aroung 500 B.C., although the seeds of its decline
    were planted earlier.  A recurring problem was court intrigue and its ill-
    defined rules for succession.  The death of a king often triggered a scramble
    for the throne that exhausted the treasury, eroded morale, and loosened the
    governmental hold on the provinces.  Wasteful spending led to inflation and
    unpopular tax increases.  Disputes in the provinces, usually over taxes, were
    often settled brutally, further increasing dissatisfaction.  Five of the six
    kings that followed Xerxes' death in 464 B.C. were weak leaders that held the
    empire together only by increasing harsh measures.
    The Greeks and Persians had been on a collision course for many years when
    conflict began between the two cultures in 499 B.C.  Despite what appeared to
    be overwhelming strength and economic resources, the Persians failed to
    defeat the Greeks in 50 years of war on land and sea.  The Greeks, though
    victorious, were not capable immediately of carrying the war into Persia.
    Following the Greco- Persian Wars, the weak Persian kings concentrated on
    maintaining their ever more tenuous hold on the empire.  Recurring revolts
    in outlying provinces, especially Parthia, Lydia, and Egypt, weakened the
    economy and military.  Before the empire could dissolve from within, it was
    dispatched by Alexander the Great in an amazingly short period of time.
    Alexander invaded in 334 B.C., captured Lydia by 333, took Egypt in 332, and
    became king of Persia in 331.
    The Persians are best remembered in the West as the antagonist in the dramatic
    Greco- Persian Wars, from which so much history has been preserved.  The most
    famous events from this period are the bridging of the Hellespont, land battles
    at Marathon, Thermopylae, and Platea, the great sea battle at Salamis, and
    the sacking of Athens.  Most of this history is biased, however, because we
    have mainly the Greek accounts to study.
    The Persians are also remembered in several Biblical accounts for the toler-
    ance of their later courts.  Cyrus the Great is remembered especially for
    freeing the Hebrews held prisoner in Babylon when he took that city and
    allowing them to return to Israel.
    The greatest legacy of the Persians was the aggression and mixture of Asia
    and African cultures.  Most of the advances of civilization to that point
    had come from these areas.  This cultural gift was preserved by the Persians
    and passed on first to the Greeks and then to Europe and the West.
    (1200 to 146 B.C.)
    There was never a country or empire called "Phoenicia."  The historical
    name of this culture was coined by the Greeks and was not their name.  The
    name Phoenicia derives from the Greek word Phoenix, meaning in this case a
    dark red or purple- brown color.  The phoenicians were renowned for their
    cloth dyes, especially an expensive purple one popular with royalty.
    Because Greek language and writings were preserved in abundance, versus
    Phoenician texts which are very scant, the name stuck.
    The Phoenicians appeared on the historical scene around 1200 B.C., a time
    when most of the civilized world was being overrun by barbarians.  In the
    political and military void of a 400- year ancient dark age, this small
    group of traders were able to prosper and gradually expand their influence.
    Instead of acquiring a physical empire of contiguous lands, they gradually
    built, instead, a large trading and colonial network from their home base
    of a few independent cities along the coast of what is now Lebanon.
    They were the remnants of the Canaanites, a Semitic people who occupied
    city- states in this region prior to 1200 B.C.  The most important of their
    early cities were Tyre, Sidon, Berytus (modern Beirut), and Byblos.  These
    coastal cities were hemmed in on the land side by the Lebanon Mountains.
    The only onvious opportunity for expansion and economic gain was by sea.
    =Rise To Power=
    Prior to the catastrophe of 1200 B.C., Canaanite traders had been
    restricted to perhaps the Levantine coast, Egypt, and the southern coast of
    Anatolia.  The Minoans on Crete blocked entrance into the Aegean,
    controlled all trade further west.  The Canaanite coastal towns were
    usually controlled by Egypt, and one of their principal businesses was
    providing wood (the cedars of Lebanon) to the Nile region.
    The Minoan civilization was destroyed in 1200 B.C., removing most of the
    constraints on Mediterranean and Aegean Sea trading bu others.  The
    Phoenicians were the most aggressive of those attempting to fill the void.
    Their cities were well- positioned for this enterprise by being located
    literally in the center of the known world.  The Aegean, Mesopotamia, and
    Egypt were all roughly equidistant to the west, south, and east.  For any
    of the three regions to trade with another, the easiest trade route was
    through the Phoenician cities.
    By the ninth century B.C., the ancient dark ages was nearing an end.  The
    Phoenicians were growing rich as traders and this attracted enemies,
    principally the Assyrians.  In the face of repeated assaults or heavy
    tribute payments at the least, the Tyrians adopted the strategy of
    establishing colonies to the west.  Colonies were removed from the grasp
    of the Assyrians and also helped with the exploitation of metals and trade
    in the western Mediterranean.
    The most important Phoenician colony was at Carthage, established around
    700 B.C.  Other important colonies were in Sicily, Corsica, Sardinia, and
    Spain.  Over the next 500 years, Carthage grew rapidly in size and power.
    Most of its wealth came from the ore mines of Spain.  Carthage fought for
    control of the western Mediterranean with the Greeks first and then the
    The early Phoenician economy was built on timber sales, wood working, and
    cloth dyeing.  Dyes ranging in color from a pink to a dark purple were
    made from the rotting gland of a sea snail.  Gradually the Phoenician city-
    states became centers of maritime trade and manufacturing.  Having limited
    natural resources, they imported raw materials and fashioned them into more
    valuable objects that could be shipped profitably, such as jewelry,
    metalwork, furniture, and housewares.  They borrowed techniques and styles
    from all corners of the world that they touched as traders.
    While exploring the western Mediterranean, they either discovered large
    metal deposits in Spain or took them from Greeks who may have been there
    first.  By fortifying sites on Sicily and North Africa, they effectively
    denied other traders access to the riches of Spain, the west Africa coast
    (gold, exotic woods, and slaves), and Britain (tin, which was used to make
    =Religion and Culture=
    Phoenician religion was polytheistic and their other gods required
    continual sacrifices to forestall disaster, especially Boal, the god of
    storms.  No significant Phoenician temple has yet been discovered, but most
    of their ancient cities lie buried under modern cities.  The Bible recounts
    human sacriices by the Phoenicians but this practice was eventually
    stopped.  It carried on in Carthage, however.  A cemetary outside of
    Carthage was found to obtain thousands of urns of infants sacrificed to the
    gods.  (BURN BABY BURN!!)  Noble families of Carthage got into the habit
    of substituting animals and slaves for their children, but following a
    military disaster in 320 B.C., 500 infants from the best families were
    sacrificed.  (HA HA!!)
    Early Phoenician culture was influenced to a large degree by their Semitic
    origins and Semitic neighbors.  Their later culture was heavily influenced
    by the Greeks.  There are few objects known today that are clearly
    One of their lasting copntributions to civilization was a proto- alphabet
    where each letter represented a consonant.  This cut down significantly the
    number of symbols required to make written words.  When written, the vowels
    were implied.  Later advances by the Greeks added symbols for vowel sounds,
    creating the first true alphabet.
    When the Phoenicians began competing with the Greeks for trade and
    colonies, the contest led to construction of the first ships built
    expressly for war.  These were rowed galleys armed with a ram at the front
    and marines for boarding.  Sea warfare grew in importance during the fifth
    century when Persia fought the Greek city- states for control of the
    Aegean, western Anatolia, and eastern Mediterranean.  By this time the
    Phoenician cities were under control of Persia. Phoenician ships made up
    the bulk of the Persian fleet that was defeated at Salamis in 480 B.C.
    Phoenician galleys of the time were larger and less maneuverable than their
    Greek counterparts, and this was a fatal shortcoming in restricted waters.
    The Carthaginian navy dominated the early Punic Wars with Rome, but the
    Romans captured a Carthaginian ship that went aground and built duplicates.
    The Romans eventually cleared the Mediterranean of Carthaginian ships and
    carried the wars to a successful conclusion in North Africa.
    The Carthiginians had the only significant land army that can be considered
    Phoenician in derivation.  Their greatest general was Hannibal, who invaded
    Italy from Spain, passing the Alps in winter with his army and elephants.
    Most of his troops were Celts enlisted from Spain and Gaul.  One strength
    of his army was cavalry from North Africa that was usually able to drive
    off the Roman cavalry, surround the Roman infantry, and help annihilate it.
    The Romans defeated Hannibal eventually, not by fighting him, but by
    attacking where he wasn't- Spain first, and then North Africa.
    =Decline and Fall=
    The Phoenician home cities were periodically under the thumb of one eastern
    conqueror after another from roughly 900 to 332 B.C.  They were never
    strong enough to hold off the powerful armies from Assyria, then Babylon,
    and then Persia, although they were often rich enough to buy them off.  In
    332 B.C., Alexander the Great took them one by one, ending their on- again,
    off- again independence.  They became Greek cities and lost their identity
    as Phoenician for good.
    The Carthaginians lasted another 200 years.  Having held off Greek
    expansion past Sicily successfully for many centuries, they met their match
    in the more populous and better organized Romans.  At the end of the Punic
    Wars in 146 B.C., the people of Carthage were carried off to slavery and
    the city was destroyed.
    The Phoenician tradition as traders carried on in Lebanon down through the
    years to modern times, regardless of who was in political control.
    Phoenicians are also recalled as great mariners.  They are believed to have
    been the first civilized culture to reach Britain and the Azores.  There
    is evidence that Phoenicians circumnavigated Africa on commission by the
    Egyptians around 600 B.C.  There is some questionable evidence that they
    reached the New World.
    Their most important contribution was their revised alphabet, which they
    spread around the known world.  When further refined and spread by the
    Greeks and Romans, it became the alphabet used today by most western
    (750- 476 A.D.)
    The Romans began as a small tribe living in modern Italy but expanded to create
    the largest and longest lasting empire of antiquity.  They were a hardy and
    industrious people who survived in a violent world mainly by creating a powerful
    army.  The Roman Army went through many charges over the thousand years of its
    existence and failed eventually to defend the empire, but in general it was
    consistently superior to opponents from all corners of the world.  The empire
    expanded on the strength of the ruthless and aggressive Roman legions, and
    consolidated through benign administration and public works on an unprecedented
    The people who became the Romans migrated from northern Europe and settled on
    the plains south of the Tiber River.  They established towns on the seven hills
    near the river.  These towns eventually merged to form their capital city of
    Rome.  As first a republic and then an empire, Rome began expanding after 400 
    B.C. and eventually controlled the entire Mediterranean coastline, Europe west
    of the Rhine and south of the Danube, Egypt, Palestine, Syria, Asia Minor, and
    modern England.
    The Roman Empire in the West ceased to exist in 476 A.D., although it was gone
    for practical purposes many decades earlier.  The proximate cause of the
    collapse was invasion across the Rhine and Danube Rivers by Germanic settlers.
    Many underlying causes for the collapse have been suggested.  The adoption of
    Christianity and preoccupation with the afterlife instead of practical matters
    on Earth was one.  The increasing inability to administer the large empire was
    another.  Taxes were required after the second century to support the large army
    and this caused unrest and revolt in the provinces.  The slave economy went
    into decline because slaves became sparse when conquests ceased after the second
    century.  The empire failed to industrialize because of its independence of
    slavery.  Plague took a heavy toll on the population and trade declined 
    thereafter.  The army declined in quality because mercenaries had to replace
    citizens that avoided service as soldiers and officers.  Repeated turmoil and
    civil war over succession to the throne sapped the strength of the legions and
    brought barbarian contingents into the army.
    The legacy of the Romans were broad and far-reaching.  It includes the
    transmission of much ancient culture to the modern age, especially Greek art and
    literature.  The Romans began urbanization of Europe.  In addition to Rome, they
    founded Paris, London, Lyons, Bordeaux, Cologne, Toledo, and Milan.  Modern
    railway gauges trace back to wagon ruts in Roman mines.  The Romans excelled at
    engineering and construction, and first used the arch, the dome, and concrete.
    A few of their famous roads, bridges, and aqueducts are still in use.  The Latin
    language influenced the later development of the French, Spanish, Italian,
    Portuguese,  and Romanian languages.  Roman law was codified and updated by the
    Byzantines and is the basis of law for most European countries today.
    (1800 to 1000 B.C.)
    China has been a mystery to much of the world since word of its existence
    first spread west in ancient times.  It was isolated first by geography, and
    then by a conscious policy on the part of its rulers.  It was thought to be
    one of the oldest civilizations but modern archaeology and research has
    revealed that the civilizations on Crete, in Egypt, and in Mesopotamia predate
    it significantly.
    China encompassed a number of fertile river valleys, especially the Huang Ho
    (Yellow) and Yangtze, that were ideal sites for agriculture.  New technologies
    spread gradually from the west and the first Chinese farming communities
    appeared along these rivers around 5000 B.C.  Although all ancient civiliz-
    ations eventually shared a common threshold of agricultural and technological
    knowledge, the relative isolation of China allowed it to form a unique
    culture.  The Chinese distinguished their civilization by being first to
    achieve many important advancements.
    The first recognized dynasty of Chinese kings is that of the Shang, who were
    located in the north along the Huang Ho River.  Their principal city was
    An-yang, southwest of modern Beijing.  The Chou dynasty overthrew a decadent
    Shang king and ruled for 400 years from the city of Hao in the northwest
    province of Shensi.  When barbarians from the north sacked Hao, the Chou
    capital was moved east to Loyang.  Although the Chou dynasty soon lost
    control of most of China, it continued to rule a state of varying size from
    its central position until 221 B.C.  In 221 B.C., China was unified by the
    Ch'in, from whom the country gets its modern name.  A new capital was built
    at Hsien-Yang, also southwest of modern Beijing.
    =Rise To Power=
    The Shang dynasty ruled over a conglomeration of northwestern Chinese feudal
    territories from 1766 to 1027 B.C.  The remainder of the counrty was made up
    of territories that the Shang could not reach or influence.  In 1027 B.C.,
    a particularly decadent Shang ruler lost control of the kingdom and succombed
    to either revolt or the deliberate attack from the more western province of
    Chou.  A Chou dynasty established itself and then expanded its control to
    the middle and southern areas of China over the next 400 years.  With the
    help of a deposed queen, barbarians from the north invaded Chou in 722 B.C.
    and sacked the capital.
    The Chou dynasty relocated further to the east but never regained its domi-
    nance.  The weakening of the Chou led to the Spring and Autumn period (722
    to 481 B.C.) that takes its name from the title of a history of the era.
    New feudal kingdoms emerged and fought each other for territory, strategic
    materials, and population centers.  Warfare between the feudal territories
    and barbarians to the north was incessant.  By 500 B.C., and 200 feudal
    territories of China had consolidated into 20 independent states.
    A peace was arranged around 540 B.C. at a conference instigated by smaller
    states that had suffered continual invasion and despoiling.  Peace lasted
    40 years and then hostilities resumed, setting off the age known as the
    Warring States (481 to 221 B.C.).  Seven major states emerged in this period,
    buteach was subjugated by the Ch'in, one after the other, beginning in 230
    B.C.  In 221 B.C., Prince Cheng, the Tiger of Ch'in, proclaimed himself
    Shih Huang-ti-- the emperor of China.
    Early Chinese farmers grew millet and vegetables, andkept dogs and pigs.  By
    4000 B.C., rice was being grown and became the most important food crop of
    Asia.  By 2500 B.C., cattle, chickens, sheep, and goats were raised, and
    water buffalo were being used to pull plows and wagons.
    Despite the ravages of war, the ancient Chinese economy continued to grow and
    improve.  An elaborate road network improved communications and trade.
    Massive irrigation projects dammed entire rivers, breaking them into small
    streams that carried water over extensive plains for rice cultivation.  Most
    impressive were canals connecting rivers or taking water into previously
    arid regions.  The first of these was built in 486 B.C. to supply troops.
    The eventual dominance of the Ch'in was due in part to the rapid population
    growth that resulted from canal and irrigation projects that dramatically
    increased food production.
    Bronze did not reach China until around 1500 B.C., and iron followed in the
    sixth century B.C.  Another advantage of the Ch'in was their iron deposits
    and iron seventeen centuries before that technology was achieved in Europe,
    and iron- making was a key factor in the shaping of their society.
    China was unique to the ancient world for its general lack of slavery and
    a large peasant class of land owners.  The reasons for this are not fully
    understood.  These two conditions probably contributed to the enormous food
    production and population that China supported.
    =Religion And Culture=
    The religion of ancient China was dominated bt ancestor worship.  Kings
    traced their ancestry back directly to Shang- Ti, the ancestor and founder
    of the people, and the ruler of the natural world.  Shang- Ti and deceased
    forebears were petitioned by sacrifices for guidance in all aspects of life.
    Political power was linked to the spiritual.  The ruler was the Son of Heaven
    and ensured the welfare of the people.  These ancient beliefs were modified
    eventually into a state religion by two competing philosophies that devel-
    oped around the sixth century B.C. in response to growing dissatisfaction
    with feudalism.
    The oldest of these philosophies was Taoism, based on a collection of profound
    sayings.  Conformity to the Tao was achieved by unassertive action and
    simplicity.  Taoism urged a return to a naturally sharing society that was
    cooperative, not acquisitive.  A typical Taoism saying read, "He who feels
    punctured, must have been a bubble."
    The second and most influential philosophy was Confucianism, a more practical
    and socially aware doctrine.  This was a philosophy of honesty and cooperation
    in relationships based on loyalty to principles.  Virtue was acquired by
    self- cultivation and self- denial.  The Confucian ideal was a perfection
    of the human personality through sacrifice in deference to tradition values
    passed down from one's ancestors.  Heaven was the reward of the dutiful
    The various dynasties of China ruled over a hierarchy of feudal states linked
    by kinship and vassalage.  Feudal society was supported by peasant farmers
    who produced unpaid labor.
    Following the formation of the first empire in 221 B.C., the long failing
    feudal society was replaced by a new structure.  The aristocracy were only
    relatives of the emperor.  Four classes of society were ranked below them.
    The shih were lesser nobility, landowners, and scholars.  The nung were the
    peasant farmers, who paid taxes, lobored on public works, and served in the
    armies.  The kung were the artisans, and the shang were the merchants.
    Ancient Chinese architecture was concerned primarily with building walls.
    Walls defended villages and towns, but also divided towns into sections.
    Controlling access to sections of cities enhanced the power of authorities.
    The earliest walls were built of earth tamped down between wooden slats that
    held it in place.  The use of earth in this manner led to two major chara-
    cteristics of Chinese architecture-- walls did not usually bear loads and
    roofs supported generous overhangs to keep water off the walls.  Walls were
    improved first with sun- dried bricks on their facings and then with fire-
    baked bricks by the end of the Warring States period.
    The Great Wall of China was constructed following the unification of 221 B.C.
    for two purposes.  It was intended first to keep out or discourage attacks
    by mounted barbarians from the north.  It also was an outlet for the labor
    of thousands of men who had previously served in the massive armies now made
    unnecessary by the unification.
    The ancient Chinese fielded armies that at times dwarfed those seen previo-
    usly in the Near and Middle East.  Casualties from a battle often numbered
    100,000 or more according to records well regarded today for accuracy.
    Professional armies were supplemented by large militia levies called up for
    temporary service.
    The most militaristic states were those to the north and northwest who were
    forced to become proficient in war because of repeated attacks by mounted
    barbarians.  Provinces in this region learned to fight large field armies
    from neighboring states as well as the barbarian hordes.  The three dominant
    dynasties of ancient China originated  in the northern provinces.
    Chariot archers dominated the battlefields of the Bronze Age Shang era, but
    they were supplanted by mounted archers and large  infantry armies armed with
    crossbow, not seen elsewhere for many centuries.  Crossbows were manufactured
    in large quantities for the arming of the militia, as well as regular troops.
    This fact influenced the widespread building of walls fro protection.  For
    reasons not known, armor was made predominantly of wood and bamboo.
    =Decline And Fall=
    The empire established in 221 A.D. was further modified by the former Han
    dynasty up to 9 A.D.  In that year, ausurpergrabbed the throne and ruled
    for 16 years.  Attempts to reform land ownership failed, however, and the
    usurper was eventually beheaded.  This period makes a convenient break point
    in Chinese history, even though the empire continued to exist into the
    twentieth century A.D.
    The principle legacy of ancient China was its philosophy, including the
    concepts of face, ancestor worship, virtue, and balance with nature (Yin-
    Yang), which continue to shape its culture today.  The most recognizable
    physical legacy is the Great Wall, the only man- made object on Earth
    visible from space.
    (5000 to 2230 B.C.)
    The Sumerians were one of the earliest civilizations.  Their growth and
    expansion was dependent on rich river valley farmlands.  They were not as
    fortunate as others in terms of mineral resources or strategic position,
    however, and did not enjoy the existence of the Egyptians.  They are
    considered one of the most important early cultures, nevertheless, because
    of the many advances attributed to them.  Because their location was weak
    in terms of defense and poor in terms of resources, they were forced to
    innovate.  In many ways they were more important to history because of
    their innovations than the much richer Egyptians.
    Sumer was located in southern Mesopotamia where the Tigris and Euphrates
    Rivers come together before flowing into the Persian Gulf.  By 5000 B.C.
    primitive farmers had come down to the valley from the Zafros Mountains to
    the east.  The land was rich but baked hard in the summer sun after the
    late spring river floods.  The early settlers learned how to control some
    of the flooding with dikes and how to irrigate their summer fields.  Early
    settlements at Ur, Uruk, and Eridu grew into independent cities first and
    then city- states.
    As a conglomeration of city- states, there was no clear capital for the
    Sumerians because the center of power shifted from time to time.  The
    cities of Ur, Lagash, Erech, Eridu, and Uruk were the most important.
    =Rise to Power=
    From 5000 to 3000 B.C.. agricultural communities of Sumer gradually
    coalesced into city- states along the banks of the Tigris and Euphrates
    Rivers.  The peak of this city- state culture lasted from 2900 to 2400
    B.C.  They warred with one another from time to time and competed for land
    and trade, but never conglomerated or built an empire that expanded from
    their traditional homeland.
    The city- states of the river valley were relatively rich from food
    production, manufacturing, and their position along important trade routes.
    This made them tempting targets when more powerful and warlike neighbors
    came into existence to the north and east.
    The Sumerians grew wheat, barley, peas, onions, turnips, and dates.  They
    raised cattle and sheep, fished, and hunted wildfowl along the river.  Food
    was generally abundant and populations grew accordingly.
    There was no copper in the river valleys, but copper was found in the
    mountains to the east and north.  The Sumerians learned how to obtain
    copper from ore by 4000 B.C. and to make bronze by 3500 B.C.
    They traded food, cloth, and manufactured items for raw materials, such as
    timber, copper, and stone, which they fashioned into items of everydat use,
    weapons, and more valuable trade goods.  Their merchants traveled up the
    Tigris and Euphrates to trade with the people of Anatolia and the
    Mediterranean coast.  They also traded in the Persian Gulf for items from
    India and further east.
    =Religion and Culture=
    The Sumerians worshipped hundreds of gods, with each city having its own
    patron deity.  The principal gods, such as Entil, the god of air, were too
    busy to bother with the plight of individuals.  For that reason, each
    Sumerian worshipped a particular minor god or goddess who was expected to
    interact with the major gods.
    The Sumerians did not believe in an afterlife and were realistic about the
    limits of human goodness.  They accepted that although the gods were above
    question, they were not always kind.
    The soul and center of each city- state was its temple to the patron god.
    The Sumerians believed that the god owned the city- state.  Part of the
    land was farmed directly for the god, often by slaves.  The remaining land
    was farmed by the temple staff or by farmers who paid rent to the temple.
    Rents and offerings paid for temple operation and supported the poor.
    Slaves were an important part of the community and were one objective of
    any military campaign.  Even locals could become slaves to satisfy debts.
    Slaves were allowed to work extra hours for themselves and use any savings
    to buy their freedom.
    Each city in Sumer was ruled at first by a council of elders, although a
    war leader, called a lugal, was selected to lead the army during conflict.
    Eventually the lugals assumed power as kings and established dynasties.
    Evidence suggests that the Sumerians may have taken the first steps toward
    democracy by electing a representative assembly.  They consisted of two
    houses- a senate of important citizens and a lower house made up of those
    available for military duty.
    Preserved clay tablets reveal that the Sumerians maintained courts of
    justice where people could expect a fair trial.  One table recorded the
    oldest murder trial in history.
    Most of the food production and distribution was controlled through the
    temple.  A noble class arose based on land ownership, control of land, and
    manufacturing.  Most trade and manufacturing was outside the temple's
    The Sumerians were handicapped by having no easy access to stone or wood
    for building.  Sun- dried mud bricks were their main building material and
    this required some ingenuity.  They were the first to employ the arch,
    vault, and dome.  Their cities were completely enclosed by brick walls.
    Their most important buildings were temples, built as large mounds called
    ziggurats.  Through cycles of attack, destruction, and restoration, the
    temples were rebuilt again and again at the same site, gradually getting
    larger with each reincarnation.  Mud bricks eroded and crumbled much more
    quicker than stone, however, and little Sumerian architecture survives.
    The key influence on the Sumerian military was their poor strategic
    position.  Natural obstacles for defense existed only on their borders to
    the west (desert) and south (Persian Gulf).  When more populous and
    powerful enemies appeared to their north and east, the Sumerians were
    susceptible to attack.
    Surviving artwork and archaelogical remains indicate that the Sumerian
    soldiers used spears and short swords of bronze.  They wore bronze helmets
    and carried large shields.  Their armies were not particularly noted but
    records are sparse.
    They engaged in siege warfare during their many inter- city wars.  Mud
    brick walls did not stand against determined attackers who had the time to
    pry out the bricks or pound them to dust.
    The Sumerians invented chariots and were the first to use them in battle.
    These earlt chariots were four- wheeled and pulled by wild asses, and were
    not effective in battle as the later two- wheeled design pulled by horses.
    Sumerian chariots may have served primarily as fast transports, but
    surviving artwork suggests that spears or javelins were thrown from them.
    =Decline and Fall=
    A group of Semitic people called the Akkadians settled north of Sumer along
    the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers.  The Akkadians adopted very quickly the
    culture, religion, and writing of the more advanced Sumerians who had
    preceeded them.  In 2371 B.C., Sargon I seized the throne of Kish and
    gradually conquered all of the city- states of Akkadia.  He turned south
    and conquered the city- states of Sumer, which were unable to unite in
    defense.  Sargon established the first empire of history during the reign
    from 2371 to 2316 B.C., extending his control along the Fertile Crescent
    from Elam, to the east of Sumer, to the Mediterranean coast.
    Sargon's empire collapsed after his death but was restored briefly by his
    grandson.  Around 2230 B.C. the Akkadian empire was destroyed by an
    invasion of Gutians, the barbarian hill people from the Zagros Mountains.
    New cities and towns soon grew up along the river valleys, but the
    Sumerians were gone as a distinct and indepentent culture.
    The Sumerians are most noted for the invention of the wheel and writing.
    The wheel was important for transport and for pottery making.  Sumerian
    writing, cuneiform, consisted of groups of stylus wedge impressions pushed
    into clay to form stylized pictograms representing words.  This writing
    grew out of record keeping and seals from business transactions.
    They were among the first to use boats, including round boats made of hide
    stretched over a wooden framework.  These coracles were especially popular
    among the reeds and waterways of the river delta.
    (300 to 800 A.D.)
    The Yamato period of Japanese culture is also called the age of the great
    tombs because of the appearance in these centuries of great tombs and tomb
    clusters, presumably for the burial of rulers and other elites.  The name
    Yamato comes ffrom the region of Japan that was the home of the first clan
    to consolidate rule over most of the islands.  During the Yamato period,
    Japan accelerated its advance in technology by adopting the cultivation of
    rice, improving its pottery, developing iron working, building social
    hierarchies, and accomplishing a political, economic, anc cultural
    consolidation of the islands.
    The hereditary lands of the Yamato clan are on a peninsula on the southwest
    coast of Ise Bay.  This bay is located on the main island of Honshu,
    southwest of modern Tokyo.
    Prior to the late seventh century A.D., there was no permanent capital of
    Japan.  Each king ruled from his own palace, which was usually abandoned
    following his death.  As the Yamato began to adopt the Chinese system of
    governemntal bureaucracy and organization, the need for a permanent seat of
    government arose.  The first capital was founded at Fujiwara in 694 A.D.
    and served three emperors before being abandoned in 710.  The second
    capital of this period was built at Heijo and occupied from 710 to 784.
    =Rise To Power=
    Chinese documents from the second century A.D. make reference to 100
    countries existing in Wa, a.k.a. Japan.  By the third century, the Chinese
    refer to a queen of Wa, probably of the Yamato clan, who had consolidated
    30 countries under her rule.  During this period, the Yamato clan
    consolidated its control over most of Japan with a combination of military
    conquest, intermarriage, and diplomacy.
    Under the Yamato, the Japanese economy remained dependent on rice growing.
    It was primarily a barter economy and taxes were paid in rice, cloth, and
    other commodities by reasants who worked public lands.  Beginning with the
    seventh century, coins were imported from China to facilitate tax
    collection.  An attempt was made to mint Japanese coins, but rulers could
    not resist the temptation to debase the local coinage and it fell out of
    =Religion and Culture=
    New concepts were added to the ancient Japanese beliefs and rituals during
    the Yamato period, including respect for clan ancestors and a mythology of
    divine ancestry for the Yamato dynasty.  Under the influence of Chinese
    Buddhism propaganded by Forea during the sixth century, the Japanese
    religion became more formalized as Shinto, the Way of the Kami.  The kami
    were an infinite number of natural spirits and powers that could be called
    upon for aid or appeased when angered.  The hierarchy of Shinto divinities
    was defined and the mythology was written down.  The rulers of Japan
    descended from the sun goddess, the supreme Shinto deity.
    Early Shinto was positive and concerned with the present, not the past or
    an afterlife.  It fostered a reverence for a natural universe that was seen
    as good and ethical.  Evil was identified with impurity and the unnatural.
    Sincere honesty was the central virtue.
    During the Yamato period, tribal states of various sizes and power were
    brought together gradually by a dynasty of Yamato clan rulers.  The leader
    of the Yamato in the second half of this period was known as the Daio, or
    Great King.  The power of the Yamato was expanded and strengthened through
    blood ties within the clan, their apparent military supremacy, diplomacy,
    and manipulation of the sun myth that bestowed divinity on their ancestry.
    The different tribal groups or clans were the nobility or uji class.
    Serving the uji was an occupational/ professional class called the be, who
    worked as farmers, scribes, traders, and manufacturers.  The lowest class
    were slaves.  Immigrants fit in among the uji and be, depending on their
    skills and wealth.
    In the seventh century, the Yamato transformed the government of Japan
    based on influences from China.  The Yamato sovereign became an imperial
    ruler supported by court and administrative officials.  The uji class was
    stripped of land and military power, but given official posts and
    stripends.  This political system remained in effect until around 1200 A.D.
    The outstanding architectural achievements of the Yamato are their tombs.
    These are mounds of earth in the shape of a keyhole if viewed from above.
    The largest tombs are found in the Yamato region of Japan, and is further
    evidence of power emanating from that locale.  The Nintoku tomb on the
    Osaka Plain rivals the Pyramids in size.  The central tomb is 500 meters
    long and 35 meters high.  It is surrounded by three moats with intervening
    belts of trees and covers 32 hectars (approximately 3.4 million square
    feet).  Stone burial chambers were evacuated in the earth below the central
    tomb mound.
    Tombs thought related to the imperial family are now controlled by a
    government agency.  Although some have been pillaged in the past, many
    remain unexcavated.
    Based on the large numbers of warrior figures, weapons, and pieces of armor
    found in burial tombs from this era, warfare was apparently a common
    feature of Yamato culture.  Despite the existence of a dominant ruler,
    clan groups found reason for conflict.  All adult men were available for
    military service and were required to serve for at least one year.  The uji
    class provided the elite troops and officers for armies.
    Warrior figures from tombs are shown wearing full body armor and visored
    helmets.  The most commonly found weapons are swords, spears, and bow
    quivers.  Horse figures are also found in abundance, suggesting the
    existence of cavalry.  The sudden appearance of horses in burial goods
    around the fifth century has led to the hypothesis that Japan was invaded
    by a cavalry army at that time.  It is more probable that the horse was an
    import that became a status symbol for the elite who were most likely to
    receive a ceremonial burial.  The elite uji class made up the cavalry of
    the period because they could afford the horse and equipment.
    The Yamato period is remembered for the sun goddess mythology from which
    all later emperors of Japan claimed divine ancestry.  The Yamato period
    also formalized the Shinto religion that would compete with imported
    Buddhism to the present day.  Most modern Japanese consider themselves
    descentants of the Yamato.  The great tombs spread about the countryside
    are the most material legacy.
           7. Civilization Comparisons
    |   Civilization           |    Attributes                                     |
    | Ancient Chosen           | o Long Swordsman and Legion +80 Hit Points        |
    |                          | o Towers +2 Range                                 |
    |                          | o Priests cost 30% less                           |
    | Assyrian                 | o Archery Range units have increased fire rate    |
    |                          | o Villagers 30% faster                            |
    | Babylonian               | o Wall and Tower Hit Points doubled               |
    |                          | o Priest rejuvenation rate 30% faster             |
    |                          | o +30% Stone Mining                               |
    | Carthaginian (New)       | o Transports 30% faster                           |
    |                          | o Fire Galley +25% attack                         |
    |                          | o Academy units and all elephant units 25% Hit    |
    |                          |   Points                                          |
    | Egyptian                 | o +20% Gold Mining                                |
    |                          | o Chariot, Scythe Chariot, and Chariot Archers    |
    |                          |   +33% Hit Points                                 |
    |                          | o Priest +3 Range                                 |
    | Greek                    | o Hoplite, Phalanx, and Centurion 30% faster      |
    |                          | o War ships 30% faster                            |
    | Hittite                  | o Stone Thrower, Catapult, and Heavy Catapult Hit |
    |                          |   Points doubled                                  |
    |                          | o Archery Range units +1 attack                   |
    |                          | o War ships +4 Range (except Fire Galley)         |
    | Macedonian (New)         | o Academy units +2 armor vs. Slinger, Ballista,   |
    |                          |   and missile weapons                             |
    |                          | o Units with no range +2 line of sight            |
    |                          | o Siege Workshop units cost 50% less              |
    |                          | o Units 4 times more resistant to conversion      |
    | Minoan                   | o Ships cost 30% less                             |
    |                          | o Composite Bowman +2 Range                       |
    |                          | o Farm production +25%                            |
    | Palmyran (New)           | o Free Tribute                                    |
    |                          | o Gold per trade doubled                          |
    |                          | o Villagers cost 50% more, have armor, and work   |
    |                          |   20% faster                                      |
    |                          | o Camel Riders 25% faster                         |
    | Persian                  | o +30% hunting                                    |
    |                          | o War Elephant, Armored Elephant, and Elephant    |
    |                          |   Archer 50% faster                               |
    |                          | o Trireme +50% fire rate                          |
    | Phoenician               | o War Elephant, Armored Elephant, and Elephant    |
    |                          |   Archer cost 25% less                            |
    |                          | o +30% woodcutting                                |
    |                          | o Catapult Trireme and Juggernaught +65% Fire Rate|
    | Roman (New)              | o Buildings cost 15% less, except Towers, Walls,  |
    |                          |   and Wonders                                     |
    |                          | o Towers cost 50% less                            |
    |                          | o Swordsmen attack 33% faster                     |
    | Shang                    | o Villagers cost 30% less                         |
    |                          | o Wall Hit Points doubled                         |
    | Sumerian                 | o Villagers +15 Hit Points                        |
    |                          | o Stone Thrower, Catapult, Heavy Catapult +50%    |
    |                          |   Fire Rate                                       |
    |                          | o Farm production doubled                         |
    | Yamato                   | o Horse Archers, Scout, Cavalry, Heavy Cavalry,   |
    |                          |   Cataphract cost 25% less                        |
    |                          | o Villagers 30% faster                            |
    |                          | o Ships +30% Hit Points                           |
           8. Tools of The Trade (John Mecham)
            Take charge of Age of Empires and win in the Tool Age!
    The beginning is undoubtedly the most important time period of the game; those
    who master this phrase are likely to do well throughout all the various Ages
    of the game.  Understanding what to do in the first 10- 15 minutes of the game
    doesn't necessarily guarantee your victory, but without this understanding,
    you'll find yourself losing a lot.  The best players have a prettu good idea
    of what they may do and what strategy they may employ before even starting the
    game.  It is the strategy that enables them to select a civilzation (which is
    appropriate to counter the enemy's choice of civilizations on the map type and
    resource level being played).
    Brazilian jiu-jitsu is a martial art that focuses exclusively on fighting your
    opponent while both of you are on the ground.  The theory behind this philosophy
    is that most martial arts train people to fight people in the upright position.
    If you're proficient at this style of jiu-jitsu, you're at a distinct advantage
    in a fight that ends up with both combatants on the ground.  The key is to first
    get your opponent where you want him.  After all, while you're standing up,
    you're playing the opponent's game.  Once you've taken your enemy down, however,
    you have the "home court advantage."
    The good news is, in Age of Empires, all players must pass through the Tool Age.
    As in Brazilian jiu-jitsu, it is extremely beneficial to excel in a certain
    timeframe of the game and to understand how to make your opponent fight you
    there.  If you're an expert Tool player and you force your opponent to fight
    you in the Tool age, you'll be at a tremendous advantage.
    The purpose of this document is to explain what you should be doing in this,
    the most important time of the game... the first 15 minutes.  I am going to
    focus on fighting during Tool.  I know that the majority of multiplayer games
    today focus on the Bronze Rush.  The Bronze Rush is strong, but common.
    Players that know how to fight a Tool battle, or use Tool as a springboard to
    weaken the enemy and gain a competitive advantage are likely to excel in Bronze.
    Since many players already know how to fight in Bronze, I'm going to explain
    how to beat them in an environment foreign to them... the Tool Age.
    =Key Strategies=
    Several successful strategies are commonly used today in the multiplayer
    environment.  Strategies in one-on-one games can be very different than
    strategies in team games.  Since most one-on-one strategies can also be used in
    team games, but several team strategies cannot be used in the one on one
    environment, I'm going to focus on one-on-one strategies.  Also, different map
    settings allow different strategies.  As a general rule of thumb, the smaller
    the map and the less water separating you from your enemy, the more powerful
    your Tool attack will be.  For the purposes of this discussion, I'm going to
    focus on the most common multiplayer setting, a large, inland map with default
    resources and starting in the Stone Age.
    Know the enemy and know thyself, and you can fight a hundred battles without
    fear of defeat.
    -Sun Tzu
    In order to beat your opponent, you must have a pretty good guess about how he
    plays the game.  What are the current trends in strategy?  To help you better
    understand and predict what your opponent will do, I'll now explain the
    background behind current strategies and techniques.  I'll explain what the
    "masses" are doing in their games, and the logical development of strategies
    that lead them to where they are today.
    =Evolution of AoE Strategy=
    In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth.  And the earth was
    without form, and void...
    Phase 1: What to do?
    When AoE was first released to the public in October of '97, very few people
    had any idea what to do.  Those that had played other real-time strategy (RTS)
    games understood the importance of quickly developing an economy while
    disrupting the enemy's economy.  It was at this point that "the masses" of
    multiplayer competitors learned how to Tool Rush (or at least, they learned an
    early version of a Tool Rush-I use the term loosely while describing this first
    step in the development of AoE strategy).  It seemed that everybody selected
    either Shang or Assyria because both are strong Tool Rushing civilizations.
    The basic plan was to advance as quickly as possible to the Tool Age, then
    develop a Tool army to attack the enemy fast.  For a few months, everyone
    complained about how the Tool Rush was unstoppable and that, therefore, AoE was
    a dumb game.  The funny thing is... they kept playing.
    Phase 2: Envelopment
    Amidst the monotonous Tool Rushers, small groups of strategists worked to
    develop a plan for consistently beating the Tool Rush.  Soon (sometime in
    November of '97), a few people started using a spreading out technique (also
    called map envelopment or locusting) to counter the Tool Rushers.  I remember
    frequently building about 35 Villagers and moving groups of workers all over
    the place on the map.  I'd often delay advancing from the Stone to the Tool Age
    until the enemy came running into my (deserted) town with Tool units (usually
    archers).  At this point the enemy had wasted vast amounts of resources to
    build a Tool-Age army, but simply couldn't find your Villagers (and if he did
    find them, he'd just find a few because the rest were scattered all over the
    map).  The next step was to advance to the Bronze Age (or "to Bronze") as
    quickly as possible.  Once in Bronze, you could make Cavalry units (which slice
    through Tool-Age units like a hot knife though butter).  Since the enemy had
    spent so much of his resources to develop his (now obsolete) army, he would be
    a long ways away from Bronzing and would have no hope of competing with your
    Bronze troops.
    Due to the lack of forums to discuss strategies and the fact that there were
    very few groups of people that shared information (since the game was still
    new), people continued to Tool Rush for quite a while.  You could be certain
    that in 95 percent of the games you played the enemy would Tool Rush you.
    Eventually (perhaps in December of '97 and January of '98) the masses started
    learning how to use the "spread out and build" strategy.  At this point only
    the less-skilled players would attempt a Tool Rush.  It was clearly determined
    that Bronze troops were so much more powerful than Tool troops, it made little
    sense to make any Tool-Age military units at all.
    Phase 3:  The Bronze Rush
    Once everyone started to spread out and build, the threat of facing a Tool Rush
    diminished.  Again, the thought leaders in the AoE community had to develop a
    new strategy to beat their old strategy-that of spreading out and creating an
    enormous economy.  It was soon learned that the faster you Bronzed, the faster
    you could make units that were highly effective for killing Villagers.
    Suddenly people started focusing on the importance of Bronzing quickly.
    Everybody strove to develop strategies to Bronze quickly, and those that were
    fastest wore their "Bronze times" like crowns.  The most common civilizations
    played were Assyria and Yamato (with a sprinkling of Shang).  We had now
    entered the day of the Bronze Rush.
    At first the very best Bronze times hovered around 16 minutes.  Elite players
    could get Bronze times in the low 15's, but rarely did anyone get a sub-15
    minute Bronze time.  The game was all about speed.  How many Villagers could
    you make to get you to Bronze faster than your enemy?  What Bronze units were
    the most effective in the early Bronze Age?  It was determined that about 18-24
    Villagers were optimal to get the fastest possible Bronze times, and that
    Yamato (with its fast Villagers and cheap Cavalry) was the strongest
    Phase 3a:  A Revolutionary Discovery
    It was learned that farming for food was much less efficient than foraging for
    berries or hunting.  People stopped making farms in the Tool Age and started
    focusing on natural food.  Bronze times across the board dropped about a minute
    with this revolutionary discovery.  Now we were seeing the best Bronze times
    hovering close to 14 minutes.  The game was still all about speed.  Some
    players were using Assyria to counter Yamato, having discovered that if they
    could survive the first five minutes or so in the Bronze Age, hordes of Chariot
    Archers would dominate hordes of Cavalry.  Yamato players understood the
    techniques of Assyria, and pressed even further to get fast Bronze times.
    Since Assyria needs to research the Wheel upon arriving at the Bronze Age
    before making Chariot Archers, Cavalry had to strike quickly to take advantage
    of Assyria's weakness.
    Phase 3b: Another Breakthrough!
    Soon another breakthrough made its way into the game.  People discovered that
    the much-overlooked method of gathering food by shore fishing was extremely
    fast-about twice as fast as foraging for food.  Once people discovered and
    started taking advantage of this fact, Bronze times dropped again.  We were now
    seeing the best players Bronze at about 13 minutes in a good game.
    Phase 3c: Digging In
    The next major development in gameplay was actually a result of the crafty
    Assyrian players that needed to buy a few extra minutes for their Chariot
    Archers to develop.  It's an interesting phenomena that one Cavalry beats one
    Chariot Archer, and that two Cavalry beat two Chariot Archers, but that twenty
    Chariot Archers often beat twenty Cavalry.  In order to buy a little time, the
    Assyrian players began experimenting with various walling techniques.  It
    wasn't long before Yamato players found their Cavalry running smack into walls
    all over the place (often with a few archers or priests behind the walls).  By
    the time the offensive Yamato players could build a dock and a Transport to get
    around the walls or a Stone thrower to chew through the walls, the Assyrian had
    gone offensive and was picking off Yamato Villagers with his highly effective
    Villager-killing Assyrian Chariot Archers.
    Happiness in AoE is directly proportional to the length, breadth, and thickness
    of your walls
    (taken from http://www.ns.net/~thump/quotes.htm)
    With little variation, this has been the state of the game strategy for the
    last six months or so.  More and more people abandoned Yamato to join the
    Assyrian throngs, and many people were forced to learn how to wall effectively
    in order to combat both Assyrian and Yamato speed-Bronzers.  People perfected
    and polished Bronze rushing techniques until now we see Bronze times
    approaching 11 minutes (in best-case scenarios).  Even "just average" players
    can reach Bronze in under 15 minutes.
    This is the mindset of the masses right now (August, '98).  In a typical one-on
    -one game you'll find that 70 percent of your opponents will select Assyria.
    About 15-20 percent will select Yamato.  You'll see a few Sumerian and
    Phoenician players, too, with a smattering of Shang (not much, though).  Other
    civilizations are pretty rarely found.  The strategy that is "en vogue" right
    now is the generic rush to Bronze (with little or no Tool military efforts).
    When playing an unknown opponent in a one-on-one game, you can be pretty safe
    assuming that he'll be rushing directly to Bronze.
    Phases 4 & 5: Villager Boom and Return of the Tool Rush
    Once again, key AoE strategists have been working to devise ways to beat the
    typical "Bronze Rush".  Two different techniques have evolved (both highly
    uncommon among "the masses" at this point).  Both have been implemented in
    parallel and are effective at beating the Bronze Rush.  The first is a
    technique known as Villager Booming (or a Power up strategy).  In a nutshell,
    the plan here is to play a defensive game while building a huge economy.  If
    your enemy doesn't hit you hard at precisely the right moment, you'll both be
    in the Bronze Age and you'll have an economy that just won't quit.  I won't go
    into extensive detail about this strategy, but suffice it to say that if you
    have twice as many workers as your opponent in the Bronze Age you have a
    decisive advantage.  From this point you can either overwhelm the enemy with
    Bronze units or advance quickly to the Iron Age and attack with superior units.
    If you opt for the Iron Hop (proceeding directly to Iron Age), A well-executed
    Villager Boom will allow you to Iron in around 17 minutes.  In my opinion,
    Villager Booming is an extremely effective strategy that will replace Bronze
    Rushing among the general population within the next three months or so (and
    grow exponentially as the Age of Empires Expansion Pack-Rise of Rome-becomes
    The other strategy used to counter the Bronze Rush is a group of refined
    techniques that revolve around the Tool Rush (from phase 1).  These tactics
    will be the focus of this article.
    Since Tool Rushing essentially became obsolete when people began to employ
    spreading out strategies, people stopped worrying about them.  People were
    realizing the futility of Tool Rushing because the enemy usually spread out
    Villagers all over the map and it was extremely difficult to hunt them down
    with Tool-Aged troops.  With time, however, spreading out made way for Bronze
    Rushing.  When people began to focus their efforts on efficiently Bronzing
    quickly, they did everything they could to reduce the distances their Villagers
    had to walk to get work done.  The result was that large, sprawling economies
    (that were spread out) started becoming more and more compact.  Spreading out
    was what allowed people to defeat the Tool Rush, but Bronze Rushing beat
    spreading out.  So, to sum it up: Tool Rushing became less of a threat, so
    people didn't spread out as much (no need to), which opened the door for Tool
    Rushing again.  The nice, compact economies of the Bronze Rushers were ripe for
    destruction by a solid Tool Rush.
    =Importance of the Tool Age=
    As I mentioned earlier, everybody has to pass through the Tool Age (if you're
    playing in a default settings game).  During the Stone Age you learn about your
    surrounding environment.  The layout of the map is crucial because good players
    gain key input from the map that will enable them to decide which strategy to
    employ.  Attacks during the Stone Age, however, are usually futile.  The only
    Stone Age attack that has any merit (in a very few limited situations) is a
    Villager Rush.  A Villager Rush involves charging towards the enemy with a
    group of from 12-16 Villagers en masse and teaming up on his Villagers to kill
    them.  In the Tool Age, however, you can develop a formidable attack
    (especially if the enemy is unprepared for it).
    The majority of the AoE multiplayer gamers today sprint through the Tool Age.
    The Tool Age, however, is where several important strategies develop.  During
    the Stone Age you should form a high-level game plan.  During the Tool Age you
    should begin to solidify that plan.  It is important to develop a high-level
    game plan in the Stone Age because you must decide how many Villagers to create
    before hitting the "Tool" upgrade at your Town Center.  Tooling with 16
    Villagers gives you different advantages (and disadvantages) than tooling with,
    say, 24 Villagers.  Decide what strategy you're going to use during the game
    in Stone, then implement in Tool.
    =Pass or Play?=
    You need to decide early in the game where and when you want to fight your
    opponent.  It almost always makes more sense to fight the enemy in HIS town,
    so that you can cripple his economy by killing his Villagers.  The question is
    when will you attack?  Will you attack in the Tool Age (play) or sprint through
    it to attack in the Bronze/Iron Age (pass)?
    A pass or play decision should be made in the Stone Age and based upon a few
    key pieces of information, including:
    Is your spot defensible?  Can you wall in easily? (lends itself to a pass
    strategy). Do you have access to a lot of resources (primarily food)?  Qualify
    that food... if you have access to lots of shore fish (which is considered
    "fast food"), you can be assured a quick Tool and, if you want it, a quick
    Bronze.  (could be used for either a pass or a play strategy).
    What civilization are you using?  What civilization is your enemy using?  If
    you are using a civ. that is strong in the Tool Age (and/or a civ. that can
    Tool quickly), and your opponent is using a civ. that is particularly strong
    in the Bronze or Iron Age, a play strategy makes sense.  Hit the enemy before
    they arrive to a point in the game where they can take advantage of their
    Have you located your enemy?  How defensible is his position?  If the enemy can
    wall easily you may want to attack before he can build walls (play). What else
    is the enemy doing?  Does the enemy have a stronger economy than you? (defined
    by the number of Villagers he has)  If he has, say 24 Villagers and you Tooled
    with 16, you darn well better hit him fast (play) before he has a chance to use
    that overpowering economy against you in the Bronze Age.
    In any case, you need to decide whether it makes more sense to pass though the
    Tool Age with little or no conflict or to play (to give battle during the Tool
    Age).  This decision should be made in the Stone Age.  After you've started the
    Tool upgrade, you can't make more Villagers (boats, maybe.  Villagers no.)
    =Dominant Timerames=
    A Dominant Timeframe is a time in which a particular civilization (and its
    available units and resources) make it more powerful than other civilizations.
    Obviously, different civilizations have different Dominant Timeframes.  The
    primary factor that contributes to a civilization's Dominant Timeframe is
    access to military units that are more powerful than the enemy's military
    units.  For reference, see the graphic on the next page.  The X-axis represents
    time.  The Age is represented along the top of the X-axis and the units that
    tend to dominate during that period are represented along the bottom of the
    X-axis.  The Y-axis is the scale of "overall power" on a scale from 1-20.
    Let me walk through an example of a Dominant Timeframe.  In the early Bronze
    Age, Cavalry dominate the battlefield.  This results primarily from the fact
    that there are no upgrades needed once you reach the Bronze Age before you can
    make Cavalry units.  Cavalry have the speed to allow them to outrun all other
    Bronze Age units except Chariot Archers and Chariots.  Additionally, small
    groups of Cavalry beat small groups of Chariot Archers and Chariots in battle.
    You must not only research the wheel before you can make Chariot Archers, but
    you must also gather a pretty good sized group of them (maybe about a dozen)
    before they can deal with groups of Cavalry.  Therefore, any civilization that
    can get cavalry units before the enemy can get something to defend against them
    (or something equally powerful to attack you with) has a Dominant Timeframe, to
    some extent, in early Bronze.  Yamato's fast Villagers allow it to get to the
    Bronze Age faster than most other civilizations.  Yamato can also produce
    Cavalry at a cheaper cost than other civilizations.  Therefore (logically),
    Yamato has a Dominant Timeframe in early Bronze.  Shang's cheap Villagers allow
    it to progress to the Bronze Age faster than any other civilization.  Shang
    also gets Cavalry, but they're not at a discount (like Yamato's).  Shang's
    ability to Bronze quickly also gives it a Dominant Timeframe in early Bronze
    relevant to many other civilizations.  Later in the Bronze Age ranged units
    (Composite Bowman and Chariot Archers) become more powerful (because you have
    the time needed to get them en masse.  Civilizations with bonuses and
    advantages for these units (such as Assyria, Hittite, and Minoa) enter a
    Dominant Timeframe in late Bronze.  Again, another factor that allows a
    Dominant Timeframe is the ability to obtain powerful units cheaper than other
    civilizations.  Phoenicia with its woodcutting bonus essentially gets Chariot
    Archers at a discount.  Therefore, since Chariot Archers are powerful in the
    late Bronze Age, Phoenicia enters Dominant Timeframe relative to many other
    civilizations in late Bronze.
    Take a look at the graph of Dominant Timeframes on the following page (it may
    be tough to interpret if you print it in black and white.  Check out
    http://www.nsnet.com/~thump/power.jpg to see it in your browser).  You can use
    this graph as a rough guideline to help devise a game strategy.  Decide which
    civilization you'll be using and note which civilization your opponent is
    using.  Look at the lines representing the power of the two civilizations over
    time.  If I'm Shang and my opponent is Babylonian, I have a distinct advantage
    in the early stages of the game.  Notice that Shang is particularly strong in
    the Tool Age and early Bronze Age, but becomes much weaker in the later stages
    of the Iron Age.  My strategy should be to try to take advantage of this
    Dominant Timeframe and attack my Babylonian buddy before he can build solid
    defenses.  On the other hand, what do you think the Babylonian's strategy
    should be?  The Babylonian should immediately be thinking about a way to defend
    in the early stages of the game (perhaps lots of walls and towers).  The
    Babylonian wants to buy time to advance to his Dominant Timeframe relative to
    Shang, which occurs during the late Iron Age.
    =Tool Options=
    Now that I've explained the evolution of AoE strategy and the importance of
    Dominant Timeframes, I will describe the different options available to you in
    the Tool Age.  It is essential to understand these two concepts because they
    allow you to make intelligent guesses about what to expect from your enemy and
    because they allow you to select an appropriate civilization for your planned
    strategy.  For the purposes of this discussion, I intend to focus on Tool Age
    attacks (and skim over Tool openings that are primarily designed to set the
    stage for attacks in Bronze).
    The following is a list of potential game strategies and potential platforms
    for game strategies as they relate to the Tool Age:
    1. Boom (move to bronze)
    2. Pass (move to bronze)
    3. Probe to Play (move to bronze)
    4. Push (option)
    5. Rush (attack)
    6. Blitz (attack)
    In nearly every game (during the Stone Age) a good player will decide which of
    these strategies to use.  A key component in determining which strategy to use
    is your civilization selection and which units you plan to use.  I'll now
    review the best Tool Rushing civilizations and units.  Then I'll talk about
    recipes for success in RTS gaming. After that I'll outline a generic start,
    which will describe what to do with your first five Villagers.  This start will
    essentially be the same in all games, regardless of which strategy you're
    using.  Next I'll briefly highlight the key points of the Boom, the Pass, and
    the Probe to Play (none of these strategies involve a serious Tool attack).
    Then I'll discuss with some degree of depth the Tool Push, the Tool Rush, and
    the little-known Tool Blitz.
    =Which Civilization To Use=
    If Yamato Villagers moved at +75% speed and could build flying fortresses of
    Spam, it really wouldn't matter to me as long as there were at least 8-10
    civilizations that were equal in playability.
    (taken from http://www.ns.net/~thump/quotes.htm)
    Several civilizations work well for Tool-Rushing strategies, but the best
    include the traditional "Fast Four": Shang, Assyria, Yamato, and Phoenicia.
    Shang is my personal favorite civilization.  Shang's real strength rests in its
    versatility.  Shang can build every Bronze-Age unit, has cheap Villagers (35
    food instead of 50), has double-strength walls, and has great Priests.  The
    cheap Villagers result in less food being used at the start of the game-
    allowing you to move to Tool and Bronze Age more quickly than any of the other
    civilizations.  This ability to Tool quickly make Shang's Tool Rushes among the
    most deadly in the game.  Shang Tool Rushes best with food-based units (Scouts
    and/or Axers).
    Assyria boasts fast Villagers (which make it much easier to locate the enemy
    and aid in escaping cranky wildlife) and the Rate of Fire (ROF) bonus for the
    Tool-Age Bowman.  In groups, Assyrian Bowmen are extremely tough.  Bowmen are
    much cheaper to make than Scouts, are very effective Villager killers, and only
    require one upgrade to make them effective (the +2 Leather Archer Armor
    upgrade).  The disadvantage with Bowmen is that Villagers can evade them and
    relocate elsewhere (especially Yamato or Assyrian Villagers with their speed
    Yamato has fast Villagers (as with Assyria, this speed facilitates finding the
    enemy and avoiding lions) and cheaper Scouts (75 food each instead of 100
    food).  This discount results in a net savings of 25 food per Scout.  However,
    you get a savings of 15 food per Villager if you're using Shang and you will
    likely be making a lot more Villagers than you will Scouts.  For this reason I
    consider Yamato the weakest Tool Rusher of the "Fast Four".
    Phoenicia's woodcutting bonus means that you'll have to allocate fewer
    Villagers to the collection of wood to get the lumber for the buildings you
    need.  Phoenician Villagers do more than their share of work; you essentially
    have extra Villagers.  Phoenicia is a good civilization to use if you're
    planning on attacking with Tool Bowmen (converting the woodcutting bonus into
    savings on both buildings and military units).
    =Analysis of Tool Units=
    The Tool-Age military units available include the Clubman (or "Clubber"), the
    Axeman ("Axer"-an upgraded Clubber), the Bowman, the Scout, the Scout Ship,
    and the Tower.  I'll now evaluate each of these units:
    These units are made at your barracks and are very cheap.  Since you have to
    make a barracks anyway, it often makes sense to attack with Clubbers or Axers.
    They are great at killing Villagers, but can be easily outrun and have a very
    small Line of Sight (LOS), making it difficult to locate Villagers that have
    escaped.  Clubbers and Axers excel in destroying buildings, and are great for
    "cleaning up" a city in the Tool Age.  If you use this unit to kill Villagers,
    you definitely need the defensive upgrade (Leather Infantry Armor).  The
    offensive upgrade (Toolworking) is only important if you're fighting Villagers,
    as a Clubber will destroy a building just as fast with or without the offensive
    upgrade (Toolworking).
    Because of their range, Bowmen are extremely effective Villager killers.
    Bowmen require a single defensive upgrade (Leather Archer Armor) to be ready
    for Tool-Aged combat.  Also, Bowmen are extremely low-maintenance units; they
    will fire upon all enemy Villagers within their range until none are left.
    Consequently, Bowmen are one of the most common Tool Rush units.  The biggest
    weakness of Bowmen is their slow speed (meaning Villagers can escape from them)
    and their limited LOS relative to the Scout.
    Scouts are my weapon of choice in the Tool Age.  Scouts have a larger LOS and
    are faster than any other Tool-Aged unit.  This means that you'll be able to
    get from your military building to the enemy quicker, you'll be able to chase
    down fleeing Villagers, and you'll be able to find hiding Villagers.  Although
    Scouts can beat Bowmen in a one-on-one, groups of Bowmen destroy groups of
    Scouts.  Scouts also lose handily to Axers.  Scouts should use their speed to
    avoid fighting other Tool-Aged military units, focusing on killing Villagers.
    Since Scouts don't attack willingly, they are extremely high-maintenance units.
    You must instruct your Scouts to attack each unit individually or they'll just
    stand there and... well... scout!  If you make Scouts, you should probably get
    both Tool Working and Leather Cavalry Armor.
    Scout Ships
    Scout Ships are extremely powerful for their cost.  Since you cannot usually
    target enemy Villagers with them, though, they're usually useless in a Tool
    Rush (but may be necessary if the enemy is dock fishing).
    Towers are tough to destroy in the Tool Age and are great for defending an
    area.  They usually don't work very well, though, for Tool Rushes because of
    the fact that Towers are stationary; the enemy Villagers can simply run away.
    A few strategies exist for Choson or Babylonian Tower Rushing, but against
    equally skilled opponents they will most likely fail.
    Mixed Units
    Most Tool attacks are relatively homogeneous.  You usually don't have the
    resources to build more than one type of unit (with the necessary upgrades).
    However, if you attack with either Clubbers/Axers or Bowmen, it often makes
    sense to follow up with Scouts to ensure that the enemy hasn't escaped with a
    small group of Villagers.
    A Note on Walls
    If you find yourself in a situation where you're fighting an extended Tool-Age
    battle or your opponent makes it to the Bronze Age, it is extremely important
    to protect your Villagers.  The fastest and easiest way to do this is to build
    walls.  Once you've made the decision to wall and spent food for the upgrade,
    immediately move SEVERAL Villagers to the areas you wish to wall.  Never use
    just one Villager to wall a large area if there is a threat of enemy invasion.
    If you wall 14 tiles out of 15, you might as well not have spent the time and
    resources because only a completed wall will keep out the enemy military units.
    Take a break from production, use many Villagers, and do it right.
    =Recipes For Success=
    Show me a guaranteed formula for success in Age of Empires and I'll show you
    someone that has yet to fully grasp the game.
    Some RTS games have little variety and are conducive to static strategies and
    techniques that work every time with the exact same results.  These games can
    give you a recipe, or formula to use (use workers number 1 and 2 to gather
    gold, worker number 3 chops wood, build a barracks with worker number 7...).
    These patterns have been mathematically proven to give optimal results and
    there is no flexibility.  Age of Empires is not one of those games.  The
    concept of random maps has revolutionized RTS gaming, and now players must be
    able to keep an eye on their resources and gather what they need instead of
    relying on memorized patterns.
    A "recipe for success" simply doesn't exist for Age of Empires.  The reason you
     can't use the same recipe every time is that the game doesn't give you the
    same ingredients every time you play.  You may have a great recipe for
    chocolate cake, but when you're asked to make it without flour you'll quickly
    learn the importance of diversity.  It is this diversity that makes Age of
    Empires a great game.
    People can give general guidelines for what to do when, but true experts watch
    their resources and rely on instinct to tell them how to allocate their
    resource gatherers.  "What do I do with Villager number nine?"  Well, what are
    your objectives?  Do you need more food or do you need more wood to meet your
    objectives?  Obviously, if you need more food, assign the Villager to collect
    food and if you need more wood, assign the Villager to collect wood.  The
    ability to create a high-level plan, understand what it will take (in terms of
    resources) to achieve that plan, and then to execute that plan in real time is
    essential to succeeding at a real-time strategy game such as Age of Empires.
    On that note, I'll provide high-level guidelines for the different Tool
    strategies.  However, I expect that you will be able to improvise where
    appropriate to meet the objectives.
    =Generic Start=
    Your primary objective at the beginning of the game is to locate food.  Your
    civilization is hungry, and before you worry about killing the bad guys you
    must worry about the good guys starving to death.  You want to continuously
    produce Villagers without ever having to wait for more food or more houses.
    Always continue to make Villagers; never allow yourself to be distracted by
    less important tasks.
    -Rick Goodman
    (Creator/Lead Designer of Age of Empires)
    When the game starts in a multiplayer game, your mouse cursor will not move for
    a few seconds (it's waiting for everyone to get in synch).  At this point all
    you can do is notice your immediate surroundings.  Can you see any berries?  If
    so, this is good.  Can you see water?  If so, this is good (if you can see fish
    in the water near the shore, which is VERY good).  Are there any trees very
    close to your TC?  These are called "straggler trees" and are very important.
    The more straggler trees you have, the better.  During the first few seconds
    (while you're waiting for the game to start), quickly move your mouse back and
    forth so that you'll immediately be aware when things start (your cursor won't
    move until the game is ready for you to start playing).
    As soon as you gain control of your mouse, hit "H" on your keyboard (which is
    the hotkey to bring you to your TC), then "C" (which is the hotkey at your TC
    to build a new Villager).  As soon as you've done this, grab two of your
    Villagers and have them build a house (hit "B" then "E").  Build the house
    somewhere within the area you can see.  If you build it at the very edge of
    your field of vision, you may knock down a tree (if you build a house on top
    of a tree, it deletes it... and your "straggler trees" are very important for
    a good start).  You usually start somewhere near the edge of the screen.  It's
    best to grab the two Villagers nearest the inside of the map to build the
    house.  Once you've started building the house, grab the third Villager (he
    should be the one that was originally located the closest to the edge of the
    map) and use waypoints to send him to the edge of the map (behind your TC)
    away from the TC.  On many maps you'll find a band of water along the outside
    of the map.  This first scouting Villager is looking for that water.  Water is
    good because it's where you'll find shore fish.  Fishing from the shore is the
    fastest way that your Villagers can get food.  Now is a good time to quickly
    hit "F11" and "F4" (F11 shows you the time elapsed and F4 shows you the
    player's scores).  All this should take about 5 seconds or less.
    About the time you finish this, your house should be about halfway completed.
    Grab one of the builders and have him start exploring.  It's usually a good
    idea to have all of your Villagers explore in the same circular direction
    (either clockwise or counterclockwise).  As soon as this Villager starts
    moving, the builder will probably finish the house.  Send him exploring, too.
    As soon as he moves, your fourth Villager should be completed at your TC.
    Immediately hit "HC" (which jumps you to the TC and begins production of the
    next Villager).  This is a good time to grab all of your Villagers with one big
    mouse click and assign them to a group (using Ctrl-1, for example).  Now send
    the newborn Villager exploring.  If there's a coastline, send him along the
    coast in the opposite direction of the first explorer.
    Here's what you're looking for (in order of importance):
    * Shore fish (at least 2 within a few tiles of a single storage pit)
    * Berry patches
    * Elephants
    * Gazelle
    You should almost always end up with either shore fish or berries.  If you
    find two or more shore fish near each other with a forest near that (and/or
    elephants, gazelle, gold, or stone), you're off to a terrific start.  Build a
    Storage Pit (from now on I'll just call this a "Pit") right on the shore near
    the shore fish.  Bring all of your Villagers over to help build the Pit (using
    your group to grab all of them) and get a few of them started fishing.  When
    Villager #5 is born, hit "HC" and bring him over to help with food.  The only
    exception here is if you're using Shang.  If you're using Shang and you find
    shore fish quickly, you can use one of your initial 4-5 Villagers to continue
    scouting (he doesn't need to help with food production).  With Shang you can
    also use fewer Villagers for food gathering and more for wood, right from the
    If you don't have any shore fish, find your berries.  It is very important to
    scout the area around your berries.  Never build your granary right next to the
    first berry bush you see.  When you find a berry patch, walk your Villager
    completely past it so that he's standing on the other side of the patch.  You
    need to do this for two reasons: 1) you want to find the optimal place to build
    your granary (that will allow the best access to the most number of bushes),
    and 2) sometimes there is another berry patch not too far away.  If there is
    another berry patch on the far side of the first one, you can often build a
    granary right in between the two patches, which will give you access to 1800-
    2100 food at a single granary (instead of 1050).  This is a very, very good
    thing, and if you don't explore around your berries you may waste the
    advantage.  We've all been screwed by lousy starting positions; it's important
    to learn to take advantage of good ones, too!
    Booming (Villager Booming or Powering Up) is a strategy that does NOT utilize a
    Tool-Aged attack, and starts off as a highly defensive strategy (later becoming
    highly offensive).  If you have a large area surrounded by trees that can be
    easily walled that also has access to lots of fish (for dock fishing) and where
    gold can be walled in, it sometimes makes sense to Villager Boom.  A Villager
    Boom strategy has the following objectives:
    · To make a lot of Villagers before Tooling (probably at least 24)
    · To continue making boats from docks during the Tool upgrade
    · To spread out your production and make walls quickly in the Tool Age to slow
      the enemy from infiltrating with his Bronze Army
    · To make more Villagers and boats once you have arrived to the Tool Age
    · To absorb and deflect the attack of your opponent (who will likely arrive in
      Bronze before you)
    · To hit Bronze a few minutes slower than normal, but with about 40 Villagers/
      boats (instead of 20-24).
    You will know if your enemy is attempting to use a Villager Boom strategy
    because he will probably Tool with at least 24 Villagers, he'll usually hit the
    Tool Age pretty slow, and his Villager count will skyrocket as he begins to
    mass produce fishing boats.  Villager Booming is most effective on maps with
    lots of water (either island maps or Coastal) and works particularly well with
    Shang, Phoenician, or Minoan.
    The best way to defeat this strategy is to either Tool Rush or Tool Blitz the
    enemy or to hit very fast in the Bronze Age (either finding a way through or
    getting around enemy walls somehow).  You do not want to wait to attack someone
    who is Villager Booming because it won't be long before they'll be able to
    convert their massive economy into impenetrable defenses and unstoppable
    Passing basically boils down to slamming through the Tool Age as fast as you
    can; it is a highly offensive strategy.  When you use this strategy, little or
    no thought is usually given to walling or defending.  The battle is expected to
    take place on the enemy's soil.  A Pass is what you do during the Tool Age to
    enable you to get to the Bronze Age quickly.  This is the ultimate Bronze Rush,
    where you spend no resources on upgrades, extra buildings, Villagers, or units
    in Tool.  Generally this is done by Tooling with anywhere from 20-24 Villagers.
    The goal is to reach the Tool Age with a barracks completed, about 700 food,
    and 300 wood.  Use at least 3-4 Villagers each to build two Tool-Aged buildings
    simultaneously (archery, stable, or market).  While these buildings are being
    constructed, your remaining villagers should collect the extra 100 food to put
    you just above 800 food just as your two buildings finish construction.  In a
    perfectly executed Pass strategy, you'll have zero food and zero wood after
    clicking the "Bronze" upgrade at your TC.  The best Pass strategies enable
    Bronze rushes where people arrive at the Bronze Age in less than 11 minutes.
    As a general rule of thumb, any Bronze time under about 13 minutes isn't bad,
    You can recognize that your opponent is going for a Pass strategy in Tool when
    he doesn't make any additional Villagers in the Tool, his exploration isn't
    very high, and he only has one technology researched (the technology you get
    for reaching the Tool Age).  If you research "The Wall", for example, and you
    have more technologies than your enemy does, odds are he's going straight for
    Bronze.  The best way to defeat someone who is using the Pass strategy to
    Bronze Rush is to either 1) Tool Rush/Blitz or 2) wall your production and
    Boom.  Of course, you can't wait for the signs of a Bronze Rush to decide to
    use a Blitz strategy (it'll be too late to use that strategy once you see the
    signs of a Bronze Rush).  Since a Pass involves no attack whatsoever in the
    Tool Age, I won't go into more detail here.
    =Probe To Play=
    The final Tool-Age strategy with the objective of passing through the Tool Age
    and attacking in the Bronze Age is the Probe to Play strategy.  This strategy
    is very similar to the Pass strategy, but delays the Bronze time slightly to
    use a minor attack in the Tool Age.  Sometimes this attack is made using units
    that are created before the Bronze upgrade has started (at the expense of
    Bronze time being slightly compromised).  Other times the attack is made with
    units that are created after the Bronze upgrade has started (in exchange for a
    weaker offensive army directly after reaching the Bronze Age).  In any case,
    the objective is usually to reach the Bronze Age quickly while using a minimal
    Tool-Aged attack to slow the enemy down.  The concept of a minimal attack in
    Tool on your way to a relatively quick bronze is often called Resource
    Equalisation (notice how the word "equalization" is spelled.  Celestial_Dawn,
    an excellent player from Australia, spelled it that way when he defined the
    A Probe to Play strategy is essentially offensive (with its primary objective
    being to arrive at Bronze shortly after your enemy but with a better economy).
    However; since this technique is often used by slow-civilization players (a
    slow civilization is any civilization except Shang, Yamato, Assyria, or
    Phoenicia) to buy time for their military to develop, it sometimes involves
    defensive elements.  Attacking with a minimal force in the Tool Age buys time
    to wall in your resources.  When used against a player that is employing a
    Pass strategy (rushing straight for the Bronze Age), a Probe to Play strategy
    can be very effective because the Tool troops attack an undefended economy.
    The enemy may reach the Bronze Age first, but typically the disruption in
    economy caused by the early attack leaves him unable to launch a strong attack
    immediately in the Bronze Age.  Additionally, the Probe to Play strategy gives
    you a "probing view" of the enemy's town layout.  By sending a few Tool units
    to the enemy early, you can learn where his pockets of resources are located.
    This means that your Bronze troops know exactly where to attack (while your
    enemy's Bronze troops will still be searching for your Villagers).
    An advantage of a Probe to Play strategy is that it is difficult to detect.
    When the enemy is using this strategy, it will appear very similar to a Pass.
    You can usually differentiate a Probe to Play strategy from a Tool Rush by the
    number of Villagers its executor creates before Tooling.  Typical signs of a
    Probe to Play strategy include:
    · Bronzing with somewhere between 20-24 Villagers
    · Researching a few technologies immediately after Tooling (especially the Wall
    · An attack at about 11 minutes with Tool-Aged troops that aren't upgraded or
      that are very few in number
     Allow me to give you a quick example of a game I played recently where I saw
    this strategy used.  Last night my enemy wandered into a group of my Villagers
    (who were gathering berries) with one of his Villagers.  I immediately send
    about three Villagers to try to kill it, but since he was Assyrian and I was
    Shang (which has slower Villagers than Assyria) he got away.  I returned my
    Villagers to work, but expected him to attack that spot before too long.  I
    planned an escape route and actually moved a few more Villagers to those
    berries (hoping to finish gathering them and leave before the enemy attacked
    that spot).  If my enemy had used a Pass strategy, I would have finished the
    berries before he could attack with Bronze units.  However; soon the enemy
    attacked with a two Tool Bowmen (at about 11 minutes).  I noticed that the
    Bowmen didn't have the defensive armor upgrade, and I had about 15 Villagers
    collecting berries there, so I attacked the Bowmen with my Villagers.  I ended
    up losing about two or three Villagers and losing some production time.  The
    fact that he hadn't researched armor, though, was a hint that he was probably
    using a Probe to Play strategy and well on his way to the Bronze Age.
    At about this time, I was doing the same thing to him (but with Scouts).  I
    killed about an equal number of his Villagers with my Scouts as he did with his
    archers, but my Scouts survived the encounter because I retreated with them
    when I met heavy resistance.  I had just finished the berries and was running
    away to the next pocket of resources when the enemy showed up at my granary
    with his first Chariot Archer.  To sum up the rest of the battle (since I've
    already made my point of recognizing the signs of a Probe to Play strategy),
    he walled his production but I was able to make a transport and get 3 Cavalry
    units and a Scout behind his walls.  I killed his wood production and that
    ended the game.
    The Push is the first strategy we've discussed that involves a potential full-
    scale Tool Age attack.  The term Push is derived from the fact that this
    strategy is essentially a Probing Rush (P from Probe and ush from Rush = Push).
    Of the three Tool attacks (Blitz, Rush, and Push), it involves the most units
    and allows you a strong Tool attack, but it's the slowest.  The Push is an
    offensive strategy that is the most versatile and unpredictable of all Tool
    attacks, allowing you the option of either progressing quickly to the Bronze
    Age or fighting a prolonged Tool battle.
    The objective of the Push strategy is to Tool before your opponent, attack
    quickly, then (based on what you find at the enemy's town) either wage a full-
    scale Tool-Age attack or continue to the Bronze Age.  The strategy leaves you
    "sitting on the fence" between Tool and Bronze and delays the decision until
    you know what your enemy is doing.
    As with any Tool Rush strategy, with the Push early scouting is essential.
    Send one of your first Villagers (with Shang you can send one of your first
    three-with any other civilization you can use Villager number six or seven) to
    explore the map and find the enemy quickly.
    To implement the Push, jump as quickly as possible into the Tool Age after
    training 18 Villagers.  This strategy doesn't involve fishing boats (but, as
    always, shore fishing is extremely helpful).  To get a quick Tool time, gather
    ONLY enough wood for four houses and two tool-age buildings (most likely a
    granary and a storage pit).  Once you have constructed two Tool buildings, ALL
    of your Villagers should be collecting food.  In any case, for ANY Tool Rush
    strategy you want to find a sweet spot to build your storage pit.  A sweet spot
    is a location that provides at least one food source located next to a forest.
    The very best sweet spots will have shore fish (the more the merrier) located
    next to a forest.  Since your objective is to gather food quickly, if you have
    a choice of allocating Villagers to shore fish or berries, go with the shore
    fish first.  Remember, though, that if you assign more than about two Villagers
    to collect each shore fish, they'll bump into each other and often one ends up
    standing around idle.
    I'm a big advocate of using Shang for any Tool Rush strategies because the
    "cheap Villagers" mean you'll be able to reach the Tool Age faster than any
    other civilization.  Another benefit of using Shang is that you can use a
    single, standard berry patch and be able to build 18 Villagers and still have
    enough food to Tool.  Other civilizations will need to use another food source.
    Once you've begun the Tool upgrade, you should have very little lumber.  Now
    move most of your Villagers from food back to lumber.  Hopefully you won't
    need to make another food-gathering building (this depends on how much food
    your storage pit accesses and whether or not you were lucky enough to have two
    berry patches within range of a single granary).  In any case, your objectives
    at this point are to:
    1. Locate the enemy
    2. Complete a barracks before you arrive at the Tool Age (probably near your
       base somewhere, unless you found the enemy quickly and your Villager is idle
       near the enemy-then build it there)
    3. Arrive at the Tool Age with no less than 350 food and 150 lumber
    You should hit the Tool Age somewhere between seven minutes (this assumes many,
    many shore fish and perfect execution) and nine minutes (any slower than this
    and you may be a bit late).  Immediately build a Stable near the enemy and
    begin researching Toolworking and the Leather Cavalry Armor upgrades at your
    storage pit.  As soon as your military building is done, start making Scouts.
    Quickly build another house (because you'll only have housing for two more
    It is important to use Scouts in the Push strategy because one of the key
    objectives of the attack is to explore the enemy territory.  Don't spend your
    resources on building another military building unless your Scouts are doing a
    good job killing enemy Villagers.
    As soon as your first Scout is completed, make another one.  With your first
    Scout your best bet is to kill Villagers that aren't in large groups.  Once you
    have two or more Scouts, though, you'll do fine to attack concentrated areas
    of Villagers (such as the enemy lumberyard).  If your Scouts are fighting a
    losing battle against a horde of angry Villagers, move them away.  Try to
    entice the enemy Villagers to pursue; if they're chasing your Scout they're not
    working and if they're not working you're gaining ground on your opponent
    If you encounter one or two Villagers trying to construct a building
    (especially a building required for the enemy to achieve the Bronze Age), do
    everything you can to stop them.  When you hit the first builder, he will stop
    building and begin to run.  Immediately move to the next builder and hit him.
    He'll stop building, too.  Instead of following a single builder until it dies,
    keep harassing the builders.  Often you can prevent the building from being
    completed (further delaying the enemy's progression to Bronze).
    If the battle is going well with your first two Scouts, continue training
    Scouts and consider making another military building near the enemy.  Use your
    Scouts to sweep the area, searching for pockets of hidden Villagers.  If you
    have three or four Scouts searching the enemy town and you can't find any more
    Villagers (you think you've killed them all), keep looking but stop training
    Scouts.  Now you should start saving food to Bronze and finish your enemy in
    the Bronze Age.
    If your two Scouts encounter heavy resistance, stop training Scouts, wall your
    area (if possible), and move straight to the Bronze Age.  With an economy of 18
    Villagers you shouldn't be very far behind your opponent (especially if your
    Scouts have done their job and killed a few enemy Villagers).
    The Tool Push is a very strong strategy because it allows you to delay your
    pass or play decision depending on what your enemy does and how he reacts to
    your first, probing attack.  The flexibility of the attack makes it one of the
    most powerful Tool attacks of the game.
    You don't necessarily have to be fast to win, but if you are slow you will
    probably lose.
    The generic Tool Rush, which is the foundation of Tool-Aged warfare, is fast,
    offensive, and powerful.  The Tool Rush is very similar to the Tool Push, but
    it hits faster and is a more determined attack.  Tooling with only 16
    Villagers, a Tool Rusher will Tool in anywhere from just under seven minutes
    (in a perfectly executed Tool Rush with lots of shore fish) to nine minutes.
    Anything over about nine minutes is a little slow (and defeats the purpose).
    The primary objective of a Tool Rush is to attack your opponent while he's
    still undefended (likely while he's rushing to the Bronze Age).  A Tool Rush
    typically involves a full-scale attack in the Tool Age.  You attack
    relentlessly; continuing to produce military units until you kill all the enemy
    Villagers you can find or your attack is repelled.  Even a failed Tool Rush
    usually wounds the enemy enough to buy you some time to move to the Bronze Age
    (but Bronzing is NOT a main objective of the Tool Rush).
    Just as with the Tool Push, switch your Villagers all to food once you have
    completed your first two Stone Age buildings, switch them back to wood as
    needed after clicking on the Tool upgrade, then distribute them among food and
    wood as appropriate.  Obviously, if your main attack is with food-based units
    (Axers or Scouts), you need more (if not ALL) of your Villagers collecting
    food.  If you're training Bowmen, keep a few Villagers chopping wood.
    It is usually pretty easy to recognize the symptoms of an enemy Tool Rush.  If
    your opponent stops training Villagers near 16, Tools quickly, has a high
    exploration, and begins researching additional technologies immediately after
    Tooling, expect to be Tool Rushed.  If your opponent gains the bonus for
    "largest military" in less than about 9 1/2 minutes, you can be even more
    certain that the Tool Rush is coming.
    The best way to defend against a Tool Rush is to NOT advance into the Bronze
    Age immediately.  Moving into the Bronze Age while you're low in resources and
    under heavy attack in the Tool Age will likely lose the game for you.  For a
    few moments you need to deal with the issue at hand-repel the rush.  The first
    thing you should do is research either the Tower or the Wall upgrade.  If your
    lumberjacks are in an area that is easily walled, wall off immediately.  If
    you cannot wall, have all of your lumberjacks build a tower.  Towers work very
    well for slowing down all Tool units except hordes of Axers.
    If your enemy is Tool Rushing, he is counting on Tooling before you.  Watch his
    Villager count, and if he stops at 16, you should probably make no more than
    about 18-20 Villagers before Tooling.  If his military units show up before you
    have arrived in the Tool Age, check to see if they have the defensive upgrades.
    If there are just a few (one or two) enemy units and they don't have the
    defensive upgrades, it's time for "mob warfare".  Attack them with all
    available Villagers en masse.  If the enemy units have the defensive upgrades,
    it's probably best to scatter and "ride it out" until you've arrived in the
    Tool Age (this is especially true if you're using Yamato or Assyria-with their
    fast Villagers).  Immediately after arriving in the Tool Age build an Archery
    Range near your lumber.  Begin making Bowmen and if the enemy is attacking with
    Scouts research Leather Archer Armor.  Try to get a group of six to eight
    archers and keep them close together.  This should be enough to repel any Tool-
    Aged attack (but it may be too late by then).
    One of the most classic finishes in the Tool Age is called The Kiss of Death.
    You can use this technique if you're attacking, you've researched the wall, you
    don't see any enemy Villagers or military near his TC, and your Villager near
    the enemy has survived.  Build a wall directly around (and adjacent to) the
    enemy's TC.  By surrounding the enemy's TC with a wall (or even the foundation
    of a wall that you're in the process of building), he will not be able to train
    any more Villagers.  When he tries to train a Villager, he'll get the message
    Not enough room to place unit.  You've now stopped him from making more
    Villagers.  This will often end the game (hence the name Kiss of Death).
    In any case, your primary targets in a Tool Rush are Villagers.  The classic
    successful Tool Rush ends with the enemy desperately trying to arrive in Bronze
    Age, starting the upgrade, then finally arriving in the Bronze Age without
    enough resources to build a single Bronze-Age unit (and no Villagers left).
    Tool Blitzing is the fastest (yet most dangerous) of the rushes.  The highly
    offensive Blitz sacrifices all economy and any hope of Bronzing in exchange for
    pure Tool speed.  It has been said that:
    My tool rush is always devastating, but not always to my enemy.
    (taken from http://www.ns.net/~thump/quotes.htm)
    The Tool Blitz provides a great opportunity to kill yourself in a failed Tool-
    Aged attack because it is extremely risky.  When a Tool Blitz is successful,
    though, it is one of the most beautiful achievements in the game.  One reason
    the Blitz is loved by those who use it is because of the intense risk involved.
    There are few things that parallel the adrenaline rush you feel as you click on
    the "Tool" upgrade with a miniscule economy at just over four minutes into the
    The objective of the Blitz is to make about 12 (but no more than 14) Villagers
    and Tool extremely fast, often hitting your enemy with Tool units before he's
    even begun to upgrade to the Tool Age.  The best Blitzes allow you to arrive to
    the Tool Age in around six minutes, but anything under about seven and a half
    minutes is acceptable.  Due to the fact that you'll probably hit your enemy
    before he has enough resources (or technology) to mount any sort of a defense
    at all, Clubbers and Axers are great units to use in a Blitz.
    If you don't have a great starting spot (with shore fish near lumber), don't
    even think about Blitzing.  You must have plenty of easily accessible food and
    wood AND find the enemy very quickly to make the Blitz a feasible strategy.
    Since you'll only be making 12 Villagers (and at least one of them will be
    scouting for the enemy), you need to make dramatic shifts in workload,
    allocating nearly everyone to food before Tooling, then wood, then food again
    as appropriate.
    With Shang you can scout for your enemy with one of your starting Villagers,
    but you still must find the enemy in just a few minutes (perhaps three-four
    minutes) or the Blitz will probably fail.  Build a barracks near the enemy's
    town in the Stone Age and gather the wood so that you can make a 2nd military
    building immediately upon Tooling.  In most cases, if I haven't found the enemy
    by the time I've completed my 10th Villager (time to build another house), I'll
    proceed to build the next house and NOT use the Blitz.
    I often use Axers in a Tool Blitz, and my first two military buildings are
    usually both barracks.  While still in the Stone Age I'll begin making
    Clubbers.  I can often train about three Clubbers from a single barracks before
    making it to the Tool Age.  Always try to have extra food for upgrades when you
    arrive at Tool.  Once you arrive at Tool, research the Leather Infantry Armor
    and Toolworking.  Also build another Barracks and continue to train Clubbers
    while getting the Axer upgrade.  I often hit with a group of about three or
    four Clubbers that will turn into fully upgraded Axers at about the same time
    they arrive in the enemy town.  There are various tactics and techniques that
    work well at this point.  My favorite is to send one or two of my first Axers
    to the enemy's berry patch and the rest to his lumberyard.  Keep making Axers
    from both barracks, and if you can spare any extra food, continue to make
    Villagers, too.  Don't forget to keep making houses as necessary to support the
    extra units.
    Other Tool units will also work for a Tool Blitz.  If you're using Assyria or
    Phoenicia, build Bowmen (and get the Leather Archer Armor upgrade because
    you'll likely have a group of angry Villagers attacking your Bowmen).
    Once you've either killed all of the enemy Villagers or forced them to run
    away, try to follow them with a single Axer, then immediately have all the rest
    of your Axers start destroying buildings.  If you've created a horde of Bowmen,
    send them all in different directions looking for enemy Villagers.  Bowmen are
    very ineffective for destroying buildings.
    At this point in the game you'll often have about a dozen military units in the
    enemy Village.  If you're using Axers, you'll be able to mow down buildings
    very quickly.  One key target is the enemy's TC.  This is because if he has no
    TC, he be unable to Bronze.  In a well-executed Tool Blitz you can destroy the
    enemy's TC in under 12 minutes (and there are very few players that can Bronze
    in under 12 minutes while under attack).  In the best-case scenario, the enemy
    will have just enough food to Bronze and will spend all 800 food for the Bronze
    upgrade.  Then, just before he arrives at the Bronze Age, you'll finish
    destroying his TC (and he loses all the food).  If you find yourself on the
    receiving end of a Tool Blitz, do not try to Bronze while under heavy attack.
    If you're in danger of losing your TC while upgrading to the next age, cancel
    the upgrade and you'll get food back before your TC is destroyed.
    Another favorite target is the Storage Pit.  Without the Pit or TC the enemy
    won't be able to get wood, and without wood the enemy will be unable to
    relocate his workers.  Concentrating on houses is secondary because you've
    usually killed enough Villagers that your opponent will not need more houses.
    If everything else seems to be gone, though, houses are good targets because
    they are quick to destroy (of course, there is no strategic reason to kill a
    Granary unless there is nothing left to destroy because you can, with a single
    Axer, prevent workers from gathering food).
    Soon you'll want to get a stable (especially if he escapes with a lot of
    Villagers).  Hunt down the escapees with a Scout and use your Axer lynch mob
    (or Bowmen) to clean up.  Be wary of bodies of water... you don't want your
    enemy dock fishing under any circumstances.  If he's doing that, wage a scout
    ship war with him and/or destroy his Dock ASAP with your Axers.
    In a best case scenario, you arrive at Tool in under six minutes and are in the
    enemy town by about seven or seven and a half minutes with upgraded Axemen.
    Odds are he hasn't even started the Tool upgrade yet.  This spells big trouble
    for your opponent.
    It is very easy to detect a Tool Blitz because the enemy will stop training
    Villagers at around 12 or so and will Tool extremely quickly.  Defending
    against a good Blitz is very difficult (even if you know it's coming).  The
    best solution is to gather lots of wood and have at least 120 wood before your
    enemy attacks.  Once the attack rolls into your town, scatter your Villagers
    and find a nice, remote spot on the far side of the map to get lumber.  Don't
    let the Axers follow you.  If you've managed to Tool, research the Wall upgrade
    and wall in a hidden pocket of lumber production.  Build a dock or two and
    start making boats to dock fish.  If you can manage to arrive in the Bronze
    Age in less than about 17 minutes, you'll likely totally destroy the Blitzer;
    he'll likely stay in Tool and work on destroying your buildings.
    The shock value of the rush is amazing.  Tooling with only 12 Villagers and
    attacking with Clubbers and Axers is such a bizarre strategy that even the best
    players will chuckle when they see it coming if they don't know what you're up
    to.  I've played people that laughed in my face when they saw my first Clubbers
    enter their town ("Haha!  Clubbers!?")  It wasn't so funny, though, when the
    Clubbers turned into Axers and they just kept on coming.  When the enemy TC is
    destroyed in less than 13 minutes (and he is unable to Bronze and doesn't have
    the wood to build another TC), it'll be your turn to laugh.  One of the
    greatest advantages of the Blitz is that most people underestimate the damage
    you can do with a horde of angry Axers at the sub-10 minute mark.  Since you'll
    often begin attacking before the enemy even begins the Tool upgrade, he'll have
    NO defense for quite a while.  In some cases the enemy will never make it to
    Tool.  In very few cases he'll make it to Bronze.  If he makes it to Bronze
    with enough resources to make a Bronze-Age army, you've almost certainly lost.
    The Tool Blitz is an all-or-nothing, do-or-die attack.
    Although most people view the Tool Age only as something that needs to be
    passed through to get to the Bronze Age (a necessary evil of sorts), it plays
    an extremely important part in an experienced player's game.  If your opponent
    is planning to rush headlong through the Tool Age, you're liable to catch him
    unawares with a Tool attack.  Many players are so focused on the Bronze Age
    that they don't watch for the signs of (much less prepare for) Tool warfare.
    Use this Bronze myopia to your advantage by controlling your enemy in the Tool
    Age.  Master the first 15 minutes of the game and get a black belt in Age of
    Empires jiu-jitsu.  Make the Tool Age your battlefield and force your enemy to
    fight you there.
    Have fun, good luck, and 'cya on the battlefield!
    *thump* *thump*
           9. Codes
    These codes were taken from Scott Ong's FAQ.  I credit him for them.
    Transforms Heavy Catalpults to Big Berthas [better units]
    Create a black-coloured car with a rocket launcher [Winsetti'sZ]. -Very
    easy to be converted!-
    Note: provided you have Town Center.
    Creat a white-coloured card with a rocket launcher [Winsetti's other Z]
    -Very easy to be converted!-
    Note: provided you have Town Center.
    Convert Horse Archers into Black Riders. Well, I don't know what it does
    but it will be invisible to the enemy, I guess.
    Added 1,000 Gold to your stockpile.
    Create a Pirest unit [Saint Franics] that gives out Lightning Bolts!
    Note: provided you have Town Center
    Transforms Bowman to Composite Bowman which could camouflage into
    trees when not moving.
    Causes all enemy units to die.
    Creates a Nuke Trooper with a rocket launcher.
    Note: provide you have Town Center.
    Transforms Juggernaught into Flying Dutchman. Now the Flying Dutchman
    could travels on both lands and sea.
    o GAIA
    Allows you to controls the monsters such as Elephants, Lions and
    Gazelles but you will lost the controls of your villagers.
    Transforms animals into kings-type animals [example: Elephant being
    transformed into Elephant King]
    Commits suicide. You will automatically lost the game.
    Wins the current campaign
    Priests will become faster and stronger.
    o ICBM
    Helepolis/Ballista have 100x Range Points
    Catapults/Stone Thrower/Heavy Catpult will throws werid items such as
    cows or villagers.
    o KILLX
    Kill player X
    Turns flying creatures [Eagles and Hawks] into HP: 999 Dragons. No
    effect on the game. You will see Dragons wandering around at the sky.
    o NO FOG
    Removes the fog of war.
    Added 1000 Food to your stockpile.
    Create a Nuke Trooper armed with a laser-gun at a high rate.
    Note: provided you have a Town Center.
    o POW!
    Create a BabyPrez with high attacking power!
    Note: provided you have a Town Center.
    o QUARRY
    Added 1000 Stone to your stockpile
    o RESIGN
    You resign from the battle.
    Reveal the whole map
    Buildings and units are being created instantly
    Create a Zug 209 Robot [like the robot walkers at Star Wars]
    Note: provided you have a Town Center.
    Added 1000 Wood to your stockpile.
           10. Credits
    - Scott Ong for the codes
    - Al Amaloo and Game Winners for posting my FAQs.
    - Jeff "CJayC" Veasey and GameFAQs for posting my FAQs.
    - Dave Allison and Cheat Code Central (http://www.cheatcc.com) for hosting
      this FAQ.
    - James Mecham for his Strategy
    - Microsoft
    - Ensemble Studios
    - Age of Empires: Rise of Rome game manual
      ASCII Art created using SigZag by James Dill:   (freeware!)
      This FAQ was writen entirely using the GWD Text Editor:  (shareware)
        - There are many, many text editors out there (even completely free), but
          this is certainly one of the absolute best editors out there.  Also,
          be sure to support the software developer(s); they did a lot of hard
          work on this.
      << Disclaimer >>
             This Document is Copyright 2001 Jim Chamberlin.  All Rights Reserved.
    	 This guide can be FREELY distributed as long as you agree to a few
              - You do not alter this guide, leaving it in the original .txt
                file format
              - You do not charge for viewing this guide.  This includes, but
                is not limited to websites, cds, dvds, magazines, etc.
              - You give me credit.
              - Visit GameFAQs (http://www.gamefaqs.com) on a regular basis and
                download any updates to the guide.  Authors hate responding to
                questions that were answered in newer versions of the guide.
                                                                    ///,        ////
                                                                    \  /,      /  >.
                                                                     \  /,   _/  /.
                                           - (C)Jim Chamberlin        \_  /_/   /.
        _____               _____                                      \__/_   <
       /  __ \__________   /  __ \___ _  _____  _________ _  ____  __  /<<< \_\_
      /  / / /  ___/ __ \ /  / / /  // \/  __ \/  ___/   Y \/__/ \/ / /,)^>>_._ \
     /  /_/ /  _/_/ /_/ //  /_/ /  _~  /  /_/ /  _/_/  \   /  />   <  (/   \\ /\\\
    /__/ \  >____/_____//  ____/__//__/\_____/_____/__//__/\_//__/\_\      // ````

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