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    Weapon FAQ by barticle

    Version: 1.11 | Updated: 12/16/15 | Search Guide | Bookmark Guide

      BF4 Firearms Guide - Version 1.11 - 16 Dec 2015 - by Barticle at hotmail.com
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      01 INTRODUCTION              03 WEAPONS            04 ATTACHMENTS
      02 STATS & MECHANICS            03a Assault Rifles    04a Optics
         02a Bullet-Drop & Zeroing    03b PDW's             04b Accessories
         02b Speed & Range            03c LMG's             04c Barrel Attachments
         02c Damage                   03d Sniper Rifles     04d Underbarrel
         02d Ammo & Reloading         03e Carbines          04e Auxiliary
         02e Recoil                   03f DMR's             04f Paint
         02f Accuracy                 03g Shotguns       05 CONTACT
         02g Suppression              03h Sidearms       06 THANKS
    
    .------------.-----------------------------------------------------------------.
    | Section 01 | INTRODUCTION                                                s01 |
    '------------'-----------------------------------------------------------------'
    
    This is a guide to the multiplayer* firearms in Battlefield 4 (hereafter "BF4").
    
    Although I've written this document from the perspective of a PS4 player, pretty
    much all the info within it should apply equally to the other platforms. However
    when I mention controls these will be the default PS4 joypad controls, with the
    trigger buttons L2 to ADS (aim down sights) and R2 to fire, etc.**
    
    My aims are to explain the mechanics of weapons fire in the game (and how to
    interpret the Symthic weapon charts), to discuss/compare all of the weapons and
    attachments and to give a little background on each gun. What I can't do is tell
    you which weapons or attachments to use - that will depend on your play-style,
    available unlocks, game mode, map, enemy tactics, etc - but hopefully I will
    give you the information you need to make informed choices.
    
    I'm a veteran of Battlefield 3 (hereafter "BF3") and Battlefield: Bad Company 2
    ("BFBC2") and I've written over thirty game-guides for GameFAQs. My BF4 trophies
    guide and BF3 firearms and trophies guides are also available on this site.
    
    To jump to any section of this document use your browser's Find function (with
    Ctrl+F on a PC or Cmd+F on a Mac probably) and search for the letter S followed
    by the two or three-digit section number, for example s04 to find Section 04
    (and this paragraph!) or s02d to find the fourth sub-section of Section 2.
    
    This guide is designed to be viewed using a monospaced (non-proportional or
    fixed-width) font, preferably Courier New. Some sections of the document will
    display incorrectly if you are using a proportional font like Times New Roman.
    
    .------------------------------------------------------------------------------.
    | All weapon statistics in this guide are taken from Symthic.com, specifically |
    | version 1.34 which includes all the DLC guns and stats updates from patches. |
    :------------------------------------------------------------------------------:
    | On 30 September 2014 the developers released a massive game update following |
    | months of trials in the Community Test Environment (CTE); this included 150+ |
    | changes to the game and 600+ tweaks to individual gun/attachment stats. This |
    | was called the "Fall Patch" so I've used the same name to refer to it below. |
    :------------------------------------------------------------------------------:
    | The "Spring Patch" of 26 May 2015 saw an even more comprehensive overhaul of |
    | the weapon and attachment stats with over 2,500 individual adjustments made! |
    :------------------------------------------------------------------------------:
    | Further balances were then applied in the "Summer Patch" on 1 Sept 2015, the |
    | "Second Fall Patch" on 27 Oct 2015 and the "Holiday Patch" from 14 Dec 2015. |
    '------------------------------------------------------------------------------'
    
    *For details of how to unlock guns for the single-player campaign check out
    Sections 03a and 03b of my BF4 Trophies Guide on this site. The four weapons for
    multiplayer that can be unlocked in the campaign - the P90 PDW, M249 LMG, MP412
    Rex revolver and QBZ95-1 assault rifle - are all detailed below.
    
    **The patch in early June 2014 finally added the option to switch the controls
    mapped to L1 with L2 and R1 with R2 to mirror the default set-up from BF3 where
    you used L1 to ADS and R1 to shoot.
    
    
    .------------.-----------------------------------------------------------------.
    | Section 02 | STATS & MECHANICS                                           s02 |
    '------------'-----------------------------------------------------------------'
    
    This is the first of the three main sections of this guide. It explains all the
    various stats and physical rules that govern how firearms work in BF4. The game
    mechanics are pretty much identical to those of BF3.
    
    Although developers DICE have now (since BF3) added basic weapon stats within
    the game it's no substitute to having a full breakdown of all the statistics for
    each gun. Luckily for us there's a fantastic online resource that provides just
    that and it's called Symthic.
    
                              http://symthic.com/bf4-stats
    
    In addition to covering BF4, Symthic also currently carries comprehensive weapon
    data for BF3, Titanfall and MOH: Warfighter plus Modern Warfare 3, Blops II and
    Ghosts in the COD series.
    
    The most important feature for BF4 is the Weapon Charts. These give a complete
    listing of the stats for each category of gun in the game. This section of my
    guide explains each of these stats in turn (in the order they're presented on
    Symthic) and therefore also covers all the firearm mechanics of the game.
    
                          http://symthic.com/bf4-weapon-charts
    
    There's also a useful Weapon Comparison page that lets you compare two different
    guns with or without any accessory that affects weapon stats. You can even pick
    firearms from two different categories so for example you could compare the G36C
    carbine with a muzzle brake and ergo grip to the M249 machinegun with a flash
    hider and stubby grip if you wanted.
    
    You can also use this page to compare the same gun to itself, with and without
    any accessory, for example comparing the M416 with a heavy barrel to the M416
    with a muzzle brake.
                             http://symthic.com/bf4-compare
    
    You should also be aware of the other pages available on the site which you can
    access from the main BF4 menu. These include accuracy plots (graphic displays of
    accuracy and recoil) and attachment info.
    
    I could not have written this guide without the sterling efforts of everyone who
    has contributed to the Symthic data. Thanks folks! :)
    
    .-------------.----------------------------------------------------------------.
    | Section 02a | Bullet-Drop & Zeroing                                     s02a |
    '-------------'----------------------------------------------------------------'
    
    Although negligible at short ranges, your bullets are affected by gravity.
    
                                      Bullet-Drop
                                      ¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯
    A new addition to the Symthic stat listings for BF4 is the gravity acceleration
    that's applied to each weapon - this is shown top-right above the gun image.
    
    In addition to travelling with finite speeds (see Muzzle Velocity below) every
    bullet in the game also acts as a true projectile and, instead of travelling on
    a perfectly flat path, will gradually fall to earth under gravity. Although this
    applies to all guns, this bullet-drop will be most noticeable when using sniper
    rifles at long range - you'll need to aim above your targets to hit them.
    
    In real life projectiles accelerate vertically downwards at a rate of 9.81 m/s^2
    (metres per second squared) but for the sake of game balance different gravity
    rates are used for different guns. To emphasise the role of the sniper rifles
    and designated marksman rifles, all other guns in the game have an artificially
    high gravity acceleration of 15.0 m/s^2. Most snipers and DMR's have a realistic
    gravity of 9.81 m/s^2 while a couple enjoy a lower gravity of 6.0 m/s^2.
    
    Let's look at a few theoretical examples of bullet-drop.
    
    We only need to use a couple of "VUSAT" equations (the game doesn't apply air
    resistance and I'm ignoring the slight curvature of the projectile's path).
    
           time = distance / speed
    
                  This gives the time taken to travel a given horizontal distance.
    
       distance = 0.5 x acceleration x time squared  (assumes initial speed is zero)
    
                  This then gives the vertical drop after any given length of time.
    
    o AEK971 (assault rifle) - muzzle velocity 580 m/s - gravity 15.0 m/s^2
    
      The AEK971 has a standard muzzle velocity of 580 m/s so considering only the
      horizontal motion a bullet will cover 200 metres in 200 / 580 = 0.34 seconds.
      Now considering only the vertical motion (the downwards acceleration caused by
      gravity) over 200 metres it will drop 0.5 x 15.0 x 0.34 x 0.34 = 0.89 metres.
    
      Over 400 metres a bullet will take 0.69 seconds and drop by 3.6 metres. The
      drop distance increases with the square of the flight time so the effect is
      much more noticeable when engaging targets at longer ranges.
    
    o M40A5 (sniper rifle) - muzzle velocity 520 m/s - gravity 9.81 m/s^2
    
      To cover 200 metres the bullet will take 200 / 480 = 0.38 seconds and during
      that time it will drop by 0.5 x 9.81 x 0.42 x 0.42 = 0.73 metres.
    
      The M40 experiences less gravity than the AEK but its bullets travel slightly
      slower and give a similar result. However the sniper rifle has the benefit of
      perfect accuracy in stationary aimed fire (see Section 02f) while the assault
      rifle has an equivalent spread of 0.2 causing significant shot deviation over
      longer ranges. The sniper also has the advantage of zeroing (see below) and
      the potential for a one-shot headshot kill at any range (see Section 02c).
    
    o SRR61 (sniper rifle) - muzzle velocity 620 m/s - gravity 6.0 m/s^2
    
      Over 200 metres a bullet takes 0.32 seconds and drops only 0.31 metres.
    
      The combination of higher muzzle velocity and reduced gravity both contribute
      to a greatly reduced bullet-drop for the Intervention.
    
    o suppressed weapon (general e.g.) - muzzle velocity 330 m/s - gravity 15 m/s^2
    
      When a sound suppressor is fitted to a gun it's used in conjunction with sub-
      sonic ammunition that travels at around 330-340 m/s. On most weapons this will
      cause a considerable increase in bullet travel times with a correspondingly
      large increase in the bullet-drop.
    
      The bullet will travel 200 metres in 0.61 secs and will drop by 2.75 metres.
      Compare that with the AEK example (200m) where the drop was only 0.89 metres.
    
    o Rorsch Mk 1 (Battle Pickup) - muzzle velocity 3,600 m/s - gravity 0 m/s^2
    
      In addition to having an insanely high muzzle velocity (over five times faster
      than any other gun in the game), the futuristic railgun from the Final Stand
      DLC is also unaffected by gravity. It will take the "railgun projectile" just
      0.056 seconds to cover 200 metres and it will experience zero drop.
    
    o Scout Elite (sniper rifle) - muzzle velocity 640 m/s - gravity 15 m/s^2
    
      The Scout has the third highest muzzle velocity in the sniper rifle category
      giving it a theoretical maximum range of 3,200 metres (almost two miles) but
      it also suffers the higher gravity rate. By definition a bullet would take 5
      seconds to reach that max range and the bullet-drop would be over 187 metres!
    
    These examples serve to highlight the effect of bullet-drop in the game but you
    don't actually need to use a calculator while playing!
    
    The simplest method when sniping at a specific range is to fire a test shot at
    a plain wall or post (at the same distance), stay scoped-in and watch where the
    bullet impacts. Say it lands 1.5cm below your crosshairs (measured on your TV
    screen) you know that you'll need to aim 1.5cm higher to score a direct hit.
    
    With practice you'll learn to estimate distances based on how large the enemy
    appears in your scope image and measured against the scope reticle - this will
    be easier if you stick with using the same scope (same magnification).
    
    However new equipment available in BF4 means that you don't even need to do that
    - you can use the range finder attachment (see Section 04b) to measure the exact
    distance to your target (the bottom red number on the device or the right red
    number in your scope view). You can also use the Recon kit's PLD (Portable Laser
    Designator) gadget to measure distances.
    
    Knowing the distance to your target lets you use zeroing more effectively.
    
                                        Zeroing
                                        ¯¯¯¯¯¯¯
    Another new feature since BF3 is zeroing. When using a sniper rifle or DMR you
    can zero the weapon for different distances - press d-pad down (or V by default
    on PC) to cycle through the available settings - 100m, 200m, 300m, 400m, 500m
    and 1,000m - shown on the d-pad prompt at the bottom of your screen.
    
    (If you have the range finder fitted on your sniper rifle this will also show
    the current zeroing setting - this is the top blue number on the device or the
    left blue number within the scope view.)
    
    Zeroing negates the effect of bullet-drop at the specified distance - the point
    of bullet impact will coincide with your point of aim. At ranges longer than the
    zeroing setting you'll experience drop again and at shorter distances you'll see
    your round hitting above your crosshairs. The DMR's lack the perfect stationary
    aimed accuracy of the bolt-action sniper rifles so at longer ranges you will
    still experience some deviation due to spread.
    
    If your engagement range falls between the available zeroing settings you will
    still need to adjust your aim manually. For example if your target is at 250m
    you could either zero for 200m and aim high or zero for 300m and aim low.
    
    Patched: Originally the bullets you fire would originate from the centre of your
             point of aim (i.e. your character's eyes). This is very common in FPS
             games but it allowed an exploit called "head-glitching" - a player
             could camp behind cover with only the top half of their head exposed
             and they would be able to fire over the cover while presenting a very
             small target to the enemy.
    
             This issue was finally addressed in the Spring Patch - the solution
             applied was to make bullets spawn from a lower point, approximately
             equivalent to the height of your gun's barrel during ADS. For shotguns
             the distance is 5cm, for pistols it's 2.5cm and for all other guns it's
             6.3cm (the same distances are used regardless of whether you're using
             ADS or hipfire). Now players must expose more of their character model
             in order to be able to fire over cover. (You can test this for yourself
             with the new crates added to the firing range on the Test Range.)
    
             This fix made it necessary to apply a further change - all guns now
             have their sights zeroed to a set distance by default. This could be as
             short as 25 metres for a shotgun with buckshot or a suppressed pistol
             or as long as 100 metres for a sniper rifle or DMR. The Recon weapons
             can still use the zeroing function described above but now the lowest
             value available is 100m instead of 0m.
    
             A similar update was applied to the M26 shotgun in the Summer Patch.
    
    .-------------.----------------------------------------------------------------.
    | Section 02b | Speed & Range                                             s02b |
    '-------------'----------------------------------------------------------------'
    
    The next three stats on the Symthic weapon charts are shown immediately under
    the image and name of the gun.
                                      Rate of Fire
                                      ¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯
    The first number is the fire-rate, given in RPM (rounds per minute). This tells
    us the speed at which the weapon can fire successive rounds (but of course this
    is not the actual number of bullets you can fire in one minute because every gun
    (even a belt-fed LMG) has a limited ammunition capacity and you would spend some
    of that theoretical minute reloading your weapon).
    
    Each firearm in the game has up to three different fire modes. These will be
    indicated on the in-game display by the AUTO, BURST or SINGLE text to the right
    of your ammo counter in the bottom-right corner of the screen (and by an icon on
    the d-pad prompt in the centre of your screen at the bottom).
    
    o AUTO - fully automatic fire when you hold the trigger
    
    o BURST - two or three rounds* fired when you tap/hold the trigger
    
    o SINGLE - only one round fired when you tap/hold the trigger
    
    Tap d-pad down to switch between the available fire modes on your weapon. (With
    the default key bindings on PC the equivalent to d-pad down is the V key.) The
    icons on the prompt at the bottom of the screen show one bullet for single-fire,
    two bullets for burst fire or five bullets for full auto.
    
    When you respawn after dying your gun will still be set to the same fire-mode.
    
    For an automatic weapon the Symthic charts show the fire-rate on full auto. For
    a semi-auto, pump-action or bolt-action weapon they show the effective maximum
    rate of fire that can be achieved on successive single shots.
    
    Several guns have a burst option in addition to automatic (and the M16A4 assault
    rifle and M4 carbine have a burst option *instead* of full auto). Unlike with
    real-life weapons, using a burst fire mode in the game will always give you the
    gun's standard burst (either two or three rounds) regardless of whether you tap
    or hold the trigger.
    
    In automatic mode you can use "tapfire" (tapping R2) to create a burst effect if
    your weapon lacks a burst mode - or you're too lazy to change the fire mode. :)
    With practice you should be able to reliably get one, two or three rounds per
    tap, depending on how long you hold the trigger. Firing consecutive short bursts
    is much more accurate than sustained fire because it allows your accuracy spread
    (see Section 02f) and recoil (see Section 02e) to both reset after each burst.
    
    The fire-rate of your weapon is very significant in close-quarters combat. When
    you encounter an enemy it will often be the one that can pump the most rounds
    into the other that will prevail. However at medium and longer ranges you will
    be more likely to prosper with a slower weapon with less recoil.
    
    *As we'll see below, most guns in the assault rifle and carbine categories give
    a maximum damage of 24 or 24.5 so - unless your target is already injured - you
    will need more than one burst to get the 100 damage required for a kill.
    
                                    Muzzle Velocity
                                    ¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯
    This is the speed at which bullets leave the barrel, given in metres per second
    (m/s). For example at 600 m/s it takes a quarter of a second for your bullets to
    travel 150 metres (164 yards) and in order to hit a moving target you would need
    to "lead" them - aiming in front of them so they run into your bullet.
    
    In general the rifles and machineguns in BF4 have muzzle velocities of around
    500 to 600 m/s (compared to typical values of 850 to 950 m/s in real life), for
    PDW's it's around 400 m/s and for pistols around 300 m/s.
    
    A gun with a lower muzzle velocity will experience more bullet-drop (see Section
    02a) since the longer travel time gives the bullet more time to fall.
    
    When you equip a sound suppressor attachment (see Section 04c) you also switch
    to subsonic ammunition with reduced muzzle velocity (and more bullet-drop).
    
    Patched: The muzzle velocities of around thirty guns - mostly DMR's, shotguns
             and carbines - were buffed in the Fall Patch.
    
                                     Maximum Range
                                     ¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯
    For most guns the maximum distance that a bullet can reach is calculated as the
    distance it travels in 1.5 secs so this is intimately connected to the previous
    stat. For example the M416 assault rifle has a muzzle velocity of 600 m/s so
    (speed x time = distance) its max range is 600 x 1.5 = 900 metres (984 yards).
    
    The muzzle velocity trends apply here too so the rifles and machineguns tend to
    have longer ranges (around 800-950m) compared to PDW's and handguns.
    
    Sniper rifles and DMR's are the exception - their maximum range is based on a
    travel time of 5.0 seconds so for example the CS-LR4 rifle has a muzzle velocity
    of 670 m/s and therefore a max range of 670 x 5.0 = 3,350 metres (3,664 yards).
    
    This is only the theoretical maximum range of the weapon and not the effective
    range - you'll usually want to be operating at significantly shorter distances.
    
    .-------------.----------------------------------------------------------------.
    | Section 02c | Damage                                                    s02c |
    '-------------'----------------------------------------------------------------'
    
    When playing on a Normal or "Core" server every player has 100 health - you can
    think of this as 100 hit points or just as 100% of full health. It's easier to
    kill (and to be killed!) on a Hardcore server - every weapon does the same
    damage as in Normal but now everyone has only 60 health.
    
    The damage done by any bullet that hits an enemy (or a friendly in Hardcore!) is
    determined by a few basic numbers as outlined below.
    
    Patched: The Classic option was added in the Fall Patch. Soldiers here have 100
             health as in Normal but friendly fire is on and automatic health regen
             is off, placing more emphasis on the medic role.
    
                                     Damage Drop-Off
                                     ¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯
    There are four key stats for each weapon which are shown graphically as a plot
    of damage (per round) against distance travelled. At short ranges a bullet does
    its Maximum Damage, then when it reaches the Drop-Off Start distance the damage
    starts to decrease (at a constant linear rate) until it reaches the Drop-Off End
    distance after which the Minimum Damage applies. (The round then continues until
    it reaches its Maximum Range (see above) where it effectively disappears!)
    
    (In BF3 the heavy barrel and suppressor attachments both had statistical effects
    on the damage drop-off distances but this is no longer the case in BF4.)
    
           D|
           A|                                                  Damage Plot
           M|----------._  <---- Maximum Damage                 (General)
           A|            `-._
           G|                `-._
           E|                    `-._
            |                        `-._
            |                            `-------------  <---- Minimum Damage
            Z
            |_____________________________________________________
                      /\                 /\        D I S T A N C E
                Drop-Off Start      Drop-Off End
    
    The various guns in the game have different damage graphs but they always have
    this same basic shape and any two weapons in the same category that use the same
    or similar ammunition will usually have identical damage stats.
    
    For example every assault rifle apart from the SCAR-H and the Bulldog fires an
    intermediate calibre rifle round - 5.56mm NATO, 5.45mm Warsaw Pact (WP) or 5.8mm
    Chinese - and for the sake of balance these are considered to have identical
    damage stats. The maximum damage is 24.5, the drop-off start is 12.5 metres, the
    drop-off end is 60 metres and the minimum damage is 18.0 (out to maximum range).
    
                D|
                A|                                              Damage Plot
                M|-----._  <---- 24.5 pts                     (Assault Rifle)
                A|       `-._
                G|           `-._
                E|               `-._
                 |                   `-._
                 |                       `-------------  <---- 18.0 pts
                 Z
                 |________________________________________________
                      /\                 /\        D I S T A N C E
                  12.5 metres         60 metres
    
    Out to 12.5 metres each bullet does 24.5 damage so on a Normal server it takes
    five bullets to kill an enemy (5 x 24.5 > 100). This continues out to 46 metres
    where the damage drops below 20 (5 x 19.9 < 100) and you get a six-hit kill.
    
    (The drop-off zone is essentially a triangle, in this case with side lengths 6.5
    and 47.5. Damage or distances within this zone can be determined with basic trig
    or by equating the aspect ratios of similar triangles, e.g. if we say the damage
    drops off to 20 at N metres into the zone then (24.5 - 20) / N = 6.5 / 47.5 and
    therefore N = 32.9 metres and the full distance is 12.5 + 32.9 = 45.4 metres.)
    
    Patched: In a (successful!) effort to increase the effective Time To Kill (TTK)
             in close quarters DICE reduced the max damage by 1 for most automatic
             weapons (assault rifles, LMG's, carbines and PDW's) in the Fall Patch.
    
             This sounds like a minor change but, since the majority of guns had a
             max damage that was exactly enough to give either a four-hit kill (25)
             or a three-hit kill (34) at short ranges, this small tweak had the big
             effect of increasing the Bullets To Kill (BTK) by one for almost all of
             the weapons in these categories.
    
             (Notable exceptions are the AS Val, SR2 and MPX - these PDW's all had
             max damage stats greater than 25 prior to the patch.)
    
             Further stat tweaks were applied in the massive Spring Patch and now
             any assault rifles and LMG's that had been reduced to 24 now do 24.5.
    
    You can see the effect of damage drop-off on your Kill Assist bonuses (these are
    equal to the number of points of damage done). For example the 7.62mm load of
    the SCAR-H does a maximum damage of 33 out to 8 metres. At short ranges (where
    the max damage applies) you might get kill assists of 33 or 66 but at slightly
    longer ranges (just into the drop-off zone) you might get 30 or 62 for example.
    
    The bullet damage and rate of fire can be multiplied to give a "damage-rate".
    This DPS (damage per second) figure serves as a rough indicator of how quickly a
    gun can deliver damage (in this case at short range).
    
      F2000 = 850 RPM x 24.5 damage / 60 seconds per minute = 347 damage per second
    
      SAR21 = 600 RPM x 24.5 damage / 60 seconds per minute = 245 damage per second
    
     SCAR-H = 620 RPM x 33 damage / 60 seconds per minute = 341 damage per second
    
    The higher bullet damage of the SCAR gives it a DPS similar to the faster F2000.
    
                                   Damage Multipliers
                                   ¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯
    The graph shows the base damage per round but multipliers are applied when you
    hit certain parts of your target's body.
    
    Weapons do standard damage on shots to the chest (upper torso) and arms. This
    is the baseline used when discussing the killing potential of a weapon, so for
    example most assault rifles deliver a maximum damage of 24.5 and therefore can
    give a five-hit kill (specifically on chest/arm shots).
    
    A headshot does x2.13 damage with most weapons or x2.35 damage with sniper
    rifles. In BF3 every (bolt-action) sniper rifle had a minimum damage of at least
    50 so every gun gave a guaranteed one-hit headshot kill at any range - this is
    still true of most snipers in BF4 except the FY-JS, Scout Elite and SR338 (see
    Section 03d). The shotgun buckshot and dart loads have no headshot damage
    multiplier (x1) - and the head makes a much smaller target for your pellets or
    flechettes anyway - so it is always best to aim for the chest with those.
    Shooting your target's abdomen (lower torso) or legs always gives a multiplier
    of x0.93 so it actually reduces the damage per bullet by 7 percent.
    
    (BF3's x1.25 multiplier for sniper/revolver/slug shots to the upper torso has
    been removed. In BF3 this made one-hit chest kills possible with sniper rifles
    in close-quarters but you can still get one-hit chest/arm kills in BF4 because
    the max damage for all bolt-action sniper rifles is now 100.)
    
    Patched: As part of the major overhaul of weapons balance in the Spring Patch of
             May 2015 the basic headshot damage multiplier was increased from x2 to
             x2.13 and it is now possible to get a kill with two headshots at short
             range with a weapon that does a max damage of 23.5 or more.
    
             DICE explained that their overall goal was "[...] to create distinct
             roles for the weapon classes and reward player skill through increased
             recoil and by bringing back the 2-bullet headshot!"
    
             In the Summer Patch the headshot multiplier for shotgun slugs and heavy
             pistols (revolvers and the Deagle) was reduced from x2.35 to x2.13 -
             previously a pump-action shotgun using slug rounds (45 min damage) was
             capable of a one-hit headshot kill at any range.
    
    The full and extended list of specs (perks) in BF4 was announced by DICE in mid
    August 2013 and included the ARMOR spec that reduces damage to the chest. After
    numerous questions and complaints from fans they issued clarification just three
    days later stating that the effect is relatively minor - as in BF2 and BF2142 -
    and the primary effect is to negate the one-hit chest kill ability of snipers.
    
    Patched: In the Fall Patch a visual effect was added to indicate when an enemy
             player is using ARMOR. This takes the form of a shield-shaped outline
             around the orange triangle (Dorito) that appears when they are spotted.
    
             In the 18 November 2014 patch an option to toggle this effect on/off
             was added (the shield icons are now disabled by default).
    
    The ARMOR spec, available in the Defensive field upgrade set, applies the x0.93
    abdomen/legs damage multiplier to chest/arm shots for most categories of firearm
    in the game. Shotgun buckshot rounds suffer a heavier x0.85 penalty (because
    armour can stop shot more easily) and no multiplier penalty (x1) to shotgun dart
    rounds (because they give superior penetration).
    
    Patched: After previously announcing several pistol balances on the official
             Battlefield blog in January 2014, DICE applied the changes in the patch
             on 4 March. This included a small increase to the maximum damage of the
             pistols that use .45 ACP, .40 S&W, 5.8mm and 5.7mm ammunition, enough
             to bypass the effect of ARMOR on Bullets To Kill (BTK) at short ranges.
    
             The damage multiplier for shotgun buckshot shots to the chest and arms
             protected by the ARMOR spec was increased from x0.67 to x0.85 in the
             25 March 2014 patch, improving the chances of shotgun users.
    
             Prior to the Fall Patch many automatic weapons did either 25 or 34 max
             damage (exactly enough for a four- or three-hit kill respectively) so
             the ARMOR modifier caused the BTK to increase by one in close quarters.
             Since the damage reduction in the patch caused the BTK to increase for
             these guns the ARMOR spec now rarely has any extra effect on them and
             it mainly only impacts shotguns and snipers (as originally intended).
    
               (pre-patch, no ARMOR) 4 x 25 = 100        [four-hit kill]
    
               (pre-patch, vs ARMOR) 4 x 25 x 0.93 < 100 [five-hit kill]
    
              (post-patch, no ARMOR) 4 x 24 < 100        [already a five-hit kill]
    
              (post-patch, vs ARMOR) 4 x 24 x 0.93 < 100 [still a five-hit kill]
    
             (The maximum damage for intermediate-calibre assault rifles and LMG's
             was subsequently raised from 24.0 to 24.5 in the Spring Patch.)
    
    ////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
    
    The various damage multipliers are summarized in this table:
    
            Target       | Multiplier | Weapon/Ammo Types
     ====================+============+============================================
                         |    x2.35   | sniper rifles
             head        |    x1.00   | shotgun buckshot/darts
                         |    x2.13   | everything else
     --------------------+------------+--------------------------------------------
      upper torso / arms |    x1.00   | everything
     --------------------+------------+--------------------------------------------
      upper torso / arms |    x0.85   | shotgun buckshot
       (when target is   |    x1.00   | shotgun darts
       using ARMOR spec) |    x0.93   | everything else
     --------------------+------------+--------------------------------------------
      lower torso / legs |    x0.93   | everything
    
    ////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
    
    Patched: Following CTE testing in early 2015 the developers added a feature that
             I'd wanted for ages. The shooting range targets on the Test Range now
             need to take 100 damage before they drop where previously you only had
             to hit them with a single round. The headshot damage multiplier is also
             applied so you can try different weapons and see how many shots to the
             body or head are required to kill at various distances.
    
             The option to change the colour and size of your hit markers for body,
             head and kill shots was also added to your advanced setting options
             (although the colours for headshots and kill-shots aren't used when
             plinking those Test Range targets).
    
    .-------------.----------------------------------------------------------------.
    | Section 02d | Ammo & Reloading                                          s02d |
    '-------------'----------------------------------------------------------------'
    
    Next to the damage plot on the Symthic weapon charts are the reload times and
    details of the weapon's ammunition capacity.
    
                                     Reload Times
                                     ¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯
    Most guns have two reload times: the short (or "tactical") reload and the long
    (or "empty") reload. The short reload applies if you reload while you still have
    some rounds in the weapon* and the long reload occurs if you reload when it's
    completely dry (and you need a little extra time to chamber a round). Taking the
    SCAR-H as an example the short reload there is 1.90 seconds (one of the fastest
    in the game) and the long reload when the gun is empty is 2.40 seconds.
    
     1.9s        The two reload times are presented in a diagonal row with a third
        2.4s     figure which is a "threshold" multiplier - once you start reloading
           0.75x you cannot switch to another weapon until this time has elapsed -
         21      and the fourth number is the ammo capacity (see below).
    
    (As you will know from (almost) every game tutorial ever, it's much quicker to
    switch to your sidearm than to reload your primary weapon.)
    
    Although they are far less obvious and exotic as the ones in Hardline, some guns
    in BF4 have a rare "easter egg" reload animation. There is a small chance (1 in
    10,000?) that this will occur when you perform a long reload with certain guns,
    for example the Unica 6, SCAR-H and QBU88.
    
    BF4 now has a "tiered" reload system which takes effect when you reload from an
    empty magazine but switch to your sidearm or a gadget halfway through the reload
    animation - when you switch back to your primary you will only get the second
    half instead of the full animation. In other words after firing the last round
    in your magazine, you hit the reload button, remove the mag, switch out, switch
    back and then load a new magazine. This is more realistic and saves you time.
    
    Patched: Since BF3 several games using the Frostbite engine have exhibited what
             is known as the Fake Reload bug - occasionally when reloading you would
             see the full animation but the reload would not actually happen. A fix
             for this continuing issue was finally applied in the Summer Patch.
    
    The Hawk 12G, Saiga 12k, DBV12, USAS12 and M26 MASS shotguns all use detachable
    magazines which means you can do a full reload more quickly but all the other
    shotguns have the advantage that, by loading the shells individually, you can
    interrupt the reloading process and resume firing at any stage. The same applies
    to the lever-action Mare's Leg sidearm but it's not so helpful there as it's not
    possible to ADS while reloading.
    
    In BF3 several LMG's, PDW's and shotguns had an unlockable extended mag option
    which significantly increased their ammunition capacity. This is not available
    in BF4 but generally these weapons now have larger magazines by default instead.
    
    *In Hardcore mode when you reload with a half-empty magazine you will lose the
    remaining rounds - so for example if you had a 30-round mag, fired ten shots and
    then reloaded you would lose the other twenty.
    
    Patched: The above feature was also seen in the public beta and on Normal mode
             servers in the full game at release. However DICE identified this as an
             error (in the Normal server settings) and fixed it just a couple of
             days later in the fourth server-side patch.
    
             Classic mode was added in the Fall Patch and also uses this feature.
    
                                       Ammunition
                                       ¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯
    The next number shown is the maximum standard ammunition capacity of the weapon.
    For the majority of guns this is the magazine capacity plus one round in the
    chamber of the weapon. For example the SCAR-H magazine holds 20 rounds so with a
    a full magazine and a round chambered the maximum capacity is 21 or "20+1" (and
    you'll always spawn with the maximum 21 rounds loaded in the rifle).
    
    When you do a short reload your weapon still has a round in the chamber so after
    removing the magazine and replacing it with a full one your gun will have its
    maximum load (e.g. 21 rounds) but when the weapon is completely empty and you do
    a long reload you will only have the ammo in the new mag available (e.g. 20) so
    you would need to reload a second time to receive the maximum capacity.
    
    Ammo type is no longer included in Symthic's main stats charts but it is shown
    on the individual weapon pages and on the in-game loadout screen. The calibre
    will be given either in millimetres (e.g. 5.56mm or 9mm) or in fractions of an
    inch (for example .357 Magnum = 357/1000 inch). A second figure gives the length
    of the shell case, for example with 5.56x45mm NATO rounds it's 4.5cm long.
    
    Patched: The tracer effect on every shot was made more prominent in the Spring
             Patch to give a better indication of spread increase (see Section 02f).
    
             However it was acknowledged that the resulting "laser beams" effect was
             too strong and therefore the "brightness, thickness and length" of the
             tracers were all reduced in the Summer Patch. Additionally the tracer
             effect is now only applied to every third round which further reduces
             their significance and is more authentic to how real tracers are used.
    
    Every shotgun in the game including the new Shorty 12G sidearm and the Assault
    kit's M26 MASS fires 12-gauge shells (equivalent to an approximate diameter of
    18.5mm). The four types of shotgun ammo - buckshot, flechette, slug and frag -
    are discussed in Section 03g below.
    
    Ammo can be resupplied from the Support kit's ammo pack and ammo box by simply
    standing next to it. An ammo box remains on the map until it's destroyed or the
    owner drops another one elsewhere on the map. The ammo pack however has quite a
    limited capacity and only gives you three resupplies - for firearm ammo the
    first resupply gives you two magazines and the other two give you one each time;
    for grenades, rockets, etc, you get one each time (three total). You can also
    resupply (and switch your class) at a supply crate dropped by the commander.
    
    The AMMOBAG UPGRADE spec in the Support kit's Indirect Fire field upgrade path
    allows you to have a two ammo packs/boxes deployed at any given time.
    
    .-------------.----------------------------------------------------------------.
    | Section 02e | Recoil                                                    s02e |
    '-------------'----------------------------------------------------------------'
    
    Recoil is the tendency of a firearm to "kick" upwards (and sideways) after each
    round is fired. This will be especially noticeable when firing a longer burst
    from an automatic weapon but, even on full auto, after releasing the trigger the
    gun will always return to your original point of aim.
    
          0.3      The recoil of each weapon is described by five numbers which are
           ^       presented on Symthic like this (using the AK12 as an example).
     0.17<-'->0.12
                   The top number is the vertical recoil (muzzle climb) experienced
       18   2.1 x  after each shot, given as an angle measured in degrees.
    
    The next two numbers are the maximum left and right horizontal recoil (muzzle
    drift). Sideways recoil is determined at random on each shot so even where the
    two stats appear to cancel each other out there will usually be some net effect
    although you will only see a distinct "pull" to one side during automatic fire
    if the two numbers differ (e.g the AK12 has a small pull to the left).
    
    The figure at the bottom-left is the "recoil recovery" rate. It's a measure of
    how quickly the weapon returns to your original aim given in degrees per second
    - a bigger number here will make it easier to fire accurate bursts more quickly.
    Even in semi-auto (single) fire sometimes it's necessary to delay each shot for
    a fraction of a second to allow the weapon sufficient time to recover.
    
    The final number at the bottom-right is the first-shot recoil multiplier applied
    to the vertical recoil after the first shot in automatic fire, on every shot in
    single fire or after the final shot of a burst (when using burst mode). This
    value can be as high as x3.0 (on the 1,000-RPM CZ3A1 PDW) which means that the
    weapon will jump vertically three times more than normal after the first shot.
    On the M60E4 (the heaviest LMG) this multiplier is only x1.0 - it actually gets
    no extra recoil on the first shot.
    
    Sticking with the AK12 as an example, the vertical recoil following the first
    shot in automatic fire (or a single shot) will be 0.63 degrees (0.3 x 2.1) then
    for every successive shot it will be the standard 0.3 degrees. The recoil will
    recover at a rate of 18 degrees per second.
                                           __
    
    Some weapon attachments (see Section 04) affect recoil. The compensator gives
    a 25% reduction to horizontal recoil while the heavy barrel (which improves ADS
    accuracy) applies a 30% penalty to vertical recoil. When a bipod is equipped
    and deployed it greatly decreases all recoil stats for your weapon. Fitting the
    angled/folding grip attachment reduces the first-shot recoil multiplier by 20%.
    
    With some practice you can compensate for recoil during a burst by adjusting
    your aim in the opposite direction, i.e. you can reduce the effect of vertical
    (upwards) recoil by holding down a little on your right stick (or up if you have
    vertical look inverted in your controller config). This is easier on PC using a
    mouse but it works on a joypad too. Since horizontal recoil is random you can't
    counter it fully but you can steer against a prominent sideways pull.
    
    You can use vertical recoil to your advantage by aiming quickly at your target's
    torso and letting the recoil guide your aim up their body and hopefully into a
    headshot. This technique will be less effective on any weapon that has large or
    imbalanced horizontal recoil.
    
    .-------------.----------------------------------------------------------------.
    | Section 02f | Accuracy                                                  s02f |
    '-------------'----------------------------------------------------------------'
    
    The accuracy of each weapon is determined as a randomised "spread" (deviation)
    on each shot. With the exception of the bolt-action sniper rifles (which all
    have 0.0 spread for stationary aimed fire), your bullet will not hit exactly
    where you are aiming and will instead land at a random point within a circle
    centred on your point of aim and defined by the angular spread value - you can
    visualise this as a long cone centred around your line of fire. Since spread is
    calculated as an angle, the effect is greater at longer ranges.
    
    The amount of spread that applies in any given situation will be based on three
    factors in various combinations shown in a grid (example figures for the AK12).
    
           ADS  HIP         You'll have much less spread (better accuracy) when you
                            are aiming down sights (ADS) compared to using hipfire.
                 3  Stand   
    Static 0.2  2.5 Crouch  Your aim will be better when you are stationary. You can
                 2  Prone   think of this as an "accuracy bonus" for standing still.
    
                3.5 Stand   Finally your stance also has an effect on accuracy. You
    Moving 1.0   3  Crouch  will have more hipfire spread when you are standing and
                2.5 Prone   less when crouching or laying prone.
    
    It's worth noting that all guns give the same degree of ADS (aimed) accuracy in
    all three stances so going prone gives no bonus to ADS spread (it does however
    make you a smaller target and allow you to deploy a bipod but it also makes you
    pretty vulnerable, especially to headshots).
    
    With most guns the effect of stance and movement on your hipfire accuracy can be
    demonstrated simply by observing the variations in size of your crosshairs as
    you transition between running/standing and standing/crouching/prone. You can
    also observe the effect on hipfire spread of switching on and off a laser sight
    attachment (see Section 04b) and of firing a long burst on automatic.
    
    Compared to BF3, weapons in BF4 generally have more spread (less accuracy) in
    hipfire, with figures for stationary hipfire typically increasing by about 0.5,
    so you'll want to ADS at shorter ranges than you would have previously.
    
                                           ¯¯
    There are two other stats that are applied. The first is the spread increase per
    shot (shown in orange on Symthic) which is the amount by which the radius of
    spread increases with each successive shot; for example the value is around 0.1
    degrees for the assault rifles. This means it's much better to use short bursts,
    or even single shots, when shooting at longer ranges. The spread will increase
    up to the maximum spread values (not shown on the basic weapon charts).
    
    For example the AEK971 assault rifle has an initial stationary aimed accuracy of
    0.2, a spread increase per shot of 0.117 and a maximum aimed spread of 1.5 - so
    during a sustained burst the spread will gradually rise up to the 1.5 limit.
    
    The spread increase per shot (SIPS) is proportional to the weapon's fire-rate -
    for most automatic guns it's equal to the fire-rate divided by 7,700. (This is
    based on 770 which is the fire-rate of the Ace 23 assault rifle - by definition
    the Ace 23 has a SIPS of exactly 0.1 and all others are set relative to this.)
    
    Patched: Some SIPS stats were corrected in the Fall Patch. For example with the
             AR160 (700 RPM) it was reduced from 0.12 to 0.091 (700/7700 = 0.091).
    
    The amount of spread increase in automatic fire will be reduced by 20% if you
    equip either the potato grip or stubby grip on your weapon. These attachments
    also reduce the maximum aimed spread value by 17%.
    
    Patched: At launch the accuracy mechanics were such that if you transitioned
             from hipfire into aimed fire during a long burst you would retain the
             significantly wider spread of hipfire. In the 4 March 2014 patch this
             was changed so the accuracy of your fire will improve when you enter
             ADS during a burst but the game will apply the maximum aimed spread so
             it won't be a massive improvement.
    
             For example the initial stationary standing hipfire spread of the AEK
             is 3.0 degrees and this increases by 0.117 with each shot. Now when you
             transition into aimed fire you will have the maximum aimed spread which
             is 1.5 (compared to the initial stationary aimed spread of 0.2).
    
    The final accuracy stat is the spread decrease per second (shown in green on
    Symthic) which defines how quickly your accuracy (spread) resets to normal after
    firing - with a larger value your spread recovers faster. I'll generally use the
    term "spread recovery" as a better description of this stat.
    
    Patched: Originally the spread decrease per second was set at 15 for every
             standard firearm in the game. (For the shotguns and pistols the spread
             decrease currently remains unchanged at 15.)
    
             In the 6 March 2014 patch the spread recovery for bolt-action snipers
             was halved from 15 to 7.5 but the spread increase was set to zero too.
    
             Then in the Spring Patch a wide range of new values were introduced for
             all assault rifles, PDW's, LMG's, carbines and DMR's. In most cases the
             number was reduced which means that the gun now takes longer to recover
             its accuracy after firing.
    
             The guns with the highest damage-rates saw the biggest reductions, with
             weapons like the FAMAS and CZ3A1 (both 1,000 RPM) now stuck with low
             values around 6 and 7. Some of the slowest firing guns like the RPK12,
             SAR21 and new AN94 (all 600 RPM) actually saw a small increase.
    
                                           ¯¯
    The combined effects of recoil and spread are displayed vividly in the accuracy
    plots on Symthic where the different colours represent successive shots fired in
    a five-round burst. With each shot the muzzle rises and the spread increases but
    the unique stats for every weapon give each one a characteristic accuracy plot.
    
                         http://symthic.com/bf4-accuracy-plots
    
    Most weapons with a "bullpup" design (where the magazine and firing mechanism
    are situated behind the trigger) get a bonus to their hipfire and moving spread
    however they also get a penalty to their stationary aimed accuracy and they have
    longer reload times too. Examples of bullpups are the L85A2, RFB and MTAR21.
    
    Several weapon attachments have an effect on the accuracy of the gun. The laser
    sights reduce the hipfire spread, the bipod (when deployed) reduces both aimed
    and hipfire spread, the heavy barrel improves stationary aimed accuracy, the
    ergo/vertical grips reduce your spread when moving and the stubby/potato grips
    reduce the spread increase per shot. The muzzle brake and compensator (which
    give reductions to vertical and horizontal recoil respectively) give a penalty
    to your spread increase per shot while the suppressor applies a penalty to your
    stationary hipfire spread.
    
    Patched: Since the Spring Patch the flash hider and all three types of foregrip
             all now apply penalties to spread recovery too.
    
    .-------------.----------------------------------------------------------------.
    | Section 02g | Suppression                                               s02g |
    '-------------'----------------------------------------------------------------'
    
    Although it's been changed since BF3 and Symthic doesn't quote weapon stats for
    it, the suppression mechanic is still applied in BF4 when you shoot near an
    enemy. In BF3 this caused your target to experience a blurring effect and a
    temporary penalty to their weapon accuracy but in BF4 it causes sway.
    
    Patched: Following testing in the CTE in early April a totally new model for
             suppression went live in the Spring Patch. The amount of suppression
             caused by firing your weapon now varies with range - a gun will now do
             practically no suppression at short ranges and only suppress to its
             maximum extent at ranges where the weapon is generally ineffective.
    
             Examples were given in the CTE notes including a numeric scale, with
             each shot causing between 1 (minimum) and 8 (maximum) suppression based
             on the distance with a total of 20 being required to fully suppress the
             target. An LMG for example does only 1 unit of suppression per shot at
             30 metres and doesn't achieve the maximum value of 8 until 80 metres.
    
             The purpose of this change was to make suppression effective at ranges
             where suppressive fire would really be used and to limit its effect at
             short ranges where player skill should be the dominant factor.
    
    If your suppressed enemy is killed by a team-mate you get a 10 pts Suppression
    Assist bonus (or 20 pts for a Squad Suppression Assist). In BF3 you got 50 pts.
    
    As in BF3 the suppression effect is enhanced if the shooter has the benefit of
    the SUPPRESSION spec and reduced if the target has the COVER spec active.
    
    (The suppression effect should not be confused with the suppressor attachments
    which can be added to a weapon to reduce the firing noise - see Section 04c.)
    
    Patched: Since the Final Stand update a player cannot heal from medic equipment
             (either the "big bag" or the "little bag") when they are suppressed.
             This small change gives a significant increase to the effectiveness of
             suppressive fire - and reduces the points you can farm from healing
             team-mates during fire-fights!
    
    
    .------------.-----------------------------------------------------------------.
    | Section 03 | WEAPONS                                                     s03 |
    '------------'-----------------------------------------------------------------'
    
    There are eight categories of guns in Battlefield 4:
    
    o Assault Rifles are available only within the Assault kit
    
    o Personal Defence Weapons (PDW) are available only within the Engineer kit
    
    o Light Machineguns (LMG) are available only within the Support kit
    
    o Sniper Rifles are available only within the Recon kit
    
    o Carbines, Designated Marksman Rifles (DMR) and Shotguns can be used in any kit
    
    o Sidearms (mostly pistols) are equipped into the secondary slot in any kit
    
    At BF4's launch (Oct 2013) you started the game with just five guns available:
    
    - AK12 assault rifle (Assault class)
    - Mx4 personal defence weapon (Engineer class)
    - U100 Mk 5 light machinegun (Support class)
    - CS-LR4 sniper rifle (Recon class)
    - P226 sidearm (all classes)
    
    The Spring Patch (May 2015) added the following five free guns for all players:
    
    - AN94 assault rifle (Assault class)
    - Groza 4 personal defence weapon (Engineer class)
    - L86A2 light machinegun (Support class)
    - Groza 1 carbine (all classes)
    - Mare's Leg sidearm (all classes)
    
    The rest of the weapons need to be unlocked. The vast majority are unlocked by
    earning points using guns of the same category, so for example you use assault
    rifles to unlock other assault rifles. XP bonuses can make a big difference here
    so look out for Double XP events and remember to use the XP boosts that you'll
    usually get from Battlepacks. (for example two kills would normally give you 200
    points but with both double XP and even a small 25% boost you'd get 500 instead)
    
    You'll also get a few guns by completing assignments either in multiplayer or in
    the single-player campaign. You can unlock the M249 LMG, QBZ95-1 assault rifle,
    P90 PDW and MP412 Rex revolver quickly and easily in the single-player game.
    
    Patched: Since the Summer Patch you now have access to all weapons in the game
             when playing on an unranked server.
    
    The following eight sections describe individually every firearm in the game.
    
    Standard ammo capacities for most guns are given in the format N+1 where the
    magazine holds N cartridges and you can have one more ready in the chamber.
    
    The reload times are for the short reload (when the gun isn't completely empty).
    
    .-------------.----------------------------------------------------------------.
    | Section 03a | Assault Rifles                                            s03a |
    '-------------'----------------------------------------------------------------'
    
    The assault rifles can only be equipped when using the Assault class.
    
    Since the original Sturmgewehr 45 and Kalashnikov AK47 in the 40's, the assault
    rifle has become ubiquitous across battlefields worldwide. The combination of
    weapons design and intermediate calibre ammo gives weapons that deliver accurate
    fire with manageable recoil at typical engagement distances of 200-300 metres
    along with high fire-rates that allow effective use in close quarters.
    
    Initially only the AK12 and AN94 are available. The QBZ95-1 can be unlocked in
    the single-player campaign and a further five assault rifles can be earned by
    completing assignments (one in the base game and four in DLC). The others are
    unlocked by earning XP using whichever assault rifles you have available.
    
    As noted above (Section 02c), every assault rifle except for the Bulldog and
    SCAR-H uses typical intermediate rounds (i.e. 5.56mm NATO, 5.45mm Warsaw Pact or
    5.8mm Chinese) and these all have identical damage profiles in the game. This
    makes it much easier to contrast the damage output rates on any assault rifles
    other than the SCAR/Bulldog - you can just compare the fire-rates of the guns.
    
                          |  Max.  |    Damage    |  Min.  |
               Ammunition | Damage |   Drop-Off   | Damage | Weapons
        ==================+========+==============+========+====================
           7.62x51mm NATO |  33.0  |   8m to 60m  |  21.6  | SCAR-H and Bulldog
        ------------------+--------+--------------+--------+--------------------
           5.56x45mm NATO |        |              |        |
             5.45x39mm WP |  24.5  | 12.5m to 60m |  18.0  | everything else
         5.8x42mm Chinese |        |              |        |
    
    Patched: In the Fall Patch the maximum damage for all assault rifles was reduced
             by 1. Additionally the minimum damage stats for the SCAR and Bulldog
             were reduced from 25 to 24, removing their ability to give a four-hit
             kill (body-shots) or two-hit kill (headshots) at long ranges; however
             they did get their damage drop-off end extended by 5 metres.
    
             In the Spring Patch the minimum damage for the 7.62mm battle rifles was
             further reduced from 24 to 21.6 (still a five-hit kill). For the other
             assault rifles the maximum damage was increased from 24.0 to 24.5 and
             the damage drop-off distances were extended from 8-55 to 12.5-60.
    
             (In the same update the headshot damage multiplier was increased from
             x2.0 to x2.13 so it's now possible to achieve a kill with two headshots
             from an assault rifle again. This was possible prior to the damage nerf
             in the Fall Patch (2 x 25 x 2.0 = 100), not possible after that update
             (2 x 24 x 2.0 < 100) and now possible again (2 x 24.5 x 2.13 > 100). A
             5.56mm assault rifle can get a two-headshot kill out to 19 metres.)
    
    In BF3 you had to get 50 kills with an assault rifle to unlock a red-dot sight
    and until then you were stuck using some combination of iron sights, scope or
    hipfire. However DICE are always keen to respond to constructive criticism and
    now your first unlock (10 kills) with any assault rifle will be an RDS (and this
    is even automatically unlocked by default with your first gun).
    
    Patched: Like the PDW's, LMG's, carbines and DMR's, the assault rifles all
             received changes to their spread decrease per second (accuracy recovery
             after firing) in the Spring Patch of May 2015. Originally this stat was
             set to 15 for all weapons but in the patch new values were assigned
             according to each gun's DPS (damage per second).
    
             Guns with high rates of fire and/or high bullet damage got significant
             nerfs, for example the FAMAS (6.2), AEK91 (7.7) and Bulldog (7.2) and
             conversely the ones with lowest damage outputs actually saw a small
             buff, for example the SAR21 and the newly added AN94 (both 17.3).
    
             Also the max spread for all stances was increased slightly from 1.5 to
             1.7 for all assault rifles - during a long burst the accuracy will now
             be capped at a higher value (more spread). (A value of 2.1 was proposed
             back in December 2014 but they must've decided that was too high.)
    
             Finally all the bullpup AR's - the FAMAS, F2000, L85, Bulldog, AUG A3,
             QBZ95-1 and SAR21 - got a small buff to moving hipfire accuracy.
    
    Every assault rifle apart from the FAMAS, Ace 23, F2000 and Bulldog comes with
    an underbarrel rail attachment available - this will either be the UGL rail
    (which lets you mount the M320 40mm grenade-launcher onto the rifle) or the
    underslung rail (which lets you mount either the M320 or the M26 MASS shotgun).
    
    o AK12
    
         Ammo: 5.45x39mm   Capacity: 30+1   Fire-rate: 650 RPM   Reload: 2.30 secs
    
      Unlocks: available at start
    
      Summary: Your initial assault rifle has one of the slower fire-rates in this
               category but it also has low horizontal recoil which, combined with
               average muzzle climb and first-shot recoil multiplier stats, gives
               pretty tidy vertical groups when firing a burst at range.
    
               To give you a helping hand when you're starting out the AK12 comes
               with the first three attachments - the Kobra red-dot sight, ergo grip
               and laser sight - already unlocked and ready to equip.
    
      Patched: During beta testing the AK12 had an authentic 1,000 RPM rate of fire
               in burst mode so successive bursts gave a high effective fire-rate
               combined with the superior recoil of a "slow" gun. The burst rate was
               nerfed to 750 RPM in October 2013.
    
               In the Spring Patch the AK12 got small increases to its left and
               right recoil and to its short and long reload times. It also got a
               very small buff to its spread increase. (from 0.085 to 0.084!)
    
       Trivia: The AK12 is the latest iteration of the legendary Kalashnikov design
               that began with the seminal AK47. The new rifle was created with the
               intention of replacing the AK74M (1991) and it is expected to enter
               military service in 2014.
    
               An early prototype designated the AK200 was little more than an AK74
               with accessory rails added but the recent AK12 shows a more radical
               departure from the Kalashnikov pattern with a more angular receiver,
               modern telescopic folding stock and remodelled switches in addition
               to the prominent rail system on the dust cover and handguard.
    
               See the AK12 on TAC-TV: https://youtu.be/aAjkxLSkv7Q
    
               Just as BF3 featured the AKS74u carbine, RPK74M light machinegun and
               Kalashnikov-based SVD marksman rifle in addition to the AK74M assault
               rifle, in BF4 we have a full family of other weapons extrapolated or
               derived from the AK12 design: the AKu12 carbine, the RPK12 LMG, the
               SVD12 marksman rifle and even the DBV12 semi-auto shotgun!
    
               Previous reports suggested that the real weapon would also have a 9mm
               submachinegun variant designated the PPK12.
    
               Mikhail Kalashnikov died on 23 December 2013 aged 94.
    
    o AN94
    
         Ammo: 5.45x39mm   Capacity: 30+1   Fire-rate: 600 RPM   Reload: 2.40 secs
    
      Unlocks: available by default (added in Spring Patch on 26 May 2015)
    
      Summary: The first of five free guns added in the Spring Patch is the "fan
               favourite" from BF3 and BFBC2, the Russian AN94 assault rifle.
    
               At first glance the AN94 gives similar performance to the AK12 - it
               shoots at the same fire-rate, has slightly more vertical recoil and
               slightly less horizontal recoil (this is very low). However, as any
               Battlefield vet knows, the key strength is its burst fire mode.
    
               Like the real weapon, the AN94 offers a two-shot burst mode with an
               exceptionally high effective rate of fire - in the game this is 1,200
               RPM. In previous titles it was possible to exploit this by firing
               consecutive bursts very quickly to create an effective fire-rate much
               higher than the standard 600 RPM of automatic fire. This is prevented
               in BF4 by an extra delay which caps the fire rate at around 700 RPM,
               however the burst mode is still great for controlled accurate fire
               especially when combined with the AN94's exceptionally low horizontal
               recoil and spread increase and its high spread recovery.
    
               It's also worth remembering that the Spring Patch saw a revision to
               the headshot damage multiplier that made it possible again to get a
               kill with two headshots - so the AN94 can achieve a kill out to 19
               metres with a single burst aimed carefully at the head.
    
               With body-shots you'll need to land three bursts for a kill at any
               range (3 x 18 > 100) so you'll want to get into the habit of triple
               tapping the trigger as you would with a DMR.
    
               The long reload time is over a second longer than the short reload
               so it's best to reload before the weapon is completely empty. With a
               full mag you'll get fifteen two-round bursts and one round left over.
    
      Patched: Following testing in mid-April on the CTE prior to release the short
               reload time was increased by 17% and the effective fire-rate for
               burst mode was increased from 600 RPM to around 700 RPM.
    
               The AN94 was the only assault rifle to lack the bipod option but this
               was added in the Summer Patch and is now unlocked by default.
    
       Trivia: Like the AEK below, the Russian AN94 was based around the traditional
               Kalashnikov pattern. It was designed by Gennadiy Nikonov and entered
               production in 1994 (hence the name - Avtomat Nikonova 1994).
    
               It competed alongside the AEK in the early 90's in military trials to
               find a replacement for the AK series in Russian service (this contest
               was named after the city of Abakan which explains the "AN94 Abakan"
               name used in BFBC2). Although the AN94 won this competition - over
               twenty years ago - it is still yet to see widespread adoption and is
               currently issued mainly to special forces and police units.
    
               In real life the two-round burst fires at a remarkable 1,800 RPM. The
               effect of this is that both rounds leave the barrel before the user
               experiences the recoil thus giving excellent accuracy for burst fire
               and consequently an enhanced ability to defeat body armour.
    
               See the AN94 on Russian television: http://youtu.be/r4e4QcbEZP8
    
               The video linked above highlights two quite unusual aspects of the
               AN94 design. Firstly the weapon's magazine sits at a distinct angle
               to the vertical (around 15-20 degrees?) and secondly the barrel is
               connected to the firing mechanism and actually slides backwards and
               forwards during operation.
    
               See the AN94 (jamming!) on TAC-TV: https://youtu.be/ATpeX3XBuuw
    
    o QBZ95-1
    
         Ammo: 5.8x42mm   Capacity: 30+1   Fire-rate: 650 RPM   Reload: 2.90 secs
    
      Unlocks: complete 'To Valhalla' assignment (single-player)
    
               In the final mission (Suez) keep the C4 or don't detonate it.
    
               (The single-player story has three possible endings and each one will
               unlock a different gun for multiplayer - you can also get the P90 PDW
               and M249 LMG this way. The outcome is determined by the action you
               take when you are hanging off a bridge at the end of the level. You
               can use the mission replay option to get the three endings.)
    
      Summary: The QBZ95-1 can be unlocked readily in the single-player campaign and
               used to supplement your AK12 early in the game. The two weapons offer
               loosely similar performance but the QBZ has less vertical recoil.
    
               As a "bullpup" design - the mechanism and magazine are located behind
               the trigger - the QBZ95 has increased accuracy in hipfire and while
               moving but lower than average stationary aimed accuracy. The bullpup
               configuration also gives it a very slow reload.
    
      Patched: In addition to the maximum damage nerf and suppressor velocity buff
               that most of the assault rifles got in the Fall Patch, the QBZ also
               saw a few other adjustments. The spread increase per shot (SIPS) was
               increased for all stances (but it is still fairly low compared to the
               rest of the guns in this category), the horizontal recoil was reduced
               slightly and the short reload time was reduced to 2.85 seconds (still
               slower than any other assault rifle).
    
               In the Spring Patch the QBZ95-1 got a small increase to its reload
               times and a minor reduction to its spread increase per shot.
    
       Trivia: The QBZ95 (also known as the Type 95) is a modern assault rifle used
               by Chinese military and police units. The QBZ95 previously appeared
               in BF2: Modern Combat but only the QBZ95B carbine and QBB95 light
               support weapon (LMG) variants were included in BF3. These all use the
               Chinese 5.8x42mm load which was designed as a modern alternative to
               the Soviet 7.62x39mm cartridge which dates back to the WWII era.
    
               The QBZ95-1 is an enhanced model which was first issued to frontline
               troops around 2010-11 and addresses numerous issues with the original
               design. It includes a heavier barrel and a new muzzle brake to allow
               it to use the heavy variety of the 5.8mm ammo and a forward ejection
               system that permits use by left-handed shooters.
               
               In addition to the QBZ95-1 assault rifle, the modified QBB95-1 LMG
               and Type 95B-1 carbine (i.e. the QBZ95B-1) are also in BF4.
    
    o SCAR-H
    
         Ammo: 7.62x51mm   Capacity: 20+1   Fire-rate: 620 RPM   Reload: 1.90 secs
    
      Unlocks: score 4,000 pts with assault rifles
    
      Summary: Previously available as a carbine for the Engineer class in BF3, the
               standard length SCAR-H now takes the place of the venerable G3 as the
               heavy-hitter of the assault rifle category in BF4. Its 7.62mm load
               gives a maximum damage of 33 for a four-hit kill out to 44 metres.
    
               The SCAR has a slow rate of fire to balance the higher damage but it
               fires a little faster than it did in BF3 and manages a damage-rate
               equivalent to a 5.56mm assault rifle (F2000) firing at 850 RPM.
    
               It has a very high vertical recoil (plus slower recoil recovery) but
               even after the Spring Patch the first-shot recoil multiplier and
               horizontal recoil are fairly low and it's very effective at mid range
               when fired in controlled bursts. The muzzle velocity is slower than
               most assault rifles though so it's slightly harder to engage moving
               targets at range.
    
               It has a smaller magazine size than the 5.56mm assault rifles but the
               reload times are excellent - under two seconds for the short reload.
    
               If you're a fan of the SCAR you might also want to use the SCAR-H SV
               (Sniper Variant) which is the final unlock in the DMR category. It
               does more damage, has a longer damage drop-off, 75% less ADS spread
               and the same magazine capacity and reload times, although with the
               semi-auto action its rate of fire is less than half the SCAR-H's.
    
               If you like the 7.62mm damage model of the SCAR-H you should consider
               the Ace 52 CQB carbine which does the same max damage with a higher
               rate of fire (650 RPM), larger magazine (25+1) and better accuracy in
               hipfire and when moving. However the SCAR-H has superior stationary
               aimed accuracy and does more damage at longer ranges.
    
      Patched: The muzzle velocity with a suppressor attached was increased a little
               in the 4 March 2014 patch.
    
               In the Fall Patch all assault rifles and carbines had their maximum
               damage reduced by 1. In addition to this the 7.62mm guns - the SCAR,
               Bulldog and Ace 52 - also had their minimum damage reduced by 1 and
               their damage drop-off end distance increased by 5 metres.
    
               In the Spring Patch the minimum damage for the SCAR-H and Bulldog
               were further reduced from 24 to 21.6 (still a five-hit kill). Also
               the SCAR's muzzle velocity got a good buff and its spread increase
               was also improved, however it also saw increases to its horizontal
               recoil and first-shot recoil multiplier.
    
               The SCAR received a bigger nerf to its spread recovery compared to
               the other slow-firing assault rifles thanks to its higher damage
               model (but the Bulldog got nerfed harder as it fires faster).
    
       Trivia: The Special Operations Forces (SOF) Combat Assault Rifle or SCAR for
               short was designed by Belgian firm Fabrique Nationale d'Herstal ("FN"
               for short) to meet the requirements of US special forces. The first
               models entered service around 2005.
    
               There are two basic versions: the SCAR-L assault rifle which is the
               "Light" 5.56mm model (also known as the Mk 16 Mod 0) and the SCAR-H
               battle rifle which is the "Heavy" 7.62mm version (also known as the
               Mk 17 Mod 0); the SCAR-H can be distinguished by its magazine which
               is wider (for the larger round), shorter and straight. Both weapons
               are available with barrel lengths from 10" to 20".
    
               See the SCAR-H on FPSRussia: http://youtu.be/jOvJUdJlkNk (semi)
                                            http://youtu.be/atntd0XlQxg (auto)
    o M416
    
         Ammo: 5.56x45mm   Capacity: 30+1   Fire-rate: 750 RPM   Reload: 1.85 secs
    
      Unlocks: score 11,000 pts with assault rifles
    
      Summary: Always overshadowed in BF3 by the M16A3, the M416 now has its chance
               to shine in the sequel. It gives you a considerable increase in fire-
               rate compared to the previous three guns although you will unlock
               several much faster weapons further down the line (or through DLC).
    
               It also has very fast reload times and fairly small horizontal recoil
               (with the M16's usual pull to the right).
    
               The average fire-rate and vertical recoil figures serve to make the
               M416 a versatile choice that's handy at both short and medium ranges
               although the Ace 23 (see below) is favoured in competitive play.
    
      Patched: In the Spring Patch the right recoil was reduced by 0.02 and the left
               recoil was increased by 0.02 so the right pull was reduced somewhat.
    
       Trivia: The M416 is produced by renowned German firearms manufacturer Heckler
               und Koch (hereafter "H&K"). It is correctly known as the HK416.*
    
               The HK416 was designed as an improved version of the M4 carbine (see
               below) but Colt took issue with the use of their copyrighted name so
               instead it was labelled as HK416 (from the M4 and M16). The major
               design difference compared to the M4 is the incorporation of the gas
               piston system from H&K's G36 assault rifle. It also has a quad set of
               rails and various barrel options (from 10.4" up to 20").
    
               The HK416 is currently the service rifle of the Norwegian army but is
               probably best known now as the gun that killed Osama bin Laden.
    
               Its big brother is the HK417, a 7.62mm battle rifle which previously
               appeared as a semi-auto sniper in BF3's Close Quarters expansion.
    
               An ultra-compact derivative with a 9" barrel and telescopic stock was
               developed for UK special forces. This HK416C version appears in Medal
               of Honor: Warfighter where it's available to the Demolition class.
    
               *It seems that DICE couldn't get the licence to use the correct names
               for most of the firearms designed by H&K or Magpul/Bushmaster...?
    
               Presumably Ubisoft had similar issues with this gun since it's called
               the "P416" in Far Cry 3 and 4.
    
    o SAR21
    
         Ammo: 5.56x45mm   Capacity: 30+1   Fire-rate: 600 RPM   Reload: 2.30 secs
    
      Unlocks: score 19,000 pts with assault rifles
    
      Summary: The SAR has the slowest rate of fire in this category - even slower
               than the SCAR-H - but it makes up for this by having exceptionally
               low recoil. The vertical recoil is less than half that of the FAMAS
               and the horizontal recoil and recoil multiplier are both good too.
               Overall it's very effective when engaging at longer ranges.
    
      Patched: The standard bullpup modifiers were finally applied to the SAR21 in
               the Fall Patch - the stationary aimed accuracy was reduced and the 
               hipfire/moving accuracy were improved. This doesn't really suit the
               weapon's role but it shouldn't affect it too much.
    
               To make up for the aimed accuracy nerf the vertical and horizontal
               recoil were reduced in the same patch and are now very low. The gun
               also still has relatively fast reloads for a bullpup design.
    
               The horizontal recoil was reduced again in the Spring Patch. (The
               AN94 was added in the same patch and has even lower muzzle drift but
               it also has much higher vertical recoil.)
    
       Trivia: The SAR21 (or "Singapore Assault Rifle - 21st Century") entered
               production in the late 90's and is made by ST Kinetics of Singapore
               where it is the current service rifle of the armed forces.
    
               Like so many bullpup weapons, the design bears some resemblance to
               the original AUG, in this case even including the narrow 1.5x scope
               built into the sloping carrying handle, but with a full handguard at
               the front instead of a foregrip. It also includes an integral laser
               sight with a thumb-switch on the handguard although I'm afraid you'll
               still need to unlock this attachment before you can use it in BF4!
    
               The current model, as featured in the game, has a scope rail and full
               set of attachment rails on the handguard.
    
    o AEK971
    
         Ammo: 5.45x39mm   Capacity: 30+1   Fire-rate: 900 RPM   Reload: 2.30 secs
    
      Unlocks: score 28,000 pts with assault rifles
    
      Summary: The Russian AEK retains its high rate of fire from BF3 and now has a
               faster short reload too making it very capable in close-quarters
               combat, although the FAMAS beats it on both fire-rate and hipfire
               accuracy and (for a non-bullpup design) the AEK has a very slow
               reload when the gun is empty.
    
               In BF3 the assault rifles with higher rates of fire (i.e. the F2000,
               AEK971 and FAMAS) had inferior aimed accuracy but currently in BF4
               all assault rifles have the same accuracy with the exception of the
               bullpups (e.g. FAMAS, AUG, L85, etc) which have a slight penalty.
    
               As you'd expect for a weapon firing at 900 RPM the AEK experiences a
               lot of recoil; this is especially true after the Spring Patch which
               strived to limit weapons to their primary roles. Previously the AEK
               was a very popular choice as it excelled in close quarters yet was
               still viable when bursting at longer ranges. With the recoil nerfs
               and reduction to spread recovery in the patch it will now be less
               effective at medium range.
    
      Patched: The left, right and up recoil were all increased substantially in the
               Spring Patch and the vertical is now the worst in the category.
    
               In the same update, following CTE testing in January 2015, the first-
               shot recoil multiplier was decreased from x3.0 to x2.55, however it's
               still the highest of all the assault rifles (just above the FAMAS).
    
       Trivia: The AEK is based on the classic Kalashnikov pattern (but with a novel
               counterweight to reduce recoil) and was designed during the 1980's as
               a potential AK replacement. However - despite being lighter, cheaper,
               less complicated and more accurate in sustained fire - it lost out to
               the AN94 (see above) in the military trials.
    
               There are also AEK972 and AEK973 variants which are chambered for the
               NATO 5.56mm and Soviet 7.62mm calibres respectively. The AEK919K is a
               compact 9x18mm submachinegun and the AEK999 is a 7.62mm machinegun.
    
               An updated version of the 5.45mm AEK971 designated the A545 passed
               more recent Russian trials in late 2014. It has superior iron sights
               and standard western Picatinny rails for accessories. There is also a
               7.62mm Soviet version known as the A762.
    
    o FAMAS
    
         Ammo: 5.56x45mm   Capacity: 25+1   Fire-rate: 1,000 RPM   Reload: 2.80 secs
    
      Unlocks: score 37,000 pts with assault rifles
    
      Summary: At 1,000 RPM the FAMAS ties with the CZ3A1 in the Engineer kit's PDW
               category for having the highest rate of fire in the game. Naturally
               this comes at a price and the weapon has high vertical recoil and
               first-shot recoil multiplier plus some very wide horizontal recoil
               which can cause significant muzzle drift when firing a longer burst.
    
               Compared to the other 5.56mm assault rifles it also has a smaller
               magazine capacity (modelled on the original FAMAS F1 design) and some
               very slow reload times (a whole second longer than the M16) so you
               might prefer an assault rifle that fires slightly slower but has more
               balanced stats like the Ace/M416.
    
               Like the QBZ (see above) it has reduced spread (improved accuracy)
               when moving or in hipfire but slightly less accuracy in aimed fire.
    
               If you embrace the FAMAS as a strictly close-quarters weapon you can
               equip either the muzzle brake (to reduce the vertical recoil) or the
               compensator (to reduce the horizontal recoil) because the accuracy
               penalty won't be an issue at short ranges. It would also make sense
               to use a foregrip, a red-dot sight and a laser attachment if you're
               shooting from the hip.
    
               The iron sights on several firearms in the game use an aperture rear
               sight where the user looks through a small hole. On the FAMAS this is
               particularly effective at obscuring your view around your point of
               aim so you'll want to slap some optics on it asap.
    
      Patched: The developers have experimented with reducing the rates of fire on
               any guns firing at over 900 RPM (i.e. the FAMAS, MP7 and CZ3A1). This
               included remodelling the FAMAS with a 900 RPM fire-rate, 30+1 ammo
               capacity and reduced recoil, however this change was not adopted and
               currently the FAMAS retains its 1,000 RPM rate, smaller mags, etc.
    
               The long reload time was increased from 3.55 to 3.70 seconds in the
               Spring Patch of May 2015. That's pretty slow but the L85A2 and F2000
               are still worse.
    
       Trivia: The FAMAS was designed by MAS (Manufacture d'Armes de Saint-Étienne)
               in France - the literal meaning of its name is "MAS assault rifle".
               Designed during the late 60's and early 70's, the gun finally entered
               service with the French armed forces in 1979.
    
               The version that appears in BF3 and BF4 has the large carrying handle
               replaced by a raised scope rail (like that on the G36C) and therefore
               resembles the model intended for the French military's 21st-century
               FELIN project where the FAMAS is fitted with a large infra-red scope
               topped with an EOTech holo sight and a foregrip with control buttons.
               The system can route the scope image to a helmet-mounted display (so
               the user can fire from behind cover) or broadcast a live video feed.
    
    o AUG A3
    
         Ammo: 5.56x45mm   Capacity: 30+1   Fire-rate: 700 RPM   Reload: 2.50 secs
    
      Unlocks: score 48,000 pts with assault rifles
    
      Summary: The AUG is quite similar in appearance to the SAR and they have some
               similar stats too, especially since the bullpup modifiers were added
               to the SAR. The key differences are that the AUG has a higher rate of
               fire and more recoil. It still has greater stability than most of the
               other assault rifles, but the DLC-only AR160 is a better choice.
    
               The AUG had the highest muzzle velocity in BF3 and it held the same
               title in BF4 until it was deposed by the U100 LMG in the Spring Patch
               changes however it still has a very high velocity so you'll need to
               lead less on moving targets.
    
      Patched: The AUG A3 got a buff in the Fall Patch, with reductions to the gun's
               vertical recoil, horizontal recoil and first-shot recoil multiplier.
    
               Further reductions to the horizontal recoil and recoil multiplier 
               were applied in the Spring Patch, although the AR160 (which has the
               same 700 RPM fire-rate) has lower recoil overall.
    
       Trivia: Despite its futuristic appearance, the AUG was designed (by Steyr of
               Austria) back in the 70's. It has a modular design allowing the user
               to switch quickly between different configurations, hence the German
               name which translates as "army universal rifle".*
    
               See the AUG on TAC-TV: https://youtu.be/y2Vv9b359Vk
    
               The original version had a narrow 1.5x scope built into the carrying
               handle but the A3 variant has a Picatinny rail instead, allowing it
               to take various sight/scope attachments as necessary.
    
               The AUG was adopted by the Austrian army in 1977; the StG77 name used
               in BFBC2 is their designation for the weapon (Sturmgewehr 77).
    
               The Australian military uses the F88 which is a copy of the AUG made
               under licence. An updated version known as the EF88 (enhanced F88)
               has now been redesignated as the F90 and is currently (summer 2015)
               undergoing field-testing ahead of production.
    
               *The AUG appears in Payday 2 as the "UAR" (Universal Army Rifle).
    
    o M16A4
    
         Ammo: 5.56x45mm   Capacity: 30+1   Fire-rate: 800 RPM   Reload: 1.80 secs
    
      Unlocks: score 59,000 pts with assault rifles
    
      Summary: The M16A4 is unique among the assault rifles in having a burst fire
               mode instead of a full auto option. It doesn't have the higher aimed
               accuracy it enjoyed in BF3 but it does boast the fastest reload of
               any primary weapon in the whole game and fairly average horizontal
               recoil (with the M16's usual pull to the right).
    
               You can achieve that relatively high fire-rate on successive bursts
               but in practice at anything beyond very short ranges you'll probably
               want to tap slightly slower to allow time for your aim to recover
               from the recoil of each burst. At least in burst fire mode the first-
               shot recoil multiplier is applied to the final shot of each burst so
               you stand a better chance of landing your second and third shots.
    
      Patched: The vertical recoil stats of the M16A4 assault rifle and M4 carbine
               were reduced by 17.5% in the 25 March 2014 update to make them more
               effective in the mid/long-range role.
    
               The M16 also got an overall reduction to recoil in the Fall Patch.
    
               As with the M416, the right pull was reduced in the Spring Patch.
    
       Trivia: The M16 assault rifle is the military version of the semi-automatic
               ArmaLite AR15, designed by the fantastically named Eugene Stoner. It
               was adopted as the service rifle of US forces in the 60's, replacing
               the M14 during the Vietnam War.
    
               The M16A1 was designed to address numerous issues experienced in the
               field, this model and the original M16 both having semi-auto and full
               auto fire modes. The M16A2 model, now with semi-auto and burst modes,
               was introduced to the US services during the 80's. The M16A3 was a
               variant of the 80's era A2 with the full auto option of the 60's A1,
               but (in contrast to its prominence in BF3!) it is not widely used.
    
               The A4 variant retains the burst fire mode of the M16A2. The standard
               Picatinny rail on top means that the carrying handle can be removed
               easily and replaced by a scope. The version in the game has the full
               Rail Interface System in place of the standard handguard giving the
               potential to easily fit various other attachments around the barrel.
    
               The M16A4 is the standard rifle of the United States Marine Corps so
               it's a more authentic choice for inclusion in BF4, although the USMC
               appears to be planning a transition to the M4 in the near future.
    
    o CZ805
    
         Ammo: 5.56x45mm   Capacity: 30+1   Fire-rate: 700 RPM   Reload: 2.65 secs
    
      Unlocks: score 71,000 pts with assault rifles
    
      Summary: This weapon is fairly unremarkable, except for its low horizontal
               recoil. Otherwise the AUG and Naval Strike's AR160 offer better
               reload times and vertical recoil with the same rate of fire.
    
               The CZ805 has always had imbalanced horizontal recoil with a distinct
               muzzle drift to the right in sustained automatic fire. Even after two
               patches reduced it the rifle still has a pull to the right.
    
               Like the real-life gun it has a burst fire mode in addition to the
               semi-auto and full auto options although in the game this is a three-
               round burst rather than an authentic two-round burst.
    
      Patched: In the Fall Patch the CZ805 got a reduction in right recoil and an
               increase to its muzzle velocity.
    
               In the Spring Patch a decrease in right recoil and increase in left
               recoil served to further reduce the right pull. There was also quite
               a large increase to the reload times which are now worse than even
               some of the bullpup assault rifles.
    
       Trivia: The CZ805 Bren is made by Ceska Zbrojovka a.s. of the Czech Republic
               and entered use as the service rifle of the Czech military in 2011.
    
               Like many modern assault rifles, the CZ805 is designed to be modular
               so it can be adapted to use different calibres and barrel lengths for
               other roles such as marksman rifle and squad automatic weapon.
    
               The design also includes a folding stock, translucent magazines,
               ambidextrous controls and a full set of scope/accessory rails. The
               accessory range includes an interchangeable housing to allow the use
               of standard M16/M4 mags, a combined foregrip/bipod and the CZ805 G1
               40mm grenade-launcher which resembles the old American M203 launcher.
    
               The barrel length suggests that the version in the game is based on
               the full-sized A1 model rather than the shorter A2 carbine.
    
               A "pistol" model called the CZ805 PS1 became available to American
               civilian markets in summer 2015. This is a semi-auto variant with an
               11" barrel and no buttstock, although there are plans to release an
               SBR (short-barreled rifle) conversion kit in the future.
    
               See the PS1 on Military Arms Channel: https://youtu.be/iASk_D0aTlA
    
    o Ace 23
    
         Ammo: 5.56x45mm   Capacity: 35+1   Fire-rate: 770 RPM   Reload: 2.30 secs
    
      Unlocks: complete 'Assault Expert' assignment (multiplayer)
    
               First complete 'Assault Basic' to unlock 'Assault Veteran'.
    
               o Multiplayer Rank 10 required
               o Get 7 kills with assault rifles
               o Get 11 heals with first aid pack / medic bag
    
               Next complete 'Assault Veteran' to unlock 'Assault Expert'.
    
               o Assault Basic required
               o Get 8 kills with assault rifles
               o Get 12 heals
    
               Finally complete 'Assault Expert'.
    
               o Assault Veteran required
               o Get 50 Medkit Ribbons (get 8 heals in a match for each ribbon)
               o Get 200 kills with assault rifles
               o Get 10 Assault Rifle Ribbons (get 6 assault rifle kills for each)
    
               So just keep using assault rifles and medic gear until you unlock it;
               naturally this will be easier on smaller infantry-focused maps/modes.
    
               You can hold R2 to charge your defibs to give a full revive (with 100
               health) but if you do a quick revive without charging your revived
               team-mate will only have 20 health so this is a great opportunity to
               drop a medic bag and farm a few heals off him!*
    
               The MEDKIT UPGRADE spec in the Combat Medic field upgrade path allows
               you to have two first aid packs or medic bags deployed at once.
    
               *Once you've unlocked the Ace be a bro - always give the hundred!
    
      Summary: Just a few weeks after launch the Ace 23 had already emerged as a
               clear favourite in competitive infantry matches (with the AEK coming
               second for its superior close-quarters potential).
    
               The strength of the Ace has been its versatility - with stats that
               make it effective at a range of distances. It still delivers this
               performance and since the Spring Patch it has larger magazines too!
               However it also got more recoil and slightly longer reloads that
               impair its performance somewhat.
    
               You might also want to consider the M416. If you can accept a 20 RPM
               drop in the rate of fire (and the standard 30-round magazines) you'll
               benefit from very fast reload times and much reduced recoil.
    
      Patched: Previously the Ace 23 had the same 30-round magazine capacity as most
               of the other 5.56mm assault rifles but in the Spring Patch it was
               expanded to 35. This now matches its little brother (the Ace 21 CQB
               in the carbine category) and is authentic to the real-life weapons.
    
               In return for the mag size buff its reload times, horizontal recoil
               and first-shot recoil multiplier were all nerfed in the same patch.
    
       Trivia: The Ace series of rifles is a product of the collaboration between
               Indumil of Columbia and Israel Weapon Industries (formerly Israel
               Military Industries or IMI). It takes the IMI Galil assault rifle
               design from the 70's and updates it with modern composite materials,
               accessory rails, collapsible stock, ergonomic pistol-grip, etc.
    
               See the Ace on Military Arms Channel: https://youtu.be/xjaCI3eoVxI
    
               There are eight basic versions in different calibres and with various
               barrel lengths (indicated by the model number) and a grand total of
               four of these appear in BF4. ("Four Aces" - heh!)
    
               o (5.56mm NATO) 8.5" Ace 21 / 13" Ace 22 / 16" Ace 23
     
               o (7.62mm WP) 8.5" Ace 31 / 16" Ace 32
    
               o (7.62mm NATO) 16" Ace 52 / 18" Ace 52 L / 20" Ace 53
    
               The Ace 23 in the game is the full-length 5.56mm assault rifle.
    
    o L85A2
    
         Ammo: 5.56x45mm   Capacity: 30+1   Fire-rate: 750 RPM   Reload: 2.55 secs
    
      Unlocks: complete 'Open Fire' assignment (multiplayer)
    
               o China Rising DLC required*
               o Get 3 Assault Rifle Ribbons (get 6 assault rifle kills for each)
               o Achieve the following in the same match:
                 - Get 1 kill with a pistol
                 - Get 1 kill with a 40mm grenade launcher (Assault gadget)
                 - Get 1 kill with the defibrillator (Assault gadget)
    
               I think you need to get the three ribbons before you try to get the
               three specified kills in a single match, but you're free to win the
               ribbons in previous rounds.
    
               The M320 (HE) grenade-launcher is unlocked by default but you'll need
               to earn 8,000 pts with the Assault kit in order to unlock the defibs.
               You will need to hold the button in order to charge the defibrillator
               before using it on an enemy. It's also worth noting that the defibs
               now have an "ammo count" - you can only use them three times in quick
               succession (but they only take a couple of seconds to "resupply").
    
               Overall this is an easier journey than the 'Professional Russian'
               assignment that unlocked the L85A2 in BF3 where infamously one of the
               three requirements was to win five rounds of Squad Deathmatch. :6
    
               *The five new guns from the China Rising expansion were accidentally
               added on the PC platform about three weeks early as part of a patch
               but formally they come as part of the DLC.
    
      Summary: I was pleased to see the British L85 return in BF4 and it's had a
               boost to its close-quarters potential with the rate of fire increased
               from 650 RPM in BF3 to 750 RPM in BF4 putting it on a par with the
               M416 and Ace 23.
    
               Naturally this new L85 was unable to retain its previously minimal
               recoil so this is now higher in BF4 although it has a very small
               first-shot recoil multiplier which makes it more manageable in short
               bursts (and you can use attachments to further tame that recoil).
    
               The usual bullpup modifiers are applied so the L85 has reduced spread
               in hipfire and while moving but less accuracy in stationary ADS fire
               and slow reloads. The long reload is a particularly painful 3.75 secs
               so try to avoid dumping the whole mag before you reload.
    
      Patched: Although it wasn't mentioned in the official patch notes, the rate of
               fire was cut from 800 RPM to 750 RPM on 4 March 2014. This limits its
               capability in close quarters but does at least make it a little more
               controllable on mid-range bursts.
    
               Since its introduction to the game the L85 had an unusually slow
               recoil recovery rate. In the Fall Patch this was finally increased
               from 4 to 18 degrees per second in order to bring it in line with the
               other intermediate-calibre assault rifles.
    
               Also the spread increase per shot (SIPS) was reduced from 0.104 to
               0.098 - this is a change that should've been applied in conjunction
               with the previous fire-rate nerf. (750/7700 = 0.098)
    
               In addition to those fixes it also got a further buff in the Fall
               Patch - the vertical and horizontal recoil were both reduced.
    
               The vertical recoil was reduced again in the Spring Patch and the
               short reload time was reduced but there was also an increase to the
               first-shot recoil multiplier.
    
       Trivia: The L85, commonly known as the SA80 in the UK, is the service rifle
               of the British armed forces. Its development can be traced back to
               the late 40's and the experimental EM2 bullpup design chambered for a
               novel .280 round. This was followed in the 70's by a prototype* using
               the new 4.85mm ammo and it's this design that ultimately evolved into
               the SA80 (forced into adopting the new NATO standard of 5.56mm) which
               entered British service in the mid 80's.
    
               Following the Gulf War both the L85 and L86 Light Support Weapon were
               reported to suffer from poor performance in a desert environment plus
               various mechanical flaws. H&K were contracted to redesign and upgrade
               them in 2000 resulting in the vastly superior L85A2 (and L86A2). Many
               L85's have been retrofitted with a Daniel Defense quad rail system
               replacing the nylon handguard and in BF4 the gun is now modelled with
               this feature (and a Magpul loop fitted to the end of the magazine).
    
               See the L85A2 on FPSRussia: http://youtu.be/6dxm_W3uNYw
    
               H&K reported that the experience they gained during the "mid-life
               improvement programme" of the SA80 later proved very useful in their
               design of the HK416 (see above).
    
               The L85A2 appears in Payday 2's Clover pack as the Queen's Wrath! :)
               Its foregrip attachment resembles the Grip Pod (with integral bipod)
               which is often seen on modern SA80's in British service.
    
               *This L64 rifle appears in Call of Duty: Black Ops as the "Enfield".
    
    o F2000
    
         Ammo: 5.56x45mm   Capacity: 30+1   Fire-rate: 850 RPM   Reload: 2.70 secs
    
      Unlocks: complete 'Express Train' assignment (multiplayer)
    
               o Second Assault DLC required
               o Multiplayer Rank 10 required
               o Get 1 Assault Rifle Ribbon (get 6 assault rifle kills in a match)
               o Achieve the following in the same match:
                 - Get 2 Kill Assist Ribbons (get 5 assists in a match for each)
                 - Get 10 kills inside the Metro station on the Operation Metro map
    
               I completed this in my second match of Conquest Large on Operation
               Metro - with a 64-player server there are plenty of targets available
               and normally the game will be one long static firefight.
    
               When you wound an enemy and a team-mate then kills them you receive a
               Kill Assist bonus equal to the amount of damage you caused. If BF4
               works like BF3 then you need to do at least 10 points of damage so,
               since every primary gun does at least 12.5 minimum damage, you should
               in theory be able to get assists from single shots with any gun even
               if you hit your target's leg (12.5 x 0.93 > 10). However in practice
               I think it's best to use single shots only with DMR's and to go for
               two/three-round bursts when using automatic weapons.
    
               You could experiment with weak loadouts to make assists more likely,
               for example using a shotgun with frag rounds or with the duckbill
               attachment fitted, the CBJ-MS PDW (low damage-rate) or maybe the XM25
               Airburst launcher. However I found a normal assault rifle worked well
               - try to position yourself in cover just behind some team-mates and
               use short accurate bursts at medium range to wound enemy soldiers,
               then leave them for team-mates to finish off.
    
               It will help if you join in with the 'nade spam too - the V40 Mini
               grenades will give a great combination of range, ammo capacity and
               reduced damage. You'll probably still get several (double/triple!)
               grenade kills while you're trying for your assists though!
    
               I think you just need to be anywhere indoors within the Metro station
               complex to get the ten required kills. Certainly you don't need to be
               on the platforms or in the tunnels because the match where I unlocked
               the F2000 was just one long fight over "B" flag (as per usual).
    
      Summary: The Belgian F2000 still has its high fire-rate from BF3 now placing
               it above the M416/Ace/L85 and just below the AEK/FAMAS.
    
               Its vertical recoil is surprisingly low given its rate of fire but it
               does have a high first-shot recoil multiplier and a fair amount of
               horizontal recoil even after the patch - using the angled or folding
               foregrip and the compensator (respectively) would reduce these.
    
               The F2000 has a bullpup design so its hipfire and moving accuracy are
               better than the non-bullpup assault rifles - including its rival, the
               AEK971 - but it also gets a small penalty to stationary aimed spread
               and has very slow reload times.
    
               As in BF2 the F2000 comes with its original 1.6x sight unit although
               this can be substituted with all the usual close/medium-range sights
               once you've unlocked them.
    
      Patched: In the Fall Patch the F2k received a significant reduction to its
               horizontal recoil in exchange for an increase in the vertical recoil.
    
               The muzzle rise was increased again in the Spring Patch but this was
               in conjunction with a reduction to the first-shot recoil multiplier
               so firing in bursts will be more effective.
    
               Also the muzzle velocity when suppressed was increased slightly.
    
       Trivia: The F2000 was designed by FN of Belgium and entered production in
               2001. The design is fully ambidextrous and ejects empty cases via a
               tube above the barrel so it can be operated by right or left-handed
               shooters without any modification.
    
               In BF3 the F2000 was modelled in its "Tactical" configuration with a
               long Picatinny rail on the top but in BF4 we have the standard model
               with its large sight unit fitted under the prominent plastic shroud.
    
               A revision of the Tactical model designated the F2000-S has a raised
               scope rail (similar to that of the G36C carbine) and was adopted as
               the new service rifle of the Slovenian Army in 2006.
    
    o AR160
    
         Ammo: 5.56x45mm   Capacity: 30+1   Fire-rate: 700 RPM   Reload: 2.00 secs
    
      Unlocks: complete 'Spare-time Sniper' assignment (multiplayer)
    
               o Naval Strike DLC required
               o Multiplayer Rank 10 required
               o Get 3 Assault Rifle Ribbons (get 6 AR kills in a match for each)
               o Get 20 headshots with assault rifles
    
               The assault rifles are effective and versatile weapons so you should
               complete those requirements pretty quickly, especially if you play on
               smaller game modes like Domination where you'll see more action.
    
               Despite the assignment's name, you don't need to run your assault
               rifle of choice as a DMR to get those headshots. Just aim for the
               centre of your target's torso and fire a sustained burst, allowing
               the weapon's vertical recoil to guide your aim up into a headshot.
    
      Summary: The AR160 is towards the average/low end of the fire-rate spectrum
               which puts it up against the CZ805 and AUG A3. In its favour it has
               a very low first-shot recoil multiplier, low vertical recoil, a very
               quick short reload and excellent muzzle velocity. Its one weakness is
               the horizontal recoil which is relatively high for a slowish gun.
    
               The iron sights aren't so great either - the aperture rear sight will
               block your view around the point of aim and the small front sight can
               be hard to see against a dark background.
    
      Patched: Previously the AR160 had very high recoil which seemed to have been
               copy-and-pasted rather unfairly from the 7.62mm SCAR-H battle rifle.
               This was rectified in the Fall Patch with a massive 54% reduction to
               its vertical recoil! The recoil recovery rate and spread increase per
               shot were also corrected in the same patch.
    
               The long reload time was reduced in the Spring Patch but it's still a
               whole second longer than the short "tactical" reload.
    
       Trivia: BF4's AR160 is modelled on the Beretta ARX160. Designed to supersede
               their own AR70/90 platform as the service rifle of the Italian armed
               forces, Beretta launched the ARX160 in 2008 (alongside their GLX160
               40mm grenade-launcher which can be used underslung or independently).
               The ARX100 is a semi-automatic version for civilian markets.
    
               See the ARX100 on Miculek.com: https://youtu.be/1bLWo9Q3JqM
    
               The design includes several features typical of a modern assault
               rifle such as a polymer frame, fully ambidextrous options (including
               ejection), accessory rails and an adjustable folding shoulder-stock.
    
               The ARX160 has also appeared in CoD: Ghosts, CoD: Advanced Warfare,
               Hitman: Absolution and Splinter Cell: Blacklist.
    
               In March 2015 Beretta announced the 7.62x51mm ARX200 intended for use
               by the Italian military and then in mid-September two models were
               displayed at DSEI 2015 in London - a battle rifle with an extendable
               folding stock and a DMR with a fixed stock. While not based directly
               on the ARX160 platform, the two designs do share some components.
    
    o Bulldog
    
         Ammo: 7.62x51mm   Capacity: 20+1   Fire-rate: 700 RPM   Reload: 2.50 secs
    
      Unlocks: complete 'Lions and Tigers and Bears' assignment* (multiplayer)
    
               o Dragon's Teeth DLC required
               o Multiplayer Rank 10 required
               o Play on any Dragon's Teeth map to activate assignment**
               o Kill 10 Support players while using the Assault kit
               o Kill 10 Engineer players while using the Assault kit
               o Kill 10 Recon players while using the Assault kit
    
               The requirements here are pretty straightforward but the Battlelog
               text does specify that both you and your targets must be on foot so
               vehicle kills won't count.
    
               You might find a few Engineers in infantry modes - using the PDW's in
               close quarters and probably sniping infantry with their SMAW's - but
               otherwise you stand a better chance of finding them on Conquest maps.
    
               *"Lions and tigers and bears - oh my!" is a repeated line in the 1939
               movie The Wizard of Oz (shortly before meeting the Cowardly Lion).
    
               **This new requirement was obviously added just to prevent players
               from unlocking the new guns before they have access to the new maps.
    
      Summary: The Dragon's Teeth DLC added a second battle rifle to the assault
               rifle category with the Bulldog firing the same 7.62mm calibre as the
               SCAR-H and delivering the same heavier damage profile. However the
               Bulldog's 700 RPM rate of fire is substantially higher and roughly
               equivalent to a 5.56mm assault rifle firing at 950 RPM.
    
               The Bulldog has the same 20-round magazine capacity as the SCAR-H but
               thanks to the bullpup modifiers it has slower reloads in addition to
               its tighter moving/hipfire spread and reduced aimed accuracy. That
               higher rate of fire also comes with over 60% more horizontal recoil
               than the SCAR.
    
               Overall the Bulldog is a very effective weapon but the SCAR-H remains
               a good choice for longer ranges thanks to its lower sideways recoil,
               superior stationary aimed accuracy, faster muzzle velocity and more
               controllable fire-rate.
    
      Patched: In the Fall Patch all assault rifles and carbines had their maximum
               damage reduced by 1. In addition to this the 7.62mm guns - the SCAR,
               Bulldog and Ace 52 - also had their minimum damage reduced by 1 and
               their damage drop-off end distance increased by 5 metres.
    
               Additionally the Bulldog's vertical recoil was reduced to 0.5 (in
               line with the SCAR-H) but its horizontal recoil and first-shot recoil
               multiplier were increased. There was also a small reduction to its
               spread increase per shot (SIPS).
    
               The min damage was nerfed again in the Spring Patch of May 2015, this
               time dropping to 21.6 (but still giving a five-hit kill). Also the
               horizontal recoil was reduced slightly, the recoil recovery was
               brought in line with the SCAR's and the SIPS was buffed (and is now
               better than it was before the Fall Patch nerf).
    
       Trivia: The SRSS (Short Rifles Stock System) Bulldog 762 is essentially the
               action from an M14 (US service rifle 1959-1970) retrofitted into an
               anodized bullpup chassis with accessory rails and an M16 pistol-grip.
    
               Designed by former US Marine and later US Army armourer and marksman
               instructor, Rich Cabral, the Bulldog 762 was conceived to combine the
               accuracy and power of the M14's longer barrel and 7.62mm load with
               the convenience of reduced overall length. It's over a foot shorter
               than the M14 and comparable to the modern M4 carbine in length.
    
               The models listed on the official website are built around semi-auto
               variants of the M14 (the civilian M1A and the M21 sniper rifle) but a
               Bulldog version with the military M14's fully automatic fire-mode is
               also possible.
    
    .-------------.----------------------------------------------------------------.
    | Section 03b | Personal Defence Weapons                                  s03b |
    '-------------'----------------------------------------------------------------'
    
    The PDW's can only be equipped when using the Engineer class.
    
    (This is a major change for BF4. In BF3 it was the carbines that were locked to
    the Engineer class and the PDW's were all-kit weapons, now in the sequel it's
    the PDW's that can only be used as Engineer and the carbines go with any class.
    I guess the rationale is that PDW's are designed for use by vehicle crews and
    are suited to short-range defence when operating around vehicles. This follows
    the example of BF2 where the Anti-Tank kit had submachineguns.)
    
    The personal defence weapon (PDW) is a relatively modern concept, originating in
    the late 80's. They were designed to provide a compact automatic weapon that
    could defeat modern body armour. Most PDW's achieve this aim by combining a high
    rate of fire with new custom-designed cartridges which are effectively miniature
    rifle rounds that give superior ballistic performance to conventional SMG ammo. 
    
    Although originally intended to give defensive capability to vehicle crews, etc,
    PDW's are more commonly used as modern substitutes in offensive roles previously
    fulfilled by submachineguns. The distinction between the two categories can be
    hazy but larger weapons firing pistol calibres such as the UMP45, UMP9, CZ3A1
    and MPX are arguably SMG's, however for simplicity they are included in the PDW
    category in BF4.
    
    Initially only the Mx4 and Groza 4 are available. The P90 can be unlocked in the
    single-player campaign and a further five PDW's can be earned by completing
    assignments (one in the base game and four in DLC). The others are unlocked by
    earning XP using whichever PDW's you have available.
    
    The PDW's use a wide range of different ammunition types:
    
                     |  Max.  |      Damage      |  Min.  |
          Ammunition | Damage |     Drop-Off     | Damage | Weapons
         ============+========+==================+========+====================
             .45 ACP |  30.0  |                  |        | UMP45 only
         ------------+--------|     8m to 50m    |        |--------------------
           5.56x45mm |  24.0  |                  |  15.4  | PDW-R only
         ------------+--------+------------------|        |--------------------
              9x39mm |  27.0  |     5m to 43.67m |        | AS Val and Groza 4
         ------------+--------+------------------+--------+--------------------
             .40 S&W |  24.5  | 13.34m to 50m    |        | MPX only
         ------------+--------+------------------|        |--------------------
              9x21mm |  23.5  | 16.67m to 50m    |  13.5  | SR2 only
         ------------|--------|------------------|        |--------------------
              9x19mm |        |    20m to 50m    |        | everything else
         ------------|  22.5  |------------------|--------|--------------------
            6.5x25mm |        |    20m to 47.34m |  14.3  | CBJ-MS only
         ------------+--------+------------------+--------+--------------------
            5.7x28mm |  21.0  | 10.67m to 47.5m  |        | P90 only
         ------------+--------|------------------|  12.5  |--------------------
            4.6x30mm |  20.0  |    15m to 47.5m  |        | MP7 only
    
    Patched: In the Fall Patch the maximum damage for all PDW's with a pre-patch max
             damage of 25 or higher was reduced by 1 (the P90, JS2 and MP7 escaped
             the nerf by virtue of their low damage stats). The six PDW's that did
             25 max damage pre-patch lost their short-range four-hit kill ability.
    
             In the Spring Patch PDW's saw further changes to their damage profiles.
             Most weapons got their drop-off start distances and minimum damage
             increased and their drop-off end distances and max damage decreased.
             This time it was the MPX and SR2 that lost their potential for a four-
             hit kill with body-shots but overall this rebalancing was a buff, with
             most PDW's now doing slightly more damage than before at most ranges.
    
             Additionally the ammo type for the JS2 was changed from 5.8x21mm to the
             more common 9mm pistol load.
    
    Since it's crucial to consider both the rate of fire and bullet damage of a gun
    I've calculated the theoretical maximum damage-rate (damage per second) for each
    of the PDW's to give a crude indication of their damaging potential.
    
                            Weapon | Fire-Rate | Max. Damage | DPS
                    ===============+===========+=============+=====
                            AS Val |   900 RPM |     27.0    | 405
                             CZ3A1 | 1,000 RPM |     22.5    | 375
                    ---------------+-----------+-------------+-----
                               SR2 |   900 RPM |     23.5    | 352
                               MPX |   850 RPM |     24.5    | 347
                               JS2 |   900 RPM |     22.5    | 337
                    ---------------+-----------+-------------+-----
                               MP7 |   950 RPM |     20.0    | 317
                               P90 |   900 RPM |     21.0    | 315
                           Groza 4 |   700 RPM |     27.0    | 315
                               Mx4 |   830 RPM |     22.5    | 311
                    ---------------+-----------+-------------+-----
                             UMP45 |   600 RPM |     30.0    | 300
                             PDW-R |   750 RPM |     24.0    | 300
                    ---------------+-----------+-------------+-----
                     UMP9 / CBJ-MS |   700 RPM |     22.5    | 262
                            PP2000 |   650 RPM |     22.5    | 243
    
    With some of the faster firing guns sitting in the lower tiers, this highlights
    the importance of considering the bullet damage as well as the fire-rate. For a
    more detailed analysis check out the individual weapon stat pages on Symthic
    which show the BTK (bullets to kill) and TTK (time to kill) at all distances.
                                            __
    
    Their high fire-rates and good hipfire accuracy make these guns very capable in
    close-quarters combat, however you can also empty your magazine/s very quickly.
    The low minimum damage combined with the inferior aimed spread and low muzzle
    velocity make them ineffective at medium and long ranges.
    
    Patched: The ADS moving accuracy stats for all PDW's were improved in the Fall
             Patch. This further enhances the close-quarters capability of these
             guns by allowing more accurate fire while strafing.
    
             In the Spring Patch the maximum spread with aimed fire in all stances
             was buffed for all PDW's (decreased from 1.5 to 1.3). Most PDW's got a
             reduction to spread increase per shot (SIPS) making successive shots in
             a burst more accurate than before.
    
             The PDW's also had their spread decrease per second rebalanced from the
             previously common value of 15. The new values were assigned according
             to the DPS of the guns - the CZ3A1 and AS Val have the highest damage
             rate and got the biggest nerf (7.7) while the guns with the lowest DPS
             actually received a minor buff, i.e. the UMP9 and CBJ-MS (15.7) and of
             course the PP2000 (18.2).
    
    The Mx4, UMP9, UMP45, CZ3A1, AS Val, MPX and Groza 4 have a full range of six
    unlockable foregrips that can be equipped (see Section 04d). The other PDW's are
    either too short or already have a foregrip integrated into their design (and
    therefore they have only three attachment slots instead of four).
    
    o Mx4
    
         Ammo: 9x19mm   Capacity: 30+1   Fire-rate: 830 RPM   Reload: 2.60 secs
    
      Unlocks: available at start
    
      Summary: The first of several guns in this category firing 9mm rounds, the Mx4
               gives 22.5 maximum damage for a five-hit kill out to 28 metres (but
               the damage drops to only 13.5 for an eight-hit kill at long range).
               At launch it gave the second best damage-rate of the nine PDW's in
               the base game (without DLC) but following the Spring Patch it's now
               about average and equivalent to a 750 RPM assault rifle.
    
               For a gun that reloads like a pistol, the Mx4 has a surprisingly slow
               reload time and it's actually one of the slowest in the PDW category.
               Several of its rivals here have larger magazines too.
    
               Its recoil is fairly high - with a distinct pull to the left - and
               the accuracy figures are standard for a non-bullpup PDW.
    
               To give you a helping hand when you're starting out the Mx4 comes
               with the first two attachments - the US red-dot sight and laser sight
               (plus the default ergo grip) - already unlocked and ready to equip.
    
      Patched: Most PDW's saw changes to their damage profiles in the Spring Patch
               of May 2015. For 9mm weapons the max damage was reduced to 22.5, the
               damage drop-off start extended from 8 to 20 metres, the drop-off end
               shortened from 55 to 50 metres and the min damage increased to 13.5.
               This was typical of the PDW rebalances - the starting damage is a
               little lower but it's maintained for longer and the final damage is
               higher (now giving an eight-hit kill) but applied sooner.
    
               Additionally the Mx4's reload times were made slightly longer but the
               horizontal recoil and first-shot recoil multiplier were reduced.
    
               Previously equipping the heavy barrel on the Mx4, P90, UMP45 and UMP9
               would add a longer barrel to the weapon models but this was removed
               in the Summer Patch.
    
       Trivia: The Beretta Mx4 Storm is a full-auto military version of their Cx4
               Storm carbine which launched in 2003. Both weapons are designed to
               use pistol calibres - most commonly 9x19mm but also 9x21mm IMI, .40
               S&W and .45 ACP - and can use magazines from various Beretta pistol
               models in addition to the Mx4's longer 30-round magazine.
    
               The Cx4 has a short Picatinny rail stowed under the barrel which can
               be fitted on the side under the front sight. A long scope rail and
               set of three front accessory rails can also be added as required and
               these are permanently fitted to the Mx4 in BF4.
    
               The full Storm "family" includes the original semi-auto civilian Cx4
               Storm carbine, the .223 Rx4 Storm rifle, the Px4 Storm pistols (in
               various sizes and calibres) and the Tx4 tactical semi-auto shotgun.
    
               The Mx4 has the honour of appearing on the badges for the PDW Basic
               and PDW Veteran assignments in BF4.
    
    o Groza 4
    
         Ammo: 9x39mm   Capacity: 20+1   Fire-rate: 700 RPM   Reload: 2.90 secs
    
      Unlocks: available by default (added in Spring Patch on 26 May 2015)
    
      Summary: As part of the programme to extend the life-cycle of BF4 (after the
               community reaction to Hardline) five new guns were added for free.
               New players now have an alternative to the Mx4 for the Engineer class
               - they can use the Groza 4 PDW (or the Groza 1 carbine of course).
    
               In order to add more variety to the selection of weapons in the game
               three of those new five guns were bullpup designs and this is one of
               them. Consequently it has the usual bullpup modifiers which give it
               better hipfire/moving accuracy but slightly reduced aimed accuracy
               and slower reload times compared to the other PDW's.
    
               The obvious comparison for the Groza 4 is the AS Val (see below) -
               both fire the same ammo type which gives a max damage of 27 for a
               rare four-hit kill in close-quarters (albeit only out to 11 metres
               since the Spring Patch). They also both have 20-round magazines and
               are fitted with permanent suppressors.
    
               The performance of the two guns is quite different though. The Groza
               has one of the slowest fire-rates in this category while the AS Val
               delivers one of the highest. The Groza also has much slower reload
               times, both around a second longer than the Val's. The main strength
               of the Groza is that it has lower recoil, with the first-shot recoil
               multiplier being especially low (x1.25).
    
               Overall the Groza 4 is a mixed bag - its superior moving and hipfire
               spread and permanent suppressor (with reduced muzzle velocity) lean
               towards close-quarters use but the slow fire-rate and combination of
               small mag size and slow reloads are big disadvantages in that role.
    
      Patched: Following testing on the Community Test Environment (CTE) the maximum
               damage was increased from 26 to 27 and the reload times were made
               longer prior to the addition of the gun in the Spring Patch update.
    
               In the Summer Patch the initial vertical velocity was adjusted to
               increase the zero distance from 30 to 35 metres which is consistent
               with other suppressed PDW's.
    
       Trivia: The OTs14 Groza was developed in the early 90's, co-designed by
               Valery Telesh who previously created the GP30 grenade-launcher which
               features in BF4 (specifically when you equip the M320 with a Russian
               or Chinese assault rifle with an underbarrel rail). It then entered
               service with Spetsnaz special forces and airborne troops in 1994.
    
               It is essentially a bullpup variant of the AKS74u - the shortened
               model of the AK74 that was in BF3 and was the precursor of the AKu12
               carbine in BF4. Optimized for close-quarters suppressed use, the
               original OTs14-4 version (the "Groza 4") is chambered for the same
               9x39mm subsonic load as the AS Val, in fact it even uses the same
               magazines as the AS Val and the VSS Vintorez sniper rifle.
    
               The other main variant is the OTs14-1 (the "Groza 1") which uses the
               same 7.62x39mm ammo (and magazines) as the original AK47. The Groza 1
               was also added in the Spring Patch and is available as a carbine.
    
    o P90
    
         Ammo: 5.7x28mm   Capacity: 50+1   Fire-rate: 900 RPM   Reload: 2.90 secs
    
      Unlocks: complete 'Peace Maker' assignment (single-player)
    
               In the final mission (Suez) give the C4 to Hannah and detonate it.
    
      Summary: The P90's 900 RPM rate of fire is impressive but combined with the
               21 max damage it places only halfway up the damage-rate chart.
    
               The 50-round magazine is very handy although the reloads (with the
               bullpup layout and novel top-loading magazine) are very slow.
    
               The recoil was previously quite high - with the worst muzzle drift in
               the PDW category - but this was tamed in the Fall and Spring Patches.
    
               Thanks to its bullpup format the P90 has slightly worse accuracy on
               aimed fire but better spread in hipfire and when moving.
    
      Patched: In addition to the ADS moving accuracy buff, in the Fall Patch the
               P90 also received reduced horizontal recoil, reduced spread increase
               per shot and a reduction to the bullpup penalty to its ADS stationary
               accuracy (from 0.5 to 0.45).
    
               The three PDW's with the lowest bullet damage did not have their max
               damage reduced by 1 in the Fall Patch (like all the other automatic
               weapons in the game). As a result the P90, MP7 and JS2 retained their
               previous rate of damage output and this effectively gave them a buff
               relative to all the other automatic weapons.
    
               Again in the Spring Patch the max damage for the P90 and MP7 was
               untouched (and their DPS was improved relative to their peers). The
               minimum damage for both guns was increased and the damage drop-off
               end distance shortened significantly from 60 to 47.5 metres. Their
               drop-off starts were both extended but the MP7 saw a bigger buff.
    
               (Following the Spring Patch the P90's 10.67-47.5 metres drop-off is
               actually quite similar to the P90 in BF3 where it was 12-46 metres.)
    
               For the P90 both reload times were made longer, with the short reload
               time increased by almost half a second! The vertical and horizontal
               recoil and the first-shot recoil multiplier were all reduced though.
               There were also improvements to hipfire accuracy while moving in all
               stances with the largest buff in the standing stance.
    
               Previously equipping the heavy barrel on the Mx4, P90, UMP45 and UMP9
               would add a longer barrel to the weapon models but this was removed
               in the Summer Patch.
    
       Trivia: The P90 is made by Fabrique Nationale of Belgium and was launched in
               1990, making it an early example of a true PDW with a compact design,
               high rate of fire and custom ammunition. The 5.7x28mm cartridge was
               designed by FN in conjunction with the P90 (and FN Five-seveN pistol)
               to give superior range, accuracy, damage and armour penetration than
               the traditional 9mm pistol round. The 5.7mm round is also lighter and
               narrower which, combined with the novel top-mounted horizontal mag
               design, made it possible to have such a large ammo capacity.
    
               See the P90 on Ultimate Weapons: http://youtu.be/ohGsu4bhb04
    
    o PP2000
    
         Ammo: 9x19mm   Capacity: 44+1   Fire-rate: 650 RPM   Reload: 2.45 secs
    
      Unlocks: score 4,000 pts with PDW's
    
      Summary: The PP2000 fires the same ammo as the Mx4 but it does so much slower
               and it therefore delivers far less damage per second - it has the
               lowest DPS in the PDW category.
    
               At least it's now modelled with the 44-round magazine option (the
               ammo capacity was only 20+1 in BF3) although the reloads are slow.
    
               To balance the poor damage output compared to other PDW's it has the
               lowest vertical recoil, second best first-shot recoil multiplier and
               second fastest muzzle velocity so it'll be more useful for accurate
               aimed bursts at slightly longer ranges.
    
      Patched: In addition to the general changes to maximum damage, aimed moving
               accuracy and suppressed muzzle velocity, the PP2000 also received a
               slight reduction in left and right recoil and an increase to its
               unsuppressed velocity in the Fall Patch.
    
               The new damage model for 9mm personal defence weapons in the Spring
               Patch was even applied to the humble PP which continues to dwell at
               the bottom of the DPS league. However it got some buffs too with good
               improvements to muzzle velocity and horizontal recoil plus a small
               reduction to its reload times.
    
       Trivia: Once dubbed the "angry triangle" by one of my friends in BFBC2 thanks
               to its distinctive angular trigger-guard / foregrip, the PP2000 is a
               Russian weapon that was launched in 2004.
    
               It's designed to use the conventional 9mm Parabellum pistol round but
               also takes the Russian armour-piercing overpressure variants devised
               in the 1980's that are intended to give comparable performance to the
               PDW ammunition used in weapons like the P90 and MP7.
    
               The gun has the option of this larger 44-round magazine. A spare one
               can be attached to the rear of the weapon and used as a stock!
    
    o UMP45
    
         Ammo: .45 ACP   Capacity: 25+1   Fire-rate: 600 RPM   Reload: 1.85 secs
    
      Unlocks: score 11,000 pts with PDW's
    
      Summary: Using the same .45" ACP load as the M1911 and Compact 45 pistols, the
               UMP45 delivers a max damage of 30 for a potential four-hit kill out
               to a range of 22 metres.
    
               It also delivers a high minimum damage of 15.4 (shared with the AS
               Val, PDW-R and Groza 4) which gives a seven-hit kill at long ranges.
    
               The distinctive long straight magazine* only holds 25 of the fatter
               .45" rounds but you can perform a short reload in only 1.85 seconds
               (that's one of the fastest reloads in the whole game).
    
               The vertical recoil is obviously large but the sideways recoil is
               minimal and balanced giving only minor muzzle drift.
    
               *The UMP45 appears in Army of Two: The Devil's Cartel (as the MP-U45)
               where one of the available upgrades is an extended magazine - which
               looks as ridiculous as it sounds. :)
    
      Patched: The UMP45 had its horizontal recoil reduced by 10% in the Fall Patch.
    
               In the Spring Patch the damage drop-off end distance was extended to
               50 metres (now very typical for PDW's) and the maximum damage was
               cut from 33 to 30. The weapon now has the same drop-off distances and
               minimum damage as the post-patch PDW-R but the guns differentiate
               themselves with other stats - the UMP45 gives a four-hit kill but
               only has a 25-round magazine and 600 RPM fire-rate while the PDW-R
               gives a five-hit kill but with a bigger mag and higher rate of fire.
    
               The UMP also got small improvements to vertical recoil, first-shot
               recoil multiplier and muzzle velocity. Like most PDW's there was also
               a buff to the spread increase per shot but the UMP got one of the
               largest reductions among this category in the Spring Patch.
    
               Previously equipping the heavy barrel on the Mx4, P90, UMP45 and UMP9
               would add a longer barrel to the weapon models but this was removed
               in the Summer Patch.
    
       Trivia: The UMP (Universal Machinepistol in either German or English) is the
               successor to H&K's renowned MP5 submachinegun. First manufactured in
               1999, it's also available in 9mm (UMP9) and .40 S&W (UMP40) versions
               with the .40 model sharing the distinctive long straight magazine of
               the UMP45 and the 9mm variant having a curved mag like the MP5. To
               make it easier to handle in automatic fire with the heavy .45 load it
               was necessary to reduce the rate of fire on the UMP45 to 600 RPM.
    
               The high-resolution model in the loadout screen shows the gun with a
               "Navy" trigger group (safe/single/auto) but you also have access to a
               three-round burst mode (even though two-round burst is more usual).
    
               There is a civilian version called the USC (Universal Self-loading
               Carbine) which has a significantly longer barrel, smaller magazine,
               remodelled shoulder-stock and no automatic fire mode.
    
               See the UMP45 on FPSRussia: http://youtu.be/3hSimmdwED4
    
    o CBJ-MS
    
         Ammo: 6.5x25mm   Capacity: 50+1   Fire-rate: 700 RPM   Reload: 2.40 secs
    
      Unlocks: score 19,000 pts with PDW's
    
      Summary: That slow rate of fire gives the exotic CBJ-MS a low damage-rate.
    
               It has the second best minimum damage in the PDW category and can
               achieve a seven-hit kill at range - just! (7 x 14.3 = 100.1)
    
               Its main redeeming feature is that it has the same 50+1 ammunition
               capacity as the P90 but the short reload is half a second faster. It
               also has a slight edge there on muzzle velocity and ADS accuracy.
    
               The UMP9 fires at the same rate and has better recoil overall. It has
               twenty fewer rounds in the mag but much faster reloads.
    
      Patched: At launch the CBJ did 22 max damage so, combined with the low rate of
               fire, it had a terrible damage-rate of 257 (the AS Val did almost
               twice that). In the server-side update on 18 March 2014 the gun got a
               buff to its max/min damage "to better balance its low rate of fire".
               The maximum damage was increased to 25 giving it a damage-rate that
               matches the UMP9 and beats the PP2000.
    
               With its higher damage the CBJ was unable to escape the max damage
               rebalance in the Fall Patch so it was reduced to 24 although it still
               held its position on the DPS chart.
    
               The horizontal recoil was reduced by 40% in the Fall Patch but it was
               still much higher than the UMP9 which has the same rate of fire.
    
               In the Spring Patch the damage profile changes included a reduction
               of the max damage from 24 to 22.5 but since most PDW's got a similar
               change it still compares similarly relative to them. The horizontal
               recoil and first-shot recoil multiplier were both reduced too.
    
               Additionally the game display was fixed so that it no longer shows
               the burst-fire option for the CBJ-MS - the gun lacks this mode.
    
       Trivia: The CBJ-MS (Modular System) was developed by a Swedish company called
               CBJ Tech AB in the early 21st century. Saab Bofors had links to the
               project briefly (when the British armed forces were seeking a PDW)
               but they withdrew leaving the smaller company (and its founder Carl
               Bertil Johansson) to continue alone.
    
               To say that the CBJ-MS is a novel weapon system is a bit of an under-
               statement! The basic form is similar to the Micro Uzi with an overall
               length of around 14" and, although you have plenty of camo options in
               the game, it's usually seen with a basic matt green finish. Typically
               it's pictured with a retractable metal stock and foregrip - as you
               might expect - but also a crude bipod, drum magazine and ACOG scope!
    
               This compact firearm was designed with the intention of competing not
               only against modern PDW's but also assault rifles and LMG's! The key
               to this is the revolutionary new 6.5x25mm CBJ ammunition which has a
               4mm tungsten projectile packed in a plastic sabot. Despite having the
               outer dimensions of a normal 9mm pistol/SMG round, it's claimed that
               this new round achieves muzzle velocities of over 800 m/s, with an
               effective range of 400 metres and the ability to defeat body armour
               and the skins of light armoured vehicles!
    
               The magazine well is located inside the pistol-grip (as on the Uzi)
               and takes 20 and 30-round magazines (with the option of stashing a
               spare inside the hollow foregrip) but there's also a drum mag option
               that holds 100. The CBJ MS can be converted to use 9mm ammo by simply
               swapping the barrel; similarly most pistols, PDW's and carbines in
               9mm can be modified easily to use the innovative 6.5mm CBJ load.
    
    o PDW-R
    
         Ammo: 5.56x45mm   Capacity: 30+1   Fire-rate: 750 RPM   Reload: 2.50 secs
    
      Unlocks: score 28,000 pts with PDW's
    
      Summary: The PDW-R is unusual in that it fires a conventional rifle calibre -
               the same 5.56mm NATO round used by many of the assault rifles; it
               didn't receive the same increase in the Spring Patch though so its
               max damage remains 24 (rather than 24.5). It also ties with several
               PDW's for having the highest minimum damage.
    
               It now has a 30-round magazine (previously 20 in BF3) but the reload
               time is unremarkable, similar to several other guns in this category.
    
               The recoil is quite good but with a pull to the right. It's slightly
               less accurate in ADS fire than most of the PDW's but it makes up for
               this with better hipfire and moving accuracy.
    
               Compared to the P90 it has a smaller magazine and similar damage-rate
               but superior recoil.
    
      Patched: As part of the rebalance for PDW bullpup modifiers the PDW-R and P90
               had their aimed stationary accuracy increased in the Fall Patch (the
               bullpup penalty was effectively halved).
    
               With its rifle calibre load the PDW-R was the only PDW to not get any
               changes to its damage profile in the Spring Patch, however it still
               got over thirty tweaks to various stats.
    
               Aside from fairly generic rebalances to its maximum aimed spread,
               spread increase per shot and spread recovery, the PDW-R also got a
               reduction to moving hipfire spread and the pull to the right was
               reduced somewhat.
    
       Trivia: The Personal Defense Rifle (PDR) was a prototype designed by Magpul
               in the US. It was showcased in 2008 but never entered production.
    
               The core concept was to create a compact firearm with an effective
               range greater than that of a pistol. The design had the advantages of
               being able to use standard NATO ammunition/magazines and having an
               ambidextrous mag release and charging handle.
    
    o CZ3A1
    
         Ammo: 9x19mm   Capacity: 30+1   Fire-rate: 1,000 RPM   Reload: 1.90 secs
    
      Unlocks: score 37,000 pts with PDW's
    
      Summary: That rapid rate of fire serves to give the CZ3A1 the highest damage
               output of all the PDW's in the base game but it also has the biggest
               vertical recoil, heavy horizontal recoil (with a strong pull to the
               right) and the highest first-shot recoil multiplier (x3.0). The DLC-
               only AS Val beats it on damage-rate but comes with smaller mags.
    
               Most of the PDW's have a short reload time of around 2.5 seconds so
               the CZ3A1 has an advantage there with one of the quickest reloads in
               the whole game.
    
               In early builds of BF4 it had 20-round mags (a non-standard option
               from the manufacturer) but now it has the standard 30-round mags.
    
      Patched: New stats were tested in the CTE giving the CZ3A1 a reduced fire-rate
               and less recoil but these changes were not implemented.
    
               However some specific changes were made to the CZ3A1 in the Spring
               Patch: the right-hand horizontal recoil was increased, the first-shot
               recoil multiplier was reduced and the long reload time (when the gun
               is empty) got a major nerf from 2.4 to 3.0 seconds so try to keep at
               least one round in the weapon and take advantage of the short reload.
    
       Trivia: The CZ Scorpion Evo 3 A1 is a modern SMG made by Ceska Zbrojovka of
               the Czech Republic, the same firm that makes the CZ805 assault rifle
               (see above) and CZ75 pistol (see below). It launched around 2009,
               followed in 2011 by the CZ3S1 semi-auto civilian "pistol" model.
    
               I think it looks like a baby G36C which is kinda cute! :) It also has
               a slimline modern shoulder-stock and a full set of accessory rails so
               you can easily fit optics, foregrip, taclight, etc. Like the CZ805
               assault rifle it uses transparent mags to allow a rapid ammo check.
    
               The Scorpion Evo is intended as a successor to compact Skorpion vz 61
               SMG released by the same company in the 60's. The original Skorpion
               has appeared in several video-games, with a recent example being the
               delightfully retro and ultraviolent download title Hotline Miami.
    
    o JS2
    
         Ammo: 9x19mm   Capacity: 30+1   Fire-rate: 900 RPM   Reload: 2.45 secs
    
      Unlocks: score 48,000 pts with PDW's
    
      Summary: Reborn after the Spring Patch, the final standard PDW unlock now has
               a respectable DPS and can definitely hold its own against the better
               PDW's in close quarters.
    
               This is balanced by the high recoil and new smaller magazine size.
    
      Patched: The three PDW's with the lowest bullet damage did not have their max
               damage reduced by 1 in the Fall Patch (like all the other automatic
               weapons in the game). As a result the P90, MP7 and JS2 retained their
               previous rate of damage output and this effectively gave them a buff
               relative to all the other automatic weapons.
    
               The spread increase per shot (SIPS) was reduced in the Fall Patch.
    
               The JS2 received a complete overhaul in the Spring Patch of May 2015.
               Previously it used the Chinese 5.8mm ammunition and had 50-round mags
               but now it fires 9mm rounds and the magazine size is 30. Combining
               its rapid fire-rate and the higher damage of the 9mm load, it's now
               in the same league as the SR2 and MPX for damage output.
    
               The horizontal recoil, recoil multiplier and short reload time were
               all increased but the muzzle velocity was also increased. The spread
               increase per second was increased too (unlike the majority of the
               other PDW's which got a reduction in the Spring Patch).
    
               Additionally, just nineteen months after the game's launch, the JS2
               finally had the bullpup modifiers applied. It now has reduced aimed
               accuracy and enhanced hipfire/moving accuracy like the P90 and PDW-R.
    
       Trivia: The QCW-05 PDW manufactured by Jian She Industries was adopted by the
               Chinese in 2001 for use by vehicle crews. It's intended primarily to
               be used with a sound suppressor and the subsonic variant of the 5.8mm
               cartridge (which gives the weapon a muzzle velocity of 150 m/s and an
               effective range of only 50 metres) although it is possible to remove
               the suppressor and use full-power 5.8mm rounds.
    
               Internally the magazine holds two double stacks of cartridges which,
               combined with the smaller calibre, gives the large ammo capacity.
    
               The "JS 9mm" is an export version that fires 9x19mm rounds and takes
               magazines from the H&K MP5 submachinegun.
    
    o UMP9
    
         Ammo: 9x19mm   Capacity: 30   Fire-rate: 700 RPM   Reload: 1.85 secs
    
      Unlocks: complete 'Engineer Expert' assignment (multiplayer)
    
               First complete 'Engineer Basic' to unlock 'Engineer Veteran'.
    
               o Multiplayer Rank 10 required
               o Get 7 kills with carbines
               o Get 16 repairs on friendly vehicles
    
               Next complete 'Engineer Veteran' to unlock 'Engineer Expert'.
    
               o Engineer Basic required
               o Get 8 kills with carbines
               o Get 17 repairs
    
               Finally complete 'Engineer Expert'.
    
               o Engineer Veteran required
               o Get 50 Repair Tool Ribbons (get 8 repairs in a match for each)
               o Get 200 kills with carbines
               o Get 10 Carbine Ribbons (get 6 carbine kills in a match for each)
    
               Since the carbines are now all-kit weapons you can get the kills with
               any class but you'll need to play as Engineer to get those repairs.
    
               The fifty ribbons will be quite a grind. A good way to get repairs is
               in one of the passenger positions of the scout or transport choppers
               - you can repair the aircraft while flying by using the tool on any
               nearby part of the fuselage. If the pilot is in your squad this will
               be a great way to fill your "bro bar" to activate field upgrades and
               in scout helicopters you'll earn points towards vehicle unlocks too.
    
               (Previously you could also make yourself useful with a Stinger/Igla
               when not repairing but the Second Fall Patch removed the ability to
               use any lock-on weapons from inside a helicopter.)
    
               You could also try riding as the gunner of a main battle tank or IFV
               and hopping out to repair as necessary. Try to keep the body of the
               vehicle between you and the enemy and keep strafing left/right while
               you repair to present a harder target for snipers.
    
      Summary: The H&K UMP9 is very similar to its big brother the UMP45 (see above)
               but it fires the smaller 9mm load like its predecessor the MP5. This
               does less damage - and a lower damage-rate - but at least the smaller
               cartridge means you can squeeze an extra five rounds into a magazine;
               also the gun has the same excellent reload times as the .45" model.
    
               It has very low and balanced horizontal recoil and good vertical
               recoil and recoil multiplier so overall it's very manageable.
    
      Patched: Like its .45" sibling, the UMP9 had its horizontal recoil reduced by
               10% in the Fall Patch. The muzzle velocity was also buffed by 13%.
    
               Beyond the generic PDW rebalances in the Spring Patch the UMP9 got
               only one specific tweak which was a 20% increase to its first-shot
               recoil multiplier (although it's still pretty good).
    
               Previously equipping the heavy barrel on the Mx4, P90, UMP45 and UMP9
               would add a longer barrel to the weapon models but this was removed
               in the Summer Patch.
    
       Trivia: It's easy to distinguish the UMP9 as it has a curved magazine - like
               the MP5 - while the UMP45 (like the UMP40) has a straight one.
    
               See the UMP40 in IV8888: https://youtu.be/Va9Jioond4c
    
               Picatinny rails can be fitted to the top and bottom to take a sight
               and foregrip. The UMP also has a special muzzle for easy attachment
               of a sound suppressor.
    
    o MP7
    
         Ammo: 4.6x30mm   Capacity: 40+1   Fire-rate: 950 RPM   Reload: 2.40 secs
    
      Unlocks: complete 'Make a Dent' assignment (multiplayer)
    
               o China Rising DLC required
               o Multiplayer Rank 10 required
               o Destroy an air vehicle with a portable anti-air launcher
               o Get 3 Anti-Vehicle Ribbons (destroy 2 vehicles in a match for each)
    
               You'll need to earn 24,000 points with the Engineer kit in order to
               unlock the Stinger launcher but you could also try using the HVM II
               launcher which is available as an in-game "Battle Pickup".
    
               You can destroy enemy vehicles using rockets, missiles, anti-tank
               mines, C4 explosives or other vehicles. Deployed enemy equipment such
               as mortars and spawn beacons are counted as vehicles too.
    
               Matimi0 posted a Youtube tips video highlighting the handy features
               of the Engineer kit's M2 SLAM mines. These can be deployed as normal
               anti-tank mines but they can also be thrown onto vertical surfaces
               adjacent to narrow vehicle routes where they will be a lot harder for
               enemy drivers to see them. You can also plant them in shallow narrow
               waterways - like the channels between islands on Paracel Storm - to
               hit boats and you can attach them directly to enemy vehicles as you
               would C4 (they will detonate when the vehicle starts moving). :)
    
               Some people have suggested that you need to get the ribbons before
               destroying the aircraft and that you must kill the pilot too.
    
      Summary: The MP7 delivers a high rate of fire, just short of the CZ3A1's 1,000
               RPM, but it also has a much lower bullet damage (following the damage
               buff for the G18/93R in the Spring Patch it now has the lowest max
               damage in the whole game) so overall its rate of damage is merely
               good rather than great and you might find you need to use slightly
               longer bursts than expected to get kills.
    
               The 20-round magazine from BF3 is upgraded to a respectable 40 rounds
               now although - like the Mx4 above - it has a surprisingly slow short
               reload so try to avoid any unnecessary reloads.
    
               The MP7's recoil is comparable to other high fire-rate PDW's and was
               almost identical to the pre-patch JS2 with high vertical recoil,
               average first-shot recoil multiplier and a pull to the right.
    
               It's modelled with the permanent (folding) foregrip of the real gun
               so it has no underbarrel attachment slot.
    
               The stats for the MP7 and P90 are fairly similar but the MP7 has the
               higher fire-rate, longer damage drop-off and faster reloads while the
               P90 has slightly higher max damage, a bigger mag size and a little
               less recoil (in addition to the usual bullpup bonuses and penalties).
    
      Patched: In the 4 March 2014 patch the muzzle velocity was reduced and the
               reload times were shortened slightly.
    
               The three PDW's with the lowest bullet damage did not have their max
               damage reduced by 1 in the Fall Patch (like all the other automatic
               weapons in the game). As a result the P90, MP7 and JS2 retained their
               previous rate of damage output and this effectively gave them a buff
               relative to all the other automatic weapons.
    
               New stats were tested in the CTE giving the MP7 a reduced fire-rate
               and less recoil but these changes were not implemented.
    
               The MP7 got a couple of buffs in the Spring Patch: the reload times
               were shortened and the first-shot recoil multiplier was reduced by
               14%, decreasing the effect of recoil at the start of a burst.
    
               Again it escaped a nerf to its maximum damage and it got a bigger
               buff to its damage drop-off start distance than the P90 did.
    
       Trivia: The MP7 was developed by H&K of Germany to meet the requirements of
               NATO's demands for a PDW and it entered production in 2001.
    
               See the MP7 on TAC-TV: https://youtu.be/h3jek2PML1g
    
               Just as with the P90 (which was also developed to meet NATO's brief)
               a new type of high-velocity armour-piercing ammunition was designed
               especially for the MP7. It takes a 20, 30 or 40-round magazine which
               is loaded into the grip, like a pistol. The compact design gives an
               overall length of just 41cm with the stock retracted.
    
               See the MP7 on Future Weapons: http://youtu.be/rMj73QKr7oI
    
               The MP7 appears in Payday 2 as the "SpecOps" although unusually it's
               fitted with a foregrip attachment instead of using the integral one.
    
    o AS Val
    
         Ammo: 9x39mm   Capacity: 20+1   Fire-rate: 900 RPM   Reload: 1.95 secs
    
      Unlocks: complete 'Co-Pilot' assignment (multiplayer)
    
               o Second Assault DLC required*
               o Multiplayer Rank 10 required
               o Spend 10 minutes (600 seconds on Battlelog) in helicopters
               o Get 10 Squad Repairs (repair a squad-mate's vehicle with the tool)
    
               In a Youtube video LevelCap said that transport helis don't count
               towards your air time so stick with the attack choppers (the Z10,
               Viper and Havoc) and the scout choppers (the Z11 and Little Bird).
    
               To get squad reps you'll need to repair a vehicle where the driver -
               or pilot - is in your squad (green). Each 15 pts bonus counts as one
               Squad Repair towards your required total of ten.
    
               You could work on both requirements at the same time by riding in a
               scout chopper and repairing from one of the passenger positions -
               remember to equip the repair tool before you spawn in! 
    
               If no-one in your squad is using helis then switch to another one. On
               the respawn screen you can press Triangle to view the squad list and
               hop between squads until you see a green chopper on the map.
    
               Alternatively you can select the helicopter icon on the respawn
               screen (select your team's deployment base with the left stick then
               pick the vehicle with the right stick), wait for the heli to respawn
               and for a pilot to enter it, press X to join him, check his name, go
               to Team Setup (press Options for in-game menu) and transfer into his
               squad - if there's a vacant slot. This squad spawn gets you into a
               helicopter more quickly and if it's a scout or transport chopper you
               can farm some Squad Repairs while you're up there.
    
               Equipping the Mechanic field upgrade path with the FAST REPAIRS spec
               will increase your repair speed by 35%. All those Squad Repairs will
               fill your field upgrades "bro bar" quickly too, activating the perks.
    
               *PC players got early access to the AS Val. The assignments to unlock
               the five new guns were added ahead of the Second Assault DLC but this
               was the only one that could be completed without the DLC maps.
    
      Summary: The AS Val returned in the Second Assault DLC. As in BF3 it sits in
               the PDW category but of course this now means that it can only be
               used in the Engineer class (where previously it was an all-kit gun).
    
               The specialist 9x39mm round now does a massive 27 max damage which is
               not enough for a three-hit kill but it does have the potential for a
               four-hit kill out to 11 metres. The 15.4 minimum damage is excellent
               too although you will need to use controlled bursts on longer shots
               to achieve that seven-hit kill.
    
               It also has a high rate of fire and, while it fires a little slower
               than the 1,000 RPM of the FAMAS assault rifle and CZ3A1 PDW, when you
               combine its 900 RPM fire-rate with the 27 damage you get an insanely
               high damage-rate of 405 per second which outstrips even those guns.
    
               With the option of extended mags absent in BF4 you'll be stuck with
               the small 20-round magazine but that didn't stop me getting over a
               thousand kills with the AS Val in BF3 before the extended mags option
               was added in a patch and it does at least have a very quick short
               reload animation - your character uses the new magazine to operate
               the mag release lever - which takes less than two seconds.
    
               In BF3 the AS Val had perfect stationary aimed accuracy (0.0 spread)
               and a tiny 0.5 first-shot recoil multiplier paired with poor hipfire
               and moving accuracy. Now in BF4 all its accuracy figures match those
               of the other PDW's and it's gone from having the smallest first-shot
               recoil multiplier in the whole game to having one of the biggest!
               (even after the Spring Patch when it was reduced from x3.5 to x2.55)
    
               The weapon is permanently fitted with a suppressor so there is no
               option to change the barrel attachment (and features like the muzzle
               brake and heavy barrel are unavailable). You can still fit various
               attachments in the underbarrel and accessory slots though and as soon
               as you add one the gun will be modelled with rails on the suppressor.
               The angled grip is an obvious choice to cut that first-shot recoil.
    
               Despite being Russian the first optics you unlock for the AS Val will
               be the US/NATO ones - the Reflex RDS, ACOG 4x scope, etc - and you'll
               need to rely on the AS Val Battlepacks to unlock the iconic Kobra
               sight which best fits the origin and revised role of this weapon.
    
      Patched: In the 4 March 2014 patch the minimum damage was reduced from 17 to
               16 (so it now takes one extra bullet to get a kill at long range) and
               the muzzle velocity was reduced slightly.
    
               Roughly half of the PDW's did 25 max damage originally so they gave a
               four-hit kill in close quarters which jumped to five hits after the
               max damage was reduced by 1 in the Fall Patch. After the nerf the AS
               Val, SR2 and MPX all still did at least 25 max damage and therefore
               they retained the four-hit kill ability (at that stage).
    
               However with its maximum damage reduced from 30 to 29 the AS Val did
               at least lose its two-hit kill potential in Hardcore mode.
    
               The mighty Val also got hit in the Spring Patch. Whereas most PDW's
               got increases to minimum damage and the drop-off start distance, for
               the AS Val these were both reduced. The maximum damage was reduced to
               27 and the damage begins to drop off after only 5 metres now! The
               four-hit kill is still possible but only out to 11 metres (was 20).
    
               To make up for this the vertical recoil and recoil multiplier both
               saw major buffs, although the left horizontal recoil was increased
               considerably too. Also the long reload time was shortened slightly.
    
               In the Summer Patch the initial vertical velocity was adjusted to
               reduce the zero distance from 50 to 35 metres which is consistent
               with other suppressed PDW's.
    
       Trivia: The AS Val was designed in the 80's for use by the Russian Spetsnaz
               (special forces). Previously they had used conventional Kalashnikov
               assault rifles fitted with suppressor attachments and subsonic ammo
               but this was deemed inadequate. The new 9x39mm cartridge was designed
               to give a large and heavy bullet that could penetrate armour but with
               the subsonic velocity necessary for "silenced" operation.
    
               A new family of weapons were designed to utilise this new ammo load -
               the AS Val assault rifle and VSS "Vintorez" sniper rifle* (both with
               a fixed suppressor) plus the SR3 Vikhr compact assault rifle (with
               detachable suppressor). The SR3 has a similar mechanism to the SR2
               Veresk PDW (see below).
    
               The AS Val appears in the S.T.A.L.K.E.R. game as the VLA Special
               Assault Rifle (and in the prequel/sequel games as the SA Avalanche).
    
               *The automatic fire and integral suppressor made the VSS a personal
               favourite as the "Recon's assault rifle" in BFBC2.
    
    o SR2
    
         Ammo: 9x21mm   Capacity: 30+1   Fire-rate: 900 RPM   Reload: 2.60 secs
    
      Unlocks: complete 'Packing a Punch' assignment (multiplayer)
    
               o Naval Strike DLC required
               o Multiplayer Rank 10 required
               o Destroy 20 boats
    
               Naturally there are plenty of boats available for you to destroy in
               vehicular modes on the Naval Strike maps. The Engineer class gets a
               range of missile-launchers plus the M2 SLAM mines which can hit boats
               if planted in shallow water. You can also use weapons mounted on air
               and land vehicles and - of course - other boats.
    
               If you're feeling pretty badass you can take advantage of the ability
               to deploy and detonate C4 while swimming. :) (If you take out three
               boats with C4 while playing as Support those will also count towards
               the assignment to unlock the AWS light machinegun in the same DLC.)
               You can also attach SLAM's to enemy boats - they detonate when the
               vehicle starts to move (or when shot with a heavy pistol).
    
               The Javelin missile-launcher is a great tool to use against boats
               where you will often have a clear line of sight across open waters
               and your target will be bobbing on the waves - it can lock onto an
               enemy vehicle at ranges of up to 350 metres. It becomes even more
               potent if you work in unison with a Recon player using the SOFLAM or
               PLD (laser designators) - you get a quicker lock and I think it also
               improves the range and damage (plus you can target aircraft too).
    
               The Second Fall Patch applied the angle damage modifier from tanks to
               the attack boats too. If your missile hits a boat perpendicularly you
               get a x1.45 modifier but a glancing blow gets a x0.9 modifier.
    
      Summary: The SR2 has a high fire-rate like the MP7, P90 and JS2 but it also
               has a higher maximum damage giving it a superior damage per second
               although it's beaten by the AS Val and CZ3A1 in this category and it
               can no longer match the four-hit kill of the Val.
    
               The SR2 has less vertical recoil than some of the slower PDW's like
               the MPX and Mx4 but it also has large horizontal recoil so you may
               struggle at longer ranges. The compensator attachment would help with
               that but you may prefer to use the suppressor for short-range stealth
               (although that will further reduce the SR2's muzzle velocity which is
               already quite slow).
    
               The CZ3A1 has the same 30+1 ammo capacity - useful but smaller than
               the MP7 and P90 - but much faster reloads than the SR2.
    
      Patched: The max damage was reduced from 26 to 25 in the Fall Patch. While the
               SR2 retained the potential for a four-hit kill in close quarters,
               this applied only to the first 10 metres and the damage multiplier
               for shots against the ARMOR spec or to the lower torso and legs cut
               it to a five-hit kill.
    
               While the P90 and JS2 PDW's both saw a buff to their spread increase
               per shot (SIPS) stat in the Fall Patch, for the SR2 this value was
               increased, giving less accuracy in automatic fire.
    
               In the Spring Patch the typical changes to damage and drop-offs were
               applied; this included a reduction to the max damage (to 23.5) so the
               SR2 lost its four-hit kill, also it now gives the same minimum damage
               as the MPX and all the 9mm PDW's. Small increases were applied to the
               up, left and right recoil but the muzzle velocity was increased too.
    
       Trivia: The SR2 "Veresk" (Russian for "heather") is a compact Russian SMG
               that entered production in 1999. Like the SR1 pistol, it fires the
               armour-piercing 9x21mm ammunition. Unusually for a submachinegun it
               uses a gas-operated mechanism like an assault rifle.
    
               The version in the game appears to be the SR2M model which has a
               folding foregrip with a front lip that protects the shooter's hand
               from muzzle flash. It also has a remodelled folding shoulder-stock
               which can be folded onto the top even when a red-dot sight is fitted.
    
    o MPX
    
         Ammo: .40 S&W   Capacity: 30+1   Fire-rate: 850 RPM   Reload: 2.10 secs
    
      Unlocks: complete 'Not the Weakest Link' assignment (multiplayer)
    
               o Dragon's Teeth DLC required
               o Multiplayer Rank 10 required
               o Play on any Dragon's Teeth map to activate assignment
               o Get two PDW Ribbons (get six kills with PDW's in a match for each)
               o Link ten points in Chainlink mode
               o Receive ten Squad Order Followed bonuses
    
               Links are formed in Chainlink mode by capturing a flag when your team
               already holds one or both adjacent flags.
    
               The squad leader - the player marked with a star on the squad list -
               can mark an objective (e.g. a flag or M-Com) for their squad. This is
               done simply by aiming at the objective marker and pressing the spot
               button (with the default L2 ADS and R2 fire this will be R1). When an
               objective has been successfully tagged it will have green markers on
               it. Now when another member of the squad completes the order, for
               example capturing a Conquest flag, both the squad leader and the
               squad member will receive one Squad Order Followed bonus.
    
      Summary: The MPX fires the same .40" S&W round as the CZ75 pistol (see below)
               which here does a maximum damage of 24.5 - better than most PDW's but
               not quite sufficient for a four-hit kill. Instead it gives a five-hit
               kill all the way out to 28 metres. The higher damage values make it
               slightly more viable at longer ranges than some of the PDW's.
    
               It also gives an 850 RPM fire-rate so it has a nice damage per second
               although not as high as the CZ3A1, SR2 or the mighty AS Val elsewhere
               in the PDW category. The size of its magazines was increased to 30
               (matching the CZ3A1, SR2 and post-patch JS2) and you can swap these
               very quickly thanks to the short reload times.
    
               Recoil values are fairly typical for a high fire-rate PDW.
    
      Patched: The max damage was reduced from 27 to 26 in the Fall Patch. While the
               MPX retained the potential for a four-hit kill in close quarters,
               this now applied only to the first 15 metres.
    
               In addition to generic rebalances to the suppressed muzzle velocity
               and aimed moving accuracy, the horizontal recoil was increased in the
               Fall Patch so a compensator attachment could be beneficial.
    
               In the Spring Patch eight months later the maximum damage for the MPX
               was reduced to 24.5 so it lost its four-hit kill. Its damage drop-off
               end distance was not reduced since it was already 50 metres which is
               the standard value applied to most PDW's now.
    
               By way of compensation the magazine size was increased from 25 to 30
               (which is authentic to the real weapon), the horizontal recoil was
               reduced and the long reload shortened, but there was also an increase
               to the first-shot recoil multiplier.
    
       Trivia: First announced in 2013, the SIG MPX submachinegun was designed as a
               modern alternative to the classic H&K MP5. The overall configuration
               is quite similar to the MP5 but the MPX also copies elements from the
               AR15 platform (controls, rear charging handle and an unnecessarily
               large magazine well) so it will be familiar to M16/M4 users.
    
               SIG themselves describe it as "the next generation of submachinegun".
               The modular design allows the user to switch the barrel, calibre and
               shoulder-stock configuration in the field. The weapon can be easily
               converted between 9mm, .357 SIG or .40 S&W and it can be equipped
               with telescopic or folding stocks or used without a stock. It can
               even be fitted with SIG's SB15 stabilizing brace which allows the MPX
               to be used one-handed.
    
               See the MPX on Military Arms Channel: https://youtu.be/yeOBTCC9kl8
    
               The current variants are the standard MPX with an 8" barrel, the
               compact MPX-K with a 4.5" barrel, the MPX-P pistol with a 6.5" barrel
               and no stock, the suppressed MPX-SD and the MPX-C carbine which is
               semi-auto and has a permanent 9.5" muzzle brake (baffle stack) added
               to give an overall 16" barrel length to comply with US gun laws.
    
               In 2015 SIG launched the modular MCX carbine. It's similar in looks
               to the MPX but it fires 5.56mm by default and can be converted to use
               .300 Blackout or Soviet 7.62x39mm. It has a long Picatinny scope rail
               and a choice of 9" or 16" barrels and various buttstocks. It can be
               fitted with either a long or short handguard with KeyMod attachment
               slots or an enlarged version to fit an integral suppressor.
    
               See the MCX on Military Arms Channel: https://youtu.be/zmyluo3aT0Y
    
    .-------------.----------------------------------------------------------------.
    | Section 03c | Light Machineguns                                         s03c |
    '-------------'----------------------------------------------------------------'
    
    The LMG's can only be equipped when using the Support class (although the mighty
    M60-ULT "Battle Pickup" can be used by any class).
    
    The portable machineguns are designed to provide supportive and suppressive fire
    within an infantry unit. In general terms there are three types in the game:
    
    - heavy versions of assault rifles usually with larger mags
    - belt-fed Squad Automatic Weapons firing an intermediate load (e.g. 5.56mm)
    - belt-fed Medium Machineguns firing a 7.62mm rifle load
    
    Initially only the U100 and L86A2 are available. The M249 can be unlocked in the
    single-player campaign and a further four LMG's can be earned by completing
    assignments (one in the base game and three in DLC). The others are unlocked by
    earning XP using whichever LMG's you have available.
    
    The damage profiles in this category have the same max/min damage as the assault
    rifles using the same intermediate and heavy loads but the damage drop-off end
    distance is a little longer here.
    
                          |  Max.  |    Damage    |  Min.  |
               Ammunition | Damage |   Drop-Off   | Damage | Weapons
        ==================+========+==============+========+===================
                          |  41.0  |              |  23.6  | M60-ULT
           7.62x51mm NATO |--------|              |--------|-------------------
                          |        |              |        | M240B and M60E4
        ------------------|  33.0  |              |  21.6  |-------------------
              7.62x54mm R |        |              |        | PKP Pecheneg only
        ------------------+--------|   8m to 65m  |--------+-------------------
             7.62x39mm WP |  30.0  |              |  20.0  | RPK only
        ------------------+--------|              |--------+-------------------
           5.56x45mm NATO |        |              |        |
             5.45x39mm WP |  24.5  |              |  18.0  | everything else
         5.8x42mm Chinese |        |              |        |
    
    Patched: In the Fall Patch the maximum damage for all LMG's was reduced by 1.
             The heavy 7.62mm models did not receive the same nerf to their minimum
             damage as the assault rifles and carbines so they remained capable of
             giving a four-hit kill at all ranges.
    
             In the Spring Patch the max damage for the intermediate calibres was
             increased from 24.0 to 24.5 (as with the assault rifles). For the
             existing 7.62mm LMG's the min damage was nerfed from 25.0 to 21.6 (now
             a five-hit kill) and the damage drop-off end distance was reduced from
             75 metres down to 65 metres.
    
             Additionally the drop-off end distance for the AWS was extended from
             55 metres to 65 metres so all LMG's now have the same drop-off range.
    
             The RPK was changed to 7.62x39mm calibre and a new damage model was
             introduced for it with damage figures mid-way between the other two.
    
    In BF3 the light machineguns had inferior aimed accuracy in standing or crouched
    stances, encouraging you to go prone for greater precision, but now in BF4 all
    guns have the same ADS accuracy in all stances and generally for LMG's this is
    pretty decent now, with the lighter guns even matching a typical assault rifle.
    The hipfire and moving accuracy are quite poor however so wherever possible you
    will want to stop and aim before firing.
    
    Patched: In the Fall Patch the aimed moving accuracy stats for all magazine-fed
             LMG's (the AWS, QBB95-1, both RPK's and U100 Mk 5) and the belt-fed
             LSAT were buffed. This allows more accurate fire while strafing.
    
             The LMG's previously had low values for first-shot recoil multipliers,
             much lower than in BF4. Some of the heaviest actually had values less
             than x1.0 so they experienced less recoil after the first shot. In the
             Spring Patch significant increases were applied to the multipliers for
             all LMG's apart from the U100 and RPK12 and these are detailed below.
             (however the values are still lower now than those from BF3)
    
             Big changes were also made to the maximum aimed spread. Previously this
             was set to 1.5 for all LMG's but in the Spring Patch new values were
             assigned according to the weapon type. Your spread with the machineguns
             will now be capped at these higher values during sustained fire.
    
             o 1.8 for light LMG's with <100 rounds (RPK12, RPK, QBB95-1 and U100)
             o 2.0 for light LMG's with 100 rounds (AWS and LSAT)
             o 2.2 for light LMG's with 200 rounds (Type 88, MG4 and M249)
             o 2.4 for heavy LMG's with 100 rounds (M240B, PKP and M60E4)
    
             Before the Spring Patch every LMG had a spread recovery of 15 but new
             values were specified in the patch, with the guns that shoot faster or
             do more damage getting the worst values. The M240B is the fastest of
             the 7.62mm LMG's and got the biggest nerf (8.3) while the U100 is the
             slowest of the 5.56mm LMG's and got a bit of a buff (17.9).
    
    The recoil and accuracy of the LMG's can be massively improved by using a bipod
    attachment (see Section 04d). Every LMG has the bipod unlocked by default.
    
    o U100 Mk 5
    
         Ammo: 5.56x45mm   Capacity: 30+1   Fire-rate: 590 RPM   Reload: 2.75 secs
    
      Unlocks: available at start
    
      Summary: The U100 always performed like a heavy assault rifle with a larger
               magazine but since the Spring Patch it's now virtually identical to a
               low fire-rate assault rifle like the AK12.
    
               It has the same max/min damage (but a slightly longer drop-off end),
               similar accuracy stats and now the same magazine size too! It's got
               very low vertical recoil and recoil multiplier, virtually no sideways
               recoil post-patch and high muzzle velocity which all make it very
               capable at longer ranges.
    
               However that slow rate of fire (the slowest of any automatic weapon
               in the base game) and smaller magazine make it much less effective in
               close quarters. Also its reload times are good for an LMG but slow
               when compared to the assault rifles.
    
               To give you a helping hand when you're starting out the U100 comes
               with the first three attachments - the Chinese holo sight, magnifier
               and muzzle brake (plus the default bipod) - already unlocked.
    
      Patched: The U100 got a few changes in the Spring Patch. Its magazine size was
               cut (from 45 to 30), its horizontal recoil was halved, its vertical
               recoil was reduced by a fifth, its hipfire accuracy was buffed in all
               stances and its muzzle velocity was increased.
    
               It now has the highest muzzle velocity in the whole game (aside from
               the railgun pickup) with a - theoretical - maximum range of just over
               a kilometre! In practice you might struggle at that range though. :)
    
       Trivia: The Ultimax 100 is manufactured by ST Kinetics of Singapore who also
               make a range of military vehicles, artillery pieces and other guns
               including the SAR21 assault rifle (see above). The design team was
               guided by Jim Sullivan who previously worked on the AR18 and M16. It
               was adopted as a squad support weapon for Singaporean forces in 1982.
    
               The Mark 4 design was created for entry into the United States Marine
               Corps competition to find a new Infantry Automatic Rifle in 2007. It
               featured standard Picatinny accessory rails and could accept standard
               NATO (STANAG) mags. (The competition was won by the heavy version
               of the HK416 which was adopted as the M27 IAR as featured in BF3.)
    
               The latest model featured here is the Mark 5 which retains the rails
               and mag well of the Mark 4 and also has a slimline folding stock.
    
               The weapon is also playable in Far Cry 3 and 4.
    
    o L86A2
    
         Ammo: 5.56x45mm   Capacity: 30+1   Fire-rate: 700 RPM   Reload: 2.60 secs
    
      Unlocks: available by default (added in Spring Patch on 26 May 2015)
    
      Summary: Better late than never, the L86 returned from BF3 a year and a half
               after BF4's launch. Following the example of the patched U100 it now
               has a magazine size of 30 too where previously it had 45. It's also
               seen its fire-rate drop from 750 RPM in BF3 to 700 RPM.
    
               Performance is similar to the U100 but it fires faster and has more
               recoil. It has a bullpup configuration so it gets a small penalty to
               stationary aimed accuracy and bonuses to moving/hipfire spread.
    
      Patched: The horizontal recoil was reduced by 14% in the Summer Patch.
    
       Trivia: The L86 is the Light Support Weapon (LSW) member of the SA80 family,
               used alongside the L85 (see above) in the British Army. The longer
               barrel gives a greater effective range and in fact the weapon is so
               accurate that it was more commonly used in a marksman role (prior to
               the adoption of the 7.62mm L129A1 semi-auto sniper in 2010).
    
               Squad support and suppressive fire will usually be provided now by
               the belt-fed L110 which is the British designation for the FN Minimi,
               also used in the US forces as the M249 (see below).
    
               Like the L85 assault rifle, the L86 underwent an upgrade process at
               H&K and the result is the A2 version that appears in the game.
    
    o M249
    
         Ammo: 5.56x45mm   Capacity: 200   Fire-rate: 800 RPM   Reload: 6.20 secs
    
      Unlocks: complete 'Final Duty' assignment (single-player)
    
               In the final mission (Suez) give the C4 to Irish and detonate it.
    
      Summary: If you work through the multiplayer gun unlocks in the single-player
               campaign this will be your first belt-fed machinegun* and that belt
               now holds a very handy 200 rounds by default (compared to the default
               100 in BF3 where you had to take the extended mags option if you
               wanted more). You can hold down the trigger and fire continuously on
               automatic for a whole fifteen seconds if you really want to!
    
               The M249 can be compared to the other three machineguns that use an
               intermediate calibre fed from a belt, i.e. the LSAT, Type 88 and the
               MG4. The M249 ties with the MG4 for the highest rate of fire (at 800
               RPM) and the largest belt size but those same two guns also have the
               higher recoil.
    
               The M249 has an average reload time** and accuracy figures.
    
               *With this or any other belt-fed LMG you'll have a visual indication
               when you're down to the last few rounds - you'll see the end of the
               ammo belt disappearing into the weapon.
    
               **If necessary you can cancel the long reload sequence on a belt-fed
               LMG by simply switching to a pistol/gadget and then switching back to
               your primary. If you still had some rounds left before you started
               the reload these will be available to use.
    
      Patched: The left recoil was reduced and the first-shot recoil multiplier was
               nerfed from x1.0 to x1.5 in the Spring Patch.
    
       Trivia: The M249, previously known as the M249 SAW (Squad Automatic Weapon),
               is the US version of the Minimi designed by FN of Belgium and first
               manufactured in the early 80's.
    
               It finally gave an alternative to the iconic M60 (see below) which
               had been in US service since the late 50's. It's lighter and more
               portable plus you have the convenience of it using the 5.56mm round
               so you can carry more ammo and share supplies with M16/M4 users.
    
               See the M249 on Triggers: http://youtu.be/KuZnUqgwISY
    
               BF4's M249 is now modelled on the shortened lightweight Paratrooper
               variant with the Product Improvement Package including a telescoping
               buttstock and multiple accessory rails. Other lighterweight models
               include the US special forces Mk 46 (5.56mm) and Mk 48 (7.62mm).
    
               See the Mk 46 Mod 1 on IV8888: https://youtu.be/wWo-1-SBIM0
    
               The Minimi appears in Payday 2 as the "KSP" (the Swedish military
               designation for the weapon is Ksp 90).
    
    o Type 88 LMG
    
         Ammo: 5.8x42mm   Capacity: 200   Fire-rate: 700 RPM   Reload: 7.30 secs
    
      Unlocks: score 4,000 pts with LMG's
    
      Summary: The Type 88 now has the same 200-round belt size as the M249 but its
               reload is almost a second slower. It's also had a slight buff to its
               fire-rate since BF3 (from 650 to 700 RPM) - that still puts it slower
               than the M249 but it gets less overall recoil in return.
    
      Patched: The horizontal recoil was reduced by around 15% in the Fall Patch.
    
               The muzzle drift was reduced further in the Spring Patch. Also the
               first-shot recoil multiplier was nerfed from x1.0 to x1.35, the
               muzzle velocity was increased and the reload time extended slightly.
    
       Trivia: Formally designated the QJY88 in China where it originates, the Type
               88 is believed to have entered service about ten years ago. It uses a
               heavier version of the new Chinese 5.8mm cartridge that was specially
               developed for use in squad automatic weapons and sniper rifles.
    
    o LSAT
    
         Ammo: 5.56x45mm   Capacity: 100   Fire-rate: 650 RPM   Reload: 5.90 secs
    
      Unlocks: score 11,000 pts with LMG's
    
      Summary: The LSAT is still rockin' the 650 RPM fire-rate and 100-round belt of
               BF3 which makes it distinctly outgunned by its peers but it has a
               good reload time and the most manageable recoil of the group with
               very low horizontal recoil since the Spring Patch.
    
               It also has slightly less spread in hipfire which is consistent with
               the BF3 buff to "highlight the weapon's role as a highly mobile LMG".
    
      Patched: In the Fall Patch the LSAT received the same buff to aimed moving
               accuracy as the magazine-fed LMG's. The aimed stationary accuracy was
               also standardized across all stances.
    
               The horizontal recoil was halved in the Spring Patch but at the same
               time the first-shot recoil multiplier was nerfed from x1.0 to x1.25
               and the vertical recoil was increased. Additionally a small tweak was
               applied to the spread increase per shot.
    
       Trivia: This design is a prototype for the US Army's Lightweight Small Arms
               Technologies programme which aims to find a lighter alternative to
               current ammunition used in light machinegun systems.
    
               The project is considering both Case Telescoped (CT) rounds where the
               case is made of plastic and Caseless (CL) rounds where each bullet is
               embedded within a block of solid propellant. However in BF4 it has
               the same damage profile as conventional intermediate-calibre LMG's.
    
    o PKP Pecheneg
    
         Ammo: 7.62x54mm R   Capacity: 100   Fire-rate: 600 RPM   Reload: 5.50 secs
    
      Unlocks: score 19,000 pts with LMG's
    
      Summary: The PKP is the first of three heavy-hitter LMG's firing the larger
               7.62mm rounds that give a potential four-hit kill all the way out to
               48 metres (and a five-hit kill beyond that since the Spring Patch).
    
               It occupies the middle ground between the M240B and the M60E4 (from
               the Second Assault DLC) with average rate of fire and recoil, however
               its reload time is substantially quicker than either of those.
    
               For effective mobile use in close-quarters you'll want to reduce the
               recoil as much as possible with the muzzle brake or compensator and
               probably the ergo or vertical grip to improve the accuracy while
               moving. You can also add a laser sight for the hipfire buff and a
               suitable short-range sight like the Kobra.
    
      Patched: The vertical and horizontal recoil were reduced in the Spring Patch
               but the recoil multiplier was also nerfed from x0.65 to x1.25. Also
               the hipfire accuracy was reduced but only in the crouch and prone
               stances (other LMG hipfire changes affected all three stances) and
               the spread increase per shot was reduced.
    
       Trivia: The PKP is a Russian machinegun derived from the 1969 PKM design; it
               entered service in 1999. The PKP was designed to provide sustained
               suppressive fire to give support at a squad level - the air cooling
               eliminates the need for a quick-change barrel and it also comes with
               a fixed bipod as standard.
    
               It shares its "Pecheneg" name with a nomadic tribe of Central Asia.
    
    o QBB95-1
    
         Ammo: 5.8x42mm   Capacity: 75+1   Fire-rate: 650 RPM   Reload: 4.30 secs
    
      Unlocks: score 28,000 pts with LMG's
    
      Summary: The QBB95 has a distinctive bullpup design so it has better accuracy
               in hipfire and while moving but slightly more spread in aimed fire
               and a slower reload on its large drum magazine which now holds 75
               rounds putting it mid-way between the RPK12 and AWS/LSAT.
    
               Compared to those other LMG's it has an average rate of fire and good
               recoil although the recoil multiplier is quite large now.
    
      Patched: The QBB got a reduction to its magazine size in the Spring Patch but
               it only lost five rounds and it now has the same 75-round magazines
               that it had back in BF3.
    
               The recoil multiplier was also nerfed from x1.6 to x1.85, the muzzle
               velocity was increased slightly and the hipfire accuracy was greatly
               improved. Additionally tiny reductions were applied to the horizontal
               recoil and the spread increase per shot (SIPS).
    
       Trivia: The Chinese QBB95 is the Light Support Weapon variant of the QBZ95
               assault rifle. Both versions in BF4 have the -1 suffix indicating the
               improved models that entered service around 2010-11.
    
    o M240B
    
         Ammo: 7.62x51mm   Capacity: 100   Fire-rate: 650 RPM   Reload: 6.20 secs
    
      Unlocks: score 37,000 pts with LMG's
    
      Summary: The M240 fires faster than the PKP and M60 so of course it also has
               more recoil - it has a larger first-shot recoil multiplier than those
               two and more vertical and horizontal recoil than any other LMG.
    
               It's easier to counteract the effect of vertical recoil so - unless
               you're only using the gun with the bipod deployed - you should think
               about using the compensator to reduce the horizontal recoil.
    
               The reload time is over 1.5 seconds faster than the M60's but it's
               still not as quick as the PKP.
    
      Patched: In the Spring Patch the M240 got a big nerf to its first-shot recoil
               multiplier (from x0.5 to x1.4) but it also saw good improvements to
               its vertical and horizontal recoil, although they're still very high.
    
               There was also a reduction to the spread increase per shot.
    
               Previously the M240 had been incorrectly given the ability to equip
               the 2x magnifier together with either a medium-range or infra-red
               scope. This error was rectified in the Second Fall Patch.
    
       Trivia: The M240B (or "M2-40 Bravo") is the US designation for the MAG which
               was developed - like the M249 - by FN of Belgium. The FN MAG entered
               production in 1958 but wasn't adopted by the US until the late 70's.
               FN report that the MAG is used in over ninety countries and that over
               200,000 units have been made.
    
               In US service the M240 was originally mounted to vehicles. The M240B
               version was subsequently developed for infantry use.
    
               The FN MAG is also used by the British Army as the L7 GPMG (General
               Purpose Machine Gun), nicknamed the "Gimpy".
    
               See the M240B on FPSRussia: http://youtu.be/UcN7w_gh7uY
    
    o MG4
    
         Ammo: 5.56x45mm   Capacity: 200   Fire-rate: 800 RPM   Reload: 6.20 secs
    
      Unlocks: score 48,000 pts with LMG's
    
      Summary: The MG4 matches the high fire-rate of the M249.* Overall the MG4's
               performance is very similar to the M249's, even down to the muzzle
               velocity and reload times. However the MG4 has more vertical recoil
               and pulls to the right while the M249 has slightly more horizontal
               recoil and pulls to the left!
    
               As is common with LMG's the body of the weapon occupies a lot of the
               screen when you ADS but at least with iron sights it has a notably
               larger rear aperture giving better visibility around your target.
    
               *Sadly it cannot compete with the ferocious 1,000 RPM fire-rate of
               its predecessor the MG3 "buzz-saw" in BFBC2!
    
      Patched: Aside from the generic LMG rebalances in the Spring Patch (listed in
               the LMG intro above) the MG4 only got a couple of adjustments to its
               recoil - the first-shot recoil multiplier was nerfed from x1.0 to
               x1.85 and the vertical recoil got a small reduction.
    
       Trivia: The MG4 was designed by H&K of Germany to create a lightweight and
               compact machinegun with a high fire-rate and manageable recoil which
               would give an alternative to the Belgian FN Minimi (M249 SAW). It
               entered production in 2001 and is replacing the 7.62mm MG3 in a squad
               support role in the German army.
    
               The H&K website also lists the MG5 which is similar to the MG4 but
               with a longer barrel and a few other design tweaks; most importantly
               it's chambered for 7.62mm making it a true successor to the MG3.
    
    o RPK12
    
         Ammo: 5.45x39mm   Capacity: 60+1   Fire-rate: 600 RPM   Reload: 2.40 secs
    
      Unlocks: complete 'Support Expert' assignment (multiplayer)
    
               First complete 'Support Basic' to unlock 'Support Veteran'.
    
               o Multiplayer Rank 10 required
               o Get 7 kills with light machineguns
               o Get 16 ammo resupplies with ammo pack / ammo box
    
               Next complete 'Support Veteran' to unlock 'Support Expert'.
    
               o Support Basic required
               o Get 8 kills with light machineguns
               o Get 17 ammo resupplies
    
               Finally complete 'Support Expert'.
    
               o Support Veteran required
               o Get 50 Ammo Ribbons (get 8 ammo resupplies for each)
               o Get 200 kills with light machineguns
               o Get 10 Light Machinegun Ribbons (get 6 LMG kills for each)
    
               Just keep using the Support kit's LMG's and drop ammo for your team.
    
      Summary: With their current stats the RPK12 now compares quite favourably to
               its little brother the AK12 assault rifle. The LMG variant has less
               recoil, the same stationary aimed accuracy, similar reload times and
               twice the magazine capacity! It's just a little slower and has more
               hipfire/moving spread.
    
               Compared to the post-patch U100 which fires around the same speed,
               the RPK12 reloads quicker and has slightly more recoil, but again it
               has twice as many rounds in the mag.
    
      Patched: In addition to some of the general balances in the Fall Patch, the
               RPK12 also got a small increase to its muzzle velocity.
    
               In the Spring Patch the RPK12 actually got a small buff to its recoil
               multiplier (from x1.6 to x1.35). Additionally the recoil was reduced
               slightly, the long reload time was shortened and the hipfire spread
               was significantly improved.
    
               Having the low damage model and slow rate of fire, the change made to
               its spread recovery was a buff too (increased from 15 to 17.3).
    
       Trivia: The RPK12 light machinegun is a planned heavy version of the AK12
               assault rifle (see above).
    
               It follows the long tradition of the RPK, RPK74 and RPK74M light
               machineguns (all playable in previous Battlefield games) which were
               based on the AKM, AK74 and AK74M assault rifles respectively.
    
               You would expect this new model to have similar modifications for the
               LMG role including a heavier longer barrel, extended magazines and a
               permanent bipod.
    
    o RPK
    
         Ammo: 7.62x39mm   Capacity: 40+1   Fire-rate: 600 RPM   Reload: 3.15 secs
    
      Unlocks: complete 'Powder Keg' assignment (multiplayer)
    
               o China Rising DLC required
               o Multiplayer Rank 10 required
               o Get 1 kill with the M224 mortar
               o Get 3 Light Machinegun Ribbons (get 6 LMG kills for each)
    
               You'll need to earn 76,000 points with the Support kit in order to
               unlock the M224 mortar (or pick up a kit that has it equipped). The
               mortar is now remote-controlled so you can set it up somewhere and
               use it from another location.
    
               You'll only be able to see enemies on the mortar map if they've been
               spotted by team-mates so this will be easier when your team has a
               commander using Scan UAV or a Recon operating a MAV. You should aim
               to get a direct hit on a stationary enemy.
    
               Rush mode would be good for this as you'll have enemies camping on
               both sides. The dunes of the first Rush base on the Silk Road map (in
               the China Rising DLC) are always handy for this sort of thing.
    
               After several rebalances to prevent abuse, the mortar now becomes
               available 15 secs after spawning and replenishes after 60 secs.
    
      Summary: The RPK is another slow mag-fed LMG but it's rendered unique by the
               new damage model it received in the Spring Patch. It now does 30 max
               damage which gives a four-hit kill out to 36 metres and 20 min damage
               for a five-hit kill at range (other magazine LMG's require one extra
               bullet to kill at both short and long ranges). In Hardcore mode where
               players have 60 health it's even capable of a two-hit kill at very
               short ranges! (less than 9 metres)
    
               Thanks to its heavy wooden frame it has a low first-shot recoil
               multiplier but otherwise it understandably has higher recoil than the
               U100, L86, RPK12 and QBB (it's closer to that of the 100-round AWS).
               It also has slower reload times.
    
               Pre-patch it was only worth using if you wanted to go "old skool" and
               rock that classic Kalashnikov pattern but now it's a more interesting
               proposition with a shorter time-to-kill in theory than the Ace 23.
    
      Patched: The most significant change in the Fall Patch was the reduction of
               the vertical recoil by around 22% (giving it the lowest muzzle
               rise of all the LMG's until the Spring Patch hit).
    
               Additionally the short and long reloads were reduced by 0.3 seconds
               (but both are still slow) and the spread increase per shot (SIPS) was
               corrected to match the fire-rate. (600/7700 = 0.078)
    
               The RPK was completely overhauled in the Spring Patch. It even had
               its ammunition type changed from 5.45x39mm to 7.62x39mm and a whole
               new damage model was introduced. Also the magazine size was cut from
               45 to 40 rounds which is authentic to one of the real magazine sizes.
    
               It got a good buff to hipfire accuracy and the short reload time was
               reduced. However it also received increases to its vertical and left
               recoil and to its spread increase per shot.
    
               Additionally the first-shot recoil multiplier was nerfed from x0.75
               to x1.25 (previously the RPK was the only one of the lighter LMG's
               with a recoil multiplier of less than 1.0).
    
               The weapon was added to the game in December 2013 as the "RPK74M" but
               following the change of ammo type this name was no longer authentic
               and the gun was renamed the "RPK" in the Summer Patch (the RPK74M
               doesn't use the 7.62mm Soviet load but the original 1961 RPK did). A
               similar name change was applied to the L115 (L96A1) sniper rifle.
    
       Trivia: The original RPK was developed in the 60's from the AK47 design and
               fired the Soviet 7.62x39mm round.
    
               The RPK74 followed in 1974 at the same time as the AK74 assault rifle
               and using the same intermediate 5.45mm ammunition.
    
               The current model is the RPK74M which has a folding polymer stock and
               a side-rail for fitting a scope. This will probably be superseded by
               a derivative of the AK12, possibly designated the RPK12 (see above).
    
    o M60E4
    
         Ammo: 7.62x51mm   Capacity: 100   Fire-rate: 570 RPM   Reload: 7.80 secs
    
      Unlocks: complete 'Dust Devil' assignment (multiplayer)
    
               o Second Assault DLC required
               o Multiplayer Rank 10 required
               o Get 1 Anti-Vehicle Ribbon (destroy 2 vehicles in a match)
               o Destroy five vehicles on the Gulf of Oman map
    
               Gulf of Oman is one of the four "classic" maps featured in the Second
               Assault expansion (in fact it's the most classic because it first
               appeared in BF2 while the other three were new for BF3). You should
               find plenty of vehicles in the larger game modes like Conquest.
    
      Summary: The M60 fires the heavier 7.62mm load so it delivers the same high
               damage output as the PKP Pecheneg and M240B; it also has the same
               accuracy figures and 100-round belt as those two guns.
    
               It has a very slow reload time - even by belt-fed LMG standards - and
               its rate of fire is a little slower than the PKP and M240 (it's now
               the slowest automatic weapon in the whole game). However it does
               experience slightly less recoil overall than those two guns (but
               still with more horizontal recoil than it had in BF3 previously).
    
      Patched: The muzzle velocity was cut from 610 m/s to 560 m/s in the 6 March
               2014 patch and then buffed back up to 600 m/s in the Fall Patch.
    
               Most notably in the Spring Patch the hipfire accuracy was reduced -
               this is bad news for all you Rambo fans! Also the spread increase per
               shot was decreased.
    
               The "Pig" also got good buffs to its vertical and horizontal recoil
               but the recoil recovery rate was reduced slightly and the first-shot
               recoil multiplier was nerfed from x0.5 to x1.0. The M60 now has the
               lowest recoil multiplier in the LMG category.
    
       Trivia: The M60 was designed for US service and was adopted in 1957. It was
               used extensively during the Vietnam War, both by infantry and mounted
               to a wide range of vehicles. Since the 1980's it has gradually been
               superseded by the M249 and M240 (see above) in various units/roles.
    
               See the M60 on FPSRussia: http://youtu.be/X517Utblb00
    
               The E4 variant has an improved feed system for greater reliability
               and multiple accessory rails allowing scopes, foregrips, etc, to be
               added. This version dates back to the 90's when it was submitted to
               US Army trials to find a replacement for the previous variants. The
               M60E4 was beaten by the M240E4 (which became designated the M240B),
               however it was adopted by the US Navy - as the Mk 43 Mod 0 - for use
               by Navy SEAL teams.
    
               The latest model manufactured by US Ordnance is the M60E6 which has
               been entered into Danish military trials to find a new LMG.
    
               See the M60E6 Rambo-style on TAC-TV: https://youtu.be/PjWm6V99Hi4
    
    o AWS
    
         Ammo: 5.56x45mm   Capacity: 100+1   Fire-rate: 780 RPM   Reload: 3.35 secs
    
      Unlocks: complete 'Swiss Cheese' assignment (multiplayer)
    
               o Naval Strike DLC required
               o Multiplayer Rank 10 required
               o Get 3 Light Machinegun Ribbons (get 6 LMG kills for each)
               o Destroy 3 vehicles playing as the Support class
    
               The Support class has access to a few explosive gadgets with the XM25
               Airburst launcher, remote-controlled mortar and - if you managed to
               unlock it - the UCAV; you could also use the M82 or AMR2 (the anti-
               materiel rifle Battle Pickups) against light vehicles and aircraft.
    
               However C4 is a clear winner. What could be more convenient and manly
               than planting explosives directly onto an enemy vehicle? You might
               find it easier to do this against enemy tanks in Hardcore mode where
               there's no minimap, no spotting and no external view in vehicles. If
               you have the patience you can also plant C4 traps for enemy vehicles.
    
      Summary: The AWS uses a large double-drum magazine like the MG36 in BFBC2, BF3
               and Hardline. This grants it a 100-round ammo capacity (matching the
               belt-fed LSAT) combined with faster reload times (quicker than the
               QBB with its bullpup format and smaller mags).
    
               Compared to the popular M249/MG4 it has almost the same rate of fire,
               slightly better recoil and hipfire, half the ammo count but a much
               faster reload.
    
               Given the design's origins (see below) it's perhaps no surprise that
               the iron sights resemble those of the M16A4 - except they're massive
               and seem to fill half your screen. You'll breathe a sigh of relief
               after you get your tenth kill and unlock the Holo sight for it!
    
               Most of the weapon stays black when you change the paint. Only the
               shoulder stock and pistol grip take the new paint colour.
    
      Patched: The AWS's horizontal recoil was increased in a server-side patch on
               18 March 2014 (the week before the Naval Strike DLC was released) to
               bring it in line with the other high fire-rate LMG's.
    
               In the Fall Patch the spread increase per shot (SIPS) was corrected
               (nerfed) to match the fire-rate. (780/7700 = 0.101) 
    
               The damage drop-off end distance was extended to 65 metres in the
               Spring Patch so it now matches the other LMG's (where previously it
               had the 5.56mm assault rifle's damage model with shorter drop-off).
    
               The drum magazine capacity was adjusted from 99 to an authentic 100
               and the reload times were shortened. The recoil multiplier was nerfed
               from x1.0 to x1.4, the right recoil increased slightly, the recoil
               recovery buffed and the stationary aimed accuracy improved.
    
       Trivia: The AWS is the Shrike 5.56 "Advanced Weapon System" made by ARES
               Defense Systems of Melbourne, Florida. Designed with the objective of
               combining the firepower of a machinegun with the lighter weight of an
               assault rifle, it entered production in 2002.
    
               The weapon is based heavily on the M16/M4 pattern but with an upper
               receiver capable of taking a belt feed. It can be used with an ammo
               belt in a pouch or box but it can also accept standard 30-round M16
               mags or the Beta C-Mag 100-round drums (as modelled in the game).
    
               The ARES Shrike previously appeared in GRAW2 as the "AS56 SAW".
    
    o M60-ULT
    
         Ammo: 7.62x51mm   Capacity: 150   Fire-rate: 570 RPM   Reload: 7.80 secs
    
      Unlocks: N/A (Battle Pickup only)
    
               Like the M82A3, AMR2 and Rorsch Mk 1 sniper rifles (see Section 03d)
               the M60-ULT variant is only available as a Battle Pickup. Also it can
               only be found on the Operation Outbreak jungle map which was added to
               the game in the free Community Operations DLC in October 2015.
    
               Specifically it spawns at the Huey helicopter crash site on a small
               hill 115 metres due south of the temple ("B" flag in Conquest Large,
               "A" flag in Conquest Small or the north "C" point in Obliteration),
               marked with the usual "star suitcase" minimap icon if it's available.
               Instead of appearing on a weapon case like the other Battle Pickups
               it actually spawns contextually as one of the door-mounted gunner
               weapons on the chopper itself.
    
      Summary: The M60-ULT has several stats in common with the M60E4 (see above) -
               it has the same fire-rate, muzzle velocity and recoil stats (plus the
               same nominal ADS spread and reload times).
    
               However it uses special incendiary ammo which gives it a high maximum
               damage of 41 (enough for a three-hit kill out to 33 metres) and also
               slightly higher minimum damage. Additionally each shot does splash
               damage like the shotgun frag rounds (see Section 03g). It's fed from
               a longer 150-round belt but it comes with no reserve ammo and cannot
               be resupplied from an ammo crate (so it cannot be reloaded).
    
               Due to the weapon's weight it cannot be used in ADS - you're forced
               to go "full Rambo" and always use it in hipfire! Fortunately DICE
               gave the ULT exceptional hipfire stats, similar to the PDW's except
               the spread increase per shot is 90% less than normal. They also gave
               it exceptional muzzle flash which you can admire fully in hipfire!
    
       Trivia: The M60-ULT uses the same basic weapon model as the M60E4 above but
               with two small folding shields at the front and no rear sight; also
               it has the Bad Company grenade logo on the shields and ammo box. :)
    
               The UH1 Huey helicopter was the workhorse of the US Army in Vietnam,
               being used for troop and cargo transportation, medical evacuation,
               search & rescue, armed escorts and as a gunship for ground assault.
               The earliest armed models had the .30-calibre M1919A4 machinegun but
               this was soon superseded by the M60 which became the standard weapon
               for Huey door-gunners. Heavy gunship versions would also commonly
               have side-mounted weapon racks with rocket-launchers and paired M60C
               machineguns or a nose turret with a 40mm grenade-launcher.
    
               The Marine Corps' modern upgraded UH1Y "Venom" variant that features
               in BF4 would usually be armed with either 7.62mm M240D machineguns,
               .50 BMG machineguns or 7.62mm Gatling guns.
    
               The M60-ULT is required to trigger a movie-based easter egg on the
               Outbreak map. In Francis Ford Coppola's classic 1979 Vietnam film
               Apocalypse Now we see the American 1st Air Cavalry Division carrying
               surfboards on their Hueys and playing Wagner's Ride of the Valkyries
               from their choppers during an assault. On Operation Outbreak the US
               Huey Venom helicopter has authentic surfboards slung under the cabin
               and if you fly high over the back of the US deployment while carrying
               the M60 pickup weapon then the same music plays!
    
               I noticed that if the helicopter has a gunner then you'll also hear
               the Noob saying "[I'm] raining down the fiiiiire!" from one of my
               favourite episodes of Battlefield Friends. :)
    
    .-------------.----------------------------------------------------------------.
    | Section 03d | Sniper Rifles                                             s03d |
    '-------------'----------------------------------------------------------------'
    
    The sniper rifles can only be equipped when using the Recon class (although the
    powerful M82A3, AMR2 and Rorsch Mk 1 "Battle Pickups" can be used by any class).
    
    (The second major change to class weapons since BF3 (after the PDW/carbine swap)
    is the revision to the Recon class. In BF3 the Recon kit had access to a range
    of both bolt-action and semi-automatic sniper rifles but now in BF4 all "sniper
    rifles" (in this section) - with the exception of the SR338 added by the Naval
    Strike expansion - are bolt-action models and the semi-autos are moved to the
    new designated marksman rifle (DMR) category which can be used by all kits.)
    
    A bolt-action sniper rifle gives slow but very accurate fire over long ranges
    and usually uses large-calibre rounds that deliver high damage.
    
    Initially only the CS-LR4 is available. A further five sniper rifles can be
    earned by completing assignments (one in the base game and four in DLC). The
    others are unlocked by earning XP using whichever snipers you have available
    (including the M82A3, AMR2 and Rorsch pickups).
    
    If you want to work through the gun and attachment unlocks a little quicker you
    might like to try playing modes like TDM on the Hardcore setting where you'll be
    able to get one-hit kills on body-shots with pretty much any sniper rifle at
    pretty much any range; for a more level playing-field use the Server Browser to
    search for custom servers running sniper-only rules. You should also make good
    use of XP boosts and double XP events (or preferably both in combination).
    
    Patched: In order to compensate snipers for the lack of XP-scoring opportunities
             when sat on top of a distant mountain the game previously applied a
             marksman bonus equal to the distance in metres on any headshot kill at
             a range of 50 metres or more. This made it possible to score several
             hundred XP (or even a couple of thousand) from a single kill.
    
             However in the Second Fall Patch, as part of the "Teamplay Initiative",
             this bonus was reduced to a fixed 25 pts (although the distance to the
             target will still be shown in brackets on the player's score feed).
    
    The good news if you don't like using bolt-action rifles is that you can get all
    the Recon equipment without them - you can get kills using the all-kit weapons
    (shotguns, DMR's and carbines) and get further points from objective play (i.e.
    capturing flags in Conquest mode or arming/disarming M-Coms in Rush mode) while
    playing as Recon. (You can now play the Recon class in BF4 like the Spec Ops
    class from BF2 with carbines and C4.)
    
                                           ¯¯
    All the bolt-action snipers give zero spread for stationary aimed fire giving
    them perfect accuracy although bullet-drop will still affect long-range shots as
    normal (see Section 02a). They also all have the same vertical recoil (1.0) and
    no horizontal recoil (to a greater extent the recoil is irrelevant because the
    weapon will reset by the time you're ready to take your second shot).
    
    Patched: A change was made to sniper rifles in the 4 March 2014 patch so that
             the aimed accuracy value is applied sooner after aiming down sights,
             however there's still a brief delay so it's not possible to use quick-
             scoping techniques effectively in BF4.
    
             Additionally the spread increase per shot was reduced from 1.2 to zero
             for all unlockable bolt-action snipers. This means that they now retain
             their perfect aimed accuracy on follow-up shots.
    
             Generic changes were made to the recoil stats for all bolt-actions in
             the Spring Patch. The vertical recoil was increased from 0.25 to 1.0,
             the first-shot recoil multiplier reduced from 2 to 1 and the rate of
             recoil recovery was increased (from 6 to 12 for aimed fire) so they now
             experience twice the previous recoil but recover just as quickly.
    
    When you're using a bolt-action rifle you'll need to chamber your next round
    after each shot - either tap R2 (fire) again or temporarily release L2 (ADS). In
    either case you will briefly come out of your aimed scope view. (This can be
    avoided by equipping the straight-pull bolt attachment.)
    
    Bullets fired from sniper rifles now leave a prominent "vapour trail" in the air
    tracing their flight. This makes it easier for the shooter to trace the point
    of impact but it also allows the enemy to locate the sniper.
    
                                           ¯¯
    Here's a summary of the damage profiles of the sniper rifles:
    
                    |  Max.  |     Damage     |  Min.  |
         Ammunition | Damage |    Drop-Off    | Damage | Weapons
    ================+========+================+========+============================
       (projectile) |        |                |        | Rorsch Mk 1 (Battle Pickup)
    ----------------|        |       no       |        |----------------------------
            .50 BMG |  110.0 |     damage     |  110.0 | M82A3 (Battle Pickup)
    ----------------|        |    drop-off    |        |----------------------------
         12.7x108mm |        |                |        | AMR2 (Battle Pickup)
    ----------------+--------+----------------+--------+----------------------------
            .408 CT |        |                |        | SRR61 only
    ----------------|  100.0 |  12.5 to 150m  |   59.0 |----------------------------
                    |        |                |        | 338-Recon, M98B, GOL, L115
        .338 Magnum |--------+----------------+--------+----------------------------
                    |   50.0 |  15.0 to 150m  |   38.0 | SR338 only (semi-auto)
    ----------------+--------+----------------+--------+----------------------------
     7.62x51mm NATO |        |                |        | M40A5, CS-LR4, JNG90, CS5
    ----------------+  100.0 |  12.5 to 100m  |   59.0 |----------------------------
        7.62x54mm R |        |                |        | SV98 only
    ----------------+--------+----------------+--------+----------------------------
           5.8x42mm |        | 12.5 to 147.8m |        | FY-JS only
    ----------------|  100.0 |----------------|   36.6 |----------------------------
     5.56x45mm NATO |        |  12.5 to 110m  |        | Scout Elite only
    
    Here are a few notes about the sniper damage stats:
    
    o The Battle Pickups all give a one-hit kill - on any body part - at any range.
      Even with the x0.93 multiplier for shots to the lower torso and legs, the M82,
      AMR2 and railgun still get the one-hit kill (110 x 0.93 > 100).
    
    o With the max damage of 100 any bolt-action rifle will give a one-hit kill on
      the upper torso or arms at a range of less than 12.5 metres (unless the target
      is using the ARMOR spec which applies the x0.93 multiplier to those zones).
    
    o All of the snipers can get a headshot kill at any range (59 x 2.35 > 100)
      except for the Scout Elite, FY-JS and SR338 where the min damage is too low.
    
    o With the multiplier of x2.35 a sniper rifle needs to do 42.6 damage to get a
      headshot kill. The post-patch FY-JS can achieve this out to 135 metres.
    
          ((100 - 42.6) x (147.8 - 12.5) / (100 - 36.6)) + 12.5 = 135.0 metres
    
    o The Scout Elite can give a one-hit headshot kill out to 100 metres.
    
           ((100 - 42.6) x (110 - 12.5) / (100 - 36.6)) + 12.5 = 100.8 metres
    
    o Assuming it has the same x2.35 headshot multiplier as the other sniper rifles
      the semi-automatic SR338 can give a headshot kill at 98 metres.
    
            ((50 - 42.6) x (150 - 15.0) / (50 - 38.0)) + 15.0 = 98.3 metres
    
    o In Hardcore mode every sniper gives a one-hit kill headshot at any range and
      even the Scout Elite can achieve a one-hit body-shot kill out to 74 metres.
    
                                           ¯¯
    Naturally the sniper rifles are designed for use in long-range engagements with
    high-magnification scopes (see Section 04a). They are the only category of guns
    in the game that has access to the long-range scopes (6x, 7x, 8x, 20x and 40x).
    
    Any scope with 6x magnification or higher will suffer from "sway" and "glint"
    when you ADS - the weapon will wobble somewhat and the glint of sunlight on the
    lens will be visible to any enemies in front of you. Consequently you may prefer
    to use the 4x and 3.4x scopes on sniper rifles or even the holographics, red-dot
    sights or irons when you operate at shorter ranges. With your motion sensors and
    spawn beacon you can make yourself very useful staying close to the action.
    
    You can negate sway by equipping and deploying the bipod attachment. Otherwise
    you can tap or hold L3 ("steady scope" setting in options) to hold your breath
    for 3-4 seconds. You can do this for twice as long with the HOLD BREATH spec
    contained in the unlockable Sniper field upgrade path.
    
    You might think that a suppressor would be a useful attachment for a stealthy
    long-range sniping role but it will actually be a major hindrance. The subsonic
    ammo will have a significantly slower muzzle velocity which will increase the
    travel time for your shots making it harder to hit moving targets and increasing
    the effect of bullet-drop under gravity. The reduction in sound will stop you
    automatically appearing on enemy minimaps but at long ranges you would probably
    be outside their map anyway. The only real benefit would be concealing your
    muzzle flash but you can use the flash hider attachment for that instead.
    
    o CS-LR4
    
         Ammo: 7.62x51mm   Capacity: 5+1   Fire-rate: 40 RPM*   Reload: 2.60 secs
    
      Unlocks: available at start
    
      Summary: The various bolt-action sniper rifles have many stats in common. They
               all have the same ADS spread (zero), the same spread increase per
               shot (zero), the same recoil stats and the same maximum damage (100).
               The key differences lie in their damage models, muzzle velocities,
               rates of fire and magazine capacities.
    
               The CS-LR4 has the same shorter damage profile as the M40A5, JNG90,
               SV98 and CS5 with the damage dropping off to 59 at 100 metres. Within
               this group the CS-LR4 ties with the JNG for the highest bullet speed
               but it also has one of the smallest magazines and a slow fire-rate.
    
               To give you a helping hand when you're starting out the CS-LR4 comes
               with the first two attachments - the variable zoom (14x) and bipod 
               (plus the default 6x scope) - already unlocked and ready to equip.
    
               *If you take 60 (number of seconds in a minute) and divide it by the
               rate of fire (in rounds per minute) you get the time it will take you
               to chamber the next cartridge between each shot. For example with the
               CS-LR4 it's 60 / 40 = 1.5 seconds.
    
      Patched: The velocity was buffed from 500 to 630 m/s in the Fall Patch.
    
               In addition to the recoil changes, several sniper rifles saw further
               rebalances in the Spring Patch. The magazine size for the CS-LR4 was
               halved (and is now authentic to the real weapon) and the velocity was
               increased again from 630 to 670 m/s.
    
               In the Summer Patch the initial vertical velocity was adjusted to
               reduce the zero distance from 100 to 75 metres.
    
       Trivia: The CS/LR4 is a modern Chinese sniper rifle manufactured by Norinco
               for military and police use. Development began in 2008 and various
               versions were displayed at shows between 2010 and 2012.
    
               The rifle has two scope rails - the rear one is obviously used to
               mount an optical scope while the front one can be used to attach an
               image intensifier which lets you quickly convert the weapon for night
               ops without having to correct the zeroing. In BF4 the two rails are
               used to mount the front/rear iron sights if you remove your scope.
    
               Unusually for a Chinese weapon the CS/LR4 uses 7.62mm NATO rounds.
               The CS/LR3 fires 5.8mm (and appears in BF4 as the FY-JS) while the
               CS/LR5 uses 12.7mm (.50" equivalent).
    
    o M40A5
    
         Ammo: 7.62x51mm   Capacity: 5+1   Fire-rate: 51 RPM   Reload: 2.70 secs
    
      Unlocks: score 3,000 pts with sniper rifles
    
      Summary: The M40A5 has the second highest fire-rate of all the bolt-action
               snipers. However its muzzle velocity is very slow so bullet travel
               times will be a little longer and it will experience more drop. Also
               it holds only five rounds per magazine (but at least the reload times
               are pretty good).
    
      Patched: In the Spring Patch the M40 received the same changes as the CS-LR4 -
               the magazine capacity was reduced to five and the muzzle velocity was
               increased by 40 m/s.
    
       Trivia: Like the US Army's M24, the United States Marine Corps' M40 is based
               on the Remington 700 rifle. The M40 entered service with the Corps in
               1966, with the latest A5 variant being adopted in 2009.
    
               The M40A6 model will have a folding buttstock and considerably more
               rail space for attachments. It's expected to enter service in 2015.
    
    o Scout Elite
    
         Ammo: 5.56x45mm   Capacity: 10+1   Fire-rate: 42 RPM   Reload: 2.85 secs
    
      Unlocks: score 8,000 pts with sniper rifles
    
      Summary: The Scout Elite and the FY-JS both fire smaller calibres which give a
               damage profile that drops to only 36.6 - the Scout can't give a one-
               shot headshot kill past 101 metres. Additionally, although it has a
               high muzzle velocity, it's the only sniper rifle where the higher
               gravity value is applied (15 m/s^2) - this will increase bullet-drop
               and further limit the gun's usefulness when sniping at longer ranges.
    
               Its tight hipfire made it quite capable in a short-range "aggressive
               recon" role but its fire-rate has been reduced significantly since
               launch. The CS5 offers the same hipfire stats and magazine capacity
               but fires much faster and is probably the better choice now for close
               quarters (plus it has the potential for long-range headshot kills).
    
      Patched: The rate of fire was reduced to 42 RPM in the Spring Patch but the
               magazine capacity was increased to ten rounds.
    
       Trivia: The Scout rifle is manufactured by Steyr of Austria who are probably
               best known for the AUG bullpup assault rifle (see above). It has a
               lightweight polymer/aluminium construction with a bipod integrated
               neatly into the forestock.
    
               The Elite variant has a heavier longer barrel, extended scope rail,
               larger bolt handle and adjustable cheek piece on the butt stock.
    
               Although it is commonly seen in 7.62mm, the version in BF4 uses the
               same intermediate 5.56mm load as many of the assault rifles. 
    
               Steyr also have an Elite 08 model with a more radical contemporary
               design compared to the classical rifle layout of the original. It has
               a pistol-grip, lightweight folding stock, multiple Picatinny rails
               and an external detachable bipod.
    
               The Scout Tactical model previously appeared in Spec Ops: The Line.
    
    o SV98
    
         Ammo: 7.62x54mm R  Capacity: 10+1   Fire-rate: 43 RPM   Reload: 2.90 secs
    
      Unlocks: score 13,000 pts with sniper rifles
    
      Summary: The SV98 give better hipfire accuracy than the JNG90, M40 and CS-LR4.
               Otherwise it has an average rate of fire, it shares the larger mag
               size of the CS5 and JNG and the slow muzzle velocity of the M40.
    
      Patched: The SV98 saw small reductions to its fire-rate in the 4 March 2014
               patch and again in the Spring Patch.
    
               A more significant change was applied in the Fall Patch with the
               gravity stat reduced from 15 m/s^2 to a realistic 9.81 m/s^2. The
               Scout Elite is now the only sniper rifle that experiences the high
               bullet-drop of the 15 gravity value.
    
       Trivia: The SV98 is a Russian sniper rifle in service since 1998, used in
               military, police and counter-terrorism units. It was based on an
               existing sporting rifle design and normally uses the 7x PKS07 scope
               (which is available in BF4 if you want an authentic loadout).
    
    o JNG90
    
         Ammo: 7.62x51mm   Capacity: 10+1   Fire-rate: 37 RPM   Reload: 2.70 secs
    
      Unlocks: score 20,000 pts with sniper rifles
    
      Summary: The JNG and CS-LR4 have the highest muzzle velocity in this category.
               Firing at 670 m/s they have the longest theoretical maximum range of
               any conventional firearms in the game: 3,350 metres or 2.1 miles!
    
               However the JNG has a very slow rate of fire, taking 1.6 seconds
               between each shot. It has the larger 10+1 ammo capacity and enjoys
               relatively quick reloads for its group.
    
      Patched: The velocity was buffed from 560 m/s to 670 m/s in the Fall Patch.
               Also the reload threshold was increased slightly.
    
       Trivia: The MKEK JNG90 is a modern sniper rifle manufactured in Turkey and
               used by the Turkish army. MKEK's other sniper rifles are the 7.62mm
               BORA12 and the 5.56mm T12.
    
               They also manufacture firearms under licence including several H&K
               weapons (HK33, G3 and a range of MP5 variants) and the MG3 plus some
               heavy ordnance such as various 40mm grenade-launchers, anti-aircraft
               guns and 155mm howitzers. Their new MPT76 7.62mm battle rifle is now
               (2015/6) being introduced as the new Turkish service rifle, replacing
               the G3 after four decades of service.
    
               The JNG90 previously featured in BF3 and in the free-to-play PC games
               Battlefield Play4Free and Combat Arms.
    
    o 338-Recon
    
         Ammo: .338 Magnum   Capacity: 5+1   Fire-rate: 42 RPM   Reload: 3.00 secs
    
      Unlocks: score 27,000 pts with sniper rifles
    
      Summary: The 338-Recon and the next two sniper unlocks (the M98B and SRR61)
               use larger calibre rounds with a damage drop-off end at 150 metres.
    
               The 338 has a bullpup layout which gives it better hipfire/moving
               accuracy but remember in close quarters you need to hit the upper
               torso or arms (or head of course) if you want to get a one-hit kill
               and this won't work if the target has the ARMOR spec. The Scout Elite
               actually has slightly better hipfire but a very short damage drop-off
               so I guess you might pick the 338-Recon if you want a gun that you
               can use for both long-range headshot kills and short-range hipfire,
               although its other stats make it less suited to close-quarters use.
    
               In comparison to the other heavy snipers, the 338-Recon has a decent
               rate of fire but a small magazine and the slowest muzzle velocity.
    
      Patched: In the 4 March 2014 patch the rate of fire was increased slightly and
               in the Spring Patch it was increased to the current value of 42 RPM.
    
               The hipfire accuracy (which was already good for this category) was
               also improved in the Spring Patch.
    
       Trivia: The 338-Recon is in reality the Stealth Recon Scout (SRS) made by the
               US firm Desert Tactical Arms and in production there since 2008.
    
               The novel bullpup design makes it much shorter than conventional
               weapons. It has a barrel length of 26" and yet even the longer .338
               Lapua Magnum model has an overall length of only 38" which is shorter
               than an M16 assault rifle (with its 20" barrel). The compact Covert
               model has an overall length of 26" which is similar to an SMG - an
               image on the company's website illustrates that the SRS Covert is the
               same length as a H&K MP5 with the sliding stock extended.
    
               The modular design of the SRS allows you to switch between calibres
               easily, e.g. it could be converted to .308 which would be cheaper for
               training and give less overpenetration in an anti-personnel role. The
               full-size .338 load can be used where longer range is required or for
               an anti-materiel (anti-vehicle/equipment) role.
    
               It can also be converted to .260 Remington, .300 Winchester Magnum,
               7mm WSM, 6.5mm Creedmoor and 6.5x47mm Lapua. The manufacturer claims
               that it is the most versatile sniper system in the world.
    
               See the SRS on Ultimate Weapons: http://youtu.be/7xY7nH5hWrI
    
               Desert Tactical Arms have recently rebranded as Desert Tech and are
               currently working on the MDR carbine (another bullpup) which was
               added to Battlefield Hardline (as the "MDC") in the Robbery DLC.
    
    o M98B
    
         Ammo: .338 Magnum   Capacity: 10+1   Fire-rate: 36 RPM   Reload: 3.00 secs
    
      Unlocks: score 34,000 pts with sniper rifles
    
      Summary: The rate of fire has been reduced since BF3 (the M98 and SRR61 have
               the slowest fire-rates in the whole game) but in return the M98B had
               its magazine capacity doubled to ten.
    
               In comparison to the other snipers with the long-range damage model
               it has the largest magazine size and the fastest muzzle velocity,
               however it's limited by that slow rate of fire and it lacks the low
               gravity of the SRR61 so you'll need to compensate more for drop.
    
       Trivia: The Barrett M98 was an entirely new design for a precision rifle in
               the .338 calibre. The original model never entered production but
               this bolt-action M98B version was subsequently launched in 2009.
    
               A modified version of the M98B called the Barrett MRAD (Multi-Role
               Adaptive Design) was produced to meet the requirements of the USSOCOM
               (US Special Operations Command) Precision Sniper Rifle programme.
    
    o SRR61
    
         Ammo: .408 CT   Capacity:  7+1  Fire-rate: 36 RPM   Reload: 3.00 secs
    
      Unlocks: score 42,000 pts with sniper rifles
    
      Summary: The SRR61 has the same longer damage drop-off, fire-rate and reload
               times as the M98B and only slightly less muzzle velocity and three
               fewer rounds in a magazine.
    
               Like the FY-JS and CS5, the SRR61 experiences less gravity (reduced
               bullet-drop) and what's more it looks pretty badass. :) Overall it's
               an excellent choice for long-range sniping.
    
       Trivia: The SRR61 is the CheyTac M200 Intervention but it seems to be named
               here after the 61st Special Reconnaissance Regiment of the Jordanian
               Royal Guard who use it.
    
               The M200 is made by CheyTac (Cheyenne Tactical) of America and has
               been in production since 2001. It uses their own .408 CheyTac calibre
               ammunition which is midway between .50 BMG and .338 Lapua in size and
               was designed specifically for military sniper applications. The .408
               bullet retains more kinetic energy past 700 metres than a .50 round.
    
               The full package is the Long-Range Rifle System (LRRS) which consists
               of the rifle with a 5.5-20x scope and a PDA with a package of wind,
               temperature and pressure sensors and CheyTec's ballistic software.
               The manufacturers boast that the complete LRRS can achieve groups of
               7–9" at 1,000 yards, 10" at 1,500 yards and 15" at 2,000 yards.
    
               See the Intervention on Future Weapons: http://youtu.be/_MdnAi9fSjs
                                                       http://youtu.be/bti1jfo03X4
    
               The latest version of the Intervention is the M300 which is mounted
               in a black Cadex chassis with a full set of Picatinny rails and a
               fully adjustable folding butt-stock. It also loses the distinctive
               carry handle and is ten pounds lighter overall than the M200 model.
    
               Set a couple of decades in the future, the mil-sim ArmA III features
               a fictional update of this design called the "M320 LRR" (although it
               lacks the chassis and therefore resembles the original M200 model).
    
    o FY-JS
    
         Ammo: 5.8x42mm   Capacity: 10+1   Fire-rate: 42 RPM   Reload: 2.60 secs
    
      Unlocks: complete 'Recon Expert' assignment (multiplayer)
    
               First complete 'Recon Basic' to unlock 'Recon Veteran'.
    
               o Multiplayer Rank 10 required
               o Get 7 kills with sniper rifles
               o Have 4 squad-mates spawn on you
    
               Next complete 'Recon Veteran' to unlock 'Recon Expert'.
    
               o Recon Basic required
               o Get 8 kills with sniper rifles
               o Have 5 squad-mates spawn on you
    
               Finally complete 'Recon Expert'.
    
               o Recon Veteran required
               o Get 50 Marksman Ribbons (get 250+ metre headshot/s for each)
               o Get 200 kills with sniper rifles
               o Get 10 Sniper Rifle Ribbons (get 6 sniper rifle kills for each)
    
               While the first two assignments are trivial you'll need to be quite a
               dedicated sniper to complete the third one. The good news at least is
               that you can earn those Marksman Ribbons by getting several headshot
               kills each over 50 metres (in one match) that sum to 250+ metres in
               total, for example you could get headshots at 80, 75 and 95 metres.
    
               Where you're required to get certain amounts of sniper rifle kills
               remember to use the Recon-exclusive sniper rifles, not the DMR's.
    
      Summary: Like the Scout Elite, the FY-JS fires a smaller calibre round which
               gives a low minimum damage (only 36.6).
    
               While several stats are similar for these two guns the FY-JS is the
               better choice for mid-range sniping due to the significantly longer
               damage drop-off and low gravity value (6 m/s^2) however you must
               remember that it can't give a one-shot headshot kill past 135 metres.
               The main benefit of the Scout Elite is the tighter hipfire spread.
    
      Patched: The drop-off end distance was increased from 110 to 147.8 metres in
               the Spring Patch however the fire-rate was also nerfed to 42 RPM.
    
       Trivia: The FY-JS is also known as the CS/LR3 and, as you can see from the
               Battlelog images, it's cosmetically identical to the 7.62mm CS/LR4.
    
    o L115
    
         Ammo: .338 Magnum   Capacity: 5+1   Fire-rate: 43 RPM   Reload: 3.30 secs
    
      Unlocks: complete 'Need Only One' assignment (multiplayer)
    
               o China Rising DLC required
               o Multiplayer Rank 10 required
               o Get 3 Sniper Rifle Ribbons (get 6 sniper kills in a match for each)
               o Achieve the following in the same match:
                 - Get 1 kill with a designated marksman rifle (DMR)
                 - Get 1 kill with a shotgun
                 - Get 1 kill with C4 explosives
    
               I think you need to earn the ribbons before getting the three kills.
               Even if you have no other unlocks available you will have access to
               the Recon kit's default CS-LR4 sniper rifle and you could also try
               using the M82A3 or AMR2 pickup weapons (see below).
    
               Your first DMR will be the RFB (see Section 03f) which is unlocked by
               scoring 13,000 pts with the Recon class. You will unlock the QBS09
               shotgun (see Section 03g) by scoring 16,000 pts with the Support kit
               but you could also probably use the Shorty 12G (sidearm) or the
               USAS12 (Battle Pickup).
    
               C4 is available by default for the Recon class which is easier than
               having to earn 134,000 XP to unlock it with the Support kit and I
               think it might be mandatory to play as Recon for this assignment.
    
               If you have the Shorty 12G shotgun sidearm unlocked (see Section 03h)
               you can equip that with a DMR and the C4 which will leave you free to
               get all the required kills without having to keep switching loadout.
    
      Summary: The post-patch L115 (.338 Magnum) now has the same long-range damage
               profile as the GOL Magnum, SRR61, M98B and 338-Recon. Compared to the
               rest of that group it has a good rate of fire and muzzle velocity but
               the same smaller mag size as the GOL and 338-Recon.
    
               The SRR has less bullet-drop and a couple of extra rounds in the mag
               but it does fire at a slower rate.*
    
               *In BF3 it had the slowest rate of fire in the entire game.
    
      Patched: The L115 saw several changes in the Spring Patch and even had its
               ammo type changed from 7.62mm NATO to .338 Magnum.
    
               In addition to the longer damage drop-off of the new ammo the L115
               also got faster reload times and increased muzzle velocity, however
               these buffs were balanced by the new mag size (ten reduced to five).
    
               The weapon was added to the game in December 2013 as the "L96A1" but
               following the change of ammo type this name was no longer authentic
               and the gun was renamed the "L115" in the Summer Patch (the L96A1
               doesn't use the .338 Magnum load but the L115 does). A similar name
               change was applied to the RPK (RPK74M) LMG.
    
       Trivia: The L115 is one of a range of sniper rifles designed and manufactured
               by the British company Accuracy International. The original model was
               the PM (Precision Marksman) rifle in 7.62mm NATO. This was adopted by
               the British army in the mid 80's (to replace the Lee-Enfield L42A1)
               and designated the L96A1 but nicknamed the "Green Meanie"!
    
               An updated version called the AW (Arctic Warfare) was designed for
               the Swedish military - incorporating features to improve performance
               in cold climates (hence the name!) - and this model was also adopted
               by the British Army as the L118A1.
    
               The AWM (Arctic Warfare Magnum) uses either .338 Lapua Magnum (like
               the M98B, GOL Magnum and 338-Recon in BF4) or .300 Winchester Magnum.
               British forces use two versions of the so-called "Super Magnum" in
               .338 Lapua - the L115A1 and the enhanced L115A3. The latter model was
               used by British sniper Craig Harrison to achieve the longest recorded
               sniper kill of 2,707 yards (~1.5 miles) in Helmand Province in 2009.
    
               See the AWM on Future Weapons: http://youtu.be/glCddKt8sX0
    
               These variants are all similar in appearance as they are mounted in
               the same body, the manufacturer's own AICS (Accuracy International
               Chassis System) which consists of an aluminium frame with external
               polymer panels. The 1.0 version is the original, the 1.5 added an
               adjustable cheek rest and the 2.0 also has a folding shoulder stock
               which reduces the overall length by eight inches.
    
               The AWM has now been superseded by the AX308 in .308 Winchester and
               the AXMC which fires .338 Lapua Magnum but can be readily converted
               to use either .300 Win Mag or .308 Win. Accuracy International also
               currently market the AT308 (in .308 Win), the AX50 (in .50 BMG) and
               the new AXAICS and ATAICS chassis (both made to take R700 actions).
    
               See the AT308 and AX50 on TAC-TV: https://youtu.be/zDzM-kWdPVw
    
    o GOL Magnum
    
         Ammo: .338 Magnum   Capacity: 5+1   Fire-rate: 44 RPM   Reload: 3.30 secs
    
      Unlocks: complete 'Eagle's Nest' assignment (multiplayer)
    
               o Second Assault DLC required
               o Multiplayer Rank 10 required
               o Achieve the following in the same match:
                 - Get 1 Sniper Rifle Ribbon (get 6 sniper rifle kills in a match)
                 - Get 5 kills from the Caspian Border or Operation Firestorm tower
    
               The requirement for the tower kills is simply that you get kills
               whilst standing on the tower platforms - you don't need to snipe and
               in fact you might find it easier just to use close-quarters weapons
               to clear some of the many snipers camping on the towers; you could
               also try using lock-on missiles on ground and air targets. However
               you will need to get those six sniper rifle kills for the ribbon too
               so it would be more efficient to work on both at the same time.
    
               On both maps it's only the one biggest tower that counts. On Caspian
               Border it's the massive antenna at the "D" Hilltop flag in Conquest
               Large - this has the convenience of being able to ride the elevator
               up to the first level of platforms (85 metres) but the disadvantage
               that your tower can be destroyed with the "Levolution" event before
               you can get the five required kills (players can start or stop the
               demolition timer in the basement complex).
    
               On Operation Firestorm it's the tall chimney immediately south-west
               of the "C" Filling Station flag in Conquest Large. It's best to avoid
               using the top platform (100 metres) because players at the base of
               the chimney can roast you by activating the gas burn-off. Any kills
               you get from using the burn-off will not count towards this unlock
               and kills on the ground right next to the tower don't count either.
    
               The quickest way to get up a tower is to spawn on a squad-mate who's
               already there. If there are no tower campers in your squad then try
               switching squads (or to the other team). Keep moving once you're up
               there because every other sniper/tank/jet/etc on the map will have
               their sights set on easy kills off players seeking that elusive GOL.
    
      Summary: Previously playable in Battlefield: Play4Free and both Bad Company
               games, the GOL returned to the series in the Second Assault DLC.
    
               The GOL Magnum shares the longer damage drop-off and high min damage
               of the M98B, 338-Recon, SRR61 and post-patch L115. Among those guns
               it has the best fire-rate, but it's only slightly faster than the
               L115 and 338-Recon. It has the slowest muzzle velocity and the
               smaller magazine size but it's got a decent long reload time.
    
      Patched: At release (initially the Second Assault DLC was a timed exclusive on
               the Xbone) the GOL Magnum would unlock without optics and with only a
               limited range of scopes and sights available to unlock but this was
               subsequently fixed.
    
               The GOL has seen successive reductions to its rate of fire in several
               patches but it still combines the long-range power of its .338" load
               with one of the higher fire-rates in the sniper category.
    
       Trivia: The GOL Sniper range was previously marketed by the Gol-Matic company
               of Germany but their old web address now redirects to the affiliated
               site of gunsmith Gottfried Prechtl. The design is derived ultimately
               from the M98 (unrelated to the Barrett M98B) which was adopted as the
               German service rifle way back in 1898.
    
               The standard GOL Sniper fired 7.62mm NATO, the GOL Sniper S fired
               .300 Winchester Magnum and the GOL Sniper Magnum - as featured in the
               game - fired the .338 Lapua Magnum round. Marketing for the weapon
               focused on the power and accuracy of this Magnum load, boasting an
               operational range of 1,000 metres.
    
               The latest model promoted by Gottfried Prechtl is the GS 04 ML which
               comes in the same range of calibres.
    
    o SR338
    
         Ammo: .338 Magnum   Capacity: 10+1   Fire-rate: 200 RPM   Reload: 2.30 secs
    
      Unlocks: complete 'Always Deadly' assignment (multiplayer)
    
               o Naval Strike DLC required*
               o Multiplayer Rank 10 required
               o Get 3 Sniper Rifle Ribbons (get 6 sniper kills in a match for each)
               o Get 5 kills with C4 on Naval Strike maps
    
               You're free to get creative but my preferred option for C4 kills in
               Naval Strike is swimming up to attack boats like a commando and then
               planting the C4 while still in the water. C4 also makes a refreshing
               alternative to knife kills on the plentiful camping snipers.
    
               *As with the Second Assault DLC, the Naval Strike assignments were
               added to the PC platform before the DLC was released. PC gamers were
               able to unlock four of the five new weapons at that stage with the
               SR338 being the only exception as it requires DLC map access.
    
      Summary: The SR338 is a wildcard addition to the sniper rifle category as it's
               a semi-automatic weapon that fires around four or five times faster
               than the other unlockable snipers which all use bolt actions.
    
               On its first shot it has the same perfect stationary aimed accuracy
               as the other sniper rifles but its maximum damage is 50 so it's not
               capable of the usual one-shot CQB kills on the chest/arms and at most
               ranges it'll give the same three-hit kill as a DMR.
    
               In comparison to the DMR's, the SR338 has a slower fire-rate, half
               the typical magazine capacity, no foregrips and similar recoil. The
               main advantages of the post-patch SR338 vs DMR's are better accuracy
               (on first and follow-up shots) and the ability to use the long-range
               scopes and the range finder attachment.
    
      Patched: Seemingly in an effort to ensure that this semi-auto sniper was not
               overpowered, the original iteration of the SR338 had an insanely high
               spread increase per shot of 0.6 (for most automatic weapons this stat
               is around 0.1, for DMR's it's between 0.15 to 0.3 and for the other
               sniper rifles it's zero). This seriously impaired the accuracy of
               follow-up shots forcing you to pause between each round to allow time
               for the spread to recover - and this defeated the whole point of
               having a theoretically faster semi-auto sniper!
    
               In order to make the SR338 usable the SIPS was reduced from 0.6 to
               0.1 in the Fall Patch. Additionally the muzzle velocity was increased
               from 500 m/s to 600 m/s to bring it in line with other rifles in this
               category and the damage drop-off start distance was increased from
               12.5 metres (the same as the other .338" snipers) to 15 metres, this
               extending the range of the two-hit kill potential.
    
               A whole raft of changes were later deployed in the Spring Patch, the
               most prominent being a fire-rate buff from 150 to 200 RPM.
    
               The horizontal recoil was reduced and the pull to the right almost
               eliminated. Previously there was a significant pull and it couldn't
               be corrected by attaching a compensator since that attachment is not
               available to sniper rifles (since most have zero muzzle drift).
    
               The hipfire accuracy was tightened, the SIPS for hipfire was changed
               from 0.0 to 0.1 and the spread recovery was buffed from 7.5 (the same
               as the bolt-action snipers) to 10.
    
               (Additionally the vertical recoil was approximately doubled and the
               first-shot recoil multiplier was halved, so these changes effectively
               cancelled each other out. The stats for spread recovery and recoil
               are now in line with those of the DMR's.)
    
       Trivia: The SR338 (presumably "Sniper Rifle" .338 calibre) is in fact the
               FD338 manufactured by F&D Defense based in New Braunfels, Texas. In
               real life it takes either 10 or 15-round magazines and costs $5,450.
    
               F&D offer their own subsonic .458" FnD ammunition where the cartridge
               size is equivalent to the .338" Lapua Magnum. This can be used in the
               FD458 rifle which is essentially a modified FD338 with an integral
               suppressor and an upper receiver that takes their .458" ammo.
    
               They also manufacture the FD308 chambered for the .308" Winchester
               load and boast that this rifle is "*Still* the highest quality *most*
               accurate production 308 autoloader on the market!" [their emphasis]
               offering potential spread of less than 3/8ths MOA (minutes of angle).
    
    o CS5
    
         Ammo: 7.62x51mm   Capacity: 10+1   Fire-rate: 53 RPM   Reload: 2.70 secs
    
      Unlocks: complete 'The "I" in Team' assignment (multiplayer)
    
               o Dragon's Teeth DLC required
               o Multiplayer Rank 10 required
               o Play on any Dragon's Teeth map to activate assignment
               o Get 2 Sniper Rifle Ribbons (get 6 sniper kills in a match for each)
               o Receive ten Spawn Beacon Bonuses
               o Receive twenty Spot Bonuses
    
               The radio beacon (spawn beacon) unlocks after earning 32,000 pts with
               the Recon class. It can be equipped as a gadget and deployed in the
               field - any player in your squad can then select it on the respawn
               screen and spawn at its location (giving you one Spawn Beacon Bonus).
    
               The radio beacon can be a very useful tool and if you plant yours in
               a handy spot you should get plenty of squad spawns off it. Try to get
               it in the enemy base in Rush mode or near a popular flag in Conquest
               mode but remember that nearby enemy players will hear it beeping so
               place it some distance away from the objective and busy routes.
    
               You can use the spot button (by default on PS4 this is R1) to mark
               enemy troops and vehicles for your team. If a team-mate kills an
               enemy that you spotted then you get one Spot Bonus. Yay!
    
      Summary: The CS5 has the highest fire-rate among the bolt-actions plus the
               larger ten-round magazine, decent reload times and superior hipfire
               accuracy thanks to its shorter length. These stats make the weapon a
               better choice for close-quarter roles however it also experiences
               lower gravity and gives the 56 minimum damage that permits a one-hit
               headshot kill at any range when sniping.
    
               Of course there must be at least one negative in the CS5's stats to
               provide some balance and it's the muzzle velocity. The gun fires at a
               very sluggish 400 metres per second which will greatly increase the
               travel times and bullet-drop.
    
               The CS5 comes equipped with a unique and authentic suppressor by
               default but remember this will make that muzzle velocity even slower.
    
      Patched: The gravity value for the CS5 was changed from 9.81 to 6 m/s^2 in the
               Spring Patch - only the FY-JS and SRR61 share this ability. There was
               also a small increase in the rate of fire to 53 RPM.
    
               An error in the CS5's zeroing was fixed in the Second Fall Patch.
    
       Trivia: The McMillan CS5 (that's literally one C and five S's - "Concealable
               Subsonic/Supersonic Suppressed Sniper System"!) is part of McMillan's
               ALIAS system of configurable bolt-action rifles which allows you to
               "build your own" weapon by taking the ALIAS action and adding your
               choice of calibre (.308" Winchester, 6mm XC, 6.5mm Lapua or 6.5mm
               Creedmoor), barrel length, buttstock, fore-end, pistol grip and the
               optional suppressor.
    
               The CS5 configuration was "designed for stealth and concealment in
               urban settings". It's fitted with a suppressor and the "Stubby" model
               is only 23.5" long with the fully-adjustable stock and suppressor
               removed so it can be deployed discretely in police operations. Since
               the 12.5" barrel and suppressor would both be subject to US gun laws
               there is also a "Standard" unsuppressed model with an 18.5" barrel.
    
               The CS5 previously featured in Medal of Honor: Warfighter.
    
    o M82A3
    
         Ammo: .50 BMG   Capacity: 10+1   Fire-rate: 125 RPM   Reload: 4.20 secs
    
      Unlocks: N/A (Battle Pickup only)
    
               For BF4 the developers decided to include some very powerful weapons
               into the multiplayer game.* These were too strong to be available as
               standard unlockable weapons so instead they settled on a compromise
               and added them as "Battle Pickups". They can be found on the maps in
               weapon cases marked with a "briefcase star" map icon** (with the same
               weapon always spawning at the same map location in any given mode).
    
               Each pickup weapon comes with a limited amount of ammo and cannot be
               resupplied. If you switch to another gun or a gadget then the pickup
               will be dropped but you can pick up the pickup again!
    
               Ironically players frequently reported difficulties in successfully
               picking up the Battle Pickup weapons from their crates. This issue
               was addressed in the server-side update on 5 August 2014 - and again
               in the Fall Patch (30 September 2014).
    
               *In addition to the M82A3 the other Battle Pickups are the AMR2 rifle
               (see below), the USAS12 shotgun, the South African M32 MGL (Multiple
               Grenade Launcher), the British HVM II Starstreak anti-air launcher
               and the Swedish AT4 CS missile launcher (designated the M136 in US
               use). They can be used to temporarily add a long-range, close-quarter
               or anti-vehicle capability to your current weapon loadout; in video-
               game terms you can think of them as temporary power-ups.
    
               **Previously the Battle Pickup icon was a pistol symbol but with the
               introduction of the RAWR in the Dragon's Teeth DLC it was necessary
               to change it to a more general symbol (patched on 8 July 2014).
    
      Summary: Both Battle Pickup sniper rifles fire very large calibre rounds (.50"
               or 12.7mm) which give a one-hit kill on *any* body part at any range.
               They can also be used as true anti-materiel rifles to damage vehicles
               although heavy armour like tanks and IFV's are off the menu.*
    
               The M82A3 is a semi-automatic weapon - its fire-rate is almost double
               that of the fastest bolt-action sniper rifle in BF4.
    
               Depending on the map and game mode one of three different versions
               could be available to pick up. The standard "M82A3" is equipped for
               long-range use, the "M82A3 Mid" is designed for medium ranges while
               the "M82A3 CQB" is meant for short range, e.g. on Domination maps.
               Each version has a different scope but all three come with a bipod
               and range finder; the long-range model also has a variable zoom.
    
               Your stats for the three models are tracked separately on Battlelog.
    
               *When targeting a helicopter aim for the windscreen - you'll do more
               damage to the vehicle and you might be able to hit the pilot.
    
       Trivia: Barrett Firearms Manufacturing was established specifically to design
               and manufacture semi-automatic rifles in the mighty .50" BMG calibre.
               The Barrett M82 was their first design, entering production in 1982
               (hence the name), followed by the bolt-action M90 and M95 models, the
               single-shot M99 and the .338 calibre M98 (semi-auto) and M98B (bolt-
               action). They also manufacture their own variants of the M240 light
               machinegun and M4 carbine.
    
               Successive improvements to the design gave rise to the M82A1, M82A1M
               and the M82A3 that appears in the game. The M82A2 was a bullpup model
               with the mechanism and chunky .50-cal magazine located at the rear.
               The latest derivative is the prototypical XM500 bullpup rifle.
    
               After several modifcations the M82 was adopted by the US Army in 2002
               and designated the M107; in addition to the anti-materiel role it can
               also be used for remote bomb disposal. In early 2011 Barrett launched
               the revised M107A1 as a new model available to the public.
    
               See the M107 on Ultimate Weapons: http://youtu.be/7uNKflwUTH0
    
               See the M107 on Miculek.com: https://youtu.be/5J9hCDr21mo
    
               (That second video illustrates the effect of a .50 BMG round against
               ballistics gelatin which is designed to replicate human tissue.)
    
               The M82 is now also available in Barrett's own .416 calibre. This
               model was added to Battlefield Hardline in the Robbery update.
    
               The M82A3 was previously featured in Battlefield Play4Free and in the
               penultimate mission of the BF3 single-player campaign.
    
    o AMR2
    
         Ammo: 12.7x108mm   Capacity: 5+1   Fire-rate: 37 RPM   Reload: 3.50 secs
    
      Unlocks: N/A (Battle Pickup only)
    
      Summary: Like the M82A3 above, the AMR2 is an anti-materiel rifle (hence the
               name!) and it shares the same unlimited one-hit kill potential. It
               also comes in three versions to suit large, medium and small maps.
    
               However the AMR is a bolt-action weapon so its rate of fire is a lot
               slower (about one third that of the M82A3) and it also has half the
               magazine capacity so it's not quite so beastly.
    
               The AMR has a bipod and range finder but no straight-pull bolt so you
               have to exit the scoped view each time you chamber a new round.
    
       Trivia: The Chinese AMR2 is quite similar in concept (and design) to the M82
               but it has a bolt-action mechanism and a folding shoulder stock.
    
               It uses the Russian 12.7mm round which is close (but not identical)
               in size to the .50" BMG ammo used by the M82. Like that .50" calibre
               NATO load the 12.7mm is a heavy machinegun round* that is now also
               utilised in a number of anti-materiel rifles.
    
               *The 12.7mm cartridge is also used by the Russian KORD which features
               in most recent Battlefield games as the standard heavy machinegun on
               various Russian vehicles and sometimes in fixed machinegun turrets.
    
    o Rorsch Mk 1
    
         Ammo: (projectile)   Capacity: 1   Fire-rate: 37 RPM   Reload: 5.80 secs
    
      Unlocks: N/A (Battle Pickup only)
    
      Summary: Available in the Final Stand expansion, the Rorsch Mk 1 is a portable
               railgun which functions as a powerful but limited sniper rifle.
    
               It does 110 damage at all ranges (no drop-off) so it gives a one-hit
               kill on any body part. It has a very high muzzle velocity which is
               more than five times faster than any conventional firearm in the game
               so its projectiles have a short travel time (e.g. 500 metres in 0.14
               seconds). It also has a gravity stat of 0 m/s^2 so its projectiles
               do not drop during flight.
    
               The power of the railgun is balanced by its effective fire-rate, ammo
               supply and charge time. The weapon holds only one round at a time and
               it takes around six seconds to go through the reload animation, it
               comes with only eight rounds available and there is a delay of about
               two seconds between pulling the trigger and the projectile firing so
               you need to maintain your aim and track your target until it fires.
    
               The railgun copies the recoil and spread stats from the M82 and AMR2
               so it has a pull to the right and a stationary aimed accuracy of 0.1
               instead of the perfect aimed accuracy of the loadout sniper rifles.
    
               The Mk 1 comes equipped with a special 20x scope which has a HUD
               showing the bearing, inclination, range and your local clock time.
               It also has a blue laser sight which is visible when you ADS.
    
               Check my BF4 Trophies Guide (trophy #67) for a full list of railgun
               pickup locations in Conquest Large, Conquest and Obliteration modes.
    
      Patched: Like the other sniper pickups, the railgun can be used to damage
               vehicles but it has been nerfed since the initial public testing on
               the CTE. Previously it gave a one-hit kill on helicopters and now it
               doesn't, although it will still give a mobility hit.
    
               In the Spring Patch the max/min damage was reduced from 150 to 110
               bringing the railgun in line with the M82/AMR2 pickups, however its
               aimed spread was also reduced to zero while the other pickups still
               have values of 0.1 for ADS accuracy.
    
               Additionally its splash damage and radius were reduced and the bipod
               and muzzle brake benefits were removed.
    
       Trivia: Like all the prototypical weapons, equipment and vehicles in the
               Final Stand expansion, the railgun is a precursor of technology seen
               in Battlefield 2142, in this case the Rorsch Mk S8 railgun turret.
    
               A railgun operates by creating an electrical circuit through two
               parallel metal rails and the projectile which is either a metal dart
               or a non-metallic dart encased in a conductive sabot. This generates
               a vertical net magnetic field so the projectile - where the current
               flows between the rails - experiences a Lorentz force along the axis
               of the rails, accelerating it to a very high speed in a short time.
               A railgun will typically use currents of several million amps which
               give the projectile a muzzle velocity of around 3,000 m/s and high
               kinetic energy that would be measured in megajoules.
    
               You need to kill 25 enemies and destroy 10 vehicles with the Mk 1 to
               complete the 'Railgun Rampage' assignment.
    
    .-------------.----------------------------------------------------------------.
    | Section 03e | Carbines                                                  s03e |
    '-------------'----------------------------------------------------------------'
    
    The carbines can be equipped into the primary slot in any of the four kits,
    replacing your assault rifle, PDW, LMG or sniper rifle.
    
    A carbine has a shorter barrel and overall length than a standard rifle and is
    often a modified version of a full-size weapon. The reduced size and weight of
    the firearm makes it more convenient in certain environments and when operating
    in vehicles but the shorter barrel results in reduced power and range. Carbines
    are useful in modern urban battlefields where the shorter length makes them
    easier to use indoors and the reduced range isn't an issue.
    
    Initially only the Groza 1 is available. The Ak5C is unlocked from progression
    of the Engineer class and the MTAR21 can be earned by completing an assignment
    (in the China Rising DLC). The others are unlocked by earning XP using whichever
    carbines you have available.
    
    (Alongside the launch of the Naval Strike DLC in March 2014, DICE also released
    a wide range of unlock shortcuts on the PSN store including separate packs for
    all of the unlockable classless weapons in the base game. The Carbine Shortcut
    Kit is available for US$4.99, UKP3.99, 500 Yen or HK$38.)
    
    The carbines use the same ammunition types as the assault rifles - they get
    about the same maximum damage but the minimum damage is less and their damage
    drop-off end distances are shorter too.
    
                           |  Max.  |    Damage    |  Min.  |
                Ammunition | Damage |   Drop-Off   | Damage | Weapons
         ==================+========+==============+========+=================
            7.62x51mm NATO |  33.0  |   8m to 50m  |  18.0  | Ace 52 CQB only
         ------------------+--------+--------------+--------+-----------------
              7.62x39mm WP |  30.0  |  8m to 52.5m |  16.7  | Groza 1 only
         ------------------+--------+--------------+--------+-----------------
            5.56x45mm NATO |        |              |        |
              5.45x39mm WP |  24.0  |   8m to 50m  |  15.4  | everything else
          5.8x42mm Chinese |        |              |        |
    
    Patched: In the Fall Patch the maximum damage for all carbines was reduced by 1.
             Additionally the Ace 52 CQB received a similar rebalance to the 7.62mm
             SCAR-H and Bulldoge in the assault rifle category - the minimum damage
             was reduced by 1 and the damage drop-off extended by 5 metres.
    
             The Ace 52 got a couple of further changes in the Spring Patch - its
             minimum damage was reduced by 1 (again) and the damage drop-off end
             distance was reverted back to 50 metres. (The maximum damage for 5.56mm
             carbines was not raised in line with the assault rifles and LMG's.)
    
    Compared to the assault rifles the carbines also tend to have a wider spread on
    static aimed use (shorter barrel is less accurate) but tighter spread for aiming
    in hipfire and while moving (shorter weapon is easier to handle). Recoil stats
    are similar and average fire-rates and reload times are comparable or better.
    
    Patched: The spread recovery stats were rebalanced in the Spring Patch. The
             carbines with high rates of fire or heavier damage models received the
             biggest decreases, for example the MTAR21 (7.7), ACW-R (8.0), Ace 53
             (8.3) and the newly-added Groza 1 (8.2). The slowest firing carbines -
             the G36C and Type 95 - saw barely any change (both 14.7).
    
             Every bullpup carbine got a small increase to its hipfire moving spread
             and most carbines got some changes to recoil as detailed below.
    
    Overall the carbines are less effective at long ranges due to the reduced ADS
    accuracy and the minimum damage but otherwise they're pretty good and you can
    consider using them with the Recon and Support kits if you want a versatile
    alternative to their default bolt-action sniper rifles and light machineguns.
    
    o Groza 1
    
         Ammo: 7.62x39mm   Capacity: 30+1   Fire-rate: 725 RPM   Reload: 2.50 secs
    
      Unlocks: available by default (added in Spring Patch on 26 May 2015)
    
               New players now have the benefit of a carbine being available (to all
               classes) from the very start of their BF4 career.
    
      Summary: The Groza carbine uses the same 7.62x39mm cartridge as the SKS and
               the RPK. As in the LMG category, this gives a unique damage pattern
               with values halfway between the heavy and light weapons (and a short-
               range two-hit kill in Hardcore mode). The Groza also has a quite
               respectable fire-rate of 725 RPM and it is the combination of these
               two factors that give it the highest DPS in this category, beating
               even the Ace 52 and MTAR21.
    
               It will function best in a close-quarters role as its bullpup format
               gives it bonuses to hipfire and firing while moving and it has very
               high vertical and horizontal recoil, a very slow muzzle velocity and
               slightly less stationary aimed spread than the non-bullpup carbines
               so it will be much less effective at range.
    
               The Groza 1 comes permanently fitted with the vertical grip and the
               compensator so you have very limited potential for customization -
               you won't be able to run it with a suppressor for example.
    
               The first attachment unlock is the Kobra sight which suits the gun's
               role and is appropriate to its Russian origins. Optics mount on top
               of the carry handle so the weapon fills a big chunk of your screen.
    
      Patched: Following playtests on the CTE but prior to release the Groza's rate
               of fire was reduced from 800 to 725 RPM but it also got improvements
               to its spread recovery and reload times.
    
       Trivia: Imagine if you took a traditional Kalashnikov assault rifle, removed
               the buttstock, moved the pistol grip and trigger group forward of the
               magazine well and added an MP5K foregrip and an AR15 carrying handle.
               That's pretty much what the Groza 1 looks like!
    
               The Groza 1's magazine is more distinctly curved compared to the
               Groza 4 in the PDW category. This is because the Soviet 7.62x39mm
               load has a tapered cartridge case.
    
               There is also a grenadier variant of the Groza with a longer barrel
               and an underbarrel GP30 launcher. This featured previously in the
               S.T.A.L.K.E.R. games as the "Tunder S14" (loosely based on the real
               OTs14 designation and the fact that groza means "thunderstorm").
    
    o Ak5C
    
         Ammo: 5.56x45mm   Capacity: 30+1   Fire-rate: 700 RPM   Reload: 1.95 secs
    
      Unlocks: score 15,000 pts with Engineer class
    
      Summary: Although several carbines have slower rates of fire, the Ak5C has a
               fairly slow fire-rate which makes it less effective in close quarters
               however - combined with the reasonable vertical recoil, the quite
               small/balanced horizontal recoil and the very high muzzle velocity -
               it's nicely controllable and very useful at longer ranges. This makes
               it a good choice to use with the Engineer class when playing on those
               big vehicle-based Conquest maps with longer engagement distances.
    
      Patched: The reload times were increased slightly in the Spring Patch but are
               still excellent, beaten only by the ACW-R and M4 in this category.
    
               The muzzle velocity was reduced by 10 m/s in the Summer Patch.
    
       Trivia: The Ak5 - unrelated to the AK47, AK12, etc - is the Swedish* version
               of the FN FNC rifle that dates back to the late 70's. Adapted for use
               in the climates of Sweden and manufactured locally by FFV Ordnance
               under licence from FN, the Ak5 entered service with the Swedish armed
               forces in 1986, replacing the previous Ak4 (the 7.62mm H&K G3).
    
               The Ak5C is a newer model made by Bofors and adopted by the Swedish
               military in 2006. The new features include Picatinny accessory rails,
               reduced length and weight, adjustable stock and improved reliability.
    
               *DICE celebrate their local firearms manufacturers with the 'Swedish
               Steel' gold assignment featuring the Ak5C (carbine) and CBJ-MS (PDW).
    
               Youtube producer WhiteMoose reports that he used the Ak5C in the
               Swedish army, presumably during mandatory national service.
    
    o ACW-R
    
         Ammo: 5.56x45mm   Capacity: 30+1   Fire-rate: 880 RPM   Reload: 1.83 secs
    
      Unlocks: score 4,000 pts with carbines
    
      Summary: In BF3 the ACW-R was a very distinctive weapon - DICE modelled it on
               the 6.5x39mm Grendel version which gave low maximum damage but high
               minimum damage making it great at long range; it had a high (850 RPM)
               rate of fire and was balanced by a 26-round magazine. Now I'm sad to
               say it's been homogenized and the version in BF4 fires 5.56mm NATO
               with the usual carbine damage pattern and a standard 30-round mag,
               removing some much-needed diversity from the carbine category.
    
               It still has a good rate of fire though and in fact it's been raised
               to 880 RPM which makes it the fastest carbine in the base game (the
               MTAR21 from the China Rising DLC fires at 900 RPM). However it also
               has very high vertical recoil and relatively poor horizontal recoil.
    
               It has the quickest short reload of all the carbines (and the second
               fastest reload for a primary in the whole game after the M16A4).
    
      Patched: The reload threshold was reduced in the Fall Patch.
    
               In the Spring Patch its long reload was reduced to only 2.15 seconds
               which is quicker than the short reload for most weapons! However its
               vertical and left recoil and first-shot recoil multiplier all got
               small increases too.
    
       Trivia: In real life it's the ACR (Adaptive Combat Rifle) which is an updated
               version of Magpul's Masada, manufactured under licence by Bushmaster.
               It entered production in 2010 and was submitted - along with the SCAR
               and HK416 - to the trials to find a replacement for the M4 in US Army
               service. The model in BF4 has the fixed hollow triangular stock but a
               version with an adjustable folding stock is also available.
    
               See the Masada on Future Weapons: http://youtu.be/ZJhPMIVgF6c
    
               The ACR can be adapted easily to shoot either 5.56mm or 6.8mm ammo
               but in BF3 it took the revolutionary 6.5mm Grendel round. This was
               designed to give low recoil and high accuracy in a cartridge that is
               small enough to fit into a modified 5.56mm weapon. Compared to the
               5.56mm NATO round the 6.5mm bullet (the actual projectile) is longer
               and heavier and the case is shorter but fatter to hold more powder.
    
               See the 6.5mm Grendel on Future Weapons: http://youtu.be/ydP3DUIT_EU
    
    o SG553
    
         Ammo: 5.56x45mm   Capacity: 30+1   Fire-rate: 830 RPM   Reload: 2.15 secs
    
      Unlocks: score 11,000 pts with carbines
    
      Summary: The SG553 has received an even bigger buff to its rate of fire since
               BF3, increasing from 700 to 830 RPM and making it the second fastest
               carbine in the base game after the ACW-R.
    
               The reload times are fairly average for this category though and,
               since the Spring Patch, the recoil is now quite typical for a carbine
               with this fire-rate.
    
      Patched: The SG553 got a bit of a buff in the Fall Patch - the muzzle velocity
               was increased and the horizontal recoil was reduced.
    
               In the Spring Patch that horizontal recoil was shifted to reduce the
               right pull. Also the vertical recoil and recoil multiplier were both
               increased slightly.
    
       Trivia: The Swiss SIG SG553 was derived ultimately from the full-sized SG550
               assault rifle of the mid 80's. The SG551 was a carbine version with a
               14" barrel instead of the standard 21" one and the SG552 was an even
               shorter "commando" version with a 9" barrel. The SG553 - as featured
               in both BF3 and BF4 - is an upgrade of the SG552 design with the same
               dimensions but improved reliability.
    
               The carbine comes with either a conventional polymeric handguard or
               an aluminium one with quad rails, a receiver made of either billet
               aluminium or forged steel and either a folding or folding/telescopic
               stock. There is also a "Pistol" variant without a shoulder-stock.
    
               The SG553 also appears in Far Cry 3 and 4 where it's labelled as the
               STG90, a variation of the Stgw90 designation (Sturmgewehr 90) used by
               the German military.
    
    o AKu12
    
         Ammo: 5.45x39mm   Capacity: 30+1   Fire-rate: 680 RPM   Reload: 2.40 secs
    
      Unlocks: score 19,000 pts with carbines
    
      Summary: Like the AKS74u in BF3, the new Kalashnikov has one of the slowest
               rates of fire but it has low recoil making it useful at range.
    
               I wouldn't normally use the burst fire mode on a weapon - as you can
               just tapfire on auto mode and control your burst size - but here the
               weapon has a superior fire-rate (750 RPM) for bursts so it's worth
               taking advantage of that.
    
      Patched: In the Fall Patch the AKu12 got increases to both its muzzle velocity
               (buff) and vertical recoil (nerf). Overall the recoil was still good.
    
               The reload times were made longer in the Spring Patch. The horizontal
               recoil was shifted from a right pull to a left pull but is still
               quite low. Also the first-shot recoil multiplier was increased.
    
       Trivia: The AKu12 (or AK12u?) carbine is a planned shortened version of the
               AK12 assault rifle (see above) intended for use by paratroopers,
               special forces and vehicle crews. The U in the designation stands
               for ukorochenniy which means "shortened" in Russian.
    
               It follows the tradition of the AKS74u carbine which was featured in
               six previous Battlefield games/expansions, most recently in BFBC2,
               BF Play4Free and BF3. That model dates back to the late 70's and has
               an overall length (with the stock folded) of just 19".
    
               See the AKS74u on Military Arms Channel: https://youtu.be/EJxXul6Sdr0
    
               Traditionally a Kalashnikov variant with a lightweight folding stock
               would have an S in its name (e.g. AKS74 and AKS74u) but in BF4 even
               the standard AK12 assault rifle is modelled with a folding stock so
               I guess DICE are assuming that this convention would be abandoned.
    
    o A91
    
         Ammo: 5.56x45mm   Capacity: 30+1   Fire-rate: 800 RPM   Reload: 2.70 secs
    
      Unlocks: score 28,000 pts with carbines
    
      Summary: You'll probably have noticed by now that there's not much variety in
               the carbine category. Most of them hold 30 rounds of 5.56mm ammo (or
               equivalent) and have similar reload times and accuracy stats. Some
               have slightly higher fire-rates and correspondingly higher recoil and
               others have slower rates of fire and not so much recoil.
    
               The A91 has a bullpup design so it at least shakes things up a little
               by having superior accuracy in hipfire and/or while moving but worse
               accuracy in stationary aimed fire and a significantly slower reload.
    
      Patched: The A91 saw several rebalances in the Fall Patch. In addition to the
               general changes to maximum damage and suppressed muzzle velocity, the
               vertical and horizontal recoil were reduced and the (unsuppressed)
               muzzle velocity was increased. In this patch DICE also adjusted the
               bullpup modifiers for PDW's and carbines resulting in improved moving
               and stationary aimed accuracy for the A91 (and no change to hipfire).
    
               Overall the Fall Patch gave the A91 a substantial buff.
    
               In addition to the generic changes in the Spring Patch to recoil
               recovery for all carbines and to moving hipfire accuracy for the
               bullpups the A91 also got a small increase to its long reload time
               and a small buff to its vertical recoil.
    
       Trivia: The Russian A91 is derived from the 9A91 (which was available to the
               Engineer class in BFBC2) and dates back to 1991.
    
               The original prototype fired 7.62mm rounds and had an unusual over-
               barrel grenade-launcher but the production version uses the 5.56mm
               NATO calibre and has the integral grenade-launcher in a more usual
               position under the barrel - although DICE sadly chose not to include
               this feature in the game!
    
               The bullpup format and integral underbarrel launcher give the A91 a
               similar configuration to the grenadier variant of the Russian OTs14
               Groza (see above).
    
    o Ace 52 CQB
    
         Ammo: 7.62x51mm   Capacity: 25+1   Fire-rate: 650 RPM   Reload: 2.30 secs
    
      Unlocks: score 37,000 pts with carbines
    
      Summary: Taking the place of the SCAR-H in BF3, the new 7.62mm carbine is the
               Ace 52, the first of two Ace models in this category. It does 33 max
               damage for a potential four-hit kill out to 30 metres plus it has a
               decent 25-round magazine capacity modelled on the real-life Ace 52
               and Ace 53 rifles (much better than the 20-round mags of the 7.62mm
               SCAR-H assault rifle).
    
               As you might expect it fires slowly but with the higher bullet damage
               it gives a damage-rate of 358 per second which is on a par with the
               5.56mm ACW-R firing at its rapid 880 RPM.
    
               The Ace 52 has very high vertical recoil so you might want to use the
               muzzle brake to tame that. The short reload time is fairly average
               but the long reload is over a second longer.
    
      Patched: In the Fall Patch all assault rifles and carbines had their maximum
               damage reduced by 1. In addition to this the 7.62mm guns - the SCAR,
               Bulldog and Ace 52 - also had their minimum damage reduced by 1 and
               their damage drop-off end distance increased by 5 metres.
    
               The horizontal recoil (left/right) was also increased by 20% which
               made the Ace 52 a little less effective at range.
    
               The drop-off end was wound back to 50 metres in the Spring Patch and
               the minimum damage was reduced to 18. Its reload times were made a
               little longer but it got a good reduction to spread increase. The
               vertical recoil was increased substantially but the first-shot recoil
               multiplier was also reduced to make tapfiring more viable.
    
       Trivia: The "5" in the model number denotes the 7.62mm calibre and the "2"
               indicates the shorter 16" barrel while the CQB suffix suggests that
               it's been adapted/shortened further for a close-quarters battle role.
    
               The Ace appears in Far Cry 3 as the ACE and in Far Cry 4 as the A52.
    
    o G36C
    
         Ammo: 5.56x45mm   Capacity: 30+1   Fire-rate: 650 RPM   Reload: 2.30 secs
    
      Unlocks: score 48,000 pts with carbines
    
      Summary: In contrast to the ACW-R and SG553 changes above, the G36C's rate of
               fire has been reduced since BF3 - from 750 RPM down to 650 RPM.* In
               the carbine category it ties with the Type 95 for lowest damage-rate.
    
               I enjoyed using the G36C in BF3 but - pre-patch - it was lacking any
               redeeming features in BF4. The AKu12 offered similar vertical recoil,
               horizontal recoil and reload times and a slightly higher fire-rate.
    
               *DICE gave the following feedback on the subject: "Some players have
               been disappointed in the rate of fire of the G36C carbine, [...] We
               understand the feelings of fans when their favorite gun doesn't work
               in the same way it was before however BF4 is its own game, with its
               own balance, and all weapons received various changes and balance
               factors. We do not intend to change the rate of fire of the G36C."
    
      Patched: While disinclined to adjust its fire-rate, DICE did eventually apply
               a significant buff to the G36C's horizontal recoil and first-shot
               recoil multiplier in the 25 March 2014 update.* However in the Fall
               Patch the recoil multiplier and vertical recoil were both increased.
    
               The Spring Patch brought increased muzzle velocity, a longer short
               reload time and decreased vertical recoil. There were also minor
               changes to spread increase and horizontal recoil.
    
               Previously its horizontal recoil was pretty average for a carbine but
               now it's very low, beaten only by the post-patch U100 LMG. It also
               has the second best first-shot recoil in the carbine category and
               overall it offers very good stability.
    
               *However - contrary to videos released by several popular BF4 Youtube
               producers for April Fools - it did not gain the BF3 M16A3 stats! :)
    
       Trivia: The G36C is a shortened version of the German G36 assault rifle. The
               G36 was created by H&K, entered production in 1996 and is the service
               rifle of the German, Spanish and Portuguese armed forces.
    
               See the G36C on TAC-TV: https://youtu.be/y2Vv9b359Vk?t=1m55s
    
               The G36C variant ("C" = compact) was actually derived from an earlier
               carbine model called the G36K ("K" = kurz meaning "short"), reducing
               the length even further. The G36C design lacks the big ugly carrying
               handle with integrated optical scope* of the original G36 and instead
               has a long elevated Picatinny scope rail along the top.**
    
               See the G36C on Ultimate Weapons: http://youtu.be/uIgdN6xL_c4
    
               Although police officers don't routinely carry guns here in the UK we
               do have specialist firearms units. Various weapons are deployed by
               each county but for several years the G36 carbines have been common,
               supplementing the older and less powerful 9mm MP5 submachineguns.
    
               Following claims in recent years of the G36 becoming inaccurate at
               high temperatures, it was reported in August 2015 that the German
               Defence Ministry had ordered six hundred HK417 battle rifles as a
               temporary replacement for some units and early the following month
               the Defence Minister announced that the G36 model would be replaced
               with new units entering service from 2019 onwards.
    
               Heckler & Koch also manufacture a semi-automatic sporting rifle based
               on the G36 called the SL8 which replaces the pistol-grip and folding
               skeletonised stock with a thumbhole stock with adjustable cheek-rest.
    
               *You might remember this distinctive feature from the MG36 in BFBC2.
    
               **The G36 range can be modernized by the addition of various official
               accessories. The carrying handle of the G36 and G36K can be replaced
               by a low sight rail like the G36C and all three models can be fitted
               with additional rail space at the front and two new buttstock designs
               with cheek-rests. Fully upgraded models are currently illustrated in
               the military/police section of the main international H&K website.
    
    o M4
    
         Ammo: 5.56x45mm   Capacity: 30+1   Fire-rate: 800 RPM   Reload: 1.85 secs
    
      Unlocks: score 59,000 pts with carbines
    
      Summary: Like its cousin, the M16A4 assault rifle, the M4 carbine has a burst
               fire mode and no option for automatic fire.
    
               Statistically the two weapons are very similar except for the usual
               differences you'd expect between their respective categories.
    
               Compared to other carbines the M4 has excellent reload times, decent
               recoil (with the usual pull to the right) and high muzzle velocity;
               it has a high fire-rate but remember you're limited to burst mode.
    
      Patched: The vertical recoil stats of the M16A4 assault rifle and M4 carbine
               were reduced by 17.5% in the 25 March 2014 update to make them more
               effective in the mid/long-range role.
    
               The M4 got a further buff in the Fall Patch with an overall reduction
               to the horizontal recoil and the first-shot recoil multiplier.
    
               However that multiplier was increased slightly in the Spring Patch.
               Also the muzzle drift was shifted to reduce the right pull and the
               muzzle velocity was decreased.
    
       Trivia: The M4 is essentially a carbine version of the M16. Its origins can
               be traced back to the Colt Commando CAR15 (and experimental XM177)
               used by special-forces operatives during the Vietnam War.
    
               The modern design has a 14.5" barrel which is significantly longer
               than the 10" or 11" of the Vietnam models but still much shorter than
               the 20" barrel of the full-sized M16. The M4 can also be recognized
               by its distinctive telescopic stock.
    
               The standard M4 has only semi-auto and burst fire modes but there's
               also the M4A1 variant, built for special units like the Army Rangers
               and SEAL's, with a full auto mode instead of the three-round burst.
    
               In 2010 the US Army started using the M855A1 variant of its 5.56mm
               ammunition which was optimised to give greater muzzle velocity and
               reduced muzzle flash from the shorter barrel of the M4. This round is
               also more environmentally friendly since it has a lead-free bullet
               manufactured with a copper core and a steel tip.
    
               In October 2015 it was announced that the US Marine Corps would be
               adopting the M4 as their new service rifle.
    
    o Ace 21 CQB
    
         Ammo: 5.56x45mm   Capacity: 35+1   Fire-rate: 770 RPM   Reload: 2.30 secs
    
      Unlocks: score 71,000 pts with carbines
    
      Summary: The second Ace carbine uses the standard intermediate 5.56mm load and
               has the usual damage profile with 24 max damage, etc, however it does
               have the benefit of using authentic 35-round Galil magazines.
    
               Although there are several faster carbines, the Ace 21 has a decent
               rate of fire - it has heavy vertical recoil with it but the sideways
               recoil is quite good.
    
      Patched: The recoil multiplier was increased by 10% in the Fall Patch.
    
               In the Spring Patch the Ace got small increases to horizontal recoil
               and the recoil multiplier, both reload times were extended and the
               muzzle velocity was increased.
    
               (In the same patch the Ace 23 assault rifle had its magazine capacity
               increased to 35 to match this carbine variant.)
    
       Trivia: This time the "2" in the model number indicates the 5.56mm calibre
               and the "1" denotes the shortest 8.5" barrel option.
    
    o Type 95B-1
    
         Ammo: 5.8x42mm   Capacity: 30+1    Fire-rate: 650 RPM   Reload: 2.90 secs
    
      Unlocks: score 83,000 pts with carbines
    
      Summary: The final standard unlockable carbine is the Chinese Type 95B-1.
    
               It ties with the G36C for slowest rate of fire but it has very good
               recoil giving minimal muzzle climb/drift during automatic fire.
    
               The bullpup configuration confers the usual modifiers.
    
      Patched: Like the A91, the Type 95B benefited from adjustments to the bullpup
               penalties for PDW's and carbines in the Fall Patch so it now has even
               better moving aimed accuracy and the penalty to aimed stationary
               spread is reduced. It still has good hipfire and very slow reloads.
    
               In the same patch the horizontal recoil was reduced slightly and the
               muzzle velocity was increased by 50 m/s.
    
               In the Spring Patch the reload times were extended and are now very
               slow. The muzzle velocity was increased by another 40 m/s and there
               was a small tweak to spread increase.
    
       Trivia: The Chinese Type 95B (i.e. the QBZ95B) is the shorter carbine variant
               of the QBZ95 assault rifle. Both versions in BF4 have the -1 suffix
               indicating the improved models that entered service around 2010-11.
    
    o MTAR21
    
         Ammo: 5.56x45mm   Capacity: 30+1   Fire-rate: 900 RPM   Reload: 2.35 secs
    
      Unlocks: complete 'Multitalented' assignment (multiplayer)
    
               o China Rising DLC required
               o Multiplayer Rank 10 required
               o Achieve the following in the same match:
                 - Get 1 kill with an assault rifle
                 - Get 1 kill with a light machinegun
                 - Get 1 kill with a sniper rifle
                 - Get 1 kill with a grenade
    
      Summary: The MTAR stole the ACW-R's crown for having the highest rate of fire
               in the carbine category. It also has slightly less vertical recoil
               and better hipfire/moving accuracy (thanks to its bullpup design) so
               it's a good choice for close quarters. The usual bullpup penalties
               apply too though so it has inferior stationary aimed accuracy and
               only average reload times.
    
               To balance the high fire-rate it has the largest horizontal recoil
               and first-shot recoil multiplier stats in the carbine category.
    
      Patched: When China Rising was released the MTAR had accidentally been given
               the damage profile of a 5.56mm assault rifle (18.0 minimum damage)
               but this was eventually fixed in the 4 March 2014 patch. The gun now
               has the standard carbine damage pattern (15.4 minimum damage).
    
               Additionally the muzzle velocity and the short reload time were both
               reduced in the same patch.
    
               As part of the bullpup PDW/carbine rebalancing in the Fall Patch the
               aimed stationary accuracy penalty was reduced and the aimed moving
               accuracy bonus was increased. However the horizontal recoil was also
               increased by 5%.
    
               The reload times were shortened in the Spring Patch. Also the recoil
               multiplier was decreased and the velocity was reduced.
    
       Trivia: The MTAR21 (Micro Tavor Assault Rifle) was designed by IMI (Israel
               Military Industries) who previously gave us the Uzi submachinegun,
               the Galil assault rifle and the Desert Eagle hand-cannon. :)
    
               It's a shortened version of the TAR21 "Tavor" assault rifle which
               entered service in 2001, with the overall length reduced from 28 to
               23 inches and the barrel length shortened from 18 to 13 inches.
    
               See the full size Tavor on IV8888: https://youtu.be/8nDiCT3izm4
    
               The MTAR21 can be converted into a 9mm submachinegun that can use Uzi
               magazines and it can also be adapted to use Russian 5.45mm rounds. A
               model using the heavier 7.62mm load is currently in development.
    
               See the MTAR on Future Weapons: http://youtu.be/HzcfTDbiXEk
    
    .-------------.----------------------------------------------------------------.
    | Section 03f | Designated Marksman Rifles                                s03f |
    '-------------'----------------------------------------------------------------'
    
    Like the carbines above, the DMR's can be equipped into the primary slot in any
    of the four kits, replacing your assault rifle, PDW, LMG or sniper rifle.
    
    A designated marksman rifle (DMR) is essentially a semi-auto sniper rifle which
    would be used in a support role at squad level engaging targets at medium ranges
    in contrast to the long ranges where you would use a proper sniper rifle. In the
    game it can be used to add a more accurate weapon to any class loadout.
    
    Initially no DMR's are available. The RFB is unlocked from progression of the
    Recon class and the others are unlocked by earning XP using whichever DMR's you
    have available. No further DMR's have been added to the game.
    
    (DICE declared February 2014 to be "Player Appreciation Month". In addition to
    free daily Battlepacks, double XP events and community challenges they also
    released some optional free gun unlock shortcuts on the PSN store. The "DMR
    Shortcut Kit" was available free to all Premium subscribers during the period
    18 to 24 February and this unlocked all eight standard DMR's in the game. This
    shortcut pack is now available to purchase for US$4.99, UKP3.99 or 500 Yen.)
    
    Here's an overview of the damage profiles for the DMR's.
    
                          |  Max.  |    Damage    |  Min.  |
               Ammunition | Damage |   Drop-Off   | Damage | Weapons
          ================+========+==============+========+=================
             7.62x39mm WP |        |   8m to 75m  |        | SKS only
          ----------------|  43.0  |--------------|  34.0  |-----------------
             5.8x42mm DAP |        |   8m to 90m  |        | QBU88 only
          ----------------+--------+--------------+--------+-----------------
              7.62x54mm R |        |  15m to 60m  |        | SVD12 only
          ----------------|  45.0  |--------------|  38.0  |-----------------
           7.62x51mm NATO |        |  15m to 80m  |        | everything else
    
    Compared to the Recon kit's bolt-action sniper rifles the DMR's do significantly
    less damage with slightly more spread (less accuracy in aimed fire). However
    they have much higher fire-rates and larger magazines - in BF3 most semi-auto
    snipers had 10-round magazines but now most of them hold 20 rounds as standard
    so you can pew-pew-pew that much longer before reloading. :)
    
    Since being moved to their own category separate from the bolt-action sniper
    rifles the DMR's no longer get the larger x2.35 headshot damage multiplier that
    was previously applied in BF3; instead the usual x2.13 multiplier is used.
    
    Patched: The DMR's were widely considered to be underpowered at launch so DICE
             gave them a significant buff in the game update on 30 January 2014.
    
             The minimum damage values for DMR's were increased making them now
             sufficient for a three-hit kill at long ranges. The patch also saw a
             (smaller) increase to the maximum damages, although they are still too
             low to allow a one-shot headshot kill (45 x 2 < 100). DMR's give you a
             three-hit kill in most conditions now (or a two-hit kill if one or both
             shots are headshots).
    
             Additionally DICE "reduced the penalty to accuracy for sustained DMR
             fire" (i.e. the spread increase per shot). This means that follow-up
             shots will be more accurate than they were previously.
    
             These changes made the DMR's much more viable and you should consider
             using them with any class on a large map with longer sight-lines.
    
             Subsequently in the 2015 Holiday Patch the damage drop-off end ranges
             for the SKS and QBU88 were both extended.
    
    The unlockable attachments for the DMR's include the same selection of close-
    range sights and medium-range scopes as the assault rifles, carbines, etc (see
    Section 04a) but they cannot use the long-range scopes of the sniper rifles.
    
    (DICE gave the following feedback on the subject: "Long-range scopes for DMR's
    were tested extensively internally before release. We specifically removed these
    scopes from those weapons as we found any class being able to effectively snipe
    was detrimental to the overall pace and gameplay of BF4. We have no intentions
    of adding those scopes to DMR's for BF4.")
    
    Patched: In the Fall Patch every DMR apart from the SVD12 got an increase to its
             muzzle velocity - the RFB saw the largest gain (460 m/s to 600 m/s).
    
             The spread recovery stats were rebalanced in the Spring Patch but,
             unlike the assault rifles, PDW's, LMG's and carbines, the DMR's saw a
             single new value applied. Spread recovery was reduced from 15 to 10 for
             all DMR's so it takes longer for the accuracy to reset after firing.
    
             To reinforce their role as a medium-range rather than long-range weapon
             all DMR's got nerfs to their stationary aimed accuracy stats in the
             same patch, with most now approximately double their previous values.
             They all now share a value of 0.125 with the exception of the Mk 11
             (0.1) and the SKS (0.2). The bullpup modifier has been disregarded.
    
             Also in the Spring Patch the vertical recoil was approximately doubled
             and the first-shot recoil multiplier halved (from x2.0 to x1.0) for all
             DMR's - this had no net effect on the actual recoil experienced.
    
             However every DMR also saw a buff to its recoil recovery although the
             before/after values were different for each weapon so I've detailed
             these in the individual patch notes below.
    
    The DMR's unlock with no attachments available so you'll need to use the iron
    sights initially but the first unlock (10 kills) for each will be a 4x scope.
    
    In a marksman role you'll usually want to combine a 3.4x or 4x scope with the
    angled grip and heavy barrel. At shorter ranges you can use a red-dot or 1x holo
    sight and the ergo grip to improve your moving accuracy.
    
    o RFB
    
         Ammo: 7.62x51mm   Capacity: 20+1   Fire-rate: 260 RPM   Reload: 2.50 secs
    
      Unlocks: score 13,000 pts with Recon class
    
      Summary: Your first DMR enjoys the damage profile of the 7.62mm NATO ammo with
               long drop-offs and slightly higher max/min damage.
    
               Like several other DMR's, the RFB has a slow rate of fire, average
               recoil, standard aimed accuracy and a 20-round magazine. The bullpup
               design means it gets increased accuracy in hipfire and when moving
               but it also gets slow reloads.
    
               The right recoil is +0.3 and the left recoil is 0.0 so there's an
               overall pull to the right. Several of the marksman rifles have this
               sort of asymmetrical muzzle drift but it's not really an issue since
               the horizontal recoil will reset before the vertical does. It just
               adds a little character to each weapon.
    
      Patched: In the Spring Patch the right recoil was reduced and the (negative)
               left recoil was removed, making the right pull less significant.
    
               The two bullpup DMR's - the RFB and QBU88 - both got an increase to
               moving hipfire accuracy and a small nerf to moving aimed accuracy.
    
               The recoil recovery was increased from 6 to 8 in the same patch.
    
       Trivia: This is an American bullpup battle rifle, similar in configuration to
               the Chinese QBU88 below, made by Kel-Tec of Florida.
    
               The concise name simply describes the gun: "Rifle, Forward-ejecting,
               Bullpup" - it's a rifle with a bullpup configuration (it squeezes an
               18" barrel into a weapon that's only 26" long) and empty cases are
               ejected forwards directly above the barrel (which makes the rifle
               suitable for either right or left-handed operation).
    
               The RFB's design includes a distinctive flat top, uninterrupted even
               by iron sights (it's sold without irons), but the standard scope rail
               along the front half of the gun allows various optics to be fitted.
               It uses straight 10 or 20-round 7.62mm magazines from the legendary
               FN FAL battle rifle.
    
               See the RFB on Military Arms Channel: https://youtu.be/f_xvj_7aO2Y
    
               Kel-Tec have subsequently designed the RDB which has a similar shape
               but it fires 5.56mm rounds from standard M16 magazines and the empty
               cases are ejected behind the magazine well (the D in its name stands
               for "Downwards-ejecting"). The RDB is currently due to be available
               from late 2015 and the company already have plans to offer a 9mm
               conversion kit and models in 6.5mm Grendel, 7.62mm Soviet and 7.62mm
               NATO calibres. They are also working on the M43 variant which has a
               more classical look thanks to its steel and walnut construction.
    
               See the RDB and M43 on IV8888: https://youtu.be/eon4abzfUyU
    
               The new 5.56 version appears as the "SDAR 5.56mm" in ArmA III where
               it can be equipped with special rounds for firing underwater!
    
               See the RDB on Military Arms Channel: https://youtu.be/BASgtPpYfF0
    
    o Mk 11 Mod 0
    
         Ammo: 7.62x51mm   Capacity: 20+1   Fire-rate: 260 RPM   Reload: 1.85 secs
    
      Unlocks: score 4,000 pts with DMR's
    
      Summary: With its mag size doubled since BF3, the Mk 11 now matches the RFB.
    
               Following the Spring Patch the Mk 11 now has better stationary aimed
               accuracy than the other DMR's although it's only a small difference.
    
               Its key strengths are its rapid reloads and superior damage profile;
               it also has quite a fast muzzle velocity.
    
      Patched: The horizontal recoil was reduced in the Fall Patch.
    
               In the Spring Patch the horizontal recoil was reduced again.
    
               The recoil recovery was increased from 6 to 8 in the same patch.
    
       Trivia: Mk 11 Mod 0 is the designation used by the US Navy (and USMC) for the
               Knight's Armament Company's SR25. Although not immediately apparent
               from its images on BF3/BF4 Battlelog, it's based heavily on Eugene
               Stoner's classic 7.62mm AR10 design (which led to the AR15/M16).
    
               Alongside the SR15 (5.56mm) and the SR30 (.300 Blackout), KAC market
               several variants of the SR25 in their Commercial & Law Enforcement
               range: SR25 ER (Enhanced Rifle), SR25 EC (Enhanced Carbine), SR25 ECC
               (Enhanced Combat Carbine), SR25 ECR (Enhanced Combat Rifle) and the
               latest SR25E2 APC (Advanced Precision Carbine). Just a few days after
               the launch of the Battlefield Hardline beta in June 2014 the SR25 ECC
               was found hidden within the game files.
    
               See the SR25 on FPSRussia: http://youtu.be/VoMhKrAMksg
    
               The weapon originated in the 90's. The most recent version or (in the
               Navy's classification scheme) "modification" is the Mk 11 Mod 2 which
               is a very similar M16-based design also made by KAC. This has already
               been adopted by the US Army as the M110 Semi-Automatic Sniper System
               (SASS) with the intention of replacing their bolt-action M24's; the
               shorter M110K1 carbine model is also now available from KAC.
    
               See the M110 on Future Weapons: http://youtu.be/SwZQiGik41w
    
    o SKS
    
         Ammo: 7.62x39mm   Capacity: 20+1   Fire-rate: 333 RPM   Reload: 2.30 secs
    
      Unlocks: score 11,000 pts with DMR's
    
      Summary: The SKS fires the 7.62x39mm Warsaw Pact round which gives slightly
               less maximum and minimum damage, however the damage is still enough
               for the standard DMR three-hit kill at any range (unless you hit the
               lower torso or leg with minimum damage). It has the highest rate of
               fire in this category giving it a good damage output rate which is
               useful at shorter ranges.
    
               It also benefits from the lowest vertical recoil, good hipfire spread
               (although not quite as good as the two bullpup DMR's) and a low SIPS.
    
               Since the Spring Patch it now has a stationary aimed spread of 2.0
               which is worse than the other DMR's (and actually matches the assault
               rifles). It also has a much lower muzzle velocity and the widest
               horizontal recoil of all the DMR's.
    
               The SKS already had a 20-round magazine in BF3 and it retains this.
    
      Patched: As part of the major DMR buff (see above) the spread increase per
               shot (SIPS) had been reduced from 0.25 to 0.18 but then in the patch
               on 4 March 2014 this was increased to 0.20 for the SKS only.
    
               The SKS and M39 had previously incorrectly allowed the "hold breath"
               function of the sniper rifles. This was removed in the Fall Patch.
    
               In the Spring Patch the SIPS was buffed to 0.15 and the gravity value
               was reduced from 15 to 9.81 m/s^2 (in line with the other DMR's).
    
               The recoil recovery was increased from 9 to 12 in the same patch. The
               SKS recovers from recoil quicker than any other marksman rifle.
    
               The damage drop-off end distance was extended from 60 to 75 metres in
               the 2015 Holiday Patch.
    
       Trivia: Designed by Sergei Siminov in 1943, the SKS was developed to use the
               new intermediate 7.62mm round and give a weapon that would still be
               effective at the typical engagement distances of 100-300 yards but
               without the length, weight and recoil of existing rifles.
    
               The SKS entered service in the Soviet army in 1949 and was copied in
               other Eastern Bloc nations giving the Type 56* in China, Karabiner S
               in East Germany and Type 63 in Korea. It was superseded by the AK47 -
               the first modern assault rifle - which had the benefit of a full auto
               fire mode and a 30-round detachable magazine compared to the 10-round
               box magazine built into the SKS (loaded individually or with a clip).
    
               The version in the game comes with a 20-round detachable magazine and
               a modern telescopic stock resembling that of the M4.
    
               *The Type 56 previously featured in Battlefield Vietnam (2004).
    
    o SVD12
    
         Ammo: 7.62x54mm R   Capacity: 15+1   Fire-rate: 260 RPM   Reload: 1.95 secs
    
      Unlocks: score 19,000 pts with DMR's
    
      Summary: The new SVD12 replaces the original SVD (Dragunov) sniper from BF3.
    
               It has a unique damage pattern which matches the max and min damage
               of the DMR's that fire 7.62mm NATO (such as the RFB and Mk 11) but it
               has a shorter drop-off. The 15-round magazine is an improvement over
               the original SVD but somewhat limited compared to most of the other
               DMR's in BF4, although it gives fast reloads at least.
    
               One advantage of the SVD12 is that it has a low spread increase per
               shot (same as the SKS) which is half that of some DMR's. Otherwise
               its stats are comparable to the other models; it fires at the slower
               260 RPM rate with average vertical recoil and a small left kick.
    
      Patched: The SVD got a buff in the Fall Patch - the spread increase per shot
               (SIPS) was halved and the horizontal recoil was reduced.
    
               Unlike the other DMR's the SVD did not receive a buff to its muzzle
               velocity in the Fall Patch. Several now have higher velocities but
               among the DMR's only the SKS has a notably slower muzzle velocity.
    
               In the Spring Patch the horizontal recoil was reduced.
    
               The recoil recovery was increased from 6 to 10 in the same patch.
    
       Trivia: The SVD12 (or SVK12?) marksman rifle is a planned DMR version of the
               AK12 assault rifle (see above).
    
               (The original SVD rifle was also known by the name of its designer -
               Dragunov. It was developed specifically to provide marksman support
               within infantry squads and entered Russian service back in 1963. It
               would normally be used with the 4x PSO1 scope.)
    
    o QBU88
    
         Ammo: 5.8x42mm   Capacity: 10+1   Fire-rate: 310 RPM   Reload: 2.65 secs
    
      Unlocks: score 28,000 pts with DMR's
    
      Summary: The QBU has the same lower max/min damage as the SKS but a longer
               damage drop-off. It has the second best fire-rate after the SKS, low
               vertical recoil, superior hipfire/moving accuracy, good SIPS and one
               of the highest muzzle velocities in the game (only topped by the U100
               LMG following the Spring Patch).
    
               However the trade-off is that the magazine only holds ten rounds and
               not only does it have the smallest mags but (thanks to its bullpup
               format) it also has the slowest reload times in the DMR category. The
               long reload is especially painful (3.9 seconds) so try to always
               reload before the weapon is completely empty.
    
      Patched: In the Spring Patch the two bullpup DMR's both got an increase to
               moving hipfire accuracy and a small nerf to moving aimed accuracy.
    
               The recoil recovery was increased from 8 to 11 in the same patch.
    
               The damage drop-off end distance was extended from 65 to 90 metres in
               the 2015 Holiday Patch.
    
       Trivia: Chinese in origin, the QBU88 entered service in the late 80's. It's
               used there by the People's Liberation Army (PLA) and police forces.
    
    o M39 EMR
    
         Ammo: 7.62x51mm   Capacity: 20+1   Fire-rate: 300 RPM   Reload: 2.25 secs
    
      Unlocks: score 37,000 pts with DMR's
    
      Summary: Of the six DMR's that have the higher max/min damage the M39 has the
               highest rate of fire (the others all fire at 260 RPM) but this is
               balanced by the heavier vertical and horizontal recoil.
    
               It has the handy 20-round magazine but only average reload times.
    
      Patched: The SKS and M39 had previously incorrectly allowed the "hold breath"
               function of the sniper rifles. This was removed in the Fall Patch.
    
               The horizontal recoil was also reduced in the Fall Patch.
    
               In the Spring Patch the horizontal recoil was reduced again.
    
               The recoil recovery was increased from 6 to 11 in the same patch.
    
       Trivia: The M39 Enhanced Marksman Rifle has a very modern appearance but is
               actually an update of the M14 rifle that entered US service in 1959.
               Its features include multiple Picatinny rails for scopes and other
               accessories, an adjustable stock and an integrated bipod.
    
               The M39 was used by the United States Marine Corps but will be phased
               out in favour of the army's new M16-derived M110 mentioned above.
    
               The M39 EMR resembles the M14-based Mk 14 Enhanced Battle Rifle that
               appeared in BFBC2 as an unlockable weapon available to all kits.
    
    o Ace 53 SV
    
         Ammo: 7.62x51mm   Capacity: 25+1   Fire-rate: 260 RPM   Reload: 2.30 secs
    
      Unlocks: score 65,000 pts with DMR's
    
      Summary: BF4's 7.62mm assault rifle (SCAR-H) and 7.62mm carbine (Ace 52) both
               make reappearances here in the DMR category as sniper variants.
    
               In early builds of the game this gun came with a 20-round magazine
               but it now has a 25-round mag that's authentic to the real Ace 53.
    
               That higher ammo capacity is the main attraction of the Ace DMR since
               it has the lower fire-rate and average reload times and recoil.
    
      Patched: The max left recoil was changed from +0.3 to -0.1 in the 4 March 2014
               patch giving it a consistent but small kick to the right.
    
               In the Spring Patch the reload times were made slightly longer and
               the spread increase per shot - specifically when aiming in the prone
               stance - was reduced slightly.
    
               The recoil recovery was increased from 6 to 10 in the same patch.
    
       Trivia: Following the assault rifle and two carbines (see above), this is the
               fourth version of the Ace in BF4. The "5" in the model name indicates
               the 7.62mm calibre and the "3" denotes the longer 20" barrel.
    
    o SCAR-H SV
    
         Ammo: 7.62x51mm   Capacity: 20+1   Fire-rate: 260 RPM   Reload: 1.85 secs
    
      Unlocks: score 82,000 pts with DMR's
    
      Summary: The final DMR gives comparable performance to the Mk 11, with the
               slower fire-rate, 20-round magazine and superfast reload times.
    
               It has slightly less muzzle velocity but very low muzzle drift.
    
      Patched: In the Spring Patch the horizontal recoil was reduced.
    
               The recoil recovery was increased from 6 to 10 in the same patch.
    
       Trivia: This is a sniper variant of the SCAR-H battle rifle.
    
               FN currently offer two versions of the 7.62mm SCAR-H with 20" barrels
               for marksman use - the PR (Precision Rifle) with the standard SCAR
               folding buttstock and the TPR with a non-folding adjustable stock.
    
               The two main visual differences between the in-game models for the
               SCAR-H (assault rifle) and the SCAR-H SV (DMR) are that the latter
               has a longer barrel (with an extended handguard) and it comes with a
               sexy black finish by default.
    
    .-------------.----------------------------------------------------------------.
    | Section 03g | Shotguns                                                  s03g |
    '-------------'----------------------------------------------------------------'
    
    Like the carbines and DMR's, the shotguns can be equipped into the primary slot
    in any of the four kits, replacing your assault rifle, PDW, LMG or sniper rifle.
    
    In addition to the standard shotgun primaries the game also includes the Assault
    kit's M26 MASS "gadget" and the USAS12 Battle Pickup (both described below) plus
    the Shorty 12G (which is listed with the other sidearms in Section 03h).
    
    Initially no shotguns are available. The QBS09 is unlocked from progression of
    the Support class and the DAO12 can be earned by completing an assignment (in
    the Second Assault DLC). Additionally the M26 MASS and Shorty can be unlocked by
    progression of the Assault class and sidearms (respectively). The others are
    unlocked by earning XP using whichever shotguns you have available (including
    the USAS12 pickup).
    
    (DICE declared February 2014 to be "Player Appreciation Month". In addition to
    free daily Battlepacks, double XP events and community challenges they also
    released some optional free gun unlock shortcuts on the PSN store. The "Shotgun
    Shortcut Kit" was available free to all Premium subscribers during the period
    25 February to 4 March and this unlocked all eight primary shotguns that are
    normally unlockable - i.e. everything below from the QBS09 to the DBV12. This
    shortcut pack is now available to purchase for US$4.99, UKP3.99 or 500 Yen.)
    
    There are three types of shotgun in the game:
    
    o Pump-actions: Hawk 12G, 870MCS, SPAS12 and UTS15 (all unlockables)
    
      With pump-actions you manually chamber a new shell after firing.
    
    o Semi-automatics: QBS09, DBV12, M1014, Saiga 12k and DAO12 (all unlockables)
    
      With semi-auto shotguns the next shell is chambered for you.
    
    o Automatic: USAS12 only (Battle Pickup)
    
      With auto weapons you can hold the trigger for fully automatic fire.
    
    Shotguns can now be modified with chokes to adjust the shape of the "cone" of
    pellets/darts fired (see Section 04c) and some can accept foregrips now too.
    
    Although they can't quite match PDW's, shotguns have good hipfire accuracy so -
    at typical short engagement distances - you don't need to worry about aiming
    down sights (the hipfire accuracy can be further enhanced by the addition of a
    laser sight which is the obvious choice of accessory for any shotgun). However
    beyond very short ranges you should still ADS wherever possible.
    
    Patched: The aimed moving accuracy of the pump-action shotguns was approximately
             doubled in the 4 March 2014 patch. This change was made to compensate
             for the lack of heavy barrel and foregrips (which you might otherwise
             use to buff the accuracy) and to make the use of slug ammo (see below)
             more viable at medium ranges. 
    
             In addition to the changes to the damage and pellet/dart counts in the
             Spring Patch outlined below, the standing hipfire spread was tightened
             for all shotguns (when either stationary or moving and for all ammo
             types). Overall this was a considerable buff for the shotguns.
    
             Additionally in the Spring Patch the spread increase per shot was
             adjusted for each gun on an individual basis. Generally the value will
             now be around 0.5 for semi-autos and around 0.2 for pump-actions.
    
    There are four types of shotgun ammo. Buckshot is available by default and the
    other three types can be unlocked like attachments by getting kills with each
    weapon (80 or 90 kills for slug, 120 or 130 for dart and 160 or 170 for frag).
    
                                        Buckshot
                                        ¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯
    A shotgun is a gun that fires shot. :) The standard ammo load for a shotgun is
    buckshot where each shotshell contains a number of individual lead pellets but
    the number of pellets will vary from one gun to another in order to balance its
    rate of fire and other stats.
    
    (With the multiple pellets per shell and scattering effect it's possible to hit
    multiple targets with a single round and it's theoretically possible - and not
    uncommon - to have a hit accuracy of greater than 100% with a shotgun.)
    
    The following table shows the amount of damage caused per pellet; to make up
    for their slower rates of fire the pump-action shotguns have more pellets per
    shell than the semi-autos.
    
                            |  Max.  |    Damage    |  Min.  |
                 Ammunition | Damage |   Drop-Off   | Damage | Weapons
             ===============+========+==============+========+=============
                            |        |              |        | Semi-auto
              12-gauge buck |  11.2  |  24m to 32m  |   5.6  |-------------
                            |        |              |        | Pump-action
    
    At ranges of less than 25 metres you would need at least nine pellets to hit
    your target for a kill (9 x 11.2 > 100).
    
    The ARMOR spec (perk) in the Defensive field upgrade path usually applies a
    x0.93 multiplier on shots to the chest/arms but with buckshot the multiplier is
    reduced to x0.85 which reduces your potential for a one-hit kill.
    
    Patched: The damage multiplier for shotgun buckshot shots to the chest and arms
             protected by the ARMOR spec was increased from x0.67 to x0.85 in the
             25 March 2014 patch, improving the chances of shotgun users.
    
             In the Spring Patch the start-end distances were extended from 16-30 to
             25-50 metres and the max-min damage values were standardized across all
             shotguns to 11.2-5.6 (previously 18.0-6.0 for semi-autos and 15.4-5.2
             for pump-actions). All guns now have significantly more pellets per
             shell, with pump-actions seeing the biggest increases.
    
             These changes had the overall effect of making shotgun performance more
             reliable. Taking the 870MCS pump-action as an example, this used to
             have twelve pellets per shell and you needed seven (58%) to hit your
             target at short range for a kill (7 x 15.4 > 100). Now it has nineteen
             pellets per shell and you need nine (only 47%) to hit for the kill. In
             addition to the longer damage drop-offs (and the tighter hipfire), you
             now need a smaller proportion of the pellets to connect.
    
             The Second Fall Patch (2015) contained extensive changes (documented in
             a 30-page PDF) but these were mainly aimed at re-balancing vehicles.
             However there were major changes to the shotguns which had been left a
             little overpowered by the previous tweaks. Specifically the drop-off
             distances for buckshot and dart rounds were reduced from 25-50 metres
             to 24-32 metres. Additionally the pellet counts were reduced slightly
             for the UTS15, Saiga 12k, DAO12, DBV12 and M1014 (see below).
    
    With most guns a x2.13 multiplier is applied to headshots but for buckshot there
    is no multiplier (x1) so you should always go for chest shots. The larger target
    improves your chances of more pellets impacting too.
    
                                          Slug
                                          ¯¯¯¯
    With the slug load each shell fires a single chunky projectile which does high
    damage. With the post-patch headshot damage multiplier of x2.13 slugs rounds
    only require 46.9 base damage to give a one-shot headshot kill.
    
                            |  Max.  |    Damage    |  Min.  |
                 Ammunition | Damage |   Drop-Off   | Damage | Weapons
             ===============+========+==============+========+=============
                            |  75.0  |  12m to 50m  |  38.0  | Semi-auto
              12-gauge slug |--------+--------------+--------+-------------
                            | 100.0  |  15m to 60m  |  45.0  | Pump-action
    
    You'll note that a pump-action shotgun with slugs does 100 max damage out to 15
    metres so you can get one-hit kills on shots to the upper torso and arms too,
    although this can be countered by the ARMOR spec's x0.93 damage penalty.
    
    Patched: The muzzle velocity for slug rounds was increased in the Fall Patch.
    
             In the Spring Patch the stats were adjusted for pump-action shotguns
             only (since it is not possible to rebalance the number of projectiles
             as with buckshot and flechette). The start-end distances were extended
             from 12-50 to 15-60 metres and the minimum damage raised from 38 to 45.
    
             In the Summer Patch the headshot multiplier was reduced (to x2.13).
    
                                          Dart
                                          ¯¯¯¯
    With the dart (or flechette) option each shell contains multiple darts instead
    of pellets. Again the number of projectiles per shell varies from one gun to
    another but any given shotgun will always have the same number of pellets (with
    buckshot ammo) or flechettes (with dart ammo) in its shells.
    
    This table shows the amount of damage dealt per dart.
    
                            |  Max.  |    Damage    |  Min.  |
                 Ammunition | Damage |   Drop-Off   | Damage | Weapons
             ===============+========+==============+========+=============
                            |        |              |        | Semi-auto
              12-gauge dart |   8.4  |  24m to 32m  |   4.2  |-------------
                            |        |              |        | Pump-action
    
    Darts give better penetration of light cover (like bodies!) and a tighter cone
    of dispersion for the projectiles.
    
    Patched: In the Spring Patch the start distance was extended from 20 metres to
             25 metres and the max-min damage values were standardized across all
             shotguns to 8.4-4.2 (previously 12.5-8.4 for semi-autos and 11.0-7.4
             for pump-actions). All guns now have significantly more darts per shell
             with pump-actions seeing the biggest increases.
    
             In the Second Fall Patch the drop-off distances for buckshot and dart
             shells were rebalanced from 25-50 metres to 24-32 metres. Additionally
             the dart counts were reduced slightly for several weapons (see below).
    
    The ARMOR spec (perk) in the Defensive field upgrade path usually applies a
    x0.93 multiplier on shots to the chest/arms but the superior penetration of dart
    rounds is able to defeat the body armour and the standard x1 multiplier applies.
    
    (Prior to the Spring Patch dart ammo had a longer drop-off and higher minimum
    damage than buckshot. Now flechette rounds have the same drop-off distances and
    do less damage than buckshot at all ranges. The key advantages of darts are the
    superior performance against the ARMOR spec or targets behind light cover.
    
    With most guns a x2.13 multiplier is applied to headshots but for darts (as with
    buckshot) there is no multiplier (x1) so you should always go for chest shots.
    
                                          Frag
                                          ¯¯¯¯
    With frag ammo each shell fires a single explosive round which can be used to
    destroy light cover such as shutters, partitions and planters. The table shows
    only the impact damage when you hit your target.
    
                            |  Max.  |    Damage    |  Min.  |
                 Ammunition | Damage |   Drop-Off   | Damage | Weapons
             ===============+========+==============+========+=============
                            |  25.0  |              |  15.0  | Semi-auto*
              12-gauge frag |--------|  25m to 50m  |--------+-------------
                            |  40.0  |              |  25.0  | Pump-action
    
    Frag rounds also give an additional explosive effect which causes up to 25 pts
    of splash damage across a 2.5 metre radius from the point of impact regardless
    of whether it hits a person or a nearby wall, floor, etc. This will cause extra
    damage to your target/s and - at very short range - it can injure you too! (try
    shooting at the ground right next to your character's feet and you'll see you
    take 25 pts damage each time)
    
    Patched: In the Spring Patch the start-end distances were extended from 8-40 to
             25-50 metres and the max-min damage values were changed from 20.0-5.0
             to 25.0-15.0 (for semi-autos) and from 37.5-10.0 to 40.0-25.0 (for
             pump-actions). The splash damage remains unchanged.
    
    If you're landing hits on your target then (with the combination of impact and
    splash damage) you should now get a two-hit kill out to any range with a pump-
    action and out to 25 metres with a semi-auto. In theory you should be able to
    get a four-hit kill at any range on a target in cover (no line of sight) as long
    as you can get maximum splash damage with each shot (4 x 25 = 100).
    
    *These stats also apply to the USAS12 pickup which only uses frag rounds.
    
                                           ¯¯
    The Hawk, Saiga, DBV, USAS and M26 all use detachable magazines which give the
    benefit of being able to fully reload the weapon more quickly. However the other
    shotguns, where you load shells into the weapon individually, have the advantage
    that you can interrupt the loading sequence to resume firing at any time.
    
    The loading times given below are either the short reload for a magazine change
    (e.g. "2.20 secs") or for loading individual shells (e.g. "0.55 secs x N" where
    it will take 0.55 seconds to load one shell, 1.10 seconds to load two, etc).
    
    o QBS09
    
         Ammo: 12-gauge    Capacity: 6   Fire-rate: 230 RPM   Reload: 0.67 secs x N
    
      Unlocks: score 16,000 pts with Support class
    
               If you really don't like using the light machineguns of the Support
               class then you could use the Groza carbine instead.
    
      Summary: Your first shotgun primary looks like a pump-action because it has an
               internal non-detachable tube magazine but it's actually a semi-auto.
    
               It has the highest rate of fire and lowest vertical recoil of all the
               equipable shotguns. However it also has the smallest ammo capacity
               (six) and the same lower pellet/dart count (twelve pellets or darts
               per shell) as the post-patch DBV12 and M1014.
    
               With buckshot loaded you'll need three quarters of the pellets to hit
               your target to get a one-hit kill (9 x 11.2 > 100). Compare that to
               the Hawk 12G pump-action which has twenty-one pellets per shell so
               you only need around two fifths to connect for a kill.
    
      Patched: The spread increase per shot got a small buff in the Spring Patch.
    
               Also the pellet/dart count was increased to twelve per shell. (Prior
               to the Spring Patch it had more pellets than the other semi-autos but
               it also used the lower damage model from the pump-actions.)
    
               The per-shell reload time was increased from 0.60 to 0.67 seconds in
               the 2015 Holiday Patch.
    
       Trivia: The QBS09 is a modern semi-auto shotgun adopted by the Chinese forces
               as recently as 2009. The design features a fixed tubular underbarrel
               magazine, scope rail, pistol-grip and tidy sliding shoulder-stock.
    
    o 870MCS
    
         Ammo: 12-gauge   Capacity: 8   Fire-rate: 92 RPM   Reload: 0.67 secs x N
    
      Unlocks: score 4,000 pts with shotguns
    
               Remember you're not limited to using the QBS09 for unlocks - you can
               also use the Shorty 12G sidearm, M26 gadget or USAS12 Battle Pickup.
    
      Summary: In the absence of BF3's extended mags feature the shotguns now tend
               to have larger default magazines but lower rates of fire (for example
               in BF3 the 870MCS held five shells but fired at 125 RPM).
    
               The 870 now fires at 92 RPM but that's good by BF4 standards - it
               fires at the same rate as the SPAS12 and these are the fastest pump-
               action shotguns in the game. Compared to the SPAS it holds one less
               shell (eight) but has one more pellet/dart per shell (nineteen) so I
               would go with the 870 when using buck or darts because there won't
               be many situations when you need that extra ninth shell, especially
               when you can reload individual shells so quickly.
    
               The other pump-actions can offer you a bigger ammo capacity (UTS15)
               or more pellets per shell (Hawk 12G) but they fire more slowly.
    
      Patched: The moving/aimed accuracy were increased in the 4 March 2014 patch.
    
               The spread increase per shot got a big buff in the Spring Patch.
    
               Also the pellet/dart count was increased to nineteen per shell.
    
               The per-shell reload time was reduced from 0.70 to 0.67 seconds (the
               same as the QBS) in the 2015 Holiday Patch.
    
       Trivia: The Remington 870 dates back to the 50's but the MCS (Modular Combat
               System) is a modern version with the ability to conveniently swap
               out components (barrel, magazine extensions, stock, etc) to configure
               it for various roles. It also has a short Picatinny rail on the top
               which can readily accept a scope/sight attachment.
    
               The Remington 870 also forms the basis of the Knight's Armament Co's
               "Masterkey" system where the shotgun is mounted under the barrel of
               an M16 or M4 in the same manner as the M26 MASS (see below).
    
    o M1014
    
         Ammo: 12-gauge   Capacity: 8   Fire-rate: 210 RPM   Reload: 0.55 secs x N
    
      Unlocks: score 11,000 pts with shotguns
    
      Summary: The stats for the other three semi-auto shotguns in the base game are
               quite similar, but there are some minor variations.
    
               Compared to the Saiga and DBV, the M1014 fires slightly faster and
               has the lowest vertical recoil. It also has the smallest magazine but
               the fastest reload time (individual shells) of all the shotguns.
    
      Patched: The spread increase per shot got a small buff in the Spring Patch.
    
               Also the pellet/dart count was increased to thirteen per shell.
    
               The count was then reduced from 13 to 12 in the Second Fall Patch.
    
       Trivia: The M4 Super 90 was designed by Benelli of Italy in the late 90's for
               entry into the US Army's trials to find a new 12-gauge semi-automatic
               shotgun - it won the competition and was adopted as the M1014.
    
               See the Benelli M4 on IV8888: https://youtu.be/tV5AVhu2r58
    
               It's also used by the British armed forces, designated the L128A1.
    
    o Hawk 12G
    
         Ammo: 12-gauge   Capacity: 5+1   Fire-rate: 83 RPM   Reload: 1.95 secs
    
      Unlocks: score 19,000 pts with shotguns
    
      Summary: The most interesting feature of this pump-action shotgun is that it
               uses a detachable box magazine so you can do a full reload more
               quickly but you can't load shells individually.
    
               Each shell holds twenty-one pellets/darts which is more than any
               other shotgun in the game but it also has the slowest rate of fire
               and the smallest magazine capacity of the pump-action shotguns.
    
      Patched: The moving/aimed accuracy were increased in the 4 March 2014 patch.
    
               The spread increase per shot got a small buff in the Spring Patch.
    
               Also the pellet/dart count was increased to twenty-one per shell.
    
       Trivia: The second Chinese shotgun in BF4 is the Hawk 97-2 Pump Tactical.
    
               The original Hawk model is a clone of the Remington 870 design with a
               14" barrel, underbarrel tube magazine, solid stock and pump-action
               which previously appeared in BF2 as the NOR982 (Norinco 982).
    
               However the model in this game is the Tactical variant which combines
               the pump-action mechanism with a short detachable box magazine and a
               folding shoulder-stock.
    
               There's also a bullpup variant of it (with a similar layout to the
               AUG assault rifle) with a box magazine fed at the rear.
    
    o Saiga 12k
    
         Ammo: 12-gauge   Capacity: 8+1   Fire-rate: 200 RPM   Reload: 2.20 secs
    
      Unlocks: score 28,000 pts with shotguns
    
      Summary: The Saiga also has a detachable magazine but it's a semi-automatic
               design. Compared to the other semi-autos it has a fairly average
               pellet count, recoil and ammo capacity. It matches the same slower
               fire-rate of the DAO and DBV.
    
      Patched: The spread increase per shot got a small buff in the Spring Patch.
    
               Also the pellet/dart count was increased to fourteen per shell.
    
               The count was then reduced from 14 to 13 in the Second Fall Patch.
    
       Trivia: Noted for its reliability, the Saiga 12 is another Russian weapon
               derived from the classic Kalashnikov AK47 design. The model featured
               has the shorter 17" barrel - the "k" stands for korotkaya which means
               "short" - and a lightweight folding stock.
    
               See a custom Saiga 12 on IV8888: https://youtu.be/rgeqo_698fA
    
               Versions are also available in the smaller 20-gauge (including the
               20k model that featured in BFBC2) and in the lightweight .410 bore.
    
               A full-length Saiga with a skeletonized folding stock is available in
               the 2013 game Metro: Last Light. It's incorrectly modelled there with
               a fully automatic fire-mode and a short curved magazine.
    
               The Saiga 12k also appeared in Payday 2 as the "IZHMA 12G" with that
               name being a reference to the IZHMASH manufacturing plant.
    
    o SPAS12
    
         Ammo: 12-gauge   Capacity: 9   Fire-rate: 92 RPM   Reload: 0.67 secs x N
    
      Unlocks: score 37,000 pts with shotguns
    
      Summary: The SPAS ties with the 870MCS for the title of fastest-firing pump-
               action shotgun. Its magazine holds one extra shell but each one holds
               one less pellet.
    
               However if you want to use slug or frag rounds you might as well use
               the SPAS and take advantage of the slightly larger magazine and
               lower vertical recoil.
    
      Patched: The moving/aimed accuracy were increased in the 4 March 2014 patch.
    
               The spread increase per shot got a big buff in the Spring Patch.
    
               Also the pellet/dart count was increased to eighteen per shell.
    
       Trivia: The SPAS12 is made by Franchi of Italy and entered production in the
               early 80's. As fans of the first Terminator movie will know, "you can
               go pump or auto" but, for the sake of having another pump-action in
               the game, the semi-auto option is unavailable in BF4.
    
               The Special-Purpose Automatic Shotgun (12-gauge) was rebranded as the
               "Sporting-Purpose Automatic Shotgun" in an attempt to bypass American
               import restrictions.
    
    o UTS15
    
         Ammo: 12-gauge   Capacity: 15   Fire-rate: 85 RPM   Reload: 0.83 x N secs
    
      Unlocks: score 48,000 pts with shotguns
    
      Summary: The key feature here is the massive ammo capacity of the UTS - it can
               carry fifteen shells when fully loaded (but then you have to wonder
               how often you're going to need that many at one time).
    
               However it also fires significantly slower and it has more vertical
               recoil and a slower reload animation. It has the same pellet/dart
               count as the SPAS, that's one fewer than the 870.
    
               The UTS gets the usual bullpup bonuses to hipfire and moving accuracy
               and the usual bullpup penalties to aimed accuracy and reload times.
    
      Patched: The moving/aimed accuracy were increased in the 4 March 2014 patch.
    
               In addition to this the rate of fire was reduced from 100 to 99 RPM.
    
               The spread increase per shot got a big buff in the Spring Patch.
    
               Also the pellet/dart count was increased to twenty per shell.
    
               The count was then reduced from 20 to 18 in the Second Fall Patch.
    
               The per-shell reload time was increased from 0.80 to 0.83 seconds in
               the 2015 Holiday Patch.
    
       Trivia: The UTAS UTS15 (Urban Tactical Shotgun) was designed by UTAS Makina
               of Turkey between 2006 and 2011 at the request of Smith & Wesson who
               sought a pump-action shotgun with a large ammo cap. The design was
               inspired by the Neostead NS2000 (that featured in BFBC1 and BFBC2).
    
               The bullpup configuration gives a compact size while still having an
               18" barrel. The main body is made from lightweight fibre-reinforced
               polymer and features a long Picatinny scope rail on the top.
    
               The most distinctive aspect of the UTS15 is that it has two tube mags
               mounted next to each other above the barrel. Each magazine can hold
               seven 2.75" shells (or six 3" shells) and another can be loaded into
               the chamber (behind the pistol-grip) to give a capacity of 15 rounds.
               The cutaway body allows you to see how many shells are left (and also
               reduces weight further) and a selector switch can be used to set the
               weapon to fire only from one tube so potentially the user can switch
               between two ammo types (but sadly you can't do this in the game).
    
               The weapon is available via UTAS USA who sell a range of accessories
               including attachable front/rear iron sights, a 7.5" barrel extension
               and a combined laser/taclight that's integrated below the barrel.
    
               See the UTS15 (failing) on FPSRussia: http://youtu.be/a050T2wFKAY
    
               The UTS15 appears in COD: Ghosts as the "Tac 12" although you need
               the extended mags option to give the authentic 15-round capacity.
    
    o DBV12
    
         Ammo: 12-gauge   Capacity: 10+1   Fire-rate: 200 RPM   Reload: 2.20 secs
    
      Unlocks: score 59,000 pts with shotguns
    
      Summary: Your final shottie unlock is another Russian semi-auto shotgun with a
               detachable magazine. It performs similarly to the Saiga, with the
               same rate of fire, reload times and vertical recoil, but the DBV has
               a larger magazine while the Saiga gets one extra pellet per shell and
               a much lower first-shot recoil multiplier (applied on every shot).
    
               After reaching rank 100 you can work towards the 'Wall of Shotgun'
               assignment which requires you to achieve 50 kills with the DBV12 plus
               50 each with the M26 MASS (Assault gadget) and Shorty 12G (sidearm).
    
      Patched: The spread increase per shot got a small buff in the Spring Patch.
    
               Also the pellet/dart count was increased to thirteen per shell.
    
               The count was then reduced from 13 to 12 in the Second Fall Patch.
    
       Trivia: The DBV12 is a shotgun version of the AK12 assault rifle (see above);
               the real AK12 can be adapted to fire various rifle calibres and even
               12-gauge shotgun shells so it's not an unrealistic option for BF4.
    
               The DBV12 is conceptually quite similar to the Vepr-12 - a Russian
               semi-automatic tactical shotgun made in the Kalashnikov pattern.
    
    o DAO12
    
         Ammo: 12-gauge   Capacity: 12   Fire-rate: 200 RPM   Reload: 1.18 secs x N
    
      Unlocks: complete 'Dead Stop' assignment (multiplayer)
    
               o Second Assault DLC required
               o Multiplayer Rank 10 required
               o Achieve the following in the same match:
                 - Get 1 Shotgun Ribbon (get 6 shotgun kills in a match)
                 - Raise or lower the security gate on the Caspian Border map
    
               Your first primary shotgun will be the QBS09 which is unlocked by
               earning 16,000 pts with the Support class. This semi-auto weapon has
               a good fire-rate so it's quite spammable and it'll do better against
               the ARMOR spec (where a single shot is often insufficient). You can
               also use the USAS12 (Battle Pickup), Shorty 12G (sidearm) or M26 MASS
               (Assault gadget) to earn kills for that ribbon.
    
               Naturally shotguns will prosper in close-quarters environments, e.g.
               indoors and in short-range defence around an objective. To use them
               at longer ranges fit a choke attachment and/or use the dart ammo.
    
               On Caspian you need to head over to the main gateway in the big wall
               immediately north of the "B" Checkpoint flag on Conquest Large. The
               control switches for the large striped vehicle barriers there are in
               the booths at ground level immediately adjacent to the barriers (and
               even if/when the booths are destroyed the switches will remain).
    
               In addition to Conquest mode, the gate barrier controls can also be
               accessed in Rush, Obliteration, Capture the Flag and - at the very
               edge of the map - Domination.
    
      Summary: The DAO enjoys a large drum magazine which holds twelve shells but it
               has a very slow reload animation compared to the other shotguns that
               are loaded one shell at a time - and in fact the two semi-automatic
               shotguns with detachable mags (the Saiga 12k and the DBV12) can do a
               full reload in the time it takes to load two shells into the DAO12!
    
               Relative to the other semi-auto shotguns it has the same thirteen
               pellets/darts per shell as the Saiga (one more than the others) but
               it also has the second highest recoil after the DBV.
    
      Patched: When it was first introduced to BF4 the DAO12 was incorrectly given
               twelve flechettes per shell when using dart ammo. In the 4 March 2014
               patch this was fixed to the normal nine per shell and the cone width
               with dart rounds was increased too.
    
               Additionally the rate of fire was nerfed from 220 to 200 RPM.
    
               The spread increase per shot got a small nerf in the Spring Patch.
    
               Also the pellet/dart count was increased to fifteen per shell.
    
               The count was then reduced from 15 to 13 in the Second Fall Patch.
    
       Trivia: The "Double-Action Only 12-gauge" shotgun is in fact a South African
               design from the 80's called the Armsel Striker - or possibly the
               Streetsweeper clone manufactured by Cobray of South Dakota.
    
               Cobray also made a .410 bore model - the "Ladies Home Companion"!
    
    o M26 MASS
    
         Ammo: 12-gauge   Capacity: 5+1   Fire-rate: 109 RPM   Reload: 3.00 secs
    
      Unlocks: score 18,000 pts with Assault class (Buck ammo)
    
               score 51,000 pts with Assault class (Dart ammo)
    
               score 88,000 pts with Assault class (Slug ammo)
    
               score 114,000 pts with Assault class (Frag ammo)
    
      Summary: The M26 shotgun is only available to the Assault class. It unlocks
               and equips as a gadget so you can pick a long-range primary (like the
               SAR21 assault rifle) and keep the M26 for close-quarters, otherwise
               you might prefer to equip two shotguns at the same time - or even
               three if you have the Shorty 12G as your secondary!
    
               There are four versions of the M26 to unlock, each with a different
               ammo type. The initial "M26 MASS" option comes with buckshot shells
               and then you'll unlock dart, slug and frag rounds as you progress.
    
               Like some of the shotgun primaries, the M26 has a detachable magazine
               so you can do a full reload more quickly. It can be fitted as an
               underbarrel attachment on the SCAR-H, M416, M16A4, CZ805 and AR160
               assault rifles using the underslung rail but otherwise it will be
               equipped as a standalone weapon (with a red-dot sight).
    
      Patched: In the Summer Patch the number of flechettes per shell with dart ammo
               was increased from 12 to 19 (to match the standard M26 buckshot).
    
               The moving ADS accuracy was buffed from 1.2 to 0.4 (the same as the
               non-bullpup pump-action shotgun primaries) in the Second Fall Patch.
    
       Trivia: The M26 MASS (Modular Accessory Shotgun System) was derived from the
               Lightweight Shotgun System (LSS) of C-More Systems of America which
               was inspired by the Masterkey - an underbarrel breaching shotgun made
               from a heavily modified Remington 870 (see above).
    
               The pump-action mechanism is operated using the folding side lever
               and it's fed by a detachable magazine which makes it easier to switch
               between different ammo types for various roles.
    
               In its unmounted configuration the M26 has a pistol-grip, adjustable
               shoulder stock (like that of the M4 carbine) and sling mounts.
    
               The M26 MASS made its first appearance in the Battlefield series in
               BF3 but it previously featured in both Rainbow Six: Vegas games as
               the prototypical XM26 LSS.
    
               See the M26 MASS on Triggers: http://youtu.be/XAON-kHHga4
    
    o USAS12
    
         Ammo: 12-gauge   Capacity: 10+1   Fire-rate: 300 RPM   Reload: 2.50 secs
    
      Unlocks: N/A (Battle Pickup only)
    
               Like the M82A3 and AMR2 sniper rifles (see Section 03d) the USAS12 is
               only available as a pickup weapon in BF4.
    
      Summary: Now the only automatic shotgun in the game, the USAS steps up in its
               new role as a Battle Pickup with a higher rate of fire (previously
               275 RPM in BF3) and an authentic ten-round magazine (six in BF3).
    
               Seemingly in celebration of the ridiculously overpowered pre-patch
               USAS/frags combo in BF3, the new USAS is not available with any other
               type of ammo - it'll always come with frag rounds loaded.
    
               Like the M82 and AMR there are different versions of the USAS12. The
               standard "USAS12" has a holo sight, ergo grip and green laser/light
               combo while the "USAS12 FLIR" has the 2x infra-red scope, angled grip
               and the laser/light combo again.
    
      Patched: At launch, unlike the other Battle Pickups, the limited ammo supply
               of the USAS12 could be replenished from an ammo crate but this has
               since been fixed and you're stuck with your default 33 shells.
    
               In the Spring Patch the USAS got the same hipfire spread and damage
               buffs as the other shotguns. 
    
       Trivia: The USAS is an American military shotgun design manufactured in South
               Korea. It takes either a 10-round box or 20-round drum magazine.
    
    .-------------.----------------------------------------------------------------.
    | Section 03h | Sidearms                                                  s03h |
    '-------------'----------------------------------------------------------------'
    
    Your sidearm is equipped into the secondary slot and you can pick a different
    one for each class. You can use them as a back-up when your primary gun is empty
    or for quick follow-up shots after firing a bolt-action sniper rifle in close
    quarters; you also automatically switch to your sidearm when you're revived.
    
    You'll sometimes want to choose a sidearm to complement your primary selection,
    for example pairing the fully automatic G18 (short range) with a scoped sniper
    rifle (long range) or, conversely, a scoped Magnum with a shotgun.
    
    Initially only the P226 and Mare's Leg are available. The MP412 Rex can be
    unlocked in the single-player campaign and a further three sidearms can be
    earned by completing DLC assignments. The others are unlocked by earning XP
    using whichever *pistols* you have available. (I've emphasized pistols there
    because any points earned from using the new Shorty 12G shotgun sidearm will
    count towards shotgun unlocks rather than more sidearms.)
    
    (DICE declared February 2014 to be "Player Appreciation Month". In addition to
    free daily Battlepacks, double XP events and community challenges they also
    released some optional free gun unlock shortcuts on the PSN store. The "Handgun
    [sic] Shortcut Kit" was available free to all players during the period 18 to 24
    February and this unlocked all eleven sidearms that are normally unlockable in
    online play - i.e. everything except for the MP412 Rex (campaign unlock) and the
    SW40, Unica 6 and Deagle 44 (DLC unlocks). This shortcut pack is now available
    to purchase for US$4.99, UKP3.99 or 500 Yen.)
    
    You'll naturally use your sidearms in general play but if you want to chew
    through the unlocks a lot faster you could try searching in the Server Browser
    for custom servers running pistol-only rules on small maps. Alternatively you
    might be able to find an active server running Gun Master mode (added in the
    Spring Patch) and configured with the sidearms list (this will be shown as "Gun
    Master Weapons Preset = 2" in the server settings).
    
    In contrast to BF3 where you had to unlock different versions of the same pistol
    (e.g. M9 Suppressed, MP443 Tactical, .44 Scoped, etc) in BF4 sidearms now have
    Optic, Accessory and Barrel slots where you can equip a range of attachments and
    you can even pick a camo for the new Paint slot too if you're so inclined. You
    unlock attachments by getting kills with each gun, just like the primaries.
    
    The sidearms use a wide range of ammo types with different damage models.
    
                |    Max.   |    Damage    |   Min.   |
     Ammunition |   Damage  |   Drop-Off   |  Damage  | Weapons
    ============+===========+==============+==========+=============================
       12-gauge | 13 x 11.2 |   25m to 50m | 13 x 5.6 | Shorty 12G only (buckshot)
    ------------+-----------+--------------+----------+-----------------------------
                |           | 12.5m to 50m |          | .44 Magnum only
                |           |--------------|   37.5   |-----------------------------
     .44 Magnum |           |   15m to 60m |          | Mare's Leg only
                |    56.0   |--------------+----------+-----------------------------
                |           | 12.5m to 50m |          | Deagle 44 only
    ------------+           |--------------|   28.0   |-----------------------------
    .357 Magnum |           |   15m to 37m |          | MP412 Rex, SW40 and Unica 6
    ------------+-----------+--------------+----------+-----------------------------
        .45 ACP |    36.6   |    8m to 40m |          | M1911 and Compact 45
    ------------+-----------+--------------|   15.4   |-----------------------------
        .40 S&W |    30.0   | 12.5m to 55m |          | CZ75 only
    ------------+-----------+--------------+----------+-----------------------------
                |    27.0   |   10m to 55m |          | P226, M9 and MP443
         9x19mm |-----------+--------------|   12.1   |-----------------------------
                |    22.0   |    8m to 55m |          | 93R (burst) and G18 (auto)
    ------------+-----------+--------------+----------+-----------------------------
       5.8x21mm |           |              |          | QSZ92 only
    ------------|    22.0   |    8m to 60m |   13.5   |-----------------------------
       5.7x28mm |           |              |          | FN57 only
    
    You'll notice that although the 93R and G18 use the same 9mm ammunition as some
    of the semi-auto pistols their damage output is reduced to help balance the high
    rates of fire for the machine-pistols.
    
    In general terms you can consider the sidearms as a spectrum. At one end you
    have the guns with a large ammo capacity and higher rate of fire that do less
    damage per shot and at the other end of the spectrum you have the heavy pistols
    with low capacities and slow fire-rate but more powerful rounds. This spectrum
    is even more diverse now in BF4 with the addition of three new damage profiles.
    
    Patched: The semi-automatic 9mm pistols have done 27 max damage since launch -
             this is sufficient to give a four-hit kill even against the ARMOR spec
             which applies a x0.93 multiplier on shots to the upper torso and arms.
    
             In the big 4 March 2014 patch DICE raised the max damage of all the
             other semi-auto pistols. For the M1911, Compact 45, QSZ92 and FN57 the
             small increases were made so that the BTK (bullets to kill) for these
             weapons at short range would not be affected by the ARMOR spec.
    
             The CZ75 already did 27 max damage so now after the patch it retains
             its edge over the 9mm pistols in being able to give a four-hit kill out
             to longer ranges (even against a target with the ARMOR spec active).
    
    The following table gives a crude indication of each sidearm's damage output
    potential. The DPS is the theoretical maximum damage-rate (damage per second);
    for the Shorty shotgun this assumes that all thirteen pellets hit the target.
    
                              |  Maximum  |           |     |   Ammo
                       Weapon |   Damage  | Fire-Rate | DPS | Capacity
                ==============+===========+===========+=====+==========
                   G18 (auto) |    22.0   |  900 RPM  | 330 |   17+1
                  93R (burst) |    22.0   |  900 RPM  | 330 |   15+1
                --------------+-----------+-----------+-----+----------
                   Shorty 12G | 13 x 11.2 |  100 RPM  | 242 |    2+1
                --------------+-----------+-----------+-----+----------
                         SW40 |    56.0   |  220 RPM  | 205 |     6
                    Deagle 44 |    56.0   |  220 RPM  | 205 |    8+1
                      Unica 6 |    56.0   |  210 RPM  | 196 |     6
                   Compact 45 |    36.6   |  320 RPM  | 195 |   10+1
                        M1911 |    36.6   |  310 RPM  | 189 |    7+1
                --------------+-----------+-----------+-----+----------
                         CZ75 |    30.0   |  360 RPM  | 180 |   12+1
                    P226 / M9 |    27.0   |  400 RPM  | 180 |   15+1
                --------------+-----------+-----------+-----+----------
                        MP443 |    27.0   |  380 RPM  | 171 |   17+1
                    MP412 Rex |    56.0   |  180 RPM  | 168 |     6
                 QSZ92 / FN57 |    22.0   |  455 RPM  | 167 |   20+1
                   .44 Magnum |    56.0   |  150 RPM  | 140 |     6
                --------------+-----------+-----------+-----+----------
                   Mare's Leg |    56.0   |   66 RPM  |  62 |     6
    
    However, as sidearms are often used to finish-off an enemy who has already taken
    damage, the individual damage per round can be important too - a more powerful
    sidearm has a higher chance of killing an enemy on low health with one shot.
    
    The remodelled trigger buttons (R2/L2) on the PS4's new Dualshock 4 controller
    seem to have a longer pull which is most noticeable when you're trying to fire a
    pistol quickly. In order to get all your button presses to register you need to
    let the button travel back to its default position each time. This shouldn't be
    a problem on the slower guns (or the G18!) or if you change your controller
    configuration settings to "swap L1/R1 with L2/R2 = on".
    
    o P226
    
         Ammo: 9x19mm   Capacity: 15+1   Fire-rate: 400 RPM   Reload: 1.25 secs
    
      Unlocks: available at start
    
      Summary: Your starting pistol (heh) is the first of three using the 9mm load.
               This now does 27 max damage (compared to 25 in BF3) so you can still
               get a four-hit kill on abdomen/leg shots or against the ARMOR spec.
               However the damage drop-off and minimum damage are both reduced.
    
               The 9mm pistols are all pretty similar, with the P226 and M9 even
               sharing the same fire-rate and magazine capacity; the P226 has the
               least vertical recoil and average reload times. The MP443 Grach has a
               larger magazine and faster reloads but significantly more vertical
               recoil and a slower rate of fire.
    
               If you want to go for even higher rates of fire (accepting reduced
               bullet damage) you now have the option of the FN57 and QSZ92.
    
      Patched: The damage drop-off start was extended from 8 metres to 10 metres for
               all three semi-auto 9mm pistols in the Spring Patch.
    
       Trivia: The P226 is made by SIG-Sauer of Switzerland. It was designed as a
               derivative of their P220 model for submission to the US trials in the
               mid 80's to find a new service pistol. The SIG P226 was beaten by the
               Beretta 92F (which was adopted as the M9 - see below) but it is still
               widely used by other military and police operators worldwide.
    
               It's available in various models/calibres/sizes but the version in
               BF4 is a fairly standard 9mm model with a 15-round magazine.
    
               The P226 saw brief service with the British Army (as the L105/L106) 
               but it was announced in January 2013 that the Glock 17 Gen 4 would be
               replacing all SIG's (and vintage Browning Hi-Powers) in British use.
    
               The compact P228 model is used by the US military designated the M11.
    
    o Mare's Leg
    
         Ammo: .44 Magnum   Capacity: 6   Fire-rate: 66 RPM   Reload: 0.77 secs x N
    
      Unlocks: available by default (added in Spring Patch on 26 May 2015)
    
      Summary: The Mare's Leg is a lever-action pistol-calibre rifle shortened at
               both ends so it can be worn as a sidearm in a leg holster.
    
               It uses the same .44" Magnum ammo as the .44 Magnum revolver (see
               below) but with longer damage drop-off distances. Cartridges are
               loaded individually into the underbarrel tube magazine (as with some
               shotguns) and a new round needs to be chambered after each shot by
               operating the lever action. This has a cool animation (best viewed in
               hipfire) but it also gives a very slow rate of fire.
    
               The Mare's Leg was intended to function as a "pocket sniper" which
               could supplement the loadout of any class but the end result delivers
               a limited level of performance in that role. You can get a one-shot
               headshot kill but only out to 37 metres - at longer ranges you'll
               need to land a follow-up shot. With body shots you'll need to get two
               out to 29 metres or three beyond (unless you're playing in Hardcore
               mode in which case it's a two-hit kill at all ranges).
    
               In most cases the 44 Mag revolver is a better choice. It fires over
               twice as fast as the Mare's Leg which makes those follow-up shots
               much easier to get. It also has the same ammo count and ADS spread.
    
               The default iron sights on the Mare's Leg are pretty poor - the front
               blade is too wide for accurate use - but at least your first two
               unlocks are the 4x ACOG scope and Reflex red-dot sight. It can use
               all of the short-range and medium-range optics apart from the infra-
               red scopes but none of the long-range sniper scopes apart from the
               40x Ballistic. (DICE trolling us again!)
    
               Since it requires two-handed operation the Mare's Leg cannot be used
               while swimming (but the game still shows the "secondary" prompt).
    
      Patched: Evidently the original pre-release version of the Mare's Leg was far
               too good and after testing on the CTE it got a range of nerfs to its
               fire-rate, damage profile, accuracy and scope options.
    
               The option of equipping a heavy barrel was added in the Summer Patch
               (this reduces the aimed spread from 0.2 to 0.1).
    
               In an attempt to make it slightly more useful the damage drop-off
               end distance for the Mare's Leg was extended from 45 to 60 metres in
               the Second Fall Patch (2015). This had the effect of increasing the
               one-hit headshot kill range from 29 to 37 metres.
    
       Trivia: Pre-dating even the ancient M1911 (see below), the original Mare's
               Leg was based on a lever-action .44-40 calibre Winchester 1892 rifle.
    
               The weapon and its name originated in the TV show 'Wanted: Dead or
               Alive' in the late 50's where it was used by the main character - a
               bounty hunter played by a young Steve McQueen.
    
               (In the 1987 movie of the same name Rutger Hauer plays the grandson
               of Steve McQueen's character. He's a bounty hunter too but he favours
               a tactical Remington 870 with a bigass 80's laser sight!)
    
               The in-game weapon model shows that it's been retrofitted with a full
               quad accessory rail in place of the wooden handguard, what appears to
               be a synthetic buttstock instead of the original wooden one and a new
               angular lever loop. The new rear iron sights resemble LPA's shotgun
               sights as seen on the modernized lever-action rifles built by Grizzly
               Custom Guns of Montana.
    
               Some companies still manufacture Winchester 1892 replicas and with
               modern materials these can handle the higher pressures from ammo such
               as the .357" and .44" Magnum loads. Chiappa - who also make the Rhino
               revolver (BF4's SW40) - make both the Winchester 1892 and a shortened
               "Mare's Leg" version in a range of calibres including .44" Magnum.
    
               See a .44 Magnum Mare's Leg on IV8888: https://youtu.be/VG0oQB9VK0g
    
               The Mare's Leg featured prominently in the movie Zombieland (used by
               Tallahassee) and in Firefly/Serenity (used by Zoe).
    
    o MP412 Rex
    
         Ammo: .357 Magnum   Capacity: 6   Fire-rate: 180 RPM   Reload: 3.40 secs
    
      Unlocks: complete 'Tombstone Actual' assignment (single-player)
    
               Simply finish the first mission (Baku) to pass the assignment.
    
      Summary: The first of two revolvers in the base game, the Rex has seen some
               substantial changes since BF3. Where previously the Rex did 50 max
               damage and the .44 Magnum did 60, now both do 56 (clearly sufficient
               for a two-hit kill). However the rate of fire has plummeted from 255
               to 180 RPM resulting in a 21% drop in its rate of damage output. :(
    
               It still has a short damage drop-off and its vertical recoil has been
               increased in line with its big brother - it's five times that of the
               9mm P226 listed above. Overall the Rex appears to be modelled now
               more as a slightly faster but slightly less accurate .44 Magnum; its
               aimed accuracy still beats the other pistols though.
    
               With the standard headshot damage multiplier (x2.13) you can get a
               one-shot headshot kill with the Rex out to around 22 metres (taking
               advantage of that aimed accuracy too). Magnum rounds can be used to
               detonate enemy explosives (e.g. anti-tank mines) which is better than
               wasting a grenade. Another use is to detonate your own explosives,
               for example when you plant SLAM mines directly onto an enemy vehicle
               but it doesn't trigger them by moving.
    
      Patched: The Rex and .44 Magnum both suffered from a delay between pulling the
               trigger and firing the round - according to DICE this "represents the
               way these weapons work in real life". However they compromised and
               reduced this delay slightly in the big 4 March 2014 patch and then
               totally removed it in the Fall Patch.
    
               The reload animation was fixed in the 8 July 2014 patch. Originally
               the speedloader was shown full of cartridges after reloading!
    
               Previously the Magnum rounds of all the heavy pistols (revolvers and
               Deagle) gave a x2.35 headshot multiplier but this was reduced to the
               standard x2.13 in the Summer Patch.
    
       Trivia: The MP412 Rex was designed in Russia and intended for sale in foreign
               markets ("Rex" = Revolver EXport) but it was never mass-produced.
    
               Its design is unusual in that it "breaks" open like a double-barrel
               shotgun, the entire barrel and cylinder assembly hinging forwards. It
               also has an automatic extractor which is why all the cases jump out
               when you break the gun to reload (and it's also why the MP412 has a
               shorter reload time that the .44 Magnum).
    
               The Rex is the only sidearm available in the single-player campaign
               but you can equip a second primary as your secondary instead so that
               seems a pretty fair trade.
    
    o M9
    
         Ammo: 9x19mm   Capacity: 15+1   Fire-rate: 400 RPM   Reload: 1.30 secs
    
      Unlocks: score 4,000 pts with sidearms
    
      Summary: As noted above the M9 gives very similar performance to the P226 but
               it has slightly slower reloads and a little more vertical recoil.
    
               The only minor benefits compared to the P226 are a higher muzzle
               velocity and evenly balanced horizontal recoil.
    
      Patched: The damage drop-off start was extended from 8 metres to 10 metres for
               all three semi-auto 9mm pistols in the Spring Patch.
    
       Trivia: The M9 is the US military designation for the Beretta 92F pistol from
               Italy, instantly familiar from dozens of appearances in movies. It
               was adopted for US service after extensive trials in the mid 80's,
               replacing the M1911 .45 which had been in service since 1911. The
               M9A1 model with an underbarrel rail followed in 2006.
    
               In autumn of 2012 the US Army procured a further 100,000 M9 pistols
               from Beretta USA indicating their commitment to continuing to use the
               M9 for at least another five years. However, as older M9's in service
               are reaching the end of their life-cycles, the US Army and Air Force
               are currently running the XM17 'Modular Handgun System' competition
               to find a replacement for the M9 in military roles by 2018. Beretta
               offered the upgraded M9A3 for US Army review but it was rejected.
    
               See the M9, M9A1 and M9A3 on MAC: https://youtu.be/jincc8cQtDo
    
               The stylish Italian design with the distinctive open slide is copied
               from much earlier Beretta handguns, with the 92 bearing a striking
               resemblance to their M1951 from (duh!) 1951 and even to other models
               dating back to the 20's.
    
               An updated version of the 92 called the "90two" was released in 2006
               with an ergonomic grip, front accessory rail, increased sight radius
               and 17-round magazine.
    
    o QSZ92
    
         Ammo: 5.8x21mm   Capacity: 20+1   Fire-rate: 455 RPM   Reload: 1.30 secs
    
      Unlocks: score 8,000 pts with sidearms
    
      Summary: The QSZ has a large magazine size and is capable of a high fire-rate
               - halfway to the 900 RPM of the fully automatic G18! However this
               comes at a price and the Chinese 5.8mm round does a maximum damage of
               only 22 which gives a standard five-hit kill (although that jumps to
               a three-hit kill in Hardcore mode where everyone has 60 health).
    
               Compared to the other semi-auto pistols the QSZ has fairly average
               reload times and aimed accuracy.
    
      Patched: In the 4 March 2014 patch they increased the max damage from 20 to 22
               and the min damage from 11.2 to 12.1. They also improved the vertical
               and horizontal recoil and the recoil recovery rate.
    
               At launch the QSZ92 was modelled with the 15-round magazine of the
               9mm version but the ammo capacity was eventually corrected in the
               March 2014 patch to 20+1 which is authentic and matches the FN57.
    
               (In the same patch the vertical recoil of the FN57 was increased so
               overall the QSZ now compares much more favourably to its rival.)
    
               The QSZ92 and FN57 were buffed in the Spring Patch, their minimum
               damage was increased from 12.1 to 13.5 and their spread increase per
               shot was reduced by 25% (making follow-up shots more accurate). Also
               the aimed accuracy for the QSZ was improved slightly (0.5 to 0.4).
    
               The two pistols still give quite similar performance but the QSZ has
               better aimed accuracy and vertical recoil while the FN57 has superior
               horizontal recoil and muzzle velocity. 
    
       Trivia: The Norinco QSZ92 entered Chinese service in the late 90's but they
               mostly use the 9mm model rather than the 5.8mm version in the game.
    
               The QSZ92 was previously available to the Chinese People's Liberation
               Army (PLA) faction in BF2 and BF2: Modern Combat.
    
    o MP443
    
         Ammo: 9x19mm   Capacity: 17+1   Fire-rate: 380 RPM   Reload: 1.20 secs
    
      Unlocks: score 13,000 pts with sidearms
    
      Summary: The last of the three 9mm semi-autos packs a couple of extra rounds
               in the magazine and has the fastest reloads of the group but the rate
               of fire is a bit slower and it experiences much more vertical recoil.
    
      Patched: The damage drop-off start was extended from 8 metres to 10 metres for
               all three semi-auto 9mm pistols in the Spring Patch.
    
       Trivia: Following a design and trial process in the 90's the MP443 "Grach"
               (Russian for "rook") was adopted by the Russian military in 2003.
    
               In addition to the standard 9mm Parabellum round it is also capable
               of using the same overpressure armour-piercing ammo as the PP2000.
    
               The Firearm Blog published a short article about the MP443 in 2007
               entitled 'Ugliest Modern Pistol'!
    
               The MP443 appears in ArmA III as the "Rook 40".
    
    o Shorty 12G
    
         Ammo: 12-gauge   Capacity: 2+1   Fire-rate: 100 RPM   Reload: 0.67 secs x N
    
      Unlocks: score 18,000 pts with sidearms
    
      Summary: First seen in the BF3 debut gameplay trailer way back in March 2013,
               the Shorty wasn't confirmed as a multiplayer weapon until August. If
               you hadn't guessed already, the Shorty 12G is a compact 12-gauge
               shotgun which can be equipped in your sidearm slot.*
    
               With no ammo unlocks available the Shorty only uses buckshot shells,
               each with thirteen pellets doing 11.2 max damage apiece. That sounds
               good but you'll need nine of those thirteen pellets to hit your
               target for a one-hit kill (9 x 11.2 > 100). Another key factor is
               that the shortened weapon only holds three shells in total so you
               really need to make them count.
    
               By default the Shorty has no iron sights so you cannot ADS with it
               until you unlock and equip an optic attachment (the "ghost ring"
               sight unlocks after 30 kills). Like the Mare's Leg it requires two
               hands to use so it cannot be equipped while swimming.
    
               Points earned with the Shorty count towards your shotguns total (not
               sidearms) so you can use it to work on primary shotgun unlocks.
    
               *If you're a big fan of shotguns you can now equip a shotgun primary
               and shotgun secondary together with any of the four classes. With the
               Assault kit you could also take the M26 MASS in a gadget slot giving
               you three shotguns in total!
    
      Patched: At launch the Shorty could only use the duckbill and not the more
               useful modified/full chokes (which tighten the cone of pellets/darts)
               but now both chokes are available by default, without even needing to
               get any kills to unlock them.
    
               In the big 4 March 2014 patch the recoil recovery rate in hipfire was
               nerfed from 10 down to 6.
    
               All the shotguns saw significant changes in the Spring Patch and the
               humble Shorty was no exception. The number of pellets per shell was
               increased from eight to thirteen, the max damage reduced from 18 to
               11.2, the min damage reduced from 6 to 5.6 and the damage drop-off
               distances extended from 16-30 metres to 25-50 metres.
    
               Additionally the spread of standing hipfire was increased by +0.25
               but the spread increase per shot was greatly reduced for all stances.
    
       Trivia: The ultra-compact pump-action Serbu Super Shorty is produced by Serbu
               Firearms Inc of Florida. They take a full-size Mossberg 500 or (for
               an extra $50) a Remington 870 and lovingly convert the barrel, tube
               magazine and pump-action to create a weapon that's only 16.5" long.
    
               The standard model holds three shells (two in the shortened mag plus
               one in the chamber) but they also make slightly larger versions where
               the magazine holds three or four rounds and the barrel is longer.
    
               The folding foregrip is used to operate the pump-action.
    
    o G18
    
         Ammo: 9x19mm   Capacity: 17+1   Fire-rate: 900 RPM   Reload: 1.20 secs
    
      Unlocks: score 23,000 pts with sidearms
    
               (Remember: kills/points earned with the Shorty 12G will count towards
               your shotguns stats so as long as you keep it equipped you won't make
               any further progress on your sidearm unlocks.)
    
      Summary: The Glock G18 is capable of full automatic fire at a ferocious 900
               RPM. Even with the damage nerfed (the maximum damage is 22 compared
               to 27 for the pistols firing the same 9mm load and the G18 and 93R
               have some of the lowest damage figures in the whole game) the G18 can
               still match the damage output of a 800 RPM assault rifle in CQB!
    
               Naturally a small weapon with such a high fire-rate is difficult to
               handle - the vertical recoil, horizontal recoil and first-shot recoil
               multiplier are all large. However at very short ranges the G18 is
               devastatingly effective and easy to use.*
    
               While the Glock G17 and G18 were both black in BF3, the G18 in BF4 is
               now modelled as two-tone with a coloured frame and black slide.
    
               *Youtube producer TheRussianBadger (playing on PC) describes the G18
               as "left-click to win".
    
      Patched: The ADS recoil recovery rate was fixed in the 4 March 2014 patch.
    
               In the Spring Patch of May 2015 the G18 and 93R saw their maximum
               damage buffed from 18 to 22 (for a five-hit kill in close quarters)
               and the minimum damage increased from 10.8 to 12.1. However the mag
               sizes were reduced too, with the Glock going from 19 to 17.
    
               Further changes were applied to the accuracy and recoil. Aimed and
               hipfire accuracy were improved across the board, the vertical and
               horizontal recoil were reduced and the spread increase per shot was
               also reduced. The only nerf was the smaller magazine capacity.
    
       Trivia: The original model of the Glock company of Austria was the G17 which
               launched in 1982, firing 9mm ammo from a 17-round magazine (hence the
               name). There are now numerous models in different calibres and sizes
               but they all share the G17's distinctive plain rectangular slide and
               advanced polymer construction.
    
               The automatic G18 variant was designed to meet the requirements of an
               Austrian special-forces unit. Since it chews through ammunition so
               quickly it would normally be used with a 33-round magazine but it can
               also accept any of the standard Glock magazines. Previously the G18
               in BF4 used the largest Glock pistol magazine (19 rounds) but since
               the Spring Patch is uses the original size (17 rounds).
    
               The other 9mm Glock models are all semi-automatics - the G19 compact,
               G26 subcompact and extended G34 variant for competition. Other models
               are available in .45 ACP, .380 ACP, 10mm, .40 S&W, .357 SIG and the
               .45 GAP (Glock Automatic Pistol) load which was designed especially
               to give the power of the classic .45 ACP in a smaller modern pistol.
    
    o FN57
    
         Ammo: 5.7x28mm   Capacity: 20+1   Fire-rate: 455 RPM   Reload: 1.25 secs
    
      Unlocks: score 28,000 pts with sidearms
    
      Summary: With their original stats there was no reason to continue using the
               QSZ92 after the FN57 had been unlocked. The FN57 had a larger mag and
               the other stats were identical or better.
    
               Following a patch the QSZ now has the same 20+1 ammo capacity and a
               lower recoil which gives it one advantage over the FN57. However the
               FN57 still has a higher muzzle velocity and slightly faster reloads.
    
      Patched: In the 4 March 2014 patch they increased the max damage from 20 to 22
               and the min damage from 11.2 to 12.1. They also increased the muzzle
               rise but cut the muzzle drift and improved the recoil recovery rate.
    
               The QSZ92 and FN57 were buffed in the Spring Patch, their minimum
               damage was increased from 12.1 to 13.5 and their spread increase per
               shot was reduced by 25% (making follow-up shots more accurate). 
    
       Trivia: As noted previously the FN "Five-seveN" was developed in parallel
               with the P90 (PDW) and the novel 5.7mm cartridge, although it didn't
               enter production until 1998, eight years after the P90.
    
               The high-velocity 5.7mm bullets are designed to penetrate modern body
               armour but they have a tendency to tumble within the target which
               causes more damage and reduces the risk of over-penetration making
               them suitable for law enforcement applications. FN boast that the gun
               is used by 300+ agencies worldwide including the US Secret Service.
    
               Although originally sold only to military/police operators, the gun
               has been available to civilian users since 2004. The current models
               are the USG (United States Government), the brown FDE (Flat Dark
               Earth) and the new Five-seveN Mk 2 which launched in 2013.
    
               FN also continue to market the Hi-Power (currently the Mk III model)
               which was first produced in 1935 and was designed by John Browning
               who also created the legendary M1911 .45 ACP handgun.
    
               This is the first appearance of the Five-seveN in the Battlefield
               series but the weapon has previously featured in over thirty games,
               including the Counter-Strike, Splinter Cell and SOCOM series.
    
    o M1911
    
         Ammo: .45 ACP   Capacity: 7+1   Fire-rate: 310 RPM   Reload: 1.20 secs
    
      Unlocks: score 34,000 pts with sidearms
    
      Summary: The two .45" calibre pistols in the game - the M1911 and Compact 45 -
               give a higher maximum damage for a potential three-hit kill (or two-
               hit kill if one is a headshot or if you're playing Hardcore).
    
               They also have better stationary ADS accuracy than the other semi-
               auto pistols and excellent reload times. However they have smaller
               magazines, slower rates of fire and higher vertical recoil.
    
               Only the M1911, .44 Magnum and Unica 6 can use the 3x pistol scope.
               Previously the M1911's scope was only available to DICE staff but, by
               way of compensation for various launch issues, they ran a double XP
               week from 28 November 2013 and at the conclusion of this the M1911 3x
               scope was unlocked for everyone. The scope is less useful on the
               M1911 though because, unlike the Magnum and Unica, it's incapable of
               giving a one-shot headshot kill at any range (36.6 x 2 < 100).
    
               Achieving 45 kills in multiplayer with the M1911 earns you the ".45
               Old School" trophy/achievement. 
    
      Patched: The max damage was increased in the 4 March 2014 patch (see above).
    
               At launch the M1911 and the Compact 45 (see below) had very similar
               stats except for a larger magazine size on the Compact 45 which meant
               there was little reason to use the M1911. DICE have since given the
               M1911 a couple of buffs "to make it a viable choice once the Compact
               45 has been unlocked".
    
               In the 30 Jan 2014 patch the muzzle velocity was increased from 250
               to 270 m/s then in the big 4 March 2014 patch they increased its ADS
               accuracy, decreased the recoil and improved the recoil recovery.
    
               The M1911 is now more effective at longer ranges while the Compact 45
               retains the advantage of having the larger 10+1 ammo capacity.
    
               In the Fall Patch the bullet speed for both .45" handguns was buffed.
               The M1911 has the higher muzzle velocity which fits its revised role
               while the Compact 45 still has the slowest bullet speed in the game.
    
       Trivia: John Browning's iconic and revolutionary design remains popular today
               despite now being over a hundred years old!
    
               Chambered for the .45" Automatic Colt Pistol round, the handgun was
               tested against other designs in the early 1900's and adopted by the
               US Army in 1911. It remained in service until 1985 and the adoption
               of the M9 (see above), although it's still in use with the Navy, USMC
               and some special-forces units. It is estimated that over 2.5 million
               Colt 45's have been purchased during its US military history.
    
    o 93R
    
         Ammo: 9x19mm   Capacity: 15+1   Fire-rate: 900 RPM   Reload: 1.35 secs
    
      Unlocks: score 39,000 pts with sidearms
    
      Summary: The 93R offers an alternative to the Glock G18, but with three-round
               burst fire instead of full auto so you'll need to keep tapping the
               trigger for successive bursts (in contrast to being able to mag-dump
               the G18 with one long squeeze of the trigger).
    
      Patched: In the Spring Patch of May 2015 the G18 and 93R saw their maximum
               damage buffed from 18 to 22 (for a five-hit kill in close quarters)
               and the minimum damage increased from 10.8 to 12.1. However the mag
               sizes were reduced too, with the Beretta going from 20 to 15.
    
               (With one round in the chamber the 93R now holds sixteen rounds which
               gives you five full bursts plus one single shot at the end.)
    
               Further changes were applied to the accuracy and recoil. Aimed and
               hipfire accuracy were improved across the board but the horizontal
               recoil and spread increase per shot were nerfed to bring them in line
               with the G18.
    
               The two machine-pistols have quite similar stats now but the 93R has
               slightly less vertical and horizontal recoil and the G18 has quicker
               reload times and now has the larger magazine of the two.
    
       Trivia: The Beretta 93R is based on the Beretta 92 design and launched in
               1979. The R stands for raffica which means "burst" in Italian.
    
               (As noted above, the 92F is designated as the M9 in US military use,
               however the Raffica is not the "M9-3R", it's just 93R. It's sometimes
               known as the Model 93R or M93R although Beretta themselves don't use
               that nomenclature.)
    
               Various features were incorporated to make it usable with the burst
               fire mode including an extended magazine, folding foregrip, recoil
               compensator and optional folding shoulder-stock (absent in BF4).
    
               See the 93R in slo-mo on TAC-TV: https://youtu.be/JALH0gQa8gY
    
               The 92 was not the first Beretta model to be adapted into a machine-
               pistol - the M951R was based on the M1951 design in the 60's and had
               a fully automatic fire mode, supported by a longer barrel, extended
               magazine and chunky wooden foregrip.
    
               The 93R is officially a Cool Gun:
    
                  http://tvtropes.org/pmwiki/pmwiki.php/CoolGuns/MachinePistols
    
    o CZ75
    
         Ammo: .40 S&W   Capacity: 12+1   Fire-rate: 360 RPM   Reload: 1.35 secs
    
      Unlocks: score 45,000 pts with sidearms
    
      Summary: After BF3 I was hoping that DICE would add a .40" weapon to give more
               variety to the pistol range and here it is! (thanks guys)
    
               The CZ75 has a max damage of 30 which gives the same four-hit kill as
               the 9mm pistols in close-quarters but it retains this ability out to
               much longer ranges. This also improves your chances of finishing off
               an enemy who has already taken damage.
    
               Compared to the 9mm pistols the CZ75 has a smaller ammo capacity,
               slower rate of fire, slower reloads and more vertical recoil than the
               M9 and P226 (but less than the Grach).
    
      Patched: In the 4 March 2014 patch they increased the max damage from 27 to 30
               and the min damage from 13.5 to 14.6 (giving it the same damage-rate
               as the M9 and P226).
    
               Previously the CZ75 had the same accuracy stats as the 9mm pistols
               but in the Fall Patch of September 2014 the stationary aimed accuracy
               was increased and the moving aimed accuracy was reduced. Additionally
               the reload threshold was reduced slightly.
    
               The CZ75 got some buffs in the Spring Patch. The minimum damage was
               increased from 14.6 to 15.4 (the same as the two .45" pistols), the
               damage drop-off end was extended by 5 metres and the magazine size
               was increased by one.
    
       Trivia: The CZ75 is made by the state-owned Ceska Zbrojovka company of the
               Czech Republic who also make the CZ805 and CZ3A1 (see above).
    
               The gun's design dates back to 1975 (hence the name) and incorporated
               a double-column magazine to greatly increase the ammunition capacity
               (the original model held fifteen 9mm rounds).
    
               Numerous versions have been released over the years but the version
               in BF4 fires the .40 S&W (Smith & Wesson) round which has a calibre
               of approximately 10.2mm putting it midway between 9mm and .45 ACP
               (11.4mm) and therefore giving a balance of power and magazine size.
    
               The most interesting variant of the CZ75 was probably the Automatic
               model from the early 90's which is a machine-pistol quite similar in
               concept to the Beretta 93R (see above). It had an extended magazine
               and could spit 9mm rounds at a rate of approximately 1,000 RPM. To
               help control the beast a spare magazine could be fitted in front of
               the trigger guard as a crude foregrip. The CZ75 Auto is playable in
               Counter-Strike: Global Offensive.
    
               CZ also offers several deluxe models of the CZ75 with engravings!
    
               Check them out here: http://www.czub.cz/en/catalog/85-engravings.aspx
    
               Of numerous accessories available for the range the most impressive
               is a large plastic contraption which fits around the CZ75 P-07 model
               giving it a long scope rail, side accessory rails, a folding foregrip
               and an adjustable shoulder-stock which can also carry a spare mag.
    
    o .44 Magnum
    
         Ammo: .44 Magnum   Capacity: 6   Fire-rate: 150 RPM   Reload: 4.00 secs
    
      Unlocks: score 51,000 pts with sidearms
    
      Summary: The 44 Mag revolver now does the same 56 maximum damage as the Rex
               but is has a much longer drop-off, extending to 50 metres where it
               does a mighty 37.5 minimum damage. You can get a one-shot headshot
               kill with the 44 Mag out to around 24 metres.
    
               It's more capable at reaching out to those longer distances too as it
               has a stationary aimed accuracy of 0.2 which is only matched by the
               M1911 and Mare's Leg in the sidearms category. Also - like the M1911
               and Unica - the 44 Mag has an 3x scope option, although this one is
               only available to players with Veteran status recorded (i.e. they've
               played at least one Battlefield game online other than BF4).
    
               Understandably the gun has very high vertical recoil (plus a slow
               recoil recovery). It also has a slower rate of fire than the Rex, it
               takes a whole four seconds to reload (even with a speedloader).
    
      Patched: The 3x scope attachment for the .44 Magnum unlocks as part of the
               exclusive Veteran Battlepack but this was not available at launch. In
               fact most players didn't get it until the 21 Feb 2014 patch, almost
               four months after the game was released.
    
               The Rex and .44 Magnum both suffered from a delay between pulling the
               trigger and firing the round - according to DICE this "represents the
               way these weapons work in real life". However they compromised and
               reduced this delay slightly in the big 4 March 2014 patch and then
               totally removed it in the Fall Patch.
    
               In the Spring Patch the stationary aimed accuracy was reduced from
               0.1 (matching some DMR's) to 0.2 but the moving aimed accuracy was
               improved from 1.0 to 0.8 (still worse than most pistols).
    
               Previously the Magnum rounds of all the heavy pistols (revolvers and
               Deagle) gave a x2.35 headshot multiplier but this was reduced to the
               standard x2.13 in the Summer Patch.
    
       Trivia: The ".44 Magnum" is the Taurus Model 44. Specifically it's the 44SS6
               model denoting the .44 calibre, stainless steel finish and 6" barrel.
    
               Also available are the Model 608 version which holds eight rounds of
               .357 Magnum and the 44SS8 with an 8" barrel for the Dirty Harry look.
    
    o Compact 45
    
         Ammo: .45 ACP   Capacity: 10+1   Fire-rate: 320 RPM   Reload: 1.20 secs
    
      Unlocks: score 57,000 pts with sidearms
    
      Summary: The Compact 45 has the same damage profile and reload times as the
               M1911, a larger magazine and slightly higher fire-rate.
    
               However the M1911 has less recoil and, following a couple of balance
               patches, it also now has better aimed accuracy and muzzle velocity so
               that's the better choice for longer ranges.
    
      Patched: The max damage was increased in the 4 March 2014 patch (see above).
               A minor error on crouch/prone accuracy was fixed at the same time.
    
               In the Fall Patch the bullet speed for both .45" handguns was buffed.
               The M1911 has the higher muzzle velocity which fits its revised role
               while the Compact 45 still has the slowest bullet speed in the game.
    
       Trivia: When the 9mm Beretta 92F was adopted as the M9 service pistol of the
               US military in 1990 it replaced the Colt M1911 which uses the larger
               .45 ACP calibre. Further trials were conducted between 2005-2006 to
               find a modern .45" handgun to replace the M9 and the HK45 pistol was
               designed by H&K, taking various features from their previous USP and
               P30 models, as their entry to this Joint Service Pistol competition.
               The trials were ultimately cancelled but the HK45 is available now
               for police and civilian use.
    
               The HK45 is an ergonomic design with distinctive finger grooves on
               the front of the pistol-grip and interchangeable backstraps on the
               rear to adjust to fit the user's hand. It also has a Picatinny rail
               (a requirement of the JSP programme) making it easy to fit a taclight
               or laser attachment under the barrel. It takes a 10-round magazine
               and is sometimes seen bicoloured with a tan frame and grey slide.
    
               The HK45 Compact (or HK45C) is smaller, lighter and takes either an
               8-round magazine or a 10-round magazine with an extended floorplate
               (as seen on the BF4 model). It has an underbarrel accessory rail but
               no grooves on the grip.
    
               See the HK45 Compact on TAC-TV: https://youtu.be/8T9TEOxUK4U?t=5m9s
    
               (Larry Vickers discusses his input on the pistol's design during a
               range session with the MoH Warfighter dev team)
    
               The gun was playable in the Battlefield Hardline beta as the standard
               secondary of the Enforcer class but relabelled as the HK45C.
    
    o SW40
    
         Ammo: .357 Magnum   Capacity: 6   Fire-rate: 220 RPM   Reload: 3.80 secs
    
      Unlocks: complete 'Curve Ball' assignment (multiplayer)
    
               o Naval Strike DLC required
               o Multiplayer Rank 10 required
               o Get 10 kills with RGO Impact hand-grenades
    
               The Impact grenades unlock after scoring 1,500 pts with grenades and
               can be equipped into the grenades slot on any class loadout. Instead
               of having a timer fuse, the grenade will detonate on impact (hence
               the name!) - it will explode almost immediately after contact with
               terrain so your target has no time to evade.
    
               The Impact grenades were rebalanced in the 4 March 2014 patch - the
               max damage was raised from 67 to 80 but the splash radius was reduced
               so they now hit harder but you need to be more accurate with them.
               On a Normal server a single grenade is insufficient to get a kill on
               an uninjured enemy but you're now more likely to finish someone off
               if they have partial health. Even before the patch an Impact grenade
               could give a one-hit kill in Hardcore mode.
    
               In the Fall Patch the inner blast radius was nerfed further and the
               number of RGO Impact grenades you carry was reduced from two to one.
    
               If you play as Support you can drop ammo to resupply your grenades
               but measures to reduce grenade spam in the 25 March patch included a
               reduction to the rate at which Impact, Mini, Flashbang and Smoke
               grenades can be resupplied from an ammo box. The resupply time for
               all grenades was greatly increased in the Fall Patch too.
    
               I got an Impact grenade kill on a low-flying transport helicopter
               that was trying to cap a flag. :) I guess I must've hit a gunner.
    
      Summary: Given its name, we can only assume that DICE intended to make this
               revolver fire the same .40" S&W load as the CZ75. However it actually
               uses .357" Magnum rounds like the Rex so it has the same max damage
               as the other heavy pistols and the same shorter drop-off as the Rex.
    
               For me the biggest difference between the SW40 and the Rex is that
               the former has a significantly higher rate of fire which gives it an
               excellent max damage-rate, beaten only by the shotgun Shorty, auto
               G18 and burst 93R and almost matching the high DPS of the Rex in BF3.
               The SW40 gives the same maximum rate of damage as the Desert Eagle in
               close quarters although the Deagle 44 has a longer damage drop-off.
    
               Inevitably there are a couple of factors that balance the SW40 versus
               the Rex. The first is that the SW40 has a slower reload (which makes
               sense as it lacks the Rex's auto-extractor) and the second is its
               inferior accuracy - it has the same spread as most of the semi-auto
               pistols while the Rex is one of the most accurate sidearms; the SW40
               also suffers from a larger spread increase on follow-up shots.
    
      Patched: The trigger delay was removed in the Fall Patch (see above).
    
               The "Swagnum" got a small buff in the Spring Patch, with the vertical
               recoil reduced from 2.0 to 1.6 (for the other four Magnum handguns
               the value remained at 2.0).
    
               Previously the Magnum rounds of all the heavy pistols (revolvers and
               Deagle) gave a x2.35 headshot multiplier but this was reduced to the
               standard x2.13 in the Summer Patch.
    
       Trivia: In real life the weapon is the Chiappa Rhino and it looks like it has
               the 4" barrel option in BF4 which makes it the Rhino 40DS model.
    
               Taking design cues from the earlier Unica 6, the Rhino is a radical
               departure from the traditional revolver format. The barrel is much
               lower than usual because the gun fires from the bottom chamber of the
               cylinder rather than the top one. This puts the axis of the bore in
               line with the shooter's arm which makes recoil easier to handle and
               allows more intuitive aiming. Additionally the cylinder is a flat-
               sided hexagonal shape so the weapon can be more readily concealed.
    
               See the Rhino on IV8888: https://youtu.be/GD7fh6RS0Xk
    
               The Rhino is available in 2", 4", 5" and 6" barrel options, chambered
               for .357 Magnum, .40 S&W, 9x19mm and 9x21mm and with either a black
               or chrome finish (the latter being the so-called "White Rhino").
    
               See the White Rhino on Miculek.com: https://youtu.be/YbDUWACwRqk
    
               Guns.com reviewed the 6" Rhino with a gold finish in April 2014 and
               branded it "the futuristic pimp's choice"!
    
               Chiappa is based in Bresica, Italy although they also have a centre
               in Dayton, Ohio. In contrast to the modern looks of the Rhino, the
               company's catalogue includes a wide range of historic replica rifles,
               revolvers and shotguns - they even make the Mare's Leg! (see above)
    
               The longer 6" model of the Rhino appeared as an unlockable sidearm in
               Ghost Recon: Future Solider called the "Wild Boar". It also features
               in ArmA III as the "Zubr .45" even though the Rhino is not available
               in .45 ACP (and generally that calibre is uncommon in revolvers).
    
    o Unica 6
    
         Ammo: .357 Magnum   Capacity: 6   Fire-rate: 210 RPM   Reload: 4.10 secs
    
      Unlocks: complete 'Big Splash' assignment (multiplayer)
    
               o Dragon's Teeth DLC required
               o Multiplayer Rank 10 required
               o Play on any Dragon's Teeth map to activate assignment
               o Activate the floodgates on the Sunken Dragon map
               o Get 5 kills while swimming
    
               On Sunken Dragon there's a prominent flood barrier or dam structure
               to the north side of the map which has a row of four elevated control
               towers. Just to the north-east of the west tower is a control room -
               you can access this directly from the stairs behind the west tower or
               take the ladder up to the east tower, follow the gantry to the west
               and then take the door in the east corner of the west tower.
    
               Inside the control room is a bank of four monitor screens and two
               buttons. You can use the controls here to drain or refill the lake.
               If there's a circle prompt on one of the buttons you can use this to
               either "Lower Water" or "Raise Water". The lake Levolution sequence
               takes about a minute to complete so if it has already started you'll
               need to wait until it's done.
    
               The floodgate controls can be accessed in Conquest, Conquest Large
               and Capture the Flag game modes on the Sunken Dragon map.
    
               Obviously you can swim in the sea but you can also swim in lakes and
               rivers if the water is deep enough, however you are only technically
               "swimming" when you cannot switch to your primary gun. While swimming
               the following functions are available:
    
               - fire pistol
               - use knife
               - throw hand-grenades
               - plant M2 SLAM anti-vehicle mines* (Engineer kit)
               - use repair tool (Engineer kit) i.e. to "unrepair" an enemy vehicle
               - plant and detonate C4 (Recon/Support kits)
    
               The waterways on the Lumphini Garden map are deep enough for swimming
               and can give opportunities for short-range pistol kills. Similarly
               you could try the interior of the large floating restaurant on the
               Sunken Dragon map when the water level is raised (see above). I got
               several pistol kills swimming off small islands with Conquest flags
               on the Naval Strike maps. Paracel Storm, Floodzone and Dragon Pass
               can be used for swimming kills too.
    
               *If you plant SLAMs on a boat they will detonate when it moves but
               you can also trigger them on a stationary target by shooting directly
               at them with a heavy pistol (revolver or Deagle).
    
      Summary: The Dragon's Teeth DLC added two such heavy pistols to the game: the
               Deagle 44 firing .44" Magnum (like the .44 Magnum revolver) and the
               Unica 6 which shoots .357" Magnum (like the MP412 Rex and the SW40).
    
               All three .357 six-shooters have the same damage profiles and almost
               identical recoil stats. The SW40 has the highest fire-rate but the
               Unica is close behind while the Rex is significantly slower. The Rex
               has the quickest reload and the Unica has the slowest (see below).
               The Rex also has the best aimed accuracy, followed by the Unica and
               then the SW40.
    
               The main reasons to run with the Unica 6 are to harvest the headshots
               required to unlock the Desert Eagle (see below) and perhaps to have a
               pistol with an unlockable 3x scope option (with more power than the
               M1911 but faster fire-rate than the .44 Magnum).
    
      Patched: Previously the Magnum rounds of all the heavy pistols (revolvers and
               Deagle) gave a x2.35 headshot multiplier but this was reduced to the
               standard x2.13 in the Summer Patch.
    
       Trivia: Like its successor the Rhino (see "SW40" above), the Mateba Model 6
               Unica is a revolver with the barrel aligned to the bottom chamber of
               the cylinder. However the Unica 6 design was even more unusual since
               it had a true semi-automatic mechanism which is very uncommon among
               revolvers (they usually use either a single or double-action).
    
               In production from 1997 to 2005, the Unica 6 was available in three
               different calibres (.357" Magnum, .44" Magnum and .454" Casull) and
               with several barrel length options. There was also the Mateba Grifone
               model which was a pistol carbine with an 18" barrel, a shoulder-stock
               and a very long handguard.
    
               The design has been criticised for being too complicated and too
               heavy compared to conventional revolvers. A further potential issue
               is that weaker rounds might give insufficient recoil to operate the
               semi-automatic mechanism.
    
               In BF4 the Unica 6 has a reload animation which has been described as
               "flamboyant". With the other revolvers in the game your character
               uses a conventional mechanical speedloader to insert the new rounds
               into the gun but with the Unica 6 he uses a basic ring speedloader*
               which is fitted around his finger and is shaken off after use, this
               giving the weapon the slowest reload times in the sidearm category.
    
               A Mateba revolver features prominently in the classic cyberpunk anime
               Ghost in the Shell.
    
               *This resembles the one-piece rubber speedloader from Maxfire.
    
    o Deagle 44
    
         Ammo: .44 Magnum   Capacity: 8+1   Fire-rate: 220 RPM   Reload: 2.75 secs
    
      Unlocks: complete 'Recoil Kinetics' assignment (multiplayer)
    
               o Dragon's Teeth DLC required
               o Multiplayer Rank 10 required
               o Big Splash assignment required (see above)
               o Get 20 headshot kills using the Unica 6
    
               The good news about the Unica 6 is that it has the same high damage
               profile as the Rex and SW40 revolvers so it gives a one-shot headshot
               kill out to around 22 metres.
    
               If you're in a hurry to unlock the Desert Eagle you'll probably want
               to keep the Unica equipped and use it effectively as your primary
               (use the pistol at short range wherever possible and aim high). That
               could be quite frustrating in most games though so head to the small
               close-quarters maps of TDM and maybe seek-out a level playing-field
               in a pistol-only server (search on "pistol" in the Server Browser).
    
               For a more leisurely approach just equip the Unica on all four kits
               and remember to use it whenever you catch an enemy unawares. Instead
               of going for that knife kill take a second for a precise headshot.
               Prone enemies make especially good targets, including ones that have
               just been revived. :)
    
      Summary: The Deagle - or Desert Eagle if you're not into the whole brevity
               thing - shoots the same .44" Magnum load as the .44 Magnum revolver
               (although post-patch it delivers significantly less minimum damage).
               It gives a one-shot headshot kill out to around 24 metres - as you
               might expect from the legendary "Juan Deag". :)
    
               Comparing these two handguns, the Deagle's authentic 8+1 ammunition
               capacity clearly beats the revolver's six. The other benefits of the
               Desert Eagle are the much higher fire-rate (matching the SW40), the
               fastest reloads of all the heavy pistols and unlockable suppressors.
    
               (The strengths of the .44 Magnum are its excellent aimed accuracy,
               sufficient minimum damage for a three-hit kill at range, lower
               horizontal recoil and 3x scope (Veteran unlock), so it's the better
               choice for filling that "very long-range sidearm" niche.)
    
      Patched: The original Deagle was widely regarded as being overpowered but it
               received a range of nerfs in the Fall Patch.
    
               Previously it did the same 37.5 minimum damage as the .44 Magnum,
               earning it a reputation as a "pocket DMR" for its three-hit kill at
               long ranges. Since the patch it now does the same 28 minimum damage
               as the SW40/Unica/Rex although it retains the much longer drop-off
               distance of the .44 Magnum.
    
               Additionally the ADS stationary accuracy was reduced, the horizontal
               recoil was increased and the muzzle velocity was decreased, all three
               changes serving to further limit its "sniping" potential.
    
               Previously the Magnum rounds of all the heavy pistols (revolvers and
               Deagle) gave a x2.35 headshot multiplier but this was reduced to the
               standard x2.13 in the Summer Patch.
    
       Trivia: What would a modern military FPS game be without the ubiquitous*
               Desert Eagle? The correct answer, of course, is "more realistic". :P
               Seemingly designed mostly to look cool at the range and look, well,
               big in movies, the Deagle is not a practical weapon for military use.
               Models weigh between 3.9 and 4.5 pounds which is twice the weight of
               a typical modern(ish) military sidearm like the M9 (see above).
    
               The gun was designed by Magnum Research Inc of America in conjunction
               with Israeli Military Industries (of Uzi and Galil fame) and entered
               production in 1982. It is unusual among handguns in that it uses a
               rifle-style gas-operated mechanism.
    
               Originally only made in .357" Magnum calibre, the Deagle has since
               become available in .44" Magnum, .41" Magnum and of course the hefty
               .50" AE (Action Express). The current version is the Mark XIX which
               has a standard frame size for all calibres which means you can
               convert the pistol very easily by switching the barrel and magazine.
    
               Watch FPSRussia demonstrate that here: http://youtu.be/O1_ERm1446I
    
               The Mark XIX also comes with a top rail for fitting a scope and on
               newer models this is a standard Picatinny rail. In BF4 however the
               gun is modelled with an underbarrel rail for the laser sight and
               tactical light attachments (and no 3x scope option is available).
    
               Naturally the Deagle comes in a number of various exterior finishes.
               The current range from Magnum Research includes black, burnt bronze,
               matte chrome, brushed chrome, polished chrome, bright nickel, satin
               nickel, titanium gold, titanium gold with Bengal tiger stripes and of
               course 24K gold!
    
               *See: http://www.imfdb.org/wiki/Desert_Eagle
    
    
    .------------.-----------------------------------------------------------------.
    | Section 04 | ATTACHMENTS                                                 s04 |
    '------------'-----------------------------------------------------------------'
    
    Every primary firearm or sidearm has a series of accessories, sights/scopes and
    sometimes ammunition types that unlock by scoring kills with that gun.
    
    You'll get a new standard attachment every ten kills and these will include the
    sights and scopes that match your weapon, e.g. Russian optics for a Russian gun.
    At any stage you might receive the non-standard variants in the bronze, silver
    and gold Battlepacks you earn as you rank up but, to ensure that you eventually
    get everything, after the initial unlock sequence you'll receive Battlepacks
    specific to the weapon (containing all the other attachments) every 50 kills.
    
    Let's consider the Russian AEK971 as an example. (The Kobra is the Russian red-
    dot sight, the PSO1 is the Russian 4x scope, the PK-A is the Russian 3.4x scope,
    the PKA-S is the Russian 1x holo sight and the PBS4 is the Russian suppressor.)
    
          o Kobra sight (10 kills)            o PKA-S sight (130 kills)
          o laser sight (20 kills)            o magnifier (140 kills)
          o ergo grip (30 kills)              o stubby grip (150 kills)
          o muzzle brake (40 kills)           o PBS4 suppressor (160 kills)
          o PSO1 scope (50 kills)             o AEK971 Battlepack (210 kills)
          o canted ironsights (60 kills)      o AEK971 Battlepack (260 kills)
          o angled grip (70 kills)            o AEK971 Battlepack (310 kills)
          o heavy barrel (80 kills)           o AEK971 Battlepack (360 kills)
          o PK-A scope (90 kills)             o AEK971 Battlepack (410 kills)
          o flashlight (100 kills)            o AEK971 Battlepack (460 kills)
          o bipod (110 kills)                 o AEK971 Battlepack (510 kills)
          o compensator (120 kills)
    
    (To view the specific attachments unlock sequence for any given weapon look it
    up under the Unlocks/Weapons tab of your Battlelog profile.)
    
    Those weapon-specific Battlepacks will contain all the other attachments (that
    you haven't already received in general Battlepacks) i.e. the infra-red scopes,
    the NATO/Chinese red-dot sights, the NATO/Chinese holo sights, the NATO/Chinese
    3.4x scopes, the NATO/Chinese 4x scopes, the NATO/Chinese suppressors, the flash
    hider and all the other foregrip types (a further 21 attachments in total). Each
    weapon pack will also give you either a temporary XP boost or a new camo.
    
    You receive various bronze/silver/gold Battlepacks as you progress through the
    multiplayer ranks; in addition to random non-standard attachments for random
    weapons these will also yield XP boosts, paints (for guns and vehicles), camos
    (for your soldier), emblem shapes, dogtags, knives and Battlelog avatars.
    
    You can view/open the Battlepacks you've earned under My Soldier \ Battlepacks
    off the main menu, during a match from the "pause" menu accessed by pressing the
    Options button or on your online Battlelog account.
    
    (In May 2014 DICE announced that players would be able to purchase Battlepacks:
    US$1 for a bronze Battlepack, US$2 for a silver and US$3 for a gold. If you want
    to waste money on more 25% XP boosts that you'll never get around to using and a
    few attachments you don't want for guns you don't use then be my guest!)
    
                                           ¯¯
    To access your guns/attachments/gadget/vehicles loadout menus press Square on
    the respawn screen during a match. You can also adjust your set-up within your
    Battlelog account or in the Test Range. You can use the Test Range to experiment
    with different loadouts - although you only have access to the guns and attach-
    ments that you've unlocked - and you can practise using vehicles too.
    
    Disallowed options are highlighted in red, for example the 2x magnifier cannot
    be used in conjunction with iron sights or a medium/long-range scope.
    
    You can choose your gun attachments to customise your weapon to suit different
    roles, for example fitting a red-dot sight, laser sight, suppressor and ergo
    grip for close-quarters use or a 4x scope (and canted irons as a back-up), heavy
    barrel and angled grip or maybe a bipod for long ranges. You can also use them
    to counter weaknesses of your gun, for example if your weapon has a particularly
    wide horizontal recoil you can fit a compensator to reduce it.
    
    In BF3 most weapons had slots for a sight/scope and two attachments with the
    option of using unlockable camo on only a few selected guns. Now in BF4 most
    guns get five slots - Optic, Accessory, Barrel, Underbarrel (or Auxiliary on a
    sniper rifle) and Paint; even sidearms get four slots now.
    
    The option of extended mags from BF3 (for LMG's, shotguns and several PDW's) is
    no longer available. Generally the standard guns now hold more ammo by default.
    
    .-------------.----------------------------------------------------------------.
    | Section 04a | Optics                                                    s04a |
    '-------------'----------------------------------------------------------------'
    
    When you start using a gun for the first time you'll be forced to use its iron
    sights unless it's a sniper rifle which comes with an optical scope attached
    (although you have the option of removing it and using the irons if you want).
    
    In BF4 the sights and scopes are now grouped into three categories:
    
               Close-Range              Medium-Range            Long-Range
          anything up to 2x zoom     3.4x and 4x zooms     6x and higher zooms
    
    The close-range sights and medium-range scopes can be used in any primary gun
    category but the long-range ones can only be used with the sniper rifles.
    
    The range of sights and scopes here will be mostly familiar from BF3 but DICE
    have added four Chinese optics (Coyote, HD33, Prisma, JGM4), a second infra-red
    scope (FLIR) and two very high magnification sniper scopes (20x and 40x).
    
    You also now have the options of supplementing some optics with canted irons,
    a magnifier or the variable zoom function (see below).
    
    Patched: You can now customize the reticle appearance in your close-range and
             medium-range optics (under Options \ Gameplay \ Advanced Options). You
             can adjust the size, glow and colour (RGB mix) of the reticle.
    
    When using an automatic weapon and aiming down a scope/sight you'll experience
    an effect called "visual recoil" - your optics will shudder and jump around in a
    dramatic manner which has no relation to the gun's actual recoil or aim.
    
    Patched: Since the Fall Patch the body of the optics will still jump about with
             visual recoil but the reticle/crosshairs within will now track the
             weapon's true point of aim during automatic fire. This change was
             applied to all red-dot sights, holo sights and medium-range scopes but
             not to the infra-red sights initially.
    
             A further change to optics in the same patch was improved visibility of
             sight reticles against brightly lit backgrounds (e.g. sun and snow).
             This change was presumably made in anticipation of the predominantly
             snowy terrain of the Final Stand DLC maps, although it also fixed the
             major weakness of the Coyote RDS.
    
                                      Iron Sights
                                      ¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯
    These are the gun's built-in sights used when no other sight/scope is attached.
    
                     Red-Dot Sights (RDS) - Reflex / Coyote / Kobra
                     ¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯
    The iron sights (and the weapon itself) are often very obtrusive and give a poor
    view of your target and the surrounding area. The red-dot sights overcome this
    by mounting a large unobstructed aperture on top of the gun with a red-dot (on
    the Reflex and Coyote) or red "T" reticle (on the Kobra) to mark the centre. The
    red-dot sights offer no magnification and only give the effective zoom which is
    equivalent to aiming down the gun's iron sights normally.
    
    The US Reflex sight has a thick border that takes up more of your screen so you
    might prefer the Kobra or Coyote (although for any of the NATO weapons you can
    only unlock them via Battlepacks). The new Chinese Coyote has a larger viewing
    window and thinner frame but personally I prefer the Russian Kobra because its
    large T-shaped reticle allows faster target acquisition.
    
    Patched: The "Winter Patch" of 3 March 2015 included many changes to the game
             but few notable changes to the actual guns. However it did add both
             "improved clarity" for all red-dot sights against bright backgrounds
             and a tweak to the Kobra's reticle to make it more authentic.
    
    The Reflex sight in the Battlefield series is modelled on the RX01 Reflex 1x24
    made by Trijicon who also manufacture the ACOG scope range (see below). In real
    life it comes with a yellow dot instead of red.
    
    The Coyote is based on the Chinese JH406 unit. The design features a distinctive
    flat sunshade on top of the frame.
    
    A real Kobra sight allows the user to switch between four different reticles,
    the other three options being a dot (used for the Red Dot Sight in BFBC2), a
    chevron and both of those together.
    
                            1x Sights - Holo / HD33 / PKA-S
                            ¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯
    The 1x sights operate on a similar principal to the red-dot sights but now the
    dot is surrounded by a small circle which greatly improves the visibility of
    your point of aim. With the reticles virtually identical, in this group my pick
    would be the Chinese HD33 sight which has a wider viewing area; as soon as this
    sight is available I'd use it in preference to the US Holo or Russian PKA-S.
    
    On a real-life EOTech Holo sight the two square buttons at the rear are used to
    adjust the brightness of the reticle up/down to suit your environment and the
    circular NV button allows you to temporarily dim the marker when you want to use
    the sight in conjunction with night-vision equipment.
    
    The HD33 is modelled on the American TRUGLO Tru-Brite sight.
    
    The Russian sight is correctly known as the PK-AS rather than PKA-S.
    
                                     F2000 (1.6x)
                                     ¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯
    This sight unit is unique to the F2000 assault rifle in the Second Assault DLC.
    
    The minor zoom can be beneficial at short/medium ranges but the sight has a very
    thick border which will greatly impair your vision around your target.
    
                          Night Sights - IRNV (1x) / FLIR (2x)
                          ¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯
    Both of these give a thermal image which can be used to detect enemies in dark
    environments or when camouflaged against foliage.
    
    When you ADS the sight image will be the same size with both attachments but the
    Infra-Red Night-Vision scope (IRNV) gives a basic 1x zoom and a green view with
    heat sources highlighted yellow while the Forward-Looking Infra-Red scope (FLIR)
    has a 2x zoom and a greyscale sight image with heat sources marked white. Both
    attachments also have a rudimentary range finder incorporated in the scope view.
    
    The IR sights are severely blinded by taclights and the flare "grenade" so you
    can use either of these to counter enemies using the IRNV or FLIR.
    
    Both units are fairly large and occupy a big chunk of your screen.
    
    Patched: After extensive testing in the CTE, the IR scopes saw a range of tweaks
             in the Spring Patch (in anticipation of the forthcoming night map/s).
    
             They are now more effective at detecting enemies in a range of lighting
             conditions and the differences between the two scopes have been made
             more distinct - the IRNV gives better visibility overall but only shows
             enemies at shorter ranges (100 metres) while the FLIR allows you to see
             enemies at medium ranges (200 metres) but gives an inferior view of the
             game world (this is particularly significant on the "Thermal" optics
             which are the vehicle equivalent of FLIR).
    
             The ability of laser sights, flashlights and flares to blind infra-red
             scopes was also increased.
    
             With the addition of the night map Zavod: Graveyard Shift in the Summer
             Patch the visibility of night-vision scopes was also improved.
    
             Following extensive abuse of the smoke+IR combo in Rush mode the IRNV
             and FLIR scopes were adjusted in the Second Fall Patch so that they can
             no longer see through smoke. (Additionally both the M18 and 40mm smoke
             grenades now un-spot enemies within the smoke when they detonate.)
    
    The FLIR scope is modelled on one of the ThOR scopes made by ATN Corp of San
    Francisco. The digital scopes of the ThOR series each offer a different range of
    magnification, with the best giving up to 40x zoom. (for only US$8,700!)
    
                           3.4x Scopes - M145 / Prisma / PK-A
                           ¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯
    These scopes give a level of zoom that will be useful at medium ranges but with-
    out most of the penalties applied to larger scopes. However all scopes from this
    size upwards give a slightly slower time to ADS.
    
    The M145 has a much thicker surround which limits your peripheral vision outside
    the scope view. All three sights have a combination of black and red reticle
    markings designed to work against both light and dark backgrounds. The American
    M145 has more complex crosshairs while the Chinese Prisma has simpler crosshairs
    and the Russian PK-A more closely resembles a holo sight.
    
    The M145 is the US Army's variant of the Elcan C79 and is used primarily on the
    M240 and M249 light machineguns.
    
    The Prisma is really the CP1 Prismatic 3x scope from SIG Sauer, the same folks
    that brought us the SG553 carbine, MPX submachinegun and P226 pistol.
    
    In real life the PK-A is a 1x red-dot scope but it was given a 3.4x zoom here to
    provide a Russian equivalent to the other two in this group.
    
                             4x Scopes - ACOG / JGM4 / PSO1
                             ¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯
    The 4x scopes give you a little more magnification than the previous ones.
    
    The ACOG and PSO1 both have red chevrons marking the centre of the scope while
    the JGM4 has black crosshairs with a central red T-shaped reticle that glows
    against a dark background but all three are quite usable. The Russian PSO1 has a
    heavy border from the scope's rubber eyecup and the Chinese JGM4 has a weird bit
    that sticks out on the left side so I think the American ACOG is the best choice
    here simply because it occupies less of your screen both in and out of ADS.
    
    The ACOG name is a registered trademark of American company Trijicon and stands
    for Advanced Combat Optical Gunsight. Although the scope gives 4x magnification
    in BF4, Trijicon manufacture a range of ACOG models with various magnifications
    from 1.5x up to 6x and with different lens sizes and reticle shapes/colours.
    
    (In fact the 6x scope in BF4 is actually a Trijicon ACOG too - see below.)
    
    The JGM4 is based on the Chinese K&M JGBGM7 4x scope.
    
    The 4x PSO1 scope was designed specifically for use with the SVD Dragunov as a
    designated marksman rifle (DMR). The distinctive curved "graph" in the reticle
    image can be used to determine ranges based on a human target with a height of
    1.7 metres (5 feet 7 inches), for example if the target fits neatly between the
    curve and the horizontal line below at the "6" mark then the range is 600m.
    
                       CL6X (6x) / PKS07 (7x) / Rifle Scope (8x)
                       ¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯
    These scopes give enhanced magnification for long-range sniping - unlike the
    previous categories, each scope provides a different level of magnification. The
    6x and 8x scopes have prominent large crosshairs that fill your scope view and
    the 8x also has clear mil dots which can be used to help factor bullet-drop.
    
    Any weapon using a scope with 6x mag or higher will suffer penalties. The scope
    will "sway" when aiming so you will often want to tap L3 to hold your breath (to
    steady your aim for about five seconds); you can also equip and deploy a bipod
    to counter the sway effect. Additionally the "glint" of sunlight reflecting off
    the lens will be visible to enemies when you aim at them.
    
    When you ADS with any scope between 6x and 40x your view will be restricted to
    the narrow field visible through the scope - you will have no peripheral vision
    outside the circle of the scope image.
    
    For sniping it's recommended to find a magnification that you're comfortable
    with then always use the same one so you get used to it.
    
    The CL6X is described in-game as the "standard issue 6x Chinese scope" but in
    fact it's modelled on an American optic - the TA648* made by Trijicon. In real
    life the reticle would be either a chevron or a dot and horseshoe ring, plus a
    graduated vertical line below to determine drop. The real scope also has a rail
    on top of the housing which allows the user to mount a back-up holo sight.
    
    The 7x PKS07 is an actual Russian military scope, the standard optic for their
    SV98 sniper rifle.
    
    *TA648 = T A 6 48 = Trijicon / ACOG / 6x magnification / 48mm objective
    
                       Hunter Scope (20x) / Ballistic Scope (40x)
                       ¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯
    In BF3 the ballistic scope had a 12x magnification and was the most powerful
    optic in the game - now we have options of 20x and even 40x!
    
    These would only ever be necessary for very long-range shots and for most
    applications the 6/7/8x scopes would be sufficient. If you must use them then
    remember you can combine them with either the canted irons or the variable zoom
    to give you an alternative to the standard insane levels of magnification. You
    should also avoid the Scout Elite or FY-JS rifles as their damage drop-off is
    such that you cannot get a one-hit headshot kill beyond 101 or 135 metres.
    
    Both scopes give a similar circular sight image with simple crosshairs.
    
                  Ghost Ring / Mini (RDS) / Delta (RDS) / Scope (3x)
                  ¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯
    The sidearms get their own range of optics to replace the basic iron sights.
    
    The ghost ring sights have a large circular ring at the rear and a simple blade
    at the front and both glow red making them clearly visible even against a black
    background which is a very handy feature.
    
    The Mini and Delta are both miniature red-dot sights. The Delta sight has a thin
    border and a more prominent triangular reticule.
    
    The 3x scope is exclusive to the .44 Magnum, M1911 and Unica 6 pistols. I've
    seen Threatty on Youtube using this as a low magnification spotting-scope when
    running a bolt-action sniper rifle with long-range optics. This gives a wider
    field of view and also has the advantage of not suffering from scope glint.
    
    The Mini (RDS) is based on the real-life Trijicon RMR sight.
    
    .-------------.----------------------------------------------------------------.
    | Section 04b | Accessories                                               s04b |
    '-------------'----------------------------------------------------------------'
    
    This category includes secondary sights, lights and lasers. Where an accessory
    has two modes (e.g. on and off!) you can toggle between them by pressing d-pad
    up or by tapping T (for "Toggle") if playing on PC with the default controls.
    
                                   Canted Ironsights
                                   ¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯
    This accessory adds a set of back-up iron sights on the side of the weapon at
    about 45 degrees to the top. When using a sight/scope attachment this allows you
    to switch between using the optics and the canted irons (by pressing d-pad up).
    
    This feature is particularly useful when running a higher magnification scope
    that would otherwise be inconvenient in close-quarters engagements.
    
    Since it would be redundant you cannot equip the canted ironsights attachment
    when you're using a gun with the default iron sights (no sight/scope fitted).
    
    You might prefer to use a low magnification scope in conjunction with the canted
    ironsights instead of having a 1x sight supplemented by the magnifier because
    it's significantly quicker to toggle between a scope and canted irons.
    
    Canted irons are a standard feature on the ECC and ECR variants of KAC's SR25
    and the M110 military model (all related to BF4's Mk 11 DMR).
    
                                       Magnifier
                                       ¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯
    The magnifier can be fitted on your scope rail behind a sight unit and flipped
    in/out (by pressing d-pad up) to add a 2x zoom to your aimed view.
    
    It can only be used with a red-dot sight (RDS) or a basic 1x sight. It cannot be
    used in conjunction with iron sights, infra-red (IRNV/FLIR) scopes or any of the
    medium or long-range scopes (so if you have any of those options equipped you
    will be unable to select the magnifier accessory and vice versa).
    
    While adding only half the magnification of a 4x sight like the ACOG, it gives
    your weapon a little more versatility across short to medium ranges. However it
    does take up quite a lot of space on your screen.
    
    The magnifier attachment in BF4 appears to be based on the Aimpoint 3XMag with
    an Aimpoint TwistMount. The 3XMag can also be used unmounted as a 3x monocular.
    
                              Flash Light / Tactical Light
                              ¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯
    The flash light has no statistical effects but it can be used to illuminate a
    small area and to blind/disorient hostiles when you aim at them. The game notes
    that lights are especially effective at dazzling IRNV/FLIR scope users.
    
    As veterans of BF3 will attest, these can be very annoying for friendlies so
    turn the light off if you don't need it (you can toggle on/off with d-pad up).
    
    The taclight works much like the flash light except it turns on automatically
    when you ADS (press L2 to aim). This functionality was previously only available
    in BF3 if you were playing on PC and edited your key bindings and mouse config
    to put the light switch and ADS on the same button.
    
    You might consider using one of the light accessories on your sidearm since this
    can give a slight advantage when you meet an unexpected enemy in close quarters
    and your main weapon is empty.
    
    At longer ranges the lights will usually only serve to highlight your position
    to enemies and give them something to aim at!
    
                    Laser Sight / Tri-Beam Laser / Green Laser Sight
                    ¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯
    When you use hipfire (i.e. when shooting without pressing L2 to ADS) you will
    experience greatly reduced accuracy (increased spread) compared to normal aimed
    fire (for example the M416 assault rifle has a stationary aimed spread of 0.2
    and a standing hipfire spread of 3.0). The laser sights improve your hipfire
    accuracy by providing a 33% reduction to your hipfire spread.
    
    Patched: The spread multiplier for standing hipfire was buffed from 0.75 to 0.67
             in the Fall Patch.
    
             In the Spring Patch the same improvement was applied to hipfire in the
             prone and crouching stances.
    
    As usual you can turn the device on/off by pressing d-pad up. When you switch
    the laser attachment on you'll notice that your hipfire crosshairs in the centre
    of the screen will tighten slightly indicating the accuracy bonus applied.
    
    If you play in Hardcore mode the hipfire crosshairs are disabled and therefore
    you can use the laser's dot for aiming as you would in real life. In this role
    the three dots of the tri-beam laser option are particularly effective.
    
    Although there's no statistical effect, the bright dot of the laser can also
    help with target acquisition in aimed fire - against a dark backdrop it's easier
    to see than the crosshairs of a sniper scope and when you move your point of aim
    rapidly it trails behind the crosshairs centre showing your true aim.
    
    The beam of the laser is visible to the enemy (even from the side) so remember
    to turn it off if you are hiding behind a crate/corner or want to make your
    position harder to determine in dark areas or at longer ranges. Also don't
    forget that the laser is turned on by default every time you respawn.
    
    Why not pick the red three-dot laser for that authentic Predator vibe...? :)
    
                                   Laser/Light Combo
                                   ¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯
    As the name suggests, this attachment combines a laser sight with a flashlight.
    
    You can press d-pad up to switch between the two but, since no other button is
    available for accessories, you cannot switch it off - either the laser or the
    light will always be on.
    
    The d-pad prompt at the bottom of the screen shows the currently selected mode.
    
                                     Variable Zoom
                                     ¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯
    This accessory adds an additional 14x zoom mode to any of the long-range scopes
    (on sniper rifles). You can switch between the default and 14x modes by pressing
    up on the d-pad - the on-screen d-pad tip will indicate your current zoom.
    
    You would usually use the variable zoom with the 6x, 7x or 8x scopes in which
    case it provides a higher magnification option for engaging more distant targets
    but you could also equip it with the extreme 20x hunter or 40x ballistic scopes
    to give you less severe magnification!
    
    The variable zoom can only be used in conjunction with the long-range scopes so
    if you want to switch to a medium-range scope or close-range sight you'll need
    to unequip the variable zoom option first.
    
                                      Range Finder
                                      ¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯
    The range finder attaches to the front of your gun on the left side. It measures
    the distance in metres to whatever your rifle is currently pointing at.
    
    A small screen on the device shows the distance reading (bottom number in red)
    and your current zeroing setting (top number in blue). The same data will also
    be displayed when aiming down a high-magnification scope, with the measured
    distance on the right (red) and the zero distance on the left (blue).
    
    Naturally the range finder is very handy for long-range sniping when used in
    conjunction with the zeroing feature (see Section 02a). For example if you see
    a distant enemy target and the range finder gives the distance as 392 metres you
    can set the zeroing to 400m (tap d-pad down to cycle values) and you will then
    be able to aim neatly on the guy's head without having to allow for bullet-drop.
    
    As an alternative to the range finder within the Recon class you can also use
    the PLD gadget (Portable Laser Designator) to measure the range to your target.
    
                                     Target Detector
                                     ¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯
    The Target Detector is unique among attachments - it's unlocked by completing an
    assignment, it can only be used on carbines and DMR's and once unlocked it is
    available on all your guns in those categories.
    
    The attachment is unlocked by completing the 'Eye Spy' assignment in the Final
    Stand expansion. This requires you simply to get two Spotting Ribbons and to
    kill twenty enemies using any combination of carbines and DMR's.
    
    The Target Detector fixes to your gun like a laser sight on the rails to the
    right of the handguard. Now when you ADS the accessory will automatically spot
    any unmarked enemies within a narrow cone around your point of aim.
    
    If you usually use the same finger for spotting (R1) and firing (R2) this saves
    you from having to switch between the two buttons. Also it seems to have no
    cooldown so it works reliably every time without "overheating".
    
    If you're forever turning off the laser sight on your carbine to avoid detection
    or you never use those canted irons on your DMR then you might as well put the
    Target Detector on your weapon instead.
    
    .-------------.----------------------------------------------------------------.
    | Section 04c | Barrel Attachments                                        s04c |
    '-------------'----------------------------------------------------------------'
    
    You can replace the standard barrel or fit a range of attachments to the end.
    
                                    Standard Barrel
                                    ¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯
    This is just the default configuration when you have no other option selected.
    
                                      Heavy Barrel
                                      ¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯
    Fitting the HBAR greatly improves the aimed accuracy of the weapon, reducing the
    stationary ADS spread by 50%. However the trade-off is that your gun's vertical
    recoil will also increase by 30%.
    
    Patched: In the big Fall Patch the recoil penalty was reduced from 50% to 30% in
             order to make the heavy barrel a more viable choice.
    
             The 4 March 2014 patch had previously added a 33% bonus to aimed
             accuracy while moving. In the Fall Patch this was reduced to 17% but a
             general reduction of 8.5% to spread increase per shot was also added,
             improving the accuracy of bursts and follow-up shots.
    
    In BF3 the heavy barrel attachment extended the damage drop-off distance by 50%
    so your bullets did more damage at longer ranges, in BF4 however the HBAR has no
    effect on the damage profile.
    
                               Muzzle Brake / Compensator
                               ¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯
    These attachments serve to dissipate propellant gases at the end of the barrel
    and thereby reduce recoil; however the accuracy of the weapon is reduced too.
    
    The compensator applies a 25% reduction to the muzzle drift (horizontal recoil)
    so it will be most beneficial on a gun that suffers from sideways recoil. In
    exchange for this buff it adds a 30% penalty to your spread increase per shot -
    your accuracy during sustained fire. This will make the weapon less effective at
    longer ranges or with longer bursts, although you can offset some of this effect
    by using the stubby grip or potato grip (see below).
    
    Patched: In the Spring Patch the x1.3 multiplier that increased the maximum
             spread for the compensator in all stances was removed. This means that
             the deviation will now be capped at the standard value rather than at a
             larger value (worse accuracy). However the 30% penalty to SIPS still
             applies when using the compensator so you'll hit that limit sooner.
    
    The muzzle brake applies a 10% reduction to muzzle rise (vertical recoil) but it
    also gives a 12.5% penalty to the spread increase per shot.
    
    Patched: Previously the muzzle brake had the same numbers as the compensator
             (-25% recoil and +30% SIPS) but the overall effects - both the bonus
             and the penalty - were reduced in the Fall Patch.
    
             In the Spring Patch the x1.125 multiplier that increased the maximum
             spread for the muzzle brake in all stances was removed. However the
             12.5% penalty to SIPS still applies when using the muzzle brake.
    
    Since it's much easier to manually counteract the effect of vertical recoil, the
    compensator will often be more useful. However if your weapon already has low
    horizontal recoil - or you don't want to reduce your effectiveness with medium-
    range bursts - you should leave it off.
    
                                      Flash Hider
                                      ¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯
    The flash hider conceals the prominent bright "muzzle flash" when firing your
    weapon which could otherwise reveal your position to the enemy. This would be
    more beneficial in darker environments or when people are using smoke grenades
    and your muzzle flash is more obvious.
    
    Patched: Originally the flash hider had no statistical effects and, lacking any
             penalties, it was the obvious choice if there were no other barrel
             attachments that you wanted to use. Since the Spring Patch however it
             now applies a 17% penalty to the spread decrease per second - the rate
             at which your accuracy recovers after firing.
    
             Suppressor / LS06 Suppressor / PBS4 Suppressor / R2 Suppressor
             ¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯
    Commonly (but incorrectly) known as a "silencer", a suppressor can be fitted to
    the end of the barrel reducing the sound made when the weapon is fired; it also
    functions as a flash hider (see above).
    
    Normally in BF4 firing a gun causes the player to be temporarily marked on the
    enemy's minimaps but with the suppressor equipped this doesn't happen and this
    will often give a significant tactical advantage (however if the enemy team has
    a commander deploying UAV's or a Recon operating a MAV drone there's a very good
    chance that you'll be spotted already).
    
    There are a few penalties for using a suppressor:
    
    o Reduced muzzle velocity - this will make it harder to hit moving targets and
      increase the effect of bullet-drop (see Section 02a).
    
    o Reduced accuracy for stationary hipfire - the added weight of the suppressor
      at the end of the barrel causes a 20% increase in standing hipfire spread.
    
    o Inability to use other barrel attachments - if you pick the suppressor you'll
      sacrifice the ability to use other attachments like the compensator or heavy
      barrel (and therefore lose the bonus to recoil or accuracy they provide).
    
    o Increased weapon length - it'll be harder to hide behind a corner!
    
    In BF3 the suppressor attachment also had the effect of shortening the damage
    drop-off distances for your gun but this is no longer the case in BF4 - weapons
    retain their standard damage values at all ranges.
    
    For added authenticity you should use the R2 (or standard) suppressor on a NATO
    weapon, the PBS4 on a Russian gun and the LS06 on Chinese firearms.
    
    The only difference between the suppressors is purely cosmetic - but it's a big
    difference! I only ever use the vanilla or R2 suppressors.
    
    Most real ammunition is supersonic which means its muzzle velocity is greater
    than the speed of sound (at sea level this is around 340 m/s) and you get the
    usual "crack" sound which is actually a small sonic-boom. A suppressor can still
    reduce the sound of supersonic loads (its main function is to slow and cool the
    propellant gases to reduce the loud muzzle blast) but to be properly quiet you
    need to use either subsonic ammo or a suppressor that's specifically designed to
    bleed the velocity to below the speed of sound.
    
    Patched: Previously fitting a suppressor would reduce any gun's muzzle velocity
             to below 340 m/s, presumably representing a switch to subsonic ammo. In
             the Fall Patch most guns got a buff to their suppressed muzzle velocity
             in an effort to make the attachment more viable at longer ranges. In a
             few cases they raised the velocity to supersonic values (greater than
             340 m/s) although none of the revised speeds exceeded 400 m/s.
    
             Some guns previously had extremely slow suppressed velocities (below
             200 m/s) but now these all have bullet speeds of at least 270 m/s.
    
                                    CS5 Suppressor
                                    ¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯
    This suppressor is unique to the CS5 sniper rifle in the Dragon's Teeth DLC.
    
    Authentic to the real-life gun, this suppressor is equipped on the rifle by
    default as soon as you unlock it. However you can still unlock the four standard
    suppressors (see above) for the CS5 as well.
    
                    Suppressor / TGPA5 Suppressor / QSW06 Suppressor
                    ¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯
    The pistols get this separate range of suppressors (NATO, Russian and Chinese
    respectively) which function in the same way as the ones for primary weapons.
    
    If your primary weapon is unsuppressed you might like to run with a suppressor
    on your sidearm to give you a stealthy option when you need it.
    
    Due to the open nature of the cylinder on a revolver, the .44 Magnum, MP412 Rex,
    SW40 and Unica 6 sidearms cannot be fitted with a suppressor.
    
                         Full Choke / Modified Choke / Duckbill
                         ¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯
    In addition to the muzzle brake and compensator attachments the shotguns also
    have a choice of three chokes which modify the size/shape of the cone of either
    pellets (buckshot ammo) or flechettes (dart ammo) as they leave the barrel.
    
    The modified choke makes the cone tighter and the full choke makes it even more
    narrow, focusing the pellets/darts so that more of them hit a distant target.
    
    Patched: In the Spring Patch the full choke's recoil penalties were removed and
             the stationary hipfire accuracy penalties were reduced. The modified
             choke's ADS recoil penalties were removed and the hipfire accuracy
             penalties were also removed.
    
    The duckbill on the other hand increases the width of the cone - the horizontal
    scatter of the pellets - as indicated by the wide elliptical hipfire reticle. If
    this option is used in conjunction with canted ironsights then the scatter will
    be extended along a 45-degree diagonal instead!
    
    .-------------.----------------------------------------------------------------.
    | Section 04d | Underbarrel Attachments                                   s04d |
    '-------------'----------------------------------------------------------------'
    
    Underbarrel attachments are attached under the barrel. :9
    
    Where BF3 had only one foregrip you now get a choice of six although they only
    offer three different statistical effects so I've grouped them here. It's kinda
    tempting just to take the one that looks coolest but it's best to study their
    effects and pick the foregrip that best suits your play-style and would be most
    beneficial to your current weapon/loadout/role.
    
    Patched: Originally the grips had no statistical penalties but since the Spring
             Patch they now all give a 34% penalty to the spread decrease per second
             (the rate at which your accuracy recovers after firing).
    
                            Ergo[nomic] Grip / Vertical Grip
                            ¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯
    You will suffer increased spread (reduced accuracy) if you fire while moving -
    this can be thought of as either a "movement penalty" or a "stationary bonus"
    (depending on your perspective). The ergo and vertical grips reduce this effect
    by reducing your spread while moving by 50% in all stances so they'll be best
    suited to a close-quarters run-and-gun situation.
    
    As with all three pairs of grips listed here, the ergo and vertical grips give
    exactly the same effect - the only difference between them is cosmetic.
    
                              Angled Grip / Folding Grip
                              ¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯
    These two attachments both reduce the first-shot recoil multiplier (see Section
    02e) by 20% so they would be most beneficial if you prefer to fire single shots
    or short controlled bursts.
    
    Patched: The statistical effect was nerfed from 33% to 20% in the Spring Patch.
    
    The angled grip is modelled on the original AFG (Angled Foregrip) manufactured
    by Magpul. This is only available in three colour options: Flat Dark Earth and
    two shades of green. In the game it comes in FDE (dark tan) which looks okay on
    a SCAR-H in its default paint scheme but on most other guns you'll probably be
    keen to upgrade to the black folding grip (which will be a Battlepack unlock).
    
                               Stubby Grip / Potato Grip
                               ¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯
    The last two grip options both reduce the accuracy penalty of full automatic
    fire by 20% (i.e. they reduce the spread increase for each successive shot);
    they also reduce by 17% the maximum spread cap that will be applied. Naturally
    these effects are most useful when firing longer bursts at range.
    
    Patched: The reduction to spread increase per shot (SIPS) was buffed from 15% to
             20% in the Spring Patch. However the reduction to the max spread was
             also reduced from 33% to 17%.
    
    The real "Miki" potato grip is made by Fab Defense of Israel; like several of
    their foregrip models there's a hollow horizontal tube running through the grip
    which allows the user to mount a removable flashlight inside it.
    
                               UGL Rail / Underslung Rail
                               ¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯
    When your Assault class loadout includes both an assault rifle equipped with the
    UGL rail (underslung grenade-launcher rail) and the M320 grenade-launcher in one
    of your gadget slots you will have the launcher automatically attached under the
    rifle's barrel thus enabling you to switch between the two weapons more quickly.
    
    (When you have the grenade-launcher underslung on a Russian or Chinese assault
    rifle it will appear as the Russian GP30 launcher instead of the M320.)
    
    The SCAR-H, M416, M16A4, CZ805 and AR160 assault rifles get the underslung rail
    option instead of the UGL rail. This attachment can be used to mount either the
    M320 grenade-launcher or the M26 MASS (shotgun).
    
    The rails are unavailable for the FAMAS, Ace 23, F2000 or Bulldog but all other
    assault rifles get one automatically as soon as the gun unlocks.
    
                                         Bipod
                                         ¯¯¯¯¯
    The bipod is deployed automatically when you aim, either in the prone position
    or when you're standing or crouching behind a suitable ledge.
    
    When deployed the bipod reduces vertical recoil by 90%, horizontal recoil by 75%
    and the first-shot recoil multiplier by 85%. Combined with your weapon's natural
    recoil recovery after each shot this has a massive effect on the recoil that you
    experience in sustained automatic fire and therefore the bipod is especially
    useful on the LMG's which have more recoil and larger magazines.
    
    A deployed bipod also improves your stationary accuracy. The LMG's receive a
    larger bonus here, with a 95% reduction in stationary aimed spread.
    
    The bipod has no negative statistical effects but you only enjoy these bonuses
    when it's deployed so if you're going to be on the move it might be better to
    pick one of the grips which has a full-time effect. Also the time it takes to
    deploy the bipod can sometimes be an inconvenience plus you have limited arcs of
    horizontal and vertical movement. Going prone with a bipod leaves you pretty
    vulnerable to flanking and grenades too.
    
    The bipod is available for all light machineguns (unlocked by default), DMR's,
    sniper rifles, assault rifles and carbines (even the shorter bullpup carbines
    the Type 95B-1 and A91).
    
    Patched: The bipod for the AN94 was added in the Summer Patch.
    
             Additionally the concrete "pillbox" emplacements on some maps were
             fixed so that you can now deploy a bipod on the window ledges.
    
    .-------------.----------------------------------------------------------------.
    | Section 04e | Auxiliary Attachments                                     s04e |
    '-------------'----------------------------------------------------------------'
    
    Instead of having an underbarrel slot, the sniper rifles have an auxiliary slot
    with only two options.
                                     Straight Pull
                                     ¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯
    When the straight-pull bolt is equipped your character will chamber the next
    round automatically after firing and without coming out of your aim view. This
    makes it much easier to track the position of your target between shots.
    
                                         Bipod
                                         ¯¯¯¯¯
    A deployed bipod gives the usual bonuses to recoil and accuracy (see above); on
    a sniper rifle it also removes the need to press L3 to briefly steady your aim
    when using a high-magnification scope.
    
    Using a bipod removes your ability to strafe (in order to avoid incoming fire
    from enemy snipers) and the accuracy buff is unnecessary on a sniper rifle so
    the straight-pull bolt will usually be the obvious choice in this slot.
    
    .-------------.----------------------------------------------------------------.
    | Section 04f | Paint                                                     s04f |
    '-------------'----------------------------------------------------------------'
    
    In BF3 you could only unlock camos for a few specific guns but BF4 has a range
    of over ninety paint styles that can be added to the loadout of any of your guns
    including the sidearms. (NB a "paint" can be equipped onto guns and vehicles but
    a "camo" is for your soldier and will be faction-specific)
    
    Various patterns are available, sorted into the categories Naval, Snow, Urban,
    Woodland, Autumn, Desert, Adaptive and Misc. The "adaptive" paints are the most
    interesting of these because you simply select the pattern you want to use and
    the game will automatically apply a colour scheme to match the dominant terrain
    of the current map at the start of each match so you don't need to change it -
    but you probably will get a blue gun on an island map!
    
    The vast majority of the paints are unlocked via Battlepacks so you should focus
    on unlocking all the attachments for several guns if you want to get all the
    paints. However some of the unique designs from the Misc category are earned by
    completing Veteran (silver) assignments in multiplayer. You can view the assign-
    ments, their requirements and your progress under the Assignments tab of your
    online Battlelog profile or in-game under My Solider / Awards / Assignments.
    
    You can also create your own custom emblem which will be displayed on your gun,
    soldier and vehicles (to a greater extent this feature was bugged on consoles
    until the January 2014 patch) and on the killcam info shown to your victims
    after you kill them. After logging into your online Battlelog account click on
    Soldier (top left), then Customize (top right) then Emblem to access the emblem
    design tool.* Each emblem can include up to twenty layers - or forty if you're a
    Premium subscriber.
    
    *Direct link: http://battlelog.battlefield.com/bf4/emblem/edit/personal
    
    
    .------------.-----------------------------------------------------------------.
    | Section 05 | CONTACT                                                     s05 |
    '------------'-----------------------------------------------------------------'
    
    I welcome feedback, corrections and contributions on this guide. Contributions
    will usually be reworded but will always be fully credited to the submitter so
    be sure to tell me the name you want me to use.
    
    You can email me at barticle at hotmail.com - obviously changing the "at" to an
    @ and removing the spaces. It would be helpful if you include "Battlefield" or
    "BF4" somewhere in the subject line to get my attention.
    
    I prefer contact by email but if you have trouble with your emails (inbox full,
    webmail blocked, overzealous spam filter, etc) and/or you don't hear back from
    me within a few days then feel free to message me via GameFAQs.
    
    My permission should be sought before using any content from this document for
    your own website or guide although I'm happy for my BF4 ascii-art logo to be
    used if it's credited to me (Barticle) and you tell me where you're using it.
    
    
    .------------.-----------------------------------------------------------------.
    | Section 06 | THANKS                                                      s06 |
    '------------'-----------------------------------------------------------------'
    
    I would like to thank the following:-
    
    o Sym and everyone at Symthic.com for the weapon stats and other game data
    
    o tehmoriz for posting the DLC weapon stats ahead of the Symthic.com updates
    
    o CobaltRose for posting the buffed CBJ-MS damage stats
    
    o www.youtube.com/user/DANNYonPCin720p for the Wagner easter egg
    
    o Gamespot, Down4life, JackFrags, LevelCap and Daskro for pre-release gameplay
      footage from E3, Gamescom and the Youtuber preview event in September 2013
    
    o Modern Firearms (guns.ru) for info on some of the guns
    
    o Internet Movie Firearms Database (imfdb.org) for info on some of the guns
    
    o Olof Janson (gotavapen.se) for info on the CBJ-MS
    
    o The Firearm Blog (thefirearmblog.com) for recent news stories
    
    o KriegsMeister for posting the SR338 model ID
    
    o Battlefield Wiki for the 44 Mag model ID and some info on previous BF titles
    
    o Jack again for a sneak peek at the China Rising guns and gadgets
    
    o MarbleDuck and DarthVeda for CTE developments coverage
    
    o Yuwai, Syco Clown, Oracle-Raven, Truth_and_Arms, Scarlet-Raven, slaveanselmo,
      crimsonfoxm1911, MetalZoic, Siculu, Oblivion_Slayer, dejavu1982, Rafahil19,
      OhGood, terrysmay04, Eviator, nordendorf, Girtablulu and elementofprgress for
      helpful forum posts
    
    o some of my favourite Youtube gaming channels for Battlefield content:
    
      - http://www.youtube.com/user/bigMooney06
      - http://www.youtube.com/user/rivaLxfactor
      - http://www.youtube.com/user/LevelCapGaming
      - http://www.youtube.com/user/Matimi0
      - http://www.youtube.com/user/jackfrags
      - http://www.youtube.com/user/darthveda
      - http://www.youtube.com/user/MarbleDuck
      - http://www.youtube.com/user/izzygonecrazygaming
    
    o MP1st for BF3 and BF4 news
    
      - http://mp1st.com/category/battlefield/
    
    o Hank & Jed for the fantastic Battlefield Friends (BFF) series :)
    
      - http://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLF8C97115E5BCBA92
    
    o Andrei Machado, eyesix, Cousin Silas, Zinovia and Eos for super sounds
    
    I will be happy to give credit and thanks to anyone who makes a contribution.
            ___________                                          ___        
            \______   /                              ___        /  /        
                  /  /                       __      \_/       /  /         
                 /   \___ ________ _________/  \__ ___ ______ /  /  ________
    .-------o   /  __   / \___   //  ___/\_   ___//  //  ___//  /  /  __   /
    | ANOTHER  /  / /  /_____/  //  /     /  /   /  //  /   /  /  /   \/  / 
    '---------/  /-/  //  __   //  /-----/  /---/  //  /---/  /--/  _____/---------.
             /  / /  //  / /  //  /     /  /   /  //  /   /  /  /  /         GUIDE |
            /   \/  //   \/  //  /     /   \_ /  //   \_ /   \ /   \________ o-----'
            \______/ \______/ \_/      \____/ \_/ \____/ \___/ \___________/
    --
    Battlefield 4 Firearms Guide
    Copyright 2013-2015 James R. Barton
    Initial version 1.00 completed 26 December 2013
    Current version 1.11 completed 16 December 2015
    
    All trademarks and copyrights contained in this document are owned by their
    respective trademark and copyright holders.
    
    This guide may be downloaded and printed for personal, private, non-commercial
    use only. This work is subject to copyright. It may not be hosted online or
    otherwise distributed publically or reproduced either in whole or in part
    without the advance written consent of the author. Any violation would
    constitute an infringement of copyright and is strictly prohibited.
    
    I would encourage you to boycott the site cheatcodes.com which uses (steals)
    game guides without the author's consent and then ignores removal requests.
    
    The only websites with the author's consent to publish this guide are GameFAQs
    (gamefaqs.com) and its affiliates, i.e. Gamespot (gamespot.com).
    
    If you find this file hosted on any other site I would be grateful if you would
    inform me at the email address given at the top. Thanks!

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