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    FAQ/Strategy Guide by KChang

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                            XCOM: UFO Defense
                    Unofficial Strategy Guide and FAQ
                      by Kasey Chang (ksc1@aol.com)
                        released January 17, 2002
    0    Introduction
    Thanks for the tremendous response all over the net!  The guide
    was uploaded to practically to wherever XCOM and UFO are sold
    (and probably far beyond), and many people have provided helpful
    feedback that were incorporated into this and previous revisions.
    This is a FAQ, NOT a manual. You won't learn how to play the game
    with this document, and I'm NOT about to add it to ease the life
    of software pirates.
    This USG only covers the PC version since that's the only version
    that I have. Other versions should be SIMILAR but may not be
    This version replaces any earlier versions previously released.
    This document is copyrighted by Kuo-Sheng ďKaseyĒ Chang (c) 1994-
    2002, all rights reserved excepted as noted above in the
    disclaimer section.
    This document is available FREE of charge subjected to the
    following conditions:
    1) This notice and author's name must accompany all copies of
    this document: "XCOM:UFO Defense Unofficial Strategy Guide and
    FAQ" is copyrighted (c) 1994-2002 by Kasey K.S. Chang, all rights
    reserved except as noted in the disclaimer.Ē
    2) This document must NOT be modified in any form or manner
    without prior permission of the author with the following
    exception: if you wish to convert this document to a different
    file format or archive format, with no change to the content,
    then no permission is needed.
    2a) In case you canít read, that means TXT only. No banners, no
    HTML borders, no cutting up into multiple pages to get you more
    banner hits, and esp. no adding your site name to the site list.
    3) No charge other than "reasonable" compensation should charged
    for its distribution.  (Free is preferred) Sale of this
    information is expressly prohibited. If you see any one selling
    this guide, drop me a line.
    4) If you used material from this, PLEASE ACKNOWLEDGE the source,
    else it is plagiarism.
    5) The author hereby grants all games-related web sites the right
    to archive and link to this document to share among the game
    fandom, provided that all above restrictions are followed.
    Sidenote: The above conditions are known as a statutory contract.
    If you meet them, then you are entitled to the rights I give you
    in 5), i.e. archive and display this document on your website. If
    you donít follow them, you did not meet the statutory contract
    conditions, you have no right to display this document. If you
    still do so, then you are infringing upon my copyright. This
    section was added for any websites who donít seem to understand
    For the gamers: You are under NO obligation to send me ANY
    compensation.  However, I do ask for a VOLUNTARY contribution of
    one (1) US Dollar if you live in the United States, and if you
    believe this guide helped your game. If you choose to do so,
    please make your US$1.00 check or $1.00 worth of stamp to "Kuo-
    Sheng Chang", and send it to "2220 Turk Blvd. #6, San Francisco,
    CA 94118 USA".
    If you don't live in the US, please send me some local stamps. I
    collect stamps too.
    This USG is only released to Gamefaqs (http://www.gamefaqs.com)
    though it should also be available from other major PC game
    websites (such as gamesdomain.com, gamespot.com, etc.).
    To webmasters who wish to archive this FAQ on their website,
    please read the terms of distribution in section 0.2. It is quite
    clear. In case you canít understand it, it says ďno
    modificationsĒ. This means you may NOT modify any bits of it!
    Modifications include (but not limited to):
      *    Cutting up the FAQ into pages (so you get more banner hits)
      *    Adding your site's name to the list above
    0.4    OTHER NOTES
    There is no warranty for this unofficial strategy guide. After
    all, it depends on YOU the player.  All I can do is offer some
    PLEASE let me know if there's a confusing or missing remark... If
    you find a question about this game that is not covered in the
    USG, e-mail it to me at ksc1@aol.com.  I'll try to answer it and
    include it in the next update.
    UFO: Enemy Unknown users should be able to use this supplement
    with minimum changes. Most tips will apply to both versions, esp.
    the tactical tips.  The charts on the other hand may have
    different numbers, so compare it carefully please.
    XCOM was ported to many platforms including the Sony Playstation.
    Other versions of XCOM can probably use this guide without
    modification, but that cannot be guaranteed.
    0.5    THE AUTHOR
    I am just a game player who decided to write my own FAQs when the
    ones I find donít cover what I want to see.  Lots of people like
    what I did, so I kept doing it.
    Previously, I've written Unofficial Strategy Guides (USGs) for
    XCOM, XCOM2:TFTD, Wing Commander 3, Wing Commander 4, Fade to
    Black, Spycraft, 688(I) Hunter/Killer. Mechwarrior 3, MW3
    Expansion Pack, Need for Speed: Porsche Unleashed, and many more.
    Most of them should be on gamefaqs.com, the biggest FAQ site
    If you need to write me, send e-mail to ksc1@aol.com. (Any spam
    will be reported to respective authorities). You better specify
    what game you wish to talk about though. With over 20 FAQs
    archived I don't want to spend the brain cells to guess what
    you're talking about...
    XCOM is a trademark of MicroProse. XCOM was developed by Mythos
    Games, UK.
    This USG is not endorsed or authorized by MicroProse, Hasbro
    Interactive, Infogrames, or Mythos Games.
    Thanks to MicroProse and Mythos Games for bringing us such a nice
    game. It surely deserved all those "Game of the Year" award and
    all those "Best Games Ever" awards!
    Thanks to all the people who have contributed to previous
    releases of the XCOM:USG, whom include but are not limited to:
    William Kang, CMDR; Tim Chawn, CMDR; Doug Osborne, SG; Stuart
    Lamble, SG; Seth Cohn, SG; Bill Soo, SG; Jeff Shaffer, Economist;
    Rob Eiben, SG; Jim Muchow, SG; Menachem Pasteich, architect; Paul
    Close, publicist and simulation expert; and fellow XCOM players
    all over the world discussing the game on USENET, America On-line
    and elsewhere.
    Some strategies and tactics here first appeared in Computer
    Gaming World and Computer Game Review magazines' strategy
    articles on XCOM. Thanks to Jeff James (CGW) and Kevin Perry
    (CGR), we honor you as XCOM Strategists.
    ??-???-1994         Initial Release
    01-MAY-1995         Last tracked update, revised to match
                        official strategy guide chapters
    17-JAN-2002         Fully revised edition
    Q: Can you send me XCOM: UFO Defense (or portions thereof)?
    A: No.
    Q: But you can't buy it any more!
    A: Not my problem.
    Q: But it was given away with magazine _______!
    A: So order the back issue. Or go buy the Collector's Edition.
    Q: Can you send me the manual (or portions thereof)?
    A: No.
    Q: My manual was ________. Can you tell me the codes in the
    A: No. Apply patch V1.4 should remove it.
    Q: Can you tell me how to play the game?
    A: Read the manual.
    Q: How do I launch the "final mission"? I got everything built
    and equipped!
    A: Select the craft you got for intercept... See the extra button
    next to CANCEL?
    Q: What do you know about the non-PC version of XCOM?
    A: Absolutely nothing, other than they exist.
    Q: Whatís the latest version?
    A: V1.4 for the PC version. This fixes some sound issues.
    Q: Where are the cheat codes?
    A: XCOM is a STRATEGY game.
    Q: I have Collectors Edition, but I can't run it in Windows!
    A: Try reducing or eliminating "video acceleration" in your
    systems applet, control panel. If that does not help, go into
    DirectX and turnoff video acceleration there as well.
    Q: Why is your FAQ shorter than other similar FAQs?
    A: I donít repeat the stuff thatís already in the manual. You can
    read that yourself. I also will NOT EVER include the information
    from the Official Strategy Guide unless the information can be
    gleamed from the game itself.
    Now that the official strategy guide is out in stores (XCOM : the
    Official Strategy Guide, by David Ellis, Prima Publishing, ISBN 
    1-55958-764-4, US$19.95, hereby known as OSG), this Unofficial
    Strategy guide (USG) is now patterned after the official one,
    with similar table of contents. You can use this guide along with
    the official strategy guide (OSG), or you can use this by itself.
    While OSG has all the neat charts and tables and stuff only
    available from the source, I've found its tactics and strategy
    section sorely lacking.  In fact, all the the strategy and
    tactics are condensed into ONE chapter, with the rest of the book
    as simply a reprint of the manual and UFOpedia and the underlying
    That's where USG come in.  USG will help you make informed
    choices. Instead of showing you a table of numbers, I'll actually
    show you what had been recommended by fellow XCOM players.  After
    you read each chapter in the OSG, read that chapter's supplement
    here.  You will understand more about how the game runs and the
    tactics to beat it.
    You do NOT have to have the OSG to use this supplement, but you
    will get more out of both if you do.
    According to Prima, the OSG is currently out of print.
    About organization of the guide... The sections are patterned
    after the official strategy guide. However, as all parts of XCOM
    are interlinked, it is best to read through the entire guide to
    see how all the sections relate. When you see the part about air
    combat, you should read the part about XCOM crafts and Alien
    UFOs, for example.
    1    Game Information
    [Excerpt from XCOM manual page 6]
    It is the year 1999.  Unidentified Flying Objects (UFOs) have
    started appearing with disturbing regularity in the night skies.
    Reports of violent human abductions and horrific experimentation
    had struck terror into the hearts of millions. Mass public
    hysteria has only served to expose Earth's impotence against a
    vastly superior technology.
    On December 11, 1998, representatives from the world's most
    economically powerful counties gathered secretly in Geneva. After
    much debate, they decision was made to establish a covert
    independent body to combat, investigate, and defeat the alien
    threat.  The organization would be equipped with the world's
    finest pilots, soldiers, scientists, and engineers, working
    together as one multi-national force.
    This organization was named the Extraterrestrial Combat Unit.
    [end excerpt]
    You are in overall command of XCOM.  You will perform the
    following tasks:
      *    detect and track marauding UFOs
      *    launch and control interceptors to attack marauding UFOs in
           the air
      *    send soldiers (in transports) to attack crashed or landed
      *    raid alien bases on Earth (if you can find them)
      *    keep the sponsor nations happy and UFOs out of their skies
           and aliens out of their land
      *    buy the ammo and weapons you need in the war
      *    research weapons and ammo as your troops bring in captured
           alien artifacts for analysis
      *    build the alien weapons and ammo, as well as advanced crafts
      *    build defenses for your base(s)
      *    research the aliens themselves
      *    pay for everything by contributions from sponsor countries
           and selling stuff
    Eventually... figure out the alien threat's origin and end the
    threat once and for all.
    The game is divided into two main segments: GeoScape and
    GeoScape is a 3-D view of the globe, rotate-able and zoom-able.
    This is where you control your various bases around the world
    (with radars), your fighters and transports (carrying your
    soldiers), your inventory at each base, the UFOs and alien bases
    currently in sight, and so on.  Once ground contact is made
    (transport landed next to UFO, you attack alien base, aliens
    attack your base, etc.), the game switches to Battlescape.
    Battlescape is an isometric tile-based 3-D combat with viewpoint
    similar to SimCity 2000 and Transport Tycoon.  The combat is turn-
    based with opportunity fire on the opponent's round (provided you
    have enough TimeUnits [TUs] and reaction), with plenty of weapons
    and terrain to choose from.  When the battle concludes (either
    side is annihilated or retreated) you go back to GeoScape.
    Everything is mouse-driven so game is very easy to learn yet hard
    to master.
    UFO: Enemy Unknown is the European version of XCOM.  The game was
    designed by Mythos Games, and was distributed by MicroProse UK.
    It was imported into the US later as XCOM.  XCOM is equivalent to
    UFO V1.2.
    In fact, XCOM installs into \MPS\UFO directory.  :-)
    1.3.1     Why the name change?
    The official strategy guide (OSG) has no explanation, but I
    believe that SubLOGIC (the       original Flight Simulator
    people) had a game called UFO, and MicroProse couldn't register
    the same name, so they picked XCOM.
    XCOM is the official name of the series.  XCOM2 will be sold as
    XCOM2 in Europe.
    1.3.2     What is the difference besides the title?
    Quite small, mainly price changes for items, and some spelling
    (esp. "armour").
    Requirements listed on XCOM is: 386/486 (Pentium?), 4 MB RAM,
    VGA, Mouse, MS/PC-DOS 5.0 (or higher?).
    (There are Amiga and CD32 version, PlayStation version, and many
    other ports.)
    One person reported that he was able to run XCOM with 2 MB RAM,
    though it is SLOW.  Your mileage may vary.
    It comes on 3 3.5" HD disks, and needs about 12MB of hard drive
    space to install (double that if using disk compression software
    such as Stacker or DoubleSpace).
    There's a CD version, which is the same as the floppy version
    except only the saved games reside on the hard drive and all of
    the data files stays on the CD.
    You CAN install the CD version onto the hard drive if you have
    enough space.  There may be a HARDDRIVE directory on the CD with
    a separate install program. Use that to do the full install.
    The original release uses 32-bit protected mode, so it would not
    run under Windows.  No compatibility claims was made to any other
    versions of DOS such as DR DOS, Novell DOS 7, or even OS/2.
    There is a Collector's Edition which includes XCOM, XCOM: Terror
    From the Deep (TFTD), and XCOM: Apocalypse (APOC). XCOM and TFTD
    have been converted so they are now Windows DirectX friendly.
    They will run in Windows.
    There is no patch to upgrade the regular install to the "CE"
    release. To get CE, you must buy CE. 
    The OSG has no list of bugs, so here is a list of bugs that are
    known to exist in XCOM/UFO (PC version, of course).
    1.5.1     Green Text Bug
    Symptom: Game suddenly displays 40-column Green text [DOS
    Extender Error].  Usually happens right after a battle, and after
    a bit it takes you back into the battle you just finished
    (infinite repeat), and sometimes the computer hangs.
    Cause and Solution: This is usually caused by attempting to save
    a game while UFO interception is in progress. Another possibility
    is you have multiple crafts in the air and one of them is
    intercepting while another is landing and attacking a downed UFO
    or base.
    Unfortunately, the saved game is corrupt.  You must restore from
    an earlier saved game.  [OSG only mentions this as "trust me,
    don't save when intercept minimized"]
    Further info: someone commented on the net that usually there is
    this ONE UFO that you did not shoot down before XCOM crashed.  If
    you do NOT destroy it after you reload the game, the same thing
    will happen again.
    Another has reported that by not maximizing (minimizing?) the
    GeoScape screen before going into combat cuts down the chances of
    Green Text bug, but this is unconfirmed.
    1.5.2     16-bit Sound bug
    Symptom: Game has compatibility problems with most 16-bit sound
    cards such as SoundBlaster 16 and PAS-16 (and Gravis UltraSound
    as well).  Music and sounds are often played as static, or no
    sound at all.
    Cause and solution: remember that the setup asks for the DMA
    channel, NOT the interrupt as most setup programs do. If it still
    doesn't work, it's a program bug.  You can always play with the
    sound off, but it's not as much fun having no alien screams when
    they got hit and die... V1.4 patch should fix this.
    WARNING: If you have a SoundBlaster 16 and the Waveblaster
    daughtercard, do NOT select 16-bit digital sound with General
    MIDI.  Select 8-bit sound instead.
    1.5.3     One-shot blaster bug
    Symptom: Once you fired off a blaster launcher, sometimes there's
    still a shell in there so you can't reload it, but you can't fire
    it either.
    Cause and solution: This is caused by programming only one
    waypoint for the blaster bomb.  If you program two or more
    waypoints for the bomb this won't happen.
    You can also attempt to UNLOAD the "empty" shell.  See manual.
    1.5.4     Flying Frozen bug
    Symptom: Enemy hit a unit near the edge of the map.  When it is
    the unit's turn to move, it is off the edge of the map (totally
    outside).  It can move up/down, but not back onto the map.  It
    can still shoot, and it will return if you win the battle.
    Cause and solution: no idea, this seems to be random. Don't put
    your units near the edge.
    1.5.5     "SMOKBIT.DAT not found"
    Symptom: the game complains that a SMOKBIT.DAT cannot be found in
    your saved game directory.
    Cause and solution: no idea, since the file is not in all of the
    saved games directories that I have (I have it only in 2 of 10
    saved games). MicroProse chalked it up to computer
    incompatibility and recommends a refund if you run into this
    problem. (saved game during combat? Incendiary grenades?)
    1.5.6     Stacked Equipment bug
    Symptom: When you access the alien's inventory (see exploit) 
    you found that they have multiple items stacked in one
    location (usually one of the legs).  If you do not have enough TU
    for that unit and you tried to move one item, you cannot put it
    back, and you are TOTALLY STUCK.
    Solution: just don't do it, or you'll have to reboot. There is no
    other way around it.  Maybe that's why we were not supposed to
    access alien inventory?
    1.5.7     Cyrix incompatibility
    Symptom: when starting XCOM/UFO, the program freezes after the
    title splash animations finished.
    Cause and solution: you probably have a very old Cyrix CPU. The
    version of DOS4GW XCOM used (version ends with a 5) is somehow
    incompatible with Cyrix CPUs.  The fix is very simple: run DOOM
    or another DOS4GW program (Raptor, Heretic, Descent, ROTT, etc.)
    before XCOM.
    1.5.8     Can't find a leader!?!?
    This is also known as the "Alien Containment Bug"
    Symptom: when at a crucial phase of the game, when one needs a
    captured alien leader, the leader was successfully captured but
    never was available for research.  Maybe the alien containment is
    Cause and solution: It appears that the alien containment is
    limited to ten race/rank combinations of aliens. If you brought
    back a eleventh combo, it will be "dumped" and you'll never see
    it. Therefore, research each race/rank combo of aliens ASAP.
    Note: this is NOT related to "cannot research a captured
    commander from UFO".  That is NOT a bug.  You have to research
    commander that was nabbed from a BASE.
    1.5.9     Unsaved proximity grenades
    Symptom: if you save a battle in progress with proximity grenades
    on the ground, and later restore the game, the grenades are gone.
    Solution: none... (does not happen in all versions)
    1.5.10    The 80-item Limit
    This is technically not a bug, but a limitation. When fighting a
    battle, only the first 80 distinct items (weapons or ammo) are
    used in the battle.  If you kept old weapons around this can
    seriously affect your combat readiness. So get rid of old useless
    stuff ASAP!
    XCOM : Terror From the Deep is the official sequel, built by 
    MicroProse with the engine licensed from Mythos. Story goes 
    like this: the destruction of the alien base on Mars has
    triggered a last-ditch signal sent to Earth's ocean... Ten years
    later, a new threat faces Earth... XCOM was reactivated, and now
    you must combat the aliens on land, in the air, and most of all,
    underwater...  TFTD is virtually identical to XCOM except for
    much higher difficulty.
    XCOM: Apocalypse is the third in the series, also created by
    Mythos. Fifty years after the last Alien War, civilization on
    Earth have retreated to the huge "city-state" known as
    Megalopolis, and one day, a strange portal appeared in the sky...
    And out came UFOs...  APOC is best known for neo-retro graphics,
    and the possibility to select either real-time or turn-based
    tactical combat.
    XCOM: Interceptor is created by MicroProse. After the second
    Alien War (TFTD), mankind spread among the stars, thanks to the
    alien technology. However, as human influence spread, the aliens
    made themselves known again, and they may be planning
    something... The strategic consideration is almost just like
    XCOM, but it is fused with a 3D space combat engine.
    Em@il XCOM is the last XCOM title from Hasbro (who bought
    MicroProse). Email XCOM is a tactical combat game that is not
    quite isometric and not quite top-down. You plot your moves on
    several battlefields and mail your turn to your opponent, and
    when he made the moves he will mail back until the battle is
    resolved. The game is supposed to run through Hasbro servers, but
    Hasbro has shut down that part of their operation.
    Infogrames, who took over Hasbro's Interactive Division (and
    MicroProse, by extension) has since released XCOM: Enforcer,
    where you play a cyborg shooting at all the different aliens on
    Earth. It's a PURELY arcade title complete with powerups and
    level bosses.
    XCOM: Genesis, supposed to be a "revised XCOM, updated with
    latest graphics", was cancelled sometime in 2000.
    XCOM: Alliance, supposed to be based on Unreal Tournament engine
    and 3 other squaddies following you intelligently, was apparently
    cancelled in early 2001, after MicroProse was dissolved.
    XCOM itself seem to be dead, or in deep hibernation. Infogrames
    seem to have no interest in producing another title in the
    franchise it inherited from Hasbro/MicroProse.
    Mythos Games was trying to develop Freedom Ridge, but they went
    bankrupt doing it. However, another company seems to have picked
    up the project. Only time will tell if they will succeed. Freedom
    Ridge is a full 3D tactical combat, but still turn-based.
    Basically, Earth was invaded by aliens and you are the last
    freedom fighters remaining.
    Jagged Alliance Series (Sir-Tech) -- similar combat engine, with
    realistic weapons, but more about mercenaries and a bit of role-
    playing and adventure than pure combat. The battles are randomly
    generated based on the conditions.
    Commandos / Commandos 2 (Eidos) -- more of a puzzle game, it lets
    you control several commandos with different specialties and
    undertake operations in WW2 behind Axis lines.
    S.W.A.T. 2 (Sierra) -- Terrorists vs. Counter-terrorist units in
    isometric format. Very old game, currently only available as
    budget title.
    Fallout Tactics (Interplay) -- the combat in Fallout (post-
    nuclear RPG) universe made into a full game by itself. Building
    the characters is as important as the fights.
    Star Trek: Away Team (Activision) -- this game is more "Commandos
    Does Star Trek" than XCOM. You control a special away team and
    perform special missions in isometric view. Most missions are
    stealth-based, very little combat.
    MechCommander / MechCommander 2 (Microsoft) -- in a distant sort
    of way... MechCommander series is related to XCOM. MechCommander
    let you take the battlemechs (tm) of BattleTech (tm) universe in
    a campaign. The missions in MC are fixed, not randomly generated
    like XCOM. They are more related to RTS than a turn-based title
    like XCOM, but it is tactical combat.
    1.9    HOW DO I WIN?  HOW DO I LOSE?
    You win by finding the source of the alien threat and "deal with
    it" once and for all on a "final mission".
    You can lose by several ways:
    1) You were in debt for over $1,000,000 for two months.  Your
    sponsors had had enough of your mismanagement and terminated the
    XCOM project.  Earth was conquered by aliens not long after.
    2) You had two consecutive "badly losing" months (big negative
    score, see next section), and your sponsors had had enough and
    terminated XCOM project.  Just how bad is a "badly losing" month
    depends on your score and difficulty level (Scoring is explained
    in OSG Chapter 1 and next section).
    3) You lost all of your bases to the aliens.
    4) You failed to complete the "final mission" (see above).
    Score is kept for both sides.
    You get positive score for
      *    conducting successful research
      *    capturing and/or killing aliens
      *    grounding and/or destroying UFOs
      *    destroying alien bases
      *    grabbing alien equipment
      *    etc.
    You get negative score for
      *    losing XCOM soldiers, crafts, HWPs, and civilians
      *    ignore terror raids
    Aliens score points by:
      *    overflying Earth
      *    lands on Earth (whatever purpose)
      *    build and keep bases on Earth
      *    conduct terror raids and hoping that you ignore it (so NEVER
           do so since this REALLY scores big for them!)
      *    sign pact with funding countries (which means those
           countries don't pay you any longer!)
      *    conduct harvest and/or abduction mission on Earth. (for
           exact numbers, see OSG)
    Your net score is (your_score - alien_score), which is the score
    you see on the monthly performance report (and the graph).
    The funding changes are affected by your total score, and are
    explained in OSG:Chapter 5.
    For exact numbers on how much you can win or lose, see OSG
    To summarize, the aliens score by performing their "missions".
    Your job is to prevent them from accomplishing their missions.
    2    The Geoscape Screen
    The GeoScape screen is where you will control the interceptions
    and provides access to the BattleScape and the base controls.
    Always attack UFO over land.  If you shoot it down over water no
    one can get to it.  Therefore, when you are over water, minimize
    the window, and select 1-minute step until you get back over
    land, then switch back to 5-second steps and start attack.
    [Whether you want to attack smaller UFOs is up to you]
    If you send multiple crafts after one UFO and the UFO gets shot
    down or destroyed, the shooter will go home, but other crafts
    will continue onto the crash site, THEN return to their base. So
    make them return to base manually.  They will return faster, and
    thus be refueled/rearmed/repaired for next sortie faster.  Click
    on its icon on GeoScape and select "return to base".
    If UFO has landed, keep a fighter on top of it.  That way, if it
    takes off before your transport get there, you still have a
    chance of taking it down.
    Since the best weapons have a chance of blowing a smaller UFO
    totally to pieces, you may want to keep one fighter armed weaker
    than the rest for intercepting smaller UFOs, if you even WANT to
    go after small UFOs.
    See also the XCOM Crafts section and the UFO section for more
    Watch for high alien activity (check the graphs) in an area of
    the world yet no interception: there's probably a base in the
    Send something slow but long-range like a Skyranger to patrol the
    area.  An empty Skyranger has excellent range and therefore is
    perfect in spotting alien bases.
    Watch UFOs, esp. where they land.  If you see a "Supply Ship", do
    NOT attack it.  Trail it and follow it to their base.  After it
    lands, patrol nearby and you'll see the base.
    Hyperwave decoders (research item) can find UFOs on supply runs.
    Follow that UFO will usually lead you to a base.
    Of course, you do NOT have to take out that base...  You go after
    the supply UFOs instead will net you a lot of supplies. Of
    course, can you survive the retaliation raids?
    XCOM agents have a chance of finding an alien base for you, but
    chances are pretty slim.  So do not rely on that.  This happens
    as a "bonus" for you if you failed several missions and had a bad
    [also see 3.0 for XCOM Bases]
    Since it takes several weeks before additional modules to the
    base can be brought online, you need to build them ahead of time.
    See the base status to see how full are your facilities getting.
    If they are getting close, start building additional facilities
    so that they'll be ready by the time you need them.
    Examine base status at least twice every month, check living
    quarters, workshops and labs, etc, and determine your expansion
    schedule.  Dismantle extra stuff before end of month so you don't
    pay maintenance on them.
    Hire engineers and scientists at the last hour of the month so
    that they get delivered early NEXT month, so you get maximum
    research from them while not paying an extra penny in salary.
    Many people don't realize that click on the UFO icon will bring
    up all known info about the UFO.  If you detected it via
    Hyperwave Decoder, you'll know A LOT about it.
    UFO Crash Sites usually disappear in a few days.  If you have no
    soldiers available, you can let it sit for a day or two.
    Landed UFOs will take off in a few hours (less than a day).
    Terror Sites disappear in less than a day (which mean you have to
    get to one ASAP, even if it means skipping UFOs and landing at
    Landed/crashed UFOs still has info, such as size. Use that to
    determine whether you want to hit it or not.
    If several targets presents itself, which one should you attack?
    Here are some of my general guidelines:
    2.5.1     UFOs in flight
    Attack the biggest UFO you can handle.  Supply ships are easy.
    Terror ships are okay. Battleships are death unless you have
    Firestorms and Avengers and can attack with multiple crafts
    Launch from the closest base FROM UFOs INTENDED TARGET if it is
    known or can be deduced from UFO path.  Launching from the
    closest base at the time of contact will result in a tail chase,
    resulting frequently in lost tracking and waste of fuel and time.
    If the landing site is on the dark side, you may want to patrol
    nearby and wait for light.  Of course, in the meanwhile the
    landed UFO may take off again.
    Keep a fighter on top of a landed UFO in case it takes off before
    your transport can get to it.
    2.5.2     Downed/Landed UFOs
    Attack the biggest UFO you can handle. Terror ships have annoying
    terrorists (esp. Chrysalids!) and Battleship simply have lots of
    enemies (and terrorists, depending on mission).  Supply ships are
    okay if you watch the grav- lifts closely
    Larger UFOs have more aliens and more artifacts to recover, so
    risk and reward are proportional.
    If you have a choice, attack a landed UFO instead of a shot-down
    UFO.  Landed UFO is undamaged and therefore has more artifacts
    (plus 50 units of E-115 per engine) but of course has more
    Some veterans have reported that they can finish game faster by
    attacking landed UFOs only.  While score may not be as
    spectacular, they also have less risk of retaliation and can get
    more research done and have more money (from the extra booty)
    Don't follow an UFO around with a loaded transport (with soldiers
    and equipment).  They are wasting fuel and time and they may not
    have enough endurance to finish the race and thus, not able to
    respond to a different emergency (such as a terror site suddenly
    popping up elsewhere)
    2.5.3     Terror sites
    Attack one ASAP, no exceptions.  Divert from other UFO or base
    attacks if necessary, and definitely attack at night. The penalty
    for ignoring a terror site is simply too large to ignore.
    2.5.4     Alien bases
    Depending on your soldiers, you should attack a base as soon as
    you are able to (don't take rookies though).  You should not
    allow more than one alien base on Earth since you can't really
    afford the penalty.
    You may want to consider leaving a base alone nearby so you can
    keep attacking the supply UFOs that drops by. Just make sure you
    can handle the alien retaliation.
    3    X-COM Bases
    There are several things to consider while placing your first
    base.  Keep in mind that your first base will be your only base
    for a while, so make sure you place it where you get maximum
    coverage of the sponsoring countries, who also pays the most.
    Also see 3.8 for base startup costs.
    The problem you need to solve is how to maximize the coverage
    WHILE maximizing the covered countries' total payment.  We know
    that the US pays the most (always), and second most is Japan,
    while Europe has a lot of sponsor countries in a cluster.  Third
    best paying is South Africa.
    According to OSG's Chapter 5, the finance changes depend on your
    score.  If your score is positive, and you did a lot of stuff in
    the sponsoring country (see XCOM Activity in Graphs), then they
    will raise their payment by a random percentage.  Now, would you
    rather have 10% of $100,000, or 10% of $800,000?
    OSG recommends Northern US as a good starting place, which is
    okay, since US is the largest paying XCOM sponsor.  On the other
    hand, a base in US can only cover US and Canada. A base in
    Central Europe can cover UK, France, Germany, Italy, Spain, and a
    piece of Russia (though most of Russia would need a base in Asia,
    covering Japan, China, and maybe India as well). My vote is a
    toss-up between Europe and Northern-Central US. Both can work
    quite well.
    If you build your first base in Northern-Central US, build your
    second in Europe, and vice versa.  The third base should be near
    Japan to cover Japan, China, Russia, and hopefully India (maybe
    not), and fourth base should be in Africa covering Nigeria and
    South Africa (an important contributor).  If you build a fifth
    base, it should go in South America, covering Brazil.  If you
    want a sixth base, built it in New Zealand or Northeastern
    Australia to covering most of the Pacific (covering Australia).
    Check your graphs regularly to determine where to build your next
    base.  Watch for sponsor countries with high alien activity with
    high-paying sponsor(s), then check how much did they pay you via
    the Funding screen and see if they are worth defending.
    Do not build additional bases until you have enough money in the
    bank to pay for its initial construction AS WELL AS the two
    months' worth of maintenance.  Negative balance for two months
    means the end of your XCOM tenure!
    I personally name bases based on the continent they are on, plus
    the COM suffix (stands for Command), except for the US base,
    which is CentCom. Europe is EuroCom, South America is SoAmCom (or
    SouthCom, if you want to be authentic), Asia is AsiaCom, Africa
    is AfriCom, and so on.  Sounds military.  :-)
    Naming bases is important because it means less confusion on the
    Intercept screen on choosing which base to launch the fighters
    and transports.  Launching from the wrong one means the craft
    will not get there in time, run out of fuel before getting there
    (never get there since it will come back first), etc.
    The OSG recommends that you build every base to be as full
    fledged as possible, as to be ready in the unlikely event that
    all other bases fell to the aliens.  While I can sympathize with
    the approach, it is very difficult to implement.
    The main problem is in research.  Each base research independent
    of each other. Decentralized research slows discoveries and makes
    duplicate research possible (efforts are NOT cumulative).
    The only way to make things work like recommended is limit
    yourself to about three or four bases, covering North America,
    Europe, East Asia (Japan, China, Eastern Russia), and Africa
    (South Africa, Nigeria, and Egypt).
    I believe in a multi-stage base building. Your bases will
    probably evolve as follows:
    3.3.1     Radar base
    The radar base just have radars, and later, hyperwave decoders.
    Remember to put in a storage space (for HWPs and their ammos) and
    a living quarter (for expansion and a few guards).  Stock it with
    several HWPs (plasma hovertanks are ideal) for defense, add one
    defense station when you can afford it.
    Each radar has a 5 percent chance of detecting UFO within its
    detection radius (just like the UFOpedia says), so you don't need
    both small and large radars, just large will do (unless you run
    out of money!).  Ten radars mean 50% chance of detection, etc.
    Usually though you only need like 3 to 4 per radar base.
    When you researched hyperwave decoder, you can replace all the
    radars with ONE hyperwave decoder.  Hyperwave decoder detects
    100% UFOs in range. Dismantle the radars to save on maintenance
    (see 5.4)
    3.3.2     Intercept Base
    Radar base with a hangar housing a fighter (Interceptor or
    Firestorm) or two.  Watch the storage space since fighter needs
    its own weapons and ammo.  Add one if needed.
    Consider adding defense now (or assign more guards and HWPs)
    since aliens may get mad seeing their UFOs destroyed in your
    3.3.3     Strike Base
    Intercept Base with a hangar housing a transport (Skyranger,
    Lightning, or Avenger).  Remember to add storage (weapons and
    ammo, plus loot) and alien containment (prisoners) when needed.
    This would usually mean a THIRD hangar module in the base.
    Consider adding more defense, esp. when the aliens get really mad
    when attack more of their UFOs and/or bases in the area.
    3.3.4     Research Base / Manufacture Base
    Base should specialize in either research or manufacture, not
    both (doing so is putting too many eggs in one basket).  Add
    living quarters and either workshop or laboratory as needed.
    Don't forget to assign guards.
    Manufacture base needs more storage space or an empty hangar (if
    building crafts) so make you have enough or use TRANSFER a lot.
    Manufacturing base may need to watch out for the 80-item limit on
    If you have two research bases or two manufacturing bases you can
    use the salary transfer trick. [See personnel section]
    You shouldn't have to build a lot of defenses here, esp. if you
    build the 3.3.5 variant.
    3.3.5     Special Research Base or Manufacture Base
    As OSG mentioned, UFOs will start looking for your base if their
    brethren's keeps getting attacked and destroyed in the area.
    This suggest that if you build a base at North or South pole,
    only stock it with soldiers and needed equipment (no crafts or
    radars, or maybe a hyperwave decoder), and wait until UFOs enter
    a different zone before attacking them, you can keep a base
    pretty safe.
    Many people have employed this tactic and it seems to work quite
    well.  This is also great for psi labs.
    The most secure base design that I can think of is this one:
    This base has only ONE access point: by the access lift (A). Any
    other way (such as through the hangars, marked by H) actually
    takes LONGER.  The long corridor spanning FOUR sections makes
    EXCELLENT choke points and impromptu minefields with proximity
    grenades are great for defense in this kind of situations.  If
    you don't need three hangars, you can trade the right one for
    three more structures down the right side.
    Basically, put the access lift off to one side of the map and try
    to isolate that and hangars from the rest.
    There is one catch: sometimes, there's a bug in the game that
    eliminates some doors that leads you to the rest of the base.
    Without rockets and blaster bombs to "dig", you can't kill the
    aliens in the other section and thus cannot finish the battle at
    Initial additions would probably be alien containment
    (prisoners), general stores (ammo and captured artifacts), and
    long range radar (detection).  Later, with more money, add living
    quarters, labs, workshops, and defenses, in approximately that
    Defenses come last usually since you can defend with soldiers and
    HWPs.  Of course, don't clog up the 80-items list (see
    Try to keep a hangar available so you can build more crafts.
    Transferring crafts is free, so you can build in one, then move
    it to another.
    WARNING: previous versions of this guide listed that HWPs at an
    empty base (i.e. no soldiers) can defend.  I copied this hint
    from _Computer Game Review_'s strategy article.  I have received
    at least two angry statements telling me that this is NOT so.
    Each had lost at least TWO "undefended" bases.
    Defending a base against alien raids is tough.  Fortunately,
    unless you are doing terribly well, aliens usually don't bother
    your bases for a while.  But near the end, alien battleships will
    come after your bases, then you have a problem...
    To defend against that, you need a high defense rating.  I would
    recommend over 3000, maybe 3500, plus grav shields, if you don't
    like fighting inside your own base.  Three fusion-ball defenses
    plus grav shields is usually enough.
    During a hectic month, total of twelve battleships came after my
    base. Only one made it through my 3500 pt defense (with grav
    shield, of course), and its remaining landing parties are easy to
    wipe out with only HWPs and a few defenders.
    On the other hand, if you don't have equipment to fight
    battleships in the air, you may want to let it land and take it
    out on the ground (i.e. at your base).  Remember you will see A
    LOT of aliens on a base raid, I hope you have a lot of USABLE
    equipment (i.e. GOOD stuff in the first 80 items)...
    Small UFOs usually scout ahead of the large UFOs that will
    actually raid your base.  If you can destroy the scout before it
    detects your base, you can prevent the base attack.
    In V1.0 of UFO (not XCOM and not later versions of UFO), you can
    gain hundreds to thousands of units of Elerium if you win a base
    defense battle.
    Clean out old inventory! Old inventory will prevent you from
    getting to the GOOD weapons since you are still limited to 80
    items during base defense, and base have lots of stuff...
    The 80 items are pulled from inventory in the order on the SELL
    screen, top to bottom in order.  So if you have lots of lasers
    you'll never got to plasmas and blaster bombs.
    If you really ran out of space and do not want to conduct a fire
    sale, stuff the extras into the transports, though selling them
    is much easier and gains you money.
    Proximity grenades are vital in base defenses.  Dump a few near
    entrances and doors, and get ready for the alien death screams.
    3.7   BASE MODULES
    Name         DaysBuild  Cost Maint Usage
    Access Lift         1   300k   4k  (Entrance to underground base)
    Alien Containment  18   500k  15k  (Holds 10[!?] live aliens)
    Fusion Defense     36  1800k  14k  (Def value 1200, Accuracy 80%)
    General Stores     10   150k   5k  (Holds 50 units of equipment)
    Grav Shield        38  2300k  15k  (Gives defenses an extra shot)
    Hanger             25   200k  25k  (Maintains 1 craft)
    Hyperwave Decoder  26  2000k  30k  (Evaluate UFO missions)
    Laboratory         26   750k  30k  (Allows 50 research)
    Large Radar        25   800k  15k  (450nm range, 5% detect/10mins)
    Laser Defense      24   900k  10k  (Def value  600, Accuracy 60%)
    Living Quarters    16   400k  10k  (Sleeps 50)
    Mind Shield        33  1300k   5k  (Minimizes aliens finding base)
    Missile Defense    16   200k   5k  (Def value  500, Accuracy 50%)
    Small Radar        12   500k  10k  (300nm range, 5% detect/10mins)
    Plasma Defense     36  1200k  12k  (Def value  900, Accuracy 70%)
    Psi Lab            24   750k  16k  (For troop psi training)
    Workshop           32   800k  35k  (Allows 50 manufacture)
    Fusion Defense, Grav Shield, Hyperwave Decoder, Laser Defense,
    Mind Shield, Plasma Defense, and Psi Lab require respective
    topics to be researched before they can be built, see [6] for
    more information.
    NOTE 1: In a workshop, the object being manufactured takes up
    some space. So you will not be able to cram all 50 engineers in
    NOTE 2: You can dismantle a facility, even when it is under
    construction. Simply click on the facility, and the program will
    ask you do you wish to dismantle it, select OK or Cancel.
    NOTE 3: To dismantle a base, you must remove all facilities
    (transferring all people and equipment elsewhere if needed) then
    finally remove the access lift itself.
    NOTE 4: What the manual does NOT tell you is Hyperwave Decoder
    detects 100% of the UFOs within its range, and it has a range
    LONGER than Large Radar.  Once you have this, you don't need any
    base location       lift cost   Covers
    Africa, South         550,000   South Africa
    Africa, North         650,000   Nigeria, Egypt
    Atlantic, North       500,000   (Really Greenland)
    America, North        800,000   USA, Canada
    America, South        600,000   Brazil
    Antartica             900,000
    Arctic                950,000
    Asia, Central         500,000   Western China
    Asia, South East      750,000   Japan, Eastern China
    Australasia           750,000   Australia
    Europe              1,000,000   Eastern Commonwealth, UK, France,
                                    Germany, Italy, Spain
    Pacific               600,000   (really Hawaiian islands)
    Siberia               800,000   Western Commonwealth, India
    Remove all modules, then remove the lift.
    4    X-COM Hardware
    Here's the comprehensive list of all the toys you get to play
    with. Of course, most of them require research.
    XCOM crafts comes in two flavors: traditional, and UFO-based.
    Traditional, besides using conventional jet engines, also
    requires MONTHLY RENT, so replace them with UFO-based crafts as
    soon as possible.
    XCOM weapons comes in two flavors: built vs bought.
    4.1.1     XCOM Crafts
                Speed  Accel  Fuel  Weapons  Hull  Cargo HWPs Note
    Skyranger    760      2   2000     0     150    14    3
    Interceptor 2100      3   1000     2     100     0    0
    ----Research required----
    Firestorm   4200      9   20(E) 4  2     500     0    0   (1)
    Lightning   3100      8   30(E) 6  1     800    12    0   (2)
    Avenger     5400     10   60(E)12  2    1200    26    4   (3)
    (E) Uses elerium-115 for fuel      (1) new fighter
    (2) new fighter/transport          (3) ultimate craft
    Speed   : maximum speed of craft, determines if it can keep up
    with UFO during interception.
    Accel   : maximum acceleration of craft, determines whether UFO
    will stay in range
    Fuel    : amount of fuel carried, endurance terms
    Weapons : number of weapon pod mounts available
    Hull    : amount of damage the craft can take
    Cargo   : number of "spaces" craft can carry.  Each soldier is
    one space and each HWP is four spaces (see HWPs also)
    HWPs    : maximum number of HWP this craft can carry.
    Note: for the Elerium fueled crafts, you need to divide by 5 for
    the actual units used. Avenger takes actually 12 units of E-115
    for refuel, instead of 60 as written. The alternate number is
    listed next to the fuel number.
    General advice: If you are short on money, replace Skyrangers and
    Interceptors ASAP to save on monthly lease.  On the other hand,
    Interceptors have longer range than Firestorms, and with twin
    plasma cannon, they can attack anything except battleships.
    Lightning is almost useless. Just forget it and research for
    Avenger. Lightning has four ONE-space doors which means it cannot
    carry any HWPs.
    Do NOT use Avengers exclusively since you put too many eggs
    (soldiers and equipment) in one basket. They are also extremely
    expensive to build.
    4.1.2     Craft Weapons
                    Damage   Range   Accuracy  Reload  Shots
    Cannon             10      10       10%       2s     200
    Stingray           70      30       70%      15s       6
    Avalanche         100      60      100%      20s       3
    ----Research required----
    Laser Cannon       70      21       70%       4s      99
    Plasma Beam       140      52      140%       6s      99
    Fusion Launcher   230      65      230%      25s       2
    Damage: damage done to target if hit
    Range: max range of weapon
    Accuracy: hit probability when fired
    Reload: second needed to fire next shot
    Shots: number of shots available
    NOTE 1: Match the weapon to the target.  You want to force the
    alien to land so you can board it and recover artifacts and
    prisoners, not blow it into smithereens (though it might make you
    feel good). Don't use the heavy stuff on the wimpy UFOs.
    NOTE 2: The long range weapons, like Avalanche, Plasma Beam, and
    Fusion Ball Launcher, gives you advantage since UFO usually do
    not fire back until you are quite close.  See 7.5 for UFO weapon
    NOTE 3: It is possible to miss with weapons that have accuracy >
    100%, esp. when target moves out of range.
    General advice: You don't want Stingray missiles and cannons
    after the first two months. They can handle only very small or
    small UFOs.
    Use Avalanche missiles in the early game to take on medium or
    large UFOs.  With two to three interceptors you can take down
    terror ships or supply ships easily.
    Switch to plasma cannons later in the game and forget fusion ball
    launchers (not enough damage overall, only 2 shots each)
    Forget laser cannons except for selling (see section 5)
    Ground weapons accuracy is further modified by free hands,
    kneeling /standing, and soldier's shooting accuracy.  Time Units
    used is always expressed as a percent of a soldier's total TU.
    Also see 8.6.X on battle notes for each type of weapon.
                          (Accuracy / TU% needed)
                          Aimed    Snap    Auto  Dam Type  Ammo (Capacity)
    Pistol                78/30   60/18           26  AP   Pistol Clip (15)
    Rifle                110/80   60/25   35/35   30  AP   Rifle Clip (20)
    Heavy Cannon          90/80   60/33           56  AP   HC-AP (6)
                                                  52  HE   HC-HE (6)
                                                  60  I    HC-I  (6)
    Auto Cannon           82/80   56/33   32/40   42  AP   AC-AP (14)
                                                  44  HE   AC-HE (14)
                                                  48  I    AC-I  (14)
    Rocket Launcher      115/75   55/45           75  HE   Small Rocket
                                                 100  HE   Large Rocket
                                                  90  I    Incendiary Rocket
    Grenade                                       50  HE
    Smoke Grenade                                 60  Smoke
    Proximity Grenade                             70  HE
    High Explosive                               110  HE
    --Research required---
    Laser Pistol          68/55   40/20   28/25   46  Las
    Laser Rifle          100/50   65/25   46/34   60  Las
    Heavy Laser           84/75   50/33           85  Las
    Plasma Pistol         85/60   65/30   50/30   52  Plas PP clip (25)
    Plasma Rifle         100/60   86/30   55/63   80  Plas PR clip (30)
    Heavy Plasma         110/60   75/30   50/35  115  Plas HP clip (35)
    Blaster Launcher     120/80                  200  HE   Blaster Bomb
    Small Launcher       110/75   65/40           90  Stun Stun Bomb
    Alien Grenade                                 90  HE
    AP = Armor piercing  HE = High Explosive  I = Incendiary
    Note 1 : Accuracy for two-handed weapons is decreased 20% if
    other hand is not empty (i.e. holding something like grenade, psi
    amp, etc.)
    Note 2 : Accuracy is increased 10% if the soldier is kneeling,
    which takes only 4 TUs
    Note 3 : Grenades and Blaster Bomb have 3-D explosions (despite
    what many people claimed)
    General Advice:
    Research and build laser pistol and laser rifle ASAP, then
    research heavy plasma, skipping plasma pistol and plasma rifle
    (go back later when you have time), then blaster launcher.
    Forget heavy cannon and heavy laser as they are not worth the
    weight without auto (three-round-burst) mode.
    Autocannon would be your "heavy" weapon early on, along with a
    rocket launcher.  Replace them with laser/heavy plasma and
    blaster launcher when available.
    4.3   HWP TYPES
                    Cost  Shots Dam  TU ArmorF/S/R  Health
    Tank/Cannon     450K    30   60  70  90/ 75/ 60   90
    Tank/Rocket     480K     8   85  70  90/ 75/ 60   90
    --Must research--
    Tank/Laser      500K   255  110  70  90/ 75/ 60   90
    Hover/Plasma    850K   255  110 100 130/130/100   90
    Hover/Launcher  900K     8  140 100 130/130/100   90
    General advice:
    HWPs should be your scouts, extending your visual range and keep
    your soldiers out of enemy's visual (and lethal) range. Don't use
    them to get kills, as they don't advance in skills. Instead, use
    them to scout and draw enemy fire. Use your soldiers to sniper
    the aliens they flushed out of cover.
    Early in the game, get the latest and greatest HWPs ASAP,
    buy/build them.  You need the extra TUs and ammo of the HWPs
    early in the game, when you are short on trained soldiers.
    When you have lots of veterans, HWPs lose their importance. A
    veteran can move faster, see further, and is armored just as
    well, and you can carry FOUR veterans in place of one tank.
    You must buy enough ammo for HWP that requires them for them to
    be available for deployment.  Tank cannon, Tank/Rocket, and
    Hover/launcher each require their own ammo in the quantity
    indicated under "Shots".  Make sure you get the right ones.
    4.4   ARMOR
    None               5/ 5/ 5/ 5
    --Must research--
    Personal Armor    50/40/30/30
    Power Suit       100/80/70/60
    Flying Suit      110/90/80/70
    General Advice: Personal armor just need "alien alloy", so
    research that ASAP. That will improve your chance of survival by
    quite a bit.  After that, research UFO power source and you
    should get Power Suit, and finishing a hovertank should get your
    flying suit.
    Power suit is the most "efficient" armor.  Flying suit requires a
    lot of Elerium, so reserve them for scouts and officers.
    4.5   EQUIPMENT
    Equipments are non-combat items that you may need to use in
                   TUs    Usage
    Electroflare   25%    Use at night for illumination, reusable
    --Must research--
    Medikit        10     heal fatal wounds, raise morale, revive
                          unconscious people (see UFOpedia)
    MotionScanner  25%    registers movement within 8 squares radius
    Mind Probe     50%    allows you to see alien's status screen
                          (ID, TUs remain, health, + other stats)
    General advice: Carry one electroflare and one medikit on each
    soldier. You need the light at night (just in case) and the
    medikit means no more bleeding to death.
    Medikits are not quite as useful when you don't have good armor,
    because even a weak hit becomes a kill with bad armor.  Before
    then you can probably distribute less medikits.
    You can pick up a thrown electroflare and throw it again. So you
    don't need to carry too many of those around.
    Motion Scanner is useful to look behind doors or for hunting down
    that last alien.
    Mind Probe is for knowing who to capture.  Take them if you have
    room, but they are not essential to a ground battle. At 50% of
    your TU, you should use it only when you're in cover and have
    other soldiers guarding your back.
    4.6   HOW DO I USE...
    Check your UFOpedia.  Below are some additional tips:
    Electroflare: You can pick up an electroflare on the ground and
    throw it out again, illuminating another area. Chuck one inside
    the building through a window to see inside.  You may have to
    kneel to angle one in.
    Medikit:  Heal fatal wounds first and worry about unconscious and
    morale later.  If necessary, use TWO medikits. To revive a
    person, keep administering stimulant until s/he no longer shows
    up on the ground in the inventory screen.  Should appear next
    turn at an adjacent square.
    Motion Scanner: Remember the top of display is always north (like
    the overhead map) and YOUR facing is the middle arrow. Use this
    to look around corners and behind doors. Aliens hardly ever stay
    still between rounds.
    Mind Probe: Usually you would use this to ID a target for capture
    but here's a trick that you can use if you do NOT have one: try
    to pick up the unconscious alien on the ground will also identify
    alien's rank and position.
    These are the stuff you can buy, usually not very interesting.
    Item              Category         Cost    Note
    Soldier           Personnel        40000   monthly salary
    Scientist         Personnel        60000   monthly salary
    Engineer          Personnel        50000   monthly salary
    Skyranger         Craft           500000   monthly lease
    Interceptor       Craft           600000   monthly lease
    Stingray l'cher   Craft Weapon     16000   6 rounds
    Stingray missile  Craft Ammo        3000
    Avalanche l'cher  Craft Weapon     17000   3 rounds
    Avalanche missile Craft Ammo        9000
    Cannon            Craft Weapon     30000
    Cannon Ammo (x50) Craft Ammo        1240
    Tank/Cannon       HWP             420000   30 rounds
    HWP Cannon Ammo   HWP Ammo           200
    Tank/Rocket       HWP             480000   8 rounds
    HWP Rocket        HWP Ammo          3000
    Pistol            Weapon             800   20 rd/clip
    Pistol Clip       Ammo                70
    Rifle             Weapon            3000   25 rd/clip
    Rifle Clip        Ammo               200
    Heavy Cannon      Weapon            6400   6 rd/clip
    HC-AP             Ammo               300
    HC-HE             Ammo               500
    HC-I              Ammo               400
    Auto Cannon       Weapon           13500   14 rd/clip
    AC-AP             Ammo               500
    AC-HE             Ammo               700
    AC-I              Ammo               650
    Rocket Launcher   Weapon            4000
    Small Rocket      Ammo               600
    Large Rocket      Ammo               900
    Incendiary Rocket Ammo              1200
    Grenade           Weapon             300
    Smoke Grenade     Weapon             150
    Proximity Grenade Weapon             500
    High Explosive    Weapon            1500
    Stun Rod          Weapon            1260
    ElectroFlare      Equipment           60
    See 5.4 for profitability study of these items.  Keep in mind
    that UFO:Enemy Unknown may have different prices.
              Engineer       Workshop          Alien   Sale
               Hours   Cost   Space   Elerium Alloys  Price
    Motion scanner       220    34k      4       -      -     45600
    Medikit              420    28k      4       -      -     46500
    Mind probe          1200   262k      4       1      -    334000
    Psi amp              500   160k      4       1      -    194700
    Personal armor       800    22k     12       -      4    140000
    Power suit          1000    42k     16       5      5    310000
    Flying suit         1400    58k     16      16      5    420000
    Tank/laser          1200   500k     25       -      -         ?
    Hovertank/plasma    1200   850k     30      30      5    980000
    Hovertank/launcher  1400   900k     30      25      8   1043000
    HWP fusion bomb      400    15k     25       5      8     31500
    Laser pistol         300     8k      2       -      -     20000
    Laser rifle          400    20k      3       -      -     36900
    Heavy laser          700    32k      4       -      -     61000
    Plasma pistol        600    56k      3       -      1     84000
    Plasma pistol clip    60     2k      4       1      -      4440
    Plasma rifle         820    88k      4       -      1    126500
    Plasma rifle clip     80     3k      4       2      -      6290
    Heavy plasma        1000   122k      4       -      1    171600
    Heavy plasma clip     80     6k      4       3      -      9590
    Blaster launcher    1200    90k      5       -      1    144000
    Blaster bomb         220     8k      3       3      -     17028
    Small launcher       900    78k      3       -      1    120000
    Stun bomb            200     7k      2       1      -     15200
    Alien grenade        200   6.7k      2       2      -     14850
    FIRESTORM          14000   400k     30       -     65         -*
    LIGHTNING          18000   600k     34       -     85         -*
    AVENGER            34000   900k     36       -    120         -**
    [Craft Weapons]
    Laser cannon         300   182k      6       -      -    211000
    Plasma beam          500   226k      8      15      -    267300
    Fusion ball launcher 400   242k      6       -      -    281100
    Fusion ball          600    28k      6       4      -     53300
    Alien alloys         100     3k     10       -      -      6500
    Elerium-115            -      -      -       -      -      5000***
    UFO power source    1400   130k     22      16      5    250000
    UFO navigation      1600   150k     18       -      3     80000
    *   needs 1 UFO power source + 1 UFO navigation
    **  needs 2 UFO power sources + 1 UFO navigation
    *** Elerium can ONLY be captured as parts of UFO or base,
    which makes it extremely valuable, so NEVER sell or waste
    any of it
    5    Finance
    Maintenance, and salary.  If you have 100 scientists, their
    monthly salary is $6 million (!).  Add that to your bases (the
    BARE MINIMUM radar base costs over $1 million a month to
    maintain!), and you will go broke pretty quick.
    Sponsors' money barely makes a dent in your expenses, as they
    only pay you a few million, probably not even enough for base
    Three (real) ways to make money in XCOM:
    Make your sponsoring countries happy -- so they will increase
    their payments.  Unfortunately, they don't pay much to start
    with, and their increase is just enough to sneeze at.  Their
    payments may be enough to buy some ammo and stuff, but don't
    expect much of an increase.
    Manufacture arms for sale -- 5.4 shows you what to make to really
    make money, but usually you need the weapons and other stuff for
    yourself, so that leaves us to:
    Sell captured/surplus equipment -- most of your money will be
    made this way.  Dump off all your obsolete equipment (pistols,
    rifles, etc) and surplus and you will get LOTS of money.  You
    will usually end with plenty of surplus heavy plasma, and those
    fetch very good prices on the market.  :-) Doing this also means
    you need less storage space (and less maintenance) and more
    "real" weapons on base defense (due to the 80 item limit)
    Keep only one item of each type for research, sell the rest,
    unless you need it for building something else. You need the
    money and the space for more useful stuff. After you have
    researched the dead bodies, sell them all. Yes, there's a market
    for those.
    As a last resort, you can always cheat.  See the last section for
    Oh, and NEVER EVER sell Elerium unless you have a SERIOUS
    surplus. Those are pretty hard to come by.
    In general, there are three ways without using "exploits" (tricks
    that exploit bugs in the program)
    *  Cut Maintenance -- dismantle any unused facility (see 5.6)
    *  Build your own crafts -- Skyrangers and Interceptors have a
    monthly rental fee, your own crafts do not.  Of course, this
    means you have to research UFO construction and things, and have
    enough Elerium to run them.
    *  Minimize salary -- Hire just enough people to do the job, and
    fire those you don't need.
    If you want to use an exploit, use the salary transfer trick!
    (see 5.5)
    X-COM Profitability study -- by Jeff Shaffer [edited]
    Recently, we at the XCOM Business Institute (our motto: "If it's
    worth doing, it's worth analyzing to death") spent all last night
    to bring you the following table.  The basic assumption is that
    you are willing to support engineers long-term in order to make a
    profit.  I calculated results for a hypothetical 2 workshop
    operation. You would get slightly better results with larger
    facilities, due to the economy of scale.
    [some numbers are rounded to the nearest 1000 for space]
                      Work  Eng  Raw            Sale Unit|Monthly|Net
    Item              Space Hrs  Material Cost Price   P R O F I T
    Motion Scanner     4     220    -      34K   45K  11K 3765K 1275K
    Medikit            4     420    -      28K   46K  18K 3146K  656K
    Psi Amp            4     500  1E      160K  194K  29K 4242K 1752K
    Personal Armor    12     800     4A    22K   54K   6K  491K     -
    Power Suit        16    1000  5E+5A    42K   85K    -    -      -
    Flying Suit       16    1400 16E+5A    58K  115K    -    -      -
    Alien Alloys      10     100    -       3K    6K   3K 2343K    3K
    Elerium 115        -      -     -       -     5K    -    -      -
    Laser Pistol       2     300    -       8K   20K  12K 2916K  376K
    Laser Rifle        3     400    -      2K0   36K  16K 3049K  534K
    Heavy Laser        4     700    -      32K   61K  29K 2958K  468K
    Plasma Pistol      3     600     1A    56K   84K  21K 2586K   71K
    Plasma Pistol Clip 4      60  1E        2K    4K    -    -      -
    Plasma Rifle       4     820     1A    88K  126K  32K 2787K  297K
    Plasma Rifle Clip  4      80  2E        3K    6K    -    -      -
    Heavy Plasma       4    1000     1A   122K  171K  43K 3078K  588K
    Heavy Plasma Clip  4      80  3E        6K    9K    -    -      -
    Blaster Launcher   5    1200     1A    9K0  144K  47K 2797K  332K
    Blaster Bomb       3     220  3E        8K   17K    -    -      -
    Small Launcher     3     900     1A    78K  120K  35K 2846K  331K
    Stun Bomb          2     200  1E        7K   15K   3K 1166K     -
    Alien Grenade      2     200  2E        6K   14K    -    -      -
    Mind Probe         4    1200  1E      262K  304K  37K 2202K     -
    UFO Power Source  22    1400 16E+5A   130K  250K   7K  310K     -
    UFO Navigation    18    1600     3A   150K   80K    -    -      -
    Fusion Ball L'cher 6     400     1A   242K  281K  39K 6836K 4396K
    Fusion Ball        6     600  4E       28K   53K   5K  617K     -
    Laser Cannon       6     300    -     182K  211K  29K 6760K 4320K
    Plasma Beam        8     500 15E      226K  267K    -    -      -
    Tank/Laser Cannon 25    1200    -     500K  594K  94K 4371K 2406K
    Hovertank/Plasma  30    1200 30E+5A   850K  980K    -    -      -
    Hovertank/Launcher30    1400 25E+8A   900K 1043K    -    -      -
    HWP Fusion Bomb   25     400  5E+8A    15K   31K    -    -      -
    First six columns are just basic information from my version of
    XCOM. (Editor-- I have seen posts stating that UFO:EU has higher
    sale prices for some items, notably armor! However, this has NOT
    been confirmed!)
    The 'Unit Profit' column is sale price minus cost, minus the cost
    of any E-115/Alloy used in manufacture.  A '-' means a net loss,
    no further analysis.
    'Monthly Profit' column is based on "XCOM Month" of 24*31 = 744
    hours. The calculation is number of engineers that fit in two
    workshops times 744 times unit profit, divided by the hours
    required to make one item.  For example, the monthly profit for
    Motion Scanners is 96*744*11600/220 = 1275993 (1275K).
    The 'Net Profit' column is the bottom line.  Monthly expenses are
    the salaries of as many engineers as fit in the workshops times
    $50K, plus the maintenance on 2 workshops and 2 living quarters.
    As you can see, Fusion Ball Launchers are the winner, narrowly
    edging out Laser Cannons.  A profit can be made early in the game
    on motion scanners, however. However, fusion ball launchers
    require alien alloy, while laser cannons do NOT.
    One final note:  It costs roughly $7M to hire engineers and build
    the facilities, so you'll need to 'borrow' some money (preferably
    from alien supply ships :) to get started.
    [Editor's note: don't forget the "transfer salary trick" below]
    Note: This may not work on all versions. This is an exploit of a
    "bug", so don't expect this to always work.
    As explained on page 131 of OSG, if you sack scientists and/or
    engineers before the end of the month, you don't have to pay
    their salaries.  However, there's ANOTHER way to exploit this.
    Have two bases approximately equivalent to each other, like both
    research (or manufacturing), about same living quarters, and
    scientists (or engineers).  Just before end of the month (last
    day, last hour), transfer ALL of the scientists (engineers) to
    the other base, and do the same on the other base (i.e. they swap
    their contingent).  When the end of month comes along, NEITHER
    base has their scientists (engineers) (they are in transit),
    therefore no salary is paid.  If you have like 100 scientists
    moving each way, you save $60,000x100x2 = $12 million!
    The OSG was rather unclear on what to dismantle.  Basically, you
    should do the following:
    * When you get hyperwave decoder, build only one at each "radar"
    base, and dismantle all the radars there.  One hyperwave decoder
    detects 100% of UFOs within range, so no radars are needed.
    * When you no longer need alien prisoners (i.e. you are ready to
    undertake the "final mission"), zap the alien containment (though
    by that time, it doesn't matter any more, unless you are waiting
    for your Avenger to be built)
    * When you no longer need more research or manufacturing (i.e.you
    are ready for the "final mission"), lay off all the scientists
    and/or engineers, and zap their living quarters and working
    Nothing you can do.  One of the Infiltration UFOs got through.
    (See 9.8 UFO Missions) and now the country stopped paying you.
    Consensus on the net is you can NOT get them back (i.e. nullify
    the pact). The OSG confirms so.
    On the other hand, some UFO players have reported that certain
    countries (very few though) have returned.  Any XCOM players have
    their countries coming back from an alien pact?
    6    Research and Manufacturing
    OSG and I have different priorities on research...
    I recommend laser weapons, medikit, laser rifle, and alien alloy
    (which allows personal armor) for the starting projects. Pistols
    and rifles are pitiful against plasma rifles and alien grenades.
    Laser rifle, which does not use ammo, should even up the odds a
    bit, and personal armor should save you from a grazing shot
    (which would have killed with no armor).  Medikit will save you
    from the grazing shot that caused fatal wounds.
    The rest is up to you, but I recommend researching heavy plasma,
    small launcher and stun bombs, then heavy blaster and blaster
    bombs.  Then research Elerium, UFO power source, so you can build
    nice armor and the crafts. Eventually, you will need to research
    Keep roughly 100 scientists in your employment.  You need that
    much research to discover things in reasonable time, though you
    can probably get by with 50-75.
    Due to the way research works, concentrate on one project at a
    time so you can start on later topics faster.
    Research prisoners ASAP.  See 9.3 for benefits you can gain from
    each type of prisoners.  Grab a navigator would mean that you can
    reap significant saving in radars (after you get the hyperwave
    decoder, of course) and better interception.
    [OSG has chart on man-hours needed for each discovery]
    Laser Weapons       Heavy      Heavy          Plasma     Plasma
    |                   Plasma   Plasma Clip      Rifle   Rifle Clip
    Laser Pistol          |___________|            |__________|
    |                       |                       |
    Laser Rifle             |                       |
    |                       |__________OR___________|
    Heavy Laser                        |
    |                                  |
    Laser Cannon                      Plasma Cannon
    (Laser Tank)                   (Hovertank/Plasma)*
    |                                  |
    Laser Defense                     Plasma Defense
          Alien Alloys                              Blaster
                  |                                 Launcher     Bomb
    Elerium 115  Personal Armor  UFO Power Source      |___________|
    |_____________|_________________|                    |
              |                                 Fusion Ball
              |                            (Hovertank/Launcher)**
         Power Suit      UFO Navigation              |
              |_________________|              Fusion Defense
                  Flying Suit
    Alien    Elerium        UFO            UFO
    Alloys      115     Power Source   Navigation
       UFO Construction
       New Fighter Craft
          (Firestorm) * = [Hovertank / Plasma]
    New Fighter-Transporter
     |                      |
    Grav              Ultimate Craft
    Shield               (Avenger)
    *  Need "New Fighter Craft" before you can build the plasma
    ** Need fusion ball launcher before you can build the fusion ball
    Only manufacture thing that you REALLY need, like crafts, etc.
    almost NEVER manufacture ammo since most require Elerium, which
    is always in short supply. Captured ammo is much cheaper and
    doesn't use your precious E-115 supply.
    Of course, you need to make ammo for your HWPs, so those would be
    the exceptions.
    NEVER let any engineers go idle.  If you don't need anything
    built, build something that makes money.
    7    Intercepting UFOs
    Don't forget to check section 4 for info on XCOM crafts.  Some of
    these hints and related hints are also listed in Section 2.
    Also see for UFO recognition chart (and floorplan)
    Remember that UFOs have specific targets and they do NOT change
    missions or targets in mid-air.  They head STRAIGHT for their
    targets on the inbound leg unless they are scouting, in which
    case they will follow random course near the target area.
    If you see UFO and lost tracking, try to extrapolate its course
    and send interceptors to their estimated NEXT location instead of
    going toward the last known location.
    If you have hyperwave decoder, you can see UFO destination
    directly as it comes into range.
    Once you got a craft in range of the UFO, it's time to attack.
    While the OSG explained what the different attacks REALLY mean,
    it STILL doesn't explain what good is each for.  Here's my
      *    Cautious Attack: causes least damage per attack but remains
         at the longest range and therefore has the least chance of
         getting counter-attacked.  Useful when you want a not too badly
         damaged UFO (just enough to crash it), but may take a while, and
         the enemy can pull away.
      *    Normal Attack: average damage per attack, enough for most
         attacks if your weapon outranges the UFOs.  Enemy can still pull
         away, but less likely.
    *    Aggressive Attack: close to point-blank and let them have it
    in the face!  Causes the most damage per attack, but exposes
    craft to counter-fire.  Good for brave/suicidal charges (toward
    an alien battleship, for instance). Unlikely for UFO to pull
    7.3   WEAPONS
    OSG has a typo: Table 7-2, Fusion Ball Launcher holds TWO, not
    three shots as stated.  Section 4.1 is correct.
    In case you haven't noticed, Plasma Beam is the BEST craft weapon
    in the game.  It has 100 shots, 70 damage per shot, AND range of
    52 km, which outdistances almost all UFOs except battleships.
    Even though Fusion Ball Launcher causes more damage per shot, you
    only get two shots for each launcher.
    In any case, try to replace Stingrays and regular cannons ASAP,
    since they are worthless once you see large UFOs.
    7.4   UFO NOTES
    Please also see 9.6 for UFO floorplans, though that is of more
    interest to ground assault.
    7.4.1     Small scout
    Very small, practically NEVER found on the ground, as there's
    only ONE alien as crew. Mainly used as scout only.
    Don't use heavy weapons on it... Use Stingray or machine gun
    7.4.2     Medium scout
    Up to 9 crew, but usually not that many (depending on the
    mission). You only find these on the ground early in the game.
    Mainly used as scout only.
    Use Avalanche or plasma beam on these.
    7.4.3     Large scout
    Up to 12 crew, sturdier hull and weapons. This is the first multi-
    purpose UFO you'll see. May carry a leader occasionally. Flies
    all UFO missions, though more recon than other types.
    Avalanche or plasma beam is good.
    7.4.4     Harvester
    Up to 20 crew, plus a leader, Harvester is only used for
    Harvesting (see Alien Missions). This is essentially a double-
    sized large scout with extra cargo room for the harvesting.
    Usually carries a leader. Harvester annoys the sponsors, but not
    as much ad abductor, terror ship, or battleship.
    Avalanche or plasma beam is good.
    7.4.5     Abductor
    Up to 18 crew, similar to Harvester, but more about abducting
    humans and cattle. Kill those ASAP as governments REALLY hate
    these ships (in addition to terror ships and battleships).
    Usually carries a leader.
    Avalanche or plasma beam is good.
    7.4.6     Terror Ship
    Up to 24 (about half crew and half terrorists), Terror Ship is
    twice as large as Harvester or Abductor, and quite powerful. The
    terrorists can be really nasty to handle. Kill those ASAP, as
    they are out to create terror sites.
    Avalanche or plasma beam is always good...
    7.4.7     Battleship
    The biggest UFO alien makes... Up to 28 aliens (some are
    terrorist units), including a commander. This ship is multi-
    purpose... Flies any Alien Mission. It also is the only alien UFO
    used to attack your bases. Extremely dangerous (see next section
    for special notes).
    Everything you got!
    7.4.8     Supply Ship
    Supply ship is mainly used to build alien bases, and after that,
    re-supply the base. It can carry up to 20 crew, including 1
    leader. It can be easily shot down, with firepower only
    comparable to the Large Scout.
    Trailing a supply ship should lead you to an alien base.
    Avalanche or Plasma beam is always good.
    Battleship is THE most dangerous UFO, period. It outranges ALL
    XCOM craft weapons.  Only Firestorms and Avengers can stand up to
    it, NEVER use Interceptors (or you WILL lose them).  ALWAYS
    attack Battleships in groups to minimize damage and the resultant
    repair time, and use aggressive attack, since you don't want the
    UFO to fire back that often.  I've found that aggressive attack
    reduces damage against Battleships.
    If you read table 7-3 in OSG or the UFOpedia, the Weapon Range of
    the UFO is a rather large number (ex. Battleship = 520). That
    number means nothing by itself.  To get a more meaningful number,
    divide that by 8 for the range in kilometers. (EX. Battleship is
    520/8=65 km).  That forms the revised weapons range table below.
    Revised range table:
    UFO TYPE          Weapon Range (km)
    Small Scout                0
    Medium Scout              15
    Large Scout               34
    Harvester                 22
    Abductor                  20
    Terror Ship               42
    Battleship                65
    Supply Ship               28.5
    Plasma beam, with 52 km range, can attack any UFO except
    battleship with impunity. UFO Battleship, with range of 65 km,
    can shoot back at even crafts armed with Fusion Ball Launchers
    (which also has a 65 km range).
    The safest way to hit large or very large UFOs is to have
    multiple Firestorms and/or Avengers to converge on them.  You can
    have up to FOUR crafts intercept the same target.
    UFOs are dumb and does not concentrate on one target, so the more
    targets you present, the less damage each will receive.  Of
    course, if you send up Interceptors against Battleships, don't
    expect many to come back, since Battleships can destroy an
    Interceptor with ONE shot.
    Plasma beams will make your Interceptors useful again, so get
    them ASAP.
    7.8   GO HOME EARLY
    When you send multiple crafts after one UFO and the UFO gets shot
    down, the shooter will go home, but other crafts will continue
    onto the crash site and THEN return.  Instead, click on them and
    turn them back early (Return to base).  They will return earlier,
    thus be refueled and rearmed faster for the next mission.
    Even if UFO has landed, keep an interceptor on top of it until
    your landing craft arrives for the action.  That way, if the UFO
    takes off, you still have a chance to shoot it down.
    Before attacking, click on the VIEW UFO button to take a look at
    your target before deciding whether to attack or not.  Attacking
    with wrong weapons means either the loss of the interceptor or
    the UFO totally destroyed so that nothing can be recovered.
    For this reason, if you WANT to go after the smaller UFOs, keep a
    fighter around with "wimpy" weapons.
    7.10.1    Very Small / Small UFOs
    Interceptors with Stingray missiles and cannons can only handle
    very small or small sized UFOs.  Attacking larger UFOs means
    heavy damage or even destruction.  Laser cannons are not much
    better, sharing the short range flaw. Plasma beam may blow small
    UFO into pieces.
    7.10.2    Medium UFOs
    Interceptors with Avalanche missiles or plasma beams can handle
    medium UFOs easily.  On the other hand, one Avalanche will blow a
    very small UFO into pieces.
    7.10.3    Large UFOs
    Interceptors with Plasma beam and/or Avalanche missiles can
    handle large UFOs.
    7.10.4    Very Large UFOs
    Multiple Interceptors with plasma beam and/or Avalanche are
    needed to attack very large UFOs, and you'll probably lose a few,
    since one shot from battleship will at least cripple an
    interceptor.  Just don't do it.
    The only way to "safely" attack alien battleships is to use
    Firestorms and Avengers (up to four, the more the merrier!) with
    twin plasma beams.  Even then you will probably be heavily
    damaged (as in 20% to 60% damage), which is not a good trade.
    Many have suggested that you should let them land and attack them
    on the ground.
    Aliens will react to intercepted UFOs. Their responses can be of
    the following
      *    They will ignore you (esp. if you didn't intercept that
      *    They move their mission elsewhere (sort of good)
      *    They put their plans on pause to reevaluate (pretty good)
      *    They are sufficiently annoyed they start sending out scouts
         to locate the interceptor's base ("alien retaliation") so they
         can attack you
    Basically, the higher difficulty level you play, the more chance
    the aliens will retaliate instead of reconsider or ignore.
    8    Soldiers, Weapons, and Movement
    8.1   SOLDIERS
    8.1.1     Recruiting Soldiers
    If you have the budget, hire a lot of soldiers, then fire the
    You want
      *    high strength (above 60)
      *    high reaction (above 50)
      *    high bravery (above 45)
      *    shooting accuracy (above 60)
    when you get psi, you want high psi strength (above 70).
    High strength means they can carry more (and heavier) stuff.
    High reaction means they can get opportunity fire (reaction
    shots) while enemy is moving. High Bravery means they are less
    susceptible to panic, and shooting accuracy is obvious.  :-)
    Other characteristics are not as important.
    Recruit lots of rookies and use them for scouts (they are cheap
    when compared to HWPs).  If they survive, keep them, else, oh,
    well, they've done the world a great service.  :-)
    Soldiers only get promoted if there are enough of them to warrant
    a promotion.  So hire a lot of rookies, send them out to
    missions. The ones that survive are squaddies, and when you have
    enough squaddies, you have officers.  Feel free to sack the bad
    squaddies later to save on salary.
    8.1.2     Soldier Statistics
    We recommend that instead of using the default names, you adopt a
    naming system for your soldiers that will help you to know at a
    glance who to take on a mission.
    System One reflects a trained specialty, such as scout (SC),
    heavy weapons (HW), demolitions (DM), psi combat (PS),
    sharpshooter (SS), etc.  For example, "Steve Rogers HW/PS" has
    lots of strength and nice time units for carrying the heavy
    weapons (and shooting them).  His PsiStr and PsiSkl is also
    pretty high so he also carries a PsiAmp for psi combat.
    Here are some suggested specialties
    Scout (SC)          -- carry motion sensor, light weapons, move
    Medic (MD)          -- carry Medi-Kit
    Intelligence (IT)   -- carry mind probe
    Heavy Weapons (HW)  -- carry "heavy" weapons... rockets, blaster
    PsiCorp (PSI)       -- carry psi amp for psi attacks *
    * PsiCorp is named after the organization in Babylon 5
    You can also cross-train, of course.  There's no limit in the
    number of spots each person can hold...  And real-life SEAL teams
    are all cross-trained any way.
    System Two just places the numbers in the name.  For example,
    "Steve 64/44/36/71/46/62/16", for which the numbers are Time
    Units, Health, Reactions, Firing Accuracy, Strenth, Psi Strength,
    and Psi Skill.  You'll probably need to update after every
    mission. (contributed by Seth Cohn)
    To change the name, go to the soldier screen (base display) that
    displays their stats.  Click on their name, and a cursor comes
    up, allowing you to change them.
    8.1.3     How do I improve stats of soldiers?
    In XCOM, you learn by doing. You want more strength?  Carry heavy
    stuff.  More accuracy?  Take more shots or throw more grenades.
    Want more reaction? Leave more TU's for opportunity/reaction
    fire. Soldiers with kills gain more than those without kills.
    After the battle, some stats will go up.
    Try to always take a couple of rookies along to give them
    experience to boost their stats.
    8.1.4     Dividing up specialties
    Assuming 10 soldiers and 1 HWP (normal for a Skyranger) you
    should have the following:
    1 scout
    2 soldiers as a heavy weapon squad
    3 soldiers in squad A
    3 soldiers in squad B
    1 officer
    1 HWP
    The two highest strength soldiers should be the heavy weapon
    folks, who would be carrying autocannon and rocket launcher in
    the early game, and blaster launchers later.
    The scout should have the highest TU (low strength is okay) and
    will be carrying pistols and grenades and maybe stun weapons.
    The two squads can go after different targets, one squad lead by
    officer and supported by HWP, while the other squad supported by
    scout and heavy weapons.
    8.1.5     How do I get more officers?
    Officers come from squaddies, and squaddies come from rookies who
    survived a mission and gotten at least one kill.  Please also see
    XCOM Manual Section 3.2.4 Promtions. That explains how many
    soldiers you need for officers to show up.
    8.1.6     Standard Loadout
    Everybody plays differently, so everyone's loadout will be
    different. Here are some suggested loadout though...
    Regular trooper: best armor, best rifle, at least 2 reloads (4 if
    possible), 3-5 grenades, medikit, any other equipment you like
    Scout: best armor (flying if possible), one to two pistols, each
    with 3 reloads, multiple grenades, medikit, motion detector
    and/or mind probe
    Heavy Weapons: best armor, rifle or pistol with 3 or more
    reloads, heavy weapon in hand, loaded, with at least 3 reloads in
    backpack, preferably more, some grenades and medikit. As these
    guys do a LOT of damage, make sure they are psi-resistant! (i.e.
    high psi-strength, high bravery, and high morale)
    If you use designated medics, load him like a regular trooper
    except he carries TWO medikits. You'll need one medic every three
    to four soldiers. Then no one else will need medikits.
    8.2   MOVEMENT
    8.2.1     Deployment from Transport into Battle
    The OSG fails to mention that you CAN see the outside through the
    windows in your transport.  If the last soldier turn around in
    the Skyranger or Avenger, you can see A LOT beyond the cockpit.
    Of course, since you are on Level 1, (Level 0 = ground) you can't
    see things that are right next to you on ground.
    After that, send out a HWP just on the ramp, turn to face right.
    If there's no enemy, turn to face left, and you've just cleared
    the surrounding area.  If there is enemy, get off the ramp and
    start shooting.
    Consider priming a grenade for most soldiers and be ready to
    throw it as you get off the ramp. This can work if there are no
    snipers nearby. However, it is risky.
    Move the initial soldiers a few squares away before deploying the
    next two so you don't invite grenades and/or blaster bomb.
    8.2.2     Use the terrain!
    You can use the terrain in other ways than just hiding behind
    something.  Use secondary explosions to your advantage!  If alien
    is standing next to volatile object like fuel drums, gas pumps,
    those red things in UFOs or bases, etc, blow THAT up.
    Aliens DO shoot through each other, so if you have NOWHERE to
    hide, hide BEHIND an alien and pray.  (It was reported that one
    alien shot itself when attempting to shoot down the gravlift)
    Kneel whenever possible.  It increases your accuracy and
    decreases the enemy's (make you a smaller target)
    Always hide behind something; it could mean the difference
    between a wound vs. death!  Of course, that also means that you
    have to have enough TUs
    If you have flying suit, do not stay in mid-air unless you have
    something to hide behind also.
    8.2.3     Alien Movement and visual range
    Do the aliens have better night vision? They do NOT.
    Why they can shoot at you but you don't see them? Depending on
    the difficulty level, they "remember" where you are from previous
    turns for several turns (on higher levels they remember longer).
    They can ONLY shoot at you IF they had seen you before and still
    Aliens capitalize on this by moving forward, spot you, then move
    back out of range.  Then for next X turns, those aliens in range
    shoot at you out of your visual range.
    This is why soldiers may get mind-blasted even if no aliens are
    in sight.
    Aliens cannot continue to see if you move though. So if you duck
    in and out of rooms, the aliens will have a hard time targeting
    8.2.4     Listen and watch
    Watch carefully in alien movement phase. Sometimes you CAN spot
    them moving around.  TRY to remember the surrounding terrain,
    then go to overhead map and see if you can spot where that was.
    Watch carefully where the shots came from.
    Sound can give you important clues to alien locations. If you
    hear door sounds, you know alien moved in/out of a door.
    Different door makes different sounds.
    Aliens also have no manners.  They leave doors open after they go
    through.  Watch farmhouses carefully.
    The length of the alien movement phase is proportional to the
    number of hostile aliens left on the map.  Just keep in mind that
    stunned aliens can wake up.
    8.2.5     Spread out and cover each other
    Bunching up invites enemy attack you with grenades, or worse,
    blaster bombs.  Stay about four to eight squares apart.
    Aliens DO attack from behind sometimes, so try to have two
    troopers who can watch each other's back.  This is ESPECIALLY
    important when going up against Chryssalids, who moves extremely
    fast [~120 TUs!]  It will turn your soldiers into zombies in a
    blink of an eye...  One player reported losing the entire squad
    to a single Chryssalid on a terror mission!  It pays to watch
    each other's back!
    In a 4-person fireteam, A and B moves forward, leapfrogging C and
    D.  C and D would look forward when A and B move, ready to shoot
    at any spotted enemies. When A and B has stopped, C and D would
    turn around and watch the backs of A and B, who would also turn
    facing outwards.
    8.2.6     Retreat (Tactical withdrawal)
    Sometimes you can't win and it's time to cut your losses.
    To retreat from a landing assault (UFO recovery or assault,
    terror site), move any many units as you can back into the
    transport, then hit the dust-off button.  Any units left behind
    are "missing in action".
    If the only solider onboard the transport is unconscious and you
    select dust-off, s/he's also missing in action, and you lose the
    To retreat an attack on an alien base, you must pull every one
    that you can back into one of those green-floor rooms that you
    came down in.  Soldiers on gravlifts (even if they are in the
    green-floor room) as well as soldiers elsewhere are MIA when you
    select dust-off.
    To retreat from a base defense mission, just hit dust-off. You
    will lose the whole base to the aliens, of course, including the
    crafts (no home elsewhere for them)
    8.3.1     HWP usage
    HWPs should be used for "beating the bush" and flush aliens out
    for soldiers to shoot.  That makes rocket launcher tank and
    fusion ball launcher hovertank more useful than their cousins.
    Hovertank is even more useful since it can go high and thus cover
    more ground.  They can also hover in mid-air and thus avoid hand-
    to-hand attacks.
    Use their shots to take down walls of orchards, barns, and stuff
    like that so you don't have to go inside and clean up every room.
    8.3.2     Grenade usage
    Grenades should be used for temporary boost in firepower and for
    clearing obstacles in view.  Blow a hole in the walls instead of
    going through the door. Can surprise your enemies.
    Rookies can be effective grenadiers since grenades are area
    weapons and grenades don't miss by very far.
    High Explosive is just a very heavy grenade, and you will have
    problems tossing it.  Toss it a short distance or drop it on
    ground, then RUN away from the area.  They are great opening up
    houses and barns, and may be able to punch through inner (maybe
    outer?) UFO walls.
    Proximity grenades are great for traps.  Use them to prevent
    aliens coming up behind you, and/or pin aliens (toss one on
    either side of it and it can't move without setting one off)
    Just remember where you threw them (check the map) and don't walk
    near them yourself.
    You can toss grenades to upper levels and through windows, though
    you may have to kneel down to do it.
    8.3.3     Blaster bombs tactics
    Blaster bomb and launcher is the second best weapon in the game
    (the best is heavy plasma).  It can shoot around corners, has
    wonderful damage (200 points!) and is very effective.  Of course,
    it is also EXPENSIVE, and so is its ammo.  So, use them carefully
    (don't save them either).
    Use them to take down cover is a waste, use grenades instead
    (unless you got bombs to waste).
    Remember that blaster bomb do NOT explode when they reach their
    last waypoint.  They explode when they actually HIT something.
    If you just fly a BB into an empty field, it will NOT explode.
    Instead, you should make it come in from one or two level up,
    then head straight down. Then it will go off as it hit the
    Blaster bombs is great for UFO ground assaults.  Use them to
    punch holes in the UFO's outer hull for a new door. Target square
    next to main door to enlarge door for HWPs.  One shot will clear
    most of the corridor.  Unfortunately, aliens love to shoot
    blaster bombs down gravlifts.
    Lachlan Atcliffe observes: "I tend to leave my blaster [launcher]-
    equipped troops in the transport until the final moments of an
    assault - the waypoint system means they can still hit things,
    plus there is less chance of them being inconveniently
    8.3.4     Rookie Plasma Fodder
    One possible if cruel tactic is to use rookies instead of HWPs as
    scouts.  It is a smaller target, though have less armor and a lot
    less TUs.  On the other hand, they cost about 1/10th as much.
    8.3.5     Leave opportunity for shots
    To make opportunity shots in the enemy movement phase, you need
    TU's left unused, as well as a high reactions rating (over 50
    preferred).  So leave enough for a shot while moving and still
    get in cover, or don't move at all.
    Have soldiers kneeling close to UFO doors is a good way to get
    better reactions, if they have plenty of TUs left to shoot any
    aliens who comes out.
    8.3.6     Saving ammo
    XCOM has a peculiar way of counting ammo usage: any clip that was
    fired (even just one round!) is consider "spent" at the end of
    the scenario UNLESS unloaded from the weapon.  So, if you just
    fired one round, unload it when the end of battlescape is near
    (you DID time the alien movement phase, didn't you?)
    Interestingly, the same thing applies to the aliens as well!  If
    you panic the aliens and they drop their weapons, you should pick
    them up and unload them, toss the ammo clip aside.  That way you
    gain a clip independent of the gun you got (plus clips the alien
    was carrying).
    [Note, this does NOT happen in all versions.]
    8.4.1     How do I capture an alien?
    You can capture aliens in four ways, so let's discuss advantages
    and disadvantages.
    1) Shoot an alien and hope it drops stunned instead of dead:
    Since smoke inhalation produce stun damage, if alien had inhaled
    smoke for a while, and you shot it later, it may drop stunned.
    This is too much of a guesswork though, and is dangerous if alien
    is armed.
    2) Use stun rod on the alien:  Extremely dangerous since stun rod
    is a hand-to-hand weapon, but it's all you have early on.
    Remember to stand RIGHT NEXT to the target, and DIRECTLY FACING
    the target, or you cannot stun!
    3) Use stun bomb and small launcher: safest way to capture an
    alien, shoot and scoot.
    4) Keep dumping smoke grenades on an alien. After it inhaled
    enough smoke, it'll drop stunned: takes too long.
    8.4.2     So what's your recommendation?
    Double/triple-team on capture: at least two soldiers should carry
    stun bombs and ready to fire in salvoes in case the alien does
    not drop after one hit.
    Combine psi combat with capture: Panic it with psi to make it
    drop its weapon (repeat if necessary), then stun it.  Be careful
    since alien WILL pull out any other weapon that it has on it.
    After it is out of weapons, and if it does not have HTH attack,
    you can use stun rods on it safely.
    WARNING: release mind control on the alien (wait one full turn),
    THEN stun it, or otherwise it is NOT captured! (somehow computer
    counts mind-controlled alien as "friendly" and not "captured")
    (confirmed by Bill Soo)
    If a stun attempt fails, shoot the alien with a light weapon like
    a pistol.  The addition damage may cause the health to drop below
    stun damage, which ALSO counts as "stunned". Just don't kill it
    8.4.3     Stunning aliens without stun weapons
    Found an alien that you need to capture but have no stun weapons?
    You have to use smoke.  Hopefully the alien had panicked and
    dropped its weapons (if not, and you have psi, panic it).  Keep
    him in an enclosed space (a room?), dump a smoke grenade into the
    room, and keep something to block the door (rookie, HWP,
    whatever), and wait for choking sounds.  :-D
    As you can probably tell from the pictures, Power Suit and flying
    suit are immune to smoke damage (has built-in environmental
    8.4.4     Other uses for stun weapons
    At a terror site, Chrysalids turning civilians into zombies?
    Stun the civilians if you see them near Chrysalids!  Stunned
    civilians will not be attacked.
    Unfortunately, many have reported that the civilians get MAD when
    they wake up and you have to kill them, so finish mission fast if
    you do stun one.
    8.4.5     Do you HAVE an alien containment facility?
    Does the home base of the transport have alien containment
    facility available?  If not, all aliens you captured will DIE
    upon end of ground battle.
    8.5   PSI COMBAT
    To gain psionic power, you must capture a Sectoid Leader or
    Commander, or any Ethereal, and successfully research
    (interrogate) them.  Then you need to build psi labs and send
    your soldiers to be assessed and trained.  Then you can use your
    psi powers in combat with psi amps.
    General observation: aliens do NOT pick up dropped weapons.
    8.5.1     Offensive Psi Combat
    Panicked aliens drop their weapons (just like panicked XCOM
    soldiers) Of course, they will pull out anything else they got
    left on them as well as use their natural abilities (HTH or Psi
    attacks) if any.
    Aliens under mind control then stunned does NOT count as
    captured. One player reported that he saw a commander but had no
    stun weapon, so he threw a smoke grenade and kept the commander
    in the smoke (with mind control) until it passed out.  He was NOT
    captured.  It appears that the computer counts mind-controlled
    aliens as "friendly", which they sort of are.
    EXPLOIT: You can access inventory of an alien under your mind
    control even though the inventory button does not work.  Select
    one of YOUR soldiers, then use scroll button on top to scroll to
    the alien.  (Watch out for the 1.5.6 bug/feature!)
    After you mind control the alien, have it throw its weapon toward
    you then use it to spot other aliens for your Psi team.
    EXPLOIT: To get more ammo, mind control an alien, then have it
    drop its inventory on the ground.
    Panic has a much better chance of success than mind control.
    Psi strength is more important than psi skill.  PsiStr determines
    resistance to psi attacks as well as potential with training
    (actual formula is in the OSG)
    8.5.2     Defensive Psi Combat
    The only way to protect yourself against psi attacks is to kill
    the attackers quickly.  While some soldiers at the beginning may
    be more resistant to psi attacks (i.e. high psi strength),
    without psi labs to help you identify them it is all by chance.
    If a solider was mind-controlled more than once in a battle and
    s/he survives, sack him/her immediately after.  S/he probably has
    low bravery and/or low psi strength.
    Get rookies with high bravery ensures they are more resistant to
    alien panic attacks (though they may not be as resistant to mind
    control, that has a inherent lower chance of success)
    8.6.1     General Weapon Notes
    Most pistols and rifles holds 20 rounds or more, so ammo is
    usually not a problem unless you fire a lot on auto or you carry
    something like autocannon (14) or heavy cannon (6). Usually one
    extra clip should be enough.  In case of plasma or laser weapons
    one/none is enough.
    Use HWPs (and rookies?) to "beat the bush" and spot enemies.
    THEN shoot them.  Once an alien is visible, everybody can take a
    shot as long as there's nothing in the way.
    If you can, take a aimmed shot while staying in cover. You want a
    kill, not spraying shots all over the place. "One shot, one kill"
    is not a bad motto.  On the other hand... If you have the ammo,
    use auto shot whenever you can. Why?  It ensures a kill.  Let me
    Auto shot fires three rounds, but is the least accurate of the
    three shots.  On the other hand, when you use the laws of
    probability, you actually come out ahead using an auto-shot,
    since each shot is calculated independently.
    For example, let's say chance of hitting in auto shot is 25%, and
    snap shot is 30% (average).  The chance of getting at least one
    hit out of three is 1-(chance of no hits).  So 25% hit prob AND
    no hit in three tries is 0.75 * 0.75 * 0.75 = 0.42
    Chance of getting at least one hit is then 1 - 0.42 = 0.56, or
    56% which is much better than 30% (but no higher than the aimed
    percentage).  When your accuracy improves, you increase your
    chances of hitting the target multiple times, which ensures a
    kill, and you use less TUs than ONE aimmed shot.
    It is not unknown to see three aliens line up in a row, you fired
    auto, and each shot killed one alien.
    8.6.2     Pistols and Rifles
    Use them only when you have to, sniper style.  Dump them for
    lasers as fast as possible.  They use clips and don't do much
    damage.  They may be enough to use against Sectoids, who has very
    little armor, but not against tougher enemies (and
    8.6.3     Heavy Cannon and AutoCannon
    Heavy Cannon is slightly more accurate than the AutoCannon and
    slightly more damage, but a lot less effective with only six
    shots and no auto-fire mode. I'd rather use the AutoCannon.
    AutoCannon is probably the most effective weapon in the early
    game, with auto mode, three types of ammo, and 14 shot magazine.
    Still, 14 shots are not much in auto-mode, and three magazines
    can run out on you pretty quick.  It is also VERY HEAVY. (more
    than twice of heavy plasma)
    8.6.4     Rocket Launcher
    Rocket Launcher packs your biggest punch in the early game, and
    being an area weapon makes it invaluable in dealing with nasty
    Reavers and Cyberdiscs.  On the other hand, you can only carry
    three reloads, and they only fly in straight lines.
    Try to have another team member carry more reloads.  When you got
    to a good firing point, have that guy drop the reloads on the
    ground, then you stand/kneel on top of the reloads.
    Don't give rocket launcher to rookies with low morale.  If they
    go berzerk, you may lose a lot of people.
    8.6.5     Laser Pistol, Laser Rifle, and Heavy Laser
    Forget the heavy laser.  The 35% more damage that it does is
    offset by having no auto mode and decreased accuracy. You can
    probably forget the pistol also, but you need to research it to
    get laser rifle.
    Laser rifle is arguable the best squad weapon in the game,
    needing no ammo, with decent accuracy and damage. On the other
    hand, some veterans prefer heavy plasma.
    8.6.6     Grenades and High Explosive
    Get alien grenades when you can, but regular grenades would do.
    Use them to flatten small buildings and take down walls so aliens
    have nowhere to hide.
    Proximity grenades should be used to block off doors and stuff so
    nothing can sneak up behind you.  They appear to have a 2-square
    blast radius and 1-square sensing radius, so do NOT throw them
    next to the door!  Throw them one square away from the door so
    when the alien have to come out before it blows up.  When Alien
    steps through the door, BOOM! Jim Muchow has a similar variation
    for use on UFO doors.
    I haven't found smoke grenades to be that useful.  I've tried it
    in covering my deployment, but it doesn't seem to work that well.
    You can try to use it as a stun weapon alternative, but it's
    bound to be slow.
    I've yet to use any high-explosive in any of the games I played,
    but [NET] has reported that they are very useful taking out
    Cyberdiscs in tight urban settings, due to more blast power,
    useful before you get alien grenades.
    Sometimes kneeling down will allow you to throw where you cannot
    8.6.7     Plasma Pistol, Plasma Rifle, and Heavy Plasma
    Plasma weapons are excellent weapons, and the heavy-plasma is the
    only "heavy" weapon in the game with auto mode. Heavy Plasma
    should only carried by a few select members, due to possible
    shortages in clips early on and its weight (later you'll find
    PLENTY of reloads so no problem).
    Heavy Plasma can punch through inner walls of UFOs when auto-
    fired a couple times, useful for pincer attacks in Supply Ships,
    when one lift goes straight to third level while another lift
    goes only to second.  The guys take the high lift can punch
    through the walls on second level and attack both sides of level
    2 at once. [see the Supply Ship deck plan]
    8.6.8     Blaster Launcher
    Blaster launcher is probably one of the greatest weapons in the
    game.  It is expensive, its ammo is expensive, but it is VERY
    useful.  You can blow up things in ANY direction, turn around
    corners, go up and down stairs, flatten entire barns, even punch
    a hole in UFO's outer hull!  Each solider can carry up to 5
    reloads (2 on belt and 3 in backpack).
    [NET] One trick is to leave the soldier and the launcher inside
    the craft kneeling on top of the ammo on the floor. That way
    there's more than 5 rounds available.  Or you can have other
    soldiers carry more ammo, drop them on the ground, then have the
    launcher guy stand/kneel on top of them.  You can use this trick
    on rocket launcher too, but it's not as useful.
    [NET] You can also blow open parts of UFO and go in that way
    instead of through the door.  Many have reported that wrecking
    the bridge first with a well-placed blaster bomb or two into the
    upper level will decrease casualties by a large amount. Of
    course, you risk wrecking the UFO of salvage.
    [KSC] Use blaster bomb to enlarge a standard door so you can fit
    a tank through by targeting the wall next to the door.  You can
    also try this with heavy plasma as those can sometimes punch
    through walls.  This is great for battleships since the large
    central lift allows tanks to go up to any level, and they also
    have 2-space corridors wide enough for tanks.
    [Lachlan Atcliffe] Use blaster bomb to nail a hill or walls to
    improve your line of sight.
    8.6.9     Small Launcher
    This is the only weapon that gives you standoff stun capability.
    Get this when you need to stun aliens and do not rely on stun
    rods. Try to back this up with another stun bomb or a pistol.
    Stun damage counts against alien's health, and a hit can drop its
    health low enough so it gets stunned.
    9    The Aliens
    Most information here can be accessed via the UFOpedia.
                                                      ------ Armor --
              TUs Ene Hea Bra Rea Fir Thr Str PSt PSk Fro Lft Rgt Rer Und
    Sectoid    55  90  30  80  65  30  60  30  40   *   2   1   1   1   1
    Reaper     60  90 145  80  60   0   0  90  35   -  14  14  14  14   2
    Floater    50  90  35  80  50  25  60  40   -   -   4   3   3   2   6
    Cyberdisc  60  90 120 110  65  30   0  90   -   -  17  17  17  17  17
    Snakeman   40  80  45  80  45  30  65  50   -   -  10   9   9   8   6
    Cryssalid 110 140  95 100  70   0   0 110   -   -  17  17  17  17  17
    Zombie     40 110  85 110  40   0   0  85   -   -   4   4   4   4   4
    Ethereal   70 100  60  80  75  40  80  50  50  40  17  17  17  17  16
    Sectopod   60  90  95 110  65  30   0  90   -   -  70  65  65  50  45
    Muton      58  90  90  80  60  30  60  70   -   -  10  10  10  10   5
    Celatid    70  90  70  90  40  50   0  70  60   -  10  10  10  10  10
    Silacoid   40  80 115 100  40   0   0  70   -   -  25  25  25  25   5
    TUs = time units        Ene = energy/stamina     Hea = health
    Bra = bravery           Rea = reaction           Fir = firing accuracy
    Thr = throwing accuracy Str = strength           PSt = Psi Strength
    PSk = Psi Skill         Armor = front/left/right/rear/under
    * Only Sectoid leaders and commander have Psi Skill, with avg of 55.
    NOTE 1: you can get info on particular alien stats by using a
    mind probe on them.  Leaders and commanders are 10 to 20% higher,
    and there appears to be random modifiers, depending on rank and
    position. Stats are also higher on higher difficulty levels
    NOTE 2: higher rank aliens also have higher "intelligence", which
    means they will remember your location longer.  Some alien
    species are also more intelligent than others.  For example,
    Ethereals and Sectoids have higher intelligence than Mutons and
    Alien        Attack       Defend    Vulnerable
    Celatid      Acid Spit     none       none
    Chryssalid   HTH           none     IC, stun    *
    Cyberdisc    Plasma beam  AP, HE      none
    Ethereal     Psi,weapons  IC,stun     none
    Floater      weapons       none       none
    Muton        weapons        AP        psi
    Reaper       HTH           none        IC
    Sectoid      Psi,weapons   none       none
    Sectopod     Energy beam  PL,HE       laser
    Silacoid     HTH            IC         HE
    Snakeman     weapons        IC        none
    Zombie       HTH     Psi,AP,Las,Pl,HE none      **
    HTH=hand to hand combat    IC =incendiary/fire
    AP =armor piercing         PL =plasma
    HE =high explosive         Las=laser
    Alien      : alien name
    Attack     : attack method
    Defend     : resistance to type(s) of attack (takes less damage)
    Vulnerable : esp. vulnerable to type(s) of attack (takes EXTRA
    *  When Chryssalids succeeds in HTH attack, the subject attacked
    becomes a Zombie unless the subject is a HWP.
    ** Zombie in a few turns becomes a Chryssalid.  If killed, the
    new Chryssalid hatches from the zombie IMMEDIATELY.
    Alien Soldier            ----- mission (harvest, base, etc)
    Alien Medic              ----- Species information *
    Alien Navigator          ----- Hyper-Wave Decoder
    Alien Engineer           ----- UFO stats (of that UFO)
    Alien Leader             ----- The Martian Solution
    Ethereal or
    Sectoid Leader/Commander ----- Psi Lab, which leads to
                                   psi amp and mind shield
    Alien Commander          ----- Cydonia or Bust **
    *    alien medics can give information on species other than
    their own
    **   commander can be found in bases, or UFOs on Base missions
         however, only commander from a base can be researched (?)
    Research       Generally small vehicles, least threat
    Harvest        Great concern to governments, usually cattle
    Abduction      Abducts humans, causes great alarm
    Infiltration   Infiltrates countries and try to make pact with
                   government, big threat as countries that sign 
                   pact cease to fund XCOM!
    Base           Survey and establish alien base, may contain alien
                   commander, esp. higher levels
    Terror         Creates terror sites when lands at city, so get
                   them fast!
    Retaliation    Scout / attack XCOM base, greatest threat
    Supply         Supply alien bases.  Trail them and patrol nearby
                   to find alien base
    Chrysalid, Reaper, Silacoid, and Zombie are hand-to-hand only,
    which means if you have flying suit, take off and shoot them from
    the air.  They cannot attack things in mid-air nor through a
    window.  Reaper, being double-wide, cannot attack through single-
    wide doors.
    Celatids are VERY dangerous and causes A LOT of damage if you
    don't have good armor.  Kill them ASAP.
    Kill Chrysalids ASAP at a terror site.  Kill them ASAP, even if
    it means wiping out the civilians near it.  Use rockets and
    blaster bombs and grenades on it freely.
    If you are REALLY worried about Chrysalids, have everyone carry a
    PRIMED grenade around (prime it first).  If your soldier got
    turned into a zombie, all equipment gets dropped, and the grenade
    should go BOOM at the end of the turn. On the other hand, if you
    get psi-attacked and panicked, it'll go BOOM also. Weigh the
    Usually you only find floaters flying (i.e. on higher levels), so
    if you can fly, you do gain an advantage, esp. if you go on top
    of buildings and start sniping.
    You cannot stun a Cyberdisc.  Just destroy it.
    Following floor plans are for references only, and are probably
    NOT to scale.
      D/Dr = Door                 Gr   = Gravlift (Up/Down)
      Gu   = Gravlift Up          Gd   = Gravlift Down
      P/Pw = Alien Power Unit     S    = Alien Surgery
      F    = Alien Food           X    = Alien Examination
    Small Scout   123     Looks like an Apollo Capsule...
    (Very Small)  /=\     2 level, 1 square each UFO
    Medium Scout (Small)  123456789
    |          |
    |          |
    |    Pw    |
    |          |
    |          |
    Large Scout (Medium) 123456789012
              |   |    |
              |   D    |
            //    |     \\
          //      |       \\
    +----/    +---------+   \----+
    |         |         |        |
    |         D    P    |        D
    |         |         |        |
    +----\    +---------+   /----+
          \\        |     //
            \\ --D--|   //
              |     D  |
              |     |  |
    Terror Ship (Large)    123456789012345678901234567890
                           /------|              |------\
    Level 0--Menachem M. Pastreich (mpastrei email.ir.miami.edu)
                        ///              \\\
                     ///       ______       \\\
    +--------+    ///       __|      |__       \\\    +--------+
    |        |    |       __|          |__       |    |        |
    |        |    |     __|      Pw      |__     |    |        |
    |        |____|     |                  |     |____|        |
    |                   |                  |                   |
    |                   |  Pw    Gu    Pw  |                   |
    |         ____      |                  |      ____         |
    |        |    |     |__              __|     |    |        |
    |        |    |       |__    Pw    __|       |    |        |
    |        |    |         |__      __|         |    |        |
    +--DrDr--+    \\\         |__Dr__|         ///    +--DrDr--+
                     \\\                    ///
    Terror Ship Level 2 -- Pastreich
                /// |          | \\\
             ///    D          D    \\\
          ///--|    |          |    |--\\\
          |    |    |____Dr____|    |    |
          |    |                    |    |
          |    |     ____Dr____     |    |
          |    |    |          |    |    |
          |    D    |    Gd    |    D    |
          |____|    |__________|    |____|
          |                              |
          |                              |
          |     E    NNN    NNN    E     |
          \\\        NNN    NNN        ///
             \\\                    ///
    Battleship (Very Large)  123456789012345678901234567890
    Battleship Level 1 -- Pastreich
                           /        \
                           |   Gu   |
                           |   Pw   |
                           |        |
                           \        /
     /------\                                      /------\
    /        \              +------+              /        \
    |        |              |GuGuGuD              |        |
    | GuPw   |              |GuGuGuD              |   PwGu |
    |        |              |GuGuGu|              |        |
    \        /              +DrDr--+              \        /
     \------/                                      \------/
                           /        \
                           |        |
                           |   Pw   |
                           |   Gu   |
                           \        /
    Battleship Level 2 -- Menachem M. Pastreich (mpastrei
                ./    |   |          |        \.
              ./      D   |    Gd    |     _____\.
            ./        |   |          |    |       \.
           //-----  --|   +--+    +--+    |        \\
         ./           |      |    |     __|          \.
       ./|            +------|    |    |               \.
     ./  |                   |    |    |                 \.
    /    |          +--------|    |    D                   \
    |    +--Dr--+   |        |    |    |                   |
    |  Gu       |   |        |    |    |____               |
    |           |   D        |    |         |              |
    +------+    |   |     +--+    +--       |       +------+
    |      |    |   |     |          |      |       |      |
    |      +------Dr------+  GrGrGr  +--Dr----------+      |
    |  Gd                    GrGrGr                    Gd  |
    |      +--Dr------Dr--+  GrGrGr  +--------------+      |
    |      |        |     |          |              |      |
    +------+        |___  +--+    +--+              +--Dr--+
    |                   |    |    |                 |      |
    |                   |    |    |                 |      |
    |                   |    |    |                 |      |
    \.                  |    |    |               __|     ./
      \.                D    |    |              |      ./
        \.              |    D    |           __      ./
          \.            |    |    |          |      ./
           \\    +--Dr----+--+    +--+-------+     //
             \.  |        |          |           ./
              \.|        |    Gd    D         ./
                \.       |          |       ./
    Battleship Level 3
                ./    |                   |   \
              ./      |                   |     \
            ./        |    +---Dr---+     |       \
           //         |    |        |     |        \\
         ./|          |    |        |     |          \
       ./  |          D    |        |     |            \
     ./    D          |    |        |     |              \
    /      |          |    |        |     |                \
    |      |          |    |        |     |                |
    |  Gd  +----------+    +--------+     +-----Dr---------|
    |      |                                               |
    |______|__________                     ___________     |
    |     |           |    +---Dr---+     |           |    |
    |     |           |    | GdGdGd |     |           |    |
    |     D           |    D GdGdGd D     |           D    |
    |     |           |    | GdGdGd |     |           |    |
    |     |___________|    +---Dr---+     |___________|    |
    |                                                      |
    |                                                      |
    |-------+  + -----+    +---------+    +----------------|
    |                 |    |         |    |                |
    \.                |    |         |    |               ./
      \.              |    |         |    |             ./
        \.            |    |         |    |           ./
          \.          |    |         |    D         ./
           \\         |    |         |    |        //
             \.       |    +----Dr---+    |      ./
               \.     |                   |    ./
                \.   |                   |  ./
    Harvester     1234567890123456
    (Medium) (?)  /---|------|---\
    Level 0                             Level 1
             /----------\                        /----------\
           /   SS         \                    /  | Empty  |  \
         /   SSSS       F   \                /    |  Room  |    \
       /                      \            /      | Up to  |      \
     / FF               F   F   \        /   Gu   |  this  |   Gu   \
    +                            +      +___DD___ | level
    |      +----------------+    |      |         +---DD---+
    |      |  Pw         Pw |    D      |                      FF
    |      +-------------DD-+----+      |  F   F   +------
    +          |      |          +      +  F   F   |      |
      \   F  F |  Gu  |   Gu    /         \    F   D  Gd  D   Gd    /
        \    F |      |       /             \      |      |       /
          \    |      |     /                 \    +--DD--+     /
            \--+--DD--+---/                     \---------+---/
    Level 2
           /   |      |   \
         /     +--DD--+     \
       /       |      |       \
     /   Gd    D      D    Gd   \
    +          |      |          +
    +----------+      +----------+
    |N                           |
    |N        NNN    NNN         |
    +         NNN    NNN         +
      \                         /
        \                     /
          \                 /
            \             /
    Supply Ship (Large)    123456789012345678901234567890
    Level 0
         /----------\              /----------\
       //     Gu     \\          //     Gu     \\
      /                \\      //                \\
     /     ---------      \+--+/      ---------     \
    |     |         |                |         |     |
    |     |          ----------------          |     |
    |     D    Pw           Pw           Pw    D     |
    |     |          ----------------          |     |
    |     |         |                |         |     |
     \     ---------      /+--+\      ---------     /
      \                //      \\                //
       \\            //          \\            //
         \----DD----/              \----DD----/
    Level 1
            /----------\              /----------\
          //   ------   \\          //   ------   \\
        //     |    |     \\      //     |    |     \\
      //  F    | Gu |       \+--+/       | Gr |    F  \\
     /         |    |                    |    |         \
    | F   F    --DD--      ---DD---      ------    F   F |
    |                     | S      |                     |
    | F   F    F    F     |        |     F    F    F   F |
    |                     | S      |                     |
    | F   F    --DD--      ---DD---      --DD--    F   F |
     \         |    |                    |    |         /
      \\  F    |    |       /+--+\       |    |    F  //
        \\     ------     //      \\     ------     //
           \            //          \\            //
            \----------/              \----------/
    Level 2
          /----------\              /----------\
        //            \\          //   | Gu |   \\
      //                \\      //     --DD--     \\
     /   +----------+     \+--+/                    \
    |    |          |                                |
    |    |          |------+------+------DD------+---|
    |    D   NNNN   |      |      |              |   |
    |    |   NNNN   |      D      |              D   |
    |    |          |      |      +--+        +--+   |
     \   +----------+     /+--+\     |        |     /
      \\                //      \\   +--------+   //
        \\            //          \\            //
          \----DD----/              \----DD----/
    Abductor      1234567890123456
    (Medium) (?)  /---|------|---\
    Level 0                              Level 1
         ^     +----+     ^                  ^     +----+     ^
       // \\   |    |   // \\              // \\   |    |   // \\
     //     \\/      \//     \\          //     \ /      \ /     \\
    /                          \        /        +-+               \
    \                          /        \          +-DD-+          /
      \\    ______DD______    //          \\    +---+    +---+    //
    +--/    |            |    \--+      +--/  +-+N        N  +-+  \--
    |       |            |       |      |     | N              |
    |  Pw   |  XX XX XX  |   Pw  |      |     |N              N|
    |       |     XX     |       |      |     |                |
    +--\    |            |    /--+      +--\  +-+            +-+  /--
      //    |_____DD_____|    \\          //    +---+    +---+    \\
     /        |        |        \        /          +----+          \
     \   Gu   |        |        /        \   Gd                     /
      \\     / \      / \     //          \\     //\      /\\     //
        \\ //   |    |   \\ //              \\ //   |    |   \\ //
          V     +-DD-+     V                  V     +-DD-+     V
    9.7   UFO SPEED, RANGE, ETC.
                       Max   Hull    Weapon*   Ship   Max**
                 Size Speed Damage Power Range Width  Crew
    Small Scout   VS  2200    50     0    0      3      1
    Medium Scout  S   2400   200    20  120      9      9
    Large Scout   S   2700   250    20  272     12     13
    Harvester     M   4000   500    40  176     16     21 (1L)
    Abductor      M   4300   500    40  160     12     18 (1L)
    Terror Ship   L   4800  1200   120  336     30     14/10 (1L)
    Supply Ship   L   3200  2200    60  288     30     20 (1L)
    Battleship    VL  5000  3000   140  520     30     22/6 (1C/1L)
    *  Weapon Range should be divided by 8 for range in KM, see 7.5
    ** Maximum crew is absolute maximum reported in one mission.
    Number is in format of X/Y (Z) where X is host race (race the UFO
    belongs to), Y as terrorists and Z as number of leaders (L) or
    commander (C) in the host race.  Any 4-space creatures count as 4
    aliens for this.
    10   Ground Assaults
    First, let us explain the 80-item Crunch (80-item limit).
    GeoScape takes the local tactical situation (take the type of
    terrain and local time), enemy and friendly composition, and mix
    up a randomly generated battlefield based on some existing
    components like buildings and streets and desert and such. Then
    it transfers the enemy and friendly into the Battlescape terrain
    with the first 80 distinct items of inventory it sees. It was at
    the time thought 80 items for a full squad is plenty, but
    apparently not when you're dealing with a full complement of
    veterans on an Avenger... This can cause a lot of the "good"
    weapons to "disappear" or become inaccessible.
    The 80-item limit is always a problem, especially on an Avenger
    and Lightning when you can carry LOTS of soldiers. While the OSG
    gave some hints on what to take, here's a couple more hints to
    see you through the 80-item Crunch:
      * If you are short on ammo clips, use laser weapons, which
    require no ammo at all.
      * Carry only ONE clip for your plasma weapons.  You should be
    able to find plenty of reloads during battle, esp. for heavy
    plasma (which seems to be used by all aliens near the end of the
    game)  With 20-35 rounds in each clip, your should not run out
    unless you use auto-fire a lot
      * Carry the same weapons for everybody.  Don't mix pistols and
    rifles, plasmas and slug-throwers, etc.. Instead of a pistol/clip
    and rifle/clip, bring an extra clip for the rifle.
      * Bring less misc. equipment such as mind probes, medikits,
    motion detectors, psi amps, and so on.  You don't need everything
    on every person (except Medikits)
      * Bring HWPs.  HWP is one item yet has plenty of firepower. Too
    bad it takes FOUR soldier's space.  Still, they are quite useful
    in the early parts of the game
      * Don't fight at night so that you need to take along all those
    stupid electro-flares which you end up throwing all over the
    place (exception: Attack Terror Sites ASAP)
                      Pro                 Con
      Rifles     more powerful       use more TUs
                 more accurate       two-handed weapon
      Pistols    uses less TUs       less powerful
                 one handed weapon   less accurate
    As you can see, they are exact complements of each other. Very
    often, using a pistol is called for, since using a pistol would
    mean you still have enough TUs to duck into cover. Give pistols
    to heavy weapons people for when they ran out.
    Not being ad handy with theoretical statistics as I am with
    discrete simulation, I wrote a very simple program to simulate
    100,000 turns where each weapon was used in as many times as
    possible, up to 80% of the turn.  Since the time to use the
    weapons is also a percentage of the turn, simple subtraction
    sufficed.  :-)  In each case where an auto mode was available, it
    was used instead of snap shot. I felt that 70-80% was a good
    compromise between some movement, but still inflicting maximum
                         TU   average    +/- 1 std dev
                    A/S   %  hits  dmg  hits     damage
      Pistol        0/4  72  2.4   62  1.4-3.4   36- 87
      Rifle         2/0  70  2.1   63  0.9-3.3   28- 98
      Heavy Cannon  0/2  66  1.2   67  0.5-1.9   28-105
      Auto Cannon   2/0  80  1.9   80  0.8-3.1   32-128
      Laser Pistol  3/0  75  2.5  115  1.2-3.9   53-177
      Laser Rifle   2/0  68  2.8  165  1.5-4.0   92-238
      Heavy Laser   0/2  66  1.0   84  0.3-1.7   24-145
      Plasma Pistol 2/0  60  3.0  155  1.8-4.2   92-219
      Plasma Rifle  2/0  66  3.3  263  2.1-4.5  166-361
      Heavy Plasma  2/0  70  3.0  344  1.8-4.2  203-485
      A/S : number of shots taken, Auto/Snap
      TU% : TU% used for the shots taken
      +/- 1 std dev : average +/- one standard deviation, roughly
    covers 66% of the possibilities
    Conventional Weapons : Pistol is a tie with rifle.  The pistol
    can be shot one-handed, but in the early stages of the game,
    you're not likely to have anything in the other hand :-) The
    rifle holds more ammo, but is slightly less accurate (huh?).
    Each has a clip that will last three rounds at this firing rate.
    Take your pick.
    Cannons: This seems like a no-contest, but the higher damage of
    the heavy cannon makes it not so simple.  The lower accuracy of
    the auto cannon in auto mode makes it a more erratic weapon.
    Still, it's more satisfying to shoot off six shots instead of two
    :-)  The clip holds 14, which will only last two rounds at this
    rate compared to three of the heavy cannon (which holds 6 shots)
    With only one shot, the three shots of the auto cannon improve
    the odds of at least one hitting to 69% vs. 60% for one snap shot
    of the heavy cannon.
    One final consideration is that the auto cannon takes 80% TU for
    its two auto shots, compared to 66% for the heavy cannon. With
    weaklings early in the game, you may need the extra time...
    Lasers: As you may expect, the heavy laser sucks due to the lack
    of an auto fire, and a rather slow snap shot.  The pistol and
    rifle get about the same number of hits, and the rifle does 30%
    more damage.  The rifle gets the nod in this case.  Even with a
    20% penalty for one-handed use (not shown in table) rifle gets
    1.0-3.4 hits and 62-204 damage, still better than the pistol. So
    forget the laser pistol and the heavy laser.
    Plasma: What can you say? The heavy plasma is king!  With pretty
    much the same accuracy and firing time as the rifle and pistol,
    over 40%/120% more damage (respectively), and bigger clip,
    there's no reason not to use the heavy plasma.  The only down
    side is the ammo takes 3 elerium to manufacture, but with careful
    unloading of weapons, you'll get all you need during recoveries
    and assaults.
    [Editor's note: the advantage of heavy plasma is even greater
    when you realize that it weighs exact the same as a regular
    rifle.  That explains why even those Sectoid weaklings can tote
    one around...]
    Skyranger: 2 HWPs / 6 soldiers or 1 HWP / 10 soldiers
    The HWPs early on carry more firepower and has more TUs than
    soldiers, which makes them good scouts, and more survivable.
    Switch to more/only soldiers later.
    Lightning: as many soldiers as you can fit
    Lightning doesn't take HWPs, too bad.  At least you can deploy
    from all four sides at once.  Send rookies out first...
    (Commander's prerogative)
    Avenger: 14 soldiers / 3 HWPs or 18 soldiers / 2 HWPs
    As the end of game draws near, your best soldiers should be as
    fast as HWPs and carries just as much (if not more) firepower.
    HWPs are there to simply scout ahead.  Feel free to add more
    soldiers if you can distribute 80 items okay.
    You should save the game in BattleScape as soon as your turn
    There is no penalty for destroying civilian property, so go ahead
    and wreck the whole place if you have enough weapons.
    If the only person inside the craft is unconscious and you abort
    mission, s/he's MIA and the transport is lost as well.
    In the early game, you want rocket launchers and/or autocannon as
    your heavy weapons, and plenty of grenades (mix of regular and
    Later in the game, you want almost exclusively heavy plasma or
    laser rifle (except for the heavy weapons people carrying blaster
    launchers, who would carry plasma pistols or laser rifle)
    In an open battlefield, you can use a skirmish line (just spread
    your guys out in a "front", and advance together). In tighter
    battlefields you should use hunter-killer groups of 3-4 soldiers
    per group.
    In general, you need to kill or capture ALL the aliens to win a
    battle. Plan for it accordingly.
    General tactics... you need two groups soldiers. One of
    "beaters/flushers" to beat the bush and flush out the aliens and
    one group of shooters to shoot the aliens when they've been
    flushed out.
    Use HWPs and rookies to flush or spot enemies. Shooters should
    engage from long-range. Use heavy-weapons to flatten obstacles to
    improve line of sight. When you get psi power, control the alien
    you can spot and use that alien to spot MORE aliens for you to
    control or shoot.
    [Definition: attack on UFO shot down is "recovery", attack on
    landed UFOs (not downed) is "assault"]
    UFO crash sites last anywhere from 24-96 hours. Therefore, you
    should wait until daylight. This can relatively easy as the UFO
    was already damaged in the crash and hopefully quite a few of the
    aliens have died upon impact. You do get less loot though.
    UFO landing site will last anywhere form 4-12 hours. On the other
    hand, you can always shoot down the UFO later and get more time.
    UFO assault is a bit harder, as the aliens are all living and
    spread all over the place. On the other hand, you get more loot.
    If this is a night battle, bring 1-2 electroflares per soldier,
    and incendiary ammo and weapons. However, there really is no
    reason to fight UFO recovery or assault at night. Wait until
    HWPs CAN enter UFO with a single-width door if you help make the
    door wider with a blaster bomb. Just target the panel beside the
    door for a blaster bomb, and make sure no one is near the impact
    HWP is very useful in a Battleship on the third level, where the
    corridors are wide enough for HWPs except the doors leading from
    the elevators.  Open one up with a blaster bomb, send another one
    or two down each end of the corridor, then send up the HWPs to
    scout, then send in your troops.
    In UFO navigation centers, there's usually some octagonal purple
    "tables" that EXPLODES when hit.  If you can catch aliens
    standing next to them, hitting THAT is a lot of fun. Those "red
    barrels" are also explosive.
    Blaster bombs and/or high explosives can be used to punch a hole
    in the outside wall of UFO, creating an alternate entrance.  This
    will allow you to surprise the aliens inside since usually they
    gather by the doors waiting for you.
    Corollary: on a multi-level UFO, attack from TOP down by blasting
    a hole in the roof or top level, posting guards near the UFO
    doors or use proximity grenades.
    Post guards outside UFO when attacking inside.  Any aliens
    outside will attempt to return, and getting shot from behind is
    not fun.
    If the UFO Power Units exploded, and UFO's ceiling may be damaged
    (single-level UFO have top blown open).  In that case, stand on
    the edge and kneel will allow you to see inside.  In  larger
    UFOs, holes in the ceiling will allow you to see above, but you
    may have to kneel to get a good look (someone may be hiding up
    there!)  Of course, you'll need flying suit to get up there in
    the first place.
    One trick you can pull is ALLOW an alien base on Earth once
    you've pinpointed its location, and keep assaulting the supply
    ships that comes to keep the base supplied.  They just keep
    coming and coming, and the UFOs you take out more than offsets
    the "base on Earth" penalty, not to mention all the Elerium and
    other goodies you get that you can sell later.  Of course, watch
    out for the retaliation missions...
    Consider using blaster bombs and flying suits to attack from TOP
    DOWN instead of bottom up.  Blow a hole in the ceiling, send
    another bomb inside the hold, go in and spread out, work your way
    down, pick off aliens coming up one by one.
    When attacking battleships, consider going up one of the engine
    "legs" instead of through the central elevator.  On assaults, you
    may need a blaster bomb to punch through.
    You always choose to assault alien base, and as this is always
    "in-doors" the time-of-day does not affect your visibility.
    The only way to "win" base assault is by killing or stunning all
    the aliens.
    The trick in base assaults is to use a lot of grenades and
    blaster bombs.  Use grenades to clear corners, proximity grenades
    to block corridors so no one can come up behind you (esp.
    Chryssalids!), blaster bombs to open walls so you don't have to
    go extra distance around things.  Once you find the control
    center, you have pretty much won the game.
    Alien bases are randomly generated based on specific "tiles".
    Certain sections are randomly joined together to form a base.
    However, there will always be a base command center, which always
    looks like this:  (D=door, WW=window, ground/level 0 only)
      |   +--------------+   |
      | +-+              +-+ |
      | |                  | |
      D |                  D |
      D |                  D |
      D |                  D |
      | |                  | |
      | +-+              +-+ |
      |   +--------------+   |
    Instead of going through the doors, go through one of the SIDE
    walls (^) with a blaster bomb, send a couple grenades through the
    hole for the guards inside the door (or another blaster bomb).
    Charge in, leaving proximity grenades behind to cover your back,
    go in the inside door, and you'll find a huge grav-lift taking
    you to the second level of command center. The base commander
    (and his deputy leader) should be there. Use more blaster bombs
    to nail them. Then you can pretty much wait here for the enemies
    to come to you.
    Terror sites lasts anywhere from 4-10 hours. You must attack
    ASAP, even if it's at night.
    Your top priority is self-preservation.  Killing 9 out of your 10
    soldiers to save a city is NOT worth it.  If given a choice to
    save your soldier or to save a civilian, save the soldier.
    Bring flying suit is you have them. Being able to fly give you
    significant advantage when fighting an urban battle when a lot of
    the aliens use HTH (hand-to-hand) attack. Also bring a lot of
    If this is a night battle, bring 1-2 electroflares per soldier,
    and incendiary ammo and weapons.
    Stunning the civilians makes them "unpalatable" to the alien
    terrorists, and they count as saved at the end of the mission if
    they remain stunned by the end of the mission. HOWEVER!!!!!!! If
    they wake up during the mission, they count as ENEMY and you must
    kill them!
    Do NOT mind control any of the civilians.  They count as ENEMY
    after you release control and you must kill them!
    Kill Chryssalids ASAP.  If necessary, kill the civilian near it
    so that the civilian will not be turned into a zombie that will
    attack you.  Have two persons watch each other. NEVER send out a
    soldier alone at a terror site. Always send out groups, with
    sufficient firepower to deal with chryssalids.
    Consider this drastic tactic: carry a primed grenade one each
    person.  If the person becomes a zombie, all equipment is
    dropped, INCLUDING THE LIVE GRENADE.  (boom!) Of course, if the
    guy gets mind controlled or panicked, the grenade goes boom also.
    Aliens that use HTH (hand-to-hand) combat only such as Reavers
    and Chrysallids cannot attack someone in mid-air (by a flying
    suit or hovertank). They also cannot attack someone through a
    window. Reavers cannot attack through a one-space-wide door (they
    are two-wide).
    Feel free to blow up gasoline pumps or anything that's explosive,
    esp. with aliens next to one.  They make great secondary
    You DID plan your base as mentioned in Chapter 4, didn't you?
    Base defense happen immediately. You don't need to choose
    anything. As soon as an UFO penetrated your defenses, base
    defense is on.
    First priority is blockade the lift.  Dump prox grenades near the
    doors (close enough so that there are no spaces in between to
    walk through) and wait back for aliens to emerge. Hide in rooms
    and grab your weapons.
    Second priority is clean out the hangars.  Fusion Bomb Launcher
    Hovertanks and/or blaster launchers are great for this, but a
    rocket launcher will do if you hit explosive stuff like fuel
    drums and so on.
    Third priority is reclaiming your base module by module.  Use
    prox grenades to guard your back.
    Proximity grenades are priceless here, great for blocking
    corridors, limiting movement into kill zones, etc.
    Anssi Saari sent in this observation: "Apparently the aliens
    won't shoot the bombs if they can't see you. So if you always
    hide your men in those numerous small rooms and only pop out,
    look around and step back in, you're safe from blaster bombs."
    11   Mastering Cydonia-- The Final Assault
    For those of you who watch shows like ENCOUNTERS or SIGHTINGS,
    there IS a Cydonia on Mars, and there are "pyramids" and a "face"
    there...  And there's a big rumor of a NASA cover-up and recent
    Mars probe going there ALL malfunctioned...  Hmmm...
    Don't bring any psi-weaklings.  You'll be meeting a lot of
    Sectoids and Ethreals, who will be mind-blasting you a lot.
    Bring your best weapons and all of your blaster launchers and
    blaster bombs, plus rockets and all the grenades you got. This is
    not time for captures, so leave all stun stuff at home.  This is
    a fight to the death, preferably theirs.
    Bring a pair of electro-flares each for the Mars surface battle.
    It'll be dark there, so toss a few of those around. The doors at
    each face of the pyramids are especially important as Sectoids
    may come out and play.  You also want to spot Cyberdiscs as far
    away as possible.
    Lots of Sectoids and Cyberdiscs around in this one. Soldiers with
    flying suits are nice for recon, just don't leave them in the air
    for Sectoid target practice. Use pyramids for cover.
    Move slowly, toss electroflares at base of each pyramid, esp.
    near exits so you can see if a Sectoid comes out.  Use grenades
    and/or blaster bombs on the cyberdiscs.
    You do NOT want to clean out the whole base.  Find the
    distinctive command center (see below, NOT to scale, first floor
    only), run for it (sacrificing HWPs and rookies in the process),
    let blaster bombs and rockets fly, protect your back with prox
    [not in scale!]
    |                      |
    |                   _  |
    |                  | | |
    |__________________|L| |
    D__________________  | |
    |                  |L| |
    |                  |_| |
    |                      |
    |                      |
    Once you found it, send a blaster bomb to hit the end, then one
    more up through the grav lift (either side) to get rid of the
    Ethereal Commanders (the elite guards), then ONE MORE on the top,
    and it's all over.
    12   Misc. Questions and their answers
    * Why do I lose ammo that was fired only a few times?
    After combat all clips that had been USED in the battle and left
    in their rifles/pistosl/cannons are lost, no matter only 1 round
    fired or totally empty.  UNUSED clips are NOT affected (even if
    they are loaded), as are clips separate from weapons.
    HINT: You should unload any weapons that had fired and use
    valuable ammo before the battle ends.
    HINT: You can tell when the battle is almost over by judging how
    long the alien movement phase takes.
    HINT: You can get MORE clips if you unload captured alien weapons
    that you come across
    * How do I reload weapons?  How do I unload ammo from weapons?
    See section 2, Chapter 3.1 of XCOM Manual.
    * Why should I need grenades when I have autocannon?
    Autocannon weighs A LOT.  For the same weight you can carry a
    lighter weapon plus a couple grenades, and move faster and
    further as a result.
    * How do I wake up unconscious soldiers?
    See UFOpedia on Medikit.
    HINT: Heal any fatal wounds first before attempt to revive.
    HINT: After applying shot of stimulant, exit medikit screen and
    check your inventory.  If "body" is still on ground, apply
    another shot of stimulant until the "body" is no longer on
    ground. S/he should appear in an adjacent square at beginning of
    next turn.
    * How do I use Medi-Kit?
    See UFOpedia on Medikit.
    * How do I use motion scanner?
    See UFOpedia on Motion Scanner
    HINT: They are useful to detect that one last alien you can't
    find, esp. at night when visibility is less, or city blocks (but
    there you have civilians)
    HINT: They are somewhat useful for looking behind closed doors
    that you would like to enter.
    * How do I use Mind Probe?
    See UFOpedia on Mind Probe
    NOTE: ANY one can use a mind probe, no psi power is required.
    * How do I use the Blaster Launcher/Bomb or Fusion Hovertank?
    When you select Launch Missile, you can specify a series of up to
    9 "waypoints" which can go around any thing, climb and dive, even
    fly in circles.  The final waypoint is the explosion point,
    UNLESS it runs into something solid first.
    NOTE: There MUST be something solid at the last waypoint or the
    "missile" will NOT explode! You should come in from high and aim
    straight down if possible.
    HINT: You can UNset a waypoint by right-clicking
    * Some of my soldiers have TU's used before I moved them.  Why?
    Each soldier has a physical weight limit to the amount of "stuff"
    he or she can carry, usually known as "emcumberance".  If you
    carry less than or equal to the emcumberance, no penalty is
    assessed.  For each weight unit over the limit, you get a TU
    penalty.  Carry too much and you can't move at all!
    OSG has the complete weight chart for all items (Table 8-4).
    Interesting observation: heavy plasma weighs the same as a
    regular rifle.
    * How can I fire on aliens in their movement phase?
    This is called "opportunity fire". Leave enough TU's after your
    move for at least a snap shot, then if your trooper saw an alien
    and has good enough reactions s/he will fire at the alien.
    HINT: Use the 4 icons near the bottom left of screen to reserve
    the TUs. Reactions usually need to be above 50.
    * How do I open doors?
    Target your soldier to move to the "square" behind the door and
    s/he will then automatically open it (using some TUs) and move to
    the square you specified.
    HINT: Do not open doors without plenty of spare TU's or expect to
    DIE.  Using a motion scanner will help to see if any aliens moved
    beyond the door.
    HINT: Right-click beyond the door will open the door as well, but
    without the solider moving inside.
    HINT: When you are not sure, create another door!  Either shoot a
    hole in the wall or blow up the entire wall with grenades, HE,
    HPlas, or BBomb.
    Psionic Combat
    * How do I get psi power?
    See Section 8.5
    * What is psi strength and psi skill?
    Psi strength is a person's physical talent for psi (esper
    sensivity) and cannot be improved.  It is also a measure of
    resistance against enemy psi attacks.
    Psi skill is a person's skill at USING the psi strength.  It can
    be improved with usage and training at a psi lab.
    * Help! My soldiers kept getting mind-blasted!
    Fight harder, make more kills.  Low morale invites more psi
    attacks. If you survive the fight, sack the ones who's not very
    good and kept getting panicked or controlled.
    * What's with troops missing in action (MIA)?
    If one of your troopers in under alien control at the end of a
    battle s/he counts as MIA; therefore try to wait until s/he is no
    longer in control before finishing off aliens.
    If you abort a mission, any soldiers you leave behind is MIA.  On
    missions with a transport, any one not on the transport is "left
    behind".  On an alien base assault, any one not in the green
    rooms (on the gravlift does NOT count) is "left behind".
    Yet another way to get people MIA is to try (abort mission) with
    only an unconscious soldier in the transport.  You'll lose that
    person as MIA as well as the transport
    HINT: use MediKit to wake them up (stimulant) then march them in
    if that happens to you.
    * How do my soldiers improve?
    By doing things.  They improve firing accuracy by shooting at
    things, strength by carrying more things, and so on.  Those
    getting kills will improve more than those who did not.
    Therefore, try not to let HWP get a kill since you will lose a
    chance to let a soldier improve, and leave the easy shots
    (against panicked aliens, for example) to the rookies.  Psi skill
    also improves with use.
    * How do I get more officers?
    See Section 8.1.5
    * How do I cheat?
    If you REALLY want to cheat, here's how to add TONS to money into
    your accout.  Yes, you are embezzling the world to support XCOM.
    You are twisting arms, and it is for a GOOD cause.  :-D
    Use a sector editor (such as Norton DiskEdit) and edit LIGLOB.DAT
    in your saved game's directory. Overwrite the first 8 bytes with
    64 64 64 64 00 00 00 00...
    You should get about 1.68 billion dollars. (In case you are
    wondering, 64646464h is a hexadecimal number.  In decimal it is
    1,684,300,900.)  You can also use
    FF FF FF 7F 00 00 00 00...
    Which will give you about 2.1 billion dollars. (7FFFFFFFh =
    Please don't ask me where to find a sector editor or Norton
    DiskEdit. I can't send it to you, nor do I support such programs.
    --THE END--

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