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    References Guide by Vaeran

    Version: 1.0 | Updated: 08/02/03 | Search Guide | Bookmark Guide

    References Guide, v1.0
    By Vaeran (stemn at erols dot com)
    +  v1.0 08/02/03: 130 entries. First version up! Let's see how long this can
       can stand on its own before the revisions start pouring in.
    Half of the fun of the Xeno series is learning new nuances to the characters,
    places and things named in the games when you discover that they're actually
    references to everything from mythology and religion to anime series. (The
    other half of the fun, of course, is experimenting with various substances
    in an attempt to get your mind into such a state that the plot forms a cohesive
    and logical whole.) There's a whole lot of these references though, some of
    them rather obscure, so I thought it'd be nice to save people some research
    time by compiling them all here.
    Some entries will end up repeating what the game's U.M.N. Database feature has 
    to say, but are included anyway for the sake of completeness. Please note that
    this guide is only for sources outside the Xeno universe -- if you want to know
    what terms in Xenosaga Episode I relate to Xenogears, there's a great FAQ by
    EChang on GameFAQs that already covers that. Be aware that this guide is 
    shamelessly spoileriffic through pretty much the entire game. If you haven't
    beaten it yet and don't want the plot given away, you should probably hold off
    on reading this. Don't say I didn't warn you.
    If there's something I overlooked that ought to have an entry here, or if
    some essential piece of information is missing from any of the existing
    entries, or if I've made any mistakes, please email me and let me know. It'd
    save me some time if you can include a link to a reputable source in your
    email, but it isn't necessary. If I decide to follow your advice, I'll make
    sure that you get credit in the next update. Also, please keep in mind that
    I'd like this to remain a quick reference guide rather than a comprehensive
    Xeno-encyclopedia -- while I could go on for pages about Nigredo, Albedo and
    Rubedo, I'd much rather just boil the concepts down to a few vital sentences,
    and let people study up further on their own if they so choose.
    As for using this guide, I don't honestly mind if you post it on your own site,
    just please do not alter it in any way. And if you could take a second to drop
    me a note letting me know you're going to post it, that'd be nice. If you're
    reading this at a site other than www.gamefaqs.com, the most recent version can
    always be found there, so please check that before emailing me about something.
    That's enough preamble, then. Sit back, relax, and enjoy the fruits of my 
         -- Vaeran
    A division of U-TIC's forces, or at least it was back when Margulis first
    met Cherenkov. Vulgata is Latin for "common", and now usually refers to the 
    Latin Vulgata (or Vulgate) Bible from the fourth century. It was the most 
    commonly used version in the Middle Ages.
    This number is tattooed on Jr.'s right hand, as he is U.R.T.V. Unit #666. In
    the Bible's Book of Revelations, it is said that this is the number of the
    Beast (the Antichrist), whose followers will bear it on their right hand or
    Wilhem mentions something called "Abel's Ark" during the closing scenes of 
    Episode I. Abel was the son of Adam and Eve, and was slain by his jealous 
    brother Cain in the field. Abel isn't really known for any kind of Ark in the
    Bible, though - that's more Noah's department. Guess we'll have to wait for
    Episode II to see what he means.
    The intersection of two black holes, where Proto Merkabah was thought to have
    been lost forever. As the U.M.N. Database states, this can also be a reference
    to hell.
    An AGWS combat minigame, playable over the U.M.N. Maybe I'm reading too deeply
    into this, but the controls here are startlingly similar to those in "Virtual 
    On", a popular arcade mecha combat game by SEGA. No, seriously, they are.
    You fight this mecha-type boss on the U-TIC battleship. More commonly called an
    alembic, this was a device used in alchemy and early chemistry to distill
    liquids. It's also the name of a venerable and respected (in its field, anyway)
    scientific journal on alchemy.
    One of the Zohar Emulators, stored in the Durandal's isolation area. One of
    the twelve apostles of Jesus Christ, Andrew was the one who brought forth the 
    few loaves of bread and two fish with which Jesus was able to feed five 
    thousand people. It is said that when Andrew was thrown to the lions during the
    persecution of Christians in Greece, the lions would not attack him.
    See also: Bartholomew, Boanerges, James, John, Judas, Marienkind, Matthew,
    Peter, Philip, Simon, Thaddeus, Thomas.
    Joachim Mizrahi says this in a flashback. He's quoting the Bible, and the full
    passage is: "And the sea gave up the dead which were in it, and death and hell
    delivered up the dead which were in them, and they were judged every man
    according to their works." (Revelations 20:13)
    Joachim Mizrahi says this in a flashback. He's quoting the Bible, and the full
    passage is: "And whosoever was not found written in the Book of Life was cast
    into the lake of fire." (Revelations 20:15) His next line, "Rejoice, all ye!
    The time for feasting has come!" does not appear to be a Bible passage.
    A term used to refer to the prototype KOS-MOS. Another term from psychologist
    Carl Jung, an archetype is an image stored in the collective unconscious of
    humankind, and inherited into all our brains to be expressed in different ways
    depending on the individual.
    A planet whose sudden and as-yet unexplained disappearance apparently had
    something to do with the Zohar. In Greek mythology, Ariadne was the daughter of
    King Minos of Crete, who fell in love with Theseus and helped him to slay the
    Minotaur by giving him a magic sword and a ball of string to find his way back
    out of the Labyrinth. Theseus then abandoned her on an island, and she was wed
    to the god Dionysus instead.
    See also: Labyrinthos, Minotaur.
    A Gnosis-type enemy, encountered in Proto Merkabah. One of the Grigori (or
    Watcher) angels who were cast out from heaven for teaching celestial secrets to
    humans, and taking mortal women as their mates. Armaros was the one to teach
    humans magic and enchantments. Fittingly, the XS enemy Armaros looks vaguely 
    See also: Azazel, Baraqijal, Nephilim.
    A planetary member of the Federation, apparently located not far from where the
    Woglinde was destroyed. In the Torah, Atalya was the wicked daughter of Achav,
    a king of Israel. Through various political machinations, Atalya eventually
    came to murder an entire royal family (though not her own) and usurp power for
    six years before being overthrown.
    A Gnosis-type enemy, encountered in the Song of Nephilim. I've found two
    meanings for this: Athra is one of Adam's direct descendants, and is also the
    name in Zoroastrianism for the spiritual energy that fills the universe and was
    the catalyst of its creation.
    A Gnosis-type enemy, encountered in Proto Merkabah. One of the Grigori (or
    Watcher) angels who were cast out from heaven for teaching celestial secrets to
    humans, and taking mortal women as their mates. Azazel taught humans to make
    weapons and armor.
    See also: Armaros, Baraqijal, Nephilim.
    Bakery Smile is located in Sector 26/27 of the Kukai Foundation. Hey, are those
    cheese wedges on the sign? Nope, that's none other than video game legend and
    compulsive overeater Pacman! For those who don't know, Namco is the company
    that brought us both Xenosaga and Pacman. Bless their hearts.
    One of the Zohar Emulators, stored in the Durandal's isolation area. Also 
    called Nathanael, Bartholomew was one of the twelve apostles of Jesus Christ.
    Like many of the apostles, not much is said about him in the Bible. Upon
    meeting him for the first time, Jesus is said to have remarked "This man is a
    true Israelite. There is no guile in him."
    See also: Andrew, Boanerges, James, John, Judas, Marienkind, Matthew, Peter,
    Philip, Simon, Thaddeus, Thomas.
    A Gnosis-type enemy, encountered in Proto Merkabah. One of the Grigori (or
    Watcher) angels who were cast out from heaven for teaching celestial secrets to
    humans, and taking mortal women as their mates. Baraqijal taught humans the
    art of astrology.
    See also: Armaros, Azazel, Nephilim.
    A Gnosis-type enemy, encountered in the Encephalon. The basilisk is a terrible
    monster from Greek mythology, a serpent so deadly that if stabbed with a spear,
    its poison can travel up the shaft and kill the man who attacked it. It is said
    that the only way to kill a basilisk is to show it its own reflection,
    whereupon it will immediately die of fright.
    One of the Zohar Emulators, stored in the Durandal's isolation area. Boanerges
    means "sons of thunder", and was a surname given by Jesus Christ to two of his
    apostles, James son of Zebedee and his brother John (not John the Baptist) due
    to their powerful conviction in their faith. As there is another Zohar Emulator
    called John, this one is likely meant to represent James the Greater to
    distinguish him from the other James. 
    See also: Andrew, Bartholomew, James, John, Judas, Marienkind, Matthew, Peter,
    Philip, Simon, Thaddeus, Thomas.
    A Gnosis-type enemy, encountered in the Encephalon. From Celtic mythology, a
    bugbear is a spirit that appears in the form of an old man, and comes in the
    night to give children nightmares or steal them away from their homes. The
    bugbear was said to only prey upon naughty children (heh), and could also 
    appear as an omen of death.
    The officer in charge of the Realian lab onboard the Woglinde. Caspase is a set
    of proteins which assist in apoptosis, or the programmed death of specific
    cells in an organism.
    A Gnosis-type enemy, encountered in the Cathedral Ship. In Greek mythology,
    Cerberus was the three-headed dog who stood guard over the entrance to Hades,
    the land of the dead. Newly deceased souls could pass by Cerberus into the 
    depths, but none could leave. Of course there were several famous exceptions to
    this, as Greek heroes got to bend all the rules.
    The enigmatic protector of the Elsa, who knows a whole lot about what's going
    on but no one ever bothers to ask him. While not a reference to any one thing
    in particular, the concept of chaos is seen often in creation myths as the
    original state of the universe before (insert deity here) came along to bring
    order to it.
    See also: KOS-MOS.
    A strange and tragic U-TIC operative whose past we still don't fully
    understand. Cherenkov is a type of nuclear radiation named after the Russian
    physicist who discovered it, Pavel Alekseyevich Cherenkov. The "Cherenkov
    Effect" is a faint blue glow from radioactive substances when charged particles
    move beyond a certain speed, somewhat like the visual equivalent of an
    aircraft's sonic boom.
    You fight this Gnosis-type boss on the Woglinde. From Greek mythology, cyclopes
    ("cyclops" is singular) were humanoid giants with a single eye set in the
    middle of their foreheads. Not necessarily evil, some of the cyclopes were
    employed by Zeus to forge weapons and armor for the gods.
    The gigantic mobile headquarters of Vector Industries. Its name is German for
    "twilight", which is nothing special in itself, but is more important as a
    reference to German composer Richard Wagner's opera "Götterdämmerung" (Twilight
    of the Gods), the fourth and final part of the epic "Der Ring des Nibelungen".
    The opera shows the fall of the gods, and the the birth of an independent world
    for the humans, free from being merely pawns and victims of the gods'
    See also: Floßhilde, Rhine Maiden, Wellgunde, Woglinde.
    DEFCON 1
    A high-alert level to which the Woglinde's personnel shift when the Gnosis
    attack. DefCon stands for Defensive Condition, and is a five-level system used
    by the United States military to categorize levels of combat readiness. DefCon
    5 is normal peacetime conditions, while DefCon 1 is the highest alert status.
    A Gnosis-type enemy, encountered in Proto Merkabah. From Greek mythology,
    Delphyne was a drakaina, a maiden who was half-beast. When her brother Typhon
    cut out Zeus' sinews, he set her to guard them, until Hermes and Aegipan took
    them back. She also guarded a fountain by the oracle at Delphi until Apollo
    killed her and took over. Pretty lousy resumé for a guard.
    The title of Xenosaga Episode I. It translates from German as "The Will to 
    Power", and is the name of one of the works of German philosopher Friedrich
    Nietzsche, published posthumously. One of the central tenets of his belief 
    system, Nietzche's concept of the will to power is that all living beings have
    a natural drive to dominate and exert their will over others, and that social
    and religious constructions of morality interfere with and oppose this drive.
    Nietzsche maintained that actions taken in furtherance of this desire for
    conquest were not evil or wrong, simply an affirmation of nature, and that the
    greatest human would be one who surpassed societal morality and fully embraced
    the will to power.
    See also: Wilhelm.
    A bio-type enemy, encountered in the Encephalon. The SS-Sturmbrigade
    Dirlewanger was a Nazi military unit, named for its commander Oskar
    Dirlewanger, who was infamous for his brutality and mass murder of civilians.
    An ether attack for Shion, formed from the legs of the super robot Erde Kaiser.
    Dominion are the fourth-highest order of angels in the Judeo-Christian
    See also: Erde Kaiser, Kelbim Dragon, Seraphim Bird, Throni Blade.
    The colony-sized flagship of the Kukai Foundation. It is named for the sword
    wielded by the hero Roland, which was supposedly forged by the Roman god Vulcan
    and originally wielded by Hector of Troy. As Roland lay dying, he tried to
    smash Durandal upon a rock to prevent its capture by the enemy, but the sword
    was unbreakable and cut straight through the stone. This probably goes towards
    explaining why the ship is shaped like it is, which I had previously chalked up
    to Jr. just overcompensating.
    Captain Matthews' small but sturdy ship. Elsa is the heroine of Richard
    Wagner's opera "Lohengrin", a young noble girl falsely accused of murdering her
    See also: Lohengrin Class.
    Shion's ultimate ether attack, which summons the giant robot she helped the
    Robot Academy professor build.  Its name means "Earth Emperor" in German. The
    entire sequence with the crazy professor is a nod to the old "super robot" 
    anime shows that were huge in the 1970s, such as "Voltron" or "Mazinger Z".
    These almost always involved colorful transforming robots that fought for
    justice with burning passion, built by genius scientists (who were usually the
    hero's father, but close enough).
    See also: Dominion Tank, Kelbim Dragon, Seraphim Bird, Throni Blade.
    Albedo tells MOMO that this is something Jr. once said. He's quoting the Bible,
    and the full passage is: "Verily, verily, I say unto you, except a corn of
    wheat fall into the ground and die, it abideth alone: but if it die, it
    bringeth forth much fruit." (John 12:24)
    This is one of Albedo's attacks, when you fight him in Proto Merkabah. This
    could be taken to mean a fallen angel in general, but more likely it is an
    allusion specifically to Satan, a powerful angel who was cast out of heaven
    after defying God.
    A Gnosis-type enemy, encountered in the Cathedral Ship. Also commonly spelt
    faerie, the origins of this mythological creature are difficult to trace.
    Depending on where in Europe you ask, a fairy can be anything from a
    mischievous but benevolent little sprite, to a hulking monstrous giant.
    A mysterious Realian woman living in the church in the Encephalon. Though most
    now believe this story to be fictional, St. Febronia was supposedly a nun
    living in Mesopotamia in the third century. Persecuted for her Christian faith,
    she was offered a chance to be spared if she renounced her religion and married
    Emperor Diocletian's wavering son to convince him to also turn away from
    Christianity. She refused, and was tortured and killed for her resistance.
    The current capital of the Federation. Jerusalem is a city in Israel,
    considered holy by the Christian, Jewish and Muslim faiths. Jesus Christ was
    crucified on a hill outside Jerusalem.
    One of the three ships that escorts the Dämmerung to the huge Gnosis battle
    right before Song of Nephilim.  Wellgunde is one of the three Rhinemaidens from
    Richard Wagner's opera "Der Ring des Nibelungen".
    See also: Dämmerung, Rhine Maiden, Wellgunde, Woglinde.
    Albedo makes this remark as MOMO looks on in horror at the dead Kirschwassers.
    He is quoting William Shakespeare's play "Hamlet". Hamlet speaks this line in
    disgust, referring to how quickly his mother found comfort in his uncle's bed
    after the death of his father.
    Cherenkov transforms into this huge Gnosis in the Cathedral Ship. Not actually
    a monster, gargoyles were intentionally hideous stone carvings of beasts placed
    on the outside of Gothic buildings, the idea being that they would scare evil
    spirits away.
    An independent state within the Federation. From the Torah, Gedalya was a good-
    hearted man who was appointed as governor over the small group of Jews who
    were allowed to remain in Israel after the exile. The king of a neighboring
    nation, who hated the Jews, goaded a man into killing Gedalya, and now a fast 
    day is observed in his honor after Rosh HaShana.
    You fight this Gnosis-type boss in the Kukai Foundation. Synonymous with giant,
    a gigas is a creature usually identical to a normal human, only many times
    larger. Giants have appeared in mythology from cultures all over the world.
    The monstrous, ethereal antagonists in Episode I. Gnosis (Greek for 
    "knowledge") is a term for any one of the many varying sects of Gnosticism, a 
    pre-Christian religion that had its twilight around the fifth century A.D. 
    Gnosticism regards the material world as fundamentally evil and false, and
    teaches that knowledge of its nature (as opposed to faith, the keystone of most
    other religions) is essential to transcending it and returning to the spiritual
    realm after death. 
    See also: Jaldalbaoth, Sophie Peithos.
    A Gnosis-type enemy, encountered onboard the Woglinde. Another mythological
    monster common all over Europe, goblins at least have a more solid description
    than fairies: small, gnome-like creatures whose behavior ranged from merely
    mischievous to seriously malicious.
    One of Jr. and Gaignun's personal aides, along with her older sister Shelley.
    This is probably a shot in the dark, but Mary Shelley was the British author of
    "Frankenstein", a novel about a scientist who disrupts the natural order by
    creating a man from parts of corpses. Maybe the idea here is that Betty (the
    woman-turned-Gnosis in the Durandal's isolation area) is supposed to represent
    Frankenstein's monster.
    One of Jr. and Gaignun's personal aides, along with her younger sister Mary.
    See entry for Godwin, Mary.
    A Gnosis-type enemy, encountered onboard the Woglinde. From Jewish lore, a
    golem is a creature made of ordinarily inanimate substance (such as stone) and
    made to move through magic.
    Track 7 on disc 2 of the XSI soundtrack, which I believe plays when Shion is
    talking to Febronia. This is an arrangement of an English folk melody from
    around the 16th century, though its composer is unknown. While often heard
    without lyrics (as in XSI), the original composition did have them, about a man
    who longs in vain for a beautiful woman who will not return his love. Hello,
    A Gnosis-type enemy, encountered in the Encephalon. Gremlins are mischievous
    creatures that work their trickery exclusively on the machines and tools of 
    humans. Not a proper mythological being, the "gremlin" was a joke coined by the
    British military in World War I to explain various technical mishaps.
    Joachim Mizrahi shouts this in a flashback. In Judeo-Christian tradition, this
    is a word of praise to God. The word is formed from the Hebrew "hallel"
    (praise) and "Ya-H" (the shortened form of the name of God).
    A Gnosis-type enemy, encountered in the Cathedral Ship. From Greek mythology,
    the hydra was a serpentine creature with many heads. When one head was cut off,
    two more would grow in its place. The hydra was eventually slain by the hero
    Shion mentions this when MOMO is angsting about her creator/father, Dr.
    Mizrahi. The Database explains it well enough: as psychologist Erik Erikson put
    forth, this is the least adaptive identity type formed from adolescent
    exprerience, in which the sense of self is unstable due to unresolved
    A mecha-type enemy, encountered in Proto Merkabah. Something of a pun, iosis is
    Greek for "reddening", and I/O System (abbreviated to I/O Sys) is a computer
    term. Why they gave such an important name to a random enemy is beyond me.
    See also: Rubedo, Xanthosis.
    Jr. makes this comment to himself as he's out in space in his AGWS, searching
    for traces of the planet Ariadne. He's quoting the narration from L. Frank
    Baum's "The Wonderful Wizard of Oz", as a tornado is whisking the heroine
    Dorothy's house away to the land of Oz. The full quote is "It was very dark,
    and the wind howled horribly around her, but Dorothy found she was riding quite
    easily. After the first few whirls around, and one other time when the house
    tipped badly, she felt as if she were being rocked gently, like a baby in a
    A Gnosis-type enemy, summoned by Sophie Peithos. More commonly called 
    Ialdabaoth or The Demiurge (Greek for "craftsman"), this is the equivalent of
    the Christian Satan in the Gnostic belief system, created by the Aeon Sophia
    Pistis. Ialdabaoth then in turn created the material world. One fascinating
    difference (of many) between Gnosticism and Christianity is that this is seen
    as a sin and a folly, as he did this in ignorance of the greater spiritual
    world and arrogantly pronounced himself the one true god.
    See also: Gnosis, Pleroma, Sophie Peithos.
    One of the Zohar Emulators, stored in the Durandal's isolation area. While
    Jesus had two apostles named James, this likely specifically refers to James
    son of Alphaeus, as James son of Zebedee was already covered under Boanerges.
    Fitting his common nickname of James the Less (poor guy), next to nothing is
    known about him.
    See also: Andrew, Bartholomew, Boanerges, John, Judas, Marienkind, Matthew,
    Peter, Philip, Simon, Thaddeus, Thomas.
    One of the Zohar Emulators, stored in the Durandal's isolation area. Not to be
    confused with John the Baptist, John son of Zebedee was one of the twelve
    apostles of Jesus Christ. The only one of the twelve to have attended Christ's
    crucifixion, John went on to write several books of the Bible, including the
    Book of Revelations.
    See also: Andrew, Bartholomew, Boanerges, James, Judas, Marienkind, Matthew,
    Peter, Philip, Simon, Thaddeus, Thomas.
    One of the Zohar Emulators, stored in the Durandal's isolation area. One of
    Jesus Christ's disciples, Judas Iscariot is the one who betrayed Christ to the
    Romans for thirty pieces of silver, leading to Christ's crucifixion. He was
    immediately filled with remorse for his act, threw away the silver and hanged
    himself in the temple.
    See also: Andrew, Bartholomew, Boanerges, James, John, Marienkind, Matthew,
    Peter, Philip, Simon, Thaddeus, Thomas.
    Formed from the torso of the Erde Kaiser. "Kelbim" is a mistranslation of
    "Cherubim", which refers to the second-highest order of angels in the Judeo-
    Christian hierarchy.
    See also: Dominion Tank, Erde Kaiser, Seraphim Bird, Throni Blade.
    A Gnosis-type enemy, encountered in the Encephalon. From German folklore, 
    kobolds are small spirits who live underground and, like goblins, like to play
    tricks on humans.
    An android developed as an anti-Gnosis weapon. "Kosmos" is the Greek word for
    order, which is of course the opposite of chaos. From this we derive the 
    English word cosmos, which refers to the universe as a whole.
    See also: chaos.
    The central base of the U-TIC Organization. In Greek mythology, the Labyrinthos
    (or simply Labyrinth) was a giant maze constructed by the inventor Daedalus to
    contain the monstrous Minotaur of Crete.
    See also: Ariadne, Minotaur.
    An old model of Realian, produced before the Miltian Conflict. Lamech was a
    Biblical figure, a direct descendant of Cain, and the first man to violate the
    law of marriage by taking two wives. When the floods came, Cain's bloodline
    ended with Lamech.
    See also: Abel.
    A U.M.N. Network auction house that deals in artifacts. This could be a
    reference to any number of things, among them Regulus, the star located at the
    heart of the lion constellation Leo, or perhaps Richard the Lionheart, king of
    England during the Crusades. None seem to fit terribly well, though.
    The Elsa belongs to this class of ship, but this is unfortunately the only 
    class the game mentions. "Lohengrin" is the name of another opera by Richard
    Wagner. Its heroine, Elsa, is falsely accused of murder, but a knight in 
    shining armor comes to her defense, offering to marry her on the condition that
    she does not ask of his name or past. She agrees, but eventually curiosity gets
    the better of her and she questions him before their marriage. True to his
    word, he answers her, but then sadly returns to his homeland, leaving his bride
    to die of sorrow at his departure.
    See also: Elsa.
    The term for planet Earth after its unexplained disappearance.
    See entry for Fifth Jerusalem.
    The antique pistol that Gaignun buys for Jr. through the Lion's Heart. Also
    called the Pistolet Makarova or just "PM", this is indeed a real weapon. 
    Designed by Russian gunsmith Nikolai Fedorovich Makarov after World War II, the
    reliable weapon is still in service today.
    A Gnosis-type enemy, encountered onboard the Woglinde. From the mythology of
    various parts of Asia, a manticore is a fearsome predator, resembling a lion
    with the head of a human, and poison in its barbed tail. The manticore was said
    to eat its victims completely, including their bones and all their possessions,
    and was used to explain villagers who vanished without a trace.
    The central Zohar Emulator stored in the Durandal's isolation area. As Shelley
    says, it means "the child of Mary". One would think this was plainly a
    reference to Jesus Christ, but the U.M.N. Database disagrees: it apparently
    refers to a Grimm's fairytale of the same name, about a little girl who
    receives the keys to the doors of heaven from Mary. Probably works as a
    reference to both.
    See also: Andrew, Bartholomew, Boanerges, James, John, Judas, Matthew, Peter,
    Philip, Simon, Thaddeus, Thomas.
    One of the Zohar Emulators, stored in the Durandal's isolation area. Andrew was
    one of the twelve apostles of Jesus Christ, not much is known about him either,
    aside from the fact that he wrote one of the Gospels of the Bible.
    See also: Andrew, Bartholomew, Boanerges, James, John, Judas, Marienkind, 
    Peter, Philip, Simon, Thaddeus, Thomas.
    You fight this Gnosis-type boss onboard the Woglinde. A half-man, half-bull
    monster from Greek mythology, the Minotaur was born from the wife of King Minos
    of Crete, as punishment for Minos' deception of the god Poseidon. Ordering a 
    massive Labyrinth built to imprison the creature, Minos had it sealed away, and
    sent in sacrifices of young men and women for it to feed upon. With the help of
    Minos' daughter Ariadne, the hero Theseus slew the Minotaur and escaped the
    See also: Ariadne, Labyrinthos.
    Part of young Albedo's seemingly insane ramblings in a flashback. He is 
    quoting Disney's "Snow White and the Seven Dwarves", in which the vain and
    wicked queen demands daily of her magic mirror, "Mirror, mirror, on the wall, 
    who's the fairest one of all?" The original Snow White tale was penned by the 
    Brothers Grimm, but this famous quote is from the Disney adaptation.
    A weapon for MOMO. A mythical silvery metal invented by author J.R.R. Tolkien
    for his medieval fantasy stories, mithril has since become a staple of weapons
    and armor in many RPGs.
    The brilliant scientist with questionable morals, who is now despised after his
    death for the things he created. St. Joachim is honored as the father of the
    Virgin Mary, though no historical record exists of his life. Mizrahi (plural:
    Mizrahim) refers to a Jew of African or Arab descent, who are aften looked down
    upon by others of the Jewish faith.
    The widow of Dr. Joachim Mizrahi, and member of the Contact Subcommittee.
    See entry for Mizrahi, Joachim.
    A 100-Series Observational Realian and member of your party. Her entire
    character is essentially an homage to the "magical girl" genre of anime, of
    which "Sailor Moon" is a well-known example. MOMO, however, seems to 
    specifically be a take on Sakura Kinomoto, from CLAMP's "Cardcaptor Sakura", as
    her clothing bears a striking resemblance to Sakura's school uniform, and Dr.
    Mizrahi even calls her Sakura at one point.  The constant flashing of MOMO's
    panties is probably poking fun at the creepier fans who tend to oversexualize
    magical girl heroines (and the animation studios that happily encourage them to
    continue doing so).
    The NATARAJA is a computer system used to connect to KOS-MOS' Encephalon.
    Nataraja, the dancer is one of the many forms of Shiva, a major Hindu deity.
    The many-armed dancer embodies all of Shiva's facets, including the twin powers
    of creation and destruction.
    The mysterious young girl who appears to Shion. Nephilim is a collective term
    for the monstrous giants born from the union of the Grigori angels and mortal
    women. They had spiritual powers and terrible appetities, and eventually turned
    on each other for food after exhausting the land around them. The Nephilim are
    also credited with building the Tower of Babel before destroying themselves.
    See also: Armaros, Azazel, Baraqijal.
    As Jr. gazes at space, he wonders if it resembles "the lake of darkness where
    Nero does his fishing". Nero was the fifth emperor of Rome, and Jr. is
    paraphrasing William Shakespeare's "King Lear." The line to which he alludes is
    spoken by Edgar: "Frateretto calls me, and tells me Nero is an angler in the
    lake of darkness. Pray, innocent, and beware of the foul fiend." (Unrelated,
    but the popular story that Nero fiddled while Rome burned has no basis in 
    historical fact.)
    Another name for U.R.T.V. unit #669, Gaignun Kukai. Nigredo, Latin for 
    "blackening", is the first step in the alchemical process that is often also
    used as a symbol for psychological individuation. The phase of nigredo can be 
    one of deep depression, as we are forced to look at the aspects of ourselves
    that we don't like, and that we keep hidden in the shadows. This humbling of
    the ego is necessary for the reshaping that will follow.
    See also: Piasora, Albedo; Rubedo.
    A Gnosis-type enemy, encountered in the Cathedral Ship. Monsters from fairy
    tales, ogres were similar to giants, though typically smaller and far less 
    pleasant, as their diet consisted of human flesh.
    Track 1 on disc 2 of the XSI soundtrack, which plays inside the church in the 
    Encephalon. One of many, many spellings (others include Ahura Mazdah, Hormuz
    and Ohrmazd) of the name of the supreme Zoroastrian god, who represented truth
    and goodness. Ormus created the world as a place to battle against Ahriman,
    lord of evil.
    See also: Zarathustra.
    A process used in creating the Encephalon simulation inside KOS-MOS, probably
    to link up the sensors to her simulated body. Named for American neurosurgeon
    Wilder Penfield, this is not actually a process, but a discovery. In trying to
    cure epileptic seizures, Penfield accidentally made discoveries about the human
    brain that led to a detailed map of what areas of the brain correspond to which
    parts of the body.
    One of the Zohar Emulators, stored in the Durandal's isolation area. One of 
    the apostles of Jesus Christ, Peter was the first to recognize Christ as the
    messiah. And in accordance to the prophecy of Jesus' death, Peter denied
    knowing him three times the night of the Last Supper, even though he had sworn
    he would not.
    See also: Andrew, Bartholomew, Boanerges, James, John, Judas, Marienkind,
    Matthew, Philip, Simon, Thaddeus, Thomas.
    One of the Zohar Emulators, stored in the Durandal's isolation area. One of the
    apostles of Jesus Christ, Philip is said to be the founder of the Ethiopian
    Orthodox Church, when he converted and baptized an Ethiopian man who returned
    to his country to preach the Christian faith.
    See also: Andrew, Bartholomew, Boanerges, James, John, Judas, Marienkind,
    Matthew, Peter, Simon, Thaddeus, Thomas.
    An anti-matter weapon employed by Federation warships. This is most likely a
    reference to the long-running American science fiction series "Star Trek",
    whose ships use an identical weapon.
    The gleefully psychotic U.R.T.V. villain, who is the only one in the cast that
    responds properly to everything Jr. says (with constant laughter). Albedo,
    Latin for "whitening", is the second phase of alchemical psychology, following
    nigredo. In albedo, greater perspective and insight into the workings of our
    mind is gained, as we become able to see our emotions from a vantage point
    outside of subjective immersion. Albedo is a phase of tranquility and
    purification, bringing light to the shadows of nigredo.
    See also: Nigredo, Rubedo.
    The Durandal's main computer. Pieta, Italian for "pity", is the image of the
    Virgin Mary holding the lifeless body of Christ in her arms. Perhaps the most
    famous depiction of the Pieta is the lifesize marble sculpture by Michelangelo
    Buonarroti, completed in 1499.
    U-TIC's asteroid base, where MOMO was being held. Meaning "fullness" in Greek,
    the pleroma is the great spiritual world in Gnostic beliefs. This is the home
    of the supreme being and the divine Aeons, which were like the pantheons of
    Greek and Roman gods in that each was a cosmic representation of a concept,
    such as Wisdom, Life or Truth.
    See also: Gnosis, Jaldabaoth, Sophie Peithos.
    A technique used to trace Zohar energy; the Durandal uses this to locate the
    Woglinde wreckage. As the Database says, this is a technique used in DNA
    sequence analysis. (If anyone can provide more information on this, please
    make sure it's in very small words and possibly accompanied by comforting
    stick figure illustrations. Science and I don't get along well.)
    A mammoth space station created by Joachim Mizrahi, and raised from the Abyss
    by Albedo. Merkabah refers to a mystical inner journey undertaken by Kabbalists
    through which they believed they could see the fullness of the glory of God.
    The Merkabah was visualized as a chariot on which one rode through the palaces
    of the heavens.
    See also: Zohar.
    A Gnosis-type enemy, summoned by Sophie Peithos. In Norse mythology, Ratatosk
    was a squirrel who lived in Yggdrasil, the world tree, and carried messages
    between all the worlds.
    The incredibly powerful anti-Gnosis weapon installed on the Woglinde II,
    Wellgunde and Floßhilde (and likely the original Woglinde as well, but I guess
    we'll never really know), which evens the battle against the Gnosis army.
    "Rhinemaiden" is a collective term that refers to the mermaids Woglinde,
    Wellgunde and Floßhilde in Wagner's multi-part opera "Der Ring des Nibelungen".
    The Rhinemaidens live (of course) in the Rhine river, and protect magical gold
    which, if made into a ring by one who had renounced love, would grant the
    wearer the power to rule the world.
    See also: Dämmerung.
    You fight this Gnosis-type boss in the Song of Nephilim. More commonly spelled
    Rhiannon (and called Epona outside of Wales), this is the Celtic goddess of the
    horse and other animals.
    If not Jr.'s real name, then at least a little more real than Gaignun Kukai, 
    Jr. The final phase of the alchemical/psychological process, rubedo (Latin for
    "reddening") follows the albedo phase. Rubedo takes the lessons learned from
    nigredo and albedo and puts them into action. The albedo-purified unconscious
    mind is beautiful but abstract; rubedo fills the whiteness with blood and life,
    and brings the now-complete process into the realm of the conscious mind.
    See also: 666; Piasora, Albedo; Iosys; Nigredo.
    Joachim Mizrahi calls MOMO this in a flashback. It's a common Japanese girl's
    name, and means "cherry blossom".  
    See entry for MOMO.
    An ether attack for Shion, formed from the head of the super robot Erde Kaiser.
    In Judeo-Christian teachings, the seraphim are the highest order in the
    hierarchy of angels.
    See also: Dominion Tank, Erde Kaiser, Kelbim Dragon, Throni Blade.
    A popular singing duo, who were performing on planet Keltia at the time of the
    Woglinde incident.
    See entry for Seraphim Bird.
    Albedo's gigantic mecha. Simeon was a Biblical figure who, along with his
    brother Levi, slaughtered an entire tribe to avenge their sister's honor.
    One of the Zohar Emulators, stored in the Durandal's isolation area. Simon was
    one of the apostles of Jesus Christ but very little is known about him. Even
    the exact reason why he was called "Simon the Zealot" is unclear; either for
    his religious fervor, or his membership in a Jewish revolutionary group called
    the Zealots.
    See also: Andrew, Bartholomew, Boanerges, James, John, Judas, Marienkind,
    Matthew, Peter, Philip, Thaddeus, Thomas.
    A huge pyramid-shaped fortress built by Dr. Mizrahi.
    See entry for Nephilim.
    The final boss of the game, this huge Gnosis fuses itself to Proto Merkabah's
    reactor. Another mistranslation, this should read Sophia Pistis. From Gnostic
    beliefs, Sophia Pistis is the Aeon (or divine representation) of Wisdom. Sophia
    longed to understand the supreme being, and so attempted to create life by
    herself in imitation of him, but succeeded only in giving birth to the
    abomination Ialdabaoth.
    See also: Gnosis, Jaldabaoth.
    A Gnosis-type enemy, encountered in the Cathedral Ship. The Slavic god of the
    wind, Stribog was seen as malevolent deity who reveled in causing suffering
    with harsh winter winds.
    A Gnosis-type enemy, encountered in the Cathedral Ship. The Slavic god of fire,
    Svarozic is recognized by some sects as the supreme god.
    One of the Zohar Emulators, stored in the Durandal's isolation area. Also
    called Jude, Thaddeus was another apostle of Christ about whom we know very
    little. One story we do have is that while traveling to preach with Simon, the
    city of Suanir tried to force them to make a sacrifice to the local gods.
    Instead the two apostles exorcised demons from the temple, which resulted in
    the angered people beating them to death.
    See also: Andrew, Bartholomew, Boanerges, James, John, Judas, Marienkind,
    Matthew, Peter, Philip, Simon, Thomas.
    One of the Zohar Emulators, stored in the Durandal's isolation area. Thomas was
    one of the twelve apostles of Jesus Christ, and is often known as Thomas the
    Doubter for his (understandably) skeptic reaction to the news of Christ's
    See also: Andrew, Bartholomew, Boanerges, James, John, Judas, Marienkind,
    Matthew, Peter, Philip, Simon, Thaddeus.
    An ether attack for Shion, formed from the legs of the super robot Erde Kaiser.
    "Throni" is a mistranslation, as it should be "Throne", which refers to the
    third-highest order of Judeo-Christian angels.
    See also: Dominion Tank, Erde Kaiser, Kelbim Dragon, Seraphim Bird.
    You fight this Gnosis-type boss in the church in the Encephalon. From
    Babylonian mythology, Tiamat was an enormous female dragon who was regarded as
    the mother of the gods and all creation. When she plotted to kill her children,
    the powerful god Marduk slew her, and from her body made the earth and sky.
    A Gnosis-type enemy, encountered in the Encephalon. From Scandinavian
    mythology, trolls are ugly, powerful monsters who prey on humans, much like
    ogres. Trolls cannot abide the sun, and will turn to stone if exposed to its
    The inconceivably expansive information and transportation network for the
    entire Federation. As mentioned in the Database, the term comes from a concept
    by the psychiatrist Carl Jung, for the realm where all concepts become one, and
    the psyche merges with matter.
    A Gnosis-type enemy, encountered in the Cathedral Ship. The unicorn is a 
    mythological creature that seems to have its roots in Greek mythology, though
    similar beasts have appeared in lore from other cultures. Usually depicted as a
    beautiful white horse with a single long horn, the unicorn is a benevolent
    creature whose horn is said to have healing powers.
    A brilliant Vector employee and Chief Engineer of the KOS-MOS Project. Here's
    more guesswork: as "Shion" is not a usual Japanese name, it could be the
    Japanese reading of the English word "scion", which means descendant or heir.
    What Shion is the heir of, if anything, remains to be seen.
    A bigoted anti-Realian soldier on board the Woglinde, he is later revealed to 
    have become a Gnosis after death. Virgil was a Roman poet, author of "The 
    Aeneid" (among other works). More relevant to Xenosaga, though, he was used as
    a character in Dante's "Divine Comedy" centuries after his death, in which he 
    serves as Dante's guide through the many levels of hell.
    One of the three ships that escorts the Dämmerung to the huge Gnosis battle 
    right before Song of Nephilim. Wellgunde is one of the three Rhinemaidens from
    Wagner's opera "Der Ring des Nibelungen".
    See also: Dämmerung, Floßhilde, Rhine Maiden, Woglinde.
    Shion makes the comment to Allen, "You're usually so hardheaded with your logic
    and preconceptions, I was a little worried that you'd become like one of Wells'
    Aliens."  She's referring to H.G. Wells, a science fiction writer in the late
    19th and early 20th centuries, whose aliens tended to be nasty, Earth-
    conquering types. The 1938 broadcast version of his "War of the Worlds" fooled
    many into thinking that Martians really were attacking earth, except of course
    those who had read the book. See, reading -is- fundamental.
    The CEO of Vector Industries, an enigmatic man who seems somehow to have his
    hand in everything. Wilhelm is also the middle name of German philosopher
    Friedrich Nietzsche, from whose works the episode's title is taken. Because of
    this connection, perhaps the title refers to Wilhelm, rather than the more
    obvious Albedo.
    See also: Der Wille zur Macht.
    The Federation ship on which Vector is performing its final tests on KOS-MOS,
    which is destroyed early in the game. Woglinde is one of the three Rhinemaidens
    from Wagner's opera "Der Ring des Nibelungen".
    See also: Dämmerung, Floßhilde, Rhine Maiden, Wellgunde.
    The Woglinde's sister ship, one of the three that arrives escorting the
    Dämmerung to the Gnosis battle before Song of Nephilim.
    See entry for Woglinde.
    A Gnosis-type enemy, encountered in the Kukai Foundation. Synonymous with
    dragon, wyrms have been found in legends from cultures all over the world.
    Though they vary in description, most mythos agree that they're huge, powerful
    reptilian creatures, who usually possess the powers of flight and fiery breath.
    A mecha-type enemy, encountered in Proto Merkabah. Greek for "yellowing", this
    is equivalent to citrinitas, a fourth stage of the alchemical/
    psychological process that is often disregarded in most works on the matter, in
    favor of the other three. While there is no character in Episode I named
    Citrinitas, notice that the three U.R.T.V. units we meet are 666, 667 and 669.
    No points for guessing who's going to show up in Episode II.
    See also: Iosys; Nigredo; Piasora, Albedo; Rubedo.
    One of KOS-MOS' tech attacks. Probably just a coincidence, but this is also the
    name of the android X's arm cannon from the video game series Rockman X
    (Megaman X in the US). Who says there couldn't be a Rockman fan on Xenosaga's
    development team?
    Track 8 on disc 2 of the XSI soundtrack, though I can't recall exactly where in
    the game it plays. Also called Zoroaster, he was the founder of the Zoroastrian
    religion. "Thus Spoke Zarathustra: A Book for All and None" is another work by
    philosopher Friedrich Nieztsche.
    Full "name" of the cyborg Ziggy. A ziggurat is an ancient Mesopotamian temple,
    though not used for human worship. Rather, they are meant to be the homes of
    the gods in the human world, a bridge between heaven and earth.
    The ancient and powerful artifact which is unearthed in the opening sequence,
    and becomes the focal point for the entire Xenosaga. Its full name Sepher Ha-
    Zohar ("the Book of Radiance"), the Zohar is a crucial part of Jewish
    mysticism, written in the 13th century. It includes a commentary on the Torah,
    central Kabbalistic teachings (including the Merkabah), and philosophy on good
    and evil, the soul, and the nature of the universe. The Zohar teaches that all
    things have, beyond their mundane identity, a spiritual and hidden significance
    that is key to understanding God.
    See also: Proto Merkabah.
    Here are a couple areas in particular I'm having trouble with. Anyone is more
    than welcome to send me suggestions that don't fit any of these, but the
    following are the ones that keep me awake at night:
    +  Many of the characters' tech attacks and ethers involve various arcane 
       circles and designs. Not really my field of expertise, and I'm at something
       of a loss as to how I'd go about looking them up. Anyone recognize any?
    +  Margulis. I can find nothing on this man, or at least anything that looks 
       significant enough to be the inspiration for his name.
    +  So when WAS Zarathustra played, anyway?
    +  Pepsi
    +  www.google.com
    +  The continued expansion of Yasunori Mitsuda's cosmic superconsciousness.
    +  Tristan, for setting me straight on the Lucifer vs. Satan issue. Mwah.
    Copyright 2003 Colin Phillips.
    All other trademarks and copyrights contained in this document are owned by 
    their respective trademark and copyright holders.

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