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    Circuit Histories Guide by Wolf Feather

    Version: Final | Updated: 10/15/02 | Search Guide | Bookmark Guide

    Jamie Stafford/Wolf Feather
    Initial Version Completed: September 17, 2002
    FINAL VERSION Completed:   October 15, 2002
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    Spacing and Length
    Assumptions and Conventions
    Circuit History: Albert Park
    Circuit History: Kuala Lampur
    Circuit History: Interlagos
    Circuit History: Imola
    Circuit History: Catalunya
    Circuit History: A1-Ring
    Circuit History: Monte Carlo
    Circuit History: Circuit Gilles Villeneuve
    Circuit History: Nurburgring
    Circuit History: Silverstone
    Circuit History: Nevers Magny-Cours
    Circuit History: Hockenheim
    Circuit History: Hungaroring
    Circuit History: Spa-Francorchamps
    Circuit History: Monza
    Circuit History: Indianapolis
    Circuit History: Suzuka
    Contact Information
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    This guide was created due to a personal inquiry, wishing to
    learn more about the history of the race venues currently
    used in F1 competition.  This is not intended to be a
    detailed history of all the race venues, but more of a
    general overview of the circuits.  As more information is
    gained, this guide will be modified and expanded accordingly.
    The majority of information for this guide comes from
    circuits' official Web sites, Formula1.com
    (http://www.formula1.com/), and Driver Network
    (http://www.drivernetwork.net/).  To the extent possible, I
    will try to update circuit wins as best as I can, although
    that admittedly is not initially a priority in writing this
    Most race circuits outside the United States name most
    corners and chicanes, and even some straightaways.  Where
    these names are known and relevant to the circuit histories,
    they will be given.  These names have been gathered from
    course maps available on the courses' official Web sites, my
    memory of how F1 races have been called by American TV
    sportscasters (Fox Sports Net and SpeedVision, in 1999 2001,
    and Speed Channel in 2002), and/or from the Training Mode of
    F1 Championship Season 2000 (corner/segment names are listed
    at the bottom of the screen).  To the extent possible, these
    names have been translated into English.
    The Albert Park circuit is a beautiful tree-lined venue using
    real Melbourne city streets encircling the serene Albert Park
    Lake.  The Albert Park circuit has hosted the Grand Prix of
    Australia since 1996, taking over from the Adelaide temporary
    street circuit.  Over 400,000 spectators saw the 1997 Grand
    Prix of Australia in person at the Albert Park venue.
    The 2002 Grand Prix of Australia was extremely eventful from
    the very beginning - to the extent that only eight cars
    finished the race!!!  Rubens Barrichello began the race from
    Pole Position (P1), but on slowing for the first corner of
    the circuit, Ralf Schumacher (brother of Michael Schumacher)
    rammed the rear of Barrichello's Ferrari and was sent
    airborne, landing in the massive sand trap at the end of Pit
    Straight with far too much damage to continue.  The incident
    created a massive chain-reaction melee as the other drivers
    scrambled to take evasive action... but many ended up taking
    each other out of contention due to massive damage.  Seven
    other drivers were forced to retire from the race due to
    extreme damage.  Fortunately, there were no severe injuries -
    just a lot of bruised egos and angry tempers.  Stupidly,
    however, the race marshals made the decision to send out the
    Safety Car instead of red-flagging the race; had the race
    been stopped instead, FIA rules would have permitted all
    those drivers involved in the incident to use their back-up
    ('T') cars when the race was restarted.  Of course, those
    drivers whose cars were damaged in the opening-lap melee were
    able to take advantage of the Safety Car situation to make
    repairs and rejoin the race.
    F1 winners at Albert Park include Damon Hill (1996), David
    Coulthard (1997), Mika Hakkinen (1998), Eddie Irvine (1999),
    and Michael Schumacher (2000-2002).
    The official Web site of the Australian Grand Prix
    Corporation (http://www.grandprix.com.au/cars/index.asp)
    features information on Australian F1 driver Mark Webber.
    Interestingly, there is a movement afoot - Save Albert Park
    (http://www.save-albert-park.org.au/) - which aims to prevent
    the relocation of the Grand Prix of Australia to a permanent
    race venue.
    The Sepang Circuit opened in March 1999 and includes three
    circuit formations: Race Track (used for the F1 Grand Prix of
    Malaysia), Go-Kart Track (using the first half of Race
    Track), and Motocross Track (circuit layout not yet available
    on the official Sepang Web site).  This is the second-newest
    race venue in F1 competition, which began its F1 use at the
    end of the 1999 season.  Sepang hosts F1, JapanGT, MotoGP,
    Merdeka Endurance, Malaysian Super Series, Motocross, and
    other track events (including private bookings).
    Two features cause the Sepang Circuit to truly stand out
    among all other F1 race venues.  The first is the incredibly
    wide nature of the track itself, which has a 16m minimum
    width to provide plenty of side-by-side racing action.
    Aesthetically, the Sepang Circuit is literally dominated by
    the main grandstand, which is nestled snugly inside the two
    longest straightaways and has a roof designed to simulate
    Malaysia's national flower (the hibiscus, or Rosa Sinensis -
    known locally as the Bunga Raya).
    Unfortunately, with the relative newness of the Sepang
    Circuit, there is not much historical information to be
    found.  The winners of the initial four Grands Prix of
    Malaysia: Eddie Irvine (1999), Michael Schumacher (2000 and
    2001), and Ralf Schumacher (2002).
    See the official Web site (http://www.malaysiangp.com.my).
    The Autodromo Jose Carlos Pace has hosted the Grand Prix of
    Brazil intermittently since 1973, but has held the event
    consistently since 1990.  As with many race venues, the
    circuit was originally longer (7.914 kilometers, or 4.946
    miles) than its current configuration (4.267 kilometers, or
    2.667 miles).  This is also an odd venue in that races are
    run counterclockwise.
    This is definitely a tricky circuit to master, built upon a
    steep hillside.  The very end of Pit Straight is the highest
    point of the circuit, then the circuit drops away
    significantly on a steep downhill S-curve which is one of the
    most dangerous areas in all of current F1 racing.  The
    majority of Sector 2 and the beginning of Sector 3 are a set
    of tight, twisty corners connected with VERY brief
    straightaways, all tempered with significant elegant changes.
    F1 winners at Interlagos: Emerson Fittipaldi (1973 and 1974),
    Carlos Pace (1975), Niki Lauda (1976), Carlos Reutemann
    (1977), Jacques Laffite (1979), Rene Arnoux (1980), Alain
    Prost (1990), Ayrton Senna (1991 and 1993), Nigel Mansell
    (1992), Michael Schumacher (1994, 1995, 2000, and 2002),
    Damon Hill (1996), Jacques Villeneuve (1997), Mika Hakkinen
    (1998 and 1999), and David Coulthard (2001).
    Unfortunately, I am currently unable to find any further
    online information concerning the Interlagos venue.
    Used for F1 racing since 1963, the Autodromo Enzo & Dino
    Ferrari is actually located in Italy (20 miles - or 32
    kilometers - from Bologna) even though it officially hosts
    the Grand Prix of San Marino.  Construction of the circuit
    began in 1950, and three years later was officially opened
    with 125cc & 500cc motorbike events.  However, only in 1979
    was the entire venue made permanent; before this time, part
    of the circuit was comprised of public roads.
    The 1963 F1 race was an untitled race, but was indeed part of
    the Formula1 series.  In 1980, the Imola circuit hosted its
    first World F1 race as the Grand Prix of Italy.  Beginning in
    1981, the race at Imola was named the Grand Prix of San
    Two notable major incidents occurred at Imola.  The first was
    in 1989, when Ferrari driver Gerhard Berger crashed and
    exploded in flames.  Nearly a full fifteen seconds later, the
    flames were extinguished and Berger saved to the delight of
    the concerned spectators; in fact, Berger re-entered the
    Five years later, during the qualifier race and the actual
    Grand Prix, Roland Ratzenberger and Ayrton Senna lost their
    lives.  (There has practically been a 'cult' surrounding the
    death of Ayrton Senna, and there are several Web sites which
    include details as well as video of his tragic death.)  Due
    to these incidents, the circuit was redesigned.
    F1 winners at Imola: Nelson Piquet (1981), Didier Pironi
    (1982), Patrick Tambay (1983), Alain Prost (1984, 1984, and
    1993), Elio de Angelis (1985), Nigel Mansell (1987 and 1992),
    Ayrton Senna (1988, 1989, and 1991), Riccardo Patrese (1990),
    Michael Schumacher (1994, 1999, 2000, and 2002), Damon Hill
    (1995 and 1996), Heinz-Harald Frentzen (1997), David
    Coulthard (1998), and Ralf Schumacher (2001).
    Visit the official Web site (http://www.autodromoimola.com/)
    for more information.
    The Circuit de Catalunya near Barcelona has hosted the Grand
    Prix of Spain since 1997.  The circuit hosts numerous forms
    of racing, including FIA Sportscar Championship, Spanish
    Formula-1 Grand Prix, 24 HOURS MOTORBIKE ENDURANCE, 24 HOURS
    CAR ENDURANCE, Catalunya Motorbike Championship, Spanish GT's
    Championship, Truck GP, and certainly F1 Racing; Catalunya
    even holds courses for the preparation of racing officials.
    Many teams also use the circuit for practice and testing.
    The circuit has three configurations: Grand Prix (7.563
    kilometers, or 4.727 miles), National (4.907 kilometers, or
    3.067 miles), and School (2.725 kilometers, or 1.703 miles).
    F1 winners at Catalunya: Jacques Villeneuve (1997), Mika
    Hakkinen (1998-2000), and Mika Hakkinen (2001 and 2002).
    See the official Web site (http://www.circuitcat.com) for
    more information.  Unfortunately, it does not have any
    historical information on the circuit, nor can I find any
    such information online.
    The A1-Ring has been the host of F1's Grand Prix of Austria
    since 1997, but also hosts Truck Grand Prix, Classic Grand
    Prix, Deutsche Tourenwagen Masters, and motorbikes, among
    other racing series.
    The 2002 Grand Prix of Austria was surrounded by controversy
    following an extreme Ferrari public relations faux pas.
    Reubens Barrichello had truly dominated the entire race
    weekend, and was definitely on his way to his second-ever F1
    win.  In the closing laps of the race, teammate Michael
    Schumacher (P2) began closing in on Barrichello, but the
    assumption was that this move was to allow Ferrari's cars to
    be close enough for a photo opportunity for its sponsors.
    However, since Michael Schumacher and Juan Pablo Montoya
    (Schumacher's closest expected competition) were at that
    point very close in points in the Drivers' Championship,
    Barrichello - who that week had signed a contract extension
    as the NUMBER TWO TEAM DRIVER behind Michael Schumacher - was
    ordered to pull aside in the final meters of the race to
    allow his teammate to gain an extra four points in his lead
    over Montoya (P1 awards 10 points; P2 awards 6 points).
    While FIA could not do anything against the team or the
    drivers for the team orders, the fans in the stands (and
    myself watching live on television at 7AM in Arizona) were
    FURIOUS.  Michael Schumacher having officially 'won' the race
    was to take the top rung on the podium, but instead took the
    second rung and pushed the 'true' winner Reubens Barrichello
    to the top rung; the FIA took objection to this and
    sanctioned the team and the drivers at a special hearing
    later in the year.
    F1 winners at A1-Ring: Jacques Villeneuve (1997), Mika
    Hakkinen (1998 and 2000), Eddie Irvine (1999), David
    Coulthard (2001), and Michael Schumacher (the official winner
    in 2002 - see the note on the controversy above, as many
    consider that Reubens Barrichello won the race).
    See the official Web site (http://www.a1ring.at) for more
    information.  Unfortunately, it does not appear to have any
    historical information on the circuit itself, nor can I find
    any such information online.  Also, the official Web site is
    entirely in German, a language I cannot read.
    Anthony Noghes presented the concept of an automobile racing
    event in the streets of Monte Carlo in the 1920s.  With the
    support of Prince Louis II, it was realized that the natural
    lay of the land provided a natural location for a superb
    racetrack.  The first Grand Prix of Monaco was help April 14,
    1929, with sixteen competitors.  Since then, only fourteen
    years did the Grand Prix of Monaco not take place.
    Many of the most famous F1 drivers have won the Grand Prix of
    Monaco: Juan Manuel Fangio in 1950 and 1957; Stirling Moss in
    1956, 1960, and 1961; Graham Hill in 1963-1965, 1968 and
    1969; Jackie Stewart in 1966, 1971, and 1973; Niki Lauda in
    1975 and 1976; Alain Prost in 1984-1986 and 1988; Ayrton
    Senna in 1987 and 1989-1993; and Michael Schumacher in 1994,
    1995, 1997, 1999, and 2001.  Due to the narrowness of the
    circuit, the steep elevation changes, and the numerous tight
    corners, the Grand Prix of Monte Carlo is one of the most
    prestigious events an F1 driver can possibly win.
    See the official Web site (http://www.monaco.mc/monaco/gprix)
    for more information.
    Located on the Ile Notre-Dame in Montreal, Quebec, Canada,
    the circuit has hosted the Grand Prix of Canada since 1978.
    The circuit is named for Gilles Villeneuve, the first
    Canadian F1 driver.  His first F1 victory was in 1978 at the
    Canadian Grand Prix on the Ile Notre-Dame track.  However,
    following his death during a practice session for the 1982
    Grand Prix of Belgium, the City of Montreal Executive
    Committee passed a resolution to rename the circuit in honor
    of Gilles Villeneuve.  Jacques Villeneuve, son of Gilles
    Villeneuve, now competes in F1 (for BAR in 2002), so the
    Villeneuve name continues on in F1 racing.
    Many people attempt to compare F1 cars with CART cars.
    Therefore, it is perhaps not so surprising that in 2002, CART
    raced at Circuit Gilles Villeneuve for the first time.  Based
    upon the popularity of this first CART venture to the
    circuit, CART will likely keep returning to this great race
    venue for many years and decades to come.
    F1 winners at Circuit Gilles Villeneuve: Gilles Villeneuve
    (1978), Alan Jones (1979 and 1980), Jacques Laffite (1981),
    Nelson Piquet (1982, 1984 and 1991), Rene Arnoux (1983),
    Michele Alboreto (1985), Ayrton Senna (1988 and 1990),
    Thierry Boutsen (1989), Gerhard Berger (1992), Alain Prost
    (1993), Michael Schumacher (1994, 1997, 1998, 2000, and
    2002), Jean Alesi (1995), Damon Hill (1996), Mika Hakkinen
    (1999), and Ralf Schumacher (2001).
    The official Web site (http://www.grandprix.ca) has plenty of
    good information - including very important circuit access
    information, since cars cannot be taken to the island.
    Originally 22.677 kilometers (14.173 miles) in length, the
    Nurburgring first opened in 1927 (following two years of
    construction) and is still going strong.  The opening events
    featured motorcycles (June 18, 1927), with cars featured the
    following day.  The 1939 German Grand Prix was the final race
    at Nurburgring for quite some time due to the beginning of
    World War II.  The circuit itself was damaged in the closing
    months of the war, but racing returned to Nurburgring in
    1947.  However, there were no races at Nurburgring in 1948,
    as the circuit was being brought up to safety standards.
    Nurburgring began hosting F1 events in 1951.  Estimates show
    that 400,000 spectators came to the track for the 1954 F1
    race.  In 1958, however, the F1 race saw the death of Peter
    Collins as his Ferrari went out of control.
    The 1968 world motorcycle championship at Nurburgring had a
    strange stoppage: a forest fire.  The F1 Grand Prix later
    that year had nearly impossible visibility due to intense
    rain and fog.
    In 1970, the Northern Loop of the circuit was called into
    question after numerous accidents.  Improvements were made
    for the following year, when 130,000 spectators witnessed
    Jackie Stewart winning the F1 Grand Prix.  More improvements
    were demanded in 1974 (first by motorcyclists, then by F1
    drivers).  When Nikki Lauda was seriously injured in 1976,
    the Northern Loop was decommissioned as an F1 venue.
    A new, shorter circuit was then designed and built, opening
    in 1984 at 4.542 kilometers (2.839 miles) in length.  Alan
    Prost won that year's European Grand Prix.  In 1986, however,
    the F1 race moved to Hockenheim.  1995 saw the return of F1
    to Nurburgring, and the historic race venue has produced
    excellent races ever since.
    Some of the notable F1 winners at Nurburgring: Alberto Ascari
    (1951 and 1952), Juan Manuel Fangio (1954-1956), Stirling
    Moss (1961), Jim Clark (1965), Jack Brabham (1966), Jackie
    Stewart (1968, 1971, and 1973), Alain Prost (1984), Michael
    Schumacher (1995, 2000, and 2001), Jacques Villeneuve (1996
    and 1997), Mika Hakkinen (1998), and Rubens Barrichello
    See the official Web site (http://www.nuerburgring.de) for
    plenty more details about the Nurburgring.
    The world-famous Silverstone circuit - often spoken of in the
    same terms as Indianapolis Motor Speedway and Monza - has
    hosted F1 racing since 1950.  This 5.110-kilometer (3.194-
    mile) circuit is set at an airport site, and contains several
    configurations.  The Silverstone International circuit (used
    for the British TOCA series) shares much of the same pavement
    as the Grand Prix circuit used for the annual F1 Grand Prix
    of Great Britain; in fact, the pavement for the two circuits
    even cross at approximately two-thirds of the way around the
    International circuit.
    During World War II, the Royal Air Force chose the site now
    known as Silverstone for an airfield and a bomber-training
    base.  Following the war, other circuits such as Donnington
    Park and Brooklands could not be used for racing due to
    having been converted for wartime uses.  Thus, in 1948, the
    Silverstone site was used for its first race... with the
    circuit marked by hay bales.  The circuit was redone in 1949
    and assumed a configuration roughly equivalent to that in
    current use.
    F1 began in 1950, and held its first race at Silverstone.
    Guiseppe Farina won the first-ever F1 race ni an Alfa Romeo.
    The British Racing Drivers' Club operated Silverstone until
    2001, when current owner Octagon Motorsports took control of
    the venue; this also ensures that the British Grand Prix will
    be held at Silverstone for at least the next fifteen years.
    The world's best F1 drivers have all placed themselves into
    the Silverstone record books, including Manuel Fangio,
    Stirling Moss, Mike Hawthorn, Jack Brabham, John Surtees, Jim
    Clark, Graham Hill, Jackie Stewart, James Hunt, John Watson,
    Niki Lauda, Alain Prost, Nigel Mansell, Ayrton Senna, Eddie
    Irvine, Jacques Villeneuve, Mika Hakkinen, Michael
    Schumacher, and David Coulthard.  The track record is held by
    Michael Schumacher, at 1:24.475 with an average speed of
    217.784KPH (136.115MPH).
    Silverstone hosts far more than just F1: Grand Prix
    motorcycles, SuperBikes, Karts, FIA GTs, European Le Mans,
    RallySprint, stages of the Rally of Great Britain, British
    Touring Car Championship, and British Formula 3 and GT.
    The official Web site is actually the site for Octagon
    Motorsports (http://www.octagonmotorsports.com/), which owns
    and operates Silverstone, as well as Snetterton, Cadwell
    Park, Brands Hatch, and Oulton Park.
    Characterized by its three parallel straightaways (which can
    be aurally difficult for drivers while on the middle
    straightaway), Nevers Magny-Cours has hosted F1 events since
    1991.  The 4.226-kilometer (2.641-mile) circuit is also used
    for Motorbikes Championship, FIA GT Championship, Formula
    Renault 2000 Eurocup, FIA Sportcar Championship, Formula
    Nissan, historical races, and various endurance races.
    F1 winners at Nevers Magny-Cours: Nigel Mansell (1991 and
    1992), Alain Prost (1993), Michael Schumacher (1994, 1995,
    1997, 1998, 2001, and 2002), Damon Hill (1996), Heinz-Harald
    Frentzen (1999), and David Coulthard (2000).
    Visit the official Web site (http://www.magnycours.com/) for
    more information.  Unfortunately, the site does not include
    any circuit history in either the French- or English-language
    versions of the site.
    The Hockenheim circuit was an EXCELLENT and very high-speed
    race venue until 2002, when the circuit was redesigned and
    severely shortened while accommodations were added to bring
    in even more spectators than before.  The former Hockenheim
    configuration ran almost entirely through the German forest.
    The circuit was designed in 1932, and hosts F1 and many other
    forms of motorsport.
    Notable F1 winners at Hockenheim: Niki Lauda (1977), Mario
    Andretti (1978),  (1981, 1986, and 1987), Alain Prost (1984,
    1993), Ayrton Senna (1988-1990), Nigel Mansell (1991 and
    1992), Michael Schumacher (1995, 2002), and Mika Hakkinen
    The official Web site (http://www.hockenheimring.de/) is
    unfortunately only available in German - which is a language
    I cannot read :-(
    Located 19.2 kilometers (12 miles) northeast of Budapest, the
    3.946-kilometer (2.466-mile) Hungaroring circuit has been
    used for F1 racing since 1986, and represented the first
    foray of F1 racing into the Eastern Block (during the Cold
    War era).
    F1 winners at Hungaroring include Nelson Piquet (1986 and
    1987), Ayrton Senna (1988, 1991, and 1992), Nigel Mansell
    (1989), Thierry Boutsen (1990), Damon Hill (1993 and 1995),
    Michael Schumacher (1994, 1998, and 2001), Jacques Villeneuve
    (1996 and 1997), Mika Hakkinen (1999 and 2000), and Reubens
    Barrichello (2002).
    The official Web site (http://www.hungaroring.hu/)
    unfortunately does not include a circuit history.
    The Spa-Francorchamps circuit is one of the most scenic race
    venues in all of F1 racing (especially now that the
    Hockenheim circuit in Germany has been practically destroyed
    in its new, far shorter configuration); races here are also
    as much characterized by the often-changing weather as by the
    challenging circuit itself.  The Spa-Francorchamps venue has
    been as long as 14.038 kilometers (8.774 miles) in length
    (from 1950 to 1956), but has been greatly shortened now to
    6.928 kilometers (4.330 miles) in length.  This is a tricky
    circuit, categorized primarily by the tight La Source hairpin
    just beyond the Start/Finish Line, and the long, snaking,
    steep, uphill climb up Eau Rouge to the tree-lined Kemmel
    Straight (the highest area of the circuit).
    The Spa-Francorchamps circuit hosts numerous forms of
    motorsport, including F1, Karting, and motorbikes.  There are
    also two driving schools based at Spa-Francorchamps: Peugeot
    Driving School EPMA and RACB Driving school.
    Conceived in 1920, the circuit was ready for racing in August
    1921... but there was no race, as only one competitor had
    registered :-(   Three years later, Spa-Francorchamps hosted
    its first annual 24 Hours of Francorchamps (24 Hours of Spa),
    an endurance race begun only one year following the inaugural
    24 Hours of Le Mans.  Until World War II, the major events
    held at the circuit were the motorcycle grand prix races, the
    Belgian Grand Prix, and the 24 Hours of Francorchamps.
    However, by the 1970s, drivers were sincerely concerned about
    safety along the lengthy Spa-Francorchamps circuit.  After
    numerous propositions, a shorter circuit was created, and the
    7-kilomter circuit was inaugurated in 1979.  Fortunately, the
    new circuit kept the main characteristics of its massive
    former self and also sported many safety improvements.  With
    the shorter, safer circuit, the F1 Grand Prix of Belgium was
    able to return to Spa-Francorchamps.  The current track
    record was set by Michael Schumacher at 1:43.726 (241.837KMH,
    or 151.148MPH) in 2002.
    In one of the most spectacular passes in recent F1 history,
    the 2000 Grand Prix of Belgium hinged upon Mika Salo drafting
    behind Michael Schumacher to make a pass for the race lead at
    the end of Kemmel Straight, using a third car as a pick on
    entering Malmedy-Les Combes at the highest point of the Spa-
    Francorchamps circuit.
    Notable F1 winners at Spa-Francorchamps: Juan Manuel Fangio
    (1950, 1954, and 1955), Alberto Ascari (1952 and 1953), Jack
    Brabham (1960), Jim Clark (1962-1965), Emerson Fittipaldi
    (1972), Alain Prost (1983 and 1987), Ayrton Senna (1985, and
    1988-1991), Nigel Mansell (1986), Michael Schumacher (1992,
    1995-1997, and 2001-2002), and Mika Hakkinen (2000).
    Please visit the official Web site (http://www.spa-
    francorchamps.be/) for a lot of excellent information on the
    Spa-Francorchamps circuit and its many events and driving
    Originally opened in 1922 to commemorate the twenty-fifth
    anniversary of the Milan Automobile Club, the Monza circuit
    (Autodromo Nazionale Monza), near Milan, Italy, has been the
    site of more F1 grand prix events than any other.  The Monza
    circuit has seen numerous configurations, including the
    famous banked section from 1955 to 1961.
    Monza has always been an incredibly fast race venue... and
    with this speed comes even greater danger.  Phil Hill's 1961
    race victory (his second consecutive win at Monza) was
    severely overshadowed by a collision between Jim Clark and
    Wolfgang von Trips which took the lives of the latter driver
    and over one dozen spectators.  A 1970 mechanical failure
    during Qualifying killed Jochen Rindt, so one may not be
    surprised that chicanes, guard rails, and reinforced fencing
    were added beginning in 1972 as an attempt to slow the cars
    and make Monza's events safer for all involved; however, the
    chicanes specifically were really just makeshift safety
    measures due to the increasing performance in virtually all
    realms of motorsport.  In more recent years, the opening lap
    of the 2000 Grand Prix of Italy was seriously marred by the
    death of a trackside race marshal due to all the flying
    debris at the Roggia Chicane (the second chicane of the
    circuit).  While there were no dangerous incidents at the
    2001 Grand Prix of Italy, that particular event happened to
    be scheduled for the first weekend following the world-
    shocking terrorist attacks on the United States (September
    11, 2001) AND the near-fatal accident at a new race venue in
    Germany (the previous afternoon) which forced the amputation
    of the legs of CART driver Alex Zanardi; these events cast a
    dark shadow over the race itself as well as the entire Grand
    Prix weekend.
    On a far more positive note, Williams driver Juan Pablo
    Montoya - truly making his first great impact upon the F1
    world following several years of astounding success in CART -
    broke Keke Rosberg's twenty-seven-year record for the fastest
    ever F1 qualifying lap.  Rosberg's then record-setting lap
    was 259.005KPH (161.878MPH) set at Silverstone; Montoya's new
    record-setting lap was 259.827KPH (162.392MPH).  What makes
    Montoya's achievement even more impressive is that Michelin-
    shod F1 vehicles (led by Williams and McLaren) have generally
    not been able to compete with Bridgestone-shod cars (led by
    The Monza circuit has seen all sorts of motorsport events,
    including motorcycles and touring cars, and currently is
    5.736 kilometers (3.585 miles) in length.  A recent Italian
    telefilm on the life of Enzzo Ferrari exclusively used the
    Monza circuit for its racing shots using time-appropriate
    Notable F1 winners at Monza: Alberto Ascari (1951 and 1952),
    Juan Manuel Fangio (1953-1955), Stirling Moss (1956 and
    1957), Stirling Moss (1959), Jim Clark (1963), Jackie Stewart
    (1965 and 1969), Emerson Fittipaldi (1972), Mario Andretti
    (1977), Niki Lauda (1978 and 1984), Alain Prost (1981, 1985,
    and 1989), Nelson Piquet (1983, 1986, and 1987), Ayrton Senna
    (1990 and 1992), Michael Schumacher (1996, 1998, 2000, and
    2002), and Juan Pablo Montoya (2001).
    The official Web site of Autodromo Nazionale Monza
    (http://www.monzanet.it/) has plenty of great information,
    including a large track map of Monza's various configurations
    and plenty of images of racing action on Monza's banked
    Essentially a 'stadium circuit' located at Indianapolis Motor
    Speedway, the Indianapolis Grand Prix circuit is the newest
    race venue in F1, first used in its current incarnation in
    2000.  This also marks the return of F1 racing to the United
    States, which had been absent since 1991 (using a temporary
    street circuit in downtown Phoenix, Arizona).  The initial
    4.192-kilometer (2.620-mile) US Grand Prix was won by Michael
    Schumacher in 2000, followed by Mika Hakkinen (in his final
    race win before sabbatical/retirement) in 2001.
    Indianapolis Motor Speedway was purchased in 1945 by Tony
    Hulman (the namesake of Hulman Blvd., which connects Turn 7
    and Turn 8 of the Grand Prix circuit) and restored to use
    after the speedway had fallen into disuse because of World
    War II.  In 1950-1960, the Indianapolis 500 also awarded
    points for the F1 World Championship; winners in this era
    include Johnnie Parsons, Bill Vukovich, and Jim Rathmann.
    Tony George, the President of the Indianapolis Motor
    Speedway, was almost single-handedly responsible for bringing
    F1 racing back to the United States.  The Indianapolis Motor
    Speedway had to be brought up to standard in order to host
    the United States Grand Prix, including a new Paddock area
    which would allow cars to exit from the garage directly onto
    Pit Lane.  Also, in a MAJOR concession to the traditions of
    F1 racing, the 2000 USGP marked the very first time that a
    race had been run in REVERSE (clockwise) at Indianapolis
    Motor Speedway.
    The 2001 Grand Prix of the United States was the first major
    auto racing event on American soil following the terrorist
    attacks on America just two weeks before.  FIA and USGP
    organizers truly went out of their way to provide
    entertainment, soothing words, and patriotic moments for the
    thousands of spectators at a time when the nation and the
    world were still in shock, grief, and mourning at the
    terrorist events.
    While not nearly as controversial as the 2002 Grand Prix of
    Austria at A1-Ring, Reubens Barrichello won the 2002 Grand
    Prix of the United States by 0.010 seconds (the closest racce
    finish in F1 history) over his Ferrari teammate Michael
    Schumacher despite Schumacher having dominated the entire
    weekend and the entire race until the final corner.  Also
    notable was that Williams drivers Ralph Schumacher and Juan
    Pablo Montoya collided in Turn 1 in the early laps of the
    race, with Ralph Schumacher losing his rear wing and falling
    back to last place (eventually finishing P16), with Montoya
    continuing on to end P4.
    Winners of the Indianapolis 500 during its quasi-F1 era
    (1950-1960): Johnnie Parsons (1950), Lee Wallard (1951), Troy
    Ruttman (1952), Bill Vukovich (81953 and 1954), Bob Sweikert
    (1955), Pat Flaherty (1956), Sam Hanks (1957), Jimmy Bryan
    (1958), Rodger Ward (1959), and Jim Rathmann (1960).
    Winners of the United States Grand Prix at Indianapolis in
    the modern era: Michael Schumacher (2000), Mika Hakkinen
    (2001), and Reubens Barrichello (2002).
    Visit the official Web site (http://www.usgpindy.com/).
    In operation since at least 1962 and the host of F1 races
    since 1987, Suzuka Circuit is the host of many forms of
    motorsport - including F1 and other Formula series, and
    motorbikes (including MotoGP) - as well as several racing
    schools.  Suzuka comprises two different circuits: the 5.821-
    kilometer (3.638-mile) International Racing Course (used for
    F1 events) and the 1.264-kilometer (0.790-mile) Southern
    Course (which itself contains numerous configurations).
    F1 winners at Suzuka: Gerhard Berger (1987 and 1991), Ayrton
    Senna (1988), Alessandro Nannini (1989), Nelson Piquet
    (1990), Riccardo Patrese (1992), Ayrton Senna (1993), Damon
    Hill (1994 and 1996), Michael Schumacher (1995, 1997, and
    2000-2002), and Mika Hakkinen (1998 and 1999).
    Unfortunately, the official Web site
    (http://www.suzukacircuit.co.jp/) is almost exclusively in
    Japanese. Many section titles are also given in English (such
    as Event Calendar, Group Enjoy!, and Circuit Queen), but the
    only truly-English area is a single page with downloadable
    files of information for buying tickets to the next Grand
    Prix of Japan.
    The official FIA Web site (http://www.fia.com/) has a lot of
    good information pertaining to F1 racing, including the
    current season's race schedule, rules and regulations, and
    links to the official Web sites of most of the courses used.
    The FIA Web site is available in both French and English.
    I also strongly suggest visiting Formula1.com
    (http://www.formula1.com/) for F1 news and race information.
    This is a FAR more interactive site than the FIA site,
    including games, Flash-based virtual laps of each circuit,
    team and driver information, extensive cross-linking between
    related articles and features, screensavers, quizzes,
    racequeen poll/contest, and much more.  Formula1.com also
    provides a FREE one-way mailing list, sending out previews
    and reports for all grand prix events, as well as information
    from the FIA-approved testing sessions during the year.
    Finally, during Practice, Qualifying, and Race events, there
    is a continually-updated register of activity; using this in
    conjunction with live a television broadcast is great, as
    this provides more information than what the commentators
    usually report (and best of all, it is absolutely positively
    indubitably amazingly 100% commercial-free!!!).
    For questions, rants, raves, comments of appreciation, etc.,
    or to be added to my e-mail list for updates to this driving
    guide, please contact me at: FEATHER7@IX.NETCOM.COM; also, if
    you have enjoyed this guide and feel that it has been helpful
    to you, I would certainly appreciate a small donation via
    PayPal (http://www.paypal.com/) using the above e-mail
    To find the latest version of this and all my other PSX/PS2
    game guides, please visit FeatherGuides
    (http://www.angelcities.com/members/feathersites/).  The
    latest version will always be posted at FeatherGuides, while
    other Web sites may lag behind by several days in their
    regularly-scheduled posting updates.

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