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    1999 Mode Guide by C.LE

    Version: 1.27 | Updated: 04/13/17 | Search Guide | Bookmark Guide

                 Chris    Lee's
      Bioshock    Infinite    1999    Mode     and    Item    Guide           v1.27
    The officially latest (as well as latest, official) version of this FAQ/Guide
    can be found at www.gamefaqs.com.
    Table of Contents                                                            !-
    To navigate to the different sections, simply use the shortcut key sequence to
    the right of each section/subsection in whatever "find" mechanism you're using
    in your browser or text editor.  Section references later on in the text ignore
    the '!' so that you don't end up jumping to the middle of a random paragraph,
    so always be sure you start with a '!' when jumping around.
    The pattern behind shortcut key sequence is simple:  the first three letters
    (more, if necessary to be unambiguous) of each related section, separated by
    commas, beginning with a ! and ending with -.
    How To Use This Guide   !how-
    Notes on 1999 Mode      !not-
        Burial at Sea Part 1    !not,bur1-
        Burial at Sea Part 2    !not,bur2-
    Special Vocabulary      !spe-
    Stats and Infusions     !sta-
        Consumables             !sta,con-
        Lockpicks               !sta,loc-
    Money and Upgrading     !mon-
        Totals                  !mon,tot-
    Vigors              !vig-
        Possession          !vig,pos-
        Devil's Kiss        !vig,dev-
        Murder of Crows     !vig,mur-
        Bucking Bronco      !vig,buc-
        Shock Jockey        !vig,sho-
        Charge              !vig,cha-
        Undertow            !vig,und-
        Return to Sender    !vig,ret-
    Weapons                 !wea-
        Tables                  !wea,tab-
        Pistols/Machine Guns    !wea,pis-
        Rifle/Shotgun           !wea,rif-
        Explosives              !wea,exp-
        Special                 !wea,spe-
    Gear        !gea-
        Hats        !gea,hat-
        Shirts      !gea,shi-
        Boots       !gea,boo-
        Pants       !gea,pan-
    Strategies      !str-
        General         !str,gen-
        AI Quirks       !str,aiq-
        Firemen         !str,fir-
        Patriots        !str,pat-
        Handymen        !str,han-
        Lady Comstock   !str,lad-
        Final Fight     !str,fin-
        Big Daddy [BaS] !str,big-
    Bestiary        !bes-
        Vigor Effectiveness     !bes,vig-
        Normal                  !bes,nor-
        Automatons              !bes,aut-
        Heavy Hitters           !bes,hea-
        Special                 !bes,spe-
    Appendix            !app-
        Special Thanks      !app,spe-
        History             !app,his-
        All Works           !app,all-
    How To Use This Guide                                                     !how-
    This guide serves two purposes.  One, to discuss various weapons, vigors, and
    gear in a rigorous way.  Second, relatedly, to discuss all of this from the
    perspective of 1999 Mode, which is by far a challenge worthy of its name.
    What this guide is not:  a walkthrough.  If you want a walkthrough, there are
    plenty of resources for that.  If however, you want to see the various merits
    of various aspects of Bioshock Infinite's gameplay analyzed, all within a
    helpful context of beating 1999 Mode (with the no-Dollar Bill achievement),
    then you're at the right place.
    NOTE:  this guide is written taking into without any of the
    pre-order/collector's edition extra content taken into account.
    If you have any tips, feedback, or corrections, feel free to contact me.  As
    people who have contacted me on other guides know, I try to respond to any
    correspondence, and I will take seriously any suggestions you may have to
    offer.  Simply toss me an email at (with the subject beginning "Bioshock
    Infinite guide"):
    WITHOUT the underscores (that's just to prevent auto-parsers from grabbing my
    email for spam purposes).
    Notes on 1999 Mode                                                        !not-
    In case you aren't aware about 1999 Mode, you can either unlock it by beating
    the game, or by starting a new game and--when selecting a difficulty--entering
    the Konami Code:
        up, up, down, down, left, right, left, right, [cancel], [confirm]
    Though, if you haven't beaten the game yet, I highly recommend doing that first
    before doing 1999 Mode.  It'll give you a lot of advanced metagame knowledge
    for your second time around.  Plus, doing so will let you enjoy the
    mind-blowing narrative of Bioshock Infinite without making you pound your head
    into a wall in frustration.
    The following changes take place when in 1999 Mode:
        - All damage you take from enemies is doubled.
        - All damage you deal is halved.*
        - Death costs $100, versus $50 on hard and $25 on medium.
        - Enemies revive almost to full health upon your death (versus limited
          levels at lower difficulties.)
        - If you don't have enough money to cover death, you are bumped back to the
          main menu.
        - It takes 4 seconds before your shield starts to regenerate, versus 3
          seconds on hard and 2 seconds on medium.
        - Your shield regenerates at a rate of 16.67% per second (or 100% over 6
          seconds), versus 20%/sec on hard and 25%/sec on medium.
        - There appear to be fewer checkpoint restart points.
        - Navigation arrow is turned off.
        - Aim assistance is turned off.
        - Enemies drop loot less commonly and in smaller amounts (for ammo and $).
    * All damage numbers listed throughout the guide are their values for 1999
    Mode and so already take into account the 50% penalty.
    Because enemies hit you much harder (and there are fewer reload checkpoints
    while death is much more expensive), strategy in 1999 Mode revolves around
    being more evasive and keeping distance between you and your foes.  As such, a
    lot of the analysis in this guide is centered around this central strategy.
    Burial at Sea Part 1                                                 !not,bur2-
    This guide now offers coverage for 1999 Mode in Burial at Sea Part 1.  Because
    Burial at Sea Part 1 (hence BaS1 or BaS from now on) features several
    significant balance changes, I will be making notes as appropriate in the
    proper sections.
    Here is a quick, top-level summary of the changes you'll encounter in Burial at
    Sea 1999 Mode (most of these changes are not exclusive to 1999 Mode but to
    Burial at Sea in general):
        - Comesmetic: "Salt" is now "Eve," "Vigors" are now "Plasmids," and "Silver
          Eagles" are now just "Dollars."
        - Skyline travel speed is _much_ slower.
        - Possession re-balanced to be less obscene (read: it was nerfed).
        - Possession only has one upgrade.
        - Devil's Kiss has no upgrade.
        - Bucking Bronco and Shock Jockey have altered upgrades.
        - A new Vigor/Plasmid, Old Man Winter, is introduced.
        - Undertow, Return to Sender, Charge, and Murder of Crows are not
        - Once you pick up a weapon, you can now switch to it whenever (though you
          have two you can quick-switch between, like how Vigors/Plasmids works).
        - All available weapons have significantly reduced ammo capacity.
        - A new weapon, the radar range, is introduced.
        - Only available weapons:  hand cannon, machine gun, carbine, shotgun, and
          the aforementioend radar range.
        - Weapons other than the radar range have no upgrades.
        - All upgrade costs are sigificantly scaled down in terms of $.
        - Availability of $ through drops and loot is significantly lower.
        - Gear is no longer randomized.
        - All new gear, which all have a significantly higher power curve than the
          normal game (generally achieved by combining the effects multiple similar
          gear from the base game).  Main exceptions are the Better Mousetrap shirt
          and the Surprise element hat which appear to use completely new effects.
        - Big Daddies from Bioshock are back!  And they use mechanics better suited
          to a world where skylines (erm, whatever they are called in Rapture) are
          prevalent.  Read: pretty hard.
    Burial at Sea Part 2                                                  !not,bur2
    In case you haven't figured it out by now, but I'm never going to update this
    guide with information re: Burial at Sea Part 2.  For two major reasons:  first,
    it's so radically different from the other DLCs and the main game, I can't just
    add a few addendum here and there.  Second, I hate hate _hated_ it.  I'm never
    wild about stealth games, and this was a stealth game that _also_ happened
    to retcon both Bioshock and Bioshock: Infinite (two of my favorite games) in a
    way that made both of them worse.  So yeah, I only played it twice to get all
    the achievements, and I'm never touching it again.
    Special Vocabulary                                                        !spe-
    I try to be deliberate with my word choice.  In particular, there are some
    words and phrases that I use repeatedly throughout this guide (as does Bioshock
    Infinite) that carry specific meaning.
    "Briefly Invulnerable"
        For sources other than Charge, ice forms around your health and shield bars
            and you are immune to non-fire damage.
        BaS Note:  this is officially referred to as a "Winter Shield."
        When an effect jumps to another target.  Most notably I talk about this in
        terms of an "Overkill chain," wherein while equipped with Gear, severe
        damage to one enemy cause them to die with an Overkill effect, which makes
        nearby enemies vulnerable.  Killing another one of this will cause Overkill
        to occur again, etc.  Bioshock Infinite also uses this word regarding
        specific effects.
        A deliberate mix of two different effects produces a final effect greater
        than the sum of its parts.  Generally refers to Vigor combos, but weapons
        and gear that emulate Vigor effects can also cause combos (such as shooting
        someone lifted with Bucking Bronco with a Heater).
    Critical Hit
        Most enemies have a weak point.  Shots against an enemy's weakpoint will do
        "critical" damage, which pops up as red numbers and are essentially your
        weapon's base damage times its critical multiplier (plus any extra damage
        from being vulnerable).
        When an enemy is vulnerable, they take twice as much damage from attacks
            (indicated by yellow numbers).  However, damage over time effects are
            _not_ affected, even though their numbers turn yellow while the target
            is vulnerable.
        If an enemy is vulnerable through an electrocution attack (such as Shock
            Jockey) they actually take three times as much damage from melee
            attacks.  This is probably a callback to the original Bioshock where
            electrocuted enemies were greatly vulnerable to melee.
    Weak Point
        Most enemies have a specific part of their bodies which, when hit, will
        trigger a critical hit.  All humanoids have their heads as weakpoints.
        Patriots' backs are weak points though as they become more damaged their
        head and then neck become a weak point.  A Handyman's heart is his
        weakpoint.  Lady Comstock's weak point is her head and somewhere in her
        upper body, though she is easier to critically hit when she floats up into
        the air.
    Stats and Infusions                                                       !sta-
    There are 24 Infusions (not counting the one special Infusion that gives you
    the Shield), and each of your stats--Health, Shield, Salts--can be upgraded ten
    times (for a * rating).  If you have the Collector's or Season Pass edition of
    Bioshock: Infinite, then you get an additional 5 infusions near the start of
    the game (just one shy of maxing out all your stats).
    I only have rough estimates about Health and Shield details, based purely on
    getting myself hit repeatedly by enemies (for the sake of SCIENCE!).  It
    appears your Health starts at 1500 points and increases by 225 per Infusion.
    Your Shield starts at 300 points and increase by 45 per Infusion.  Simply
    looking at those numbers it appears Health, pound for pound, is a better choice
    for Infusion for maximum survivability, but Shield regenerates without the need
    for consumables which means each point of Shield has greater impact.  In
    reality, you need closer to a balance; without investing in Shield, you will
    have next-to-no-capacity to shrug off incidental damage in combat.  Without
    investing in Health, you will have no way of surviving massive single-hit
    attacks (like a Handyman's ramming attack or a sniper's shot).
    In contrast to my estimates, I am 99% certain that my numbers on Salt are
    accurate, based on doing some math and induction.  Your maximum Salts start at
    100, and each upgrade increases that by 15, up to a potential maximum of 250.
    In contrast to Health and Shield, Salts are less fundamental to your survival
    in 1999 Mode, though the ability to regularly use disabling Vigors can extend
    your life in a way simple Health/Shield cannot.
    Compared to lower difficulties, in 1999 Mode (and to a lesser extent in Hard)
    you should invest in Health/Shield a bit more aggressively early on.  It so
    significantly helps your survivability that you should wait until you upgrade
    them twice each before pursuing any specific Infusion specialization related to
    your particular playstyle.  Due to the way stat upgrades work, low-level
    upgrades are proportionally more important than high-level upgrades anyway.  To
    use Salt as an example, going from 9 to * is 235 to 250, or a 6.4% increase.
    By comparison, going from 0 to 1 is a 15% increase, more than twice as
    effective.  So you want to get all your survivability stats up a point or two
    just to maximize your early benefit.
    Burial at Sea Part 1:  there are only 4 Infusions, so you should be much more
    deliberate about your choices.  Rather than a blanket recommendation for one
    strategy or another, you have to decide early on whether or not you are going
    to be a heavy Vigor user.  If you are, then you may only want to spend one
    Infusion on Health/Shield.  Otherwise, you probably do not want to bother with
    infusing Salt at all, as you then do not want to sacrifice your survivability.
    Consumables                                                           !sta,con-
    From what I can ascertain, consumable goods restore a _percentage_ of your
    total Health or Salts instead of a fixed absolute number.  This is even though
    Salt vials in particular state that they bestow +25, +50, or +100 Salt whereas
    Health Kits explicitly state a percentage (e.g. 20/80%).  In reality, the
    various Salt vials restore 25%, 50%, and 100% of your total Salts.
    This percentage-based restoration includes Cigarettes and--as far as I can
    tell--miscellaneous food like Oranges and Popcorn.  The only downside is that I
    believe the _cost_ of using things like Alcohol (which drains Salt) and
    Cigarettes (which drains Health) is also a percentage, however minor.  The only
    exception to the percentage-based-recovery-rule is when you try to drink a
    Vigor that you already have; you get back a fixed amount of Salt (50) instead
    of restoring a percentage of your total Salts.
    In particular, infusing your way to max Salts pays significant dividends;
    smoking a Cigarette won't do much when you have 0 infusions in Salt, but
    smoking a Cigarette when you have * in Salt will give you an extra blast of a
    Shock Jockey.
    Lockpicks                                                             !sta,loc-
    In general, judicious exploration means you will be flush with lockpicks for
    much of the game.  However, this is _not_ true for the part of the game before
    you take the elevator down from the Fink Worker Induction Center.  There are
    many safes and locked doors leading up to that moment and you will barely have
    enough lockpicks to open them all; plus, once you hit a plot point after going
    down the elevator, you won't even be able to backtrack up to the Worker
    Induction Center which itself contains several locks.  It's absolutely crucial
    that you are particularly judicious about exploring areas for lockpicks, inch
    by inch up until this point, because otherwise you are missing out on infusions
    and hundreds of Silver Eagles.
    Some further notes:
        - There are enough lockpicks to open every safe and door in the game
          without needing to buy any from a Dollar Bill, though you may have to do
          a bit of backtracking.
        - You cannot backtrack past certain points in the game.  Notably, you
          cannot backtrack past these early points:
            1.  Boarding the Gondola from Soldier's Field.
            2.  After trying to chase Elizabeth from Fort Franklin Pier.
            3.  Shortly after taking the elevator down into Finkton from the Worker
                Induction Center.
            4.  Opening the tear in Fink's holding cells.
          As a result, it is _absolutely imperative_ that you fully explore areas
          before you get to these points of no return.  Not only will you find
          enough lockpicks to open everything prior to these points of no return,
          but you will also find lockpicks that you don't need immediately but are
          necessary for opening everything in future areas.
          Note that right after #2, you will see a Dollar Bill vending machine
          that sells lockpicks.  If you're really desperate (and not going for the
          Scavenger Hunt achievement), you can drop $100 or so to open the locks in
          the Worker Induction Center.
    Additionally, here are some lockpick counts (so you can be sure you have picked
    up all you need):
        1.  Soldier's Field:  +6 lockpicks -1 door -5 safe = no net.
        2.  Hall of Heroes:  +17 lockpicks -1 door -3 door -10 safe = +2 net.
        3.  Return to Soldier's Field:  +4 lockpicks = +4 net (6 total).
        4.  Lady's Airship:  +1 lockpick = +1 net (7 total).
        5.  Finkton Docks:  +2 lockpicks = +2 net (9 total).
        6.  Fort Franklin Pier:  -5 lockpicks = -5 net (4 total)
        7.  Worker Induction Center:  +5 lockpicks -5 door -1 safe = -1 net (3
        8.  Finkton:  +4 lockpicks -1 door = +3 net (6 total).
    After your first arrival in Finkton you will be generally flush with lockpicks,
    so don't worry too much about it after that.
    Burial at Sea Part 1:  your lockpick count will be just as constrained as in
    the early parts of the base game, so do be judicious in your exploration.
    However, like in the base game, you will eventually start finding a lot of
    lockpicks in the late game even though there are not that many locks left to
    Money and Upgrading                                                       !mon-
    Compared to many other modern action-RPGs, you don't have a special
    "experience" stat, some kind of skill tree, or anything like the original
    Bioshock's "Adam", so you may think you are pretty unlimited in your character
    development as both equipment and character upgrades are purchased with
    currency (Silver Eagles).
    However, in 1999 Mode, Silver Eagles are so much rarer than in earlier
    difficulties that you are _forced_ to specialize, since you can't possibly
    afford even a majority of upgrades at your disposal.  In fact, if you aren't
    pursuing the no-Dollar Bill achievement, you actually have an interesting
    tension between upgrading your character or outfitting him with ammo/health
    kits/salt vials since all come from the same finite pool.
    (I say finite, because while enemies can drop $ and Elizabeth can toss you $,
    enemies very rarely drop $ and only in limited quantities in 1999 Mode, enemies
    generally do not respawn, and Elizabeth's $-tossing seems significantly
    dependent on you actually looting and buying things.  As a result, $ as a
    function of time reveals that there there is an asymptotic limit on the total
    supply of Silver Eagles in 1999 Mode.)
    By looking at my most recent character and reversing his upgrades, I can say
    that just as you reach the Roof of Comstock's House, you will have accumulated
    about $13,000; by the time you are about to do the final battle, you will
    have earned an additional $1,000.  However, these numbers are based on several
        - You never die (each death costs you a whopping $100).
        - You possess every vending machine (which causes them to cough up between
          $1 and $40 a piece).
        - You crack open _every_ locked door and safe (safes generally contain $100
          to $300).
        - You do not buy _anything_ at a Dollar Bill vending machine.
    If you are planning on being less aggressive with using Possession on vending
    machines, I would say that $11,500 is a safe target to use for determining
    whether or not you can afford upgrades.  If you want to leave some buffer room
    for deaths, a target of $9,500 will let you die up to 20 times without being
    derailed.  If on top of that you want to leave yourself an allowance to buy
    health/salt/ammunition at a Dollar Bill, reduce that target to $8,750.
    Note 1:  I do realize that there are a few big fights left after the Roof of
    Comstock's House so using that as the goalpoint may seem odd, but the point of
    planning ahead is to make sure you hit the peak of your character's power while
    there are still fights left to fight.  Plus, the last fight is _super_ hard, so
    I would leave buffer room in your checking account so you can take a few deaths
    (or use the Dollar Bill vending machine) without being bumped back to the main
    menu in failure.
    Note 2:  Because dying in 1999 Mode is super expensive (losing $100 in addition
    to your enemies being healed to virtually full health), I recommend simply
    reloading your game from the last checkpoint instead of eating the death.
    However, this can be pretty frustrating for some areas and fights (notably Lady
    Comstock), so feel free to just build in the buffer room for several deaths
    throughout the course of your adventure.
    Burial at Sea Part 1:  The total dollar count is much, much lower; in general
    all upgrades are also scaled down in cost, which means the trade-off made
    between upgrades and buying supplies/reviving is much more significant.  I do
    not have an estimate for total dollar amount yet, but it is an order of
    magnitude less: in the vicinity of ~$1000 or so, I was only able to fully
    upgrade Possession, Old Man Winter and get one Bucking Bronco upgrade and
    unintentionally ended the game with about $500 in tow (I was saving up,
    unknowing how long the DLC actually is).  Moreover, Elizabeth does not toss you
    $ in Burial at Sea, so upgrading Possession just to use it to extract money
    from vending machines (which are also less common) is less effective due to a
    lack of compounding returns.
    Totals                                                                !mon,tot-
    For ease of calculation, here are all the totals for upgrading.  (Note:  Burial
    at Sea numbers not included yet.)
        Total available by Comstock House Roof:         $13,000
        Total available by final fight (see note 1):    $14,000
        Penalty for not possessing vending machines:   ($ 1,500)
        Penalty for dying up to 20 times*:             ($ 2,000)
        Allowance for Dollar Bill spending*:           ($   750)
        * adjust to your needs, but leave yourself some wiggle room.
        Vigors                                  Weapons
            Possession              $1,703+         Pistol              $1,077
            Devil's Kiss            $1,907              [Golden`]       $  878
            Murder of Crows         $2,030+         Machine Gun         $1,375
            Bucking Bronco          $1,198              [Golden`]       $1,139
            Shock Jockey            $1,840          Hand Cannon         $1,902 
            Charge                  $2,169          Repeater            $1,694^
            Undertow                $1,449          Shotgun             $1,332
            Return to Sender        $2,185          Carbine             $1,594^
            Old Man Winter (BaS)    [n/a]           Sniper Rifle        $1,640+
                                                    Heater              $1,778^
                                                    Burstgun            $2,340*^
                                                    RPG                 $1,919
                                                    Volley Gun          $2,320
                                                    Hail Fire           $1,502^
                                                    Radar Range (BaS)   [n/a]
        + Recommended.
        * Not recommended.
        ^ See note 2.
        ` See note 3.
    Note 1:  There aren't upgrade vending machines in the final fight, so you'll
    have to stay on the lower levels of the airship and use the vending machines
    before you climb to the 4th floor (people who have played the game previously
    will know what I'm talking about).
    Note 2:  Some weapons either have semi-rare ammo or are rather inefficient in
    terms of net potential damage for their reserve size.  As such, if you want to
    specialize in these weapons, you may want to leave a Dollar Bill budget leeway
    for buying ammo.  Most explosive weapons are excluded from this calculation
    since they are, almost by definition, special use anyway.  See the weapon
    section (wea-) for more info on Dollar Bill value and ammo plentifulness.
    Note 3:  With the Collector's/Season Pass version of the game, your pistol and
    machine gun become golden versions.  Aside from the aesthetic boost, they both
    start with a free Damage Boost 1 upgrade, at +35% damage instead of +25%
    damage.  This is a good enough early advantage in addition to a nice value
    proposition that it removes my "not recommended" note from the golden machine
    Vigors                                                                    !vig-
    The various Vigors are generally well-balanced enough that none stand out as
    the "best," though there are a couple standouts.  In general though, rather
    than basing your character solely on what percieved quality a Vigor is, you
    should really focus on matching your playstyle.  After all, there's no point in
    heavily investing in and using the-highly-recommended Possession if you just
    can't get the aiming/trapping quite right.
    The following recommendation list assumes you fully upgrade the Vigors in
    question.  Aside from the all-purpose recommended selections, the other Vigors
    all generally will have some kind of situation in which they will shine, so
    it's difficult to make a bad choice.
        Recommended:  Possession, Murder of Crows
        The Others:  Bucking Bronco, Charge, Devil's Kiss, Return to Sender, Shock
            Jockey, Undertow
    In case it isn't obvious, Vigors--aside from Return to Sender--can also be
    "combo"-ed to produce substantially superior effects.  To do a combo, you need
    to use two Vigors in a specific order; I highlight the various combos available
    for each Vigors.  In some cases you can substitute an effect similar to a Vigor
    and still trigger a combo.  The complete list is as follows (ordered by how
    early on you can use them):
        1.  Possession + Devil's Kiss or burning` (or vice versa*)
        2.  Murder of Crows + Devil's Kiss or burning` (or vice versa)
        3.  Possession + Shock Jockey or electrocution^ (or vice versa*)
        4.  Murder of Crows + Shock Jockey or electrocution^ (or vice versa)
        5.  Bucking Bronco + Devil's Kiss or burning` (or vice versa)
        6.  Bucking Bronco + Charge
        7.  Devil's Kiss or burning` + Charge
        8.  Shock Jockey or electrocution^ + Undertow (or vice versa)
        * While order doesn't matter, Possessed allies may stagger when hit by a
        follow-up Vigor, so I recommend starting up with Devil's Kiss/Shock Jockey
        and then Possessing them to avoid wasting your Possession duration.
            Moreover, the game normally "auto-aims" Shock Jockey to help you hit
        enemies, but will _not_ auto-aim Shock Jockey towards a possessed ally.  As
        such, it is much easier to use Shock Jockey and then Possession, whereas if
        you use Possession first you may find yourself having a very hard time
        trying to electrocute your new friend.
        ` Burning effects come from:
            active oil slicks
            Burning Halo (gear)
            Fire Bird (gear)
            Pyromaniac (gear)
        ^ Electrocution effects come from:
            tesla coil
            Electric Touch (gear)
            Electric Punch (gear)
            Overkill kill effect (gear)
    I also provide all Silver Eagle upgrade costs, so you can help plan in advance
    what Vigors you will be able to afford (see section mon- for specific $
    The Vigors below are listed in the order in which you find them.
    Burial at Sea Part 1:  I have not updated this section to reflect Burial at
    Sea-specific tweaks.  A quick summary for the impatient:  Possession is
    rebalanced for Burial at Sea to be less exploitive, Bucking Bronco/Shock
    Jockey have better upgrades, Devil's Kiss has no upgrades available, and the
    other Vigors are not available.  Costs in this section do not reflect Burial at
    Sea costs.
    Possession                                                            !vig,pos-
    Highly Recommended Vigor!  (Not in Burial at Sea, though.)
    Total Upgrade Cost:  $1,703
    Primary (tap)
        Salt Cost:  50
        Effect:  an automaton becomes your ally for the duration.  Patriots are
            only affected for half as long while turrets are affected for twice as
            long.  If you target a vending machine, it will drop a varying amount
            of Silver Eagles, though each vending machine can only be affected
        Burial at Sea:  affects automatons _or_ humans.
        Duration:  10 seconds
    Alternate (hold & release)
        Salt Cost:  100
        Effect:  sets a trap.  When triggered, all in the explosion are affected by
            Possession (though see footnote *).  Note that you need the "Possession
            Aid" upgrade before you can do this alternate effect.
        Burial at Sea:  automatically available without the need for an upgrade.
            However, the mechanics of Possession are different so really only one
            target in the explosion is affected (though for a much longer
        Duration:  20 seconds
        "Possession Aid"  [Not in Burial at Sea]
            Cost:  $50
            Effect:  humanoids are also affected; at the end of the effect,
                humanoids kill themselves.  Firemen and Crows are only affected for
                half duration and do not suicide at the end.  Also unlocks the
                alternate effect.
            Burial at Sea:  Possession automatically affects humans from the start,
                however in Burial at Sea humans _DO NOT_ suicide at the end of the
            Location:  You can get this from the first Vigor vending machine you
        "Possession For Less"
            Cost:  $1,653
            Effect:  halves the Salt cost to 25 for the primary effect and 50 for
                the alternate effect.
            Location:  Hall of Heroes before fighting Slate.
        Devil's Kiss/burning:  Combine Possession with burning. They will
            emanate waves of fire, igniting everything in range and doing periodic
            damage/disruption, though at a much closer range than the Shock Jockey
        Shock Jockey/electrocution:  Combine Possession with electrocution.
            They will become a mobile tesla coil, periodically electrocuting (as per
            Shock Jockey) every target in range, stunning them and making them
            vulnerable.  In case it isn't clear, you can affect Patriots, too (a
            Patriot that is electrocuting nearby enemies will clear out a room
            quite quickly).
        Bucking Bronco and Possession do not mix well; the former will just waste
        the duration of the latter.
    Footnote *
        You can only possess one target at a time.  If you possess a second target,
        the effect on the first target immediately ends.  If the first target was
        not a Fireman or Crow, they immediately kill themselves.  This has the
        ramification that if you set a Possession trap and multiple humans trigger
        it, all but one will immediately suicide, and the survivor will be your
        ally until he or she kills themself at the end of the effect.
        Unfortunately, it's rather hard to predict who will be your ally and who
        will suicide.
        My personal favorite; immensely useful.  Long story short: Possession gives
        you dramatically increased survivability and a lot of ways to turn the
        tides of battle against your foes, in addition to having an incredible
        auxiliary use.
            At its basic level, if you have the Salt to spare, this Vigor is a
        money-maker, responsible for a non-trivial amount of the total $ available
        for your character-building.  Early on, this also lets you transform those
        early turrets (which are a bit too strong for being so early in the game)
        into valuable assets.
            The first upgrade is an amazing value proposition; for $50 you unlock
        the ability to insta-kill any non-heavy-hitting human, in addition to
        gaining an ally for a few seconds.  And while in effect, your
        enemies will want to attack your new ally, and any bullet/explosive that
        isn't going towards you is a Good Thing(tm).  For $50 you also unlock the
        trap alternate effect; the trap is very effective when you can anticipate
        an ambush or strike first.  For example, when you enter the "chapel" area
        of the Fraternal Order of the Raven, if look down from the balcony you can
        see around 6 enemies arranged around a podium.  Drop a trap in the middle
        of them, and you will instantly kill most of them, and whoever is missed
        will be slaughtered by your ally.
            Even if you aren't in a position to get more than one target at a time,
        the trap is still effective to use if only just for the extra duration.
        This is especially true for heavy-hitters, who are only possessed for half
        the normal duration and also the most likely to survive the entire duration
        without being killed by their (former) allies.  They will generally waste
        most of the default 5 second duration just standing up/getting into
        position; the additional 5 seconds from the trap effect can mean them
        wreaking much more than twice the havoc, especially if you've trapped a
        slow-moving Patriot.
            On top of all this, Possession combos _extremely_ well.  Hitting your
        possessed ally with Shock Jockey is an immensely powerful effect.  You can
        follow behind and clean up all the vulnerable enemies; your ally also gains
        a damage bonus against the zapped foes.  Moreover, the electrocution effect
        is near-constant, so even if you aren't able to finish off a vulnerable
        foe, your ally will most likely re-shock them immediately.  Hitting your
        ally with Devil's Kiss gives you a mobile firestorm.  Unfortunately, the
        range of this effect isn't as nice as the Shock Jockey combo, so you're
        best suited using this on an enemy who is likely to charge against your
        foes (generally someone wielding a bat or a shotgun).  Moreover, nothing is
        stopping you from doing _both_ combos on the same ally.  You can easily
        clear a room with one ally running around shooting, electrocuting, and
        burning enemies.
            Unfortunately, unless you get the "Possession For Less" upgrade,
        Possession is _so_ expensive to use that even with maximum Salt infusions,
        you will only be able to use the trap effect twice.  In fact, even if you
        just use the primary effect, 50 Salt is a steep price even for an effective
        insta-kill (especially if you end up missing).  This means that whereas all
        other Vigors are pretty much useable right off the bat, if you want to make
        any significant use out of this Vigor you _have_ to plan on spending the
        $1,653 upgrade.  Note that if you're only planning on using this to squeeze
        change from vending machines, the upgrade may not be worth it, since I'm
        not sure you actually end up making back the $1653 up-front cost.  On the
        other hand, if you _do_ plan on aggressively using Possession, then the
        ability to readily possess vending machines helps defray the cost of this
        necessary upgrade.
    Special Note
        The projectile for Possession tries to home in on targets.  While generally
        helpful, this homing does mean you need to give a little breathing room
        when you launch it, as otherwise your projectile might immediately try to
        curve towards someone but then run into a doorway.
    Burial at Sea Note
        Possession is significantly re-balanced in Burial at Sea; in effect is is
        no longer insanely broken post-Possession-for-Less upgrade.  The major
        change is that humans do not kill themselves at the end, which means the
        trap is no longer a mass insta-kill against normal enemies and you have to
        be careful to not be caught offguard by your friend shooting at you after
        the effect ends.
            The economics of Burial at Sea dictate though that despite this nerf,
        Possession is still a valuable survival tool (if not as relatively good as
        it was in the core game); especially with the Possession for Less upgrade,
        getting a temporary ally can do worlds for your survivability and breathing
    Devil's Kiss                                                          !vig,dev-
    Total Upgrade Cost:  $1,907
    Primary (tap)
        Salt Cost:  23
        Effect: tosses a fire grenade which sets enemies (and oil slicks) within
            the area of effect aflame.  Burning enemies are very briefly vulnerable
            (about 1 second) and may be distracted.
        Damage:  250 (on average, randomly varies about 20% per attack);
            approximately half is done instantly upon detonation, the remainder is
            dealt over 3 seconds.
        Damage (Oil Slick): ~200 per second.
    Alternate (hold & release)
        Salt Cost:  46
        Effect:  sets a trap.  When triggered, all in the explosion are set aflame.
            Burning enemies are very briefly vulnerable (about 1 second) and may be
        Damage:  1,050 (on average, randomly varies about 20% per attack);
            approximately half is done instantly upon detonation, the remainder is
            dealt over 5 seconds.
        Damage (Oil Slick):  ~200 per second.
        "Devil's Kiss Mod" [Not in Burial at Sea]
            Cost:  $1,241
            Effect:  after the initial explosion, 5 additional Devil's Kiss
                grenades are launched in specific directions (see Mechanics #5
                below), which after a short dealy detonate for damage similar to a
                regular use of Devil's Kiss, though with a shorter explosion
            Location:  Pretty much any vending machine after the Possession Aid one
                (earliest is in Monument Island).
        "Devil's Kiss Boost" [Not in Burial at Sea]
            Cost:  $666
            Effect:  increases damage done by about 25%.
            Location:  vending machines starting with Finkton Docks.
        Possession:  Possess a target and then hit them with Devil's Kiss or
            possess a target that's on fire.  They will emanate waves of fire,
            igniting everything in range and doing periodic damage/disruption,
            though at a much closer range than the Shock Jocky combo.
        Murder of Crows:  Combine a burning target with Murder of Crows.  All the
            crows will catch fire, dealing an additional ~37 damage/second while
            the crows are around (on par with Burning Halo's effect).
        Bucking Bronco:  Combine a burning target with Bucking Bronco.  The lifted
            enemy will drop Devil's Kiss grenades.
        Charge:  Charge a burning target.  They will expel Devil's Kiss grenades
            that explode at close range.
    Special Combo
        Bucking Bronco and Murder of Crows can both be applied simultaneously to
        enemies.  This means that a burning effect can and will trigger _both_
        Bucking Bronco and Murder of Crows combos at once.  (And you can vary the
        order, such as Murder of Crows, add burning, then Bucking Bronco.)
        Devil's Kiss has several eccentricities in how it functions, so before I
        move on to Discussion I'm going to touch on a few points.  All of this
        information came from tedious analysis of my own self-recordings of using
        Devil's Kiss.
            1.  As mentioned above, about half the total damage is dealt
                instantaneously.  This damage functions like any other explosion
                and drops off the further away a target is from the initial
            2.  The remaining half is dealt over 3 (primary) or 5 (alternate)
                seconds.  Like #1, the total amount dealt is based on how far the
                target was from the initial detonation.  In fact, if you have
                "Floating Combat Text" enabled in some cases you may see a curious
                cascade of 0's fly out from a target that was sufficiently far from
                the detonation.
            3.  Both the instant damage and durational damage vary randomly from a
                given average and they do so pseudo-independently:  it is entirely
                possible for the initial detonation to do a very low amount
                (70-ish) but then each "tick" be quite high (22 per tick).
                However, the net total will still average out to be a base of 250
                (primary) or 1,050 (alternate).
            4.  In case it isn't clear, Devil's Kiss stacks, so an enemy afflicted
                by multiple Devil's Kiss explosions will feel each one.
            5.  The additional grenades from Devil's Kiss Mod pop out outwards and
                "upwards" from the initial impact (in physics terms, imagine a
                normal vector to the plane of impact; that's the rough direction I
                mean by "upwards").  After a short delay they detonate, but under
                certain circumstances that I don't comprehend, they don't always
                detonate (possibly if no one is nearby to be affected by them).
            6.  It's possible for your initial target to be caught in the blast
                radius of the smaller grenades from Devil's Kiss Mod, provided that
                they were triggered by someone who was sufficiently close by or a
                wall bounced a grenade back.  Otherwise the additional grenades are
                launched far enough away (most of the time) to not affect the
                primary target.
            7.  Occasionally one of the extra grenades from Devil's Kiss Mod will
                erroneously immediately hit your initial target as it pops out,
                effectively causing Devil's Kiss to do double damage to the
                intended target.  It's somewhat hard to predict when this happens,
                just treat it as a lucky "critical hit" of sorts.
            8.  A corrolary to #5 and #6 is that against a single target or in
                wide-open fights, you won't gain much benefit from Devil's Kiss
                Mod; your extra grenades will simply disappear and not do much.
                However, when targets are grouped together are are within tightly
                enclosed spaces (like a hallway) you will do a dramatically
                increased amount of damage.
            9.  Another corrolary to #5 and #6 is that at the very least, Devil's
                Kiss Mod makes aiming a bit forgiving; while the main projectile
                might miss, the follow up grenades may hit your intended target.
            10. The initial explosion damage of Devil's Kiss can be doubled from
                prior vulnerability, but the damage-over-time component will _never_
                be doubled.
        Devil's Kiss is much more effective on lower difficulties, where the
        damage-to-Salt ratio is much better.  As it stands, Devil's Kiss is on the
        underpowered side until you get at least one of the upgrades, though once
        you have both upgrades Devil's Kiss comes into its own; not only will a
        fully-upgraded primary effect kill most normal enemies in the game in one
        hit (provided one of the follow up grenades hits something close by), but
        you'll find that with both upgrades Devil's Kiss has the rare feature of
        becoming better the more you use it.  Why?  For one, there are all sorts of
        oil slicks throughout Columbia that you might not have bothered to take
        advantage of, but more frequent use of Devil's Kiss will find you
        accidentally igniting areas.  For two, Devil's Kiss synergizes with various
        Gear (such as Storm or Ghost Posse).  For three, Devil's Kiss combos rather
            Not that there aren't problems.  Whereas in Bioshock, the
        Devil's-Kiss-equivalent Incinerate instantly ignited your target, Devil's
        Kiss launches in a medium-speed parabolic trajectory; moreover, when using
        the primary effect, if you don't immediately hit a target the projectile
        will bounce around for a bit before detonating.  While this lets you hit
        targets around a corner or behind cover, it also means that glancing shots
        or missing entirely is all-too easy to do.  Not to mention that hitting
        far away targets on equal or higher elevation is all but impossible.
            That being said, let's get back to why Devil's Kiss can be very good.
        The official combos are quite good.  Possession followed up by Devil's Kiss
        gives you a mobile firestorm, and is a great way to make charge-prone melee
        users and shotgun wielders sow mayhem amongst enemy ranks (though do note
        that when upgraded, your possessed ally will probably die from the Devil's
        Kiss effect itself before getting much of a chance to do anything).
        Devil's Kiss with a Charge can quickly punish clusters of enemies, and
        works great if you've also fully upgraded Charge and also are wielding a
        high-impact close range weapon like a heater.  Crows followed by Devil's
        Kiss is a great way to layer on additional damage, especially later in the
        game when enemies are tougher and take more time to shoot down even when
        rendered vulnerable; not to mention this also helps you trigger the Crows
        Trap Mod effect.  Bucking Bronco with Devil's Kiss is like a merge between
        the Crows combo and the Charge combo, giving you the effect of a disable
        but also wide damage.
            Even outside the "official" combos, Devil's Kiss works well with other
        Vigors, since in some cases guaranteeing a vulnerability effect will ensure
        your enemy dies quickly (e.g. using Undertow to pull an enemy into a
        Devil's Kiss trap).  In particular, Shock Jockey--while not an official
        combo--synergizes with Devil's Kiss through the Storm Gear; an enemy that
        is electrocuted and hit by a Devil's Kiss is virtually guaranteed to die
        quickly, and in so doing will chain *both* the Shock Jockey and Devil's
        Kiss effect, all but guaranteeing widespread mayhem.  (This also applies to
        the official Bucking Bronco combo, since Storm will also chain Bucking
            Even without upgrades or synergistic solutions, Devil's Kiss can still
        be situationally useful.  It's a cost-effective solution early on in the
        game for dispatching Turrets and small groups of enemies.  It also adds an
        extra source of damage against early-game Patriots.  Moreover, the
        alternate effect's trap is still very good even unupgraded and on its own.
        If you are anticipating an ambush (and if you've played through the game
        before, you should know when to expect them), you can pre-emptively clear
        the room by dropping a few traps.  Moreover, it doesn't bounce around, so
        if you aren't confident in your aim, you can launch the trap and it'll just
        stick to whereever you shot it like a proximity mine, which may mean a shot
        that would've bounced past an enemy will instead detonate and catch them in
        the explosion.  Moreover, due to the Salt economics of the alternate effect
        (four times the damage for only twice the Salt, not to mention potential
        synergies with Ghost Posse), in many situations it is strictly better to do
        one use of the alternate effect rather than potentially two or more uses of
        the primary effect.
    Burial at Sea Note
        You can't upgrade Devil's Kiss, so against even basic enemies you will need
        to use the trap effect to guarantee a kill.  Still, there are enough oil
        slicks and Possession is nerfed enough where using your precious Eve to do
        a Devil's Kiss trap is the omst effective option you have at your disposal.
    Murder of Crows                                                       !vig,mur-
    [This Vigor/Plasmid is completely removed in Burial at Sea.]
    Highly Recommended Vigor!
    Total Upgrade Cost:  $2,030
    Primary (tap)
        Salt Cost:  28
        Effect:  launches crows that, upon hitting a wall or enemy, start pecking
            away at enemies nearby, doing minor damage and rendering them
        Damage/Stun Duration:  30 over ~4 seconds.
    Alternate (hold & release)
        Salt Cost:  56
        Effect:  sets a trap.  When triggered, crows launch out at everyone neaby,
            doing minor damage and rending them vulnerable.
        Damage/Stun Duration:  150 over ~9 seconds.
        "Crows Trap Mod"
            Cost:  $1,485
            Effect:  anyone who dies while under the effects of Murder of Crows
                turns into a Murder of Crows trap.
            Location:  Pretty much any vending machine after the Possession Aid one
                (earliest is in Monument Island).
        "Crows Boost"
            Cost:  $545
            Effect:  increases the stun duration by a few seconds.
            Location:  vending machines starting with the Factory.
        Devil's Kiss/burning:  Combine a burning target with Murder of Crows.  All
            the crows will catch fire, dealing an additional ~37 damage/second while
            the crows are around (on par with Burning Halo's effect).
        Shock Jockey/electrocution:  Combine electrocution with Murder of Crows.
            All the crows become electrified, dealing an additional ~12
            damage/second while the crows are around.  In addition, the stun effect
            is slightly longer (an additional second or so).
    Special Combo
        Bucking Bronco and Murder of Crows can both be applied simultaneously to
        enemies.  This means that a burning effect can and will trigger _both_
        Bucking Bronco and Murder of Crows combos at once.  (And you can vary the
        order, such as Murder of Crows, add burning, then Bucking Bronco.)
        Don't pay much mind to the damage numbers, the damage efficiency per Salt
        is too low to really pay it much heed.  What Murder of Crows is good at
        though, is mass disable/vulnerability.  In fact, unless you upgrade Shock
        Jockey or Bucking Bronco, Murder of Crows is really the only mass disable
        Vigor in the game; Bucking Bronco _can_ affect more than one enemy at a
        time, but the flotation effect is harder to really take advantage of.
            Where Murder of Crows really gets bonkers is with the "Crows Trap"
        upgrade.  Getting enemies to die while having crows on them is not that
        hard for most of the game, since while vulnerable they're taking twice as
        much damage.  So with one well-aimed blast of crows and follow up attack,
        you can quickly make it so that you disable an entire battlefield via a
        non-stop stream of free Crows traps.  The sheer Salt efficiency of this
        mayhem cannot be understated.  Combo this with burning effects and you can
        spread massive mayhem and damage.
            Murder of Crows also has the special distinction of being one of two
        disabling Vigors that has full effect on Handymen; the other is
        Undertow and Murder of Crows is more efficient (costing a little bit less
        Salt but lasting potentially much longer thanks to the Crows Boost
        upgrade).  Automatons are immune to Murder of Crows otherwise.
            The one drawback to Murder of Crows is that its range is limited and
        the crows as a projectile fly slower than, say, Bucking Bronco or Shock
    Bucking Bronco                                                        !vig,buc-
    Total Upgrade Cost:  $1,198
    Primary (tap)
        Salt Cost:  15
        Effect:  creates a wave of force that lifts (human) enemies up into the
            air, rendering them vulnerable and able to be knocked around.  Armored
            enemies become easy to hit for full damage.
        Duration:  ~3 seconds.
    Alternate (hold & release)
        Salt Cost:  30
        Effect:  sets a trap.  When triggered, all nearby (human) enemies are
            launched into the air.  Armored enemies become easy to hit for full
        Duration:  ~6 seconds.
    Upgrades [changed in Burial at Sea, not yet listed here]
        "Bronco Aid"
            Cost:  $777
            Effect:  the flotation effect can chain to nearby enemies.
            Location:  vending machines starting with Finkton Docks.
        "Bronco Boost"
            Cost:  $421
            Effect:  increases the flotation duration by a significant amount of
                time and lifts enemies much higher.
            Location:  vending machines starting with the Factory.
        Devil's Kiss/burning:  Combine a burning target with Bucking Bronco.  The
            lifted enemy will drop Devil's Kiss grenades.
        Charge:  Lift someone up with Bucking Bronco and then Charge them.  They
            will go flying far away, though the main use for this combo is to
            propel someone over railings for an instant death.
        Bucking Bronco and Possession do not mix well; the former will just waste
            the duration of the latter.
        Moreover, the Bronco Boost upgrade makes the burning combo much, much
            worse (see discussion below).
    Special Combo
        Bucking Bronco and Murder of Crows can both be applied simultaneously to
        enemies.  This means that a burning effect can and will trigger _both_
        Bucking Bronco and Murder of Crows combos at once.  (And you can vary the
        order, such as Murder of Crows, add burning, then Bucking Bronco.)
        Bucking Bronco's primary strength is that it's the most Salt-effective
        disabling effect for much of the game (in addition to being really cheap to
        fully upgrade).  Enemies that are launched in the air also move around
        depending on how you shoot them.  This is a double-edged sword; on the one
        hand, if the enemy is spinning around, it becomes hard to land critical
        hits; in fact, if you like using critical-hit-friendly weapons like
        carbines or hand cannons, you may hate Bucking Bronco.  On the other hand,
        if the enemy is near a railing, a few solid hits or a single whack with
        your sky-hook could be enough to knock them over the edge for an
            Moreover, against armored enemies (who are wearing some kind of helmet)
        Murder of Crows and Shock Jockey will stun them and make them vulnerable,
        but you still be having to deal with their heavy armor (so you will be
        doing twice damage but your base damage will still be very low).  With
        Bucking Bronco on the other hand, perhaps because of the way they are
        twirling in the air, you will easily hit armored enemies for full damage,
        making them much easier to dispatch.
            However, Bucking Bronco is held back by the fact that it cannot affect
        Patriots or Handymen (whereas Shock Jockey and Murder of Crows respectively
        do).  It _can_ lift enemies who are hiding behind cover, but not ones
        hiding behind walls.
            Chaining the area of effect is a modest upgrade; even with heavy use
        you won't see too much benefit compared to Shock Jockey's chain benefit (in
        part this is because Bucking Bronco could already affect more than one
        enemy if they were close together).  The "Bronco Boost" upgrade is quite
        good, however, being very $ efficient and disabling enemies for a very long
            The Charge combo is decent if situational.  It can be a way to instantly
        kill heavy hitters by knocking them completely off the map.  However, you
        can also do this with Undertow or repeated melee/gun hits, so you have to be
        pretty far from the edge to make it work.
            The burning combo is quite powerful, especially in narrow areas or
        crowded fights.  In solo fights, the bonus Devil's Kiss grenades will
        explode close enough to hit your lifted target for lots of bonus damage
        and extra burning damage over time.  In larger fights, you could potentially
        chain multiple combos as the secondary grenades light other lifted targets
        on fire. However, the Bucking Bronco Boost mod will make the combo _worse_.
        The Boost mod will significantly increase the duration you keep enemies
        helpless, but it also lifts enemies much higher than before.  This actually
        means that they are almost completely pushed out of range of the secondary
        grenades from the burning combo.  Combined with the area of effect of
        Bucking Bronco and any chaining, you could be doing very little with the
        burning combo because very nearly everyone around will be out of range of
        any of those extra grenades.  Plus, the extra height means enemies are no
        longer in range for you to  melee them if you're trying to trigger the combo
        with the Burning Halo gear.  All this is to say if you're using Bucking
        Bronco for its burning combo potential to _stay away_ from the Boost mod.
    Shock Jockey                                                          !vig,sho-
    Total Upgrade Cost:  $1,840
    Primary (tap)
        Salt Cost:  16 [much higher in Burial at Sea]
        Effect:  shoots out a bolt of electricity.  If it hits an enemy, it does
            minor damage and stuns them, which makes them vulnerable.  If it hits
            water (or hits an enemy in water), significant damage is dealt to
            everyone touching the water.  If it hits a power conduit, a door is
            opened (though these doors are only in Hall of Heroes and Soldier's
        Damage:  ~25
        Special Damage:  wet targets with sufficiently low health take an
            instantaneous blast of ~1000 damage; otherwise they take ~200 damage
            per second for the duration of the stun or wetness (see Combo).
        Stun Duration:  ~3 seconds.
    Alternate (hold & release)
        Salt Cost:  32 [much higher in Burial at Sea]
        Effect:  launches a crystal, which upon hitting a surface shatters.  The
            shrapnel grows into several full-size crystals and then every crystal
            is connected by arcing electricity.  If an enemy touches the
            electricity or a crystal, a crystal shatters and they are electrocuted
            and stunned.  You can also manually destroy a crystal that's been set
            near an enemy by firing at it, which will cause an explosion that deals
        Damage:  ~50 over the stun duration
        Explosion Damage:  ~200
        Special Damage:  wet targets with sufficiently low health take an
            instantaneous blast of ~1000 damage; otherwise they take ~200 damage
            per second for the duration of the stun or wetness (see Combo).
        Stun Duration:  ~4 seconds
    Upgrades [changed in Burial at Sea, not yet listed here]
        "Shock Chain Aid"
            Cost:  $1,265
            Effect:  if the electricity hits an enemy, it arcs to nearby targets as
            Location:  vending machines starting with the Factory.
        "Shock Duration Aid"
            Cost:  $575
            Effect:  increases the stun duration by a few seconds.
            Location:  vending machines starting with Downtown Emporia.
        Possession:  Combine Possession with electrocution.  They will become a
            mobile tesla coil, periodically electrocuting (as per Shock Jockey)
            every target in range, stunning them and making them vulnerable.  In
            case it isn't clear, you can affect Patriots, too (a Patriot that is
            electrocuting nearby enemies will clear out a room quite quickly).
        Murder of Crows:  Combine electrocution with Murder of Crows.  All the crows
            become electrified, dealing an additional ~12 damage/second while the
            crows are around.  In addition, the stun effect is slightly longer (an
            additional second or so).
        Undertow:  Electrocute a target with Shock Jockey and then hit them with
            Undertow.  The target takes a significant amount of damage until the
            Undertow effect wears off (about 200 damage per second).
            Alternatively, use Undertow's alternate effect to bring a foe to you,
            then hit them with Shock Jockey for either an immediate electrical
            execution (if their health was low enough) or ~200 damage per second.
        Remember that electrocuted enemies take 3x melee damage (instead of the
        standard 2x from vulnerability).
        For a while Shock Jockey stands behind Murder of Crows and Bucking Bronco
        as a disabling Vigor since it can only affect one target.  However, it
        possesses a bunch of nice utility and auxiliary uses that helps make it its
            For one, Shock Jockey finally provides you a decent answer to
        automatons, disabling and rendering them vulnerable for a significant
        amount of time.
            For two, Shock Jockey becomes ultra-efficient damage if you can hit
        someone in water.  Not terribly common, but there are a couple of water
        spill hazards (either as part of a level or via a Tear) that you can take
        advantage of.
            For three, Shock Jockey's alternate effect is very different from the
        other disabling Vigors, whose alternate effects are basically just slightly
        bigger triggered versions of the primary effect.  Instead, you basically
        are able to do territorial control; each use sets up a way to thwart anyone
        who would try to charge you, even if it's the Fireman doing his otherwise
        unstoppable suicide dash.  In fact, if you like to sit back and snipe away
        at enemies, one way to protect yourself from charges and being flanked is
        to set up a network of crystals near you.  Not only will it halt enemies in
        their tracks, but if you have Combat Text enabled you will be alerted by
        their presence by a sudden string of numbers appearing on your screen.
            For four, Shock Jockey comboes very well (even if I'm not positive on
        what Murder of Crows + Shock Jockey does); see the earlier Vigor sections
        for more discussion.
            "Shock Chain Aid" is almost mandatory if you plan on regularly using
        this Vigor.  The upgrade takes away its major drawback, its lack of area of
        effect (though unlike Murder of Crows or Bucking Bronco you still have to
        actually hit an enemy for the effect to chain at all).  In fact, with the
        upgrade, Shock Jockey's efficiency becomes on par with the super-efficient
        Bucking Bronco.
    Charge                                                                !vig,cha-
    [This Vigor/Plasmid is completely removed in Burial at Sea.]
    Total Upgrade Cost:  $2,169
    Primary (tap)
        Salt Cost:  25
        Effect:  instantly launches you at a target, doing impact damage and
            briefly disrupting them, making them vulnerable.  Not all enemies are
            vulnerable to being stunned (notably Handymen are immune).
        Damage:  175
    Alternate (hold & release)
        Salt Cost:  25
        Effect:  launches you at a target, doing impact damage and briefly
            disrupting them, making them vulnerable.  Not all enemies are
            vulnerable to being stunned (notably Handymen are immune).
        Damage:  350
        "Charge Aid"
            Cost:  $1,614
            Effect:  upon impact, you become very briefly invulnerable and your
                shield immediately starts recharging.
            Location:  vending machines starting with the Factory.
        "Charge Boost"
            Cost:  $555
            Effect:  upon impact, you create a small explosion that adds ~100
                damage or so.
            Location:  vending machines starting with Downtown Emporia.
        Devil's Kiss/burning:  Charge a burning target.  They will expel Devil's
            Kiss grenades that explode at close range.
        Bucking Bronco:  Lift someone up with Bucking Bronco and then Charge them.
            They will go flying far away, though the main use for this combo is to
            propel someone over the railing for an instant death.
        Charge's power curve over the course of the game is shaped like the letter
        U.  Very high power early on, when you can sometimes straight out kill
        enemies with a Charge and a follow up attack.  Then Charge's power level
        drops when Charging becomes suicidal--appearing right next to several
        enemies who can all hit you is a surefire way to losing $100.  Once you get
        at least the Charge Aid upgrade, the power curve climbs up again as now
        Charge is both an offensive and survival move.
            In fact, even with the "Charge Boost" upgrade and some serious
        close-range upgrades (a fully upgraded Heater for example), I would venture
        to say that Charge becomes mostly useful as a quick survival/travel Vigor.
        Really tough enemies in the end game are enormously resilient, so you
        should never truly anticipate being able to dispatch your target.  Instead,
        use it to give yourself a brief reprieve, recharge your shield, and have a
        follow up Vigor ready (even if just to Charge away from the situation
        towards a different foe).
            Note that a strike using Charge counts as a melee attack, so any and
        all equipped gear you have that triggers off melee attacks can also trigger
        off a Charge.
    Undertow                                                              !vig,und-
    [This Vigor/Plasmid is completely removed in Burial at Sea.]
    Total Upgrade Cost:  $1,449
    Primary (tap)
        Salt Cost:  31
        Effect:  shoots a gush of water which knocks enemies back about 20 feet
            (~6 meters).  Moving your aim very quickly when you trigger the
            effect can let you affect enemies in a wider cone than just directly in
            front of you.  Enemies are briefly vulnerable while they stand up
            again, though some enemies are immune to being knocked back.
        Damage:  incidental damage from hitting obstacles.
        Special Damage:  Patriots take ~200 damage per second for the stun
            duration.  Turrets take ~80 damage per second for the stun duration.
            Handymen take a reduced amount of damage per second for the stun
            duration, but are not stunned.
        Stun:  3 seconds; for humanoids this includes the time they are being
            launched (i.e. not just the time spent standing up again), for
            automatons this is the total time (as they are not launched back).
    Alternate (hold & release)
        Salt Cost:  31
        Effect:  holding the button down creates a watery tentacle that
            auto-targets a faraway target.  Upon releasing, the tentacle pulls in
            the enemy to be right next to you, doing some damage from collision
            with the ground and briefly incapacitating them, making them
        Damage:  ~50 from impact with the floor
        Special Damage:  Patriots take ~200 damage per second for the stun
            duration.  Turrets are immune to the alternate effect.  Handymen take a
            reduced amount of damage from the impact and are _fully_ stunned
            (unlike the primary effect).
        Stun:  3 seconds (uniform across vulnerable targets).
        "Undertow Aid"
            Cost:  $306
            Effect:  lets you grab up to two additional enemies with the alternate
                effect; while holding down the "use Vigor" button, sweep your
                targetting reticule over the additional targets you want to grab.
            Location:  vending machines starting with Emporia.
        "Undertow Boost"
            Cost:  $1,143
            Effect:  doubles the range of both the primary and alternate effects.
            Location:  vending machines starting with Downtown Emporia.
        Shock Jockey:  Electrocute a target with Shock Jockey and then hit them
            with Undertow.  The target takes a significant amount of damage until
            the Undertow effect wears off (about 200 damage per second).
            Alternatively, use Undertow's alternate effect to bring a foe to you,
            then hit them with Shock Jockey for either an immediate electrical
            execution (if their health was low enough) or ~200 damage per second.
        Previously I considered Undertow to be rather underpowered for 1999 Mode.
        Now that I realized through some experimentation that the alternate
        effect of Undertow does not cost 62 Salt (as most Vigors' alternate effect
        costs twice their primary), I have to say that this is a serviceable Vigor
        with several use cases where it can really shine.
            The primary effect on its own is quite weak; the disabling effect is
        very short against humanoids, especially since for the first part of it you
        can't really target them since they're busy being knocked back.  Rather,
        the primary effect's strength is in fighting Patriots/turrets (which take
        significant damage _and_ are stunned/vulnerable for the duration) or
        humanoids who are near railings.  Even heavy hitters can be instakilled so
        long as you blow them off the edge of the map, and even if you aren't near
        the edge of the map, a long fall can still do (most of) the work for you.
        And while the primary effect + Shock Jockey combo isn't the most efficient
        damage in the world one on one (31 + 16 Salts when you consider just 16
        Salt + a few bullets can do the same thing), anytime you have a group of
        electrocuted enemies the primary effect combo can shine (e.g. Tesla Coils,
        Shock Jockey with chain upgrade, an Overkill chain, a Shock Jacket chain,
        or even just a group of foes near a fallen Patriot).
            The alternate effect can be a bit suicidal if you're not careful.  Much
        of your 1999 Mode survival depends on evasion and range, not by trying to
        do as much damage as possible at point-blank range.  So just willy-nilly
        pulling in a far away target to close quarters is potentially a way to
        screw yourself over, as even a sniper can hit you with the butt of their
        gun for significant damage (wiping out your shield and part of your
        health).  Instead, use the alternate effect as the setup to a more
        devastating finisher.  Even after you see the tell-tale watery tentacle
        that indicates you've hooked an enemy, you can move around so long as you
        don't exceed the maximum range.  Thus, you can move and turn to face a
        railing, release to pull in your foe, and then hit them with the primary
        effect to immediately blow them off the map.
            Of course, doing this costs 62 Salt (31 to pull + 31 to blast), so it's
        not very efficient when you consider an unupgraded Possession will also
        effectively insta-kill most humanoids for only 50 Salt (though you can do
        this Undertow trick just fine with heavy hitter humanoids, so this is
        probably the most efficient way to dispatch Firemen and Crows).  In
        general, you should seek ways to make the pull combo efficient.  For
        example, the Undertow Aid upgrade plus a railing will let you instakill
        three far-away foes in a more efficient manner than three individual hits
        of a fully upgraded Possession (62 Salt versus 75).
            You can also try your Undertow-pulling luck with the Shock Jockey
        combo.  A direct blast from Shock Jockey on a suspended foe will outright
        electrocute many foes, and many others will be reduced to within headshot
        health.  Alternatively, if you setup a Shock Jockey trap in advance, then
        you can squeeze a bunch of efficiency out of the whole deal; just keep
        Undertow-pulling foes into your Shock Jockey trap.  Combined with the
        "Overkill" Gear and the Undertow Aid upgrade you can potentially cause
        multiple levels of electrocution:  one foe will die, trigger an Overkill
        effect, which will electrocute all nearby enemies, who will take extra
        damage again, which may in turn cause another Overkill to occur, etc.  I've
        actually managed to bring a Patriot down solely with an Undertow combo that
        built up to ~600 damage/second thanks to the initial ~200 damage/second
        plus two humanoids who triggered Overkill effects upon death.  Moreover, if
        you use the "Ghost Posse" Gear, this combo has the nice side effect that
        you may be spawning helpful gun allies in the process.
            You can also try other Vigor traps or simply a good shot or two from a
        close-up weapon.  Undertow-pulling a foe or foes onto a trap that would
        otherwise not get used (e.g. because there are no more charging foes left,
        see str,aiq-) is a good way to make sure your Salt doesn't go to waste.
        And repeatedly Undertow-pulling a foe or foes into range of an upgraded
        heater, volley gun, shotgun, or hail fire blast can be a satisfying, quick,
        and safe way to clear an entire room (especially if you are low on ammo for
        your "at range" weapon).
            Aside from all this, the alternate effect is also notable because its
        stun is 100% effective against Handymen.  Moreover, whereas Murder of Crows
        causes a Handyman to flail about, batting away at birds, Undertow keeps the
        Handyman completely stationary.  This makes him a prime target for critical
        hits in the heart (and this is also an easy way to get the Heartbreaker
        achievement).  The stun from Undertow won't last as long as Murder of
        Crows', but then again you may get so much more damage out of it as to make
        it worth it.
            Lastly, the alternate effect is also useful for just taking advantage
        of the shape of the battlefield.  You can pull Patriots into suicidal or
        far-away locations (to minimize their danger).  You can also pull myriads
        of foes into various map hazards, notably Tesla Coils but also oil slicks.
        These are less common a use case than all the others mentioned above, but
        when they occur, they can be abusive.  Notably, the big fight in Grand
        Central Depot can be reduced into a degenerative match of just constantly
        pulling all your foes into a Tesla Coil, whereupon they become electrocuted
        to death.
    Return to Sender                                                      !vig,ret-
    [This Vigor/Plasmid is completely removed in Burial at Sea.]
    Total Upgrade Cost:  $2,185
    Primary (tap)
        Salt Cost:  20
        Effect:  creates a blue shield, which stops all damage.
        Shield Duration:  3 seconds.
    Alternate (hold & release)
        Salt Cost:  20
        Effect:  creates a trap; when triggered, it propels enemies away, dealing
            damage and rendering them vulnerable while they stand up.
        Damage:  450
    Alternate 2 (hold)
        Salt Cost:  20 to start, 10 per second
        Effect:  holding the button down creates an orange shield which holds onto
            any incoming bullets.  Releasing the button launches the orange shield
            (and any absorbed ammunition) as a trap; upon impact or when triggered,
            it deals damage and renders nearby targets vulnerable.
        Damage:  somewhat dependant on absorbed ammunition, at least 450 but I
            generally can do at least ~900 after absorbing a few bullets.
        "Send for Less"
            Cost:  $898
            Effect:  increases blue shield duration to 5 seconds, halves Salt
                consumption rate to 5 per second for the second alternate effect.
            Location:  vending machines starting with Downtown Emporia.
        "Sender Aid"
            Cost:  $1,287
            Effect:  absorbed ammunition is added directly to your stock (though
                see Mechanics #4 below for how this actually works).
            Location:  vending machines starting with Downtown Emporia.
        Like Devil's Kiss, Return to Sender has a few tricky aspects to it that
        bear mentioning before moving on to Discussion.
            1.  When using the primary effect, the blue shield lasts only so long
                as you do not switch to another Vigor; switching Vigors causes the
                effect to end prematurely.
            2.  If you accept health, salts, or ammo from Elizabeth while using
                either the primary effect or a prolonged use of the alternate
                effect, the entire effect will end prematurely (which can be quite
                annoying if you had a lot of ammo collected in the orange shield).
            3.  When you create a trap using either of the alternate effects, the
                enemy AI will sometimes treat it as an actual target, firing at it
                until it is completely saturated with bullets (the trap continues
                to absorb ammo like the orange shield).  This has two
                ramifications:  one, a Return to Sender trap can function as a
                minor distraction in mid-fight (though you probably have to be out
                of sight for enemies to focus on it instead of you); two, a Return
                to Sender trap that doesn't detonate immediately when set (due to
                proximity) may reach full power for when it does detonate, doing
                well over the average of 450.
            4.  The Sender Aid upgrade _only_ works if both of the following
                conditions are met:
                    A.  You are using the primary effect (blue shield).
                    B.  The weapon you have out is the same weapon as the one being
                        blocked by the blue shield.
                However, when you successfully gain ammunition, you gain more than
                you would normally expect:  a few absorbed machine gun shots may
                result in 30ish additional ammo.
            5.  The shield stops virtually _all_ sources of damage, even from
                sources that cannot be otherwise absorbed (like a Handyman's melee
                attack).  However, the only exception is fire damage, notably from
                a Fireman's Devil's Kiss.
        A wonderful survival tool.  The primary effect can be used to give yourself
        brief defense while you hop from cover to cover, or if you need to pop out
        and shoot at a sniper without getting shot yourself.  It can also be used
        to get the heck out of dodge when your Shield breaks.  The primary effect
        also has an excellent synergy with Urgent Care:  without Send For Less, you
        have enough time to start regenerating your shield; with Send For Less, you
        not only buy yourself enough invulnerability to start regenerating your
        shield, you also have time to get 2/3 of your shield back, which is just
        bonkers for your survivability.
            The first alternate effect isn't terribly great; the vulnerability is
        short and the damage minimal (though oddly, still better and more efficient
        than a non-fully-upgraded Devil's Kiss), but it can be used to give
        yourself quick breathing room in a pinch, either because of the momentary
        knockback from the explosion or the distracting effect it provides as
        described in Mechanics #3.  Interestingly, it does more base damage (and
        with greater Salt efficiency) than Devil's Kiss's primary effect, but it
        has very tricky aiming (since it's effectively a trap with minimal area of
        effect, you have to be on-target or shoot it with a weapon).
            The second alternate effect is quite good.  In addition to making you
        invulnerable to normal shots, you steadily build up a powerful retaliatory
        attack.  Even with a small amount of caught bullets you can do upwards of
        1,000 damage.  Unfortunately, enemies tend to be smart and will fire less
        at you when you start popping out that orange bubble.
            While the Send For Less upgrade is virtually mandatory for anyone who
        uses this Vigor, Sender Aid is much more situational.  You basically have
        to be specializing in a weapon that is commonly used by enemies,
        that is absorbable by Return to Sender, and has sufficiently uncommon ammo
        or low reserve where you actually would benefit from replenishing your ammo
        mid-fight.  To that end, I would venture to say that people who like to use
        the following weapons would benefit from Sender Aid:  machine gun, hand
        cannon, repeater, shotgun, heater, and to a certain extent crank gun
        (basically limitless offense and defense against Patriots).  Other people
        should stay away from this upgrade.
            In short, you probably don't want this sitting as one of your two main
        Vigors all the time, but always be ready to switch out for this at a
        moment's notice.  Some playstyles will benefit enormously from regular
        usage as well as the upgrades, others will be better off with other Vigors.
        But for everyone, the boost to your potential survivability from using this
        Vigor even situationally is amazing.
    Weapons                                                                   !wea-
    [Not going to be updated for Burial at Sea.]
    As a general rule, you should focus on having one "at range" weapon and one
    "close-up" weapon that you upgrade and use to a fair amount.  At lower
    difficulties you have much more flexibility about what weapons to upgrade and
    use, but in 1999 Mode you need to make sure a) you aren't spreading yourself
    thin and b) that you will have fully upgraded weapons to use in the game's
    final fights.
    The "at range" weapon selection is important since this is really the meat of
    how you should conduct your fights in 1999 Mode.  Enemies can quickly pummel
    you to death in close quarters and you won't always have a luxurious amount of
    Salts to use on disabling Vigors.
        Top tier "at range" weapons:  sniper rifle, carbine.
    The "close-up" weapon is both a finisher as well as an "oh-shit!" response.
    Enemies wielding shotguns and bats will love to charge you, and you need
    something with good stopping power to make sure they don't prematurely end your
    run.  Note that your skyhook does _not_ count as a close-up weapon, since even
    a highly inaccurate Heater can still hit enemies without having to get right
    next to them.
        Top tier "close-up" weapons:  hand cannon, repeater.
    In the lists below, I use two terms: "spread" and "recoil." They sound similar,
    but refer to distinct aspects of a weapon.  "Spread" is how far apart the
    ammunition scatters every time you fire them out of the weapon.  "Recoil" is
    how far your weapon moves away from your target after each shot and mainly
    impacts zoomed-in aiming.  A high spread can be good or bad; for a weapon that
    fires its bullets one at a time, you generally want a low spread, while for a
    weapon that fires a mass of ammo with one shot (like a Shotgun or Heater) a
    high spread is good.  A high recoil is always worse than low recoil, though.
    In general, a high spread weapon is great for a "close-up" role, while you need
    a low spread weapon for ranged fighting.  Assume that if I do not explicitly
    mention spread or recoil for a weapon that it has low amounts of both.
    I provide all Silver Eagle upgrade costs, so you can help plan in advance what
    weapons you will be able to afford to specialize in.
    I also provide a few metrics to help you to gauge the relative effectiveness of
    various weapons:
        1.  DPS (Normal):  the amount of damage you can output per second before
            having to reload.  This metric only assumes body shots.
        2.  DPS (Critical):  the amount of damage you can output per second before
            having to reload.  This metric assumes a number of your shots are
            critical hits:  slow/medium-fire weapons with a 75% critical hit rate
            and fast-fire weapons with a 50% critical hit rate rate.
        3.  Burst Damage Potential:  a semi-subjective measure of how much damage
                you can output in a very short amount of time.  This metric is
                presented because DPS alone may not capture weapon effectiveness:
                sustained damage is less useful if you pop out of cover, quickly
                try to kill someone, and then pop back into cover.
            For fast-fire weapons, I assume a perfect critical rate over half a
                second (or the closest time duration to fire a whole number of
                shots).  For slow-fire weapons, I assume one shot with a critical
            You'll note that because of this metric, some weapons look like they
                have one performance given their DPS, but another performance
                implied given by their burst damage potential.  This is
                intentional; for example, it doesn't matter that a Heater's
                sustained DPS is very low if you can blow up everyone with one
        4.  Estimated Total Damage Potential:  the total amount of damage you can
            output from full clip/reserve to empty.  This is a relative measure of
            weapon efficiency; a weapon with very low total damage potential means
            you may be running low on ammo constantly.  To account for certain
            weapons having a higher critical damage multipler than others, this
            total assumes a 50% critical hit rate.
        5.  Value (damage per $):  how much damage you get for every $ you spend
            on ammo at a Dollar Bill (you pay $8 for a standard clip size of ammo).
            While Total Damage Potential measures how much you can do in a fight,
            Value measures how effectively you can replenish in between fights.
            (If you're focused on the non-Dollar Bill achievement, you should ignore
            this metric.)
        6.  Ammo Plentifulness:  a subjective analysis of how frequently you can
            find ammo for this weapon throughout the game, either as loot or from
            enemies.  A high Total Damage Potential isn't going to do you any good
            if you never find ammo for your gun, in other words.  Sometimes this
            varies based on where you are in the game, and I'll spell that out.
    Weapons that have upgrades that affect any of the above metrics will list
    multiple values for each of them.
    Final note:  unlike the Bullet Boon gear, clip size upgrades for weapons
    actually let you carry more ammo.  That is because with Bullet Boon, the extra
    clip size comes straight out of the reserve (e.g. a repeater would go from 20
    clip 60 reserve to 30 clip 50 reserve).  However, clip size upgrades directly
    increase the clip size without decreasing the reserve (e.g. a repeater with the
    clip size upgrades would go from 20 clip 60 reserve to 40 clip 60 reserve).
    Tables                                                                !wea,tab-
    Before I dive into the individual weapons, I want to put all the metrics into
    perspective, since simply looking at the stats for one weapon at a time may not
    give you a good picture of its overall relative effectiveness.  Here are
    various tables that rank weapons by various metrics (all numbers below use
    fully-upgraded assumptions).
    Weapons by DPS+                         Weapons by DPS for People Who Aim Well+
        1.  Volley Gun      924                 1.  Sniper Rifle  1,240
        2.  Repeater        583.33              2.  Hand Cannon     937.5
        2.  Sniper Rifle    583.33              3.  Volley Gun*     924
        4.  Carbine         500                 4.  Repeater        875
        4.  RPG             500                 5.  Carbine         812.5
        6.  Machine Gun     400                 6.  Pistol          562.5
        7.  Hand Cannon     375                 7.  Machine Gun     500
        8.  Shotgun         337.5               8.  RPG*            500
        9.  Pistol          250                 9.  Shotgun         464.0625
        10. Burstgun        220.83              10. Burstgun        288.75
        11. Heater          ~200                11. Heater          275
    + Both the crank gun and hail fire are excluded from these lists due to their
    variability and/or situationality.
    * Neither the volley gun nor RPG can critically hit so normal DPS numbers are
    used here.
    Weapons by Burst Potential+             Weapons by Total Potential+
        1.  Hail Fire     1,386                 1.  Pistol       20,250
        2.  Heater        1,200                 2.  Carbine      18,687.5
        3.  Hand Cannon     900                 3.  Volley Gun   18,480
        4.  Sniper Rifle    875                 4.  Hail Fire    15,246
        5.  RPG             750                 5.  Sniper Rifle 14,700
        6.  Shotgun         675                 6.  Hand Cannon  14,400
        7.  Repeater        600                 7.  Repeater     13,500
        8.  Carbine         562.5               7.  Shotgun      13,500
        9.  Burstgun        550                 9.  Burstgun     10,500
        10. Pistol          525                 10. Machine Gun   8,750
        11. Volley Gun      462                 11. Heater        9,000
        12. Machine Gun     300                 12. RPG           8,250
    + Crank gun is excluded due to its rarity/situationality.
    Weapons by Overall Value
        A combination of total potential, value (damage per $ at a Dollar Bill), and
        my perception from multiple playthroughs of how common the ammunition is
        in-game.  I add notes on what causes their shift up or down in ranking from
        the "Weapons by Total Potential" table.
        1.  Machine Gun     (+9:  extremely common ammo)
        2.  Pistol          (-1:  poor Dollar Bill value even if common ammo)
        3.  Volley Gun
        4.  Carbine         (-2:  uncommon ammo in start and end of game)
        5.  Shotgun         (+2:  common ammo)
        6.  Hand Cannon
        7.  Sniper Rifle    (-2:  uncommon ammo)
        8.  Repeater+       (-1:  inconsistently un/common ammo)
        9.  Burstgun
        10. RPG             (+2:  better value and ammo prevalence than #11/12)
        11. Heater          (-1:  poor Dollar Bill value)
        12. Hail Fire       (-8:  extremely rare ammo)
    + Repeater is a gun that definitely benefits from using Sender Aid.  If you plan
    on deploying this Vigor and Vigor upgrade, bump it up into a tie with Sniper
    Overall Weapon Effectiveness+*          ...excluding explosive weapons
        1.  Sniper Rifle                        1.  Sniper Rifle
        2.  Hand Cannon                         2.  Hand Cannon
        3.  Carbine                             3.  Carbine
        4.  Repeater                            4.  Repeater
        4.  Volley Gun                          5.  Shotgun
        6.  Shotgun                             6.  Pistol
        7.  RPG                                 7.  Heater
        8.  Pistol                              8.  Machine Gun
        9.  Heater                              9.  Burstgun
        10. Hail Fire  
        10. Machine Gun
        12. Burstgun
    ...only "at range" weapons`             ...only "close up" weapons`
        1.  Sniper Rifle                        1.  Hand Cannon
        2.  Carbine                             2.  Repeater
        3.  Repeater (w/Recoil Mod)             3.  Shotgun
        4.  Pistol                              4.  Heater
        5.  Machine Gun (w/Accuracy Mod)        5.  Machine Gun
        6.  Burstgun                            
    + Crank gun is excluded due to its rarity/situationality.
    * Calculated by adding up the ranks for each weapon on the DPS, DPS who aim
    well, burst damage, and overall value tables, with burst damage weighted 1.5x
    and the DPS tables weighted at half.  Lower scores are better.  Hail fire was
    given a score of 12 (worst) for the two categories it was not listed.
    ` Categories determined by spread/recoil/presence of scope.
    Pistols/Machine Guns                                                  !wea,pis-
    These are weapons characterized by a high rate of fire.
        Damage:     ~50
            ...on critical hit does x3.5
        Clip:       12          Reserve:        108
        Fire Rate:  400 rpm     Reload Speed:   Fast
        DPS (Normal):           333.33 (realistically 250)*
        DPS (Critical):         749.25 (562.5)*     (50% critical hits)
        Burst Damage Potential: 525
        Est. Total Potential:   13,500 or 20,250 w/upgrades
        Value (damage per $):   75-168.75           (0-50% critical hits)
        Ammo Plentifulness:     high
        * It is _very_ unlikely that you will be to physically press your fire
        button at 400 times per minute; really you will be closer to 300 times per
        minute, so the "realistic" numbers will be closer to your in-game
        Damage Boost 1:     $199, +25% damage.
            [Golden]:       free, +35% damage.
        Damage Boost 2:     $199, +25% damage.
        Ammo Increase:      $404, +50% reserve size (to 162).
        Clip Increase:      $275, +50% clip size (to 18).
        Total Upgrade Cost: $1,077
        Discussion:  the pistol is the first non-melee weapon in the game and for
            most players the experience is that of it becoming quickly obsoleted by
            the machine gun and every other future weapon.  Though interestingly,
            given its high fire rate, quick reload time, good accuracy, and high
            critical hit bonus, the damage per second output of a pistol can easily
            match or beat later and ostensibly better weapons in the game, with
            more common ammo to boot (I can personally attest to the successful
            viability of using a pistol as your main weapon for 1999 Mode).
            However, if you don't have good aiming for criticals, it could take
            you two clips just to clear out one enemy in the later stages of the
            games.  1999 Mode isn't a great place to be messing around, so don't
            waste money here unless you are _very_ confident in your shooting
    Machine Gun
        Damage:     ~40
            ...on critical hit does x1.5
            ...moderate spread
        Clip:       35          Reserve:        105
        Fire Rate:  600 rpm     Reload Speed:   Fast
        DPS (Normal):           400
        DPS (Critical):         500                 (50% critical hits)
        Burst Damage Potential: 300
        Est. Total Potential:   7,000 or 8,750 w/upgrades
        Value (damage per $):   175-218.75          (0-50% critical hits)
        Ammo Plentifulness:     very high until late-game, medium afterwards
        Damage Boost 1:     $236, +25% damage.
            [Golden]:       free, +35% damage.
        Damage Boost 2:     $236, +25% damage.
        Accuracy Increase:  $512, -75% spread.
        Clip Increase:      $391, +100% clip size (to 70).
        Total Upgrade Cost: $1,375
        Discussion:  also available rather early on and isn't that great.  It fires
            faster than a pistol, so it effectively does more damage than a pistol,
            but its low accuracy and low critical hit bonus mean that it's
            ill-suited for distance attacks or consistently landing criticals.  As
            a result, you may actually do worse with this weapon than with a
            straight-up pistol.  Also note that for having such a high fire
            rate and low damage, the machine gun does not have a large reserve,
            which means that later in the game you could easily empty out your
            entire ammo supply just to kill one enemy, though ammo is relatively
            plentiful since virtually every Founder fight involves machine guns.
                Note that the Accuracy Increase upgrade is quite strong of a bonus;
            it essentially eliminates one of the Machine Gun's weakpoints and makes
            it capable for moderate to long-range shooting (provided you can handle
            squinting at your screen since the iron sights zoom on this weapon
            isn't very strong).
    Hand Cannon
        Damage:     ~300
            ...on critical hit does x3
            ...moderate recoil
        Clip:       6           Reserve:        18
        Fire Rate:  75 rpm      Reload Speed:   Moderate
        DPS (Normal):           375
        DPS (Critical):         937.5               (75% critical hits)
        Burst Damage Potential: 900
        Est. Total Potential:   14,400
        Value (damage per $):   225-562.5           (0-75% critical hits)
        Ammo Plentifulness:     medium
        Damage Boost 1:     $448, +25% damage.
        Damage Boost 2:     $448, +25% damage.
        Reload Increase:    $656, -50% reload time.
        Recoil Decrease:    $350, -20% recoil.
        Total Upgrade Cost: $1,902
        Discussion:  basically a pistol's take on the shotgun.  Roughly similar
            damage profiles, great close-up stopping power.  The shotgun does a bit
            more damage and has a spread, but the hand cannon is faster to reload,
            has much better accuracy, and a whopping 3x critical hit multiplier,
            making consistent criticals possible and lethal.  In a pinch, you can
            also use the hand cannon to snipe moderately distanced enemies.
        Damage:     ~100
            ...on critical hit does x2
            ...moderate spread
            ...moderate recoil
        Clip:       20          Reserve:        60
        Fire Rate:  350 rpm     Reload Speed:   Moderate
        DPS (Normal):           583.33
        DPS (Critical):         875                 (50% critical hits)
        Burst Damage Potential: 600
        Est. Total Potential:   9,000 or 13,500 w/upgrades
        Value (damage per $):   250-375             (0-50% critical hits)
        Ammo Plentifulness:     low against Founders, medium against Vox
        Damage Boost 1:     installed by default, +25% damage.
        Damage Boost 2:     $423, +25% damage.
        Recoil Decrease:    $822, -50% recoil.
        Clip Increase:      $449, +100% clip size (to 40).
        Total Upgrade Cost: $1,694
        Discussion:  much better than the machine gun (the repeater is effectively
            a Vox-modified machine gun, hence the default damage boost mod).  Very
            high damage rate, reasonably easy to critical with, though you will
            still need some Vigor usage to weaken tougher enemies in order to make
            the damage per total carry ammo ratio a bit more efficient.  The only
            downside to this weapon is that it has such a low reserve that you
            basically are only able to use this in prolonged fashion when actually
            fighting Vox (who tend to drop this in spades).
                The volatility of how common Repeater ammo is makes this a prime
            candidate for benefiting from Sender Aid.  Put up a blue shield when
            fighting Vox in the mid-late stages of the game while using your
            repeater and you may find yourself finishing the fight with more ammo
            than when you entered it.
    Rifles/Shotguns                                                       !wea,rif-
    Rifles are great for distance shots, while shotguns are high-impact close up
    area of effect damage.
        Damage:     ~450
            ...on critical hit does x1.5
            ...high spread
            ...high recoil
        Clip:       4           Reserve:        20
        Fire Rate:  45 rpm      Reload Speed:   Slow
        DPS (Normal):           337.5
        DPS (Critical):         464.0625            (25% critical hits)
        Burst Damage Potential: 675
        Est. Total Potential:   13,500
        Value (damage per $):   225-253.125         (0-25% critical hits)
        Ammo Plentifulness:     high
        Damage Boost 1:     $255, +25% damage.
        Damage Boost 2:     $255, +25% damage.
        Reload Increase:    $462, -50% reload time.
        Spread Increase:    $360, +20% spread.
        Total Upgrade Cost: $1,332
        Discussion:  from the moment you get this until the end of the game, the
            shotgun is an able performer.  Good hits, frequently able to hit more
            than one enemy at a time, and literal stopping power (pretty much every
            shot is guaranteed to cause a stagger).  To balance this out, it is
            very difficult to land a critical on anyone with a small weak spot
            (human enemies's heads or the Handyman's heart), each shell has to be
            loaded individually during a reload, and the clip size is very low.  In
            fact, this means that you might see a better overall damage rate
            increase if you go for the reload upgrade first versus the actual
            damage boosts.
        Damage:     ~125
            ...on critical hit does x2.25
            ...moderate recoil
        Clip:       8           Reserve:        80
        Fire Rate:  240 rpm     Reload Speed:   Moderate
        DPS (Normal):           500
        DPS (Critical):         812.5               (50% critical hits)
        Burst Damage Potential: 562.5
        Est. Total Potential:   17,875 or 18,687.5 w/upgrades
        Value (damage per $):   125-203.125         (0-50% critical hits)
        Ammo Plentifulness:     medium mid-game, low early and late
        Damage Boost 1:     $375, +25% damage.
        Damage Boost 2:     $375, +25% damage.
        Clip Increase:      $484, +50% clip size (to 12).
        Recoil Decrease:    $360, -60% recoil.
        Total Upgrade Cost: $1,594
        Discussion:  basically a cross between a pistol and sniper rifle.  As such,
            it is much better than a sniper rifle at hip shooting and much better
            than a pistol at distance combat.  Ammo is relatively plentiful, so for
            a versatile weapon you can't go terribly wrong with specializing in a
    Sniper Rifle
        Damage:     ~350
            ...on critical hit does x2.5
            ...very high recoil
        Clip:       4           Reserve:        20
        Fire Rate:  50 rpm      Reload Speed:   Slow
        DPS (Normal):           291.66 or 583.33 w/upgrades
        DPS (Critical):         620 or 1,240        (75% criticals)
        Burst Damage Potential: 875
        Est. Total Potential:   14,700
        Value (damage per $):   175-371.875         (0-75% critical hits)
        Ammo Plentifulness:     low
        Damage Boost 1:     $349, +25% damage.
        Damage Boost 2:     $349, +25% damage.
        RoF Increase:       $654, +100% fire rate.
        Recoil Decrease:    $288, -50% recoil.
        Total Upgrade Cost: $1,640
        Discussion:  if you like killing things from across the battlefield, this
            is your pick.  The zoom-in for this weapon is the best in the game and
            will make it almost trivial to critical enemies from far away, which
            more than doubles this weapon's damage rate.  Above all other weapons,
            I recommend that you seriously consider this as one of your 1999 Mode
            specialties, as the ability to slay your foes without ever exposing
            yourself to any real danger is an incredible boon for your survival.
                As a side note, the fire rate increase upgrade almost makes the
            sniper rifle on par with a shotgun or hand cannon for hip shooting
            enemies (though ammo for a sniper rifle is suitably rare that you
            should only do this in emergencies).
        Damage:     ~800
            ...on critical hit does x1.5
            ...very high spread
            ...very high recoil
            ...catches enemies on fire
        Clip:       1           Reserve:        8
        Fire Rate:  35 rpm      Reload Speed:   Very Slow
        DPS (Normal):           roughly 200, up to 466.66*
        DPS (Critical):         275 up to 642*      (75% critical hits)
        Burst Damage Potential: 1,200
        Est. Total Potential:   9,000
        Value (damage per $):   100-137.5           (0-75% critical hits)
        Ammo Plentifulness:     low
        * Because the reload speed is very slow, this DPS is only attained with the
        help of Bullet Boon.
        Damage Boost 1:     Installed by default, +25% damage.
        Damage Boost 2:     $554, +25% damage.
        Spread Increase:    $467, +20% spread.
        Reload Increase:    $757, -50% reload time.
        Total Upgrade Cost: $1,778
        Discussion:  if you hit an enemy even moderately on-target with this
            weapon, they are going to almost assuredly die.  Even heavy hitters
            will succumb rather quickly if you made them vulnerable beforehand.
            However, this weapon is _slow_.  Even if you use the Bullet Boon shirt
            to increase the clip size to 2, you'll realize that half of the slow
            reload time is actually just the weapon's incredibly slow rate of fire:
            you are literally waiting for the weapon to cool down.  Coupled with
            the rarity of the ammo, you have to make each shot count.  Great for a
            show-stopping close-up weapon, but not very reliable.
        Special:  the "catch on fire" effect functions somewhat like a Devil's
            Kiss, which means you can combo this weapon much like Devil's Kiss
            (with Bucking Bronco or Charge).  It also benefits from Storm.
        Damage:     ~50
            ...on critical hit does x2.25
            ...moderate spread
            ...moderate recoil
        Clip:       30          Reserve:        120
        Fire Rate:  265 rpm     Reload Speed:   Moderate
        DPS (Normal):           220.83
        DPS (Critical):         288.75              (25% critical hits)
        Burst Damage Potential: 550*
        Est. Total Potential:   12,187.5 or 17,062.5 w/upgrades
        Value (damage per $):   187.5-246           (0-25% critical hits)
        Ammo Plentifulness:     low, medium late game
        * Because this gun fires in bursts and is inaccurate, this assumes that
        one out of every burst of three shots will not critical hit.
        Damage Boost 1:     $423, +25% damage.
        Damage Boost 2:     $423, +25% damage.
        Recoil Decrease:    $822, -50% recoil.
        Ammo Increase:      $672, +50% reserve.
        Total Upgrade Cost: $2,340
        Discussion:  basically a carbine that shoots in bursts of three instead of
            one at a time.  This has the side effect of making it overall less
            accurate than a carbine (and makes the recoil a necessary upgrade), but
            this is still a rather versatile weapon, functioning for normal combat
            purposes like a machine gun while still having the ability to snipe
            (complete with a sniper-rifle-style scope).
                Unfortunately, while the scope of this weapon is better than the
            normal carbine, the base accuracy is much, much worse, so this is
            better suited for moderate distances, not long.
    Explosives                                                            !wea,exp-
    High-impact weapons that have no finesse (and thus no critical hit bonus).
    Note that for all these weapons, your DPS/Burst Damage/Total Damage potentially
    will be higher if you can hit more than one target per shot.  However, this is
    somewhat counter-balanced by the fact that targets not hit directly will take a
    significantly reduced amount of damage, so your performance may not diverge
    significantly from the listed numbers.  However, this may be a different case
    with Gear/Upgrades that improve area of effect.
        Damage:     ~750
            ...high recoil
        Clip:       2           Reserve:        8
        Fire Rate:  40 rpm      Reload Speed:   Very Slow
        DPS (Normal):           500
        Burst Damage Potential: 750
        Est. Total Potential:   7,500 or 8,250 w/upgrades
        Value (damage per $):   187.5
        Ammo Plentifulness:     low
        Damage Boost 1:     $385, +25% damage.
        Damage Boost 2:     $385, +25% damage.
        Clip Increase:      $816, +50% clip size (to 3).
        RPG Speed Increase: $333, +100% projectile speed.
        Total Upgrade Cost: $1,919
        Discussion:  able to clear out enemies with abandon.  The major downsides
            are that enemies closer to the edge of the effect will take--at
            best--minor damage and the rocket itself moves slowly enough that you
            have to significantly lead your targets.  The projectile speed upgrade
            will mitigate this to a slight degree, but the point still stands that
            the RPG occupies a weird spot where it can't be used at distance, but
            neither can it be used in close range (unless you like blowing yourself
            up).  However, the RPG is still worth a consideration for
            specialization, as many hard fights feature an RPG that you can readily
            use (whether strewn somewhere or via a tear), so being able to maximize
            this free gift every time it shows up can be worth it.
        Special:  while the RPG does not really catch enemies on fire like a
            Heater (though it will ignite oil slicks), the RPG nonetheless benefits
            from Storm, so enemies that die from an RPG shot will propagate a
            Devil's Kiss effect.
    Volley Gun
        Damage:     ~112 from shell, ~300 from explosion
        Clip:       8           Reserve:        24
        Fire Rate:  120 rpm     Reload Speed:   Slow
        DPS (Normal):           924
        Burst Damage Potential: 462
        Est. Total Potential:   14,784 or 18,480 w/upgrades
        Value (damage per $):   412
        Ammo Plentifulness:     low
        Damage Boost 1:     $522, +25% damage.
        Damage Boost 2:     $522, +25% damage.
        Radius Increase:    $536, +50% explosion radius.
        Clip Increase:      $740, +100% clip size (to 16).
        Total Upgrade Cost: $2,320
        Discussion:  high rate of fire coupled with a tricky parabolic trajectory
            that, once you get the hang of, can be used to circumvent enemy cover.
            Unfortunately, a significant amount of the damage comes from the shell
            itself, and it's rather hard to actually hit someone with that.
            Moreover, there is a steep drop off in the area of effect damage, so
            even with upgrades you may find yourself hitting foes for around 100
            damage or so.  However, unlike the RPG you barely have to worry about
            hitting yourself with the explosion, and the relatively high rate of
            fire and reload time means that the volley gun works really well for
            taking advantage of large groups of disabled enemies.  Plus, like the
            RPG, many hard fights feature a volley gun you can bring in via a tear.
                One perk that doesn't show up on paper is that each shot of a
            volley gun staggers enemies in its explosion; while this is true of the
            RPG as well, the volley gun has a sufficiently large clip size and fast
            reload/fire rate as to be capable of stunlocking virtually any enemy.
    Hail Fire
        Damage:     ~112 from shell, ~350 from explosion
            ...if you delay the detonation of the shell (by holding down the attack
            button) but still hit someone with the shell, you will still do the
            base ~112 damage
        Clip:       5           Reserve:        25
        Fire Rate:  545 rpm*    Reload Speed:   Slow
        DPS (Normal):           very low to 4,196.5 (realistically 2,310)**
        Burst Damage Potential: 462 to 2,312.5 (1,386)**
        Est. Total Potential:   13,860 or 15,246 w/upgrades
        Value (damage per $):   288.75
        Ammo Plentifulness:     very low
        * Theoretically this weapon has a fast fire rate, but if you take advantage
        of the tricky firing mechanism (holding down the attack button to launch
        and then releasing to manually detonate the projectile) the effective fire
        rate is much, much slower.
        ** It is _very_ unlikely that you will be to physically press your fire
        button at 525 times per minute; really you will be closer to 300 times per
        minute, so the "realistic" numbers will be closer to your in-game
        Damage Boost 1:     Installed by default, +25% damage.
        Damage Boost 2:     $688, +25% damage.
        Radius Increase:    $415, +100% explosion radius.
        Clip Increase:      $399, +50% clip size (to 8).
        Total Upgrade Cost: $1,502
        Discussion:  honestly, most of you should give this weapon a pass in 1999
            Mode.  The firing mechanism is tricky but not damaging enough to
            warrant mastering.  Ammunition is quite uncommon, so you either have to
            plow precious $ into stocking up at a Dollar Bill (which is a no-go if
            you're going for the Scavenger Hunt achievement) or have to live with
            the fact that you're plowing lots of money into specializing in a
            weapon that you'll hardly ever use.  This is made worse by the fact
            that there are very few actual hail fire weapons in the game (less than
            five, if even that), so if you switch out your hail fire for something
            else, you probably won't find another hail fire to use for quite a long
            time (if ever).
                On the plus side, if you have a target that is relatively
            stationary--so you don't care about having to do a trick shot with
            manual detonations--then the sheer damage output of the hail fire
            cannot be matched by any other weapon in the game:  the hail fire will
            spit out explosive shells basically as fast as you can mash your fire
            button.  You will drop Patriots and even Handymen with surprising
                Like the volley gun, one perk that doesn't show up on paper is that
            each shot of a hail fire staggers enemies in its explosion; while this
            is true of the RPG as well, the hail fire has a sufficiently large clip
            size, fast reload, and potentially fast fire rate as to be capable of
            stunlocking virtually any enemy.
    Special                                                               !wea,spe-
        Damage:     ~112
        Fire Rate:  Moderate
        Discussion:  there are plenty of Gear that specifically enhances this melee
            weapon, but for the most part the damage output is so low and enemies
            so hazardous that if you ever are in a situation where you have to
            seriously melee, you should either go ahead and restart from the last
            checkpoint or just get it over with and die.
    Crank Gun
        Damage:     ~50
            ...on critical hit does x1.5
            ...moderate spread
            ...no zoom
        Clip:       100         Reserve:        100
        Fire Rate:  1500 rpm    Reload Speed:   Very Slow
        DPS (Normal):           1,300
        DPS (Critical):         1,625               (50% critical hits)
        Burst Damage Potential: 812.5
        Est. Total Potential:   12,500
        Ammo Plentifulness:     very low
        Discussion:  the crank gun is really good early on, but quickly becomes
            more and more of a novelty.  You can't upgrade it, there's no
            consistent source for ammo, and in addition to a wind-up time, your
            movement speed slows down dramatically while firing away.  This is
            pretty much a recipe for death in later fights.
    Gear                                                                      !gea-
    Note that Gear is semi-randomized (not in Burial at Sea).  While the locations
    are set in stone, when you activate a piece of Gear you get a semi-random
    result.  As such, if you reload the game from your last checkpoint, you may get
    completely different Gear.  There are a few places where aggressively reloading
    may be a worthwhile pursuit, to try and get some of the better Gear:
        1.  Right after you take the elevator up in the Fraternal Order of the
            Raven, there is a piece of Gear behind a bookshelf.  The checkpoint is
            right after the elevator, so it's a quick jog.
        2.  Right before you enter the Arcade in Battleship Bay (when Elizabeth
            tosses you your first batch of $), there are two Gears, one in a closet
            and one in a hallway or in the arcade proper (based on what you did at
            the Raffle).  The checkpoint is right before Elizabeth tosses you the
            $, so it's a very quick jog.
        3.  Right when you wake up at Finkton Docks, you can run across the first
            area to an "Employees Only" shed where a Gear is sitting next to a
            desk; the checkpoint is rigth when you wake up.  Do note that entering
            the "Employees Only" shed will trigger a fight, so if you get some good
            Gear, don't end up dying shortly afterwards (as you'll either lose
            money or be forced to reload and probably not get the same Gear again).
    Some Gear are not randomized and are always in the same location.  Those Gear
    are (in chronological order):
        Burning Halo (right after killing your first Crow)
        Spare the Rod (room right before you see Fitzroy and Fink's showdown,
            behind a vending machine)
        Spectral Sidekick (in the Bank)
        Health for Salts (in the Asylum)
        Rising Bloodlust (in the Asylum after you open the main door)
    In addition, if you have the Collector's/Season Pass upgrade, early in the game
    you are guaranteed to get the following four gears:
        Electric Punch (hat; like Electric Touch but 70% chance and vulnerable for
            four seconds)
        Ammo Advantage (shirt; like Bullet Boon but 75% clip size increase)
        Eagle Strike (shoes; like Death from Above but 50% damage)
        Ghost Soldier (pants; like Ghost Posse but 70% chance)
    Also note that while there are 41 Gear (though see footnote*), of the 36 that
    are randomized, they can only spawn in 25 locations (though see foonote**).
    That means that you will never see all the Gear in one game.  In fact, you
    could get extremely unlucky and miss out on all the top tier and better middle
    tier Gear, which could hurt your 1999 Mode run.  This might be an argument in
    favor of reloading at a checkpoint, though I can personally attest that 1999
    Mode is perfectly possible with even the stupidest bad luck in Gear selection.
    Note that there's nothing stopping you from changing out your gear mid-fight.
    A lot of Gear is situation-dependent, so to maximize your 1999 Mode success, be
    ready to switch out your Gear at a moment's notice.  Like Vigors, a lot of Gear
    is well-balanced enough that even if I tier a piece of equipment as "Bottom
    Tier," it may still have situations where it will shine (though unlike Vigors,
    there are definitely a few that are unabashedly bad).
    Just as a reminder - all damage numbers here are showing the 1999 Mode
    versions, which differ from the stated numbers in-game.
    Footnote *:  With early bird and various collector's edition stuff, the total
    Gear count can go up to 53.  Ironically, because you can still get the gear
    that the Collector's/Season Pass versions are upgrades of, you actually make the
    average gear find _worse_.  This is because of the 36 randomized gear, four are
    now completely worthless because you have strictly better versions already.
    Footnote **:  There is a particularly nasty bug regarding Handymen; at the end
    of virtually every Handyman conflict a piece of Gear flies off the Handyman
    corpse.  However, sometimes this process glitches out and _no_ Gear appears,
    leaving only a Handyman corpse to loot.  This is a particularly nasty bug and
    the only way around it is to restart from the last checkpoint and re-fight the
    Handyman until he actually drops the Gear.
    Burial at Sea Note:  As mentioned earlier, unlike in the core game Gear is
    completely nonrandom (i.e. fixed locations), so there's no chance that you'll
    miss out on any given piece of equipment.  There's a total of ten, and if
    you're judicious about your exploration you'll find them in roughly this order:
        1.  Filthy Leech (pants)
        2.  Evil Eye (hat)
        3.  Ticket Puncher (hat)
        4.  Magic Bullet (shirt)
        5.  High and Mighty (boots)
        6.  Better Mousetrap (shirt)
        7.  Death Benefit (pants)
        8.  Quick-Handed (pants)
        9.  Surprise Element (hat)
        10. Roar to Life (shirt)
    Hats                                                                  !gea,hat-
    Top Tier:  Evil Eye [BaS], Hill Runner's Hat, Sheltered Life
    Middle Tier:  Ammo Cap, Electric Touch, Spare the Rod, Rising Bloodlust,
        Storm, Surprise Element [BaS]
    Bottom Tier:  Burning Halo, Gear Head, Quick Handed, Throttle Control, Ticket
        Puncher [BaS]
    Ammo Cap
        Tier:  Middle
        Effect:  40% chance that you instantly reload when you run out of ammo.
        Discussion:  while using this Hat, don't play sub-optimally and stop
            reloading until you run out of ammo, that's a recipe for disaster.
            Instead, what this Hat does is in frantic situations (or for
            low-clip-size and slow-reload weapons) give you a quick boost in
            emergency power.
    Burning Halo
        Tier:  Bottom
        Effect:  70% chance that a melee target will take 150* damage over 4
        Discussion:  modestly useful early in the game, but relying on melee to
            kill your foes is a recipe for death in 1999 Mode.  However, Burning
            Halo is a salt-free way to trigger burning combos, so can fill a niche
            case especially with Deadly Lungers for the extra melee range.
                Remember that Charge can trigger Burning Halo.  In fact, Charge can
            self-combo with Burning Halo; the burning effect triggers in the correct
            time frame for Charge to register a combo and drop Devil's Kiss
        (* takes into account 1999 Mode penalty.)
    Electric Touch
        Tier:  Middle
        Effect:  50% chance that a melee target is electrocuted and vulnerable for
            3 seconds.
        Discussion:  if you're in a dire situation (someone has ambushed you from
            behind), then two quick taps to stun them (on average) could be the
            difference between a death/reload or surviving to the next checkpoint.
                Note that since this is electrocution, this will also combo with
            wet foes (Undertow or otherwise) and do ~200 damage per second (less
            for automatons).
                Remember that Charge can trigger Electric Touch.
                Remember that electrocuted enemies take 3x melee damage.
    Electric Punch [only from Collector's/Season Pass extras]
        Effect:  70% chance that a melee target is electrocuted and vulnerable for
            4 seconds.
        See Electric Touch.
    Evil Eye [only in Burial at Sea]
        Tier:  Top
        Effect:  Weapon damage increases while looking down the sights and after
            each successive kill (up to five).
        Discussion:  In effect this combines the better part of the Tunnel Vision
            boots (25% damage bonus while looking down sights but no damage penalty
            when not) as well as the Bloodlust hat.  Needless to say, very very
            good Gear with the side effect of making your ammo more efficient (a
            must in the more resource-starved world of Rapture.)
    Gear Head
        Tier:  Bottom
        Effect:  makes you harder to detect by automatons, zeppelins, and Patriots.
        Discussion:  _very_ situational.  Makes it easier to shoot Patriots in the
            back, and makes it easier to shoot away at turrets, though eventually
            Shock Jockey makes both of these easier anyway.  Can be very handy
            when up against multiples of either, however, and especially against
            multiples of the "barrage" automaton found on zeppelins or in front of
            the Shantytown PD.
    Hill Runner's Hat
        Tier:  Top
        Effect:  when your shield breaks, your movement speed is 50% faster for 5
        Discussion:  when your shield breaks is precisely the moment when you need
            to get the heck out of there, and a 50% movement speed boost is
            _significant_.  My life has been saved innumerable times because of
            this Hat.
    Quick Handed
        Tier:  Bottom
        Effect:  decreases weapon reload speed times by 30%.
        Discussion:  it's not a _bad_ Hat, it's just not that great of an effect,
            especially since for some slow weapons the crux of why they are slow is
            independent from their reload times (like an RPG's crank or a Heater's
            literal cool down time).
    Rising Bloodlust
        Tier:  Middle
        Effect:  every enemy you kill within a span of 10 seconds (up to five) will
            increase your damage.
        Discussion:  an otherwise solid hat, but as I've mentioned before, evasion
            and survivability are tantamount in 1999 Mode and this Hat encourages
            the wrong kind of behavior.
    Sheltered Life
        Tier:  Top
        Effect:  every time you eat a snack or use a health kit, you gain brief
        Discussion:  to maximize this effect, you need to adjust your playstyle
            instead of ravenously devouring everything you see; keep a mental map
            of where goods are stashed and be sure to immediately loot fallen foes
            (they may have Chips or something on them).
    Spare the Rod
        Tier:  Middle
        Effect:  30% chance that a melee target is possessed.
        Discussion:  the effect is great and, like Electric Touch, gives you an
            oh-shit-I'm-about-to-die button you can quickly tap.  Unfortunately,
            30% is a very low chance, which keeps this from being top tier.
                Remember that Charge can trigger Spare the Rod.
        Tier:  Middle
        Effect:  when an enemy dies while under the effect of Devil's Kiss, Shock
            Jockey, or Bucking Bronco, the effect chains to nearby enemies.
        Discussion:  Basically, when an enemy dies, they explode in a wide, colored
            explosion that spreads the normal effects of whichever of the three
            vigors they were affected by in a moderate radius.
                Note that for Devil's Kiss, Storm functions like one gigantic
            Devil's Kiss explosion instead of a true "chain" effect.  So in
            addition to not causing many smaller grenades to drop off affected
            enemies (as would be expected if you upgraded with Devil's Kiss Mod),
            damage drops off the further away an enemy is from the initial Storm
            explosion, which can mean potentially piddling amounts of chained
                Most useful in prolonged fights against packs of enemies, as
            otherwise the enemies aren't close enough or numerous enough to be
            mutually affected by other death-explosions.  Note that an amazing
            combo is to prep an enemy with Bucking Bronco or Shock Jockey, then
            follow up with Devil's Kiss and perhaps a few shots.  Upon death, the
            enemy will propagate *both* the disabling Vigor and the Devil's Kiss
            effect, potentially causing a mass chain effect, especially if you keep
            shooting at the newly affected enemies to ensure they die before the
            effects wear off.
                Note that weapons that have a fire-type effect (namely the Heater
            and the RPG) will also benefit from Storm:  if an enemy dies from a
            shot, they will propagate a Devil's Kiss effect.
                In short, for playstyles that can take advantage of it, Storm is
            almost abusively good.  For other playstyles, it is almost literally
            useless.  Situationally fantastic, but a bit too situational to be top
    Surprise Element [only in Burial at Sea]
        Tier:  Middle
        Effect:  bullets have a 50% chance to do fire, electric, or ice damage.
        Discussion:  most effective for a heavy Plasmid user who doesn't plan
            on using the radar range.  Why a Plasmid user?  Because on its own the
            elemental damage doesn't do much (except potentially doing a minor stun
            effect); this hat's value comes from triggering free Devil's Kiss or
            Shock Jockey-style combos with either the appropriate Plasmid (Bucking
            Bronco or Possession) or environmental effects (oil or water).  Because
            the radar range does not shoot bullets, it does not trigger this Gear.
    Throttle Control
        Tier:  Bottom
        Effect:  better braking and throttling on skylines.
        Discussion:  gweh?  The only Gear I really see no point for.
    Ticket Puncher [only in Burial at Sea]
        Tier:  Bottom
        Effect:  melee attacks have 3x range and do 2x damage but also cause you to
            lose 20% of your shield with each swipe.
        Discussion:  combines Deadly Lungers with a pretty powerful melee damage
            boost, but then cancels that all out by having a terrible downside.
            This could be a vaguely plausible hat for someone on a lower difficulty
            who puts all their Infusions into Health, but as it stands in 1999 Mode
            this is needlessly suicidal.
    Shirts                                                                !gea,shi-
    AMAZING Tier:  Winter Shield
    Top Tier:  Better Mousetrap [BaS], Blood to Salt
    Middle Tier:  Bullet Boon, Coat of Harms, Drop Cloth, Magic Bullet [BaS], Nitro
        Vest, Roar to Life [BaS], Scavenger's Vest, Shock Jacket
    Bottom Tier:  Executioner, Pyromaniac, Sky-Line Accuracy
    Ammo Advantage [only from Collector's/Season Pass extras]
        Effect:  increases clip size for weapons by 75%.
        See Bullet Boon.
    Better Mousetrap [only in Burial at Sea]
        Tier:  Top
        Effect:  traps have a greater effect (25% more) while costing less (25%
            less, i.e. only 1.5x normal Eve use instead of 2x).
        Discussion:  this effect gives you such an efficiency boost for your Eve
            that virtually anyone who moderately uses Plasmids in Burial at Sea
            should keep this on.
    Blood to Salt
        Tier:  Top
        Effect:  slain enemies have a 40% chance of instantly restoring 50 Salt.
        Discussion:  absolutely bonkers for anyone who uses Vigors with any
            regularity.  A 40% chance may not seem like a lot, but the difference
            is being flush with Salt and spamming Vigors or scrambling around with
            a "Low on Salt!" notice before the fight is even half done.
    Bullet Boon
        Tier:  Middle
        Effect:  increases clip size for weapons by 50%.
        Discussion:  most noticable for weapons like the Heater (which rounds up to
            having a clip size of 2) that are both slow to reload and have tiny
            clip sizes.  Combined with an Ammo Cap hat, your ability to mete out
            punishment will increase dramatically.  Interestingly, shotguns don't
            get as much of a benefit out of this since each extra shell has to be
            reloaded on its own, so you get an increased clip size but also an
            increased reload time.
    Coat of Harms
        Tier:  Middle
        Effect:  enemies are easier to execute.
        Discussion:  an enemy you manage to execute is one that doesn't use up
            precious ammo/Salts, plus you're invulnerable while the cutscene is
            taking place.  Synergizes with Kill to Live, which rewards executions.
    Drop Cloth
        Tier:  Middle
        Effect:  when you dismount from a sky-line, your movement speed is
            increased by 50%.
        Discussion:  can be situationally useful for sprawling fights or if you
            need to put distance between yourself and a Handyman.  In general
            though, simply the act of dismounting will be enough to put space
            between your enemies and yourself; you don't need the extra help.
        Tier:  Bottom
        Effect:  a 60% chance to critically hit vulnerable enemies.  25% increased
        Discussion:  while this effectively makes melee-ing a bit more attractive,
            you still don't want to be in a situation where you have to rely on
            meleeing.  For comparison, against an armored non-heavy-hitter in
            Comstock House, taking him down took repeated Shock Jockeys and more
            than a clip of fully-upgraded Shotgun blasts (each doing roughly 1000
            damage).  Do you really think that a slight damage boost and a critical
            hit chance is going to go over well against such resilient enemies?
    Magic Bullet [only in Burial at Sea]
        Tier:  Middle
        Effect:  increases critical hit damage by 50% (in the vein of the Head
            Master boots, see its special note) and shots that do a critical hit
            have a chance to not use a bullet.
        Discussion:  not a bad effect by any means and can be very good for anyone
            with decent aim, but frankly I would take Better Mousetrap's
            significant Devil's Kiss boost (which will effectively result in mass
            instakills) over this regardless of aim.
    Nitro Vest
        Tier:  Middle
        Effect:  boosts area of effect for explosive weapons
        Discussion:  very situational, but is gangbusters when you can take
            advantage of it.
        Tier:  Bottom
        Effect:  when struck, 50% chance of burning nearby enemies for 200* damage
            over 3 seconds.
        Discussion:  don't rely on having to be struck for your damage output.
        (* takes into account 1999 Mode penalty.)
    Roar to Life [only in Burial at Sea]
        Tier:  Middle
        Effect:  when your shield breaks, your weapon damage and movement speed are
            boosted (50%) for 5 seconds and your ammo clip is immediately refilled.
        Discussion:  Hill Runner's Hat was really good in the core game, but
            despite getting a lot extra boosts attached to it, those extra boosts
            don't add much (since you should be fleeing during those few seconds,
            not fighting).  Moreover, aside from being really useful against
            the Big Daddy, the greater emphasis on survival horror in Burial at Sea
            means you should be stalking and ambushing your enemies (and making
            better use of a hat slot with Better Mousetrap or Magic Bullet via
            traps or sniping, respectively) than doing all-out war.
    Scavenger's Vest
        Tier:  Middle
        Effect:  slain enemies have a 40% chance of directly restoring some ammo.
        Discussion:  not quite as good as Blood to Salt, but by the end game you
            may be scrambling for ammunition, especially if you're avoiding Dollar
            Bill vending machines.  So in particular for weapons with small
            reserves or rare ammo, this could be a situational godsend.
    Shock Jacket
        Tier:  Middle
        Effect:  when struck, 50% chance of shocking nearby enemies for 25* damage
            and stunning them for 2 seconds.
        Discussion:  unlike the very similar Pyromaniac, stunning an enemy that's
            in position to hit you can be a lifesaving effect.
                Note that since this is electrocution, this will also combo with
            wet foes (Undertow or otherwise) and do ~200 damage per second (less
            for automatons).
                Remember that electrocuted enemies take 3x melee damage.
        (* takes into account 1999 Mode penalty.)
    Sky-Line Accuracy
        Tier:  Bottom
        Effect:  your shots are more likely to hit enemies when on a sky-line.
        Discussion:  in general, shooting straight off a sky-line isn't the
            greatest of ideas, but if you're really good at doing that, perhaps you
            can benefit more from this.  Pretty much the only reason why I ever
            shot weapons off a sky-line was just to get the achievement.
    Winter Shield
        Tier:  "So good there probably will be a patch to weaken it"
        Effect:  jumping on or off a sky-line or sky-hook grants you brief
            invulnerability (NOTE: sometimes it doesn't trigger, just immediately
            dismount or re-attach to trigger it).
        Discussion:  absolutely, positively, insanely good.  A happy coincidence is
            that every Handyman fight tends to involve hooks and sky-lines; with
            aggressive attaching and dismounting you can spend the entire encounter
            invulnerable.  Even when Handymen aren't involved, doing a sky-line
            strike, gaining the invulnerability, laying a Vigor or firing some
            shots at other enemies, then immediately re-attaching to refresh your
            invulnerability will render many encounters easy.
                This Gear is so good that the difference in 1999 Mode with it and
            without it is night and day.  Don't leave it on all the time,
            obviously, since sky-lines and hooks aren't everywhere.  If there is
            only one Gear that you will probably want to aggressively reload for,
            it's this.
                I do fully anticipate that the developers will find a way to weaken
            this somehow; it's just way too good.
    Boots                                                                 !gea,boo-
    Top Tier:  Overkill, Tunnel Vision, Newton's Law
    Middle Tier:  High and Mighty [BaS], Kill to Live, Nor'Easter, Vampire's
    Bottom Tier:  Death from Above, Fit as a Fiddle
    Death from Above
        Tier:  Bottom
        Effect:  weapon damage increased by 30% on sky-lines.
        Discussion:  a very situational effect; I generally spend more of my time
            doing sky-line strikes than shooting from sky-lines, but if you're the
            type of person who likes gunning down/exploding foes via rail, you will
            definitely want this.
    Eagle Strike [only from Collector's/Season Pass extras]
        Effect:  weapon damage increased by 50% on sky-lines.
        See Death from Above.
    Fit as a Fiddle
        Tier:  Bottom
        Effect:  when revived, come back with full health.
        Discussion:  you _really_ can't afford to die that much on 1999 Mode.  On
            Hard, this was definitely one of my oft-used Gears, but on 1999 Mode
            you need to be a lot more prudent, since enemies regain a _lot_ of
            their health when you revive (virtually all of it).  Because you need
            to be a lot more prudent, you will be dying less.  Because you will be
            dying less, this Gear will see less use.  And in my runs at least
            (where I don't die), this Gear bestows zero benefit.
    High and Mighty [only in Burial at Sea]
        Tier:  Middle
        Effect:  basically Winter's Shield.
        Discussion:  a tier ranking is moot because this is the only pair of boots
            in Burial at Sea.  That being said, there are far less opportunities to
            hop around in Rapture so--aside from being very useful in the final Big
            Daddy fight--is less useful overall (also because the Big Daddy can
            shatter your Winter Shield effect).
    Kill to Live
        Tier:  Middle
        Effect:  melee executions have a 65% chance of bestowing health.
        Discussion:  the health gain is modest (roughly like a small health kit).
            But, melee executions are rather painless to pull off; regardless of
            your preferred weapon, so long as you are good at noticing the little
            skulls you get an unstoppable attack for which you are briefly
            invincible.  So not bad at keeping your health topped off.
    Newton's Law
        Tier:  Top
        Effect:  landing from a sky-line or hook knocks nearby enemies away.
        Discussion:  as the game advances, rather than individual enemies you can
            strike down upon, you will be in awkward situations where you will jump
            into a fray of multiple enemies, all of whom will be quick to shoot at
            the guy who just killed their friend.  This counters that, giving you a
            brief moment of reprieve to either escape or to launch some disabling
        Tier:  Middle
        Effect:  killing an enemy from a sky-line gives you a 50% chance of brief
        Discussion:  much more effective than Death from Above, as generally when
            you are able to stably attack enemies from a sky-line, they are also
            able to attack you.  Giving yourself invulnerability while launching a
            rocket at enemies is quite good.
        Tier:  Top
        Effect:  killing with excessive damage electrocutes nearby enemies
            (stunning them like Shock Jockey).
        Discussion:  you don't need _that_ much excessive damage to trigger the
            effect, just a couple hundred, which later in the game with upgraded
            weapons and disabling Vigors is not that hard.  And in effect, since
            stunned enemies are themselves vulnerable, you can quite possibly chain
            the Overkill effect from foe to foe.
                Note that since this is electrocution, this will also combo with
            wet foes (Undertow or otherwise) and do ~200 damage per second (less
            for automatons).
                Remember that electrocuted enemies take 3x melee damage.
    Tunnel Vision
        Tier:  Top
        Effect:  aiming down your weapon's sights increases your damage by 25%, but
            aiming from the hip reduces it by 25%.
        Discussion:  for anyone who likes to use pistols, rifles, or really
            anything other than a Crank Gun, this is a god-send.  You'll have to
            get used to rapidly switching in and out of zoomed-in-aiming mode, but
            this is a rather significant boost in your damage output.
    Vampire's Embrace
        Tier:  Middle
        Effect:  melee kills (but not executions) bestow a little bit of health.
        Discussion:  you may think that this is better than Kill to Live (which
            rewards executions and only 65% of the time), but the difference is in
            the playstyle they encourage.  Kill to Live fits in seemlessly with a
            1999 Mode mindset; Vampire's Embrace encourages you to just whack at
            enemies even though you do not have an execution possibility.  An
            execution is a guaranteed kill.  A melee strike, even if the enemy has
            but a sliver of health left, is not, especially when you're up against
            normal enemies who can withstand many tens of melee strikes.  You're
            much better off shooting your foe with a high-powered weapon rather
            than hoping your melee strike kills them.
                However, the saving grace for this Gear is that skyline strike
            kills and kills from Charge count as "melee kills," so these easy-kill
            situations can be sources of free heatlh should the need arise.
        * Special Note:  it appears that deaths caused independently of a weapon
            (I'm mainly thinking of environmental deaths) are treated as "melee"
            kills, and will thus bestow health.
    Pants                                                                 !gea,pan-
    Top Tier:  Death Benefit [BaS], Filthy Leech [BaS], Head Master, Urgent Care
    Middle Tier:  Angry Stompers, Fire Bird, Ghost Posse, Health for Salts, Last
        Man Standing, Sky-Line Reloader
    Bottom Tier:  Brittle-Skinned, Deadly Lungers, Quick Handed [BaS], Spectral
    Angry Stompers
        Tier:  Middle
        Effect:  when extremely low on health, do 2x damage.
        Discussion:  obviously don't keep this on all the time, only when you are
            extremely low on health.  It might give you the edge you need to turn
            that period of near-death into a victory.  Note that this rewards
            players who heavily infuse their Health as the threshold appears to be
            a percentage, so players with more health will still have more absolute
        Tier:  Bottom
        Effect:  melee targets are vulnerable for 5 seconds.
        Discussion:  if you're out of Salts, this might be the only way you can buy
            yourself some extra damage, but don't go around just swiping at people
            just because you can.  Ironically, this would be way better if you
            could also somehow wear Deadly Lungers.
    Deadly Lungers
        Tier:  Bottom
        Effect:  3x normal melee range.
        Discussion:  coupled with Burning Halo, Electric Touch/Punch, Spare the Rod,
            or Coat of Harms, this could be quite serviceable, but aside from
            niche or situational uses, your melee attack is by far your worst
            attack, so you should generally just shoot the damn enemy.
    Death Benefit [only in Burial at Sea]
        Tier:  Top
        Effect:  melee kills grant health, melee executions grant even more health.
        Discussion:  combines Vampire's Embrace and Kill to Live in one nice
            package.  Because Burial at Sea is more resource-starved, you will be
            doing a lot more melee, which means that this pair of pants becomes
            very, very good.
    Filthy Leech [only in Burial at Sea]
        Tier:  Top
        Effect:  kills via a Plasmid grant some Eve.
        Discussion:  a slightly nerfed version of Blood to Salt, but still amazing
            for your Plasmid-using efficiency.  Combined with Better Mousetrap you
            may never need to worry for Eve ever again.
    Fire Bird
        Tier:  Middle
        Effect:  dismounting from a sky-line or hook will burn nearby enemies for
            200* damage over 3 seconds.
        Discussion:  a nice little damage boost, especially when combined with
            Winter Shield and Newton's Law.  It also functions as a mini-Newton's
            Law (in that it disrupts foes when you land), so it can function as a
            weaker fallback in case you are unlucky about getting Newton's Law.
        (* takes into account 1999 Mode penalty.)
    Ghost Posse
        Tier:  Middle
        Effect:  enemies slain by a Vigor trap have a 50% chance that their guns
            turn into floating allies for a few seconds.
        Discussion:  can be very good with the right setup; do note that it has to
            be a Vigor _trap_ and it has to be a directly-caused death; for
            example, Possession-induced group suicide or manually killing someone
            who is vulnerable from a Shock Jockey trap don't count.
                In 1999 Mode with much lower damage numbers, the likely ways you
            can trigger this is with Return to Sender's alternate fire, Devil's
            Kiss alternate fire, or a Shock Jockey trap you pull someone into via
            Undertow.  That being said, in the right set up you can quickly spawn a
            miniature army of helpers.
    Ghost Soldier [only from Collector's/Season Pass extras]
        Effect:  enemies slain by a Vigor trap have a 70% chance that their guns
            turn into floating allies for a few seconds.
        See Ghost Posse.
    Head Master
        Tier:  Top
        Effect:  increases critical hit damage by 50% (see special note *).
        Discussion:  incredible for good aimers.  If you're not a good aimer,
            practice until you are.  The sheer increase in damage output is
        * Special Note:  it appears that the way this Gear is implemented, it's not
            actually a 50% bonus of your total critical hit damage, it's instead an
            increase in the critical hit multiplier of your weapon by .5 (if it has
            one).  In other words, normally if you're using a sniper rifle a
            critical hit will do 2.5x normal damage.  With this Gear, rather than
            doing 3.75x normal damage on a critical hit (2.5x increased by 50%), it
            does 3x normal damage (2.5x plus .5x).  Still a great effect, and even
            moreso for weapons with lower critical hit multipliers.
    Health for Salts
        Tier:  Middle
        Effect:  lets you use Health to use Vigors when out of Salts.
        Discussion:  when used carelessly, this Gear is a recipe for suicide.
            However, for heavy Vigor users you do have a 31% chance* of
            having a game where you do not get Blood For Salts as a Gear, so this
            Gear can be an important backup since you are guaranteed to find it in
            the Asylum.
                And for anyone in general, sometimes if you are unable to use a
            Vigor _right now_ (like to stun a Handyman) you are as good as dead, so
            sacrificing a non-trivial amount of health to actually finish the fight
            successfully instead of restarting is not to be understimated.  So
            don't go crazy with this using up your Health, but for emergencies this
            Gear can shine.
            (* 31% is the odds that Blood For Salt is one of the 11 Gear you do not
            see in a normal game.  The odds of this happening actually increase for
            the worse if you have extra Gear unlocked through add-ons.)
        * Special Note:  there is a severe penalty for using Health instead of Salt
            in terms of Vigor cost.  Multiply Salt costs by 20 to get how much
            Health you need to spend to get the same effect; this means that a
            Possession Trap will obliterate most of the Health of even someone who
            has fully infused Health.
    Last Man Standing
        Tier:  Middle
        Effect:  when very low on health, killing an enemy grants you health.
        Discussion:  the health gain is modest (roughly equivalent to a small
            health kit), but it's way better than nothing.  You don't always need
            to have this gear equipped, just swap into it when you are in a dire
    Quick-Handed [only in Burial at Sea]
        Tier:  Bottom
        Effect:  decreases weapon reload times by 30%.
        Discussion:  even if you don't plan on melee-ing much, Death Benefit is
            still a way better choice: actually aiding your survivability is a much
            more important effect than a marginal decrease in the time you have to
            spend hiding behind an obstacle.  Plus, given that all your weapons
            have significantly diminished ammo capacities, you won't be doing much
            reloading anyway.
    Sky-Line Reloader
        Tier:  Middle
        Effect:  jumping onto or off a sky-line reloads your current weapon.
        Discussion:  surprisingly effective.  Especially in frantic fights
            involving Handymen, being guaranteed a full clip everytime you dismount
            is a significant weight off your shoulders.
    Spectral Sidekick
        Tier:  Bottom
        Effect:  when you drop a weapon, that weapon becomes an ally for a few
        Discussion:  sounds great on paper, but I had an extremely hard time
            getting this to be effective.  Trouble is, you generally are holding
            onto weapons you _want_ to use (and have been upgrading).  And if
            you want to swap out in the middle of a fight, the weapon you're
            switching with rarely ever tends to be in a great spot, either nestled
            away in a corner or in the middle of a frantic battlefield that would
            be suicide to run to just to get an ally.  Your mileage may vary, and I
            happily accept any advice or suggestions to the contrary.
    Urgent Care
        Tier:  Top
        Effect:  decreases delay before Shield recharge by 1 second (to 3 seconds)
            and doubles the regeneration rate (to 33%/sec or 100% in 3 seconds).
        Discussion:  1999 Mode is all about survivability, and this gives you that
            in spades.  The normal delay rate is 4 seconds, so this is a
            significant boost.  Thanks to the reduced delay and increased
            regeneration rate, this could actually mean an exponential increase in
            your overall survivability:  frequently you might be about to
            regenerate your Shield, but a stray bullet hits you, which resets the
            delay and hurts your health.  With Urgent Care, you would have already
            started regenerating your Shield, and there would have been enough of
            it to absorb the bullet entirely.
                Because of the way this Gear works, players who heavily infuse
            their Shield stat benefit the most.  With a significant Shield stat,
            you may almost never take normal damage.
                This Gear also has an amazing synergy with Return to Sender.  The
            reduced shield delay time means even an unupgraded use of Return to
            Sender buys you enough invulnerability to start regenerating your
            shield.  Combined with a use of Return to Sender that has the "Send for
            Less" upgrade (which buys you 5 seconds of invulnerability), not only
            will you have enough time to start regenerating your shield, but you'll
            have regenerated 2/3 of your total shield before being able to take
            damage again.
    Strategies                                                                !str-
    General                                                               !str,gen-
    Pretty much the general strategy to keep in mind throughout all of 1999 Mode
    can be summed up with one word:  "prudence."  In lower difficulties, you have
    much more leeway to go charging in to the fray, blasting enemies away.  In 1999
    Mode, that's a surefire recipe for death.
    Instead, think of fighting in 1999 Mode as a numbered series of tactics, that
    you progress down only as you exhaust each previous one.
        1.  Pre-empt a fight in advance with Vigor traps or certain tears.
        2.  Use an "at range" weapon to take out opposition from afar, while
            staying behind cover and using nearby Vigor traps as defense.
        3.  If no more enemies are able to be shot at (due to distance or cover) OR
            a new front has opened (from an ambush/charge that couldn't be stopped
            by nearby traps or tears), find the next suitable bit of cover and run
            to it.
        4.  Repeat, going from 2-3, until you are very close to your enemies.  Then
            use Vigor Traps and/or an "up close" weapon to finish off the remaining
    The progression has to be very methodical.  In 1999 Mode, you will spend a
    _lot_ more time peeking out from behind a pillar, just to assess the state of
    the battlefield and to be 100% absolutely sure that the next bit of cover
    you're going to run to is a) actually safe and b) close enough so that you
    don't die in transit (Hill Runner's Hat helps out a lot for this).
    Moreover, among possible tears, you'll find that all sorts of automated allies
    are significantly diminished in relative effectiveness.  Even the rare
    Motorized Patriot will be destroyed by your enemies with relative ease.  That
    doesn't mean you shouldn't use them (a shot fired at an ally is a shot that
    isn't fired at you).  But it does mean that you should make sure you have a
    quick follow-up--such as opening up a bit of cover or dashing to higher
    ground--as once your automaton is dispatched all those bullets will be flying
    at you.
    Aside from this, encounter-specific strategies follow below.
    AI Quirks                                                             !str,aiq-
    Enemies you fight can be broadly categorized into three behavior groups:
        1.  Ones who charge you.
        2.  Ones who will advance towards you or use area of effect weapons.
        3.  Ones who will try to kill you from afar.
    Enemies sometimes switch gears from one behavior to another, but some enemies
    are bound to a specific strategy.  For example, any enemy you see with a melee
    weapon or a shotgun is _guaranteed_ to fall into group #1.  Snipers are always
    going to be in group #3.
    While pursuing your general strategy (see above discussion in section
    str,gen-), you should also assess which enemies are in which behavior group.
    Enemies in group #1 should be higher priority than enemies in group #2, and
    enemies in group #2 should be higher priority than enemies in group #3.  That's
    because an enemy who sits back and snipes you is not going to try to flush you
    out of your cover, so you can take your time with them.  An enemy in group #2
    will pose an increasing threat as they get closer to you, but you still have
    reasonable amounts of time before your current position is no longer safe.  An
    enemy in group #1 will single-mindedly try to usurp any secure, defensible
    position you may have.
    In fact, because of the way enemies tend to come out in waves, what may happen
    is that as you dispatch enemies, a new wave of enemies will appear to fill in
    the gaps.  If you keep dispatching charging enemies, while the general absolute
    number of your foes isn't really changing, the overall threat level of your
    enemies _is_.  Whereas if you were to immediately snipe away all the ranged
    threats and trigger a new wave of enemies, you might find yourself overwhelmed
    by charging, shotguns-blazing, heavily armored foes.
    So in general, proper threat assessment of what behavior pattern your enemies
    are using is important.  In fact, it will also teach you when to use traps and
    when to not.  If there are still charging AI, setting up a trap near yourself
    is worth the Salt.  If however you are only left fighting enemies trying to
    take potshots at you while hopping laterally from cover to cover, setting up a
    trap would be a guranteed waste of time and Salt.
    Though do note that whatever the behavior pattern, getting too close to an
    enemy will force them to charge and melee you, which is a rather dangerous
    prospect for your survival.  Unless you have a solid exit plan involving a
    great defense or a solid finishing move, keep a respectable distance!
    Firemen                                                               !str,fir-
    Firemen have one rather special trait about them.  See, virtually every time
    you become "briefly invulnerable" (with the exception of Charge), you get a
    little frozen graphic over your Health/Shield bars that slowly goes away.  In
    fact, Gear that provides brief invulnerability are even "cold" themed, whether
    in the name (e.g. "Nor'Easter") or by the imagery (e.g. a snowflake in the
    middle of Sheltered Life's icon).
    These little touches aren't just for show.  Any and all fire-based sources of
    damage will instantly cancel out your invulnerability (except for Charge's).
    So save yourself the trouble and don't bother trying to do Sheltered
    Life/Nor'Easter/Winter Shield tricks with the Fireman, he'll just wipe it out
    with one hit.
    That being said, Firemen are otherwise straightforward to dispatch.  They're
    basically souped-up versions of flak cannon enemies, launching Devil's Kiss
    instead of explosive shells.  As would be expected, Firemen are immune to
    Devil's Kiss and other fiery effects.  They can be briefly possessed (at half
    normal duration) so in crowded fights a Possession trap a) can get the
    Fireman to dispatch a lot of your enemies AND/OR b) let your other foes do some
    of the damage to the Fireman for you.
    The only major gotcha is that once at low health, a Fireman will charge at you
    and then explode suicidally.  Vigor traps can stop this from happening, but
    don't underestimate just how far a Fireman is willing to run just to chase you
    down (though with enough distance you could manually kill him before he gets
    too close).
    Patriots                                                              !str,pat-
    Early Patriots are a major pain.  It's unlikely you have any decent ammunition,
    and their weak point (the back) is extremely hard to hit.  They are immune to
    Murder of Crows and at least for a short while, you don't have Shock Jockey.
    That being said, Devil's Kiss does do damage to them, so you can supplement
    your ammunition with a Devil's Kiss trap or two; since the trap does more than
    twice normal damage for only twice the Salt cost and since Patriots have very
    predictable movement patterns, it's more efficient to use the alternate effect
    than the primary effect.
    Also note that as a Patriot gets damaged, their head starts to fall apart.
    Once it's down to a basic skeleton, their head becomes a critical hit point.
    Once it's blown off, their neck becomes a critical hit point.  Make sure to
    exploit these.
    Later on, Shock Jockey gives you the umph you need to help trivialize these
    fights; for a while it's the only disabling Vigor that works on them.  Even
    with the stun duration upgrade though, Shock Jockey won't provide enough time
    for you to flank the Patriot and start shooting them in the back, so you're
    better off just unloading at them from wherever you are.  (Unless of course,
    you're already behind them or very nearly behind them, at which point knock
    yourself out.)
    Much later on, Undertow provides an immensely powerful weapon against Patriots.
    While it won't stun them for as long as a Shock Jockey with a duration upgrade,
    you will quickly destroy Patriots thanks to the combined vulnerability and ~200
    damage per second electrocution.  With a quick wave of your targetting
    reticule, you can even target multiple Patriots with one blast.
    You can possess Patriots to good effect, and if you have the Salts, doing a
    Possession Trap followed up with a Shock Jockey will turn your Patriot into a
    riddling-vulnerable-enemies-with-bullets machine of destruction (for 10
    seconds).  This is an especially effective maneuver when you have two Patriots
    near each other; in all likelihood they'll start trying to fight each other,
    except one will constantly be electrocuted by the other, allowing the other to
    do a significant amount of damage.
    Handymen                                                              !str,han-
    These guys are tough as nails.  There are two ways to really effectively
    dispatch them, a cheesy way and the insane way.
        Cheesy way:  equip Winter Shield and constantly mount and dismount from
            sky-lines and hooks so that you are only fighting the Handyman while
        Insane way:  use Murder of Crows/Undertow to land in a shot or two, but
            then otherwise keep moving; use sky-lines and hooks for a brief second
            or two to run away, but not long enough to get electrocuted.
    The cheesy way is self-explanatory.  Pretty much if you have Winter Shield,
    Handymen are actually rather easy (if requiring constant, panicky fleeing)
    since Irrational Games has made sure that every encounter with a Handyman takes
    place near plenty of sky-lines and hooks for you to use.  Note that sometimes
    mounting/dismounting won't trigger the invulnerability, so you'll need to
    dismount/mount immediately in order to trigger it.  For this reason, it's worth
    starting your escape when you still have half your invulnerability left, so
    that you aren't accidentally caught flat-footed without any protection.
    It is possible to kill Handymen without Winter Shield and without dying, but it
    is much harder.  Between the two Vigors that actually disable the Handyman,
    Murder of Crows is more efficient, especially if you have the stun duration
    upgrade.  However, Undertow keeps the Handyman still, which makes him easier to
    critical hit (though also brings him right next to you).  If you have good aim
    and a decent critical hit weapon, Undertow is probably your best bet, but
    otherwise go with Murder of Crows.  Regardless of which you use, it's not worth
    combo-ing the Vigors with anything as any extra damage you get out of them
    pales in comparison to simply saving your Salts.
    Without the Murder of Crows stun duration upgrade, you really only have time to
    land one or two good shots before you need to start high-tailing it out of
    there; the moment Murder of Crows/Undertow ends the Handyman is going to ram
    you.  The stun duration upgrade for Murder of Crows buys you an extra shot or
    two, but you still need to make sure you are well on your way to a new location
    before the effect wears off.
    Even if you do not have Winter Shield, you need to still aggressively use hooks
    and sky-lines.  Jumping on or off gives you a very brief amount of
    cutscene-related-invulnerability, and attaching onto a hook/riding a sky-line
    and then dismounting as far as you can is one of the fastest ways to travel.
    Plus, by aggressively jumping on/off hooks and sky-lines, you're not giving the
    Handyman a chance to electrocute you, which could spell instant disaster
    (especially if there are still other non-Handymen that you need to dispatch).
    If you don't have any Salts for Murder of Crows; well, then hopefully Elizabeth
    tosses you some soon.  Otherwise, I hope you're really good at hip shooting
    from a far distance, as your strategy then becomes escaping via hook/sky-line,
    then immediately dismounting and trying to shoot the Handyman while he's
    jumping to you, which is a brief window of about a second or so.
    Whatever you do, do not try to hit Handymen in the back.  They are heavily
    armored, so unless you're striking his heart or the front of his body, you will
    not do much damage at all.
    Lady Comstock                                                         !str,lad-
    Whew, if there's any one type of fight in the game that poses a huge threat of
    ending your 1999 Mode run, Lady Comstock is it.  You may be overwhelmed at
    first, but trust me; with some practice Lady Comstock will actually be much
    easier than a Handyman.  The specific tactics vary a bit based on which
    location you're in (graveyard, vault, or plaza), but the three best overall
    strategies are:
        1.  Return to Sender plus sniping.
        2.  Use Shock Jockey, Devil's Kiss, Burning Halo, or Electric Punch/Touch to
            disintegrate many of her minions and just go toe-to-toe with her
            directly (thanks to nocturbulous and endersgame33 for pointing this
        3.  Hail fire her to smithereens, with Charge/Devil's Kiss backup.
    For strategy 1, it is absolutely imperative that you are well-stocked with your
    "at range" weapon of choice.  If you go into the graveyard or vault with a
    Shotgun and Crank Gun, you may find yourself irrevocably screwed. (Fortunately,
    in the plaza there is a Sniper Rifle tear.)  For strategy 2, having an "at
    range" weapon is less important and in fact, as endersgame33 pointed out, you
    can even just equip a lot of melee-based Gear and just keep Charging the minions
    over and over again (though the shield regeneration upgrade for Charge is highly
    recommended).  Or, you can also just Undertow-pull-into-a-Shock-Jockey-trap
    combo all the minions.
    For strategy 1, what you're basically doing is finding some kind of cover
    reasonably far away from Comstock and her minions.  Stay behind it until you
    are reasonably sure where Comstock is, at which point you should pop out,
    trigger Return to Sender's primary effect, and then snipe at Lady Comstock's
    head until your blue shield is almost gone (this will protect you from the
    many, many bullets that will be flying towards you).  Duck back behind cover,
    reload your weapon, and repeat.  If you do this right, you can wipe her out
    before or even after she revives all her minions.
    Strategy 2 revolves around the fact that enemies that die under the effects of
    Shock Jockey and Devil's Kiss will be disintegrated.  Doing so will prevent
    them from being revived.  You need to come prepared to use up a lot of Salt,
    but if you lack any decent "at range" weapon or are lacking ammo you can take
    this approach to the battle.  Note that the gear-based options are a little
    less consistent for disintegration compared to Devil's Kiss and Shock Jockey.
    For Devil's Kiss you will want to have at least one of the upgrades (preferably
    the extra grenades mod).
    Strategy 3 works best with a hail fire, but can work well with any set up that
    maximizes burst damage (such as Tunnel Vision & Head Master gear paired with
    a repeater).  Use Charge/Devil's Kiss to do some initial damage (and also
    ensure that you're within range) and render her vulnerable.  During this 
    vulnerability window, let loose as fast as you can with your weapon.  With a
    hail fire, you can dish out so much damage during this window that you can
    probably kill Lady Comstock before she has a chance to do another revival (and
    the minions from the first revival would have been annihilated by the hail fire
    area of effect).
    Other than for strategy 2, you generally shouldn't waste your ammo/Salts/time
    fighting Lady Comstock's minions since she will just make more.  However,
    sometimes killing a minion is necessary because when Lady Comstock is busy
    making more allies, she will rise up into the air very slowly.  This is a
    perfect time to shoot her repeatedly in the head, though make sure that you are
    far enough away from her that her post-revival explosion doesn't hit you (it
    immediately wipes out your shield, which can mean certain death).  You can also
    kill minions to try to coax her into specific locations.
    Lady Comstock is also vulnerable to being Charged, so if you desperately need a
    survival boost and you've upgraded Charge, you can ram her, let off a shot at
    close range, and then high-tail it out of there (and as alluded to, you can
    make Charge a central part of pursuing strategy #2).
    Final Fight                                                           !str,fin-
    If you've made it this far, the final fight is actually not that bad, as far as
    1999 Mode conflicts go, if only because by now you are at the peak of your
    power.  Just one thing to keep in mind:
        Once you gain the objective to destroy all Vox zeppelins, enemy Vox and
        Patriots will keep being summoned until you destroy all the zeppelins in
        the wave.
    This means that if you're _too_ quick at killing off all the foes, another wave
    of Vox and Patriots will appear before you have a chance to summon Songbird.
    This means that ways to harmlessly delay the fights (to buy you time for
    another Songbird) are golden.  Three suggestions:
        1.  When you're down to your last Vox, simply use Possession on them (maybe
            even a trapped version).  They will wander around for 10/20 seconds
            doing nothing, during which your Songbird cooldown finishes and you
            have noone to worry about.
        2.  Use a fully upgraded Bucking Bronco judiciously.  It has a sinfully
            long duration (in addition to being dirt-cheap to use repeatedly) and
            while your enemies are just floating around, they aren't attacking your
            ship's core.
        3.  Use Undertow to pull a Patriot (or two!) to an awkward part of the
            sniper's nest at the top of the ship.  Their ability to hurt your
            ship's core will be cancelled out, which buys you plenty of time to
            deal with other foes and take out the zeppelins with Songbird.  Note
            that frequently Patriots you pull up to the sniper's nest will
            disappear (do they just jump off to their doom?) so this is not a
            fool-proof way to stall for Songbird time.  Though at the very least,
            this is still a painless way to dispatch up to two Patriots at once.
    Big Daddy [Burial at Sea]                                             !str,big-
    It's back!
    Some quick notes:
        - Like in Bioshock, the Big Daddy will love to charge at you from across
          the room.
        - Like in Bioshock, the Big Daddy does have a "slow time" effect that makes
          it very difficult to dodge its attacks.
        - New in Burial at Sea, the Big Daddy can now jump around and even fire its
          drill to harpoon you back to it (for you other old-timers, think Scorpion
          from Mortal Kombat).
        - Unlike basically every other enemy in the game, the Big Daddy can shatter
          through your Winter Shield with its harpoon attack.
    Note that while the Big Daddy can negate your Winter Shield, it will still
    absorb much of the damage, so aggressively hop around on the skyline to keep it
    up whenever you can.  Depending on your playstyle the specific strategy will
    vary, but I was able to make good use of repeated Devil's Kiss traps (via
    Better Mousetrap) to take away a significant chunk of health.  And even though
    Skyline travel speed is slower, it is still the best way to put distance
    between you and the Big Daddy so continue to make use of it.  Though don't stay
    on too long, as you just become a sitting duck for the harpoon (though as a
    side effect of jumping on and off repeatedly you will be triggering your Winter
    Shield more frequently).
    Bestiary                                                                  !bes-
    I don't pretend to have come up with any of this data on my own.  It is pulled
    from the Brady Games official strategy guide, though some of its accuracy is
    The official Brady Games talks about "ranks" of enemies that are tied to
    successive areas of the game.  This is much like the original Bioshock, where
    splicers would become tougher after you hit certain geographic checkpoints.  In
    1999 Mode, enemies are pulled more liberally from higher ranks.  In the
    interest of avoiding copyright infringement, I won't list when the different
    ranks theoretically occur (since that's all just straight from the strategy
    guide), but if you have the guide itself, do note that you will easily be
    fighting enemies 1-2 ranks higher than you should be.
    All damage numbers are adjusted for 1999 Mode.  As you'll be able to
    ascertain, enemies _hurt_ when they hit you.  Moreover, enemies that have a
    ranged weapon will still have a melee damage listed; if you get too close, they
    will whack you with their weapon and this damage is just as intense as a
    straight-up melee-er's atack.
    In the listings below, rather than provide enemies by rank--as Brady Game
    does--I merely provide the range of their health and damage.  In general, the
    earlier you are in the game, the more likely you will be fighting enemies on
    the lower end of the spectrum; the opposite is true for later in the game.
    Vigor Effectiveness                                                   !bes,vig-
    Various Vigors have differing effects against different enemies.  This table is
    shamelessly pulled from the official strategy guide and is provided here for
    If an enemy has an effectiveness multipler of at least x1, then the enemy is
    also rendered vulnerable by the Vigor.
                    P       DK+     MoC^    BB      SJ^     C       U
    Normal          x1      x1      x1      x1      x1      x1      `
    "Armored"       x1      x1      x1      x1      x1      x.5     `
    Automaton       x2      x1      --      --      x1      !!      `
    "Barrage" A.    --      x1      --      --      x1      --      --
    Fireman         x.5*    --      x1      x1      x1      x1      `
    Zealot          x.5*    x1      --      x1      x1      x1      `
    Patriot         x.5     x1      --      !!      x1      x.75    `
    Handyman        --      x1      x.75    --      x.1     --      `
    Lady Comstock   !!      x1.5    !!      !!      !!      !!      !!
        +   Damage only, not duration.
        ^   Duration only, not damage.
        --  Immune.
        !!  Brief weakness/stun only, no other effect.
        *   Also do not suicide, unlike other humanoids.
        `   Undertow has very varying effects against enemies.  See vig,und- for
        more details.
    Normal                                                                !bes,nor-
    Normal foes are grouped by what weapon they use.  In general, lower-end weapons
    occur earlier in the game, while they start to get replaced with much better
    equipped foes later in the game.  All normal (aka "humanoid") foes have their
    heads as weak points for critical hits.
    Police (only at the start of the game)
        Health:  150
        Damage (melee only):  200
        Special:  Right at the start of the game, in Raffle Square, there is one
            special Police Officer that has 100 Health, does slightly less melee
            damage, and has a Pistol that does 50 damage.  This is where you get
            your first non-skyhook weapon.
        Health:  705 - 1,191
        Damage (melee only):  374 - 646
        Health:  295 - 648
        Damage:  100 - 176 ranged, 374 - 646 melee
    Hand Cannon
        Health:  499 - 648
        Damage:  1,150 - 1,382 ranged, 540 - 646 melee
        Special:  You can easily distinguish these chaps from normal
            pistol-wielders because these guys wear little "Statue of Liberty"
    Machine Gun (only Founders)
        Health:  354 - 777
        Damage:  82 - 142 ranged, 374 - 646 melee
        Special:  may be "armored" in later stages of the game (see "armored" note*
    Repeater (only Vox)
        Health:  777
        Damage:  312 ranged, 646 melee
    Carbine (only Founders)
        Health:  460 - 777
        Damage:  360 - 518 ranged, 450 - 646 melee
    Shotgun (only Founders)
        Health:  642 - 1,085
        Damage:  1,250 - 1,800 ranged, 450 - 646 melee
        Special:  may be "armored" in later stages of the game (see "armored" note*
    Heater (only Vox)
        Health:  1,085
        Damage:  2,902 ranged (!!), 646 melee
        Special:  as you can ascertain, this guy is definitely an argument for
            prioritizing charging foes (in section str,aiq-):  the damage is
            immense, able to take you down in one hit unless you are heavily
            Health/Shield-infused.  But, this damage drops off exponentially at any
            decent range, so the further away you engage this guy, the better.
        Health:  460 - 777
        Damage:  1,846 - 2,658 ranged (!!), 450 - 646 melee
        Special:  while the ranged damage is immense, Elizabeth tends to yell out
            if there are snipers anywhere, so it's unlikely you'll be caught
            off-guard.  This means you'll have the benefit of taking your time in
            taking these guys out.
    Burstgun (only Vox)
        Health:  598 - 777
        Damage:  346 - 414 ranged, 540 - 646 melee
    RPG (only Founders)
        Health:  1,743 - 3,830
        Damage:  2,224 - 3,203 ranged (!!), 450 - 646 melee
        Special:  are always armored (see "armored" note* below).
    Volley Gun
        Health:  1,743 - 3,830
        Damage:  1,334 - 2,401 ranged (!!), 374 - 646 melee
        Special:  are always armored (see "armored" note* below).
    * Note on "armored" foes:  some foes are heavily armored.  This means that they
    take significantly reduced damage and cannot be critically hit, at least until
    you hit them in the head enough to knock off their helmet.  However, despite
    Brady Games listing only "Beasts" as heavily armored, heavily armored foes are
    _not_ heavy-hitters, so will kill themselves just fine after the effects of a
    Automatons                                                            !bes,aut-
    Automatons do not have critical hit weak points, though they have special
    vulnerabilities to Shock Jockey and Undertow.
    Machine Gun Automaton
        Health:  1,742 - 3,828
        Damage:  61 - 108 ranged, 480 - 818 from explosion upon death
    Rocket Automaton
        Health:  1,472 - 3,828
        Damage:  1,080 - 1,258 ranged, 690 - 818 from explosion upon death
    Barrage "Automaton"
        Health:  4,394
        Damage:  864 ranged
        Special:  These "automatons" are those gigantic cannon like things that you
            see at specific plot points, such as the police impound entrance or
            attached to gunships in the final fight.  They can be effectively hit
            with Shock Jockey, but for the most part you'll just have to rely on
            lots of weapons.
        Health:  1,132 - 1,914
        Damage:  74 - 108 ranged
        Special:  Mosquitos are listed as having an explosion damage like other
            turrets, but in practice since they float around in the air, no one
            will ever be impacted by it.
    Heavy Hitters                                                         !bes,hea-
    All Heavy Hitters are only affected at half-strength by Possession and do not
    kill themselves at the end of the effect.
        Health:  1,430 - 4,833
        Damage:  480 - 1,658 Devil's Kiss, 600 - 2,074 melee, 720 - 2,488 suicide
        Special:  immune to Devil's Kiss and other fire-like effects.  Their
            Devil's Kiss cancels out all invulnerability effects (other than
            Charge's).  It's possible to prevent a Fireman suicide charge by
            holding them in place with a Vigor and manually bringing them to 0
            health yourself.  Upon death, guaranteed to drop decent consumables and
            generally also a lockpick.  See str,fir- for further discussion.
        Health:  2,356 - 5,175
        Damage (melee only):  1,064 - 1,842
        Special:  teleports around by turning into a murder of crows.  Is
            completely invulnerable during this effect.
        Health:  5,053 - 8,540
        Damage:  144 - 208 ranged, 846 - 1,244 melee
        Special:  see str,pat- for a full discussion on Patriots.  Guaranteed to
            drop a crank gun upon death.
    Special                                                               !bes,spe-
    These fellows are so special that they follow their own rules of vulnerability,
    combat, and how they are affected by Vigors.
        Health:  9,952 - 12,938
        Damage:  1,600 - 1,920 ranged (only used if you are dangling on a hook),
            2,764 - 3,318 melee
        Special:  weak point is his heart; he is heavily armored from the back.  If
            you stay on a sky-line for too long, he will jump on it and electrocute
            the entire thing, which deals ~4000 damage per second to you if you're
            still on it (in general if you don't jump off as soon as you start
            taking damage, you will probably die).  He also can recklessly attack
            other enemies, though if you still have lots of enemies around when a
            Handyman shows up, you may be in bad shape.  See str,han- for further
    Lady Comstock
        Health:  15,994
        Damage:  1,970 melee
        Special:  will try to maintain a given size of raised minions; if the
            number of minions drops below this amount, she will rise up into the
            air and create more (unless those minions were disintegrated).  At the
            end of the resurrection effect, she emanates a wave of energy which
            instantly wipes out your shield if you are caught in it.  She will
            generally not try to charge you for her actual up-close attack unless
            you are camping out somewhere in the graveyard or she has no one left
            to raise.  See str,lad- for further discussion.
    Appendix                                                                  !app-
    Special Thanks                                                        !app,spe-
    rarityguide.com for somehow having specific numbers to various elements of
    Bioshock Infinite's gameplay.
    BradyGames for the details on 1999 Mode's changes.
    Other Bioshock Infinite fans who have contributed to this guide:
        ...and others who preferred to stay anonymous.
    History                                                               !app,his-
    2017.04.13 - v 1.27
        vig-:  fixing & references to &.
        str,aiq-:  removing incorrect references to Return to Sender.
        gea,shi-:  removing incorrect percentage recovery note in Blood to Salt.
    2017.04.10 - v 1.26
        not,bur2-:  note about never adding updates for Burial at Sea 2.
        spe-:  damage over time effects not increased by vulnerability.
        spe-:  electrocution vulnerability gives you a 3x melee damage boost.
        sta-:  get five extra infusions for having the Collector's/Season's Pass
        vig- vig,*-:  clarifying that Devil's Kiss and Shock Jockey have non-vigor
            alternatives for combos.
        vig,mur- vig,dev- vig,buc:  clarifying that Bucking Bronco and Murder of 
            Crows can both be active at the same time, and a burning effect can and
            will trigger both combos simultaneously.
        vig,dev-:  only initial damage boosted from vulnerability.
        vig,buc-:  Boost mod makes the burning combo much worse.
        vig,cha-:  Charge counts as a melee attack.
        gea-:  adding info about special gear and how it interats with looting.
        gea,hat-:  note for Burning Halo, fixing damage/duration numbers.
        gea,hat-:  note for Gear Head.
        gea,hat-:  reminder text about Charge and melee gear.
        gea,hat-:  note for Electric Punch.
        gea,shi-:  note for Ammo Advantage.
        gea,shi-:  specific Salt restoration number for Blood to Salt.
        gea,boo-:  note for Eagle Strike.
        gea,pan-:  note for Ghost Soldier.
        wea- wea,*-:  adding various value metrics.
        str,lad-:  revising section.
        bes-:  fixed transpose error; Handyman is 10% SJ, not 100%, and immune to
            Charge stun.
        bes,aut-:  barrage automatons can be affected by SJ.
    2013.11.25 - v 1.25
        In general adding preliminary notes for Burial at Sea Part 1, including new
            sections:  not,bur- str,big-
            ...and notes in existing sections:  spe- sta- sta,loc- mon- mon,tot-
                vig- vig,pos- vig,dev- vig,mur- vig,buc- vig,sho- wea- gea-
                gea,hat- gea,shi- gea,boo- gea,pan-
    2013.08.09 - v 1.24 (minor)
        vig,dev-:  corrections to Devil's Kiss mechanics.
    2013.08.08 - v 1.23 (minor)
        Changing "app,oth-" to "app,all-".
    2013.08.07 - v 1.22
        vig,mur- vig,sho-:  adding details about Murder + Shock combo.
        vig,ret-:  correcting note about mechanics.
        gea,pan-:  adding note about how Salt cost is calculated for Health to
    2013.08.05 - v 1.21
        vig,ret-:  adding some notes about Return to Sender.
        gea,boo-:  adding extra note about Vampire's Embrace.
    2013.08.05 - v 1.20 (not posted)
        vig-:  adding note about auto-aim in Possession combos, some copy-editing o
            the various discussions.
        vig,dev-:  adding extensive extra detail about Devil's Kiss mechanics.
        vig,ret-:  adding extensive extra detail about Return to Sender's
        gea,hat-:  adding further mechanical notes to Storm.
        gea,boo-:  upgrading Vampire's Embrace.
        wea,exp-:  adding notes to Volley Gun and Hail Fire about stun potential.
        wea- wea,*-:  general copy-editing.
    2013.08.01 - v 1.19
        vig,ret- gea,pan-:  adding notes about Return to Sender synergy with Urgent
    2013.08.01 - v 1.18 (minor)
        wea-:  fixing minor description issue with Estimated Total Damage
            Potential.  Adding Machine Gun to "at range" category.
        wea,pis-:  adding note to Machine Gun about accuracy upgrade.
    2013.08.01 - v 1.17
        vig,ret-:  removing extraneous tier rating.
        str,pat-:  clarifying note about Undertow and Shock Jockey.
        mon,tot- wea-:  modifying recommendations based on wea,tab-.
        wea,tab-:  new section.
        gea-:  adding footnote about potential Handyman Gear drop bug.
    2013.07.31 - v 1.16
        app,his-:  fixing all timestamps to be 2013, not 2012.
        mon,tot-:  changing the recommended Vigors.
        vig-:  removing "tier" system with a more general recommendation system.
        vig-:  adding "vice versa" to certain combos that don't care about order.
        vig,pos-:  note that turrets are affected at 2x strength.
        vig,pos- vig,dev- vig,sho-:  clarifying text to indicate order doesn't
            matter for Possession combos.
        vig,dev-:  revising discussion, adding note about damage for Alternate
        gea,hat-:  revising discussion about Storm.
        gea,hat- wea,rif- wea,exp-:  adding note about the interaction with Storm.
        bes,vig-:  new section.
    2013.07.12 - v 1.15
        -:  removing listing for a section I never bothered to write ("An Aside on
        vig-:  fixing typo.
        Adding new metrics to wea- section:  damage per second (per clip), burst
            damage potential, and total damage potential.
    2013.07.01 - v 1.14
        New sections:  spe-.
        vig- vig,ret-:  downgrading Return to Sender to middle tier.
        vig,pos-:  clarifying that only Firemen and Crows do not suicide.
        bes,hea-:  adding commas.
    2013.04.23 - v 1.13
        vig-:  for all Vigors, re-organization effect sections to be clearer about
            what the Vigor's primary effect actually is.
        vig,sho-:  separating out combo/special damage from normal damage.
        vig,cha-:  fixing mistake of showing a combo between Charge and Charge
            instead of Charge and Bucking Bronco.
        vig,und-:  rewriting discussion because it still carried undertones of when
            I thought it sucked.
        wea,pis-:  cleaning up some awkward writing.
        str,han-:  cleaning up typos.
        str,lad-:  clarifing strategy 3.
        str,fin-:  reworking the Patriot suggestion.
    2013.04.22 - v 1.12
        vig,und-:  more discussion on combo.
        wea,pis-:  more discussion for the pistol.
        wea,exp-:  more discussion for the hail fire.
        gea-:  adding various notes about Undertow combos to appropriate Gear,
            including Electric Touch, Shock Jacket, and Overkill.
        gea-:  re-ordering Pants and Boots to reflect in-game ordering.
        gea-:  adding location for Burning Halo.
        gea-:  there are 41 Gear, not 40, though this number varies.  Clarifying
            the 25 spawn number and adding a note for unlucky people who unlocked
            extra Gear.
        gea,pan-:  adding more notes about Fire Bird.
        gea,pan-:  downgrading Ghost Posse and adding more specifics.
        gea,pan-:  upgrading Health for Salts and adding more specifics.
        str,han-:  clarifying Undertow strategy.
    2013.04.16 - v 1.11 (minor update)
        Miscellaneous grammar fixes affecting the following sections:
    2013.04.16 - v 1.11
        Miscellaneous grammar fixes affecting the following sections:
        Significantly revising discussions about Undertow, since its alternate
        effect only causes 31 Salt, not 62.  This includes changes to the following
        Fixing references to "Combo X" where X is a number; these references were
        left behind after the significant reworking of sections following v1.9.
        This includes changes to the following sections:
        mon,tot-:  vending machines can drop up to $30, though not frequently.
    2013.04.15 - v 1.9
        Grammatical/spelling/copy fixes in the following sections:
        sta,loc-:  fixing lockpick running totals.
        vig-:  cleaning up all formatting for improved readability/skimming.
        vig,buc-:  fixing formatting.
        vig,cha-:  additional damage is about 100.
        wea-:  fixing formatting.
        wea,rif-:  heater combos.
        str,pat-:  adding Undertow interaction.
        str,lad-:  giving nocturbulous credit for strategy #3, adding
            Charge/Burning Halo interactions from endersgame33.
        bes-:  new section.
    2013.04.15 - v 1.8
        mon,tot-:  Undertow is no longer not recommended, but Devil's Kiss is.
        vig,buc-:  Bronco Boost _really_ helps the duration.
        vig,und-:  fixing damage numbers for turrets.
        str,lad-:  adding note that Shock Jockey can disintegrate foes to prevent
        str,fin-:  adding strategy.
    2013.04.15 - v 1.7 (not posted)
        vig,und-:  more notes about Handyman stun effect and Shock Jockey combo,
            fixing Undertow Boost to mention that it also affects the primary
        wea-:  adding note about clip size upgrades.
        wea-:  tiering best "close-up" and "at range" weapons.
        wea,pis-:  adding more notes about repeater.
        wea,exp-:  adding volley gun fire rate (d'oh!).
        str,han-:  adding Undertow strategy.
        str,lad-:  adding cheesy repeater strategy, removing personal "easiest"
            story as it should now be apparent that the repeater was the personal
            easiest version.
    2013.04.13 - v 1.6 (not posted)
        sta,con-:  drinking vigors yields 50 Salt.
        sta,loc-:  detailed lockpick counts.
        mon-:  safes yield 100 to 300, not 100 to 250.
        mon,tot-:  adding disclaimer about certain weapons.
        mon,tot- vig,sho-:  fixing Shock Jockey total $ cost.
        vig-:  fixing ordering for several combos.
        vig- vig,ret-:  upgrading Return to Sender to top tier.
        vig,pos- vig,buc-:  adding anti-combo note.
        vig,buc-:  Bucking Bronco disability does not combine well with criticals.
        vig,sho-:  adding damage note for undertow targets
        vig,und-:  more documentation about its effects.
        wea,rif-:  grammar fix for shotgun.
        wea,rif-:  adding more negativity to burstgun.
        wea,rif-:  fixing carbine reserve amount.
        wea,exp-:  hail fire shell also does damage (like volley gun).
        gea,shi-:  adding Drop Cloth.
    2013.04.12 - v 1.5
        not-:  enemies revive more health, too.
        not-:  smaller loot quantities don't apply to consumables (which always
            restore the same amount on difficulties).
        sta,loc-:  more information about lockpicks.
        wea,rif-:  missing info about sniper rifle rate of fire, changing reload
            speed to "slow"
    2013.04.11 - v 1.4
        Grammatical/spelling/copy fixes in the following sections:
        not-:  note about reduced drops in 1999 Mode.
        sta-:  adding estimates about Health and Shield.
        mon-:  adding provisions for buying things at vending machines.
        vig,dev-:  notes about vulnerability, oil slick damage.
    2013.04.11 - v 1.3 (not posted)
        Grammatical/spelling/copy fixes in the following sections:
        not-:  specific details about 1999 Mode.
        vig-:  correct damage/duration numbers to all vigors.
        wea-:  correct damage numbers to all weapons.
        wea-:  rates of fire and critical multipliers to all weapons.
        wea,pis-:  adding clarification and disclaimer to pistol.
        gea-:  adjusting all damage numbers for 1999 Mode.
        gea,pan-:  clarifying Head Master mechanics.
        gea,pan-:  giving exact numbers to Urgent Care.
    2013.04.10 - v 1.2 (not posted)
        Lowering estimated amount of $ from vending machines.
    2013.04.10 - v 1.1b (not posted)
        Fixing date format for updates.
        Modifying header to be a bit more SEO.
    2013.04.10 - v 1.1
        Miscellaneous grammatical and spelling fixes.
        how-:  adding contact info.
        how-:  moving konami code to not-.
        New sub-section in mon-:  totals (mon,tot-).
        vig,ret:  adding comparison to Devil's Kiss.
        New sub-section in str-:  ai quirks (str,aiq-).
        app,his-:  fixing release date for 1.0.
    2013.04.09 - v 1.0
        Initial release.  Still missing some data, but important to get out there.
    All Works                                                             !app,all-
    1999 Mode Guide (Bioshock Infinite)
    Clash in the Clouds Guide (Bioshock Infinite:  Clash in the Clouds DLC)
    Heart of Fury Guide (Icewind Dale 2)
    Party Creation Guide (Baldur's Gate)
    Party Creation Guide (Baldur's Gate:  Enhanced Edition)
    Populous II Guide (Populous II)
    Thief Guide (Baldur's Gate 2)
    Ultimate Analysis (System Shock 2)
    Ultimate Oblivion FAQ (The Elder Scrolls IV: Oblivion)
    The Stinger
        "When I was a girl, I dreamt of standing in a room looking at a girl who
    was and was not myself, who stood looking at another girl, who was and was not
    myself.  My mother took this for a nightmare. I saw it as the beginning of a
    career in physics."
                - Rosalind Lutece

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